Child Development Disorders, Pervasive: Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Language Development Disorders: Conditions characterized by language abilities (comprehension and expression of speech and writing) that are below the expected level for a given age, generally in the absence of an intellectual impairment. These conditions may be associated with DEAFNESS; BRAIN DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; or environmental factors.Seychelles: A group of Indian Ocean Islands, east of Tanzania. Their capital is Victoria. They were first claimed by the French in 1744 but taken by the English in 1794 and made a dependency of MAURITIUS in 1810. They became a crown colony in 1903 and a republic within the Commonwealth in 1976. They were named for the French finance minister, Jean Moreau de Sechelles, but respelled by the English in 1794. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1102 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p496)Child Rearing: The training or bringing-up of children by parents or parent-substitutes. It is used also for child rearing practices in different societies, at different economic levels, in different ethnic groups, etc. It differs from PARENTING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the child and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Developmental Disabilities: Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.Child Care: Care of CHILDREN in the home or in an institution.Methylmercury Compounds: Organic compounds in which mercury is attached to a methyl group.Mother-Child Relations: Interaction between a mother and child.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Parenting: Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Parent-Child Relations: The interactions between parent and child.Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Paternal Deprivation: Prolonged separation of the offspring from the father.Child Psychology: The study of normal and abnormal behavior of children.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Play and Playthings: Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Mercury Poisoning, Nervous System: Neurologic disorders associated with exposure to inorganic and organic forms of MERCURY. Acute intoxication may be associated with gastrointestinal disturbances, mental status changes, and PARAPARESIS. Chronic exposure to inorganic mercury usually occurs in industrial workers, and manifests as mental confusion, prominent behavioral changes (including psychosis), DYSKINESIAS, and NEURITIS. Alkyl mercury poisoning may occur through ingestion of contaminated seafood or grain, and its characteristic features include POLYNEUROPATHY; ATAXIA; vision loss; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; and DEAFNESS. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch20, pp10-15)Language Development: The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.Child Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in children ages 2 to 12 years.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Seafood: Marine fish and shellfish used as food or suitable for food. (Webster, 3d ed) SHELLFISH and FISH PRODUCTS are more specific types of SEAFOOD.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Intelligence: The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.Disabled Children: Children with mental or physical disabilities that interfere with usual activities of daily living and that may require accommodation or intervention.Child of Impaired Parents: Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.Child Language: The language and sounds expressed by a child at a particular maturational stage in development.Early Intervention (Education): Procedures and programs that facilitate the development or skill acquisition in infants and young children who have disabilities, who are at risk for developing disabilities, or who are gifted. It includes programs that are designed to prevent handicapping conditions in infants and young children and family-centered programs designed to affect the functioning of infants and children with special needs. (From Journal of Early Intervention, Editorial, 1989, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 3; A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, prepared for the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, 1976)Intelligence Tests: Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.Pediatrics: A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.Infant Behavior: Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Fathers: Male parents, human or animal.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Insemination, Artificial, Heterologous: Human artificial insemination in which the semen used is that of a man other than the woman's husband.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Socialization: The training or molding of an individual through various relationships, educational agencies, and social controls, which enables him to become a member of a particular society.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Depression, Postpartum: Depression in POSTPARTUM WOMEN, usually within four weeks after giving birth (PARTURITION). The degree of depression ranges from mild transient depression to neurotic or psychotic depressive disorders. (From DSM-IV, p386)Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Maternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Adoption: Voluntary acceptance of a child of other parents to be as one's own child, usually with legal confirmation.Personality Assessment: The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Social Adjustment: Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.United StatesDepressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Child, Institutionalized: A child who is receiving long-term in-patient services or who resides in an institutional setting.BangladeshCommunity Health Nursing: General and comprehensive nursing practice directed to individuals, families, or groups as it relates to and contributes to the health of a population or community. This is not an official program of a Public Health Department.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Hair: A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.Temperament: Predisposition to react to one's environment in a certain way; usually refers to mood changes.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Internal-External Control: Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Dental Care for Children: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of children, including the prevention of tooth diseases and instruction in dental hygiene and dental health. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Child, Orphaned: Child who has lost both parents through death or desertion.IndiaDeveloping Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Quebec: A province of eastern Canada. Its capital is Quebec. The region belonged to France from 1627 to 1763 when it was lost to the British. The name is from the Algonquian quilibek meaning the place where waters narrow, referring to the gradually narrowing channel of the St. Lawrence or to the narrows of the river at Cape Diamond. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p993 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p440)Psychological Tests: Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Phobic Disorders: Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Poverty Areas: City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.Father-Child Relations: Interaction between the father and the child.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Schools: Educational institutions.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Growth: Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Anemia, Iron-Deficiency: Anemia characterized by decreased or absent iron stores, low serum iron concentration, low transferrin saturation, and low hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit value. The erythrocytes are hypochromic and microcytic and the iron binding capacity is increased.Conduct Disorder: A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Great BritainMotor Skills: Performance of complex motor acts.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Child Abuse: Abuse of children in a family, institutional, or other setting. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Tic Disorders: Disorders characterized by recurrent TICS that may interfere with speech and other activities. Tics are sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic, stereotyped motor movements or vocalizations which may be exacerbated by stress and are generally attenuated during absorbing activities. Tic disorders are distinguished from conditions which feature other types of abnormal movements that may accompany another another condition. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Child Mortality: Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Sleep Disorders: Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)Developed Countries: Countries that have reached a level of economic achievement through an increase of production, per capita income and consumption, and utilization of natural and human resources.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Somatoform Disorders: Disorders having the presence of physical symptoms that suggest a general medical condition but that are not fully explained by a another medical condition, by the direct effects of a substance, or by another mental disorder. The symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. In contrast to FACTITIOUS DISORDERS and MALINGERING, the physical symptoms are not under voluntary control. (APA, DSM-V)Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Speech Disorders: Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.Borderline Personality Disorder: A personality disorder marked by a pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (DSM-IV)Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.Learning Disorders: Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Movement Disorders: Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.Lymphoproliferative Disorders: Disorders characterized by proliferation of lymphoid tissue, general or unspecified.Growth Disorders: Deviations from the average values for a specific age and sex in any or all of the following: height, weight, skeletal proportions, osseous development, or maturation of features. Included here are both acceleration and retardation of growth.Alcohol-Related Disorders: Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Child Custody: The formally authorized guardianship or care of a CHILD.Interview, Psychological: A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Combat Disorders: Neurotic reactions to unusual, severe, or overwhelming military stress.Impulse Control Disorders: Disorders whose essential features are the failure to resist an impulse, drive, or temptation to perform an act that is harmful to the individual or to others. Individuals experience an increased sense of tension prior to the act and pleasure, gratification or release of tension at the time of committing the act.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Infant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Language Disorders: Conditions characterized by deficiencies of comprehension or expression of written and spoken forms of language. These include acquired and developmental disorders.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Motor Skills Disorders: Marked impairments in the development of motor coordination such that the impairment interferes with activities of daily living. (From DSM-V)Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Dysthymic Disorder: Chronically depressed mood that occurs for most of the day more days than not for at least 2 years. The required minimum duration in children to make this diagnosis is 1 year. During periods of depressed mood, at least 2 of the following additional symptoms are present: poor appetite or overeating, insomnia or hypersomnia, low energy or fatigue, low self esteem, poor concentration or difficulty making decisions, and feelings of hopelessness. (DSM-IV)Dissociative Disorders: Sudden temporary alterations in the normally integrative functions of consciousness.Antisocial Personality Disorder: A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Hospitals, Pediatric: Special hospitals which provide care for ill children.Binge-Eating Disorder: A disorder associated with three or more of the following: eating until feeling uncomfortably full; eating large amounts of food when not physically hungry; eating much more rapidly than normal; eating alone due to embarrassment; feeling of disgust, DEPRESSION, or guilt after overeating. Criteria includes occurrence on average, at least 2 days a week for 6 months. The binge eating is not associated with the regular use of inappropriate compensatory behavior (i.e. purging, excessive exercise, etc.) and does not co-occur exclusively with BULIMIA NERVOSA or ANOREXIA NERVOSA. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Child, Abandoned: A child or adolescent who is deserted by parents or parent substitutes without regard for its future care.Temporomandibular Joint Disorders: A variety of conditions affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Factors contributing to the complexity of temporomandibular diseases are its relation to dentition and mastication and the symptomatic effects in other areas which account for referred pain to the joint and the difficulties in applying traditional diagnostic procedures to temporomandibular joint pathology where tissue is rarely obtained and x-rays are often inadequate or nonspecific. Common diseases are developmental abnormalities, trauma, subluxation, luxation, arthritis, and neoplasia. (From Thoma's Oral Pathology, 6th ed, pp577-600)Myeloproliferative Disorders: Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: An umbrella term used to describe a pattern of disabilities and abnormalities that result from fetal exposure to ETHANOL during pregnancy. It encompasses a phenotypic range that can vary greatly between individuals, but reliably includes one or more of the following: characteristic facial dysmorphism, FETAL GROWTH RETARDATION, central nervous system abnormalities, cognitive and/or behavioral dysfunction, BIRTH DEFECTS. The level of maternal alcohol consumption does not necessarily correlate directly with disease severity.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Intellectual Disability: Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.BrazilDiarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Child Nutrition Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease of children, infants or adolescents.Neurotic Disorders: Disorders in which the symptoms are distressing to the individual and recognized by him or her as being unacceptable. Social relationships may be greatly affected but usually remain within acceptable limits. The disturbance is relatively enduring or recurrent without treatment.Adjustment Disorders: Maladaptive reactions to identifiable psychosocial stressors occurring within a short time after onset of the stressor. They are manifested by either impairment in social or occupational functioning or by symptoms (depression, anxiety, etc.) that are in excess of a normal and expected reaction to the stressor.Conversion Disorder: A disorder whose predominant feature is a loss or alteration in physical functioning that suggests a physical disorder but that is actually a direct expression of a psychological conflict or need.

Reduction of stimulus overselectivity with nonverbal differential observing responses. (1/993)

Three individuals with mental retardation exhibited stimulus overselectivity in a delayed matching-to-sample task in which two sample stimuli were displayed on each trial. Intermediate accuracy scores indicated that participants could match one of the samples but not both of them. Accuracy in a baseline condition was compared to accuracy with a differential observing response procedure. This procedure prompted participants to make simultaneous identity-matching responses that required observation and discrimination of both sample stimuli. These observing responses were never followed by differential consequences. When observing responses were prompted, participants' accuracy scores improved. In a return to the baseline condition, when differential observing responses were no longer prompted, accuracy returned to intermediate levels. The results show that stimulus overselectivity can be greatly reduced by a behavioral intervention that controls observing behavior and verifies discrimination, but that exposure to such procedures alone may be insufficient for lasting benefits.  (+info)

Lack of benefit of a single dose of synthetic human secretin in the treatment of autism and pervasive developmental disorder. (2/993)

BACKGROUND: Secretin is a peptide hormone that stimulates pancreatic secretion. After recent publicity about a child with autism whose condition markedly improved after a single dose of secretin, thousands of children with autistic disorders may have received secretin injections. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a single intravenous dose of synthetic human secretin in 60 children (age, 3 to 14 years) with autism or pervasive developmental disorder. The children were randomly assigned to treatment with an intravenous infusion of synthetic human secretin (0.4 microg per kilogram of body weight) or saline placebo. We used standardized behavioral measures of the primary and secondary features of autism, including the Autism Behavior Checklist, to assess the degree of impairment at base line and over the course of a four-week period after treatment. RESULTS: Of the 60 children, 4 could not be evaluated - 2 received secretin outside the study, and 2 did not return for follow-up. Thus, 56 children (28 in each group) completed the study. As compared with placebo, secretin treatment was not associated with significant improvements in any of the outcome measures. Among the children in the secretin group, the mean total score on the Autism Behavior Checklist at base line was 59.0 (range of possible values, 0 to 158, with a larger value corresponding to greater impairment), and among those in the placebo group it was 63.2. The mean decreases in scores over the four-week period were 8.9 in the secretin group and 17.8 in the placebo group (mean difference, -8.9; 95 percent confidence interval, -19.4 to 1.6; P=0.11). None of the children had treatment-limiting adverse effects. After they were told the results, 69 percent of the parents of the children in this study said they remained interested in secretin as a treatment for their children. CONCLUSIONS: A single dose of synthetic human secretin is not an effective treatment for autism or pervasive developmental disorder.  (+info)

Effects of a fixed-time schedule on aberrant and adaptive behavior. (3/993)

Fixed-time (FT) schedules of reinforcement have been used to decrease destructive behavior. However, the effects of FT schedules on acquisition and maintenance of appropriate behavior remain unclear. In this study, we present a case in which an FT schedule produced an increase in adaptive behavior and resulted in a significant decrease in destructive behavior.  (+info)

A population-based study of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination and autism. (4/993)

BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that vaccination against measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) is a cause of autism. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all children born in Denmark from January 1991 through December 1998. The cohort was selected on the basis of data from the Danish Civil Registration System, which assigns a unique identification number to every live-born infant and new resident in Denmark. MMR-vaccination status was obtained from the Danish National Board of Health. Information on the children's autism status was obtained from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, which contains information on all diagnoses received by patients in psychiatric hospitals and outpatient clinics in Denmark. We obtained information on potential confounders from the Danish Medical Birth Registry, the National Hospital Registry, and Statistics Denmark. RESULTS: Of the 537,303 children in the cohort (representing 2,129,864 person-years), 440,655 (82.0 percent) had received the MMR vaccine. We identified 316 children with a diagnosis of autistic disorder and 422 with a diagnosis of other autistic-spectrum disorders. After adjustment for potential confounders, the relative risk of autistic disorder in the group of vaccinated children, as compared with the unvaccinated group, was 0.92 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.68 to 1.24), and the relative risk of another autistic-spectrum disorder was 0.83 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.65 to 1.07). There was no association between the age at the time of vaccination, the time since vaccination, or the date of vaccination and the development of autistic disorder. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides strong evidence against the hypothesis that MMR vaccination causes autism.  (+info)

Autism: a medical primer. (5/993)

Autistic disorder, a pervasive developmental disorder resulting in social, language, or sensorimotor deficits, occurs in approximately seven of 10,000 persons. Early detection and intervention significantly improve outcome, with about one third of autistic persons achieving some degree of independent living. Indications for developmental evaluation include no babbling, pointing, or use of other gestures by 12 months of age, no single words by 16 months of age, no two-word spontaneous phrases by 24 months of age, and loss of previously learned language or social skills at any age. The differential diagnosis includes other psychiatric and pervasive developmental disorders, deafness, and profound hearing loss. Autism is frequently associated with fragile X syndrome and tuberous sclerosis, and may be caused by lead poisoning and metabolic disorders. Common comorbidities include mental retardation, seizure disorder, and psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. Behavior modification programs are helpful and are usually administered by multidisciplinary teams, targeted medication is used to address behavior concerns. Many different treatment approaches can be used, some of which are unproven and have little scientific support. Parents may be encouraged to investigate national resources and local support networks.  (+info)

Sleep patterns of children with pervasive developmental disorders. (6/993)

Data on sleep behavior were gathered on 100 children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), ages 2-11 years, using sleep diaries, the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), and the Parenting Events Questionnaire. Two time periods were sampled to assess short-term stability of sleep-wake patterns. Before data collection, slightly more than half of the parents, when queried, reported a sleep problem in their child. Subsequent diary and CSHQ reports confirmed more fragmented sleep in those children who were described by their parents as having a sleep problem compared to those without a designated problem. Interestingly, regardless of parental perception of problematic sleep, all children with PDD exhibited longer sleep onset times and greater fragmentation of sleep than that reported for age-matched community norms. The results demonstrate that sleep problems identified by the parent, as well as fragmentation of sleep patterns obtained from sleep diary and CSHQ data, exist in a significant proportion of children with PDD.  (+info)

Pathological demand avoidance syndrome: a necessary distinction within the pervasive developmental disorders. (7/993)

A proposal is made to recognise pathological demand avoidance syndrome (PDA) as a separate entity within the pervasive developmental disorders, instead of being classed under "pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified" (PDDnos, DSM-IV). Discriminant functions analysis shows PDA to be significantly different on many counts from classic autism and Asperger's syndrome, both separately and together, including an equal sex ratio (150 cases). Demand avoidance using social manipulation is seen in all children, which strongly contrasts with the features of autistic spectrum disorders. A criterial structure is described, supported by statistical data from a random sample of 50 children diagnosed with PDA, together with a follow up sample of 18 young adults.  (+info)

Is fever suppression involved in the etiology of autism and neurodevelopmental disorders? (8/993)

BACKGROUND: There appears to be a significant increase in the prevalence rate of autism. Reasons for the increase are unknown, however, there is a substantial body of evidence that suggests the etiology involves infections of the pregnant mother or of a young child. Most infections result in fever that is routinely controlled with antipyretics such as acetaminophen. The blocking of fever inhibits processes that evolved over millions of years to protect against microbial attack. Immune mechanisms in the central nervous system are part of this protective process. HYPOTHESIS: The blockage of fever with antipyretics interferes with normal immunological development in the brain leading to neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism in certain genetically and immunologically disposed individuals. TESTING THE HYPOTHESIS: Epidemiological studies to determine associations between the use of antipyretics and neurodevelopmental disorders should be undertaken. Biochemical tests will involve the examination of fluids/serum by mass spectrometry and the determination of cytokine/chemokine levels in serum and cell culture fluids after stimulation with fever-inducing molecules from bacteria, viruses and yeast. Postmortem brain can be examined by immunohistochemistry or other methods such as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to determine altered expression levels of chemokines/cytokines and other molecules. IMPLICATIONS OF THE HYPOTHESIS: 1) The use of antipyretics during pregnancy or in young children may be reserved for more severe fevers. 2) The perplexing genetic findings in autism may be better understood by categorizing genes along functional pathways. 3) New treatments based on immune, cell, pharmacological or even heat therapies may be developed.  (+info)

Autism Spectrum Disorder (As defined by a gold standard measure for ASD diagnosis: the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Autism Diagnostic Interview, and/or the minimum Arkansas state requirement for autism classification, as defined by a consensus diagnosis of ASD by a medical doctor, speech pathologist, and psychologist.). In an event where sufficient diagnostic information is lacking, and the PI believes that the clients meet all other inclusion criteria and a prospective diagnosis of an ASD is clinically warranted, and a formal diagnosis is scheduled to occur within a reasonable time frame from the date of study entry, then the client may be considered as potentially eligible ...
Diagnosis is most commonly made between the ages of four and eleven.[1] A comprehensive assessment involves a multidisciplinary team[2][7][61] that observes across multiple settings,[1] and includes neurological and genetic assessment as well as tests for cognition, psychomotor function, verbal and nonverbal strengths and weaknesses, style of learning, and skills for independent living.[7] The current gold standard in diagnosing ASDs combines clinical judgment with the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R)-a semistructured parent interview-and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS)-a conversation and play-based interview with the child.[4] Delayed or mistaken diagnosis can be traumatic for individuals and families; for example, misdiagnosis can lead to medications that worsen behavior.[61][62] Many children with AS are initially misdiagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).[1] Diagnosing adults is more challenging, as standard diagnostic criteria are ...
Autism is a complex biological disorder that generally lasts throughout a persons life. It starts before age three and causes delays or problems with many different ways in which a person develops or grows. Some people with autism become very aggressive and can hurt others or themselves. This study will test the hypothesis that aggressive autistic adolescents will show a significantly greater response to valproate maintained at blood levels of 75-100 mcg/ml than to placebo. The study will also assess the safety of valproate in autistic adolescents. This represents the first double-blind study of valproate in mentally retarded/developmentally delayed populations.. Participants in this study will undergo DSM-IV evaluation, the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, and baseline blood tests. After baseline screening, all participants will be given a placebo for 1 week. Participants will then be randomized to receive either valproate or placebo for 8 weeks. ...
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the most recent nomenclature for developmental disorders characterized by persistently impaired social interaction and communication, with stereotypic behavior [1]. These have previously been also referred to as Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) or Autism [2]. Western literature reports the prevalence of PDD in children as 0.67-1.2% [3,4]. According to a multicentric Indian community study, it is 0.8 - 1.3% in 2- to 9-year-old children [5]. Early identification of Autism is invaluable as timely intervention is known to improve outcomes [6]. Current standard protocols of evaluation recommend satisfying diagnostic criteria of International Classification of Diseases (ICD) or Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), followed by qualitative assessment with internationally validated instruments [1,2,7,8]. These include Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generalized (ADOS-G), Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), and Childhood ...
Sometimes new drivers, including teens with high-functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (HFASD), have a hard time visually detecting critical items and anticipating a needed response to objects and other traffic indicators of a potentially hazardous situation. These critical items include traffic signs such as speed limit, stop and yield signs, as well as crosswalk and pavement markings that alert drivers to possible pedestrian traffic. In addition, novice drivers may also be unaware of other drivers break lights and turn signals that would require a response. Research has shown that the detection of these items and other skills required for safe driving, can be improved through driving-related computerized training programs.. This research study is being done to test the benefits of a computerized training program for drivers education students to see if it improves perception of these important traffic indicators for novice drivers, particularly those with high functioning autism spectrum ...
Messinger et al. found a 3.18 odds ratio of male to female ASD recurrence in 1241 prospectively followed high-risk (HR) siblings. Among high-risk siblings (with and without ASD), as well as among 583 low-risk controls, girls exhibited higher performance on the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, as well as lower restricted and repetitive behavior severity scores on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) than boys. That is, female-favoring sex differences in developmental performance and autism traits were evident among low-risk and non-ASD high-risk children, as well as those with ASD. Constantino (Mol Autism) suggests that sex differences in categorical ASD outcomes in Messinger et al. should be understood as a female protective effect. We are receptive to Constantinos (Mol Autism) suggestion, and propose that quantitative sex differences in autism-related features are keys to understanding this female protective effect ...
Anxiety may exacerbate interpersonal difficulties and contribute to secondary behavioral problems in adolescents with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (HFASD). This study was conducted to ass
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a genetically linked, neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments within the social-communication domain and the presence of stereotyped and repetitive interests or behaviors. While previously referring to a group of pervasive developmental disorders (autism, Aspergers disorder, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified), ASD now serves as an umbrella term where severity levels are assigned. ASD is characteristically heterogeneous; that is, manifestation of impairments can vary greatly. For example, nonverbal IQ can range from meeting criteria for severe intellectual disability to within or above the normal range. While language impairment is not a diagnostic criterion for autism, deficits in language are often found-although heterogeneity is again pervasive. While some children with ASD acquire language comparable to typically developing (TD) peers, approximately 25 percent remain minimally verbal, never acquiring functional ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Anxiety in 3- to 7-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder seeking treatment for disruptive behavior. AU - Sukhodolsky, Denis G.. AU - Lecavalier, Luc. AU - Johnson, Cynthia. AU - Smith, Tristram. AU - Swiezy, Naomi. AU - Bearss, Karen. AU - Kalvin, Carla B.. AU - Scahill, Lawrence. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - Anxiety is a common and impairing problem in children with autism spectrum disorder, but little is known about it in preschool children with autism spectrum disorder. This article reports on the characteristics of anxiety symptoms in young children with autism spectrum disorder using a parent-completed rating scale. One hundred and eighty children (age 3-7 years) participated in a clinical trial of parent training for disruptive behaviors. Anxiety was measured as part of pre-treatment subject characterization with 16 items from the Early Childhood Inventory, a parent-completed scale on child psychiatric symptoms. Parents also completed other measures of ...
Autism Spectrum Disorders, Read about Autism Spectrum Disorders symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment. Also read Autism Spectrum Disorders articles about how to live with Autism Spectrum Disorders, and more.
Autism Spectrum Disorders, Read about Autism Spectrum Disorders symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment. Also read Autism Spectrum Disorders articles about how to live with Autism Spectrum Disorders, and more.
The CDC web site introduces Autism Spectrum Disorders with some basic autism facts, including facts about Autistic Disorder and Intellectual Disability, which are being ignored by the American Psychiatric Association in its proposed revisions to the Pervasive Developmental Disorders (which will now formally be called Autism Spectrum Disorder) section of the DSM-5. One simple, but very important, fact which the APA will hide is the fact that many people with Aut
Please join us for the Behavioral and Brain Sciences colloquium. Malleability of Social Cognition and Communication Development in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Insights from an Early Intervention Study, Rebecca Landa, Ph.D., CCC-SLP, Director, Center for Autism and Related Disorders (CARD). Dr. Landa is a speech-language pathologist. She has practiced in the public schools, university clinics and hospital settings. Dr. Landa has consulted with schools and families on an international level to establish state-of-the-science educational programming for children with autism spectrum disorders.. Research: Dr. Landas research has focused on neuropsychological, learning and communication processes in autism across the lifespan. She was the principal investigator of an NIH STARRT Center of Excellence, through which she developed and defined the evidence-base for the Early Achievements intervention for toddlers with autism spectrum disorders. She has pioneered research aimed at ...
Despite the rising interest in intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder, the extent to which interventions are effective on gross motor outcomes is currently unknown. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of different intervention approaches on gross motor outcomes among children with autism spectrum disorder using meta-analysis. A total of 18 studies met the inclusion criteria for quantitative analysis. Pre- and posttest means and SDs were extracted to calculate effect sizes. Potential moderator variables were chosen based on important intervention characteristics. The results suggest that interventions have a large effect on gross motor outcomes among children with autism spectrum disorder (δ = 0.99, SE = 0.19, p , .001, 95% confidence interval [0.62, 1.36]). The interventions that were 16 total hours or longer had a significantly larger effect than those less than 16 hr. In addition, the interventions in experimental settings had significantly larger effects than ...
References. 1. American Psychiatric Association. Manual diagnóstico e estatístico de transtornos mentais: texto revisado (DSM-IV-TR). Porto Alegre: Artmed; 2002. [ Links ] 2. Guthrie W, Swineford LB, Nottke C, Wetherby AM. Early diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders: stability and change in clinical diagnosis and symptom presentation. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2012 Oct 9. [Epub ahead of print] [ Links ] 3. Lotter V. Epidemiology of autistic conditions in young children. Soc Psychiatry. 1966;1:124-35. [ Links ] 4. Fombonne E. Epidemiology of pervasive developmental disorders. Pediatr Res. 2009;65:591-8. [ Links ] 5. Fombonne E. Past and future perspectives on autism epidemiology. In: Moldin SO, Rubenstein JLR, editors. Understanding autism: from basic neuroscience to treatment. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2006. p. 25-45. [ Links ] 6. Elsabbagh M, Divan G, Koh YJ, Kim YS, Kauchali S, Marcin C, et al. Global prevalence of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders. Autism Res. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential monocyte responses to TLR ligands in children with autism spectrum disorders. AU - Enstrom, Amanda M.. AU - Onore, Charity E.. AU - Van de Water, Judith A. AU - Ashwood, Paul. PY - 2010/1. Y1 - 2010/1. N2 - Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by impairment in social interactions, communication deficits, and restricted repetitive interests and behaviors. Recent evidence has suggested that impairments of innate immunity may play an important role in ASD. To test this hypothesis, we isolated peripheral blood monocytes from 17 children with ASD and 16 age-matched typically developing (TD) controls and stimulated these cell cultures in vitro with distinct toll-like receptors (TLR) ligands: TLR 2 (lipoteichoic acid; LTA), TLR 3 (poly I:C), TLR 4 (lipopolysaccharide; LPS), TLR 5 (flagellin), and TLR 9 (CpG-B). Supernatants were harvested from the cell cultures and pro-inflammatory cytokine responses for IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNFα, MCP-1, and GM-CSF were ...
OBJECTIVES: The reported increasing prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attendant health and family impact make monitoring of ASD prevalence a public health priority.. METHODS: The prevalence of parent-reported diagnosis of ASD among US children aged 3 to 17 years was estimated from the 2007 National Survey of Childrens Health (sample size: 78037). A child was considered to have ASD if a parent/guardian reported that a doctor or other health care provider had ever said that the child had ASD and that the child currently had the condition. The point-prevalence for ASD was calculated for those children meeting both criteria. We examined sociodemographic factors associated with current ASD and with a past (but not current) ASD diagnosis. The health care experiences for children in both ASD groups were explored.. RESULTS: The weighted current ASD point-prevalence was 110 per 10,000. We estimate that 673,000 US children have ASD. Odds of having ASD were 4 times as large for boys than ...
A 2012 report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates the number of U.S. children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) at approximately 1 million. This represents a significant increase from estimates just a few years earlier.. The CDC report, "Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders: Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 14 Sites, United States," uses 2008 data from the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network, covering 337,093 children age 8 years or over in order to map the prevalence rates of ASDs and the characteristics of children diagnosed with an ASD.. The reports findings include:. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Beta-2-microglobulin in autism spectrum disorders. AU - Goines, Paula. AU - Schauer, Joseph. AU - Heuer, Luke. AU - Ashwood, Paul. AU - Van de Water, Judith A. PY - 2007. Y1 - 2007. N2 - Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are heterogeneous neurodevelopmental diseases of unknown etiology. There are no biological markers for ASD and current diagnosis is based on behavioral criteria. Recent data has shown that MHC I, a compound involved in adaptive immune function, is also involved in neurodevelopment, synaptic plasticity and behavior. It has been suggested that altered MHC I expression could play a part in neurodevelopmental diseases like ASD. To address this possibility, we measured plasma levels of beta-2-microglobulin (β2m), a molecule that associates with MHC I and is indicative of MHC I expression, in 36 children with autism, 28 typically developing controls and subjects with developmental disabilities (n=16) but not autism. The age range of our study population was 17-120 ...
PRIORITIZING THERAPIES FOR CHILDREN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS. NAA- NY Metro Chapter November, 2008 Patricia S. Lemer, M.Ed., N CC Executive Director Developmental Delay Resources (DDR) www.devdelay.org [email protected] 800- 497- 0944. AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS (ASD). Slideshow 70563 by PamelaLan
Autism spectrum disorder can produce different clinical outcomes in young children, with some having strong conversation abilities and others not talking at all. A Neuron study reveals at the first signs of possible autism in infants and toddlers, neural activity in language-sensitive brain regions is already similar to normal in those autism spectrum disorder toddlers who eventually go on to develop good language ability but nearly absent in those who later have a poor language outcome.
There are many famous people throughout history that have been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder a
Holiday Tips & Tips for Travel for Kids with Autism Spectrum Disorders (Autism Speaks) - The holiday season is a joyful time of the year, but it also can be stressful for kids with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Preparing and planning early for the...
New research has linked an expectant mothers exposure to chemical pesticides with an increased risk of having a child with autism spectrum disorder.. The associations were stronger when mothers were exposed during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, and that about one-third of the participants whose children were born with autism spectrum disorders lived within the 1 mile radius of commercial farming operations.. This University of California Davis MIND Institute study, published in Julys issue of Environmental Health Perspectives, validates the results of earlier studies linking autism with prenatal agricultural chemical exposure in California.. The study, led by principal investigator Irva Hertz-Picciotto, a MIND Institute researcher and professor and vice chairman of the Department of Public Health Sciences at UC Davis, includes families with children between 2 and 5 years old diagnosed with autism or developmental delay or with atypical development.. "If it were my family, I ...
Keep Methylation Central Here are some facts that are critical to restoring function in your child with an Autism Spectrum Disorder. I am Dr. Nancy Mullan, a medical doctor. I help parents with children recovering from Autism Spectrum Disorders, who want better solutions than the ones they have now, and who want…
There is a great need for more research on the cause and development of treatments for Autism Spectrum Disorders. In order for one to understand the need for research, one must first understand the affliction. All Autism Spectrum Disorder children experience problems in
We know that the number of persons receiving services for autism spectrum disorders has increased substantially since the early 1990s, but are there really more children today with the cluster of behaviors that make up the autism spectrum disorders than there were in the past?
A new study reports on the potential for a saliva screening test for autism spectrum disorder. The study describes significantly altered proteins in children with autism spectrum disorder, providing a basis for future research and development of a saliva screening test.
There has been intensified interest in the neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) given their role in affiliative and social behavior in animals, positive results of treatment studies using OT, and findings that genetic polymorphisms in the AVP-OT pathway are present in individuals with ASD. Nearly all such studies in humans have focused only on males. With this preliminary study, we provide basic and novel information on the involvement of OT and AVP in autism, with an investigation of blood plasma levels of these neuropeptides in 75 preadolescent and adolescent girls and boys ages 8-18: 40 with high-functioning ASD (19 girls, 21 boys) and 35 typically developing children (16 girls, 19 boys). We related neuropeptide levels to social, language, repetitive behavior, and internalizing symptom measures in these individuals. There were significant gender effects: Girls showed higher levels of OT, while boys had significantly higher levels of ...
A BILL TO BE ENTITLED. AN ACT to REQUIRE HEALTH BENEFIT PLANS, inCLUDING THE STATE HEALTH PLAN FOR TEACHERS AND STATE EMPLOYEES, TO PROVIDE COVERAGE FOR TREATMENT OF AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS.. The General Assembly of North Carolina enacts:. SECTION 1. Article 3 of Chapter 58 of the General Statutes is amended by adding a new section to read:. 58-3-192. Coverage for autism spectrum disorders.. (a) Definitions. - As used in this section:. (1) Autism services provider. - Any person, entity, or group that provides treatment of autism spectrum disorders.. (2) Autism spectrum disorders. - Any of the pervasive developmental disorders as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), or subsequent edition published by the American Psychiatric Association, or the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10), or subsequent edition published by the World Health Organization.. (3) Behavioral care. - Any practices for the purpose ...
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are relatively common neurodevelopmental conditions whose biological basis has been incompletely determined. Several biochemical markers have been associated with ASDs, but there is still no laboratory test for these conditions. We analyzed the metabolic profile of lymphoblastoid cell lines from 137 patients with neurodevelopmental disorders with or without ASDs and 78 normal individuals, using Biolog Phenotype MicroArrays. Metabolic profiling of lymphoblastoid cells revealed that the 87 patients with ASD as a clinical feature, as compared to the 78 controls, exhibited on average reduced generation of NADH when tryptophan was the sole energy source. The results correlated with the behavioral traits associated with either syndromal or non-syndromal autism, independent of the genetic background of the individual. The low level of NADH generation in the presence of tryptophan was not observed in cell lines from non-ASD patients with intellectual disability, schizophrenia or
Deficits in social behavior in mice lacking the CD38 gene have been attributed to impaired secretion of oxytocin. In humans, similar deficits in social behavior are associated with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), for which genetic variants of CD38 have been pinpointed as provisional risk factors. We sought to explore, in an in vitro model, the feasibility of the theory that restoring the level of CD38 in ASD patients could be of potential clinical benefit. CD38 transcription is highly sensitive to several cytokines and vitamins. One of these, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), a known inducer of CD38, was added during cell culture and tested on a large sample of N = 120 lymphoblastoid cell (LBC) lines from ASD patients and their parents. Analysis of CD38 mRNA levels shows that ATRA has an upmodulatory potential on LBC derived from ASD patients as well as from their parents. The next crucial issue addressed in our study was the relationship between levels of CD38 expression and psychological ...
The goal of bridges4kids is to provide as much timely, useful information as possible to both parents and professionals regarding children with special needs, disabilities, and those who are at-risk.
The Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) is a great tool for clinicians and parents to Elements of an Evaluation for While parent report is extremely important, an evaluation is not Autism Spectrum Disorder Measures; Autism AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER TEMPLATE ☐parent reports, following evaluation: karyotype, Fragile X DNA studies, Request for Assessment. S. Thus, reports for older children and adults As compared to the criteria listed in this report for educational ASD, the medical profession uses definitions described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-V) of the American Psychiatric Association to diagnose autism and related spectrum disorders. Autism Spectrum Disorder: Evaluation, Eligibility, SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER EVALUATION AND AUTISM Sample 1 Evaluation Report Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Lifespan Perspective Published Online: 9 FEB 2010 Students with autism also frequently engage in disruptive Sample Psycho-educational Report ...
PACED Behavior provides Applied Behavioral Analysis (ABA) services to children with a variety of disorders including autism spectrum disorders [e.g., autism, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), Asperger s Syndrome], mental retardation, cerebral palsy, ADHD, and developmental delays. Therapy focuses on decreasing challenging behavior by making necessary environmental changes and teaching children functional skills including academic, communication, education, daily living skills, and social skills. ...
Published August 2, 2012 in Autism "The First Year Inventory is a parent-report measure designed to identify 12-month-old infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder. First Year Inventory taps behaviors that indicate risk in the developmental domains of sensory-regulatory and social-communication functioning. This longitudinal study is a follow-up of 699 children at 3 years of age from a community sample whose parents completed the First Year Inventory when their children were 12 months old. Parents of all 699 children completed the Social Responsiveness Scale-Preschool version and the Developmental Concerns Questionnaire to determine age 3 developmental outcomes. In addition, children deemed at risk for autism spectrum disorder based on liberal cut points on the First Year Inventory, Social Responsiveness Scale-Preschool, and/or Developmental Concerns Questionnaire were invited for in-person diagnostic evaluations. We found 9 children who had a confirmed diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder ...
2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York (outside the USA). While studies report associations between perinatal outcomes and both autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID), there has been little study of ASD with versus without co-occurring ID. We compared perinatal risk factors among 7547 children in the 2006-2010 Autism and Developmental Disability Monitoring Network classified as having ASD + ID, ASD only, and ID only. Children in all three groups had higher rates of preterm birth (PTB), low birth weight, small-for-gestational-age, and low Apgar score than expected based on the US birth cohort adjusted for key socio-demographic factors. Associations with most factors, especially PTB, were stronger for children with ID only than children with ASD + ID or ASD only. Associations were similar for children with ASD + ID and ASD only ...
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are known to process faces atypically. However, there has been considerable controversy regarding whether ASD individuals also scan faces differently from typical adults. Here we compared ASD individuals face-scanning patterns with those of typically developing (TD) controls and intellectually disabled (ID) but non-ASD individuals with the use of an eye tracker and multiple approaches to analyze eye-tracking data. First, we analyzed the eye movement data with a traditional approach, measuring fixation duration on each area of interest within the face. We found that compared with TD and ID individuals, ASD individuals looked significantly shorter at the right eye. Second, we used a data-driven method that analyzes fixations on each pixel of the face stimulus and found that individuals with ASD looked more at the central nasal area than TD and ID individuals. Third, we used a novel saccade path analysis that measures frequencies of saccades between ...
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders -characterized by impairments in social and communication skills as well as restricted interests and stereotyped behavior....
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are developmental disorders which are thought primarily to affect social functioning. However, there is now a growing body of evidence that unusual sensory processing is at least a concomitant and possibly the cause of many of the behavioural signs and symptoms of ASD. A comprehensive and critical review of the phenomenological, empirical, neuroscientific and theoretical literature pertaining to visual processing in ASD is presented, along with a brief justification of a new theory which may help to explain some of the data, and link it with other current hypotheses about the genetic and neural aetiologies of this enigmatic condition. ...
A Retrospection of Socio- Economic Profile of Persons with Autism Spectrum Disorder ABSTRACT Autism is a condition that is unique in many ways. Persons coming under the autism spectrum have difficulties in sharing thoughts, feelings, meanings, intentions and other mental experiences of living in the world.
Background: Although increasing numbers of children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are now entering adolescence and adulthood, there is limited research on outcomes post childhood. A systematic review of the existing literature was conducted. Method: PsycINFO, PubMed, MedLine and CINAHL were systematically searched using keywords related to ASD and adolescent and adult outcomes. Studies of individuals diagnosed with ASD in childhood and followed up into adulthood were identified and reviewed. Only studies with samples sizes >. 10, mean age at outcome >. 16. years and at least one previous assessment in childhood ...
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are a group of developmental disabilities that can cause significant social, communication and behavioral challenges. CDC is working to find out how many children have ASDs, discover the risk factors, and raise awareness of the signs.
Linguistic and cognitive abilities manifest huge heterogeneity in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Some children present with commensurate language and cognitive abilities, while others show more variable patterns of development. Using spontaneous language samples, we investigate the presence and extent of grammatical language impairment in a heterogeneous sample of children with ASD. Findings from our sample suggest that children with ASD can be categorized into three meaningful subgroups: those with normal language, those with marked difficulty in grammatical production but relatively intact vocabulary, and those with more globally low language abilities. These findings support the use of sensitive assessment measures to evaluate language in autism, as well as the utility of within-disorder comparisons, in order to comprehensively define the various cognitive and linguistic phenotypes in this heterogeneous disorder.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects 1 in 88 children in the United States, but the disorder is much more common in boys than in girls. The prevalence of ASD in boys is 5 times higher than in girls, with a rate of 1 in 54 for boys and 1 in 252 for girls. Although this disparate sex ratio is among the most highly replicated findings in studies of ASD, sex differences in ASD remain poorly understood. The neuropathology of ASD in females is understudied because ASD samples recruited for research studies typically reflect the strong male bias of the disorder. The goal of this study is to evaluate a large, sex-balanced cohort of preschool-aged children with ASD in order to elucidate the neural phenotypes of females with ASD and to identify sex-differences in the neuropathology of ASD. Children will be enrolled at the time of diagnosis (2-3 years of age) and followed longitudinally for two years. Imaging will be carried out at study enrolment and then at two additional annual time points and ...
...The Venezuelan Experience By Lenny G. González, MD AutismFile.com Recent studies in the medical literature have confirmed that gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are common in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In two prospective studies, GI symptoms were present in 80% and 70% of autistic children, respectively.1 In contrast with the ASD group in the latter…
I am new here & desperately looking for help. My difficult child is 5 (Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)/aspergers, ADHD) and also has a congenital heart defect. He had 2 surgeries as a baby...
Numerous disorders associated with birth defects or developmental problems are believed to be caused by copy number variants (the deletion or duplication of genomic material). Cytogenetic testing may be requested in order to identify genetic imbalances in infants or children with characteristics of developmental delay (DD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or intellectual disability (ID). Historically, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and G-banded karyotyping were the primary tests used to identify genetic imbalances in infants or children believed to have DD, ASD or ID. FISH utilizes short DNA probe sequences that are labeled with a fluorescent dye that glows (fluoresces) under UV light. These labeled DNA probes bind only to specific regions within the genome and can identify small chromosomal duplications or deletions. G-banded karyotyping uses Giemsa stain to identify chromosomal aberrations such as translocations and rearrangements. aCGH is a more recently developed cytogenetic ...
National - Developmental Disabilities - Autism spectrum disorders; metabolic and degenerative disorders, More Berks County, Pennsylvania
Reported associations between gestational tobacco exposure and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have been inconsistent. We estimated the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and ASDs among children 8 years of age. This po
Background The neuroanatomical basis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has remained elusive, mostly due to high biological and clinical heterogeneity among diagnosed individuals. Despite considerable effort towards understanding ASD using neuroimaging biomarkers, heterogeneity remains a barrier, partly because studies mostly employ case-control approaches, which assume that the clinical group is homogeneous. Methods Here, we used an innovative normative modelling approach to parse biological heterogeneity in ASD. We aimed to dissect the neuroanatomy of ASD by mapping the deviations from a typical pattern of neuroanatomical development at the level of the individual and to show the necessity to look beyond the case-control paradigm to understand the neurobiology of ASD. We first estimated a vertex-wise normative model of cortical thickness development using Gaussian process regression, then mapped the deviation of each participant from the typical pattern. For this we employed a heterogeneous ...
... (ASD) diagnosis have brain pathology suggestive of ongoing neuroinflammation or encephalitis in different regions of their brains. This is unfortunate because if a child with ASD has neuroinflammation, dealing with the root mind inflammation may lead to improved outcomes then. The goal of this overview of the books can be to examine the data of neuroinflammation/encephalitis in people that have an ASD analysis also to address what sort of medical analysis of encephalitis, when suitable, could advantage these small children by traveling more immediate and targeted treatments. = 13). The writers stated how the microglia were turned on in 9 of 13 instances with autism (69%). Tetreault et al. (2012) noticed all except one individual identified as having an ASD (from the 11 researched) got higher degrees of microglial activation than settings. Thus, 91% demonstrated microglial activation or neuroinflammation. Nevertheless, ...
Current research on the impacts of landscape architecture on children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are surprisingly lacking, considering the believed benefits of the natural environment on individuals with special needs. This study examines how outdoor design elements benefit children with ASD and specifically, how these design criteria can be implemented to inform the design of a camp that serves children with ASD.
Over the past several decades the incidence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has increased dramatically. The etiology of ASD remains an unsolved puzzle to scientists, physicians, pediatricians, psychiatrists, and pharmacologists. Our E-book will address what is presently known concerning the pathophysiology of ASD from a cellular and molecular perspective. Our explanation is based on the interaction between repetitive systemic immune stimulation with concomitant chronic brain activation of microglia, which leads to overstimulation of glutamate receptors and inflammatory cytokine receptors. Our E-book will explain, for the first time, the effects of immunoexcitotoxicity on the brain development, neurophysiology, and pathology. Our book will not only attempt to explain the finding in ASD, but will offer treatment proposals that address each of these mechanisms. It will also explain how previous, often successful treatment methods, may indeed operate through the immunoexcitotoxic ...
Over the past several decades the incidence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has increased dramatically. The etiology of ASD remains an unsolved puzzle to scientists, physicians, pediatricians, psychiatrists, and pharmacologists. Our E-book will address what is presently known concerning the pathophysiology of ASD from a cellular and molecular perspective. Our explanation is based on the interaction between repetitive systemic immune stimulation with concomitant chronic brain activation of microglia, which leads to overstimulation of glutamate receptors and inflammatory cytokine receptors. Our E-book will explain, for the first time, the effects of immunoexcitotoxicity on the brain development, neurophysiology, and pathology. Our book will not only attempt to explain the finding in ASD, but will offer treatment proposals that address each of these mechanisms. It will also explain how previous, often successful treatment methods, may indeed operate through the immunoexcitotoxic mechanism ...
2. Outline. Autism basicsModel for understanding social interactions in autismPsychiatric comorbidity TemperamentAutism specific deficitsInterventionsConclusions / Questions. 3. Autism Spectrum Disorders. DSM-IV defines autism as (1) impairments in social interaction(2) impairments in commun Slideshow 358174 by elin
According to the CDC, one out of two children in our country now has a chronic disorder. There is an epidemic of Autism Spectrum Disorder in our country, with one in 43 boys being affected, and one in 68 children overall. In addition, one in five children is obese, and one in eight has asthma (one in six African-American children). Children are also showing record levels of autoimmune disorders. Children with chronic stomach-ache or constipation are now so common that parents dont even think of it as a problem any more. Learning challenges such as ADD and ADHD have become commonplace household names.. Want to find out what you can do to help our children? Michelle Perro, MD, has been researching and working clinically with children now for 37 years, and she has some ideas for you. Dr. Perro has been a tireless advocate concerning the role of GM food and their associated pesticides and their effect on childrens health. Listen to her interview in the podcast linked below, and order her new book, ...
The number of young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is increasing rapidly as ever-larger cohorts of identified children age through adolescence to adulthood. Yet, virtually nothing is known about the services, interventions, and accommodations that high schools already provide, each year, for adolescents with ASD. Who receives them?
Note: Global Autism Awareness (GAA) provides numerous links from this website to sites maintained by other groups. These links are provided purely to assist our visitors in finding further information and in good faith. The presence of a link on GAAs website does not necessarily imply that GAA supports, endorses or recommends a method, treatment, product, resource, remedial centre, website, or program - nor does the absence of a link imply a that GAA does not support it. Visitors requiring medical or therapeutic advice should seek it from a professional. Our purpose in this website and in other material provided by GAA is to inform and support visitors by providing access to a wide range of available information related to Autism Spectrum Disorders. GAA cannot be held responsible for any damage or loss caused by any inaccuracy in this site, or in linked sites/pages ...
A new technique that identifies early differences in vocal development between children with an autism spectrum disorder or language delay and those developing on a normal trajectory could give pediatricians and other caregivers a tool for earlier detection of autism, and as a result facilitate earl...
The number of children diagnosed with autism has increased dramatically in the last decade, and a growing number of behavior analysts, psychologists, educators, and speech pathologists-to name a few-are just starting to regularly treat individuals with autism. Children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) require specialized instruction and behavior support to teach them critical skills and establish a meaningful quality of life.
The number of children diagnosed with autism has increased dramatically in the last decade, and a growing number of behavior analysts, psychologists, educators, and speech pathologists-to name a few-are just starting to regularly treat individuals with autism. Children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) require specialized instruction and behavior support to teach them critical skills and establish a meaningful quality of life.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) handicaps the social and communicative abilities of 1 out of every 110 children in the United States. Evidence suggests that indi...
Our unique resource of extended pedigrees with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) will allow us to make important contributions to genetic studies of ASD. We will s...
Background Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, restricted patterns of behaviour, and unusual sensory sensitivities. The hypotheses...
This article will glance at the common symptomology that links across the spectrum of children and adults diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Autism cant define me. I define autism Epigenetic alterations underlying the neurodevelopmental aspects of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are emerging as important risk factors for disease pathogenesis. These influences present the case that gene expressions may sustain alterations at higher levels of complexity than modifications in the DNA sequence. Part-and-parcel and central to this notion,…
Read "Practice Recommendations for Addressing Problem Behaviors in Siblings with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Behavior Analysis in Practice" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
No cure exists for autism spectrum disorder, and there is no one-size-fits-all treatment. The goal of treatment is to maximize your childs ability to function by reducing autism spectrum disorder symptoms and supporting development and learning. Early intervention during the preschool years can help your child learn critical social, communication, functional and behavioral skills.. The range of home-based and school-based treatments and interventions for autism spectrum disorder can be overwhelming, and your childs needs may change over time. Your health care provider can recommend options and help identify resources in your area.. If your child is diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, talk to experts about creating a treatment strategy and build a team of professionals to meet your childs needs.. Treatment options may include:. ...
The treatment options for autism spectrum disorder include behavioral therapy, educational interventions, and medication for adults and children. Learn more about treating ASD here.
Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) will be the topic of the next Minds behind the MIND lecture on April 19 at 5:30 p.m. at the UC Davis MIND Institute, 2825 50th St. in Sacramento. The lecture is free and open to the public.
We examined the characteristics of spontaneous movements at 9-20 weeks postterm age in very low birth-weight infants who later developed autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We analyzed video recordings...
There is accumulating evidence that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is caused by rare inherited or spontaneous genetic mutations, such as copy number changes and single nucleotide alterations. However, the genetic causes that have currently been found only account for about 15% of the cases.
The Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee (IACC) coordinates all efforts within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) concerning autism spectrum disorder (ASD).
Question: How does a family history of autism affect the risk of my child developing an autism spectrum disorder? Answer: A family history of autism does slightly increase the risk of having another child with autism.
Current screens can signal autism in toddlers 18 months and older. But new research suggests a five-minute survey for parents could detect early signs of autism spectrum disorders in infants as young as 1 year old.
Behavior Teaching Intervention Plan for High School Student participating in virtual schooling. - High School Behavior Intervention Plan - Autism Spectrum Disorders at BellaOnline
Monarch Center for Autism offers programs and services for individuals ages 3-22 with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Autism Resource Center Located in Cleveland, Ohio, we offer preschool, day school and boarding academy for children and adolescents
Kornecki, Pasquale (2014) The experience of anxiety in adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder. PhD thesis, Prifysgol Bangor University. ...
A study based on information collected from 920 parents suggests an estimated 46.3 percent of adolescents with an autism spectrum disorder were the victims of bullying, according to a report published Online First by Archives ...
A good forward... 22 Tips for Teaching Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders. 1. Use Task Analysis very specific, tasks in sequential order. 2. Always keep your language simple and concrete. Get your point across in as few words as possible.
Women who gain weight during pregnancy are more likely to give birth to children with autism spectrum disorder, a new report claims.
A compilation of blog sites where parents can gain insights from other families and learn of new resources. - Connecting With Other Parents - Autism Spectrum Disorders at BellaOnline
Learn more about Autism Spectrum Disorder causes, sign and symptoms, treatment and diagnosis at FindaTopdoc. Read more information on homeopathic remedies, risks, and prevention.
Scientists provide evidence that blood-flow patterns in six-month-old babies brains can accurately predict cognitive and behavioral markers of autism spectrum disorder two years later. 1 Comment. ...
Learn about what health and medical providers treat or manage autism spectrum disorders, as well as clinical trials, support groups, mental health clinics and hospitals, and complementary and alternative therapies.
|p|Le numéro de mai 2018 de la revue Developmental Neurobiology est consacré à lautisme :|br class=autobr /| Developmental Neuroscience of Autism Spectrum Disorders|br class=autobr /| 1. (...)|/p|
Preventable cases of autism: relationship between chronic infectious diseases and neurological outcome Abstract: There is evidence that chronic infections and the immune reactions associated with them may contribute to causing autism spectrum disorders. These infections include Babesia, Bartonel ...
Looking for information about Autism & Autism Spectrum Disorder? Read about the latest news and information on Autism at BioNews Texas.
An Introduction to Possible Biomedical Causes and Treatments for Autism Spectrum Disorders Contributed by Marci Wheeler In the next few postings, I intend to serialize
Buy and rent Autism Spectrum Disorders eTextbooks. Access your books instantly, and read anywhere, anytime from your laptop, tablet or smartphone.
Learn more about Autism Spectrum Disorder at Doctors Hospital of Augusta Uses Principal Proposed Treatments None Other Proposed Treatments ...
A new report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) shows a 78% rise in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in United States since 2002 and a 23% increase since the last report in 2009. The reports data show that in 2008, 1 in 88 children aged 8 years - 1 in 54 boys and 1 in 252 girls - had an ASD diagnosis by age 8, a significant jump from the current estimate of 1 in 110. According to the CDC, some of this increase can be attributed to the way children with ASD are identified, diagnosed, and served in their communities, although exactly how much is due to these factors is unknown. "These data confirm that the estimated prevalence of ASDS identified in the ADDM network surveillance populations continues to increase. The extent to which these increases reflect better case ascertainment as a result of increases in awareness and access to services or true increases in prevalence of ASD symptoms is not known," the report authors write. "Unfortunately, 40% of the ...
There have been huge changes in the understanding of autistic spectrum disorders, and research findings have clarified a range of crucial questions that, at the same time, presents many further challenges. This chapter begins with a summary of some of the main research accomplishments to date, then proceeds to outline a range of challenges that remain. Throughout, there is an emphasis on research findings and research challenges that have potentially important clinical implications.
Maternal Metabolic Problems may Increase the Risk of Neurodevelopmental Problems, Including Autism, in Children: A population-based, case-control investigation between January 2003 and June 2010 at University of California, Davis, California, named CHARGE (Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment) study, that enrolled hildren aged 2 to 5 years (517 autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 172 developmental delays (DD) and 315 controls) found that maternal metabolic conditions such as obesity and type 2 diabetes are a risk factor for autism, developmental delay without autistic symptoms, and impairments in several domains of development, particularly expressive language, after adjusting for sociodemographic and other characteristics. [Krakowiak P, Walker CK, Bremer AA, Baker AS, Ozonoff S, Hansen RL, Hertz-PicciottoMaternal I. Metabolic Conditions and Risk for Autism and Other Neurodevelopmental Disorders. Pediatrics 2011-2583; Published online April 9, 2012 (10.1542/peds.2011-2583) Full ...
About Pervasive Developmental Disorder And What it Means For Families Of Youngsters With PDD is on Rediff pages, Given that each boy or girl that has a PDD has different amounts of capabilities, intelligence, along with behavioral difficulties, there is certainly no single remedy that works well for each person. Instead a method that actually works for the...,Follow About Pervasive Developmental Disorder And What it Means For Families Of Youngsters With PDD to get latest updates from About Pervasive Developmental Disorder And What it Means For Families Of Youngsters With PDD
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is a rare condition with a prevalence of 1 in 125,000-720,000 births and characterized by clinical features that include facial, dental, and limb dysmorphology and growth retardation. Most cases of RSTS occur sporadically and are caused by de novo mutations. Cytogenetic or molecular abnormalities are detected in only 55% of RSTS cases. Previous genetic studies have yielded inconsistent results due to the variety of methods used for genetic analysis. The purpose of this study was to use whole exome sequencing (WES) to evaluate the genetic causes of RSTS in a young girl presenting with an Autism phenotype. We used the Autism diagnostic observation schedule (ADOS) and Autism diagnostic interview revised (ADI-R) to confirm her diagnosis of Autism. In addition, various questionnaires were used to evaluate other psychiatric features. We used WES to analyze the DNA sequences of the patient and her parents and to search for de novo variants. The patient showed all the typical
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and autism are both general terms for a group of complex disorders of brain development. These disorders are characterized, in varying degrees, by difficulties in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication and repetitive behaviors. With the May 2013 publication of the DSM-5 diagnostic manual, all autism disorders were merged into one umbrella diagnosis of ASD. Previously, they were recognized as distinct subtypes, including autistic disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) and Asperger syndrome. ASD can be associated with intellectual disability, difficulties in motor coordination and attention and physical health issues such as sleep and gastrointestinal disturbances. Some persons with ASD excel in visual skills, music, math and art. Each individual with autism is unique. Many of those on the autism spectrum have exceptional abilities in visual skills, music and academic skills. ...
By Jennifer Copley (Last Updated 30 March 2012). Some evidence suggests that inositol abnormalities may be a factor in autism. For example, Seelan et al. (2007) found altered myo-inositol levels in those with autistic spectrum disorders.. According to Levine et al. (1997): "Inositol is a precursor of the second messenger for some serotonin receptors, and has been reported effective in depression, panic disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. However a controlled double-blind crossover trial of inositol 200 mg/kg per day showed no benefit in 9 children with autism.". Overall, what little research has been conducted thus far suggests that inositol is probably not useful in treating most autistic symptoms, but may provide benefits when used to treat unpleasant conditions that often accompany autism, such as panic attacks, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and depression.. Other Autism Supplements. For more on the effectiveness of other supplements for treating autistic spectrum disorders, see the ...
In this edition of reSearch we explore the use of augmentative and alternative communication with individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Augmentative and alternative communication (herein referred to as AAC) "... includes all forms of communication (other than oral speech) that are used to express thoughts, needs, wants, and ideas" (Retrieved January 21, 2010 from www.asha.org/public/speech/disorders/AAC). This is especially important for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (herein referred to as ASD). According to the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) AAC is used to as a supplement to existing speech or to replace speech that is not functional. There are two types of communication systems: unaided and aided. Unaided communication systems rely on the users body to convey messages through gestures, body language, and/or sign language. Aided communication systems involve the use of equipment in addition to the users body. Examples include: pen and paper, ...
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune inflammatory condition of the central nervous system that is characterized by circulating anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies, transverse myelitis and optic neuritis. NMO spectrum disorders are rarely reported in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). We report a fatal case of anti-aquaporin-4 antibody positive NMO spectrum disorder in a patient who was receiving treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis. A previously healthy 42-year-old Chinese man was diagnosed with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis. After one month of anti-tuberculosis treatment, he presented with acute generalized weakness and rapid neurological deterioration. Spinal imaging and anti-aquaporin-4 antibody positivity established a diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. This is the first reported case of anti-aquaporin-4 antibody-positive NMO spectrum disorder in a patient with active tuberculosis. It shows the usefulness of testing for anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies while
Partly claimed to explain social difficulties observed in people with Asperger syndrome, face identification and visual search strategies become important. Previous research findings are, however, disparate. In order to explore face identification abilities and visual search strategies, with special focus on the importance of the eye area, 24 adults with Asperger syndrome and matched controls viewed puzzle pieced photos of faces, in order to identify them as one of three intact photos of persons. Every second puzzle pieced photo had the eyes distorted. Fixation patterns were measured by an eye tracker. Adults with Asperger syndrome had greater difficulties in identifying faces than controls. However, the entire face identification superiority in controls was found in the condition when the eyes were distorted supporting that adults with Aspergers syndrome do use the eye region to a great extent in face identification. The visual search strategies in controls were more effective and relied on the ...
Understanding Autism Spectrum Disorders: Behavior, Communication, and Social Impacts (August 20, 2012). Workshop at the CIT (Crisis Intervention Team) 2012 International Conference. Las Vegas, NV.. Transition and Autism: Alaska Summer Autism Institute.Invited week long training (30 hours) (June 18-22). Invited talk in strategiesfor a successful transition to adulthood for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders(ASD).. Project SEARCH: Successful Transition to Competitive Employment for Young Adults with ASD (May,2012). Invited talk at the International Meeting for Autism Research. In Toronto, CA.. Sex, Adolescence,and Autism. (April,2012) Invited talk at 2nd Annual World of Autism Conference Schedule.In Abingdon, VA.. The Effect of Supported Employment on Community Employment for Adults with ASD (March, 2012). Invited talk at 9thAnnual International Conference on Positive Behavior Support. In Atlanta, GA.. Project SEARCH: Successful Transition to Competitive Employment for Young Adults with ...
Social Communication Therapy: Social communication therapy provides skills for conversation, relationship initiation, recognition and expression of emotions, recognition of body language, use and interpretation of figurative language, and other of the many skills necessary for successful interpersonal communication.. Key Age Groups Served: Age 5 years through adult. Characteristics of Disability: Social communication disorder is characterized by a persistent difficulty with verbal and nonverbal communication that cannot be explained by low cognitive ability. Symptoms include difficulty in the acquisition and use of spoken and written language as well as problems with inappropriate responses in conversation. The disorder limits effective communication, social relationships, academic achievement, or occupational performance. (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). A social communication disorder may be a distinct diagnosis or may occur within the context of other conditions, such as autism ...
Wicks-Nelson, Allen C.; Israel (2009). "Pervasive developmental disorders and schizophrenia". In Jewell, L. Abnormal child and ... Some of the earliest signs that a young child may develop schizophrenia are lags in language and motor development. Some ... Julius Raecke (1872-1930) found children with catatonic disorders. Raecke gave a report of ten cases of catatonia in children ... often given to children who by today's standards would be diagnosed as having of autism or pervasive developmental disorder. ...
Taylor, B. "Vaccines and the Changing Epidemiology of Autism". Child: Care, Health and Development 2006, 32(5), pp 511-519. ... Pervasive developmental disorders portal. ... Mcn-the American Journal of Maternal-Child Nursing 2009, 34 (2 ... Folk epidemiology of autism is used by parents with autistic children in order to comprehend their child's condition. The ... Using the rare occurrences or trends of autism in order to unify the complex disorder creates these epidemiologies. The most ...
"Autism and pervasive developmental disorders". Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines. 45 (1): 135- ... Individuals with an ASD may present at various times of development (e.g., toddler, child, or adolescent), and symptom ... Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS), Childhood Disintegrative Disorder, and Autistic Disorder ... Autism spectrum disorders (pervasive developmental disorders); 2009. *^ Freitag CM (January 2007). "The genetics of autistic ...
Some of these effects include delayed mental development, Pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), morphological abnormalities ... Prenatal exposure has been linked to impaired fetal growth and development. The effects of OP exposure on infants and children ... Due to children's decreased size, faster rate of respiration, and continuing organ development, this area is important to ... "Children Are at Greater Risks from Pesticide Exposure". United States Environmental Protection Agency. January 2002. Archived ...
28 February 1998). "Ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, non-specific colitis, and pervasive developmental disorder in children ... The Johnson Center for Child Health and Development (formerly known as Thoughtful House Center for Children or simply ... Jepson is known for his theory that "there's a genetic susceptibility for autism," and "children who are born with genetic ... In 2010 the Wyndham Garden Austin Hotel opened a wing specifically designed for children on the Autism spectrum. The hotel ...
This page talks mostly about the linguistic development of a child.. One way to identify pervasive developmental disorders is ... Child development stages are the theoretical milestones of child development, some of which are asserted in nativist theories. ... Learning about child development involves studying patterns of growth and development, from which guidelines for 'normal' ... a b Overview of motor, speech, vision and hearing development. Kids Count (blog), 2012, accessed 25 March 2014 ...
HIV/AIDS and maternal and child health; and the development and evaluation of interventions for mental disorders integrated in ... seeking to integrate mental health care with more pervasive forms of health care treatments, such as those involving chronic ... He has recently become increasingly involved in researching mental disorders and developmental disabilities in children, ... an Indian NGO dedica ted to research in the areas of child development, adolescent health, and mental health. Since 2016 he has ...
This pervasive fear causes profound changes in a child's brain development and biochemistry. Based on more than a decade of ... including children who are adopted or fostered and children diagnosed with emotional and behavioral disorders. ICD's ... Institute of Child Development website The Connected Child on Amazon.com Coordinates: 32°42′35″N 97°21′27″W / 32.709612°N ... The KP Institute of Child Development (ICD) strives to help children overcome the harmful effects of early trauma, abuse or ...
Lifeline serves seriously disturbed children with disabilities including Pervasive Developmental Disorder, Asperger's Syndrome ... The Lifeline Center for Child Development in Queens, NY, is a non-profit State Office of Mental Health (SOMH) licensed ... Oppositional Defiant Disorder and severe Adjustment disorder. Lifeline's campus consists of two buildings and a swimming pool ... At this time there were few options for parents of mentally or emotionally challenged children who were seeking help. As Wyner ...
20.0 20.1 20.2 Landa R. Early communication development and intervention for children with autism. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res ... 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 21.4 21.5 Tager-Flusberg H, Caronna E. Language disorders: autism and other pervasive developmental ... 41.0 41.1 41.2 Fombonne E. Epidemiology of pervasive developmental disorders. Pediatr Res. 2009;65(6):591-8. எஆசு:10.1203/PDR. ... Caronna EB, Milunsky JM, Tager-Flusberg H. Autism spectrum disorders: clinical and research frontiers. Arch Dis Child. 2008;93( ...
Developmental disabilities can be initially suspected when a child does not reach expected child development stages. ... Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) are a group of developmental disabilities that can cause significant social, ... Developmental disability that affects all areas of a child's development is sometimes referred to as global developmental delay ... is pursuing the development of a planned community for persons with autism and related disorders in the Sacramento region. ...
"What is Autism, Asperger Syndrome, and Pervasive Developmental Disorders?". US Autism and Asperger Association. Retrieved 16 ... Journal of Child Neurology: 504-508. doi:10.1177/088307380001500802. Brambilla, P (2003). "Brain anatomy and development in ... "What is Autism, Asperger Syndrome, and Pervasive Developmental Disorders?". US Autism and Asperger Association. Retrieved 16 ... "What is Autism, Asperger Syndrome, and Pervasive Developmental Disorders?". US Autism and Asperger Association. Retrieved 16 ...
Searcy, Eileen (2001). "Helping the patient who has pervasive development disorder". Journal of the American Academy of ... Pervasive refusal syndrome (PRS), now referred to as pervasive arousal withdrawal syndrome (PAWS), is a rare but serious child ... The disorder usually begins with a 'virus', or the child having a 'pain', that results in the need for consulting a doctor or ... Due to the fact that PRS is such a severe disorder, it is almost always required to hospitalize in a child and adolescent ...
Attachment & Human Development Vol 4 No 1 April 2002 107-124. Health Child, Human (1996). "Characteristics of infant child care ... although DIR is primarily directed to treatment of pervasive developmental disorders Some of these approaches, such as that ... The term attachment disorder is used to describe emotional and behavioral problems of young children, and also applied to ... Duke series in child development and public policy. Guilford Press. pp. xvii. ISBN 1-59385-470-6. Prior & Glaser p 183 O'Connor ...
Deprivation from social and emotional care causes severe delays in brain and cognitive development. Studies with children ... Some neurodevelopmental disorders-such as autism and other pervasive developmental disorders-are considered multifactorial ... Metabolic disorders in either the mother or the child can cause neurodevelopmental disorders. Two examples are diabetes ... Neurodevelopmental disorder is a mental disorder. A narrower use of the term refers to a disorder of brain function which ...
Handbook of Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders, Diagnosis, Development, Neurobiology, and Behavior (volume 1), ISBN ... the Children's Psychiatric Inpatient Service, the Harris-Provence Child Development Unit, and the Nelson and Irving Harris ... Cohen helped found the International Working Group on Children and War, and the Yale-New Haven Child Development Community ... ISBN 0300114664 The Yale Child Study Center Guide to Understanding Your Child: Healthy Development from Birth to Adolescence, ...
Child. 91: 440-3. doi:10.1136/adc.2005.090290. PMC 2082747 . PMID 16632674. Pervasive developmental disorders portal. ... Rett syndrome diagnosis involves close observation of the child's growth and development to observe any abnormalities in ... "Is Rett syndrome a subtype of pervasive developmental disorders?". Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 22 (4): 551- ... Prior to the discovery of a genetic cause, Rett syndrome had been designated as a pervasive developmental disorder by the ...
Brain and Development. 32 (9): 739-745. doi:10.1016/j.braindev.2010.05.004. PMID 20708360. Pervasive developmental disorders ... Some children lose social development instead of language; some lose both. After the regression, the child follows the standard ... including Childhood Disintegrative Disorder. Approximately 25-30% of children with autism spectrum disorders stop speaking ... Other disorders that involve regression are total blindness from birth,[citation needed] childhood disintegrative disorder, ...
A child affected with childhood disintegrative disorder shows normal development and he/she acquires "normal development of age ... disorder?action=edit&oldid=778841596&wteswitched=1 NIH/Medline Yale Child Study Center Merck Pervasive developmental disorders ... Many children are already somewhat delayed when the disorder becomes apparent, but these delays are not always obvious in young ... As is the case with all pervasive developmental disorder categories, there is considerable controversy about the right ...
... www.medicinenet.com/pervasive_development_disorders/page3.htm#treated. ... therapy for children with PDD should be specialized according to the child's specific needs. Some children with PDD benefit ... The pervasive developmental disorders are: All autism spectrum disorders and Rett syndrome. The first four of these disorders ... The pervasive developmental disorders are: Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), which includes ...
A personality development disorder is an inflexible and pervasive pattern of inner experience and behavior in children and ... Personality development disorder is not recognized as a mental disorder in any of the medical manuals, such as the ICD-10 or ... Personality development disorder is considered to be a childhood risk factor or early stage of a later personality disorder in ... The term personality development disorder is used to emphasize the changes in personality development which might still take ...
... into account how the developmental stages of children may affect their symptoms and how trauma can affect a child's development ... C-PTSD is also characterized by attachment disorder, particularly the pervasive insecure, or disorganized-type attachment. DSM- ... Complex post-traumatic stress disorder (C-PTSD; also known as complex trauma disorder) is a psychological disorder thought to ... The term developmental trauma disorder (DTD) has also been suggested. This developmental form of trauma places children at risk ...
... into account how the developmental stages of children may affect their symptoms and how trauma can affect a child's development ... C-PTSD is also characterized by attachment disorder, particularly the pervasive insecure, or disorganized-type attachment.[20] ... Complex post-traumatic stress disorder (C-PTSD; also known as complex trauma disorder)[1] is a psychological disorder that can ... Post-traumatic stress disorderEdit. Main article: Posttraumatic stress disorder. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was ...
... a necessary distinction within the pervasive developmental disorders". Arch. Dis. Child. 88 (7): 595-600. doi:10.1136/adc.88.7. ... Newson first began to look at PDA as a specific syndrome in the 1980s when certain children referred to the Child Development ... These symptoms could represent the condition oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). It was proposed in 1980 by the UK child ... described by Newson could be explained as a child who has both a developmental disorder and a coexisting mental disorder. She ...
Disorder - Developmental disorder - occur at some stage in a child's development, often retarding the development. ... Pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) - as opposed to specific developmental disorders (SDD), refers to a group of five ... Neurodevelopmental disorder - or disorder of neural development, is an impairment of the growth and development of the brain or ... Multiple-complex Developmental Disorder - Multisystem Developmental Disorder - Nonverbal learning disorder - or nonverbal ...
Marschark, Marc (1997). Psychological Development of Deaf Children. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 84-85. ISBN 978-0-19 ... Handbook of Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders, Assessment, Interventions, and Policy. John Wiley & Sons; 2014 [ ... Children who are deaf have been shown to begin pointing at a similar age to non-deaf children, but this did not confer any ... At two years-of-age, children have been shown to be more likely to point for adults than for children their own age. A meta- ...
Mahowald, Mary Briody (1996). Women and Children in Health Care: An Unequal Majority (New ed.). New York: Oxford University ... Thomas, R. Murray (2000). Recent Theories of Human Development. Sage Publications. p. 248. ISBN 0761922474. . Gender feminists ... We also know that "feminine norms from the dominant culture are insidiously powerful and pervasive and are likely to influence ... the prevalence of anorexia and other eating disorders in Western countries has frequently been blamed on the modern feminine ...
Attachment parenting Borderline personality disorder Child development Emotional dysregulation DSM-IV-TR (2000) American ... RAD can also be confused with neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism, pervasive developmental disorder, childhood ... Several other disorders, such as conduct disorders, oppositional defiant disorder, anxiety disorders, post traumatic stress ... Conduct disorders, oppositional defiant disorder, anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder and social phobia share ...
Autism Spectrum Disorder. Child Development Disorders, Pervasive. Autistic Disorder. Asperger Syndrome. Pathologic Processes. ... A Study of Aripiprazole in Children and Adolescents With Aspergers and Pervasive Developmental Disorder.. The safety and ... Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) are characterized be severe impairments in social interaction and communication in ... An Open-Label Study of Aripiprazole in Children and Adolescents With Autistic Disorder. ...
Child Development Disorders, Pervasive. Disease. Autism Spectrum Disorder. Autistic Disorder. Pathologic Processes. ... tantrum and self-injurious behavior in children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder.. Condition or disease Intervention/ ... DSM-IV-TR diagnosis other than PDD NOS (autism, Aspergers disorder, Retts disorder, or childhood disintegrative disorder), ... Study of Aripiprazole in the Treatment of Pervasive Developmental Disorders. The safety and scientific validity of this study ...
Child Development Disorders, Pervasive. Developmental Disabilities. Disease. Autistic Disorder. Autism Spectrum Disorder. ... Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Autism. Autistic Disorder. Aspergers Disorder. Aspergers. Pervasive Developmental Disorder ... Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Autism Autistic Disorder Aspergers Disorder Aspergers Pediatric Autism Pervasive Developmental ... Meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for bipolar I disorder, psychotic disorder not otherwise specified, posttraumatic stress disorder, ...
Child Development Disorders, Pervasive. D002659. EFO:0003756. autism spectrum disorder. 2. ClinicalTrials. ... Mood Disorders. D019964. EFO:0004247. mood disorder. 2. ClinicalTrials. Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic. D013313. EFO:0001358 ... Bipolar Disorder. D001714. EFO:0000289. bipolar disorder. 3. ClinicalTrials. Obesity. D009765. EFO:0001073. obesity. 1. ... Panic Disorder. D016584. EFO:0004262. panic disorder. 2. ClinicalTrials. ClinicalTrials. Intellectual Disability. D008607. EFO: ...
Substance-Related Disorders. D019966. EFO:0003890. drug dependence. 2. ClinicalTrials. Child Development Disorders, Pervasive. ... Cocaine-Related Disorders. D019970. EFO:0002610. cocaine dependence. 2. ClinicalTrials. Depressive Disorder. D003866. EFO: ... Nutrition Disorders. D009748. EFO:0001069. nutritional disorder. 2. ClinicalTrials. Pancreatic Neoplasms. D010190. EFO:0002618 ...
Autism and pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45(1), 135-170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... Landa, R. (2007). Early communication development and intervention for children with autism. Mental Retardation and ... Increasing speech intelligibility in children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 28(3), 241-251.PubMed ... Question-asking and collateral language acquisition in children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40 ...
... and other issues related to this developmental disorder. ... Find out about autism spectrum disorder symptoms, causes, ... ClinicalTrials.gov: Child Development Disorders, Pervasive (National Institutes of Health) Journal Articles References and ... At well-child checkups, the health care provider should check your childs development. If there are signs of ASD, your child ... Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development) Also in Spanish ...
Child Development Disorders, Pervasive. Hyperkinesis. Dyssomnias. Sleep Wake Disorders. Parasomnias. Disease. Attention Deficit ... Neurodevelopmental Disorders. Pathologic Processes. Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders. Mental Disorders. ... Autism Spectrum Disorder Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Sleep Disturbance Dietary Supplement: Melatonin Behavioral: ... Autism Spectrum Disorder. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Sleep Disturbance. Melatonin. ASD. ADHD. ...
Pervasive Development Disorder or PDD (Autism-Helping Children with Autism program).. Pervasive Development Disorder or PDD ( ... Child Dental Benefits Schedule, The. Child Dental Benefits Schedule, The. The Child Dental Benefits Schedule (CDBS) commenced ... Child Dental Benefits Schedule. Child Dental Benefits Schedule. The Child Dental Benefits Schedule (CDBS) commenced on 1 ... Autism - Helping Children with Autism program. Autism - Helping Children with Autism program. Medicare items supporting early ...
... and anxiety disordersNeurological disorders including Parkinsons disease, epilepsy, pain, Alzheimers disease, and ... Clinical studies throughout the drug development processSafety, outcome, and economic studiesPsychiatric illness including ... benefitsConcise rapid reporting Clinical therapeutics and pharmacology focus Neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders Aims ... on concise rapid reporting of clinical or pre-clinical studies on a range of neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders.Key ...
Shafai on bilingual child language development: Each child with a diagnosis of autism is truly different from others. Some will ... autism spectrum disorders and pervasive developmental dirsorder all enompass identical group of neurodevelopmental disorders, ... Language Development (Definition) Language development is the part of a persons development that includes learning to squeal, ... Thanks for taking such an interest in your childs development and thanks for trusting in Healthtap! ...Read more ...
We conducted a comprehensive review and meta-analysis of research regarding feeding problems and nutrient status among children ... with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The systematic search yielded 17... ... Does nutritional intake differ between children with autism spectrum disorders and children with typical development? Journal ... An assessment of food acceptance in children with autism or pervasive developmental disorder-Not otherwise specified. Journal ...
"Child Development Disorders, Pervasive"[Mesh]. 22400. 2. (autistic[tiab] OR autism[tiab] OR asperger[tiab] OR aspergers[tiab] ... "Child Development Disorders, Pervasive"[Mesh]. 22400. 2. (autistic[tiab] OR autism[tiab] OR asperger[tiab] OR aspergers[tiab] ... Randomized trial of intensive early intervention for children with pervasive developmental disorder. Am J Ment Retard 2000 Jul; ... OR pervasive development[tiab] OR pervasive developmental[tiab] OR pdd[tiab]) NOT medline[sb]. 5401. ...
We estimated the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and ASDs among children 8 years of age. This po ... Reported associations between gestational tobacco exposure and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have been inconsistent. ... Child. Child Development Disorders, Pervasive / epidemiology*, etiology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Pregnancy. Prevalence. ... Year: 2004The comorbidity of Pervasive Developmental Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: results of a ...
Mercury-associated diagnoses among children diagnosed with pervasive development disorders. Original Article ... Mattson MP, Kater SB (1989) Development and selective neurodegeneration in cell cultures from different hippocampal regions. ...
Pervasive Child Development Disorders. *Autism. *autism. *childhood disintegrative disorder. *neurologic and psychiatric ... Psychologically diagnosed (DSM-IV) as Childhood Disintegrative Disorder. - No known genetic or medical syndrome (Down syndrome ...
Autistic Disorder. *Child Behavior. *Developmental Disabilities. *Child Development Disorders, Pervasive. *Language Development ... Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. Patient Care. Accepts new patients? Yes. Patient Type: Child. Referrals: From patients or ... Professor of Pediatrics (General Pediatrics) and in the Child Study Center; Director, Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics ...
Autistic Disorder; Child Behavior; Developmental Disabilities; Child Development Disorders, Pervasive; Language Development ... Learning Disorders; Intellectual Disability; Parent-Child Relations; Psychopharmacology; Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders ... Adoption; Anxiety Disorders; Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity; ... Adoption; Child Psychiatry; Maternal Health Services; Mental Health; Pediatrics; Romania; Psychology, Developmental ...
... the children are twice likely to have autism. ... Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder. In medical terms ... Rett Syndrome is a neurological disorder that affects development. It mostly affects the girl child. ... Autism spectrum disorder affects as many as 1 in 88 children in the United States. The exact causes of the developmental ... Kids Who Feed Themselves Have No Increased Risk of Choking Intake of Sugary Drinks During Pregnancy Linked to Childhood Asthma ...
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by deficits in social and communication behaviors and includes ... Tissot, C., & Evans, R. (2003). Visual teaching strategies for children with autism. Early Child Development and Care, 17, 425- ... Autism and pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 135-170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Using visual supports with young children with autism spectrum disorder. Teaching Exceptional Children, 43, 28-35.Google ...
... and casein-free diets for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). We report results from a two-stage, 24-month, ... Child. Child Development. Child Development Disorders, Pervasive / diagnosis, diet therapy*, urine. Child, Preschool. Diet, ... There is increasing interest in the use of gluten- and casein-free diets for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). We ... 12525726 - Regional brain chemical alterations in young children with autism spectrum disorder.. 20205546 - What symptoms ...
Make research projects and school reports about Pervasive developmental disorders easy with credible articles from our FREE, ... and pictures about Pervasive developmental disorders at Encyclopedia.com. ... a doctor or psychologist first asks the childs parents questions about the childs early development and then carefully ... What are Pervasive Developmental Disorders?. Pervasive developmental disorders are conditions that prevent children from ...
Categories: Child Development Disorders, Pervasive Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Mahoney, G., & Perales, F. (2005). Relationship-focused early intervention with children with pervasive developmental disorders ... The effect of early intervention and preschool stimulus on the development of the Downs syndrome child. Journal of Intellectual ... Deaf children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42, 2027-2037. ... National Survey of Children With Special Health Care Needs. (2009/2010). Data query from the Child and Adolescent Health ...
children with autism, pervasive development disorder or an eligible disability (through MBS items 820 In order to provide these ... and for children with autism, pervasive development disorder or an eligible disability (MBS items 82030 & 82035); *The ... the development of fact sheets on the measure; *creation of new MBS item items, descriptors and explanatory notes to be ... Evaluation of the cause of disorders of hearing, tinnitus, or balance; *Evaluation of suspected change in hearing, tinnitus, or ...
  • Kids ages 3 to 5 years old with ASD who qualify are entitled to free preschool services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). (kidshealth.org)
  • The Tygerberg Children's Hospital (TCH) developmental clinic provides a tertiary consultative service to mainly preschool children living in the Western Cape, South Africa. (scielo.org.za)
  • The epidemiology of posttraumatic stress disorder: What is the extent of the problem? (isst-d.org)
  • Transitions, or shifts from one focus to another, can often cause problems for toddlers and other young children. (ufl.edu)
  • Medical researchers believe that genetic susceptibility plus additional factors contribute to the development of one of these disorders. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Linkage analyses using scores from the Social Responsiveness Scale were performed in 590 families from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange, a largely multiplex autism spectrum disorder cohort. (nih.gov)
  • The identification of two strong loci for social responsiveness validates the endophenotype approach for the identification of genetic variants contributing to complex traits such as autism spectrum disorder. (nih.gov)
  • While causal mutations have yet to be identified, these findings are consistent with segregation of rare genetic variants influencing social responsiveness and underscore the increasingly recognized role of rare inherited variants in the genetic architecture of autism spectrum disorder. (nih.gov)
  • The autism spectrum disorders (ASD) comprise a complex group of behaviorally related disorders that are primarily genetic in origin. (nih.gov)
  • The genetic architecture of autism spectrum disorder involves the interplay of common and rare variants and their impact on hundreds of genes. (nih.gov)
  • Jepson is known for his theory that "there's a genetic susceptibility for autism," and "children who are born with genetic susceptibility for autism have trouble detoxifying. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some studies suggest that kids with a genetic risk or predisposition to autism might develop it when they are exposed to something (yet unknown) in the environment. (cookchildrens.org)
  • This suggests a potential influence of social engagement on executive cognitive functioning (and/or vice‐versa) among individuals with KS , and perhaps those with other genetic disorders. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Within this category, the DSM-5 has proposed a framework of differentiating each individual by dimensions of severity, as well as associated features (i.e., known genetic disorders, and intellectual disability). (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic or chromosomal abnormality · viral agents · metabolic disorders · immune intolerance · perinatal anoxia 5 . (mugsy.org)
  • UC Davis researchers have received a five-year, $10 million grant from the National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) to expand a landmark study assessing the role of environmental and genetic risk factors in the development of autism among young children. (ucdavis.edu)
  • These medications treat seizures and seizure disorders, such as epilepsy. (nih.gov)
  • Of these children, 3,315 were identified as having an ASD by the active, records-based surveillance of the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Children with disabilities: A medical primer (7th ed. (asha.org)
  • Our mission is to enable and empower children with disabilities and their families to grow, learn, play and prepare for lifelong achievement in society. (yellowpagesforkids.com)
  • Once classified as separate disorders, these five disabilities are now classified under the umbrella of ASD. (study.com)
  • In 1991, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) required children with developmental disabilities to receive school services and be integrated into a mainstream classroom setting as much as possible. (parents.com)
  • 2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.) . (springer.com)
  • Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and the Gilliam Autism Rating Scale (GARS) were used to assess core autism behaviours, Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales (VABS) to ascertain developmental level, and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder - IV scale (ADHD-IV) to determine inattention and hyperactivity. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Autism and pervasive developmental disorders: Concepts and diagnostic issues. (springer.com)
  • This was a retrospective review of medical records of children fulfilling Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for a PDD who attended a tertiary developmental clinic at Tygerberg Hospital, Western Cape, South Africa, over a 2-year period (2008 - 2010). (scielo.org.za)
  • It is not clear whether the increasing rate of the disorder is related to broadening of the diagnostic criteria or heightened awareness of the condition among parents and professionals. (scielo.org.za)
  • We aimed to add to the knowledge of autism in South Africa by describing the demographics, history, clinical features, co-morbidity and diagnostic yield of investigations in a group of children diagnosed with a PDD at a tertiary developmental paediatric clinic. (scielo.org.za)
  • The Acacia Center provides support services in the form of tutoring, educational advocacy, consulting, family coaching, and diagnostic assessment for adult literacy and families with children who are English Language Learners, internationally adopted, dyslexic, or at-risk readers and writers. (yellowpagesforkids.com)
  • The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is the authoritative bible for psychiatric disorders in the U.S. The first two editions never even listed autism as a disorder. (parents.com)
  • The children's development was evaluated at 6, 12, 18, 24 and 36 months of age using a series of widely implemented diagnostic tools, including the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R). Examiners were not told which babies were at high- or low-risk when evaluating the participants' development. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Published by the American Psychiatric Association, the DSM contains diagnostic criteria, research findings, and treatment information for mental disorders. (minddisorders.com)
  • In other cases autism trained TA's with seniority have used their seniority to seek a post working with a non-autistic child. (blogspot.com)
  • If an autistic child is fortunate enough to have an autism trained, experienced TA the TA is still not permitted to work the full day with the child in many districts. (blogspot.com)
  • The executive dysfunction approach argues that the autistic child does not possess the mechanism that selects the relevant stimulus and inhibits others. (scielo.br)
  • Education Minister Lamrock has made it very clear that he will not let adult interests interfere with the best interests of children. (blogspot.com)
  • The specific signs vary widely from one child (or adult) to another. (nshealth.ca)
  • If there are signs of ASD, your child will have a comprehensive evaluation. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some children will display problems early in life, but it is also possible for children to develop throughout the first and second year before showing any signs of an ASD. (ufl.edu)
  • 70 years into autism, the situation worse than ever and the CDC has NOTHING for our kids but "learn the signs. (ageofautism.com)
  • A 5.5-year-old girl (VF) was referred by her school for speech and neurological evaluation because of signs of delayed speech development and perceptual-motor dysfunction. (scielo.br)
  • Watch carefully for these signs, as they could indicate your child has psychosis. (wikihow.com)
  • Although the ABPN examinations are not required for practice, they are a further assurance that the child and adolescent psychiatrist with these certifications can be expected to diagnose and treat all psychiatric conditions in patients of any age competently. (aacap.org)
  • A child and adolescent psychiatrist offers families the advantages of a medical education, the medical traditions of professional ethics, and medical responsibility for providing comprehensive care. (aacap.org)
  • The child and adolescent psychiatrist uses a knowledge of biological, psychological, and social factors in working with patients. (aacap.org)
  • The child and adolescent psychiatrist then designs a treatment plan which considers all the components and discusses these recommendations with the child or adolescent and family. (aacap.org)
  • Child and adolescent psychiatrists perform consultations in a variety of settings (schools, juvenile courts, social agencies). (aacap.org)
  • The child and adolescent psychiatrist continues to study and learn about new advances by reading scientific literature and attending conferences. (aacap.org)
  • In addition, pediatricians, family physicians, school counselors, and Employee Assistance Programs (EAP) can be helpful in identifying child and adolescent psychiatrists. (aacap.org)
  • The volume presents the latest in treatment and prevention of major adolescent disorders, and updates the work of seven commissions under the Adolescent Mental Health Initiative convened by the Annenberg Public Policy Center and the Annenberg Foundation Trust at Sunnylands . (annenbergpublicpolicycenter.org)
  • The first edition of "Treating and Preventing Adolescent Mental Health Disorders" was acclaimed by reviewers and received the 2005 Award for Excellence in Clinical Medicine from the Division of Professional/Scholarly Publishing of the Association of American Publishers. (annenbergpublicpolicycenter.org)
  • Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 37 (1), 41-64. (springer.com)
  • C. Johnston and E. J. Mash, "A measure of parenting satisfaction and efficacy," Journal of Clinical Child Psychology , vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 167-175, 1989. (hindawi.com)
  • Address for correspondence: Professor T. Charman, Chair in Autism Education, Centre for Research in Autism and Education, Department of Psychology and Human Development , Institute of Education , 25 Woburn Square , London WC1H 0AA , UK . (cambridge.org)
  • 278 children with core autism and 195 with atypical autism, mainly identified from computerised disability registers and born between 1979 and 1998. (bmj.com)
  • Factors under investigation as a cause of these disorders include immune system problems, allergies , drugs, environmental pollution, and infections. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Depending on the specific needs and skills of the child and family, other treatments might include the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) and Positive Behaviour Support (PBS). (nshealth.ca)
  • Many children who are diagnosed with PDDs today would have been labeled psychotic or schizophrenic in the past. (minddisorders.com)
  • This is a complex issue that cannot be addressed without a complete evaluation of the child.Physical exam, testing and the input of speech and language pathologists are needed.Even then, the problem may be defined but the origin may remain elusive.Some kids have this as part of another set of developmental problems while others are otherwise normal.Look for answers with a developmental specialist. (healthtap.com)
  • Without appropriate treatment, these disorders can have lasting effects on a child's physical, social, and emotional development. (cookchildrens.org)
  • Traumatization can also result from neglect, which is the absence of essential physical or emotional care, soothing, and restorative experiences from significant others, particularly in children. (isst-d.org)
  • Service dogs have long assisted people who have physical challenges, and now scientists have physical evidence that they can help children with autism as well. (emaxhealth.com)
  • This disorder is marked by the deterioration of previously acquired physical, social, and communication skills after at least two years of normal development. (minddisorders.com)