A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.
One of the Indian Ocean Islands, east of Madagascar. Its capital is Saint-Denis. It was discovered in 1507 by the Portuguese and claimed by France in 1638. It was first colonized in 1662 as Isle de Bourbon but renamed Reunion in 1793. In 1946 it was made an overseas department of France. The name commemorates the reunion of the revolutionaries from Marseilles with the National Guard in Paris in 1792. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1011; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p454; French Embassy)
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
Numerous islands in the Indian Ocean situated east of Madagascar, north to the Arabian Sea and east to Sri Lanka. Included are COMOROS (republic), MADAGASCAR (republic), Maldives (republic), MAURITIUS (parliamentary democracy), Pemba (administered by Tanzania), REUNION (a department of France), and SEYCHELLES (republic).
A group of Indian Ocean Islands, the islands of Great Comoro, Anjouan, Mayotte, and Moheli, lying between northeast Mozambique and northwest Madagascar. The capital is Moroni. In 1914 they became a colony attached to Madagascar administratively and were made a French overseas territory in 1947. Except for Mayotte which remained French, Comoros became an independent republic in 1975. Comoros represents the Arabic qamar, moon, said by some scholars to be linked with the mystical Mountains of the Moon said to be somewhere in equatorial Africa. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p283 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p122)
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.
Infections caused by arthropod-borne viruses, general or unspecified.
A body of water covering approximately one-fifth of the total ocean area of the earth, extending amidst Africa in the west, Australia in the east, Asia in the north, and Antarctica in the south. Including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, it constitutes the third largest ocean after the ATLANTIC OCEAN and the PACIFIC OCEAN. (New Encyclopaedia Britannica Micropaedia, 15th ed, 1990, p289)
A species of ALPHAVIRUS associated with epidemic EXANTHEMA and polyarthritis in Australia.
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
The geographical area of Africa comprising CAMEROON; CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC; CHAD; CONGO; EQUATORIAL GUINEA; GABON; and DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.
The geographical area of Africa comprising BURUNDI; DJIBOUTI; ETHIOPIA; KENYA; RWANDA; SOMALIA; SUDAN; TANZANIA; and UGANDA.
Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Aspects of health and disease related to travel.
Pain in the joint.
An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "India" is not a medical term that can be defined in a medical context. It is a geographical location, referring to the Republic of India, a country in South Asia. If you have any questions related to medical topics or definitions, I would be happy to help with those!
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.
A republic in southern Africa, southwest of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and west of ZAMBIA. Its capital is Luanda.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
A republic in west equatorial Africa, south of CAMEROON and west of the CONGO. Its capital is Libreville.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.

Vectors of Chikungunya virus in Senegal: current data and transmission cycles. (1/380)

Chikungunya fever is a viral disease transmitted to human beings by Aedes genus mosquitoes. From 1972 to 1986 in Kedougou, Senegal, 178 Chikungunya virus strains were isolated from gallery forest mosquitoes, with most of them isolated from Ae. furcifer-taylori (129 strains), Ae. luteocephalus (27 strains), and Ae. dalzieli (12 strains). The characteristics of the sylvatic transmission cycle are a circulation periodicity with silent intervals that last approximately three years. Few epidemics of this disease have been reported in Senegal. The most recent one occurred in 1996 in Kaffrine where two Chikungunya virus strains were isolated from Ae. aegypti. The retrospective analysis of viral isolates from mosquitoes, wild vertebrates, and humans allowed to us to characterize Chikungunya virus transmission cycles in Senegal and to compare them with those of yellow fever virus.  (+info)

Comparison of PanBio dengue duo enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and MRL dengue fever virus immunoglobulin M capture ELISA for diagnosis of dengue virus infections in Southeast Asia. (2/380)

The performances of the MRL dengue fever virus immunoglobulin M (IgM) capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the PanBio Dengue Duo IgM capture and IgG capture ELISA were compared. Eighty sera from patients with dengue virus infections, 24 sera from patients with Japanese encephalitis (JE), and 78 sera from patients with nonflavivirus infections, such as malaria, typhoid, leptospirosis, and scrub typhus, were used. The MRL test showed superior sensitivity for dengue virus infections (94 versus 89%), while the PanBio test showed superior specificity for JE (79 versus 25%) and other infections (100 versus 91%). The PanBio ELISA showed better overall performance, as assessed by the sum of sensitivity and specificity (F value). When dengue virus and nonflavivirus infections were compared, F values of 189 and 185 were obtained for the PanBio and MRL tests, respectively, while when dengue virus infections and JE were compared, F values of 168 and 119 were obtained. The results obtained with individual sera in the PanBio and MRL IgM ELISAs showed good correlation, but this analysis revealed that the cutoff value of the MRL test was set well below that of the PanBio test. Comparing the sensitivity and specificity of the tests at different cutoff values (receiver-operator analysis) revealed that the MRL and PanBio IgM ELISAs performed similarly in distinguishing dengue virus from nonflavivirus infections, although the PanBio IgM ELISA showed significantly better distinction between dengue virus infections and JE. The implications of these findings for the laboratory diagnosis of dengue are discussed.  (+info)

Re-emergence of Chikungunya and O'nyong-nyong viruses: evidence for distinct geographical lineages and distant evolutionary relationships. (3/380)

Chikungunya (CHIK) virus is a member of the genus Alphavirus in the family TOGAVIRIDAE: Serologically, it is most closely related to o'nyong-nyong (ONN) virus and is a member of the Semliki Forest antigenic complex. CHIK virus is believed to be enzootic throughout much of Africa and historical evidence indicates that it spread to other parts of the world from this origin. Strains from Africa and Asia are reported to differ biologically, indicating that distinct lineages may exist. To examine the relatedness of CHIK and ONN viruses using genetic data, we conducted phylogenetic studies on isolates obtained throughout Africa and Southeast Asia. Analyses revealed that ONN virus is indeed distinct from CHIK viruses, and these viruses probably diverged thousands of years ago. Two distinct CHIK virus lineages were delineated, one containing all isolates from western Africa and the second comprising all southern and East African strains, as well as isolates from Asia. Phylogenetic trees corroborated historical evidence that CHIK virus originated in Africa and subsequently was introduced into Asia. Within the eastern Africa and southern Africa/Asia lineage, Asian strains grouped together in a genotype distinct from the African groups. These different geographical genotypes exhibit differences in their transmission cycles: in Asia, the virus appears to be maintained in an urban cycle with Aedes aegypti mosquito vectors, while CHIK virus transmission in Africa involves a sylvatic cycle, primarily with AE: furcifer and AE: africanus mosquitoes.  (+info)

Phase II safety and immunogenicity study of live chikungunya virus vaccine TSI-GSD-218. (4/380)

We conducted a phase II, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, safety and immunogenicity study of a serially passaged, plaque-purified live chikungunya (CHIK) vaccine in 73 healthy adult volunteers. Fifty-nine volunteers were immunized one time subcutaneously with the CHIK vaccine and 14 were immunized with placebo (tissue culture fluid). Vaccinees were clinically evaluated intensively for one month, and had repeated blood draws for serological assays (50% plaque-reduction neutralization test) for one year. Except for transient arthralgia in five CHIK vaccinees, the number and severity of local and systemic reactions and abnormal laboratory tests after immunization were similar in CHIK vaccinees and placebo recipients. Fifty-seven (98%) of 58 evaluable CHIK vaccinees developed CHIK neutralizing antibody by day 28, and 85% of vaccinees remained seropositive at one year after immunization. No placebo recipients seroconverted. This promising live vaccine was safe, produced well-tolerated side effects, and was highly immunogenic.  (+info)

Complete nucleotide sequence of chikungunya virus and evidence for an internal polyadenylation site. (5/380)

In this study, the complete genomic sequence of chikungunya virus (CHIK; S27 African prototype) was determined and the presence of an internal polyadenylation [I-poly(A)] site was confirmed within the 3' non-translated region (NTR) of this strain. The complete genome was 11805 nucleotides in length, excluding the 5' cap nucleotide, an I-poly(A) tract and the 3' poly(A) tail. It comprised two long open reading frames that encoded the non-structural (2474 amino acids) and structural polyproteins (1244 amino acids). The genetic location of the non-structural and structural proteins was predicted by comparing the deduced amino acid sequences with the known cleavage sites of other alphaviruses, located at the C-terminal region of their virus-encoded proteins. In addition, predicted secondary structures were identified within the 5' NTR and repeated sequence elements (RSEs) within the 3' NTR. Amino acid sequence homologies, phylogenetic analysis of non-structural and structural proteins and characteristic RSEs revealed that although CHIK is closely related to o'nyong-nyong virus, it is in fact a distinct virus. The existence of I-poly(A) fragments with different lengths (e.g. 19, 36, 43, 91, 94 and 106 adenine nucleotides) at identical initiation positions for each clone strongly suggests that the polymerase of the alphaviruses has a capacity to create poly(A) by a template-dependant mechanism such as 'polymerase slippage', as has been reported for vesicular stomatitis virus.  (+info)

Effect of temperature stress on immature stages and susceptibility of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to chikungunya virus. (6/380)

A high temperature stress of 44.5 degrees C for 10 minutes on the larval stages was found to affect the susceptibility of adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to chikungunya virus. At this temperature, the mortality of the mosquito larvae was found to be approximately 95%, whereas a temperature greater than 45 degrees C for 10 minutes was found to be lethal. A temperature tolerant (TT) strain was developed by exposing the larvae to a temperature of 44.5 degrees C for 10 minutes at every generation for five generations. This strain was established to determine whether increase in the susceptibility was due to any selection pressure of higher temperature or to the influence of other intrinsic factors such as expression of immunoresponsive (IR) genes. Other studies on these mosquito strains showed that when maintained at 28 +/- 1 degrees C, there was no difference in the larval duration and mortality in the immature stages, but the mean survival of female mosquitoes in the TT strain was 5-6 days longer. Conversely, when mosquitoes were maintained throughout at 37 degrees C the mean survival of the mosquitoes decreased drastically in both strains, but the mean survival of females in the TT strain was 5-6 days longer compared with the unstressed controls. This increases the probability of at least one more blood meal. Fecundity of the TT strain was found to be lower than that of the control mosquitoes. Data suggest that expression of certain IR genes was affected by the heat shock. Some of these genes were up-regulated and down-regulated, which may have affected the susceptibility of mosquitoes to the virus. Although there was some selection in the temperature-tolerant individuals in the TT strain, when stressed by heat they showed expression of IR genes in a pattern similar to that in the normal controls. It appears that an increase in temperature above the average temperature of an area might help increase the proportion of virus-susceptible mosquitoes in the population. Such an increase in temperature in an endemic area would not only enhance the selection of temperature-tolerant individuals in a population having more longevity, but would also affect both intrinsic and extrinsic factors by reducing the extrinsic incubation period and increasing susceptibility of mosquitoes to viruses due to affected expression of IR genes.  (+info)

Differential infectivities of o'nyong-nyong and chikungunya virus isolates in Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. (7/380)

O'nyong-nyong virus (ONNV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are closely related alphaviruses that cause human disease in Africa and Asia. Like most alphaviruses, CHIKV is vectored by culicine mosquitoes. ONNV is considered unusual as it primarily infects anopheline mosquitoes; however, there are relatively few experimental data to support this. In this study, three strains of ONNV and one strain of CHIKV were evaluated in Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and in four cell lines. As predicted, CHIKV was not infectious to An. gambiae, and we observed strain-variability for ONNV with respect to the ability of the virus to infect An. gambiae and Ae. aegypti. The species specificity in vivo was reflected by in vitro experiments using culicine and anopheline-derived cell lines.  (+info)

Determinants of vector specificity of o'nyong nyong and chikungunya viruses in Anopheles and Aedes mosquitoes. (8/380)

The alphaviruses o'nyong nyong virus (ONNV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) provide a unique system to study the viral genes involved in vector specificity. ONNV infects both anopheline and culicine mosquitoes, whereas CHIKV infects only culicine mosquitoes. In this study, chimeric viruses were constructed that contained genes from both ONNV and CHIKV. These chimeras and previously described full-length infectious clones of ONNV and CHIKV were evaluated in Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Virus derived from the infectious clones of ONNV and CHIKV retained the vector specificity of the parental viruses. All six of the chimeras were found to infect Ae. aegypti mosquitoes at high rates but only the chimera containing viral genes encoding all of the structural proteins of ONNV was able to infect An. gambiae mosquitoes. These data indicate that all of the viral structural proteins are necessary for ONNV to infect An. gambiae mosquitoes.  (+info)

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus from the Togaviridae family that is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes, primarily Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. The name "Chikungunya" is derived from a Makonde word meaning "to become contorted," which describes the stooped posture developed as a result of severe arthralgia (joint pain) that is a primary symptom of infection with this virus.

CHIKV infection typically causes a febrile illness, characterized by an abrupt onset of high fever, severe joint pain, muscle pain, headache, nausea, fatigue, and rash. While the symptoms are usually self-limiting and resolve within 10 days, some individuals may experience persistent or recurring joint pain for several months or even years after the initial infection.

There is no specific antiviral treatment available for Chikungunya virus infection, and management primarily focuses on relieving symptoms with rest, fluids, and over-the-counter pain relievers such as acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Prevention measures include avoiding mosquito bites through the use of insect repellent, wearing long sleeves and pants, staying in air-conditioned or screened rooms, and eliminating standing water where mosquitoes breed.

Chikungunya virus is found primarily in Africa, Asia, and the Indian subcontinent, but it has also caused outbreaks in Europe and the Americas due to the spread of its vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. The virus can cause large-scale epidemics, with millions of cases reported during outbreaks. There is currently no approved vaccine for Chikungunya virus infection.

Alphavirus infections refer to a group of diseases caused by viruses belonging to the Alphavirus genus of the Togaviridae family. These viruses are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes, and can cause a range of symptoms depending on the specific virus and the individual's immune response.

Some of the more common alphaviruses that cause human disease include:

* Chikungunya virus (CHIKV): This virus is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes and can cause a fever, rash, and severe joint pain. While most people recover from CHIKV infection within a few weeks, some may experience long-term joint pain and inflammation.
* Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV): This virus is transmitted by mosquitoes that feed on both birds and mammals, including humans. EEEV can cause severe neurological symptoms such as fever, headache, seizures, and coma. It has a high mortality rate of up to 30-50% in infected individuals.
* Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV): This virus is also transmitted by mosquitoes that feed on both birds and mammals. WEEV can cause mild flu-like symptoms or more severe neurological symptoms such as fever, headache, and seizures. It has a lower mortality rate than EEEV but can still cause significant illness.
* Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV): This virus is transmitted by mosquitoes that feed on horses and other mammals, including humans. VEEV can cause mild flu-like symptoms or more severe neurological symptoms such as fever, headache, and seizures. It is considered a potential bioterrorism agent due to its ability to cause severe illness and death in large populations.

There are no specific treatments for alphavirus infections other than supportive care to manage symptoms. Prevention measures include avoiding mosquito bites through the use of insect repellent, wearing long sleeves and pants, and staying indoors during peak mosquito hours. Public health efforts also focus on reducing mosquito populations through environmental controls such as eliminating standing water and using insecticides.

In the context of medicine, particularly in relation to surgery, "reunion" refers to the process or state of separate parts coming back together or healing into a solid mass. This term is often used in the context of wound healing, where it describes the closure and joining of the edges of a wound. It can also be used in orthopedic surgery to describe the reattachment or fusion of broken bones after a fracture. However, it's not a common medical term and might not be found in general medical dictionaries or resources.

"Aedes" is a genus of mosquitoes that are known to transmit various diseases, including Zika virus, dengue fever, chikungunya, and yellow fever. These mosquitoes are typically found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. They are distinguished by their black and white striped legs and thorax. Aedes aegypti is the most common species associated with disease transmission, although other species such as Aedes albopictus can also transmit diseases. It's important to note that only female mosquitoes bite and feed on blood, while males feed solely on nectar and plant juices.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Indian Ocean Islands" is a geographical term referring to the islands located in the Indian Ocean, and not a medical term. However, I can provide some general information about these islands.

The Indian Ocean Islands include a diverse group of island nations and territories, such as Madagascar, Maldives, Seychelles, Mauritius, Comoros, Réunion (a French territory), and the British Indian Ocean Territory (including the Chagos Archipelago). These islands have unique ecosystems and diverse cultures, with flora and fauna that are often endemic to each island. Some of these islands face challenges in terms of healthcare access, resources, and infrastructure due to their remote locations and smaller populations.

I'm not aware of any medical definition for "Comoros." The term "Comoros" most commonly refers to the Comoros Union, which is a country made up of three main islands (Grande Comore, Anjouan, and Mohéli) located in the Indian Ocean, north of Madagascar. It is possible that you may have heard this term in a medical context, such as in reference to a specific disease outbreak or medical research conducted in the country. However, without more information, it is difficult for me to provide a more precise definition.

A disease outbreak is defined as the occurrence of cases of a disease in excess of what would normally be expected in a given time and place. It may affect a small and localized group or a large number of people spread over a wide area, even internationally. An outbreak may be caused by a new agent, a change in the agent's virulence or host susceptibility, or an increase in the size or density of the host population.

Outbreaks can have significant public health and economic impacts, and require prompt investigation and control measures to prevent further spread of the disease. The investigation typically involves identifying the source of the outbreak, determining the mode of transmission, and implementing measures to interrupt the chain of infection. This may include vaccination, isolation or quarantine, and education of the public about the risks and prevention strategies.

Examples of disease outbreaks include foodborne illnesses linked to contaminated food or water, respiratory infections spread through coughing and sneezing, and mosquito-borne diseases such as Zika virus and West Nile virus. Outbreaks can also occur in healthcare settings, such as hospitals and nursing homes, where vulnerable populations may be at increased risk of infection.

Insect vectors are insects that transmit disease-causing pathogens (such as viruses, bacteria, parasites) from one host to another. They do this while feeding on the host's blood or tissues. The insects themselves are not infected by the pathogen but act as mechanical carriers that pass it on during their bite. Examples of diseases spread by insect vectors include malaria (transmitted by mosquitoes), Lyme disease (transmitted by ticks), and plague (transmitted by fleas). Proper prevention measures, such as using insect repellent and reducing standing water where mosquitoes breed, can help reduce the risk of contracting these diseases.

Alphaviruses are a genus of single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses that belong to the family Togaviridae. They are enveloped viruses and have a icosahedral symmetry with a diameter of approximately 70 nanometers. Alphaviruses are transmitted to vertebrates by mosquitoes and other arthropods, and can cause a range of diseases in humans and animals, including arthritis, encephalitis, and rash.

Some examples of alphaviruses that can infect humans include Chikungunya virus, Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus, Sindbis virus, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. These viruses are usually found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world, and can cause outbreaks of disease in humans and animals.

Alphaviruses have a wide host range, including mammals, birds, reptiles, and insects. They replicate in the cytoplasm of infected cells and have a genome that encodes four non-structural proteins (nsP1 to nsP4) involved in viral replication, and five structural proteins (C, E3, E2, 6K, and E1) that form the virion.

Prevention and control of alphavirus infections rely on avoiding mosquito bites, using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and reducing mosquito breeding sites. There are no specific antiviral treatments available for alphavirus infections, but supportive care can help manage symptoms. Vaccines are available for some alphaviruses, such as Eastern equine encephalitis virus and Western equine encephalitis virus, but not for others, such as Chikungunya virus.

Arbovirus infections are a group of diseases caused by viruses that are transmitted to humans through the bites of infected arthropods, such as mosquitoes, ticks, and midges. "Arbo" is short for "arthropod-borne."

There are over 150 different Arboviruses, but only a few cause significant illness in humans. Some of the most common Arbovirus infections include:

* Dengue fever
* Chikungunya fever
* Yellow fever
* Zika virus infection
* Japanese encephalitis
* West Nile fever
* Tick-borne encephalitis

The symptoms of Arbovirus infections can vary widely, depending on the specific virus and the individual infected. Some people may experience only mild illness or no symptoms at all, while others may develop severe, life-threatening complications.

Common symptoms of Arbovirus infections include fever, headache, muscle and joint pain, rash, and fatigue. In more severe cases, Arbovirus infections can cause neurological problems such as meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord) or encephalitis (inflammation of the brain).

There is no specific treatment for most Arbovirus infections. Treatment is generally supportive, with fluids and medications to relieve symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications such as dehydration or neurological problems.

Prevention of Arbovirus infections involves avoiding mosquito and tick bites, using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and eliminating breeding sites for mosquitoes and ticks. Vaccines are available to prevent some Arbovirus infections, such as yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Indian Ocean" is not a medical concept or condition. It is a geographical term referring to the third largest of the world's five oceans, situated between southeastern Africa, the Southern Asian landmass, and Australia. It is bounded on the north by the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, on the west by eastern Africa, on the east by the Malay Peninsula, Indonesia, and Australia, and on the south by the Southern Ocean or Antarctica.

If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

Ross River virus (RRV) is an infectious disease caused by the Ross River virus, which is a type of alphavirus. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes, primarily Aedes vigilax, Culex annulirostris, and Culex australicus in Australia.

RRV is endemic to Australia, Papua New Guinea, and some islands in the Pacific Ocean. The symptoms of RRV include fever, rash, joint pain and swelling, muscle aches, fatigue, and headache, which can last for several weeks to months. In severe cases, it can lead to chronic arthritis and other long-term complications.

There is no specific treatment for RRV, and management typically involves relieving symptoms with rest, fluids, and pain relief medications. Preventive measures include avoiding mosquito bites by using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and staying indoors during peak mosquito activity hours.

'Culicidae' is the biological family that includes all species of mosquitoes. It consists of three subfamilies: Anophelinae, Culicinae, and Toxorhynchitinae. Mosquitoes are small, midge-like flies that are known for their ability to transmit various diseases to humans and other animals, such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, and Zika virus. The medical importance of Culicidae comes from the fact that only female mosquitoes require blood meals to lay eggs, and during this process, they can transmit pathogens between hosts.

Central Africa is a geographical region that broadly includes the countries that lie near the equator and are found in the interior of the African continent. The United Nations defines Central Africa as consisting of the following countries: Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Rwanda, and Sao Tome and Principe.

The region is characterized by diverse cultures, languages, and landscapes, ranging from dense rainforests to vast savannas. Central Africa is home to many important rivers, including the Congo River, which is the second longest river in Africa and the deepest river in the world. The region also contains numerous national parks and wildlife reserves that protect a diverse array of plant and animal species, including several endangered species such as mountain gorillas, chimpanzees, and forest elephants.

Central Africa faces many challenges, including political instability, poverty, and environmental degradation. The region has been plagued by conflicts and civil wars, which have resulted in significant loss of life, displacement of people, and destruction of infrastructure. Climate change and deforestation are also major concerns, as they threaten the region's biodiversity and contribute to global warming.

In terms of healthcare, Central Africa faces many challenges, including a high burden of infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, and Ebola. Access to healthcare is limited in many areas, particularly in rural communities, and there is a shortage of healthcare workers and medical facilities. In addition, the region has been affected by conflicts and humanitarian crises, which have further strained healthcare systems and made it difficult to provide adequate care to those in need.

Antibodies, viral are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection with a virus. These antibodies are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens on the surface of the virus, which helps to neutralize or destroy the virus and prevent its replication. Once produced, these antibodies can provide immunity against future infections with the same virus.

Viral antibodies are typically composed of four polypeptide chains - two heavy chains and two light chains - that are held together by disulfide bonds. The binding site for the antigen is located at the tip of the Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains.

There are five classes of antibodies in humans: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has a different function and is distributed differently throughout the body. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody found in the bloodstream and provides long-term immunity against viruses, while IgA is found primarily in mucous membranes and helps to protect against respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.

In addition to their role in the immune response, viral antibodies can also be used as diagnostic tools to detect the presence of a specific virus in a patient's blood or other bodily fluids.

Emerging communicable diseases are infections whose incidence has increased in the past two decades or threatens to increase in the near future. These diseases can be caused by new microbial agents, or by previously known agents that have newly acquired the ability to cause disease in humans. They may also result from changes in human demographics, behavior, or travel patterns, or from technological or environmental changes. Examples of emerging communicable diseases include COVID-19, Ebola virus disease, Zika virus infection, and West Nile fever.

"Eastern Africa" is a geographical term used to describe the eastern portion of the African continent. The United Nations defines Eastern Africa as consisting of the following countries: Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Réunion, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, South Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

In a medical context, "Eastern Africa" may be used to describe the epidemiology, distribution, or prevalence of various diseases or health conditions in this region. However, it is important to note that there can be significant variation in health outcomes and healthcare systems within Eastern Africa due to factors such as socioeconomic status, infrastructure, and cultural practices. Therefore, any medical definition of "Eastern Africa" should be used with caution and may require further qualification or specification depending on the context.

Arboviruses are a group of viruses that are primarily transmitted to humans and animals through the bites of infected arthropods, such as mosquitoes, ticks, and sandflies. The term "arbovirus" is short for "arthropod-borne virus."

Arboviruses can cause a wide range of symptoms, depending on the specific virus and the individual host's immune response. Some common symptoms associated with arboviral infections include fever, headache, muscle and joint pain, rash, and fatigue. In severe cases, arboviral infections can lead to serious complications such as encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord), or hemorrhagic fever (bleeding disorders).

There are hundreds of different arboviruses, and they are found in many parts of the world. Some of the most well-known arboviral diseases include dengue fever, chikungunya, Zika virus infection, West Nile virus infection, yellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis.

Prevention of arboviral infections typically involves avoiding mosquito bites and other arthropod vectors through the use of insect repellent, wearing long sleeves and pants, and staying indoors during peak mosquito feeding times. Public health efforts also focus on reducing vector populations through environmental management and the use of larvicides. Vaccines are available for some arboviral diseases, such as yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis.

Virus replication is the process by which a virus produces copies or reproduces itself inside a host cell. This involves several steps:

1. Attachment: The virus attaches to a specific receptor on the surface of the host cell.
2. Penetration: The viral genetic material enters the host cell, either by invagination of the cell membrane or endocytosis.
3. Uncoating: The viral genetic material is released from its protective coat (capsid) inside the host cell.
4. Replication: The viral genetic material uses the host cell's machinery to produce new viral components, such as proteins and nucleic acids.
5. Assembly: The newly synthesized viral components are assembled into new virus particles.
6. Release: The newly formed viruses are released from the host cell, often through lysis (breaking) of the cell membrane or by budding off the cell membrane.

The specific mechanisms and details of virus replication can vary depending on the type of virus. Some viruses, such as DNA viruses, use the host cell's DNA polymerase to replicate their genetic material, while others, such as RNA viruses, use their own RNA-dependent RNA polymerase or reverse transcriptase enzymes. Understanding the process of virus replication is important for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "travel" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. In general, travel refers to the act of moving or journeying from one place to another, often over long distances. However, in a medical context, it might refer to the recommendation that individuals with certain medical conditions or those who are immunocompromised avoid traveling to areas where they may be at increased risk of exposure to infectious diseases. It's always best to check with a healthcare professional for advice related to specific medical situations and travel.

Arthralgia is a medical term that refers to pain in the joints. It does not involve inflammation, which would be referred to as arthritis. The pain can range from mild to severe and may occur in one or multiple joints. Arthralgia can have various causes, including injuries, infections, degenerative conditions, or systemic diseases. In some cases, the underlying cause of arthralgia remains unknown. Treatment typically focuses on managing the pain and addressing the underlying condition if it can be identified.

Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection that is primarily transmitted by the Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus species of mosquitoes. It is caused by one of four closely related dengue viruses (DENV 1, DENV 2, DENV 3, or DENV 4). The infection can cause a wide range of symptoms, ranging from mild fever and headache to severe flu-like illness, which is often characterized by the sudden onset of high fever, severe headache, muscle and joint pain, nausea, vomiting, and skin rash. In some cases, dengue can progress to more severe forms, such as dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome, which can be life-threatening if not treated promptly and appropriately.

Dengue is prevalent in many tropical and subtropical regions around the world, particularly in urban and semi-urban areas with poor sanitation and inadequate mosquito control. There is no specific treatment for dengue, and prevention efforts focus on reducing mosquito populations and avoiding mosquito bites. Vaccines are available in some countries to prevent dengue infection, but they are not widely used due to limitations in their effectiveness and safety.

Sindbis virus is an alphavirus that belongs to the Togaviridae family. It's named after the location where it was first isolated, in Sindbis, Egypt, in 1952. This virus is primarily transmitted by mosquitoes and can infect a wide range of animals, including birds and humans. In humans, Sindbis virus infection often causes a mild flu-like illness characterized by fever, rash, and joint pain. However, some people may develop more severe symptoms, such as neurological disorders, although this is relatively rare. There is no specific treatment for Sindbis virus infection, and management typically involves supportive care to alleviate symptoms.

A viral RNA (ribonucleic acid) is the genetic material found in certain types of viruses, as opposed to viruses that contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). These viruses are known as RNA viruses. The RNA can be single-stranded or double-stranded and can exist as several different forms, such as positive-sense, negative-sense, or ambisense RNA. Upon infecting a host cell, the viral RNA uses the host's cellular machinery to translate the genetic information into proteins, leading to the production of new virus particles and the continuation of the viral life cycle. Examples of human diseases caused by RNA viruses include influenza, COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), hepatitis C, and polio.

Vero cells are a line of cultured kidney epithelial cells that were isolated from an African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) in the 1960s. They are named after the location where they were initially developed, the Vervet Research Institute in Japan.

Vero cells have the ability to divide indefinitely under certain laboratory conditions and are often used in scientific research, including virology, as a host cell for viruses to replicate. This allows researchers to study the characteristics of various viruses, such as their growth patterns and interactions with host cells. Vero cells are also used in the production of some vaccines, including those for rabies, polio, and Japanese encephalitis.

It is important to note that while Vero cells have been widely used in research and vaccine production, they can still have variations between different cell lines due to factors like passage number or culture conditions. Therefore, it's essential to specify the exact source and condition of Vero cells when reporting experimental results.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "India" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country in South Asia, the second-most populous country in the world, known for its rich history, diverse culture, and numerous contributions to various fields including medicine. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to help answer them!

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

RNA viruses are a type of virus that contain ribonucleic acid (RNA) as their genetic material, as opposed to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). RNA viruses replicate by using an enzyme called RNA-dependent RNA polymerase to transcribe and replicate their RNA genome.

There are several different groups of RNA viruses, including:

1. Negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses: These viruses have a genome that is complementary to the mRNA and must undergo transcription to produce mRNA before translation can occur. Examples include influenza virus, measles virus, and rabies virus.
2. Positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses: These viruses have a genome that can serve as mRNA and can be directly translated into protein after entry into the host cell. Examples include poliovirus, rhinoviruses, and coronaviruses.
3. Double-stranded RNA viruses: These viruses have a genome consisting of double-stranded RNA and use a complex replication strategy involving both transcription and reverse transcription. Examples include rotaviruses and reoviruses.

RNA viruses are known to cause a wide range of human diseases, ranging from the common cold to more severe illnesses such as hepatitis C, polio, and COVID-19. Due to their high mutation rates and ability to adapt quickly to new environments, RNA viruses can be difficult to control and treat with antiviral drugs or vaccines.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Malaysia" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located in Southeast Asia, consisting of thirteen states and three federal territories. If you have any questions about Malaysia's geography, culture, or people, I would be happy to try to help answer those! However, if you have a question related to medicine or healthcare, please provide more details so I can give you an accurate and helpful response.

A viral vaccine is a biological preparation that introduces your body to a specific virus in a way that helps your immune system build up protection against the virus without causing the illness. Viral vaccines can be made from weakened or inactivated forms of the virus, or parts of the virus such as proteins or sugars. Once introduced to the body, the immune system recognizes the virus as foreign and produces an immune response, including the production of antibodies. These antibodies remain in the body and provide immunity against future infection with that specific virus.

Viral vaccines are important tools for preventing infectious diseases caused by viruses, such as influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, polio, hepatitis A and B, rabies, rotavirus, chickenpox, shingles, and some types of cancer. Vaccination programs have led to the control or elimination of many infectious diseases that were once common.

It's important to note that viral vaccines are not effective against bacterial infections, and separate vaccines must be developed for each type of virus. Additionally, because viruses can mutate over time, it is necessary to update some viral vaccines periodically to ensure continued protection.

Dengue virus (DENV) is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus that belongs to the genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae. It is primarily transmitted to humans through the bites of infected female mosquitoes, mainly Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

The DENV genome contains approximately 11,000 nucleotides and encodes three structural proteins (capsid, pre-membrane/membrane, and envelope) and seven non-structural proteins (NS1, NS2A, NS2B, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, and NS5). There are four distinct serotypes of DENV (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4), each of which can cause dengue fever, a mosquito-borne viral disease.

Infection with one serotype provides lifelong immunity against that particular serotype but only temporary and partial protection against the other three serotypes. Subsequent infections with different serotypes can increase the risk of developing severe dengue, such as dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome, due to antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) and original antigenic sin phenomena.

DENV is a significant public health concern in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide, with an estimated 390 million annual infections and approximately 100-400 million clinical cases. Preventive measures include vector control strategies to reduce mosquito populations and the development of effective vaccines against all four serotypes.

I'm not aware of any medical definitions associated with the term "Angola." Angola is a country located in Southern Africa, known officially as the Republic of Angola. It does not have any specific relevance to medical terminology or healthcare. If you have more context or information about why you are looking for a medical definition of Angola, I may be able to provide a more helpful response.

Neutralizing antibodies are a type of antibody that defends against pathogens such as viruses or bacteria by neutralizing their ability to infect cells. They do this by binding to specific regions on the surface proteins of the pathogen, preventing it from attaching to and entering host cells. This renders the pathogen ineffective and helps to prevent or reduce the severity of infection. Neutralizing antibodies can be produced naturally in response to an infection or vaccination, or they can be generated artificially for therapeutic purposes.

'Cercopithecus aethiops' is the scientific name for the monkey species more commonly known as the green monkey. It belongs to the family Cercopithecidae and is native to western Africa. The green monkey is omnivorous, with a diet that includes fruits, nuts, seeds, insects, and small vertebrates. They are known for their distinctive greenish-brown fur and long tail. Green monkeys are also important animal models in biomedical research due to their susceptibility to certain diseases, such as SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus), which is closely related to HIV.

Vaccinia virus is a large, complex DNA virus that belongs to the Poxviridae family. It is the virus used in the production of the smallpox vaccine. The vaccinia virus is not identical to the variola virus, which causes smallpox, but it is closely related and provides cross-protection against smallpox infection.

The vaccinia virus has a unique replication cycle that occurs entirely in the cytoplasm of infected cells, rather than in the nucleus like many other DNA viruses. This allows the virus to evade host cell defenses and efficiently produce new virions. The virus causes the formation of pocks or lesions on the skin, which contain large numbers of virus particles that can be transmitted to others through close contact.

Vaccinia virus has also been used as a vector for the delivery of genes encoding therapeutic proteins, vaccines against other infectious diseases, and cancer therapies. However, the use of vaccinia virus as a vector is limited by its potential to cause adverse reactions in some individuals, particularly those with weakened immune systems or certain skin conditions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Gabon" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in Central Africa, known officially as the Gabonese Republic. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help with those!

A disease vector is a living organism that transmits infectious pathogens from one host to another. These vectors can include mosquitoes, ticks, fleas, and other arthropods that carry viruses, bacteria, parasites, or other disease-causing agents. The vector becomes infected with the pathogen after biting an infected host, and then transmits the infection to another host through its saliva or feces during a subsequent blood meal.

Disease vectors are of particular concern in public health because they can spread diseases rapidly and efficiently, often over large geographic areas. Controlling vector-borne diseases requires a multifaceted approach that includes reducing vector populations, preventing bites, and developing vaccines or treatments for the associated diseases.

Host specificity, in the context of medical and infectious diseases, refers to the tendency of a pathogen (such as a virus, bacterium, or parasite) to infect and cause disease only in specific host species or individuals with certain genetic characteristics. This means that the pathogen is not able to establish infection or cause illness in other types of hosts. Host specificity can be determined by various factors such as the ability of the pathogen to attach to and enter host cells, replicate within the host, evade the host's immune response, and obtain necessary nutrients from the host. Understanding host specificity is important for developing effective strategies to prevent and control infectious diseases.

Virus cultivation, also known as virus isolation or viral culture, is a laboratory method used to propagate and detect viruses by introducing them to host cells and allowing them to replicate. This process helps in identifying the specific virus causing an infection and studying its characteristics, such as morphology, growth pattern, and sensitivity to antiviral agents.

The steps involved in virus cultivation typically include:

1. Collection of a clinical sample (e.g., throat swab, blood, sputum) from the patient.
2. Preparation of the sample by centrifugation or filtration to remove cellular debris and other contaminants.
3. Inoculation of the prepared sample into susceptible host cells, which can be primary cell cultures, continuous cell lines, or embryonated eggs, depending on the type of virus.
4. Incubation of the inoculated cells under appropriate conditions to allow viral replication.
5. Observation for cytopathic effects (CPE), which are changes in the host cells caused by viral replication, such as cell rounding, shrinkage, or lysis.
6. Confirmation of viral presence through additional tests, like immunofluorescence assays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or electron microscopy.

Virus cultivation is a valuable tool in diagnostic virology, vaccine development, and research on viral pathogenesis and host-virus interactions. However, it requires specialized equipment, trained personnel, and biosafety measures due to the potential infectivity of the viruses being cultured.

Viremia is a medical term that refers to the presence of viruses in the bloodstream. It occurs when a virus successfully infects a host and replicates within the body's cells, releasing new viral particles into the blood. This condition can lead to various clinical manifestations depending on the specific virus involved and the immune response of the infected individual. Some viral infections result in asymptomatic viremia, while others can cause severe illness or even life-threatening conditions. The detection of viremia is crucial for diagnosing certain viral infections and monitoring disease progression or treatment effectiveness.

Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a type of antibody that is primarily found in the blood and lymph fluid. It is the first antibody to be produced in response to an initial exposure to an antigen, making it an important part of the body's primary immune response. IgM antibodies are large molecules that are composed of five basic units, giving them a pentameric structure. They are primarily found on the surface of B cells as membrane-bound immunoglobulins (mlgM), where they function as receptors for antigens. Once an mlgM receptor binds to an antigen, it triggers the activation and differentiation of the B cell into a plasma cell that produces and secretes large amounts of soluble IgM antibodies.

IgM antibodies are particularly effective at agglutination (clumping) and complement activation, which makes them important in the early stages of an immune response to help clear pathogens from the bloodstream. However, they are not as stable or long-lived as other types of antibodies, such as IgG, and their levels tend to decline after the initial immune response has occurred.

In summary, Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the primary immune response to antigens by agglutination and complement activation. It is primarily found in the blood and lymph fluid, and it is produced by B cells after they are activated by an antigen.

"Symptoms, Diagnosis, & Treatment , Chikungunya virus , CDC". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2018-12-17. Retrieved ... The herpes simplex virus, human immunodeficiency virus, and vaccinia virus undergo this form of sexual interaction. These ... Vaccines are not available against the viruses responsible for HIV/AIDS, dengue, and chikungunya. Treatment of viral infections ... Notable plant viruses include the papaya ringspot virus, which has caused millions of dollars of damage to farmers in Hawaii ...
The virus was first isolated from an outbreak in Tanzania in 1952. Chikungunya virus is a member of the genus Alphavirus and ... Chikungunya virus , CDC". www.cdc.gov. 17 December 2018. Retrieved 17 March 2020. Chikungunya, WHO, archived from the original ... viruses (dengue, chikungunya, and rabies).[citation needed] The WHO recognizes the twenty diseases below as neglected tropical ... The word "chikungunya" is from the Makonde language and means "that which bends up", referring to the effect of debilitating ...
The virus was first isolated in 1953, and likely first arose during the 1700s. Chikungunya is characterized by a sudden high ... "Recently Arrived Chikungunya Virus Gains Foothold In Caribbean". Huffington Post. AP. May 2, 2014. Retrieved May 2, 2014. " ... "Mosquito-borne chikungunya virus infects people on 5 Caribbean islands". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. January 21, 2014. ... January 2009). "Evolutionary rates and timescale comparison of Chikungunya viruses inferred from the whole genome/E1 gene with ...
Chikungunya is a mosquito-borne alpha virus that was first isolated after a 1952 outbreak in modern-day Tanzania. The virus has ... A number of chikungunya outbreaks have occurred since 2005. An analysis of the chikungunya virus's genetic code suggests that ... chikungunya and Zika virus infections - an unprecedented epidemic wave of mosquito-borne viruses in the Pacific 2012-2014". ... Precaución con el virus Chikungunya. Marga Parés Arroyo. El Nuevo Dia. 21 Jan 2014. Retrieved 18 July 2014. Sobre 400 casos de ...
... virus is passed to humans when a bite from an infected mosquito breaks the skin and introduces the virus into the ... Chikungunya is an infection caused by the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Symptoms include fever and joint pains. These typically ... Around 1 to 5 in 1,000 people with symptomatic Chikungunya die of the disease. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), is a member of the ... Viruses portal Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations Epidemiology of chikungunya "chikungunya". Oxford Learner's ...
Henss L, Scholz T, Grünweller A, Schnierle BS (October 2018). "Silvestrol Inhibits Chikungunya Virus Replication". Viruses. 10 ... Elgner F, Sabino C, Basic M, Ploen D, Grünweller A, Hildt E (March 2018). "Inhibition of Zika Virus Replication by Silvestrol ... January 2017). "The natural compound silvestrol is a potent inhibitor of Ebola virus replication". Antiviral Research. 137: 76- ... ". Viruses. 10 (4): 149. doi:10.3390/v10040149. PMC 5923443. PMID 29584632. Müller C, Schulte FW, Lange-Grünweller K, Obermann ...
The GVN was initially formed in 2011 in response to the outbreak of the Chikungunya virus, when it had just spread to the ... The virus causes a high fever and has the same intensity as that of an acute viral infection, similar to any virus present and ... The GVN has organized task forces for chikungunya, human T-lymphotropic virus, and Zika. The network is headquartered at the ... The GVN is working toward antiviral drugs and vaccines against the Chikungunya virus, however one problem that the GVN has ...
There, he reported on a number of pathogens, including Zika, chikungunya, and Hepatitis C. He worked at the Global Virus ... "Global Virus Network Staff". Global Virus Network. Archived from the original on 2015-03-15. Retrieved 6 September 2020. ... McSweegan, E; Weaver, SC; Lecuit, M; Frieman, M; Morrison, TE; Hrynkow, S (August 2015). "The Global Virus Network: Challenging ... Mcsweegan was detailed by the NIH to the Global Virus Network, where he became a program manager. ...
Yellow fever viruses, Dengue fever viruses, and Zika viruses are of the Flavivirus genera and Chikungunya virus is of the ... Chikungunya: The Chikungunya virus is a single stranded RNA alphavirus typically transmitted by the Aedes mosquitoes to another ... The animal reservoir of the virus maintains a suitable virus level in the blood to allow the infection of a vector mosquito. A ... Tsetsarkin, Konstantin A; Chen, Rubing; Weaver, Scott C (February 2016). "Interspecies transmission and chikungunya virus ...
Dipali Pathak (30 August 2016). "Grant to develop chikungunya virus vaccine awarded". Baylor College of Medicine. Archived from ... "Sabin Institute To Develop GSK's Ebola and Marburg Virus Vaccines". www.precisionvaccinations.com. Retrieved 2020-05-20. " ...
Human prohibitin 1 has some activity as a virus receptor protein, having been identified as a receptor for Chikungunya Virus ( ... "Identification of prohibitin as a Chikungunya virus receptor protein". Journal of Medical Virology. 84 (11): 1757-70. doi: ... CHIKV) and Dengue Virus 2 (DENV-2). Little else is known about the activity of the prohibitins in viral pathogenesis. ...
"Isolation of chikungunya virus contaminating an Aedes albopictus cell line." Journal of General Virology 27.1 (1975): 97-100. ... Her first research "assignment was to study the spread of the polio virus in East Baltimore neighborhoods". After working as a ... "Lassa fever, a new virus disease of man from West Africa." The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 19.4 (1970): ... She was the first person to culture Lassa virus, the causative agent of Lassa fever, a potentially deadly disease that ...
"Aedes aegypti mosquito responsible for Chikungunya virus in Karachi: report". Dunya TV News website. 21 December 2016. ... as thousands of patients were affected by mysterious Chikungunya virus in December, 2016. Despite joint denial by WHO and ... "More patients arrive at Karachi hospital with symptoms of mysterious virus". Geo TV News website. Retrieved 7 March 2022. " ... Provincial Government of Sindh discloses that aedes aegypti mosquito is responsible for spreading Chikungunya in the area. ...
"Comprehensive innate immune profiling of chikungunya virus infection in pediatric cases". Molecular Systems Biology. 14 (8): ... Shoaib; Monga, Isha; Dar, Showkat Ahmad; Singh, Sandeep (2016-09-16). "ZikaVR: An Integrated Zika Virus Resource for Genomics, ... such as pediatric chikungunya, as well as noncommunicable autoimmune diseases. Integrative omics has also been employed ... a multiomic resource for Zika virus data Ecomics, a normalized multi-omic database for Escherichia coli data, GourdBase, ...
"Four cases of acute flaccid paralysis associated with chikungunya virus infection". Epidemiol Infect. 136 (9): 1277-80. doi: ... "Chikungunya at the Door - Déjà Vu All Over Again?". New England Journal of Medicine. 371 (10): 885-887. doi:10.1056/ ... A mosquito-borne viral fever first identified on the Makonde Plateau is named Chikungunya, which is derived from the Makonde ...
"Aedes hensilli as a Potential Vector of Chikungunya and Zika Viruses". PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 8 (10): e3188. doi: ... hensilli is a potential vector of dengue virus and Zika virus and laboratory studies have indicated that it could play a role ... Fritz, C L; Savage, H M; Yolwa, A; Gubler, D J; Vorndam, V; Rutstein, D (1 April 1998). "Epidemic of dengue-4 virus in Yap ... in transmitting other medically important arbovirus and chikungunya viruses D. S. Farner, Lieutenant (JG), H(S), USNR. 1945. A ...
"Help Control Mosquitoes that Spread Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika Viruses" (PDF). Chikungunya Virus Home: Fact Sheets and ... "Zika Virus". CDC. 5 November 2014. Retrieved 20 June 2019. "Symptoms, Diagnosis, & Treatment of Zika Virus". Zika Virus Home. ... Zika virus has been isolated from semen samples, with one person having 100,000 times more virus in semen than blood or urine, ... Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus closely related to the dengue and yellow fever viruses. While mosquitoes are the ...
"Comprehensive innate immune profiling of chikungunya virus infection in pediatric cases". Molecular Systems Biology. 14 (8): ... Harm van Bakel and others at the Mount Sinai Health System clearly demonstrated that SARS-CoV2, the virus causing COVID-19, was ...
Musso, Didier; Cao-Lormeau, Van Mai; Gubler, Duane J (2015). "Zika virus: Following the path of dengue and chikungunya?". The ... Portal: Viruses Zika virus outbreak timeline Health crisis "All Countries and Territories with Active Zika Virus Transmission ... "Help Control Mosquitoes that Spread Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika Viruses" (PDF). Fact Sheets. Centers for Disease Control. ... "Revised diagnostic testing for Zika, chikungunya, and dengue viruses in US Public Health Laboratories" (PDF). Division of ...
Lahariya, C; Pradhan, SK (December 2006). "Emergence of chikungunya virus in Indian subcontinent after 32 years: A review". ...
"Seroprevalence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection on Lamu Island, Kenya, October 2004." The American journal of tropical ... Kupe Virus, a New Virus in the Family Bunyaviridae, Genus Nairovirus, Kenya. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(2):147-154. Sergon, ... Crabtree, Mary; Sang, Rosemary; Miller, Barry R. (February 2009). "Kupe Virus, a New Virus in the Family Bunyaviridae, Genus ... "Rift Valley fever virus epidemic in Kenya, 2006/2007: the entomologic investigations." The American journal of tropical ...
... designation on the company's investigational chikungunya virus virus-like particle (CHIKV VLP) vaccine candidate. The following ... The company has been developing a vaccine to counter chikungunya, a mosquito-borne virus that was mostly found, until the past ... Another is focused on the chikungunya virus which is transmitted by mosquitoes. The transaction provides Emergent with a Swiss ... "Measuring the global burden of chikungunya and Zika viruses: A systematic review". PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 15 (3): ...
Lahariya, C; Pradhan, SK (December 2006). "Emergence of chikungunya virus in Indian subcontinent after 32 years: A review". ... The WHO groups dengue and chikungunya fever together, but these are separate conditions.[citation needed] India had chikungunya ... "The resurgence of chikungunya in India". Ideas for India - Evidence based policy. Sudarshan, M.K.; Madhusudana, S.N.; Mahendra ... Muniaraj, M (March 2014). "Fading chikungunya fever from India: beginning of the end of another episode?". The Indian Journal ...
albopictus is known to transmit pathogens and viruses, such as the yellow fever virus, dengue fever, Chikungunya fever, and ... The Asian tiger mosquito was also the transmitter of the virus in the first outbreak of Chikungunya fever on the European ... Evidently, mutated strains of the Chikungunya virus are being directly transmitted through Ae. albopictus particularly well and ... Tsetsarkin, KA; Vanlandingham, DL; McGee, CE; Higgs, S (2007). "A Single Mutation in Chikungunya Virus Affects Vector ...
... along with chikungunya virus. WILLIAMS, MC; WOODALL, JP; GILLETT, JD (March 1965). "O'Nyong-Nyong fever: An epidemic virus ... ONNV is a togavirus (family Togaviridae), genus Alphavirus, is closely related to the chikungunya and Igbo Ora viruses, and is ... The o'nyong'nyong virus (ONNV) was first isolated by researchers at the Uganda Virus Research Institute in Entebbe, Uganda, ... "High Rates of O'Nyong Nyong and Chikungunya Virus Transmission in Coastal Kenya". PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 9 (2): ...
"Perinatal Chikungunya Virus-Associated Encephalitis Leading to Postnatal-Onset Microcephaly and Optic Atrophy". The Pediatric ... In addition, viruses such as cytomegalovirus (CMV) or Zika have been shown to infect and kill the primary stem cell of the ... Li, C; Xu, D; Ye, Q; Hong, S; Jiang, Y; Liu, X; Zhang, N; Shi, L; Qin, CF; Xu, Z (7 July 2016). "Zika Virus Disrupts Neural ... A study published in The New England Journal of Medicine has documented a case in which they found evidence of the Zika virus ...
... such as Ross River virus, chikungunya, Sindbis virus, and O'nyong'nyong virus. Receveur MC, Grandadam M, Pistone T, Malvy D ( ... Chikungunya virus is closely related, producing a nearly indistinguishable, highly debilitating arthralgic disease.[citation ... Mayaro virus has a structure similar to other alphaviruses. It is an enveloped virus and has an icosahedral capsid with a ... Infection with Mayaro virus causes an acute, self-limited dengue-like illness of 3-5 days' duration. The causative virus, ...
Devaux CA (February 2012). "Emerging and re-emerging viruses: A global challenge illustrated by Chikungunya virus outbreaks". ... Emergent viruses should not be confused with re-emerging viruses or newly detected viruses. A re-emerging virus is generally ... An emergent virus (or emerging virus) is a virus that is either newly appeared, notably increasing in incidence/geographic ... For example, a virus may emerge following loss of cross-protective immunity, which may occur due to loss of a wild virus or ...
"Assessment of Immunogenicity and Neutralisation Efficacy of Viral-Vectored Vaccines Against Chikungunya Virus". Viruses. 11 (4 ... There are also investigation lines that use the vector for vaccines against the Zika virus (ChAdOx1 ZIKV) and the Chikungunya ... virus (ChAdOx1 sCHIKV). The ChAdOx1 vector has been used as a platform for a vaccine against coronavirus disease since the ...
Developed Monoclonal antibodies against JE, Dengue, WN, Chikungunya, Influenza and respiratory syncytial viruses (RSV). ... viruses First visualization of Hepatitis E virus particles, confirmation of the virus as the causative agent of water bore ... Invaluable collection of sera and virus strains: Approx. 260,000 serum samples and >600 strains of viruses isolated from humans ... Chikungunya, West Nile, Chandipura, etc. Ecological studies to understand the natural cycle of zoonotic viruses like KFD, JE, ...
Information on Chikungunya virus. Provided by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ... Chikungunya virus is spread to people by the bite of an infected mosquito. The most common symptoms of infection are fever and ... There is currently no vaccine to prevent or medicine to treat chikungunya virus infection. Travelers can protect themselves by ... When traveling to countries with chikungunya virus, use insect repellent; wear long-sleeved shirts and pants; and stay in ...
Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... Arthropod species & virus source(a) Method of Infection log10/ml (b) Incubation period (c) Transmision by bite (d) Assay of ... Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. You can get a copy of the PDF viewer by ...
The name chikungunya (pronounced chik-en-gun-ye) is an African word meaning bent ... Chikungunya is a virus passed to humans by the bite of infected mosquitoes. Symptoms include fever and severe joint pain. ... How Chikungunya Can Spread. Mosquitoes spread the virus to humans. Mosquitoes pick up the virus when they feed on infected ... Chikungunya virus. www.cdc.gov/chikungunya/. Updated June 2, 2022. Accessed June 8, 2023. ...
Chikungunya fever is a self-remitting febrile viral illness that has been associated with frequent outbreaks in tropical ... Chikungunya virus is an alpha virus that belongs to the Togaviridae family. It is a single-stranded RNA virus and is ... Evolution of Chikungunya virus. Phylogenetic analysis has revealed that the Chikungunya virus genome has remained stable over ... Both natural and Chikungunya virus infection-induced specific antibodies were essential for controlling Chikungunya virus ...
Rule out dengue virus infection in travelers with suspect chikungunya virus infection as these viruses often cocirculate and ... Zika virus also has similar clinical features and transmission patterns as chikungunya and dengue viruses. Paraguay has not ... Report confirmed chikungunya virus infections to CDC via ArboNET, the national surveillance system for arthropod-borne viruses. ... Epidemiology of Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika Virus Disease in U.S. States and Territories, 2017. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2019;101: ...
Information on Chikungunya virus. Provided by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ... and Mayaro virus (arthalgic). Chikungunya virus has a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome. The virus particles are ... Chikungunya virus belongs to the family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus. Alphavirus infections can either cause arthralgic or ... Other medically important alphaviruses found in the Americas include eastern equine encephalitis virus (neuroinvasive) ...
Rule out dengue virus infection in travelers with suspect chikungunya virus infection as these viruses often cocirculate and ... Zika virus also has similar clinical features and transmission patterns as chikungunya and dengue viruses. Paraguay has not ... Report confirmed chikungunya virus infections to CDC via ArboNET, the national surveillance system for arthropod-borne viruses. ... Epidemiology of Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika Virus Disease in U.S. States and Territories, 2017. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2019;101: ...
... hepatitis C virus, dengue virus, influenza virus-but most of those antibodies neutralize different strains of the same virus," ... Chikungunya, the closely related Onyongnyong virus, or the more distantly related Mayaro virus. Employing the two most potent ... Home Topics Drug Discovery Developing a Single Vaccine for Chikungunya and Related Viruses ... Shown is a cryoelectron microscopy reconstruction of the Chikungunya virus.[Wikimedia user A2-33] ...
Chikungunya is a viral disease transmitted to humans by infected mosquitoes. It causes fever and severe joint pain. Other ... 3) The chikungunya virus pertains to the same family of viruses (the so-called "arboviruses") family, as dengue and Zika, but ... Ministry of National Health Services, Regulations and Coordination/WHO Joint Statement on the chikungunya virus ... However, while the investigations continue, it can be clarified that no cases of chikungunya virus have yet been confirmed till ...
NPU57062 Chikungunya-virus-Ab gruppe-P. NPU57060 P-Chikungunya-virus-antistof(IgG); arb.stofk.(proc.) NPU57061 P-Chikungunya- ... Chikungunya virus antistof (IgG, IgM) (R-nr. 2056) Chikungunya virus antistof (IgG, IgM) (R-nr. 2056) Senest redigeret den 3. ... NPU57062 P-Chikungunya-virus-antistof; arb.stofk.(liste; proc.) 340451000100000 Chikungunya virus IgG, IgM - Fuldblod ... Virus & Mikrobiologisk Specialdiagnostik Serologi, Virus ELISA. T. 3268 8600. F. 3268 3148. @. [email protected]. Telefontid: ...
HomeChikungunya bluesCosta Rica registers 2 new cases of chikungunya virus, bringing total number... ... The chikungunya virus is transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito, which also carries dengue, and the Aedes albopictus. Both ... Costa Rican Health Ministry officials on Thursday confirmed two more cases of the chikungunya virus. Both were reported in the ... Costa Rica registers 2 new cases of chikungunya virus, bringing total number to 47. ...
Chikungunya starts with fevers and aches, like malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases. What distinguishes the virus is that ... There is currently no vaccine or treatment for chikungunya - but people who do contract the virus become immune to it. A team ... And, LaBeaud says, the virus is not so far from home. Several years after the Reunion Island outbreak, chikungunya was ... In doing so, they likely provided breeding ground for the species of mosquito that can transmit the chikungunya virus. The ...
Chikungunya arthritis comes on very suddenly and can be very painful-people can barely walk around-and we have nothing specific ... They obtained the images using a chikungunya virus-like particle-which has shape of a virus but cannot cause infections because ... and chikungunya virus interacts with both versions in the same way. Viruses need to latch onto the protein to cause disease; in ... Chikungunya and its cousins-Mayaro, Ross River, and Onyong-nyong viruses-belong to a family of alphaviruses that mosquitoes ...
2019) Autocidal gravid ovitraps protect humans from chikungunya virus infection by reducing Aedes aegypti mosquito populations ... in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases report that AGO traps successfully protected people from infection with chikungunya virus ( ... Zika virus and CHIKV. Some recent attempts at curbing mosquito populations have resulted in reductions in mosquito density but ... lack of effective tools to control Aedes aegypti mosquito populations has resulted in the continued expansion of dengue virus, ...
... the specific interactions between the genotypes of mosquitoes and viruses have influenced Ae. albopictus vector competence for ... Chikungunya is a virus of the Togaviridae family which has affected different parts of the world on several occasions: 2004 in ... HomeThe research journalNewsChikungunya: the specific interactions between the genotypes of mosquitoes and viruses have ... Chikungunya: the specific interactions between the genotypes of mosquitoes and viruses have influenced Ae. albopictus vector ...
From the virologic point of view, the possibility has been raised that the co-circulation of the three viruses could generate ... and chikungunya outbreaks in Central and South America countries have presented significant challenges related to their ... the strength and consistency of the observations suggest that infections with Zika virus and chikungunya virus could induce ... In order to discuss this hypothesis it must be taken into account that Zika, dengue (DENV) and chikungunya viruses are closely ...
Chikungunya Fever/epidemiology Chikungunya Fever/microbiology Chikungunya Virus/genetics Disease Outbreaks Genes, Viral ... "Chikungunya Virus Mutation, Indonesia, 2011" 21, no. 2 (2015). Maha, Masri Sembiring et al. "Chikungunya Virus Mutation, ... Transcontinental Movement of Asian Genotype Chikungunya Virus Cite CITE. Title : Transcontinental Movement of Asian Genotype ... Phylogeny of Zika Virus in Western Hemisphere, 2015 Cite CITE. Title : Phylogeny of Zika Virus in Western Hemisphere, 2015 ...
New York health officials confirm there have been 20 cases of the Chikungunya virus this year, including three people infected ... 20 people infected with Chikungunya virus, 3 on Long Island. Tuesday, July 22, 2014 ... each had picked up the Chikungunya virus while traveling in the Caribbean. ... "Were just a few hours away from anywhere on the planet and a person with the virus inside their system is venerable to getting ...
Adult mosquitoes were analyzed by RT-PCR and cultivation in cells for the presence of CHIK virus and/or nucleic acid. A total ... an epidemic of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) illness occurred in the Union of Comoros. Entomological studies were undertaken during ... Chikungunya virus in the Entebbe area of Uganda: isolations and epidemiology. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 65 :152-168. ... Seroprevalence of Chikungunya Virus Infection on Grande Comore Island, Union of the Comoros, 2005. Am J Trop Med Hyg 76 :1189- ...
... his home in the Dominican Republic during the All-Star break and the Rays reliever believes he contracted the chikungunya virus ... Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus, of the genus Alphavirus, that is transmitted to humans by virus-carrying ... Whats the chikungunya virus? I had no idea, so I looked it up via the worlds most trusted source for everything, Wikipedia:. ... his home in the Dominican Republic during the All-Star break and the Rays reliever believes he contracted the chikungunya virus ...
Is Chikungunya Infection Dangerous?. Unlike West Nile virus, chikungunya virus infection is rarely fatal. It can cause illness ... Protective measures from chikungunya are the same as those against West Nile virus or other mosquito-borne diseases:. *Use a ... Mosquitoes that carry chikungunya virus are mainly active in the daytime, but mosquitoes that are active toward dawn and dusk ... Chikungunya virus is a mosquito-borne disease especially prevalent in the Caribbean, where it can infect U.S. travelers. ...
Access Chikungunya Virus Disease case definitions; uniform criteria used to define a disease for public health surveillance. ... California serogroup virus diseases 2015 Current Chikungunya virus disease 2005 Current Eastern equine encephalitis virus ...
Chikungunya Virus IgG ELISA Kit (ESR148G). Chikungunya Virus IgM ELISA Kit (ESR148M). Chikungunya Virus Human IgM Assay Control ... Associated Products Chikungunya Glycoprotein E2 Antigen (BA148R1). Chikungunya Glycoprotein E1 Antigen (BA148R2). Chikungunya ... Chikungunya Virus Human IgG Assay Control (BC148G) quantity. Add to cart. SKU: BC148G Categories: Infectious Disease Test Kits ... Product Name Chikungunya Virus Human IgG Assay Control (BC148G). Description SERION ELISA controls are positive control sera ...
Other viral infections being seen more commonly in infants are Chikungunya and syphilis. Learn more ... Mosquito-born virus, Zika, is expected to find its way to the United States. The result of infection can be devastating for ... READ: Chikungunya and Coxsackievirus A6. Cases of Chikungunya virus infection have also been noted in the United States. Also ... Friedlander said dermatologists should be aware of recent increases in cases of Zika virus infection, Chikungunya virus ...
Heidi Brown (CLIMAS PI) & Joceline Lega win DARPA Chikungunya Virus Forecasting Competition. Heidi Brown (CLIMAS PI) & Joceline ...
In immunocompetent mice, CHIKV-EIG treatment reduced virus induced arthritis (including footpad swelling), arthralgia- ... is a mosquito-transmitted pathogen that causes chikungunya disease (CHIK); the disease is characterized by fever, muscle ache, ... associated cytokines, viremia, and tissue virus loads in a dose-dependent fashion. Collectively, these results suggest that ... Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted pathogen that causes chikungunya disease (CHIK); the disease is ...
  • The term "Chikungunya" often refers to both the virus (CHIKV) and the illness or fever (CHIKF) caused by this virus. (medscape.com)
  • A new study by researchers at the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis (WUSTL) has identified broadly neutralizing antibodies that protect against infection in mice from multiple, distantly related alphaviruses-including Chikungunya virus (CHIKV)-that cause fever and debilitating joint pain. (genengnews.com)
  • Now, researchers writing in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases report that AGO traps successfully protected people from infection with chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in communities in Puerto Rico. (diwou.com)
  • The lack of effective tools to control Aedes aegypti mosquito populations has resulted in the continued expansion of dengue virus, Zika virus and CHIKV. (diwou.com)
  • albopictus highlighting the co-ancestry of the different derived populations and the dissemination and transmission efficiencies for Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). (pasteur.fr)
  • Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus, of the genus Alphavirus, that is transmitted to humans by virus-carrying Aedes mosquitoes. (nbcsports.com)
  • Seroprevalence of Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV) Infection on Lamu Island, Kenya, October 2004. (ajtmh.org)
  • In immunocompetent mice, CHIKV-EIG treatment reduced virus induced arthritis (including footpad swelling), arthralgia-associated cytokines, viremia, and tissue virus loads in a dose-dependent fashion. (usu.edu)
  • To estimate the cumulative incidence of persistent arthralgia at 6 months from acute Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection and to evaluate the association of clinical markers with the risk of long-term arthralgia. (paho.org)
  • Calcular a incidência acumulada de artralgia persistente após 6 meses de infecção aguda pelo vírus Chikungunya (CHIKV, sigla em inglês) e avaliar a associação de marcadores clínicos com o risco de artralgia a longo prazo. (paho.org)
  • Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an insect-borne virus, of the genus Alphavirus , that is spread by Aedes mosquitoes. (chikungunyavirusnet.com)
  • Methodology and Principal Findings: Using a proteomics differential approach with two-Dimensional Differential in-Gel Electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), we defined the protein modulations in the midgut of Aedes aegypti that were triggered seven days after an oral infection (7 DPI) with dengue 2 (DENV-2) and chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses. (hal.science)
  • Given the huge burden that Chikungunya and Zika fevers impose to public health in the affected countries and the lack of effective interventions against them, the aim of this work was to evaluate the antiviral potential of bovine lactoferrin (bLf) - an iron-binding glycoprotein with broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties - in both CHIKV and ZIKV infections. (ufg.br)
  • Mayaro (MAYV) and chikungunya viruses (CHIKV) are vector-borne arthritogenic alphaviruses that cause acute febrile illnesses. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Chikungunya Virus (ChikV) IgG/IgM Rapid Test is a rapid immunochromatographic assay for the simultaneous detection of IgG and IgM antibodies to Chikungunya virus in human whole blood, serum or plasma. (hematologyanalyzerreagent.com)
  • The first known cases of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in the Americas were reported in the Caribbean in December 2013. (ufl.edu)
  • Molecular detection of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR. (canada.ca)
  • Initially identified in a rhesus monkey from Uganda's Zika forest in 1947 and subsequently isolated from humans in 1968 in Nigeria, 1 Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, the same vector transmitting other arboviruses of public health impact such as yellow fever virus, dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV). (who.int)
  • There is currently no vaccine to prevent or medicine to treat chikungunya virus infection. (cdc.gov)
  • The recent re-emergence and travel-related spread of Chikungunya infection to Europe and the United States has drawn global attention. (medscape.com)
  • Chikungunya virus infection has a clinical presentation that overlaps with that of Ross River virus infection (fever, rash, polyarthritis) and dengue fever transmitted by the same mosquitoes. (medscape.com)
  • Both natural and Chikungunya virus infection-induced specific antibodies were essential for controlling Chikungunya virus infections. (medscape.com)
  • Chikungunya virus infection elicited strong innate immunity with an abundant production of proinflammatory markers and cytokines, including high levels of alpha interferon, interleukin (IL)-4, IL10, and gamma interferon. (medscape.com)
  • A 2017 study reported that Chikungunya infection activates toll-like receptors (TLR), triggering the innate immune system. (medscape.com)
  • This Health Advisory provides information on the current status of the chikungunya outbreak in Paraguay and advises on evaluating and testing travelers returning from Paraguay with signs and symptoms consistent with chikungunya virus infection. (cdc.gov)
  • For patients with suspected chikungunya disease, it is important to rule out dengue virus infection because proper clinical management of dengue can improve the outcome. (cdc.gov)
  • Paraguay has not reported any Zika cases in 2023 and although the risk of Zika virus infection is currently low, clinicians should consider Zika as part of the differential diagnosis for anyone who tests negative for these other pathogens. (cdc.gov)
  • Deaths linked to Chikungunya virus infection were estimated at 0.1% in La Réunion. (medscape.com)
  • Researchers have identified 'broadly neutralizing' antibodies that protect against infection by multiple, distantly related alphaviruses-including Chikungunya virus (above)-that cause fever and debilitating joint pain. (genengnews.com)
  • But a new study in the journal Neurology shows some people with chikungunya developed encephalitis, an infection of the brain that can lead to memory problems, dementia and even death. (wyso.org)
  • She says Gerardin's research highlights a big gap in knowledge about the virus - why some people have chronic complications and can develop a brain infection while others get off scot-free. (wyso.org)
  • Prospective studies are needed to fully assess the risk of dengue infection after exposure to Zika and chikungunya viruses and to determine whether the supposed cross-protection is long-lasting. (paho.org)
  • 2019) Autocidal gravid ovitraps protect humans from chikungunya virus infection by reducing Aedes aegypti mosquito populations. (diwou.com)
  • Dengue and chikungunya virus infection in man in Thailand, 1962-1964. (ajtmh.org)
  • Chikungunya infection-an emerging disease in Malaysia. (ajtmh.org)
  • Seroprevalence of Chikungunya Virus Infection on Grande Comore Island, Union of the Comoros, 2005. (ajtmh.org)
  • Is Chikungunya Infection Dangerous? (healthyms.com)
  • If you are sick with the symptoms of chikungunya, or you have been diagnosed with chikungunya infection, you can spread the disease to others through mosquito bites. (healthyms.com)
  • In her presentation, Dr. Friedlander said dermatologists should be aware of recent increases in cases of Zika virus infection, Chikungunya virus infection, and syphilis in newborns. (dermatologytimes.com)
  • The concern with Zika virus, which is a flavivirus related to dengue and transmitted by the same Aedes mosquito, relates to the potential association between maternal infection and infants born with microcephaly. (dermatologytimes.com)
  • The information is worrisome considering the consequences of microcephaly, which can range from mild developmental delay to severe motor and intellectual deficits, and the growing number of cases of Zika virus infection in countries outside Brazil, including the United States. (dermatologytimes.com)
  • Although a causal association between maternal Zika virus infection and congenital microcephaly is still under investigation, most everyone is convinced that it is real. (dermatologytimes.com)
  • Cases of Chikungunya virus infection have also been noted in the United States. (dermatologytimes.com)
  • Also transmitted through the bite of the Aedes mosquito, Chikungunya virus infection is sometimes referred to as "dengue light" because its symptoms tend to be milder than those of dengue virus infection. (dermatologytimes.com)
  • However, in newborn infants, Chikungunya virus infection has been associated with severe disease and fatalities. (dermatologytimes.com)
  • Recently as well, a report from Colombia has linked an epidemic of Chikungunya virus infection with cases of congenital infection and a high stillbirth rate, Dr. Friedlander said. (dermatologytimes.com)
  • Cutaneous findings of Chikungunya virus infection in neonates include a maculopapular and sometimes blistering rash, black streaks in the nails, and persistent hyperpigmentation after recovery from the acute disease. (dermatologytimes.com)
  • Equine Polyclonal Antibodies Prevent Acute Chikungunya Virus Infection" by Douglas Barker, Xiaobing Han et al. (usu.edu)
  • Chikungunya infection causes fever and severe joint pain. (chikungunyavirusnet.com)
  • The risk for chikungunya infection is highest in the tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, Southeast Asia, and parts of the Americas, where chikungunya virus-carrying mosquitos are endemic, according to the FDA. (medscape.com)
  • Infection with chikungunya virus can lead to severe disease and prolonged health problems, particularly for older adults and individuals with underlying medical conditions," Peter Marks, MD, PhD, director of the FDA's Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, said in a statement. (medscape.com)
  • Our data show that bLf exerts a dose-dependent strong inhibitory effect on the infection of Vero cells by the aforementioned arboviruses, reducing their infection efficiency in up to nearly 80%, with no significant cytotoxicity, and such antiviral activity occurs at the levels of binding and replication of the virus particles. (ufg.br)
  • bovine lactoferrin binds to the main zika protein that makes up the Zika virus tertiary amino lipid coating, regardless of pH, and locks these proteins into place, preventing the structural re-arangement changes required for the fusion step of infection. (ufg.br)
  • Without fusion of the virus to the 1st stage endosome, viral RNA' DNA is prevented from entering the golgi apparatus for reproduction, and infection is blocked. (ufg.br)
  • The assay is used as a screening test for Chikungunya viral infection. (hematologyanalyzerreagent.com)
  • Pregnant women who reside in areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission have an ongoing risk for infection throughout their pregnancy. (cdc.gov)
  • Health care providers should discuss reproductive life plans, including pregnancy intention and timing, with women of reproductive age in the context of the potential risks associated with Zika virus infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Evidence suggesting an association of Zika virus infection with an increased risk for congenital microcephaly and other abnormalities of the brain and eye ( 5 ) prompted the World Health Organization to declare the Zika virus outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on February 1, 2016 ( http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/statements/2016/1st-emergency-committee-zika/en/ external icon ). (cdc.gov)
  • Opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome associated with chikungunya and dengue virus co-infection. (ox.ac.uk)
  • This article reports the first case of OMAS in association with chikungunya and dengue virus co-infection. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Although the mice initially infected with Chikungunya had low levels of neutralizing antibodies in their bloodstream, these levels rose rapidly after secondary infection with Mayaro, inducing cross-protection against the latter. (azolifesciences.com)
  • Production of memory cells [ B and T lymphocytes ] takes time, but the mice first infected with Chikungunya already had them, so during secondary infection by Mayaro the immune response was faster, including a rise in levels of neutralizing antibodies,' Fumagalli explained. (azolifesciences.com)
  • This experiment served to demonstrate that antibodies produced in response to infection by Chikungunya also led to cross-protection against Mayaro. (azolifesciences.com)
  • Suspected chikungunya virus infection and relevant travel history. (canada.ca)
  • Laboratory diagnosis of chikungunya virus infection and commercial sources for diagnostic assays. (canada.ca)
  • A virus that caused an infection in the past becomes reactivated and directly damages the brain. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Increased surveillance of the virus, including the requirement for laboratory confirmation of infection, was recommended. (who.int)
  • Chikungunya virus is a mosquito-borne alphavirus transmitted by infected mosquitoes, primarily Aedes aegypti and Aedes Albopictus [2]. (cdc.gov)
  • The disease is perpetuated by the alphavirus Chikungunya, and is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. (medscape.com)
  • Chikungunya, a tropical disease in poorer countries, is now becoming a major global health issue given the worldwide distribution of its mosquito vector ( Aedes albopictus and, to a less extent, Aedes aegypti ). (medscape.com)
  • 4) Being transmitted by the same mosquito (Aedes aegypti) as dengue, the measures already in place for controlling dengue are identical to the ones that are needed to control any surge in chikungunya transmission. (who.int)
  • Don't bite me: The female of a mosquito called Aedes aegypti can transmit yellow fever, dengue fever and chikungunya. (wyso.org)
  • Isolation of chikungunya virus from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes collected in the town of Yawat, Pune District, Maharashtra State, India. (ajtmh.org)
  • Tête de moustique femelle Aedes albopictus, vecteur du virus de la dengue et du chikungunya. (pasteur.fr)
  • Since 2005, cases of chikungunya (CHIK) were caused by an unusual vector, Aedes albopictus. (pasteur.fr)
  • Conclusion/Significance: Our study constitutes the first analysis of the protein response of Aedes aegypti's midgut infected with viruses belonging to different families. (hal.science)
  • Most commonly, the mosquitoes involved are Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus , two species which can also transmit other mosquito-borne viruses, including dengue. (who.int)
  • Identificata in oltre 60 Paesi di Asia, Africa, Europa e delle Americhe, la chikungunya si trasmette da persona a persona attraverso la puntura di una zanzara femmina del genere Aedes, come Aedes aegypti ed Aedes albopictus (la zanzara tigre), ricorda l'Iss. (radiocolonna.it)
  • Zika virus is primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, which are found throughout much of the region of the Americas, including parts of the United States ( 2 , 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Chikungunya is transmitted by the bite of female mosquitoes of the species Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus . (azolifesciences.com)
  • As of February 24, 2023, the Ministry of Health in Paraguay reported a total of 71,478 suspect chikungunya cases in Paraguay, with 29,362 of those being probable or confirmed cases since the outbreak began in October 2022 [1]. (cdc.gov)
  • The high tourism season in Costa Rica already has begun, and business owners are concerned reports of a chikungunya outbreak could cause a drop in visits. (ticotimes.net)
  • Several years after the Reunion Island outbreak, chikungunya was discovered in the Americas - first in the Caribbean in 2013 and then Mexico and Florida in 2014. (wyso.org)
  • Dr. Friedlander noted that accompanying the recent outbreak of Zika virus infections in Brazil there has been a tremendous uptick in the number of newborns with microcephaly - from 147 in 2014 to 2,782 in 2015, according to information from the Centers for Disease Control. (dermatologytimes.com)
  • On 28 May 2016, the Ministry of Health of Kenya notified WHO of an outbreak of Chikungunya in Mandera East sub-county. (who.int)
  • The epidemic of Ebola virus disease in West Africa in 2014-2016 and the current Zika virus outbreak have highlighted the importance of having a clear road map for research and development in place before such an event occurs in order rapidly to activate and coordinate research and development and disburse the necessary funds as soon as the need arises. (who.int)
  • CDC has updated its interim guidelines for U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women during a Zika virus outbreak ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The Zika virus outbreak continues to spread ( http://www.cdc.gov/zika/geo/index.html ), with ongoing Zika virus transmission recently reported in U.S. territories. (cdc.gov)
  • Yemen reported [cumulative No of cases (deaths), CFR %] two back-to-back outbreaks of outbreak ever reported from any chikungunya in 2011 and in 2012. (who.int)
  • In 2011, Yem- situation, one can only expect that en reported an explosive outbreak the situation will not worsen and the 60 countries and territories have reported transmission so far of chikungunya which was the first disease will not spread further. (who.int)
  • Zika virus also has similar clinical features and transmission patterns as chikungunya and dengue viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • 3) The chikungunya virus pertains to the same family of viruses (the so-called "arboviruses") family, as dengue and Zika, but is known among the three for causing the least harm to health. (who.int)
  • Dengue, zika, and chikungunya outbreaks in Central and South America countries have presented significant challenges related to their prevention and control. (paho.org)
  • In order to discuss this hypothesis it must be taken into account that Zika, dengue (DENV) and chikungunya viruses are closely related flaviviruses, with identical urban transmission and some immune interactions (1). (paho.org)
  • In addition, the recent introduction of Zika and chikungunya viruses in the Americas and the large-scale exposure of a uniformly unexposed population could affect subsequent transmission of dengue virus. (paho.org)
  • A similar situation was observed in Colombia, where the decrease in dengue cases following the zika and chikungunya outbreaks went from 334.1 cases per 100 000 people in 2015 to 90.7 cases per 100 000 in 2017 and 173,1 cases per 100 000 in 2018 (5). (paho.org)
  • Although temporary associations do not prove causation, the strength and consistency of the observations suggest that infections with Zika virus and chikungunya virus could induce cross-protective immunity against dengue. (paho.org)
  • Mosquito-born virus, Zika, is expected to find its way to the United States. (dermatologytimes.com)
  • Updated guidelines include a new recommendation to offer serologic testing to asymptomatic pregnant women (women who do not report clinical illness consistent with Zika virus disease) who have traveled to areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission. (cdc.gov)
  • This update also expands guidance to women who reside in areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission, and includes recommendations for screening, testing, and management of pregnant women and recommendations for counseling women of reproductive age (15-44 years). (cdc.gov)
  • For pregnant women with clinical illness consistent with Zika virus disease,* testing is recommended during the first week of illness. (cdc.gov)
  • For asymptomatic pregnant women residing in areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission, testing is recommended at the initiation of prenatal care with follow-up testing mid-second trimester. (cdc.gov)
  • Local health officials should determine when to implement testing of asymptomatic pregnant women based on information about levels of Zika virus transmission and laboratory capacity. (cdc.gov)
  • All travelers to or residents of areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission should be advised to strictly follow steps to avoid mosquito bites because of the potential for exposure to Zika, dengue, and chikungunya viruses ( 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • To prevent human-to-mosquito-to-human transmission, persons infected with Zika, dengue, or chikungunya virus should protect themselves from mosquito exposure during the first week of illness. (cdc.gov)
  • Methodology: We evaluated the accuracy of various Zika case definitions in a scenario where Dengue and Chikungunya viruses co-circulate. (fiocruz.br)
  • This virus is in a similar category as dengue or Zika and is carried by the same mosquitoes," noted Dr. Marc Siegel, clinical professor of medicine at NYU Langone Medical Center and a Fox News medical contributor. (blog4today.com)
  • Preparedness for Zika virus testing in the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal , 2016, 7(1):44-47. (who.int)
  • On 1 February 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that clusters of microcephaly cases and other neurological disorders occurring in Zika virus (ZIKV)-affected areas constituted a public health emergency of international concern. (who.int)
  • There is no treatment for chikungunya. (medlineplus.gov)
  • There is currently no vaccine or treatment for chikungunya - but people who do contract the virus become immune to it. (wyso.org)
  • Before 2013, the virus was found only in Africa, Asia, Europe, and lands in the Indian and Pacific oceans. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Chikungunya fever is a self-remitting febrile viral illness that has been associated with frequent outbreaks in tropical countries of Africa and Southeast Asia. (medscape.com)
  • Besides South America, Chikungunya is a problem in other parts of the globe: India, China and numerous countries in Africa. (wuga.org)
  • Chikungunya is a virus of the Togaviridae family which has affected different parts of the world on several occasions: 2004 in the Indian Ocean, 2007 in Africa, 2007 in Europe, 2011 in the Pacific region, and 2013 in the Americas. (pasteur.fr)
  • Chikungunya, once confined to Africa and Asia, has seen outbreaks in the Caribbean and bordering countries in South and Central America, including Haiti and the Honduras. (healthyms.com)
  • There have been recent breakouts of chikungunya in Africa, Asia and the Indian subcontinent. (chikungunyavirusnet.com)
  • Chikungunya ta un malesa transmiti pa medio di sangura, su nomber ta significa "dobla di dolor" den e dialecto Makonde di Africa. (arubanative.com)
  • Mosquitoes carrying the chikungunya virus are endemic in Africa, Southeast Asia and parts of the Americas, the FDA stated in its release. (blog4today.com)
  • Before 2013, cases of the chikungunya virus were primarily documented in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Indian and Pacific Oceans. (blog4today.com)
  • In late 2013, local transmission of chikungunya virus was first detected in Caribbean countries and then quickly spread, causing large outbreaks throughout the Americas over the next several years [4-5]. (cdc.gov)
  • These viruses are all spread to their hosts through mosquito vectors and typically cause sporadic outbreaks, although Chikungunya has begun to spread more globally leading to more persistent epidemics. (genengnews.com)
  • There have been outbreaks of Chikungunya in neighbouring Bula Hawa region in Somalia border region originating from Mogadishu. (who.int)
  • 3 The virus has gone on to cause outbreaks in multiple Pacific island countries and has spread throughout the Americas. (who.int)
  • Title : Countries with reported current or previous local transmission of chikungunya virus (as of February 10, 2014) Corporate Authors(s) : National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (U.S.). Division of Vector-Borne Diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • Beginning in late 2022, Paraguay reported an increasing number of chikungunya cases, with more than 70,000 suspect and confirmed cases reported as of February 24, 2023 [1]. (cdc.gov)
  • The patients came here with fever and also with pain in their joints," says Dr. Susana Lloveras, an infectious disease physician at Hospital Muñiz in Buenos Aires, Argentina, one of several South American countries where the mosquito-borne virus has surged in 2023. (wuga.org)
  • Viruses 2023 , 15 , 1479. (usu.edu)
  • Viruses;15(7)2023 06 29. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cite this: World's First Chikungunya Vaccine Approved by FDA - Medscape - Nov 10, 2023. (medscape.com)
  • Other medically important alphaviruses found in the Americas include eastern equine encephalitis virus (neuroinvasive) and Mayaro virus (arthalgic). (cdc.gov)
  • Furthermore, to confirm that the antibodies could protect animals from disease, the researchers infected mice with three different alphaviruses: Chikungunya, the closely related O'nyong'nyong virus, or the more distantly related Mayaro virus. (genengnews.com)
  • Chikungunya and its cousins-Mayaro, Ross River, and O'nyong-nyong viruses-belong to a family of alphaviruses that mosquitoes spread and that cause joint pain. (futurity.org)
  • A study conducted at the University of São Paulo (USP) in Brazil suggests people previously infected by Chikungunya virus may develop partial immunity to Mayaro virus. (azolifesciences.com)
  • In the experiments, mice were infected first with Chikungunya and a month later with Mayaro. (azolifesciences.com)
  • Mayaro virus and Chikungunya virus both belong to the family Togaviridae. (azolifesciences.com)
  • In other words, Mayaro and Chikungunya trigger the production of different antibodies, but some of these antibodies are effective against both diseases,' Fumagalli said. (azolifesciences.com)
  • On 9 September 2015, the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs (MOHSA) of Senegal notified WHO of active circulation of chikungunya virus in the region of Kédougou. (who.int)
  • This information is essential to better estimate the risks of chikungunya emergence, specifying the strong genetic proximity of the mosquito in South-East France with that of La Reunion Island, where the largest chikungunya epidemic ever occurred in France, and more generally in Europe. (pasteur.fr)
  • An epidemic of virus disease in Southern Province, Tanganyika Territory, in 1952-53. (ajtmh.org)
  • Tracking the re-emergence of epidemic chikungunya virus in Indonesia. (ajtmh.org)
  • Epidemic resurgence of Chikungunya virus in democratic Republic of the Congo: identification of a new central African strain. (ajtmh.org)
  • The Chikungunya epidemic, currently raging through the Caribbean, illustrates the urgent necessity to develop an effective vaccine against the rapid spread of the disease in tropical regions, now also threatening the North American continent. (omnescapital.com)
  • The Chikungunya epidemic, currently rampant in the Caribbean, shows that such a platform could be soon needed on a larger geographic scale. (omnescapital.com)
  • The mosquitoes that spread chikungunya are the same type that spread dengue fever , which has similar symptoms. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Call your health care provider if you develop symptoms of chikungunya. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A mosquito-borne virus that has made its way to the U.S. may be causing more serious symptoms than first thought. (wyso.org)
  • It can cause illness for 7 to 10 days, however, and those infected with chikungunya are more likely to develop symptoms. (healthyms.com)
  • Because it contains a live, weakened version of the chikungunya virus, it can cause chikungunya-like symptoms, the FDA notes. (medscape.com)
  • For those who have been exposed and have symptoms, a blood test can confirm the presence of chikungunya or other similar viruses. (blog4today.com)
  • It also highlights those at increased risk for severe disease and prevention measures to mitigate additional spread of the virus and potential importation into unaffected areas, including the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • But in up to half of patients, the virus can cause severe arthritis that persists for months or years. (futurity.org)
  • Also, it is known that secondary DENV infections may be more severe than primary infections due to the antibody-dependent immune response (i.e., heterotypic sub-neutralizing antibodies that increase virus entry into poorly susceptible cells) (2,3). (paho.org)
  • Although not commonly reported, severe chikungunya-like adverse reactions that prevented daily activity or required medical intervention occurred in 1.6% of Ixchiq recipients and none of the placebo recipients. (medscape.com)
  • Two recipients with severe chikungunya-like adverse reactions were hospitalized," the FDA states. (medscape.com)
  • When the virus is present in the blood of a pregnant person during delivery, chikungunya can be transmitted to the baby, as reported, and can cause severe, potentially fatal chikungunya in newborns. (medscape.com)
  • Among the diseases caused by arboviruses, dengue and chikungunya are responsible for a high rate of severe human diseases worldwide. (hal.science)
  • In rare cases, the virus can cause severe and long-lasting joint pain. (blog4today.com)
  • That means it is not intended for [the] immunocompromised, but it is useful for those at risk of severe cases of chikungunya," he told Fox News Digital. (blog4today.com)
  • In 2022, the number of chikungunya cases (n=273,685) reported to the Pan American Health Organization more than doubled the average annual number of cases reported during 2018-2021 [7]. (cdc.gov)
  • Nel 2022, il numero di casi e decessi dovuti alla chikungunya nella regione delle Americhe - riporta l'Oms sul proprio sito - è stato superiore a quello riportato negli anni precedenti. (radiocolonna.it)
  • Several murine models with Chikungunya virus-related joint and neurological diseases are being investigated. (medscape.com)
  • There is a lot of emphasis on identifying and understanding broadly neutralizing antibodies for other viruses-HIV, hepatitis C virus, dengue virus, influenza virus-but most of those antibodies neutralize different strains of the same virus," explained senior author Michael Diamond, M.D., Ph.D., a professor of medicine and director of the Division of Infectious Diseases and Vaccine Development in the Center for Human Immunology and Immunotherapy Programs at WUSTL. (genengnews.com)
  • Chikungunya starts with fevers and aches, like malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases. (wyso.org)
  • Mosquitoes that carry chikungunya virus are mainly active in the daytime, but mosquitoes that are active toward dawn and dusk can carry other diseases, such as West Nile virus. (healthyms.com)
  • Themis Bioscience GmbH develops prophylactic vaccines from the preclinical to the early clinical phase, focusing on emerging tropical infectious diseases, with initial vaccine candidates currently being developed against Dengue and Chikungunya. (omnescapital.com)
  • Abstract Background: Arthropod borne virus infections cause several emerging and resurgent infectious diseases. (hal.science)
  • Chikungunya virus belongs to the family Togaviridae , genus Alphavirus . (cdc.gov)
  • Major epidemics of Chikungunya have re-emerged with millions of cases worldwide. (medscape.com)
  • 3137 (345), 10.9% causing widespread epidemics with gue, Chikungunya and yellow fever. (who.int)
  • Typically, individuals who are infected with alphaviruses produce antibodies against many viral epitopes, some of which are not protective-setting up a weak immune response scenario that allows the virus time to replicate and exert its pathogenic effects. (genengnews.com)
  • From the virologic point of view, the possibility has been raised that the co-circulation of the three viruses could generate cross-protection between the three alphaviruses. (paho.org)
  • There have been unconfirmed reports of the presence of chikungunya virus in Karachi, Sindh, especially in areas of Malir. (who.int)
  • But earlier this year, she says, "We receive every day patients with chikungunya, including some with no travel history. (wuga.org)
  • LLOVERAS: We receive everyday patients with chikungunya. (wpsu.org)
  • There is a risk the virus will be spread to unaffected areas by infected travelers. (cdc.gov)
  • Chikungunya virus is a mosquito-borne disease especially prevalent in the Caribbean, where it can infect U.S. travelers. (healthyms.com)
  • Chikungunya can spread from person to person through the bite of a mosquito once travelers return home. (healthyms.com)
  • The chikungunya virus is on the rise again, including in South America, where more than a quarter million new cases have already surfaced this year. (wpsu.org)
  • Chikungunya virus surges in South America. (onair.rs)
  • Using a murine model, Lum et al showed that anti-Chikungunya virus antibodies were elicited early in the course of the illness and were directed against the C-terminus of the viral E2 glycoprotein. (medscape.com)
  • Employing the two most potent broadly neutralizing antibodies, the researchers treated the infected mice and saw markedly reduced joint disease caused by any of the viruses. (genengnews.com)
  • That can be challenging because some people suffer from the joint pain for months or even years, even though their immune systems have created antibodies to clear the virus. (wuga.org)
  • But she tells her patients the disease just has to run its course, which can be challenging because some people suffer from the joint pain for months or years, even though their immune systems have created antibodies to clear the virus. (wpsu.org)
  • KIELIAN: That contact between the infected cell and the uninfected cell shields the virus from the antibodies, and that's how that cell gets infected. (wpsu.org)
  • As the test sample flows through the membrane within the test, the colored-chikungunya specific recombinant antigencolloidal gold conjugate complexes with specific antibodies (IgM and/or IgG) of chikungunya virus, if present in the sample. (hematologyanalyzerreagent.com)
  • When we tested neutralizing antibodies to one virus against the other, we found a low protective response to both. (azolifesciences.com)
  • In doing so, they likely provided breeding ground for the species of mosquito that can transmit the chikungunya virus. (wyso.org)
  • The two mosquito species which transmit this virus to humans do not come from large bodies of water such as marsh areas or retention ponds. (ufl.edu)
  • These mosquitoes can also transmit dengue and chikungunya viruses ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • On the other hand, we propose that the modulation of other proteins like transferrin, hsp60 and alpha glucosidase, may favour virus survival, replication and transmission, suggesting a subversion of the insect cell metabolism by the arboviruses. (hal.science)
  • All samples tested negative for other arboviruses including: dengue, yellow fever and West Nile viruses. (who.int)
  • Arboviruses are viruses transmitted to people through the bites of arthropods, usually mosquitoes, fleas, or ticks. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Chikungunya virus causes fever, muscle and joint pain, and swelling of the joints. (healthyms.com)
  • Chikungunya, which has no vaccine, causes fever and joint pain. (drugdiscoverytrends.com)
  • Although, dengue virus (DENV) complex humanitarian situation. (who.int)
  • For the most up-to-date information, please visit the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) website -- www.cdc.gov/chikungunya . (medlineplus.gov)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is issuing this Health Alert Network (HAN) Health Advisory to notify clinicians and public health authorities of an increase in the number of cases of chikungunya reported in Paraguay. (cdc.gov)
  • Chikungunya is a virus passed to humans by the bite of infected mosquitoes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This means that mosquitoes in those areas have the virus and are spreading it to humans. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Mosquitoes spread the virus to humans. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In 2018, Diamond, Fremont, and colleagues identified the protein Mxra8, found on the outer surface of cells in the joints, as the molecular handle that chikungunya and related viruses grasp to gain entry into cells of mice, humans, and other species. (futurity.org)
  • Chikungunya, a virus transmitted by mosquitoes to humans, has made its way to Northwest Florida. (ufl.edu)
  • Vectors of chikungunya virus in Senegal: current data and transmission cycles. (ajtmh.org)
  • In recent decades mosquito vectors of chikungunya have spread to Europe and the Americas. (chikungunyavirusnet.com)
  • Chikungunya virus, once confined to the Eastern Hemisphere, has infected more than 1 million people in the Americas since 2013, when mosquitoes carrying the virus showed up in the Caribbean. (futurity.org)
  • In late 2013, the first local cases were documented in Caribbean countries, which then led to the virus spreading throughout the Americas, the CDC stated. (blog4today.com)
  • For years, scientists have been on the hunt to develop vaccines that would protect against all or most strains of particularly virulent viruses such as influenza. (genengnews.com)
  • We have more work to do but are encouraged that targeting this epitope could be a viable strategy for developing vaccines or treatments against Chikungunya and other related viruses that cause significant disease worldwide," Dr. Diamond concluded. (genengnews.com)
  • As reported in Cell , the structures show in atomic-level detail how the virus and cell-surface protein fit together-data that promises to accelerate efforts to design drugs and vaccines to prevent or treat arthritis that chikungunya or related viruses cause. (futurity.org)
  • But to design effective drugs and vaccines that interfere with attachment, researchers needed a detailed picture of the molecular interactions between the virus and the protein.The researchers used a technique called cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) to visualize the virus bound to the cell-surface protein. (futurity.org)
  • Engility Holdings was awarded a $10 million task order by the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research to conduct clinical trials for vaccines to combat the mosquito-borne Chikungunya virus. (drugdiscoverytrends.com)
  • albopictus vector competence for chikungunya virus through an adaptive co-evolution process. (pasteur.fr)
  • These are the major interim results of a phase 1 clinical study of the company's Chikungunya vaccine candidate that uses a standard anti-measles vaccine as a vector. (omnescapital.com)
  • A proteomic approach was undertaken to characterize the key virus/vector interactions and host protein modifications that happen in the midgut for viral transmission to eventually take place. (hal.science)
  • Now that we have these new structures, we can see how to disrupt the interaction between the virus and the protein it uses to get inside cells in the joints and other musculoskeletal tissues in order to block infections," adds co-senior author Daved Fremont, a professor of pathology and immunology, of biochemistry and molecular biophysics, and of molecular microbiology. (futurity.org)
  • They obtained the images using a chikungunya virus-like particle-which has shape of a virus but cannot cause infections because it carries no genetic material inside-as well as a fully infectious chikungunya virus. (futurity.org)
  • Other viral infections being seen more commonly in infants are Chikungunya and syphilis. (dermatologytimes.com)
  • However, while the investigations continue, it can be clarified that no cases of chikungunya virus have yet been confirmed till date and any information circulating with regard to confirmation of any case is incorrect and misleading. (who.int)
  • Home Chikungunya blues Costa Rica registers 2 new cases of chikungunya virus, bringing total number. (ticotimes.net)
  • Costa Rican Health Ministry officials on Thursday confirmed two more cases of the chikungunya virus. (ticotimes.net)
  • Last month, officials issued a preventive alert prompted by a report of 300 confirmed cases of chikungunya in that country. (ticotimes.net)
  • We have 9 million visitors per year going to the Caribbean, and so we've seen lots and lots of imported cases of chikungunya," LaBeaud says. (wyso.org)
  • Dr. Susana Lloveras, an infectious disease physician at Hospital Muñiz in Buenos Aires, Argentina, says she used to see one or two cases of chikungunya a year. (wuga.org)
  • Over the years, Dr. Lloveras says she has seen cases of chikungunya in Buenos Aires "but it is not common for us. (wuga.org)
  • Having started in the Dominican Republic, it has already reached Haiti and fears are now growing that the disease could spread further to the USA, where isolated cases of Chikungunya have been observed in recent years. (omnescapital.com)
  • ARI DANIEL, BYLINE: Over the years, Dr. Susana Lloveras has seen cases of chikungunya in Buenos Aires, where she works as an infectious disease physician at Hospital Muniz. (wpsu.org)
  • As of 8 September 2015, ten (10) chikungunya confirmed cases were reported. (who.int)
  • prensa-latina.cu reported Nicaraguan authorities reported today on the detection of two new cases of chikungunya, which amounts to 35 the number of people affected by this disease. (latinamericacurrentevents.com)
  • The FDA described chikungunya as an "emerging global health threat," with at least five million cases reported over the past 15 years. (blog4today.com)
  • Chikungunya and dengue viruses cocirculate in Paraguay and surrounding countries, are transmitted by the same species of mosquitoes, and have similar clinical presentations during acute illness. (cdc.gov)
  • Since 2004, date of the well-known chikungunya emergence on La Reunion Island, the community of entomologists has focused a lot of efforts on the study of this species. (pasteur.fr)
  • Both viruses caused an increase of proteins involved in the generation of reactive oxygen species, energy production, and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. (hal.science)
  • Many species of domestic animals and birds carry these viruses. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The different types of encephalitis that result are usually named for the place the virus was discovered or the animal species that typically carries it. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The FDA approval is for Ixchiq - the first vaccine for the chikungunya virus, for those age 18 and older. (wuga.org)
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on Thursday announced its approval of Ixchiq, the first chikungunya vaccine . (blog4today.com)
  • The Ixchiq vaccine is a single-dose injection that contains a weakened form of the virus. (blog4today.com)
  • The agency on Thursday announced its approval of Ixchiq, the first chikungunya vaccine. (blog4today.com)
  • Chikungunya virus is spread to people by the bite of an infected mosquito. (cdc.gov)
  • They spread the virus when they bite other people. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The viruses are transmitted to arthropods when arthropods bite infected animals or people. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Undersøgelsen kan rekvireres i WebReq under laboratoriet Statens Serum Institut eller på blanket nr. 2 "Virus" (blå kant). (ssi.dk)
  • The researchers also analyzed blood serum from patients infected by Chikungunya. (azolifesciences.com)
  • Chikungunya is a mosquito-borne viral disease that is transmitted from human to human by the bites of infected female mosquitoes. (who.int)
  • And always from people bringing the mosquito-borne virus with them from other countries. (wuga.org)
  • DANIEL: Each year, and always from people bringing the mosquito-borne virus with them from other countries. (wpsu.org)
  • Chikungunya is a viral disease which an Region. (who.int)
  • Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain that occurs when a virus directly infects the brain or when a virus, vaccine, or something else triggers inflammation. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Encephalitis is most commonly due to viruses, such as herpes simplex, herpes zoster, cytomegalovirus, or West Nile virus. (msdmanuals.com)
  • People who are traveling to countries where the virus is prevalent can reduce their risk by using insect repellent, wearing long-sleeved shirts and pants, and staying indoors or in screened areas. (blog4today.com)
  • The design of a safe and efficient recombinant vaccine is in progress and has been shown to be protective in mouse and nonhuman primate models of Chikungunya. (medscape.com)
  • Yet, imagine if it were possible to generate a vaccine that would be protective for an entire class of viruses. (genengnews.com)
  • 1) Although there is serological evidence of the historical presence of the virus in Pakistan, there is at this time no evidence of any nested transmission of chikungunya in the country. (who.int)
  • albopictus in the transmission of both viruses. (pasteur.fr)
  • The virus particles are enveloped icosahedral capsids and have a diameter of 60-70 nm. (cdc.gov)
  • Scientists are evaluating the virus-like particles in clinical trials as a potential vaccine for chikungunya. (futurity.org)
  • To visualize how the virus interacts with the cell-surface protein, the researchers first flash-froze the viral particles attached to the protein. (futurity.org)
  • The first vaccine for chikungunya, an emerging mosquito-borne global health threat marked by fever and joint pain, has been granted accelerated approval by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (medscape.com)
  • The FDA called chikungunya an "emerging global health threat. (blog4today.com)