Epithelial cells that line the basal half of the GASTRIC GLANDS. Chief cells synthesize and export an inactive enzyme PEPSINOGEN which is converted into the highly proteolytic enzyme PEPSIN in the acid environment of the STOMACH.
Proenzymes secreted by chief cells, mucous neck cells, and pyloric gland cells, which are converted into pepsin in the presence of gastric acid or pepsin itself. (Dorland, 28th ed) In humans there are 2 related pepsinogen systems: PEPSINOGEN A (formerly pepsinogen I or pepsinogen) and PEPSINOGEN C (formerly pepsinogen II or progastricsin). Pepsinogen B is the name of a pepsinogen from pigs.
Rounded or pyramidal cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS. They secrete HYDROCHLORIC ACID and produce gastric intrinsic factor, a glycoprotein that binds VITAMIN B12.
Two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the NECK and adjacent to the two lobes of THYROID GLAND. They secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.
Large cells with small irregular nuclei and dense acidophilic granules due to the presence of abundant MITOCHONDRIA. Oxyphil cells, also known as oncocytes, are found in oncocytomas of the kidney, salivary glands, and endocrine glands. In the thyroid gland, oxyphil cells are known as Hurthle cells and Askenazy cells.
Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.
This is one of 2 related pepsinogen systems in humans and is also known as pepsinogen. (The other is PEPSINOGEN C.) This includes isozymogens Pg1-Pg5 (pepsinogens 1-5, group I or products of PGA1-PGA5 genes). This is the main pepsinogen found in urine.
Pathological processes of the PARATHYROID GLANDS. They usually manifest as hypersecretion or hyposecretion of PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.
A glycoprotein secreted by the cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS that is required for the absorption of VITAMIN B 12 (cyanocobalamin). Deficiency of intrinsic factor leads to VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY and ANEMIA, PERNICIOUS.
Tumors or cancer of the PARATHYROID GLANDS.
An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.
A species of HELICOBACTER that colonizes in the STOMACH of laboratory MICE; CATS; and DOGS. It is associated with lymphoid follicular hyperplasia and mild GASTRITIS in CATS.
An octapeptide hormone present in the intestine and brain. When secreted from the gastric mucosa, it stimulates the release of bile from the gallbladder and digestive enzymes from the pancreas.
A condition in which there is a change of one adult cell type to another similar adult cell type.
This is one of the 2 related pepsinogen systems in humans. It is found in prostate and seminal fluid whereas PEPSINOGEN A is not.
A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH) triggering responses that increase blood CALCIUM. It is characterized by HYPERCALCEMIA and BONE RESORPTION, eventually leading to bone diseases. PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is caused by parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is increased PTH secretion in response to HYPOCALCEMIA, usually caused by chronic KIDNEY DISEASES.
The superior portion of the body of the stomach above the level of the cardiac notch.
A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.
Individuals who have the formal authority to manage a hospital, including its programs and services, in accordance with the goals and objectives established by a governing body (GOVERNING BOARD).
A class of G-protein-coupled receptors that react to varying extracellular CALCIUM levels. Calcium-sensing receptors in the PARATHYROID GLANDS play an important role in the maintenance of calcium HOMEOSTASIS by regulating the release of PARATHYROID HORMONE. They differ from INTRACELLULAR CALCIUM-SENSING PROTEINS which sense intracellular calcium levels.
An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Neuroendocrine cells in the glands of the GASTRIC MUCOSA. They produce HISTAMINE and peptides such as CHROMOGRANINS. ECL cells respond to GASTRIN by releasing histamine which acts as a paracrine stimulator of the release of HYDROCHLORIC ACID from the GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
Formed from pig pepsinogen by cleavage of one peptide bond. The enzyme is a single polypeptide chain and is inhibited by methyl 2-diaazoacetamidohexanoate. It cleaves peptides preferentially at the carbonyl linkages of phenylalanine or leucine and acts as the principal digestive enzyme of gastric juice.
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.
A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.
Exotoxins produced by certain strains of streptococci, particularly those of group A (STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES), that cause HEMOLYSIS.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
A family of gastrointestinal peptide hormones that excite the secretion of GASTRIC JUICE. They may also occur in the central nervous system where they are presumed to be neurotransmitters.
A class of cell surface receptors for TACHYKININS with a preference for SUBSTANCE P. Neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptors have been cloned and are members of the G protein coupled receptor superfamily. They are found on many cell types including central and peripheral neurons, smooth muscle cells, acinar cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and immune cells.
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
Physicians who serve in a medical and administrative capacity as head of an organized medical staff and who also may serve as liaison for the medical staff with the administration and governing board.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.
Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
An annular transitional zone, approximately 1 mm wide, between the cornea and the bulbar conjunctiva and sclera. It is highly vascular and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea. It is ophthalmologically significant in that it appears on the outer surface of the eyeball as a slight furrow, marking the line between the clear cornea and the sclera. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The predominant milk-clotting enzyme from the true stomach or abomasum of the suckling calf. It is secreted as an inactive precursor called prorennin and converted in the acid environment of the stomach to the active enzyme. EC 3.4.23.4.
A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.
The branch of medicine concerned with the physiological and pathological aspects of the aged, including the clinical problems of senescence and senility.
Maintenance of TELOMERE length. During DNA REPLICATION, chromosome ends loose some of their telomere sequence (TELOMERE SHORTENING.) Various cellular mechanism are involved in repairing, extending, and recapping the telomere ends.
The spontaneous transplantation of splenic tissue to unusual sites after open splenic trauma, e.g., after automobile accidents, gunshot or stab wounds. The splenic pulp implants appear as red-blue nodules on the peritoneum, omentum, and mesentery, morphologically similar to multifocal pelvic endometriosis. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.

Reappraisal of potassium permanganate oxidation applied to Lowicryl K4M embedded tissues processed by high pressure freezing/freeze substitution, with special reference to differential staining of the zymogen granules of rat gastric chief cells. (1/37)

The high pressure freezing/freeze substitution technique is known to yield a deep vitreous freezing of tissues. Combination of this technique with Lowicryl K4M embedding allows us histochemical studies of dynamic cellular processes with improved structural preservation. The disadvantage of Lowicryl K4M embedding is its poor electron density in electron microscopy. To address this problem, we examined the effects of KMnO4 oxidation applied to Lowicryl K4M embedded rat gastric glands processed by high pressure freezing. The KMnO4 oxidation-uranyl acetate-lead citrate sequence succeeded not only in contrast enhancement of cellular components, but also in differential staining of the zymogen granules of rat gastric chief cells. This technique could be applied to semi-thin sections of Lowicryl K4M embedded rat gastric glands. The KMnO4 oxidation-toluidine blue staining provided sufficient contrast with regard to the zymogen granules. Various experiments used in this study verified that the KMnO4 oxidation plays an essential role in the differential staining of the zymogen granules. Combined use of the KMnO4 oxidation with phospholipase A2-immunostaining demonstrated that gold labeling was localized to the zymogen granules without the loss of immunolabeling. Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis revealed some manganese depositions on the zymogen granules. It is highly anticipated that the KMnO4 oxidation will become a useful tool for histochemical investigations combined with cryofixation/freeze substitution and low temperature embedding techniques.  (+info)

Acute parietal and chief cell changes induced by a lethal dose of lipopolysaccharide in mouse stomach before thrombus formation. (2/37)

The common lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced gastric lesions, such as erosions or ulcers, have been investigated in depth. Little is known, however, about the acute gastric lesions following a high dose of LPS. In a time-course study, ICR female mice were given a high subcutaneous dose of LPS (50 mg/kg). Mice were sacrificed at 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours after dosing and were assessed histopathologically for acute gastric lesions. The major gastric changes were seen in the fundic region and included vacuolar degeneration of parietal cells and apoptosis of chief cells. The vacuole in parietal cells was apparent as early as 4 hours postinjection (PI), and apoptosis of chief cells was apparent at 12 hours PI. Thrombus formation, in contrast, was not seen until 24 hours PI. No erosion, ulcer, or hemorrhage was seen in any gastric region in any of the treated animals at 24 hours PI. These results indicate that a subcutaneous high dose of LPS in mice causes vacuolar degeneration of parietal cells and apoptosis of chief cells before thrombus formation or subsequent ulcerative lesions.  (+info)

The LIM and SH3 domain-containing protein, lasp-1, may link the cAMP signaling pathway with dynamic membrane restructuring activities in ion transporting epithelia. (3/37)

Lasp-1 is a unique LIM and src homology 3 (SH3) domain-containing protein that was initially identified as a 40 kDa cAMP-dependent phosphoprotein in the HCl-secreting gastric parietal cell. Because cAMP is a potent stimulator of parietal cell acid secretion, we have hypothesized that changes in lasp-1 phosphorylation might be involved in the regulation of ion transport-related activities, perhaps by modulating interactions among cytoskeletal and/or vesicle-associated proteins. In this study, we demonstrate that the cAMP-dependent acid secretory agonist, histamine, induces a rapid, sustained rise in parietal cell lasp-1 phosphorylation and this increase in phosphorylation is closely correlated with the acid secretory response. In addition, elevation of intracellular cAMP concentrations appear to induce a partial redistribution of lasp-1 from the cell cortex, where it predominates along with the gamma-isoform of actin in unstimulated cells, to the beta-actin enriched, apically-directed intracellular canalicular region, which is the site of active proton transport in the parietal cell. Additional studies demonstrate that although lasp-1 mRNA and protein are expressed in a wide range of tissues, the expression is specific for certain actin-rich cell types present within these tissues. For example, gastric chief cells, which contain relatively little F-actin and secrete the enzyme, pepsinogen, by regulated exocytosis, do not appear to express lasp-1. Similarly, lasp-1 was not detected in pancreatic acinar cells, which secrete enzymes by similar mechanisms and also contain relatively low levels of F-actin. Lasp-1 also was not detectable in proximal tubules in the kidney, in gastrointestinal smooth muscle, heart or skeletal muscle. In contrast, expression was prominent in the cortical regions of ion-transporting duct cells in the pancreas and in the salivary parotid gland as well as in certain F-actin-rich cells in the distal tubule/collecting duct. Interestingly, moderate levels of expression were also detected in podocytes present in renal glomeruli and in vascular endothelium. In primary cultures of gastric fibroblasts, lasp-1 was present mainly within the tips of lamellipodia and at the leading edges of membrane ruffles. Taken together these results support the hypothesis that the lasp-1 plays an important role in the regulation of dynamic actin-based, cytoskeletal activities. Agonist-dependent changes in lasp-1 phosphorylation may also serve to regulate actin-associated ion transport activities, not only in the parietal cell but also in certain other F-actin-rich secretory epithelial cell types.  (+info)

Mist1 expression is a common link among serous exocrine cells exhibiting regulated exocytosis. (4/37)

Mist1 is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that represses E-box-mediated transcription. Previous studies have suggested that the Mist1 gene is expressed in a wide range of tissues, although a complete characterization of Mist1 protein accumulation in the adult organism has not been described. In an effort to identify specific cell types that contain the Mist1 protein, antibodies specific for Mist1 were generated and used in Western blot and immunohistochemical assays. Our studies show that the Mist1 protein is present in many different tissues but that it is restricted to cell types that are exclusively secretory in nature. Pancreatic acinar cells, serous or seromucous cells of the salivary glands, chief cells of the stomach, and secretory cells of the prostate and seminal vesicle show high levels of Mist1 protein, whereas nonserous exocrine cells, including the mucus-producing cells of the salivary glands, remain Mist1 negative. These results identify Mist1 as the first transcription factor that exhibits this unique serous-specific expression pattern and suggest that Mist1 may have a key role in establishing and maintaining a pathway responsible for the exocytosis of serous secretions.  (+info)

Leptin secretion and leptin receptor in the human stomach. (5/37)

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The circulating peptide leptin produced by fat cells acts on central receptors to control food intake and body weight homeostasis. Contrary to initial reports, leptin expression has also been detected in the human placenta, muscles, and recently, in rat gastric chief cells. Here we investigate the possible presence of leptin and leptin receptor in the human stomach. METHODS: Leptin and leptin receptor expression were assessed by immunohistochemistry, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and western blot analysis on biopsy samples from 24 normal individuals. Fourteen (10 healthy volunteers and four patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia and normal gastric mucosa histology) were analysed for gastric secretions. Plasma and fundic mucosa leptin content was determined by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: In fundic biopsies from normal individuals, immunoreactive leptin cells were found in the lower half of the fundic glands. mRNA encoding ob protein was detected in the corpus of the human stomach. The amount of fundic leptin was 10.4 (3.7) ng leptin/g mucosa, as determined by radioimmunoassay. Intravenous infusions of pentagastrin or secretin caused an increase in circulating leptin levels and leptin release into the gastric juice. The leptin receptor was present in the basolateral membranes of fundic and antral gastric cells. mRNA encoding Ob-RL was detected in both the corpus and antrum, consistent with a protein of approximately 120 kDa detected by immunoblotting. CONCLUSION: These data provide the first evidence of the presence of leptin and leptin receptor proteins in the human stomach and suggest that gastric epithelial cells may be direct targets for leptin. Therefore, we conclude that leptin may have a physiological role in the human stomach, although much work is required to establish this.  (+info)

Association of protein kinase A with AKAP150 facilitates pepsinogen secretion from gastric chief cells. (6/37)

Cross talk between signal transduction pathways augments pepsinogen secretion from gastric chief cells. A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) associate with regulatory subunits of protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C (PKC), and protein phosphatase 2B (PP2B) and localize this protein complex to specific cell compartments. We determined whether an AKAP-signaling protein complex exists in chief cells and whether this modulates secretion. In Western blots, we identified AKAP150, a rodent homologue of human AKAP79 that coimmunoprecipitates with PKA, PKC, and actin. The association of PKA and PP2B was demonstrated by affinity chromatography. Confocal microscopy revealed colocalized staining at the cell periphery for AKAP150 and PKC. Ht31, a peptide that competitively displaces PKA from the AKAP complex, but not Ht31P, a control peptide, inhibited 8-Br-cAMP-induced pepsinogen secretion. Ht31 did not inhibit secretion that was stimulated by agents whose actions are mediated by PKC and/or calcium. However, Ht31, but not Ht31P, inhibited carbachol- and A23187-stimulated augmentation of secretion from cells preincubated with cholera toxin. These data suggest the existence in chief cells of a protein complex that includes AKAP150, PKA, PKC, and PP2B. Disruption of the AKAP-PKA linkage impairs cAMP-mediated pepsinogen secretion and cross talk between signaling pathways.  (+info)

Laminins and TGF-beta maintain cell polarity and functionality of human gastric glandular epithelium. (7/37)

The human gastric glandular epithelium produces a gastric lipase enzyme (HGL) that plays an important role in digestion of dietary triglycerides. To assess the involvement of extracellular matrix components and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) in the regulation of this enzymic function, normal gastric epithelial cells were cultured on collagen type I, Matrigel, and laminins (LN)-1 and -2 with or without TGF-beta1. Epithelial morphology and HGL expression were evaluated using microscopy techniques, enzymic assays, Western blot, Northern hybridization, and RT-PCR. A correlation was observed between the cell polarity status and the level of HGL expression. TGF-beta1 alone or individual matrix components stimulated cell spreading and caused a downfall of HGL activity and mRNA. By contrast, Matrigel preserved the morphological features of differentiated epithelial cells and maintained HGL expression. The combination of LNs with TGF-beta1 (two constituents of Matrigel) exerted similar beneficial effects on epithelial cell polarity and evoked a 10-fold increase of HGL levels that was blunted by a neutralizing antibody against the alpha(2)-integrin subunit and by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors PD-98059 (p42/p44) or SB-203580 (p38). This investigation demonstrates for the first time that a powerful synergism between a growth factor and basement membrane LNs positively influences cell polarity and functionality of the human gastric glandular epithelium through an activation of the alpha(2)beta(1)-integrin and effectors of two MAPK pathways.  (+info)

Defining epithelial cell progenitors in the human oxyntic mucosa. (8/37)

In the human stomach, the oxyntic epithelium includes numerous tubular invaginations consisting of short pits opening into long glands. The pit is lined by pit cells, whereas the gland is composed of three regions: the base, containing zymogenic cells; the neck, containing neck cells; and the isthmus, composed of little known immature cells and of parietal cells, which are also scattered through the neck and base. The aim of this study was to examine the ultrastructure of the immature cells and to determine their relation to mature cells. To do so, normal oxyntic mucosal biopsies from subjects ranging from 20-43 years old were fixed in aldehydes and postfixed in reduced osmium for electron microscopy and morphometric analysis. The immature cells were sorted out into four classes, whose roles were clarified by comparison with the thoroughly investigated mouse oxyntic epithelium. The first class was composed of the least differentiated immature cells, which were rare and characterized by minute, dense, or cored secretory granules and were accordingly named mini-granule cells. Their function was not clarified. The second class consisted of pre-pit cells, which were characterized by few dense mucous granules and give rise to pit cells that ascend the pit wall and, after reaching the luminal surface, die or are extruded. Both pre-pit and pit cells underwent continuous renewal and, therefore, together constituted a renewal system referred to as pit cell lineage. The third class, or pre-neck cells, characterized by cored secretory granules, give rise to neck cells that descend toward the base region and differentiate further into pre-zymogenic cells, which finally become zymogenic cells. The latter eventually degenerate and die. Thus pre-neck cells and their progeny constitute a renewing system, designated zymogenic cell lineage. The fourth class, or pre-parietal cells, characterized by long microvilli and few tubulovesicles, differentiate into parietal cells that descend along the neck and base regions and eventually degenerate and die. Pre-parietal and parietal cells represent a renewing system referred to as parietal cell lineage. While the origin of the last three classes of progenitor cells has not been elucidated, it is likely that they arise either from an unidentified multipotential stem cell, possibly the mini-granule cell itself, or from the mitotic activity of pre-pit and pre-neck cells. In conclusion, the human oxyntic epithelium is composed of continually renewing cells organized in distinct cell lineages.  (+info)

The gastric chief cell (also known as a zymogenic cell or peptic cell) is a cell in the stomach that releases pepsinogen[1] and chymosin. Pepsinogen is activated into the digestive enzyme pepsin when it comes in contact with acid produced by gastric parietal cells.[2] This type of cell also secretes gastric lipase enzymes, which help digest triglycerides into free fatty acids and di- and mono-glycerides.[3] There is also evidence that the gastric chief cell secretes leptin in response to the presence of food in the stomach. Leptin has been found in the pepsinogen granules of chief cells.[4] Gastric pit cells are replaced every 2-4 days. This high rate of turnover is a protective mechanism designed to protect the epithelial lining of the stomach from both the proteolytic action of pepsin and the acid produced by parietal cells.[5] Gastric chief cells are much longer lived and are believed to differentiate from stem cells located higher in the gastric unit in the isthmus.[1] These stem cells ...
Definition of chief cell in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is chief cell? Meaning of chief cell as a finance term. What does chief cell mean in finance?
Gastrointestinal malignancies are strongly linked to chronic inflammation (25-29). Gastric tumorigenesis in K19-Wnt1/C2mE mice was also recently shown to be suppressed by knockout of either TNFα or its receptor TNFR1, suggesting that TNFα-dependent inflammation plays a key role in the development of gastric cancer (30). Furthermore, the development of SPEM in response to acute parietal cell loss is dependent on the recruitment of macrophages to the gastric epithelium (31). Together, these findings suggest that inflammation triggers the histopathologic alterations of gastric epithelium that leads to tumor development. We have now shown that the inflammation-associated ROS plays a key role in the parietal cell loss that is an early and critical step in the development of SPEM, and the subsequent formation of gastric tumors. The accumulation of ROS triggers the p38MAPK-p16INK4a/p19ARF signaling pathway selectively in parietal cells and the consequent induction of parietal cell loss. In fact, ...
Appetite-reducing hormones, such as amylin, insulin, GIP, GLP-1, PP, and PYY, produced in the small intestine and pancreas are important in mammalian energy homeostasis, [32-35], as is leptin which is produced mostly by adipocytes, but also by gastric chief cells [6]. Importantly, gastric oxyntic endocrine cells [36] account for 65-80% of the bodys total ghrelin production. H. pylori colonization status has been correlated with circulating and gastric mucosal leptin levels [9], and with gastric mRNA expression and plasma levels of ghrelin [9, 37]. We now identified substantial effects of H. pylori eradication on meal-associated changes in gastric hormones and energy balance, confirming and extending prior studies in a more rigorous manner [13, 38].. That H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative subjects had similar baseline digestive hormonal physiologies (Additional file 3, Table S4) may reflect the highly integrated cross-regulation of energy homeostasis, [39] and the long-term equilibria ...
The two main types of exocrine secretory cells of the stomach are parietal cells and chief cells. Parietal cells secrete hydrochloric acid and chief cells secrete digestive enzymes such as pepsin.
In the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, the cell fate decisions that specify the development of multiple, diverse lineages are governed in large part by interactions of stem and early lineage progenitor cells with their microenvironment, or niche. Here, we show that the gastric parietal cell (PC) i …
Zymogenic cell definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now!
...Histology MCQs GIT (Questions and Answers)...Which cells secrete hydrochloric acid? a. Parietal cells b. Oxyntic cells c. Chief cells d. Mucous neck cells
Bill Cos-by is not just a come-di-an and an actor - although hes pret-ty good at both - hes also been a tire-less advo-cate for social respon-si-bil-i-ty and edu-ca-tion and a con-stant friend to the Navy, Mabus said. Last year was the high-est com-pli-ment Ive ever received -- being made an hon-orary chief pet-ty offi-cer, and now Dr. Cos-by -- youre about to get the same hon-or.. Cos-by holds a doc-tor of edu-ca-tion degree from the Uni-ver-si-ty of Mass-a-chu-setts.. Mabus and West placed chief pet-ty offi-cer anchors on Cos-by in front of a huge gath-er-ing of chief pet-ty offi-cers and oth-er sailors. West helped Cos-by don a chief hos-pi-tal corpsmans ser-vice dress blue jack-et, and Mabus pre-sent-ed Cos-by with the accom-pa-ny-ing visored hat.. I will tell to you like I tell all of our new chiefs … when I pin these anchors on you, your job isnt over and your jour-ney is just begin-ning, West said to Cos-by. There is no greater hon-or than hav-ing earned the title Chief - ...
Chief Keef Net Worth is $500 Thousand. Chief Keef net worth: Chief Keefs net worth is $500 thousand dollars. Chief Keef, also known as Keith Cozart, was born in Chicago, Illinois. He was arrested for aggravated unlawful use of a weapon, and put un
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cell death, or apoptosis (Kerr et al., 1972; One part of proliferated epithelia migrates Wyllie et al., 1980; Thompson, 1995; Raff, 1998). This article will focus on the role of which line the foveolae (pits) and the consideration of gastric histology, which epithelia migrate downwards in the gastric differs in the four anatomical subsites of glands. In the antrum, they differentiate the stomach. These four zones, i.e. cardia, within few days to mucous-secreting cells forming the pyloric glands. In the fundus for the TNM classification system) (UICC, and corpus, they differentiate within few 1997) are lined by two basically different weeks to chief cells, parietal cells, and suspected precursor cells can be identified mucosa is characterized by rather straight, Proliferation kinetics of the gastric antral cells, chief (or zymogenic) cells, parietal have concentrated on proliferation of the 1997). A second type of mucosa is present foveloar epithelium (Lipkin et al., 1963; in the distal third ...
Health, Sarasota Fla (PRWEB) September 07 2017 AltMed Enterprises a fully i,AltMed,Enterprises,Appoints,Matthew,Duffy,as,President,and,Chief,Operating,Officer,,and,Mark,Miller,as,Chief,Financial,Officer,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
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Im from Fresno and was headed to Knotts Berry Farm when tragedy strike... read through much more Im from Fresno and was headed to Knotts Berry Farm when tragedy strikes!! motor vehicle troubles!!!! I Phone Chief Cell MEchanic and Ali picks up, discusses the car hassle with me and suggests, Im 25 minutes away but Ill be there in forty and itll be eighty bucks.. which came to my shock as I had been expecting to hear not less than $two hundred since it was after hrs. twenty minutes later on, Ali demonstrates up with his mobile garage and stuck the issue within just twenty minutes ...
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by DigitalPh33r Bungie has given Master Chief the secret Recon armor thanks to the Arbiter, but the Chief has developed a terrible attitude as a result, and unleashes it by doing something terrible.
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There was a broad consensus among G20 financial chiefs that open trade was key to strengthening economic resilience, German Finance Minister Wolfgang Schaeuble said on Saturday, downplaying the lack of a clear rejection of protectionism. Some members like France said they were frustrated by the
Invacare Corporation today announced the resignation of Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer Robert K. Gudbranson, who will be leaving the company to pursue a new opportunity, effective November 26, 2017.
PharmAthene Appoints Industry Leader Thomas R. Fuerst Chief Scientific Officer Seasoned R&D and Manufacturing Executive Brings Over Two Decades of Specialized Experience to PharmAthene ANNAPOLIS,
Read Warner Bros chief Kevin Tsujihara steps down amid Charlotte Kirk affair scandal latest on ITV News. All the Entertainment news
Last week, numerous media outlets highlighted a working paper submitted to the National Bureau of Economic Research contending that Chief Diversity Officers hav
Chicago-based insurer CNA has appointed Jane Possell as chief information officer. Possell will be responsible for leading the development and execution
Dr. Richard Green is to retire in late 2009, meaning CableLabs will be seeking a new chief for the first time in its 20-year history
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Sheain Fernandopulle Courtesy The Daily Mirror There is always a possibility of sub-clusters emerging from the Minuwangoda main cluster and one has already been created from a private apparel factory in Katunayake, Chief Epidemiologist Dr Sudath Samaraweera said today. He told the media that each case reported daily was either directly or indirectly linked to […]
Chiefs are expected to decide the fate of the former Boca Juniors frontman in the near future, with the player currently undergoing a medical
SAN DIEGO--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Ligand Pharmaceuticals Incorporated (NASDAQ: LGND) announces the appointment of Matthew Korenberg as Vice President, Finance and Chief Financial Officer. Mr. Korenberg is...
With Jung-jae Lee, Min-a Shin, Dong-jun Kim, Kap-su Kim. As a chief of staff in the National Assembly, Jang Tae-jun influences power behind the scenes while pursuing his own ambitions to rise to the top.
Future FinTech Group Inc. (NASDAQ: FTFT) (hereinafter referred to as "Future Fintech", "FTFT" or "Company" ) a leading blockchain e-commerce company and a service provider for financial technology, today announced it has appointed Mr. Weicheng Pan as Chief Strategy Officer
Chief Hava is a Top 14% Instagram Influencer in the Cigars community. Research their Influencer Analysis on Klear, the leading Influencer Marketing Platform.
Ricky from Twinfinite writes: Weve gone to painstaking lengths to remake the Halo: The Master Chief Collections remastered cinematic trailer with the exact original Halo 2 cinematics they were using, revealing the graphical changes and just how much of the cinematics themselves are different. ...
Advantage Group Limited (NZSE: ADV) today announced the appointment of Andy Wilkinson as Chief Operating Office, reporting directly to CEO Greg Cross. Previously General Manager, Point of Sale Equipment, Wilkinson will assume responsibility for day to ...
CAMBRIDGE, Mass., Jan. 9, 2014 /PRNewswire/ -- Zafgen Appoints Chief Commercial Officer and New Member of Board of Directors. - Industry Veterans Bring a...
ST. PAUL, Minn., Sept. 4, 2013 /PRNewswire/ -- Ingrid Lindberg, chief customer experience officer at Prime Therapeutics, named 40 Under 40 Direct Marketing...
Fresh details about the arrest in New York of former IMF chief Dominique Strauss-Kahn have emerged. Transcripts released by the prosecutors reveal
Infinity Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (NASDAQ: INFI) today announced that Jeffery Kutok , M.D., Ph.D. has been promoted to the role of chief scientific officer, effective immediately. In
Jayne Tunstall Chief Operating Officer. Members Event Healthy Lifestyle (Long Term Conditions). Ashley Smith Physical Activity Advisor. Motivation. Alan Jarvis Head of Lifestyle Services. Lifestyle services. Lifestyle Services. Aim Promote Positive Health Objectives Slideshow 1653921...
An angling club chief in South Tyneside says fishermen who took to a pier which was being battered by strong seas are “lucky” to have escaped unscathed.
The role and influence of the chief financial officer is undergoing a transformation, opening up new opportunities for finance professionals.
Our four Chief Scientists lead research partnerships and other activities in the four areas of behavioural insights applied to consumers, citizens, organizations, and markets.
Chymosin /ˈkaɪməsɪn/ or rennin /ˈrɛnɪn/ is a protease found in rennet. It is an aspartic endopeptidase belonging to MEROPS A1 family. It is produced by newborn ruminant animals in the lining of the abomasum to curdle the milk they ingest, allowing a longer residence in the bowels and better absorption. It is widely used in the production of cheese. Bovine chymosin is now produced recombinantly in E. coli, Aspergillus niger var awamori, and K. lactis as alternative resource. Chymosin is produced by ruminant animals in the lining of the abomasum. Chymosin is produced by gastric chief cells in young ruminants and some other newborn animals to curdle the milk they ingest, allowing a longer residence in the bowels and better absorption. Some other non-ruminant species, including pigs, cats, and seals, produce it. One study reported finding a chymosin-like enzyme in some human infants, but others have failed to replicate this finding. Humans have a pseudogene for chymosin that does not generate ...
참고문헌 1: Goldenring & Nam. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci (2010) Review; Oxyntic atrophy, metaplasia, and gastric cancer - Gastric carcinogenesis involves the loss of parietal cells (oxyntic atrophy) and subsequent replacement of the normal gastric lineages with metaplastic cells. In humans, two metaplastic lineages develop as sequelae of chronic Helicobacter pylori infection: intestinal metaplasia and spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM). Mouse models of both chronic Helicobacter infection and acute pharmacological oxyntic atrophy have led to the discovery that SPEM arises from transdifferentiation of mature chief cells. The presence of inflammation promotes the expansion of SPEM in mice. Furthermore, studies in Mongolian gerbils as well as increasing evidence from human studies indicate that SPEM likely represents a precursor for the development of intestinal metaplasia. These findings suggest that loss of parietal cells, augmented by chronic inflammation, leads to a cascade ...
The balance of protective and aggressive factors in the gastric mucosal barrier is an important consideration in gastrointestinal diseases (4). Gastric acid, pepsin, and external stimuli are known aggravating factors of gastric mucosal cells, while microcirculatory system, HCO3−, prostaglandins, epidermal growth factor synthesis, and epithelial cell reconstitution are gastro-protective factors that maintain integrity of the gastric mucosal layer. Obviously, there are several viewpoints in association with the effect of ethanol on gastric mucosal cells. However, the main pathogenesis of ethanol-induced gastritis is vascular damage followed by mucosal cell-hypoxia, -degeneration, and -necrosis, respectively. The decline of anti-oxidant level and over production of oxygen free radicals especially super-oxide and hydrogen peroxide, are also link to ethanol-induced gastric injury and play a crucial role to further induce gastric inflammatory response. In addition, ethanol itself destroys gastric ...
Chiefs Rounds Presenter: Lucas Bonafede, MD - Wills Eye Hospital Resident On Friday mornings at 7AM, tables are turned during Chiefs Rounds. Two cases are presented as unknowns by the residents to the Service Chiefs and Attending Staff. Chiefs Rounds provide a chance for the residents to see their Attending Staff think through the clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, and management of a difficult case. This approach invariably leads to a lively discussion among the staff and remains a vital teaching tool in resident education.. ...
But many, including Attawapiskat Chief Theresa Spence, who is on a liquids-only hunger strike, wanted a meeting with both Harper and Governor General David Johnston, and Atleo faced criticism, boycotts by chiefs from Manitoba and Ontario, and pressure from citizen protestors in the Idle No More movement.. In his statement, Atleo said First Nations citizens have just witnessed one of the most important chapters in our recent history.. Through the pressure of the grassroots, the sacrifices made by Chief Spence and her fellow strikers, and the work of many regional chiefs and the National Executive of the AFN, we have seized the attention of Canadians and of this government, he said. We forced open the door to the PMO and to the Governor-General. We achieved a commitment to the personal leadership of the Prime Minister, the Privy Council Office and other senior ministers. Now they know that the whole world is watching what progress we make. Now they understand the consequences of ...
Chiefs Rounds Presenter: Rebecca Soares, MD - Wills Eye Hospital Resident On Friday mornings at 7AM, tables are turned during Chiefs Rounds. Two cases are presented as unknowns by the residents to the Service Chiefs and Attending Staff. Chiefs Rounds provide a chance for the residents to see their Attending Staff think through the clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, and management of a difficult case. This approach invariably leads to a lively discussion among the staff and remains a vital teaching tool in resident education.. ...
NEW YORK (MarketWatch) -- Advanced Micro Devices Inc. AMD, -2.50% said Thursday that it has named Thomas Seifert to serve as its chief financial officer. The Sunnyvale, Calif.-based semiconductor maker said that Seifert, 46, succeeds Robert Rivet, who was promoted to chief operations and administrative officer. Seifert most recently worked at Qimonda, where he worked as chief operating officer and chief financial officer.. ...
Army Chief General V K Singhs phenomenal record and leadership qualities could not prevent a number of controversies that marked his over two years stint as the Army Chief. Rediff.com takes a look. | FLASHBACK: The chequered stint of Army Chief Gen Singh
Following a nationwide search, Mass. Eye and Ear named Aalok Agarwala, MD, MBA, as Chief Medical Officer, and Kathrin Bourdeu, MD, PhD, as Chief of Anesthesia.
Chief Complaint Form - Sample Download Page - Free Download Chief Complaint Form - Sample 2.0.0.0, Computer Fillable Medical PDF Forms. Patient records can be typed, e-mailed, saved and stored on your computer. Easy access and retrieval ...
Cells with conspicuous eosinophilic cytoplasm and centrally located nuclei (sometimes paired) are the parietal cells (P in the figure above).. Cells with basal nuclei, basally basophilic cytoplasm, and apical vesicles are the chief cells (C in the figure above).. The glands are separated by thinner strands of lamina propria, visible as strands of denser, flattened or irregular nuclei. ...
Horizon Media announced that it has elevated its Chief Financial Officer, Vincent OToole, to Chief Operating Officer. OToole will also retain his Chief Financial Officer title. Before his time at Horizon Media, OToole was Senior Vice President and Controller at MTV Networks. He has also held senior-level positions at Simon & Schuster Publishing, Paramount Communications and Arthur Andersen.. Federated Wireless, Inc., a subsidiary of Allied Minds (LSE: ALM), announced the appointment of John Brunoas Chief Financial Officer and Senior Vice President. Before joining Federated Wireless, John worked at VidSys. Prior to VidSys, John served as Chief Financial Officer for Appfluent Technologies. He also previously held executive positions at Access Spectrum, LLC, Ericsson IP Infrastructure, and Torrent Networking Technologies, Inc.. M.D.C. Holdings, Inc. (NYSE: MDC) announced that the Companys current Chief Financial Officer, John M. Stephens, is resigning effective May 22, 2015. Mr. Stephens has ...
Israeli bank chief blames slowdown on demography - AP News: JERUSALEM (AP) - Israels central bank chief says demographic changes .01/18/2018 3:59:21AM EST.
Nigeria Chief of Defense Nigerias chief of defense staff Air Marshal Alex Badeh, centre, speaks during a demonstration calling on the government to rescue the kidnapped girls of the government secondary school in Chibok, in Abuja, Nigeria, Monday, May 26, 2014. Scores of protesters chanting Bring Back Our Girls marched in the Nigerian capital ...
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Police chiefs radical drugs call The Chief Constable of Tayside Police has called for a radical approach in tackling drug-related...
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Police Chief Wade Parsons is to be charged today after a teenage boy shot himself with the chiefs service weapon when it was left sitting unsecured on top of a safe at Parsons home, Rockingham County Attorney James Reams said Thursday.
New London Mayor-elect Daryl Justin Finizio said it had been a pledge of his since January to keep both chiefs if elected, and that Police Chief Margaret
Halfpenny Technologies announced that Kirk Paul Kirkman has joined the company as its new Chief Revenue and Customer Experience Officer.. BLUE BELL, PA, UNITED STATES, February 13, 2018 /EINPresswire.com/ - Halfpenny Technologies, Inc., a recognized leader of clinical data exchange and business intelligence solutions, today announced that Kirk Paul Kirkman has joined the company as its new Chief Revenue and Customer Experience Officer. Effective immediately, in this newly created executive position, Kirk will oversee all aspects of Halfpenny Technologies sales, marketing, account management and customer relations teams.. When we created this new executive position, we sought a leader in the healthcare industry with the experience to support and drive the companys continued growth in the health plan, hospital, pharmacy, commercial laboratory and care coordination segments of the U.S. healthcare industry, said Tim Kowalski, president and CEO of Halfpenny Technologies. Kirk brings unique and ...
Kaplowitz, who was named CEO of MEC N.A. eight months ago, said shes known Bamberger for more than 20 years, beginning when she was a DMB&B media planner on Procter & Gamble and he was a sales rep for Parade. Citing his expertise in integrated marketing, she said she was impressed with the path his career has taken since then. Hes taken some large interesting risks because of his curiosity, she said. He was very interested in social early on and figuring out where brands could fit in.. Before Dentsu, Bamberger was chief client officer at ad technology company, appssavvy. Prior to that job, he was executive vp of Katalyst, hired by co-founders Ashton Kutcher and Jason Goldberg. Earlier in his career, he worked on the publishing side when he worked at Meredith Corp. where his roles included the lead on Meredith 360 as chief innovation officer. Hes also held senior positions at Gruner & Jahr, USA and Time Warner Inc. where he worked with the companys The Parenting Group and Sports ...
Chiefs history was murky. Chief was very old but fortunate that someone along the way had cared enough not to call the meat wagon or drop him at auction.
5. All judges submit their individual propositions for the first comparison of the top five athletes to the CBBF Chief Judge. Based on them, the Chief Judge will form the first comparison. The number of athletes to be compared will be determined by the Chief Judge but no less than three and no more than eight competitors will be compared at any one time. Then the judges may be asked to submit individual propositions for the second comparison of the next five athletes, included competitors placing in the middle of the group. The CBBF Chief Judge will form the second and the next comparisons until all competitors will be compared at least once. The total number of comparisons will be decided by the CBBF Chief Judge ...
Kate! Get in here and tell me what in the name of Dog has been going on in Luna City!. Kate Heisel, bright-eyed and ready to plunge into another week of work on the regional newspaper on the morning after the last of the holidays, was in the chief editors office almost before Acey McClain finished bellowing, and as a sprinkling of superannuated dust from the ancient light fixtures in the offices of the Karnesville Weekly Beacon ceased sifting down like a gentle benison on the various desks below.. Yes, Chief - right away, Chief! she chirped. Acey McClain, grizzled, slightly hung-over and well over twice her age, scowled thunderously.. Dammit, Kate - do you have to be so cheerful first thing in the morning? Im not Lou Grant and you are not Mary Tylor Moore. And dont call me Chief!. Sure, Chief, Kate grinned at him and took out her notebook, perching on the narrow wooden guest chair opposite her boss. Its a legitimate form of aggression, being offensively cheerful first thing in the ...
Chief Justice William H Rehnquists failure to return to bench indicates that his thryoid cancer is more advanced and aggressive than he disclosed week ago; oncologists explain possibilities, given information that Rehnquist is receiving radiation and chemotherapy (M)
WASHINGTON (CBS.MW) -- The Securities and Exchange Commission has named Susan Markel chief accountant of its enforcement division. Markel will advise the division on its investigations into accounting and auditing matters. She succeeds Charles Niemeier, who became a member of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board last year. Markel joined the SECs enforcement division in 1994 and has worked on the agencys high-profile investigations into Cendant, WorldCom and Xerox. ...
A prime example of this is pepsin, which is secreted in the stomach by chief cells. Pepsin in its secreted form is inactive ( ... pepsinogen). However, once it reaches the gastric lumen it becomes activated into pepsin by the high H+ concentration, becoming ... Mucus is made by two types of specialized cells termed mucus cells in the stomach and goblet cells in the intestines. Signals ... These cells cause spontaneous cycles of slow wave potentials that can cause action potentials in smooth muscle cells. They are ...
The chief utility of indigo carmine is in the identification of dysplastic cells in individuals with chronic ulcerative colitis ... Congo red is used as a test for achlorhydria in the stomach, to test adequacy of vagotomy ( post adequate vagotomy, gastric ... Toluidine blue stains nuclei of malignant cells blue, and is used in oral and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Crystal ... Tóth, E.; Sjölund, K.; Thorsson, O.; Thorlacius, H. (2002). "Evaluation of gastric acid secretion at endoscopy with a modified ...
Serous cells secrete proteins, often enzymes. Examples include gastric chief cells and Paneth cells Mucous cells secrete mucus ... Merocrine secretion - cells excrete their substances by exocytosis; for example, pancreatic acinar cells. Apocrine secretion - ... a portion of the cell membrane that contains the excretion buds off. Holocrine secretion - the entire cell disintegrates to ...
Cells found in the gastric glands include foveolar cells, chief cells, parietal cells, G cells and enterochromaffin-like cells ... The cells of the exocrine glands are foveolar (mucus), chief cells, and parietal cells. The other type of gastric gland is the ... Fundic glands found in the fundus and also in the body have another two cell types-gastric chief cells and parietal cells ( ... They secrete gastrin produced by their G cells. There are millions of gastric pits in the gastric mucosa and their necessary ...
Parietal cells: Produce hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor.. *Gastric chief cells: Produce pepsinogen. Chief cells are ... Gastric lipase: Gastric lipase is an acidic lipase secreted by the gastric chief cells in the fundic mucosa in the stomach. It ... Pepsin is the main gastric enzyme. It is produced by the stomach cells called "chief cells" in its inactive form pepsinogen, ... Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP): This peptide decreases gastric motility and is produced by duodenal mucosal cells. ...
... lined by all three types of cells of acid-producing mucosa: mucous, parietal and chief cells. As sometimes parietal cell ... where parietal cells are more numerous. They have the same colour as the gastric mucosa, and never have a stalk. When the ... Both the β-catenin gene and the APC gene are involved in the same cell growth signalling pathway, but the APC gene is known to ... In the gastric adenocarcinoma associated with proximal polyposis of the stomach (GAPPS), there is a high risk of early ...
Gastric lipase secreted by the chief cells in the fundic glands in the gastric mucosa of the stomach, is an acidic lipase, in ... These include the various cells of the gastric glands, taste cells, pancreatic duct cells, enterocytes and microfold cells. ... Pepsinogen is a precursor enzyme (zymogen) produced by the gastric chief cells, and gastric acid activates this to the enzyme ... A peptide hormone, gastrin, produced by G cells in the gastric glands, stimulates the production of gastric juice which ...
Parietal cells produce potent hydrochloric acid, which damages cells. Gastric chief cells produce pepsinogen, which is ... These cells line the gastric mucosa (mucous neck cells are found in the necks of the gastric pits). The mucus-secreting cells ... and mucous neck cells, which are a part of the neck of gastric glands along parietal cells. Surface mucous cells have large ... Foveolar cells line the surface of the stomach, the gastric pits, and the top part of gastric glands: the neck. They constitute ...
... the gastric chief cell, the parathyroid chief cell, and the type 1 chief cells found in the carotid body. The gastric chief ... Gastric chief cells are epithelial cells which are found within the gastric unit or gastric gland, and form the base of the ... Gastric chief cells are much longer lived and are believed to differentiate from stem cells located higher in the gastric unit ... Parietal cells may secrete factors that lead to transdifferentiation of chief cells, so if lost, chief cells do not normally ...
Enterochromaffin-like cells or ECL cells are a type of neuroendocrine cell found in the gastric glands of the gastric mucosa ... stimulators of hydrochloric acid secretion from parietal cells and stimulators of secretion of pepsinogen from chief cells. The ... Enterochromaffin cell Chromaffin cell List of human cell types derived from the germ layers Enterochromaffin-like+Cells at the ... Gastrin is transferred from a specific type of G cell in the gastric epithelium to the ECL cells by blood. Histamine and ...
A gastric chief cell (or peptic cell, or gastric zymogenic cell) is a type of gastric gland cell that releases pepsinogen and ... parathyroid chief cells). Chief cells are also known as peptic cells. Gastric acid Fundic glands List of human cell types ... The terms chief cell and zymogenic cell are often used without the word "gastric" to name this type of cell. However those ... Gastric chief cells are generally located deep in the mucosal layer of the stomach lining. Chief cells release the zymogen ( ...
The gastric chief cells of the stomach secrete enzymes for protein breakdown (inactive pepsinogen, and in infancy rennin). The ... Four types of cells are involved in this process: parietal cells, G cells, D cells and enterochromaffine-like cells. Besides ... The duodenal cells release entero-oxyntin which acts on parietal cells without affecting gastrin. Gastric acid production is ... and the hormone gastrin stimulate the parietal cell to produce gastric acid, both directly acting on parietal cells and ...
... cell G cell Delta cell Enterochromaffin-like cell Gastric chief cell Parietal cell Foveolar cell Enteroendocrine cell Gastric ... Hepatic stellate cell Cholecystocyte Centroacinar cell Pancreatic stellate cell alpha cell beta cell delta cell PP cell (F cell ... cell Parafollicular cell Parathyroid gland Parathyroid chief cell Oxyphil cell Urothelial cell Germ layer List of distinct cell ... Podocyte Kidney proximal tubule brush border cell Sertoli cell Leydig cell Granulosa cell Peg cell germ cells spermatozoon ovum ...
... is released by the chief cells in the stomach wall, and upon mixing with the hydrochloric acid of the gastric juice, pepsinogen ... chief cells release pepsinogen. This zymogen is activated by hydrochloric acid (HCl), which is released from parietal cells in ... Pepsin remains in the larynx following a gastric reflux event.[14][15] At the mean pH of the laryngopharynx (pH = 6.8) pepsin ... Pepsin is retained within the cell for up to 24 hours.[23] Such exposure to pepsin at neutral pH and endocyctosis of pepsin ...
From 1995 to 2004, she served as Chief of the institute's Laboratory of Cell Regulation and Carcinogenesis, and continued her ... Roberts herself was diagnosed with stage IV gastric cancer in March 2004. She received a degree of fame in the cancer community ...
Gastric chief cell. *Enterochromaffin-like cell. Lower. Small intestine. Microanatomy. *Intestinal villus ... and is thought to be caused by autonomic dysfunction of salivary myoepithelial cells.[7] ...
Gastric chief cell. *Enterochromaffin-like cell. Lower. Small intestine. Microanatomy. *Intestinal villus ... Contains goblet cells, Paneth cells. Similar to duodenum. ? Gene and protein expression[edit]. About 20,000 protein coding ... It receives gastric chyme from the stomach, together with digestive juices from the pancreas (digestive enzymes) and the liver ... The epithelial cells of the villi transport nutrients from the lumen of the intestine into these capillaries (amino acids and ...
... expressed in chief cells; and gastric ATPase ATP4A and gastric intrinsic factor GIF, expressed in parietal cells.[14] ... Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) decreases both gastric acid release and motility. GIP is synthesized by K-cells which are ... The hormone gastrin causes an increase in the secretion of HCl from the parietal cells, and pepsinogen from chief cells in the ... Right gastric artery, left gastric artery, right gastro-omental artery, left gastro-omental artery, short gastric arteries. ...
Preliminary care consists of gastric decontamination with either activated carbon or gastric lavage. However, due to the delay ... Without mRNA essential protein synthesis and hence cell metabolism grind to a halt and the cell dies. The liver is the ... Of the amatoxins, α-amanitin is the chief component and along with β-amanitin is likely responsible for the toxic effects. ... Though phallotoxins are highly toxic to liver cells, they have since been found to have little input into the destroying ...
Other areas of research include hereditary diffuse gastric cancer, small cell carcinoma of the ovary and Ataxia Telangiectasia ... In 2019, he became editor-in-chief of Genetics Research. He is the current Chair of the UK Cancer Genetics Group and is an ... Tischkowitz, Marc (2019). "Letter from the New Editor in Chief". Genetics Research. 101: e2. doi:10.1017/S0016672319000028. ... Professor and Honorary NHS Consultant in the Department of Medical Genetics at University of Cambridge and the editor-in-chief ...
Preliminary care consists of gastric decontamination with either activated carbon or gastric lavage; due to the delay between ... essential protein synthesis and hence cell metabolism grind to a halt and the cell dies. The liver is the principal organ ... Of the amatoxins, α-amanitin is the chief component and along with β-amanitin is likely responsible for the toxic effects. ... Though phallotoxins are highly toxic to liver cells, they have since been found to add little to the death cap's toxicity, as ...
... expressed in chief cells; and gastric ATPase ATP4A and gastric intrinsic factor GIF, expressed in parietal cells.[14] ... The hormone gastrin causes an increase in the secretion of HCl from the parietal cells, and pepsinogen from chief cells in the ... Right gastric artery, left gastric artery, right gastro-omental artery, left gastro-omental artery, short gastric arteries. ... Right gastric vein, left gastric vein, right gastroepiploic vein, left gastroepiploic vein, short gastric veins. ...
Gastric mucosa at low magnification (H&E stain). Epithelial tissue is composed of closely packed cells, bound to each other by ... The extracellular matrix contains proteins, the chief and most abundant of which is collagen. Collagen plays a major part in ... The outer epithelial layer may include cells of several types including sensory cells, gland cells and stinging cells. There ... Unlike plant cells, animal cells have neither a cell wall nor chloroplasts. Vacuoles, when present, are more in number and much ...
Chief cells *Pepsinogen. *Parietal cells *Gastric acid. *Intrinsic factor. *Foveolar cells *HCO3− ...
"Enterochromaffin-like Cells"[edit]. "Enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells" are a population of cells that are found in the gastric ... secreted histamine from ECL cells acts on parietal cells to stimulate the release of gastric acid. The presence of ECL cells is ... EC cells are small polygonal cells located in the crypts between intestinal villi. They are discriminated from other cells of ... "Gastric endocrine cells share a clonal origin with other gut cell lineages". Development. 110 (2): 477-81. PMID 2133551.. ...
This is in contrast to the gastric glands of the stomach where chief cells secrete pepsinogen. Also, new epithelium is formed ... cup cells, tuft cells, and at the base of the gland, Paneth cells (secreting anti-microbial peptides) and stem cells. ... Intestinal glands contain adult stem cells referred to as intestinal stem cells. These cells have been used in the field of ... Paneth cells of the innate immune system, and goblet cells, which produce mucus. In the colon, crypts do not have Paneth cells ...
Chief Scientist's Office (2003-2007). She is also a member of the NIHR EME Board and was a member of the Commissioning Board ... Scottish Audit Gastric and Oesophageal Cancer Group (1996-2001) and chairman of the Computer Aided Diagnosis working party for ... a sub study of the POETIC trial evaluating PET FLT to measure cell proliferation and sophisticated functional MRI in breast ... Cancer Research UK either as chief investigator or co-applicant Current research which she undertakes at Addenbrooke's ( ...
Shortly after publishing the first edition of his textbook, Gilman became section chief of pharmacology at the US Army's ... cytotoxic properties for white blood cells. In August 1942, only a few months after their initial experiments, they began ... "Chemical and Physiological Investigations on Canine Gastric Secretion." He then joined of the Department of Pharmacology at the ...
... expressed in chief cells, and gastric ATPase ATP4A and gastric intrinsic factor GIF, expressed in parietal cells of the stomach ... Helicobacter also exhibits a tropism for gastric epithelial lining and the gastric mucosal layer about it. Gastric colonization ... Activity is initiated by the pacemaker cells, (myenteric interstitial cells of Cajal). The gut has intrinsic peristaltic ... Abraham L. Kierszenbaum (2002). Histology and cell biology: an introduction to pathology. St. Louis: Mosby. ISBN 978-0-323- ...
The cells met to read Marxist texts and hold self-criticism sessions.[51] Sâr joined a cell that met on the rue Lacepède; his ... In September 1985, Pol Pot resigned as commander-in-chief of the Khmer Rouge forces in favour of Son Sen; he nevertheless ... Pol Pot also received medical treatment for his malaria and gastric ailments.[223] Pol Pot then travelled to North Korea, ... The Khmer Rouge Western Zone regional chief Koh Kong and his followers began launching small-scale attacks on government ...
Some scientists have indicated that a fast will cause white blood cells to break down during the fasting, resulting in new ones ... In modern times as well the Israeli Chief Rabbinate has occasionally declared fasts in periods of drought. ... prior to surgery or other procedures that require general anesthetics because of the risk of pulmonary aspiration of gastric ...
Gastric lipase secreted by the chief cells in the fundic glands in the gastric mucosa of the stomach, is an acidic lipase, in ... These include the various cells of the gastric glands, taste cells, pancreatic duct cells, enterocytes and microfold cells. ... Pepsinogen is a precursor enzyme (zymogen) produced by the gastric chief cells, and gastric acid activates this to the enzyme ... A peptide hormone, gastrin, produced by G cells in the gastric glands, stimulates the production of gastric juice which ...
Elliot Bovill, Chief Justice of the Straits Settlements (1893)[115]. References. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v ... Upon binding, the complex is taken into the cell via receptor-mediated endocytosis. Once inside the cell, the disulfide bond is ... is less in those with lowered gastric acidity (for instance those using proton pump inhibitors).[13] Children are also more ... The five B subunits form a five-membered ring that binds to GM1 gangliosides on the surface of the intestinal epithelium cells ...
Preliminary care consists of gastric decontamination with either activated carbon or gastric lavage; due to the delay between ... essential protein synthesis and hence cell metabolism grind to a halt and the cell dies.[60] The liver is the principal organ ... α-amanitin is the chief component and along with β-amanitin is likely responsible for the toxic effects.[58][59] Their major ... Though phallotoxins are highly toxic to liver cells,[63] they have since been found to add little to the death cap's toxicity, ...
The first secretes no gastric juices and has very thick muscular walls to crush the food (since whales cannot chew) and resist ... and were important in negotiations between rival chiefs.[226] Friedrich Ratzel in The History of Mankind reported in 1896 that ... The blood has a high density of red blood cells, which contain oxygen-carrying haemoglobin. The oxygenated blood can be ...
The differential diagnosis of a renal tumor in a young patient with hypertension includes Juxtaglomerular cell tumor, Wilms' ... Arsenic Author: Frances M Dyro, MD, Chief of the Neuromuscular Section, Associate Professor, Department of Neurology, New York ... Méndez GP, Klock C, Nosé V (December 2008). "Juxtaglomerular Cell Tumor of the Kidney: Case Report and Differential Diagnosis ... tumor, and renal cell carcinoma, all of which may produce renin.[12] ...
In 2007, Marcia Angell, former editor-in-chief of the New England Journal of Medicine and a lecturer in social medicine at the ... In 2002, its drug Iressa was approved in Japan as monotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer.[12] On 3 January 2004 Dr Robert ... prevention of gastric ulcers in those on chronic NSAID therapy, and treatment of gastrointestinal ulcers associated with ... "Astra Zeneca appoints Roches Pascal Soriot as new chief". The Telegraph. Retrieved 19 March 2016.. ...
Gastric chief cell. *Enterochromaffin-like cell. Lower. Small intestine. Microanatomy. *Intestinal villus ... Reducing gastric reflux[edit]. The stomach produces gastric acid, a strongly acidic mixture consisting of hydrochloric acid ( ... Squamous cell carcinoma is a carcinoma that can occur in the squamous cells lining the esophagus. This type is much more common ... Reflux of gastric acids from the stomach, infection, substances ingested (for example, corrosives), some medications (such as ...
Gastric dilatation volvulus[edit]. Like many other deep-chested breeds, ridgebacks are prone to gastric dilatation volvulus, ... which are the chief forerunners to the modern Rhodesian Ridgeback." Other breeds came from Arabian traders around the Horn of ... Cell Reports 19.4 (2017): 697-708. ...
Beta cellscells) are a type of cell found in pancreatic islets that synthesize and secrete insulin and amylin. Beta cells ... Gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor. *List of terms associated with diabetes. *Guangxitoxin. *Alpha cell ... Then the cytokines activate CD8+ cytotoxic-T cells, which lead to beta-cell destruction.[18] The destruction of these cells ... cell-signal pathways in early stem cell development will lead to those stem cells differentiating into viable beta cells.[31][ ...
If this is allowed to happen, tissue repair cells such as macrophages, fibroblasts, and blood vessel cells penetrate into the ... It appears that the omentum is the chief organ responsible for "spontaneous" adhesion formation (i.e. no prior history of ... Gastric antral vascular ectasia. *Gastric dumping syndrome. *Gastric volvulus. *Buried bumper syndrome ...
Pariente, Barbara, Chief Justice Archived October 31, 2012, at the Wayback Machine (for The Court). "JEB BUSH, Governor of ... Throughout the cerebral cortex, the large pyramidal neurons that comprise some 70% of cortical cells - critical to the ... "by a gastric tube or intravenously". At that time, it was common to remove people from ventilators, but the law in Florida was ... Pariente, Barbara Chief Justice (for The Court). (September 23, 2004). "Jeb Bush, Governor of Florida, et al., Appellants, vs. ...
Cell Proliferation. 39 (2): 147-155. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2184.2006.00377.x. PMID 16542349.. ... said he was the first to discover an aspirin formulation that did not have the unpleasant side effects of nausea and gastric ... "Bayer confirms Werner Baumann as new chief". Financial Times.. *^ a b Tammen 1978, p. 195. ... renal cell carcinoma), and certain types of thyroid cancer.[66] ... therapeutics-to-build-leading-position-in-cell-therapy/?s=79 ...
Cell, 161(1), pp.146-160. *^ "Mental Illness-Glossary". US National Institute of Mental Health. Archived from the original on ... A chief difficulty in nosology is that diseases often cannot be defined and classified clearly, especially when cause or ... when it was realized that gastric ulcers are often associated with Helicobacter pylori infection).. Incurable disease disease ... the virus may remain dormant in nerve cells for many years, and later cause herpes zoster (shingles). ...
It also has the function of stimulating pepsinogen secretion by chief cells.[15] It is also found in the heart and has ... and cause inhibition of gastric acid secretion and absorption from the intestinal lumen.[12] Its role in the intestine is to ... "Regulation of pepsinogen release from canine chief cells in primary monolayer culture". The American Journal of Physiology. 245 ... positive regulation of cell proliferation. • innate immune response. • positive regulation of protein catabolic process. • ...
Endothelial cell injury[edit]. Any inflammatory process, such as trauma, surgery or infection, can cause damage to the ... and in the United Kingdom the Chief Medical Officer has issued guidance to the effect that preventative measures should be used ... Instead, the platelet-derived growth factor degranulated by the clotted platelets will attract a layer of smooth muscle cells ... The main causes of thrombosis are given in Virchow's triad which lists thrombophilia, endothelial cell injury, and disturbed ...
... such as giant cell carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, and small-cell carcinoma.[citation needed] ... Gastric (stomach) cancer. *Gastrointestinal carcinoid tumor. *Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). *Hepatocellular cancer ... Germ cell tumor: Cancers derived from pluripotent cells, most often presenting in the testicle or the ovary (seminoma and ... cancers are additionally classified by the type of cell that the tumor cells originated from. These types include: *Carcinoma: ...
ImSAIDs work by altering the activation and migration of inflammatory cells, which are immune cells responsible for amplifying ... John's wort's chief constituent, hyperforin, has been found to be a potent COX-1 and 5-LO inhibitor, with anti-inflammatory ... Long-term use of NSAIDs can cause gastric erosions, which can become stomach ulcers and in extreme cases can cause severe ... feG and related peptides are known to modulate leukocyte (white blood cells) activity by influencing cell surface receptors to ...
the body's cells exhibit impaired responses to insulin (Type 2 diabetes).. When glucose builds up in the bloodstream, it can ... Likewise, gastric acidity converts sucrose to glucose and fructose during digestion, the bond between them being an acetal bond ... Venice, at the height of its financial power, was the chief sugar-distributing center of Europe.[20] Arabs started producing it ... the body attacks the cells producing insulin, the hormone that allows the metabolizing of sugar (Type 1 diabetes) ...
Adjustable gastric band. *Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty. *Gastric bypass surgery. *Sleeve gastrectomy. *Vertical banded ... Islet cell transplantation *see also digestive system procedures. Pituitary. *Hypophysectomy. *Transsphenoidal surgery * ...
The duodenum wall is composed of a very thin layer of cells that form the muscularis mucosae. The duodenum is almost entirely ... Physiology: 6/6ch2/s6ch2_30 - Essentials of Human Physiology editor-in-chief, Susan Standring ; section editors, Neil R. Borley ... predisposing it to damage from gastric acids. The first part of the duodenum is the most common location of ulcers as it is ... About 20,000 protein coding genes are expressed in human cells and 70 % of these genes are expressed in the normal duodenum. ...
... while Ranariddh was minted to the twin positions of commander-in-chief and the chief-of-staff of the ANS in January 1986, ... he was diagnosed with B cell lymphoma in the prostate[297] and was treated with chemotherapy and surgery.[298] Sihanouk's ... lymphoma went into remission in 1995,[299] but returned again in 2005 in the gastric region. He suffered a third bout of ... Norodom Vakrivan, the chief of protocol, was killed instantly when he opened the package. Sihanouk's parents, Suramarit and ...
An alpha-emitting substance can cause significant damage only if ingested or inhaled, acting on living cells like a short-range ... and former chief of security for the Russian TV channel ORT. Kovtun is now a businessman. Litvinenko had also had lunch at Itsu ... Former FSB chief Nikolay Kovalyov, for whom Litvinenko worked, said that the incident "looks like [the] hand of Berezovsky. I ...
This triggers G cells to release gastrin, which in turn stimulates parietal cells to secrete gastric acid. Gastric acid is ... 1- Donor cell produces pilus. 2- Pilus attaches to recipient cell, bringing the two cells together. 3- The mobile plasmid is ... Gastric juice in the stomach starts protein digestion. Gastric juice mainly contains hydrochloric acid and pepsin. As these two ... 4- Both cells recircularize their plasmids, synthesize second strands, and reproduce pili; both cells are now viable donors. ...
Here, we show that the gastric parietal cell (PC) i … ... part by interactions of stem and early lineage progenitor cells ... the cell fate decisions that specify the development of multiple, diverse lineages are governed in large ... The gastric epithelial progenitor cell niche and differentiation of the zymogenic (chief) cell lineage Dev Biol. 2009 Jan 1;325 ... we show that the gastric parietal cell (PC) is a key cellular component of the previously undescribed niche for the gastric ...
... there are three types of chief cells, the gastric chief cell, the parathyroid chief cell, and the type 1 chief cells found in ... Cell types[edit]. The gastric chief cell (also known as a zymogenic cell or peptic cell) is a cell in the stomach that releases ... Gastric chief cells are epithelial cells which are found within the gastric unit or gastric gland, and form the base of the ... Parietal cells may secrete factors that lead to transdifferentiation of chief cells, so if lost, chief cells do not normally ...
In response to this parietal cell loss, chief cells undergo transdifferentiation into CD44v-expressing SPEM cells that include ... SPEM contains stem-like cells capable of generating gastric glands. Given that CD44v is a gastric cancer stem cell marker (19) ... suggesting that Troy-expressing chief cells, which act as the reserve stem cells in response to gastric tissue damage, might be ... stem cells drive self-renewal in the stomach and build long-lived gastric units in vitro. Cell Stem Cell 2010;6:25-36. ...
... definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up ... or a pepsin-secreting acinar cell of the pancreas. Also called chief cell, peptic cell. ... A cell that forms and secretes an enzyme, especially a secretory cell that lines the lumen of the gastric glands of the stomach ... zymogenic cell in Medicine Expand. zymogenic cell zy·mo·gen·ic cell (zīmə-jěnĭk). n. ...
Parietal cells secrete hydrochloric acid and chief cells secrete digestive enzymes such as pepsin. ... The two main types of exocrine secretory cells of the stomach are parietal cells and chief cells. ... What are chief cells and parietal cells?. The gastric chief cell (also known as a zymogenic cell or peptic cell) is a cell in ... Where are chief cells found in the body?. Gastric chief cells are generally located deep in the mucosal layer of the stomach ...
Proliferation kinetics of the gastric antral cells, chief (or zymogenic) cells, parietal have concentrated on proliferation of ... J. Cell J.K., et al. (1979) Cell proliferation in induction of apoptosis in gastric epithelial cells: a mechanism of T helper ... Cocultivation in gastric epithelial cell lines (AGS, Kato- III; Hs 746 T). In untreated cells, CD95L cultured cell counts ( ... In the antrum, foveolae were 188 cells in the gastric antrum, and 137 cells in the gastric body (Patel et al., of BrdU- ...
... but also by gastric chief cells [6]. Importantly, gastric oxyntic endocrine cells [36] account for 65-80% of the bodys total ... H. pylori colonization status has been correlated with circulating and gastric mucosal leptin levels [9], and with gastric mRNA ... Kim BW, Lee BI, Kim HK, Cho YS, Chae HS, Lee HK, Kim HJ, Han SW: [Influence of long-term gastric acid suppression therapy on ... We hypothesized that gastric H. pylori colonization affects the physiologic regulation of gut hormones involved in food intake ...
Parietal cells b. Oxyntic cells c. Chief cells d. Mucous neck cells ... Histology MCQs GIT (Questions and Answers)...Which cells secrete hydrochloric acid? a. ... c. Gastric glands. d. Rugae. e. Gastric pits. Ans - d. 15. Which layer contains the muscularis mucosa?. a. Mucosa. b. Sub ... Which cells secrete intrinsic factor?. a. Parietal cells. b. Oxyntic cells. c. Chief cells. c. Mucous neck cells. e. Both a and ...
A gastric chief cell (or peptic cell, or gastric zymogenic cell) is a type of gastric gland cell that releases pepsinogen and ... parathyroid chief cells). Chief cells are also known as peptic cells. Gastric acid Fundic glands List of human cell types ... The terms chief cell and zymogenic cell are often used without the word "gastric" to name this type of cell. However those ... Gastric chief cells are generally located deep in the mucosal layer of the stomach lining. Chief cells release the zymogen ( ...
"Chief Cells, Gastric" by people in this website by year, and whether "Chief Cells, Gastric" was a major or minor topic of these ... Epithelial cells that line the basal half of the GASTRIC GLANDS. Chief cells synthesize and export an inactive enzyme ... "Chief Cells, Gastric" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Chief Cells, Gastric*Chief Cells, Gastric. *Chief Cell, Gastric. *Gastric Chief Cell ...
Chief cells synthesize and export an inactive enzyme PEPSINOGEN which is converted into the highly proteolytic enzyme PEPSIN in ... Epithelial cells that line the basal half of the GASTRIC GLANDS. ... Chief Cells, Gastric. Epithelial cells that line the basal half ... of the GASTRIC GLANDS. Chief cells synthesize and export an inactive enzyme PEPSINOGEN which is converted into the highly ...
doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2013.09.008. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... Troy(+) chief cells can be cultured to generate long-lived gastric organoids. Troy marks a specific subset of chief cells that ... chief cell arrays with a chief cell array prepared from laser-captured chief cells, while pit and parietal cell arrays cluster ... Edu: proliferative cells; cell borders marked by E-cadherin. (F) Dividing (Ki67 positive) chief cells (gastric intrinsic factor ...
Entero-chromaffin like cells which are always close to parietal cells. Secrete histamine which is a trigger for gastric acid ... Ach acting directly on the parietal cells causing H+ secretion.. - ACh acting on the G cells that produce gastrin, which acts ... Role of chief cells. Secrete pepsinogen, precursor of the active pepsin which breaks down proteins ... How many parietal cells are in the human stomach and what is the concentration of the acid they produce? ...
... showing several enzyme-secreting chief cells with many secretory granules, and a single parietal cell, which produces stomach ... Transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of a section through the deep region of a gastric (fundus) gland, ... Gastric glands are found in the body, the gastric mucosa, and fundus of the stomach. Chief cells secrete pepsinogen. Acid ... showing several enzyme-secreting chief cells with many secretory granules, and a single parietal cell, which produces stomach ...
Cells found in the gastric glands include foveolar cells, chief cells, parietal cells, G cells and enterochromaffin-like cells ... The cells of the exocrine glands are foveolar (mucus), chief cells, and parietal cells. The other type of gastric gland is the ... Fundic glands found in the fundus and also in the body have another two cell types-gastric chief cells and parietal cells ( ... They secrete gastrin produced by their G cells. There are millions of gastric pits in the gastric mucosa and their necessary ...
contains 3 types of secretory cells. -mucous cell. -chief cells. -parietal cells ... Gastric Juice- Gastric Glands. what kind of cells does it contain? what are the 3 types? ... moves food w/ gastric juice (mix w/ food to break down). initiates digestion of proteins. carries on limited absorption. bolus ... absorptive cells w/ enzymes in them. Function: increase surface area of intestine for absorption. -contains blood & lymph ...
Gastric glands * chief cells or central cells * parietal cells or oxyntic cells ... Macula densa • Juxtaglomerular cells • Extraglomerular mesangial cell. Filtration. Glomerular basement membrane • Podocyte • ... Urethra , Testes , Scrotum , Spermatic cord , Epididymis , Seminiferous tubules , Sertoli cell , Rete testis , Efferent ducts ... Urethra , Testes , Scrotum , Spermatic cord , Epididymis , Seminiferous tubules , Sertoli cell , Rete testis , Efferent ducts ...
Basal cells , fibroblasts , prickle cells. Gastric mucosa (Aida et al. 2007). Fibroblasts , chief cells, parietal cells , neck ... Gastric mucosa. Through the measurement of cell types in the gastric mucosa, we were able to show that progressively shorter ... Fibroblasts , basal cells , parabasal cells , prickle cells. Esophageal mucosa (Kammori et al. 2006). ... The spleen consists of lymphocytes, endothelial cells, reticular cells and some other cells. Reduction of telomere length might ...
Chief Cells. Secretes pepsinogen, gastric lipase and intrinsic factor; Created by: 100000434525601 ... 1) Mixes Saliva, food, and gastric juices = chyme 2) Reservoir for food 3) Gastric juic secretion with HCL, pepsin, intrinsic ... Parietal Cells. HCL secretion --, kills microbes in food; denatures proteins; turns pepsinogen into pepsin. ... Surface Mucous Cells. Secrete mucus; form protective barrier that prevents digestion of stomach. ...
PAR-2 modulates pepsinogen secretion from gastric-isolated chief cells. Am J Physiol 285: G611-G620. ... Activation of PAR-1 appears to be cytoprotective in a gastric epithelial cell line (Toyoda et al. 2003) and in a rat model ( ... Expression and cytoprotective effect of protease-activated receptor-1 in gastric epithelial cells. Scand J Gastroenterol 38: ... cell types. Finally, PARs and their ability to promote epithelial cell proliferation are discussed in terms of colon cancer. ...
KCNQ1 is expressed in both gastric parietal and chief cells of the mouse (7). Moreover, intrinsic factor-expressing chief cells ... In rats and mice, intrinsic factor is mostly secreted by gastric chief cells, and only 4-10% of parietal cells stain positive ... Gastric Function: pH Recovery in Parietal Cells Is Drastically Reduced in kcnq1-/- Mice. Microdissected gastric glands of kcnq1 ... In gastric parietal cells, KCNQ1 colocalizes with the β-subunit KCNE2 (3, 11, 12). Pharmacological blockade of KCNQ1 by ...
PAI-2 was expressed mainly in chief and mucous cells. In a gastric cancer cell line (AGS), H. pylori increased PAI-2 expression ... by Helicobacter pylori in human gastric epithelial cells: role in epithelial cell migration. J. Cell Sci., 116: 3017-3026, 2003 ... A, AGS cells transfected with PAI-2-luc were cocultured with either AGS cells or human gastric glands on 0.2-μm pore Transwell ... Cell and Tumor Biology Helicobacter pylori Induces Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 2 in Gastric Epithelial Cells through ...
Enzyme precursor secreted by the chief cells in the stomach. Hydrochloric Acid. HCl; normal part of gastric juice in cats and ... Protein-degrading enzyme that is activated from pepsinogen in the stomach; the principal digestive component of gastric juice. ... complex, gel-like substance secreted by specific cells or mucous glands; acts as a protective barrier and lubricant. ... Area on the free surface of an epithelial cell that is covered with microvilli. ...
Parietal cells: Produce hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor.. *Gastric chief cells: Produce pepsinogen. Chief cells are ... Gastric lipase: Gastric lipase is an acidic lipase secreted by the gastric chief cells in the fundic mucosa in the stomach. It ... Pepsin is the main gastric enzyme. It is produced by the stomach cells called "chief cells" in its inactive form pepsinogen, ... Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP): This peptide decreases gastric motility and is produced by duodenal mucosal cells. ...
The gastric epithelial progenitor cell niche and differentiation of the zymogenic (chief) cell lineage. ... Tuning T Cell Signaling Sensitivity Alters the Behavior of CD4+ T Cells during an Immune Response. ... Malaria impairs T cell clustering and immune priming despite normal signal 1 from dendritic cells. ... Cell. 2015 Mar 12;160(6):1061-71. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2015.01.049. Epub 2015 Feb 26. ...
Proteins allow cells to detect and react to hormones and toxins in their surroundings, and as the chief ingredient in ... by the parietal cells located in the gastric mucosa of the GI (gastrointestinal ) tract. Hydrochloric acid provides for a very ... Molecular Cell Biology, 4th ed. New York: W. H. Freeman, 2000.. Sadava, David E. Cell Biology: Organelle Structure and Function ... epithelial cell- Sheet of cells lining organs throughout the body.. glycolysis- Cellular reaction that begins the breakdown of ...
What is neurosecretory cell? Meaning of neurosecretory cell medical term. What does neurosecretory cell mean? ... Looking for online definition of neurosecretory cell in the Medical Dictionary? neurosecretory cell explanation free. ... chief cells 1. columnar or cuboidal epithelial cells that line the lower portions of the gastric glands and secrete pepsin. ... See also betz cells, gauchers cells, golgis cells, hela cells, hürthle cell, kupffers cells, merkel cell, mesangial cell, ...
... segmented cell explanation free. What is segmented cell? Meaning of segmented cell medical term. What does segmented cell mean? ... Looking for online definition of segmented cell in the Medical Dictionary? ... chalice cell. Goblet cell.. chemoreceptor cell. Chemoreceptor.. chief cell. 1. Any of the cells of the parathyroid gland that ... oxyntic cell. A parietal cell of the gastric glands; it produces hydrochloric acid and the intrinsic factor. ...
gastric chief cell, Wasmanns glands. stomach. serous. - glomus coccygeum, coccygeal gland, Luschkas gland or ganglion. coccyx ... Examples include chief cells and Paneth cells. *Mucous cells secrete mucus. Examples include Brunners glands, esophageal ... Merocrine glands - cells secrete their substances by exocytosis. Also called "eccrine.". Product secreted. *Serous cells ... goblet cells. digestive tract, respiratory tract. mucous. simple unicellular Henles glands. eyelids, in the conjuctiva. -. ...
... cells in the stomach revert to stem cells and lead to cancer, but new results do not observe such dedifferentiation. ... M. Hata et al., "GPR30-expressing gastric chief cells do not dedifferentiate but are eliminated via PDK-dependent cell ... conclusions depend largely on the assertion that GRP30 labels all chief cells and only chief cells, which he does not think has ... Regardless of whether the chief cell hypothesis turns out to be true, the question of how SPEM gives rise to gastric cancer ...
Chief cells, located at the bottom of the gastric pits, secrete enzymes important in the breakdown of foodstuffs. Click on the ... and is organized into units called gastric pits. Parietal cells secrete HCl while neck and surface mucus cells secrete mucus to ... An epithlielium lines the interior of the stomach (gastric epithelium). This epithelium contains many cell types, ... In the lungs red blood cells exchange carbon dioxide for oxygen. mesentary: The mesentaries connect the intestines and internal ...
Pepsinogen is secreted by chief cells in the gastric glands of the body and antrum of the stomach. ... en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gastric_acid. Gastric acid, gastric juice, or stomach acid, is a digestive fluid formed in the stomach ... The role of hydrochloric acid in the stomach, along with the other gastric juices, is to break down foods and cause the release ... Hydrochloric acid (also known as stomach acid) is the main component of gastric juices produced in the stomach. It is the only ...
Within these pits are parietal cells and chief cells. The parietal cells pump hydrogen ions (H+) and chloride ions (Cl-) into ... the gastric proton pump) of the gastric parietal cells.8 Stated another way, PPIs essentially shut down the pumps that make ... The chief cells have primary responsibility for production of pepsinogen.) Protein digestion, therefore, is initiated in the ... These drugs work by reversibly blocking the H2 receptors of the gastric parietal cells responsible for acid secretion and, in ...
We also found that Wnt-5a is expressed in Chief cells in normal gastric mucosa. It is generally believed that stem cells are ... Actions of Wnt-5a on cell growth and migration of gastric cancer cells. Comparison of various gastric cancer cell lines ... Cell, Tumor, and Stem Cell Biology Expression of Wnt-5a Is Correlated with Aggressiveness of Gastric Cancer by Stimulating Cell ... and then cell numbers were counted. B, stimulation of cell migration by Wnt-5a. a, the indicated gastric cells were placed in ...
Gastric juice is responsible for breaking down foods you eat so digestion can continue in the small intestine. Learn what its ... Neck cells secrete bicarbonate and mucus. Parietal cells secrete hydrochloric acid. Chief cells secrete pepsinogen. ... Gastric lipase is another digestive enzyme made by the chief cells. It helps break down short and medium chain fats. ... Finally, the gastric juices contain water and mucus. The mucus is secreted by the neck cells and helps coat and protect your ...
Cells 1. Chief cells or zymogenic cellsGastric amylase - digests CHO  Gastric lipase - digests fats  Pepsin - proteins  ... Gastric analysis reveals A. INCIDENCE RATE  Normal gastric acid secretion if gastric 1. Men  Increased gastric acid secretion ... gastric ischemia milk and milk containing products 4. Alcoholism  release of histamine  parietal cells 2. Admin meds as ... Gastric  Duodenal Differences Gastric Ulcer Duodenal Ulcer (90%) Location Antrum Duodenal bulb Pain 30 mins-1hour p.c. 2-3 ...
  • Oxyntic glands, the predominant type of gastric gland, comprise several types of fully differentiated epithelial cells, including acid-secreting parietal cells and pepsinogen-secreting chief cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Parietal cells, thus, play a key role in the homeostasis of gastric glands, with the loss of these cells being considered an early and critical event in the histopathologic progression of the stomach epithelium and eventual development of gastric cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These cells are located in the gastric glands found in the lining of the fundus and in the cardia of the stomach . (answersdrive.com)
  • The secretions of the exocrine gastric glands - composed of the mucous, parietal, and chief cells - make up the gastric juice. (answersdrive.com)
  • Chief cells (B or arrow) are located, in cluster, at the base of the glands. (answersdrive.com)
  • G cells are found deep within the pyloric glands of the stomach antrum, and occasionally in the pancreas and duodenum. (answersdrive.com)
  • Intrinsic factor is a glycoprotein secreted by parietal (humans) or chief (rodents) cells of the gastric mucosa. (answersdrive.com)
  • Appetite and energy expenditure are regulated in part by ghrelin and leptin produced in the gastric mucosa, which may be modified by H. pylori colonization. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we show that the gastric parietal cell (PC) is a key cellular component of the previously undescribed niche for the gastric epithelial neck cell, the progenitor of the digestive enzyme secreting zymogenic (chief) cell (ZC). (nih.gov)
  • This high rate of turnover is a protective mechanism designed to protect the epithelial lining of the stomach from both the proteolytic action of pepsin and the acid produced by parietal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gastric chief cells are epithelial cells which are found within the gastric unit or gastric gland, and form the base of the gastric unit. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD44 variant (CD44v) that enhances the ability to defend against reactive oxygen species (ROS) in epithelial cells is expressed de novo in SPEM of K19-Wnt1 / C2mE mice, a transgenic model of gastric tumorigenesis, and is required for the efficient development of SPEM and gastric tumor in these animals. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Parietal cells (also known as oxyntic or delomorphous cells), are the epithelial cells that secrete hydrochloric acid (HCl) and intrinsic factor. (answersdrive.com)
  • Chronic inflammation induces histopathologic progression of the stomach epithelium leading to the development of metaplasia followed by gastric adenocarcinoma ( 1, 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Inflammation of the gastric epithelium results in a gradual loss of parietal cells and their replacement with proliferative metaplastic cells derived from transdifferentiated chief cells ( 3, 4 ), suggesting that chronic inflammation disrupts homeostasis of the gastric epithelium by altering the viability or differentiation status of these differentiated cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • [2] This type of cell also secretes gastric lipase enzymes, which help digest triglycerides into free fatty acids and di- and mono-glycerides. (wikipedia.org)
  • These enzymes include gastric lipase, rennin and pepsin, which is secreted as pepsinogen and activated in the lumen. (answersdrive.com)
  • The gastric chief cell (also known as a zymogenic cell or peptic cell) is a cell in the stomach that releases pepsinogen [1] and chymosin . (wikipedia.org)
  • Pepsinogen is activated into the digestive enzyme pepsin when it comes in contact with acid produced by gastric parietal cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • Leptin has been found in the pepsinogen granules of chief cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Parietal cells produce gastric acid (hydrochloric acid) in response to histamine (via H2 receptors), acetylcholine (M3 receptors) and gastrin (gastrin receptors). (answersdrive.com)
  • In anatomy, the G cell (or γ-cell) is a type of cell in the stomach and duodenum that secretes gastrin. (answersdrive.com)
  • Parietal cells secrete hydrochloric acid and chief cells secrete digestive enzymes such as pepsin. (answersdrive.com)
  • [1] These stem cells differentiate into mucous neck cells in the isthmus and transition into chief cells as they migrate towards the base. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the mucus neck cells do not divide as it becomes a chief cell this process is known as transdifferentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • [6] The gene Mist1 has been shown to regulate mucus neck cell to chief cell transdifferentiation and plays a role in the normal development of the chief cell organelles and structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • In gastric tissue, a loss of parietal cells due to chronic inflammation has been shown to affect chief cell differentiation and can induce chief cells to transdifferentiate back into neck cells and can lead to the formation of mucus cell metaplasia known as spasmolytic polypeptide expressing metaplasia (SPEM) that could be precancerous. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oral treatment with the antioxidant ascorbic acid or genetic ablation of the Ink4a/Arf locus, a major downstream target of ROS-p38 MAPK signaling, inhibited parietal cell loss and the subsequent gastric tumorigenesis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • [5] Gastric chief cells are much longer lived and are believed to differentiate from stem cells located higher in the gastric unit in the isthmus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the characteristic histology of the gastric unit, with PCs in the middle and ZCs in the base, may depend on establishment of an ordered adherens junction network in ZCs as they migrate into the base. (nih.gov)
  • THE STOMACH does not digest itself because it is lined with epithial cells, which produce mucus. (answersdrive.com)
  • Goblet cells reside throughout the length of the small and large intestine and are responsible for the production and maintenance of the protective mucus blanket by synthesizing and secreting high-molecular- weight glycoproteins known as mucins. (answersdrive.com)
  • The gastric chief cell also contains many large secretory vesicles filled with digestive enzymes in the apical cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • [9] The gastric chief cell has an extensive network of lamellar rough endoplasmic reticulum organized around the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two main types of exocrine secretory cells of the stomach are parietal cells and chief cells. (answersdrive.com)
  • Parietal cells contain an extensive secretory network (called canaliculi) from which the HCl is secreted by active transport into the stomach . (answersdrive.com)
  • Genetic ablation of PCs led to failed patterning of the entire zymogenic lineage: progenitors showed premature expression of differentiated cell markers, and fully differentiated ZCs failed to develop. (nih.gov)
  • [3] There is also evidence that the gastric chief cell secretes leptin in response to the presence of food in the stomach. (wikipedia.org)
  • Are parietal cells endocrine or exocrine? (answersdrive.com)
  • The products of the endocrine cells are secreted directly into the bloodstream and are not a part of the gastric juice. (answersdrive.com)
  • We hypothesized that gastric H. pylori colonization affects the physiologic regulation of gut hormones involved in food intake, energy expenditure, and body weight maintenance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) is triggered by the parietal cell loss, and is recognized as a precancerous lesion ( 5, 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, the cell fate decisions that specify the development of multiple, diverse lineages are governed in large part by interactions of stem and early lineage progenitor cells with their microenvironment, or niche. (nih.gov)
  • Surprisingly, these mislocalized PCs did not maintain adjacent zymogenic lineage cells in the progenitor state, demonstrating that PCs, though necessary, are not sufficient to define the progenitor niche. (nih.gov)