Epithelial cells that line the basal half of the GASTRIC GLANDS. Chief cells synthesize and export an inactive enzyme PEPSINOGEN which is converted into the highly proteolytic enzyme PEPSIN in the acid environment of the STOMACH.
Proenzymes secreted by chief cells, mucous neck cells, and pyloric gland cells, which are converted into pepsin in the presence of gastric acid or pepsin itself. (Dorland, 28th ed) In humans there are 2 related pepsinogen systems: PEPSINOGEN A (formerly pepsinogen I or pepsinogen) and PEPSINOGEN C (formerly pepsinogen II or progastricsin). Pepsinogen B is the name of a pepsinogen from pigs.
Rounded or pyramidal cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS. They secrete HYDROCHLORIC ACID and produce gastric intrinsic factor, a glycoprotein that binds VITAMIN B12.
Two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the NECK and adjacent to the two lobes of THYROID GLAND. They secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.
Large cells with small irregular nuclei and dense acidophilic granules due to the presence of abundant MITOCHONDRIA. Oxyphil cells, also known as oncocytes, are found in oncocytomas of the kidney, salivary glands, and endocrine glands. In the thyroid gland, oxyphil cells are known as Hurthle cells and Askenazy cells.
Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.
This is one of 2 related pepsinogen systems in humans and is also known as pepsinogen. (The other is PEPSINOGEN C.) This includes isozymogens Pg1-Pg5 (pepsinogens 1-5, group I or products of PGA1-PGA5 genes). This is the main pepsinogen found in urine.
Pathological processes of the PARATHYROID GLANDS. They usually manifest as hypersecretion or hyposecretion of PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.
A glycoprotein secreted by the cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS that is required for the absorption of VITAMIN B 12 (cyanocobalamin). Deficiency of intrinsic factor leads to VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY and ANEMIA, PERNICIOUS.
Tumors or cancer of the PARATHYROID GLANDS.
An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.
A species of HELICOBACTER that colonizes in the STOMACH of laboratory MICE; CATS; and DOGS. It is associated with lymphoid follicular hyperplasia and mild GASTRITIS in CATS.
An octapeptide hormone present in the intestine and brain. When secreted from the gastric mucosa, it stimulates the release of bile from the gallbladder and digestive enzymes from the pancreas.
A condition in which there is a change of one adult cell type to another similar adult cell type.
This is one of the 2 related pepsinogen systems in humans. It is found in prostate and seminal fluid whereas PEPSINOGEN A is not.
A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH) triggering responses that increase blood CALCIUM. It is characterized by HYPERCALCEMIA and BONE RESORPTION, eventually leading to bone diseases. PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is caused by parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is increased PTH secretion in response to HYPOCALCEMIA, usually caused by chronic KIDNEY DISEASES.
The superior portion of the body of the stomach above the level of the cardiac notch.
A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.
Individuals who have the formal authority to manage a hospital, including its programs and services, in accordance with the goals and objectives established by a governing body (GOVERNING BOARD).
A class of G-protein-coupled receptors that react to varying extracellular CALCIUM levels. Calcium-sensing receptors in the PARATHYROID GLANDS play an important role in the maintenance of calcium HOMEOSTASIS by regulating the release of PARATHYROID HORMONE. They differ from INTRACELLULAR CALCIUM-SENSING PROTEINS which sense intracellular calcium levels.
An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Neuroendocrine cells in the glands of the GASTRIC MUCOSA. They produce HISTAMINE and peptides such as CHROMOGRANINS. ECL cells respond to GASTRIN by releasing histamine which acts as a paracrine stimulator of the release of HYDROCHLORIC ACID from the GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
Formed from pig pepsinogen by cleavage of one peptide bond. The enzyme is a single polypeptide chain and is inhibited by methyl 2-diaazoacetamidohexanoate. It cleaves peptides preferentially at the carbonyl linkages of phenylalanine or leucine and acts as the principal digestive enzyme of gastric juice.
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.
A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.
Exotoxins produced by certain strains of streptococci, particularly those of group A (STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES), that cause HEMOLYSIS.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
A family of gastrointestinal peptide hormones that excite the secretion of GASTRIC JUICE. They may also occur in the central nervous system where they are presumed to be neurotransmitters.
A class of cell surface receptors for TACHYKININS with a preference for SUBSTANCE P. Neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptors have been cloned and are members of the G protein coupled receptor superfamily. They are found on many cell types including central and peripheral neurons, smooth muscle cells, acinar cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and immune cells.
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
Physicians who serve in a medical and administrative capacity as head of an organized medical staff and who also may serve as liaison for the medical staff with the administration and governing board.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.
Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
An annular transitional zone, approximately 1 mm wide, between the cornea and the bulbar conjunctiva and sclera. It is highly vascular and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea. It is ophthalmologically significant in that it appears on the outer surface of the eyeball as a slight furrow, marking the line between the clear cornea and the sclera. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The predominant milk-clotting enzyme from the true stomach or abomasum of the suckling calf. It is secreted as an inactive precursor called prorennin and converted in the acid environment of the stomach to the active enzyme. EC 3.4.23.4.
A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.
The branch of medicine concerned with the physiological and pathological aspects of the aged, including the clinical problems of senescence and senility.
Maintenance of TELOMERE length. During DNA REPLICATION, chromosome ends loose some of their telomere sequence (TELOMERE SHORTENING.) Various cellular mechanism are involved in repairing, extending, and recapping the telomere ends.
The spontaneous transplantation of splenic tissue to unusual sites after open splenic trauma, e.g., after automobile accidents, gunshot or stab wounds. The splenic pulp implants appear as red-blue nodules on the peritoneum, omentum, and mesentery, morphologically similar to multifocal pelvic endometriosis. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.

Reappraisal of potassium permanganate oxidation applied to Lowicryl K4M embedded tissues processed by high pressure freezing/freeze substitution, with special reference to differential staining of the zymogen granules of rat gastric chief cells. (1/37)

The high pressure freezing/freeze substitution technique is known to yield a deep vitreous freezing of tissues. Combination of this technique with Lowicryl K4M embedding allows us histochemical studies of dynamic cellular processes with improved structural preservation. The disadvantage of Lowicryl K4M embedding is its poor electron density in electron microscopy. To address this problem, we examined the effects of KMnO4 oxidation applied to Lowicryl K4M embedded rat gastric glands processed by high pressure freezing. The KMnO4 oxidation-uranyl acetate-lead citrate sequence succeeded not only in contrast enhancement of cellular components, but also in differential staining of the zymogen granules of rat gastric chief cells. This technique could be applied to semi-thin sections of Lowicryl K4M embedded rat gastric glands. The KMnO4 oxidation-toluidine blue staining provided sufficient contrast with regard to the zymogen granules. Various experiments used in this study verified that the KMnO4 oxidation plays an essential role in the differential staining of the zymogen granules. Combined use of the KMnO4 oxidation with phospholipase A2-immunostaining demonstrated that gold labeling was localized to the zymogen granules without the loss of immunolabeling. Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis revealed some manganese depositions on the zymogen granules. It is highly anticipated that the KMnO4 oxidation will become a useful tool for histochemical investigations combined with cryofixation/freeze substitution and low temperature embedding techniques.  (+info)

Acute parietal and chief cell changes induced by a lethal dose of lipopolysaccharide in mouse stomach before thrombus formation. (2/37)

The common lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced gastric lesions, such as erosions or ulcers, have been investigated in depth. Little is known, however, about the acute gastric lesions following a high dose of LPS. In a time-course study, ICR female mice were given a high subcutaneous dose of LPS (50 mg/kg). Mice were sacrificed at 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours after dosing and were assessed histopathologically for acute gastric lesions. The major gastric changes were seen in the fundic region and included vacuolar degeneration of parietal cells and apoptosis of chief cells. The vacuole in parietal cells was apparent as early as 4 hours postinjection (PI), and apoptosis of chief cells was apparent at 12 hours PI. Thrombus formation, in contrast, was not seen until 24 hours PI. No erosion, ulcer, or hemorrhage was seen in any gastric region in any of the treated animals at 24 hours PI. These results indicate that a subcutaneous high dose of LPS in mice causes vacuolar degeneration of parietal cells and apoptosis of chief cells before thrombus formation or subsequent ulcerative lesions.  (+info)

The LIM and SH3 domain-containing protein, lasp-1, may link the cAMP signaling pathway with dynamic membrane restructuring activities in ion transporting epithelia. (3/37)

Lasp-1 is a unique LIM and src homology 3 (SH3) domain-containing protein that was initially identified as a 40 kDa cAMP-dependent phosphoprotein in the HCl-secreting gastric parietal cell. Because cAMP is a potent stimulator of parietal cell acid secretion, we have hypothesized that changes in lasp-1 phosphorylation might be involved in the regulation of ion transport-related activities, perhaps by modulating interactions among cytoskeletal and/or vesicle-associated proteins. In this study, we demonstrate that the cAMP-dependent acid secretory agonist, histamine, induces a rapid, sustained rise in parietal cell lasp-1 phosphorylation and this increase in phosphorylation is closely correlated with the acid secretory response. In addition, elevation of intracellular cAMP concentrations appear to induce a partial redistribution of lasp-1 from the cell cortex, where it predominates along with the gamma-isoform of actin in unstimulated cells, to the beta-actin enriched, apically-directed intracellular canalicular region, which is the site of active proton transport in the parietal cell. Additional studies demonstrate that although lasp-1 mRNA and protein are expressed in a wide range of tissues, the expression is specific for certain actin-rich cell types present within these tissues. For example, gastric chief cells, which contain relatively little F-actin and secrete the enzyme, pepsinogen, by regulated exocytosis, do not appear to express lasp-1. Similarly, lasp-1 was not detected in pancreatic acinar cells, which secrete enzymes by similar mechanisms and also contain relatively low levels of F-actin. Lasp-1 also was not detectable in proximal tubules in the kidney, in gastrointestinal smooth muscle, heart or skeletal muscle. In contrast, expression was prominent in the cortical regions of ion-transporting duct cells in the pancreas and in the salivary parotid gland as well as in certain F-actin-rich cells in the distal tubule/collecting duct. Interestingly, moderate levels of expression were also detected in podocytes present in renal glomeruli and in vascular endothelium. In primary cultures of gastric fibroblasts, lasp-1 was present mainly within the tips of lamellipodia and at the leading edges of membrane ruffles. Taken together these results support the hypothesis that the lasp-1 plays an important role in the regulation of dynamic actin-based, cytoskeletal activities. Agonist-dependent changes in lasp-1 phosphorylation may also serve to regulate actin-associated ion transport activities, not only in the parietal cell but also in certain other F-actin-rich secretory epithelial cell types.  (+info)

Mist1 expression is a common link among serous exocrine cells exhibiting regulated exocytosis. (4/37)

Mist1 is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that represses E-box-mediated transcription. Previous studies have suggested that the Mist1 gene is expressed in a wide range of tissues, although a complete characterization of Mist1 protein accumulation in the adult organism has not been described. In an effort to identify specific cell types that contain the Mist1 protein, antibodies specific for Mist1 were generated and used in Western blot and immunohistochemical assays. Our studies show that the Mist1 protein is present in many different tissues but that it is restricted to cell types that are exclusively secretory in nature. Pancreatic acinar cells, serous or seromucous cells of the salivary glands, chief cells of the stomach, and secretory cells of the prostate and seminal vesicle show high levels of Mist1 protein, whereas nonserous exocrine cells, including the mucus-producing cells of the salivary glands, remain Mist1 negative. These results identify Mist1 as the first transcription factor that exhibits this unique serous-specific expression pattern and suggest that Mist1 may have a key role in establishing and maintaining a pathway responsible for the exocytosis of serous secretions.  (+info)

Leptin secretion and leptin receptor in the human stomach. (5/37)

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The circulating peptide leptin produced by fat cells acts on central receptors to control food intake and body weight homeostasis. Contrary to initial reports, leptin expression has also been detected in the human placenta, muscles, and recently, in rat gastric chief cells. Here we investigate the possible presence of leptin and leptin receptor in the human stomach. METHODS: Leptin and leptin receptor expression were assessed by immunohistochemistry, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and western blot analysis on biopsy samples from 24 normal individuals. Fourteen (10 healthy volunteers and four patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia and normal gastric mucosa histology) were analysed for gastric secretions. Plasma and fundic mucosa leptin content was determined by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: In fundic biopsies from normal individuals, immunoreactive leptin cells were found in the lower half of the fundic glands. mRNA encoding ob protein was detected in the corpus of the human stomach. The amount of fundic leptin was 10.4 (3.7) ng leptin/g mucosa, as determined by radioimmunoassay. Intravenous infusions of pentagastrin or secretin caused an increase in circulating leptin levels and leptin release into the gastric juice. The leptin receptor was present in the basolateral membranes of fundic and antral gastric cells. mRNA encoding Ob-RL was detected in both the corpus and antrum, consistent with a protein of approximately 120 kDa detected by immunoblotting. CONCLUSION: These data provide the first evidence of the presence of leptin and leptin receptor proteins in the human stomach and suggest that gastric epithelial cells may be direct targets for leptin. Therefore, we conclude that leptin may have a physiological role in the human stomach, although much work is required to establish this.  (+info)

Association of protein kinase A with AKAP150 facilitates pepsinogen secretion from gastric chief cells. (6/37)

Cross talk between signal transduction pathways augments pepsinogen secretion from gastric chief cells. A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) associate with regulatory subunits of protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C (PKC), and protein phosphatase 2B (PP2B) and localize this protein complex to specific cell compartments. We determined whether an AKAP-signaling protein complex exists in chief cells and whether this modulates secretion. In Western blots, we identified AKAP150, a rodent homologue of human AKAP79 that coimmunoprecipitates with PKA, PKC, and actin. The association of PKA and PP2B was demonstrated by affinity chromatography. Confocal microscopy revealed colocalized staining at the cell periphery for AKAP150 and PKC. Ht31, a peptide that competitively displaces PKA from the AKAP complex, but not Ht31P, a control peptide, inhibited 8-Br-cAMP-induced pepsinogen secretion. Ht31 did not inhibit secretion that was stimulated by agents whose actions are mediated by PKC and/or calcium. However, Ht31, but not Ht31P, inhibited carbachol- and A23187-stimulated augmentation of secretion from cells preincubated with cholera toxin. These data suggest the existence in chief cells of a protein complex that includes AKAP150, PKA, PKC, and PP2B. Disruption of the AKAP-PKA linkage impairs cAMP-mediated pepsinogen secretion and cross talk between signaling pathways.  (+info)

Laminins and TGF-beta maintain cell polarity and functionality of human gastric glandular epithelium. (7/37)

The human gastric glandular epithelium produces a gastric lipase enzyme (HGL) that plays an important role in digestion of dietary triglycerides. To assess the involvement of extracellular matrix components and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) in the regulation of this enzymic function, normal gastric epithelial cells were cultured on collagen type I, Matrigel, and laminins (LN)-1 and -2 with or without TGF-beta1. Epithelial morphology and HGL expression were evaluated using microscopy techniques, enzymic assays, Western blot, Northern hybridization, and RT-PCR. A correlation was observed between the cell polarity status and the level of HGL expression. TGF-beta1 alone or individual matrix components stimulated cell spreading and caused a downfall of HGL activity and mRNA. By contrast, Matrigel preserved the morphological features of differentiated epithelial cells and maintained HGL expression. The combination of LNs with TGF-beta1 (two constituents of Matrigel) exerted similar beneficial effects on epithelial cell polarity and evoked a 10-fold increase of HGL levels that was blunted by a neutralizing antibody against the alpha(2)-integrin subunit and by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors PD-98059 (p42/p44) or SB-203580 (p38). This investigation demonstrates for the first time that a powerful synergism between a growth factor and basement membrane LNs positively influences cell polarity and functionality of the human gastric glandular epithelium through an activation of the alpha(2)beta(1)-integrin and effectors of two MAPK pathways.  (+info)

Defining epithelial cell progenitors in the human oxyntic mucosa. (8/37)

In the human stomach, the oxyntic epithelium includes numerous tubular invaginations consisting of short pits opening into long glands. The pit is lined by pit cells, whereas the gland is composed of three regions: the base, containing zymogenic cells; the neck, containing neck cells; and the isthmus, composed of little known immature cells and of parietal cells, which are also scattered through the neck and base. The aim of this study was to examine the ultrastructure of the immature cells and to determine their relation to mature cells. To do so, normal oxyntic mucosal biopsies from subjects ranging from 20-43 years old were fixed in aldehydes and postfixed in reduced osmium for electron microscopy and morphometric analysis. The immature cells were sorted out into four classes, whose roles were clarified by comparison with the thoroughly investigated mouse oxyntic epithelium. The first class was composed of the least differentiated immature cells, which were rare and characterized by minute, dense, or cored secretory granules and were accordingly named mini-granule cells. Their function was not clarified. The second class consisted of pre-pit cells, which were characterized by few dense mucous granules and give rise to pit cells that ascend the pit wall and, after reaching the luminal surface, die or are extruded. Both pre-pit and pit cells underwent continuous renewal and, therefore, together constituted a renewal system referred to as pit cell lineage. The third class, or pre-neck cells, characterized by cored secretory granules, give rise to neck cells that descend toward the base region and differentiate further into pre-zymogenic cells, which finally become zymogenic cells. The latter eventually degenerate and die. Thus pre-neck cells and their progeny constitute a renewing system, designated zymogenic cell lineage. The fourth class, or pre-parietal cells, characterized by long microvilli and few tubulovesicles, differentiate into parietal cells that descend along the neck and base regions and eventually degenerate and die. Pre-parietal and parietal cells represent a renewing system referred to as parietal cell lineage. While the origin of the last three classes of progenitor cells has not been elucidated, it is likely that they arise either from an unidentified multipotential stem cell, possibly the mini-granule cell itself, or from the mitotic activity of pre-pit and pre-neck cells. In conclusion, the human oxyntic epithelium is composed of continually renewing cells organized in distinct cell lineages.  (+info)

The gastric chief cell (also known as a zymogenic cell or peptic cell) is a cell in the stomach that releases pepsinogen[1] and chymosin. Pepsinogen is activated into the digestive enzyme pepsin when it comes in contact with acid produced by gastric parietal cells.[2] This type of cell also secretes gastric lipase enzymes, which help digest triglycerides into free fatty acids and di- and mono-glycerides.[3] There is also evidence that the gastric chief cell secretes leptin in response to the presence of food in the stomach. Leptin has been found in the pepsinogen granules of chief cells.[4] Gastric pit cells are replaced every 2-4 days. This high rate of turnover is a protective mechanism designed to protect the epithelial lining of the stomach from both the proteolytic action of pepsin and the acid produced by parietal cells.[5] Gastric chief cells are much longer lived and are believed to differentiate from stem cells located higher in the gastric unit in the isthmus.[1] These stem cells ...
Definition of chief cell in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is chief cell? Meaning of chief cell as a finance term. What does chief cell mean in finance?
Gastrointestinal malignancies are strongly linked to chronic inflammation (25-29). Gastric tumorigenesis in K19-Wnt1/C2mE mice was also recently shown to be suppressed by knockout of either TNFα or its receptor TNFR1, suggesting that TNFα-dependent inflammation plays a key role in the development of gastric cancer (30). Furthermore, the development of SPEM in response to acute parietal cell loss is dependent on the recruitment of macrophages to the gastric epithelium (31). Together, these findings suggest that inflammation triggers the histopathologic alterations of gastric epithelium that leads to tumor development. We have now shown that the inflammation-associated ROS plays a key role in the parietal cell loss that is an early and critical step in the development of SPEM, and the subsequent formation of gastric tumors. The accumulation of ROS triggers the p38MAPK-p16INK4a/p19ARF signaling pathway selectively in parietal cells and the consequent induction of parietal cell loss. In fact, ...
Appetite-reducing hormones, such as amylin, insulin, GIP, GLP-1, PP, and PYY, produced in the small intestine and pancreas are important in mammalian energy homeostasis, [32-35], as is leptin which is produced mostly by adipocytes, but also by gastric chief cells [6]. Importantly, gastric oxyntic endocrine cells [36] account for 65-80% of the bodys total ghrelin production. H. pylori colonization status has been correlated with circulating and gastric mucosal leptin levels [9], and with gastric mRNA expression and plasma levels of ghrelin [9, 37]. We now identified substantial effects of H. pylori eradication on meal-associated changes in gastric hormones and energy balance, confirming and extending prior studies in a more rigorous manner [13, 38].. That H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative subjects had similar baseline digestive hormonal physiologies (Additional file 3, Table S4) may reflect the highly integrated cross-regulation of energy homeostasis, [39] and the long-term equilibria ...
The two main types of exocrine secretory cells of the stomach are parietal cells and chief cells. Parietal cells secrete hydrochloric acid and chief cells secrete digestive enzymes such as pepsin.
In the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, the cell fate decisions that specify the development of multiple, diverse lineages are governed in large part by interactions of stem and early lineage progenitor cells with their microenvironment, or niche. Here, we show that the gastric parietal cell (PC) i …
Zymogenic cell definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now!
...Histology MCQs GIT (Questions and Answers)...Which cells secrete hydrochloric acid? a. Parietal cells b. Oxyntic cells c. Chief cells d. Mucous neck cells
Bill Cos-by is not just a come-di-an and an actor - although hes pret-ty good at both - hes also been a tire-less advo-cate for social respon-si-bil-i-ty and edu-ca-tion and a con-stant friend to the Navy, Mabus said. Last year was the high-est com-pli-ment Ive ever received -- being made an hon-orary chief pet-ty offi-cer, and now Dr. Cos-by -- youre about to get the same hon-or.. Cos-by holds a doc-tor of edu-ca-tion degree from the Uni-ver-si-ty of Mass-a-chu-setts.. Mabus and West placed chief pet-ty offi-cer anchors on Cos-by in front of a huge gath-er-ing of chief pet-ty offi-cers and oth-er sailors. West helped Cos-by don a chief hos-pi-tal corpsmans ser-vice dress blue jack-et, and Mabus pre-sent-ed Cos-by with the accom-pa-ny-ing visored hat.. I will tell to you like I tell all of our new chiefs … when I pin these anchors on you, your job isnt over and your jour-ney is just begin-ning, West said to Cos-by. There is no greater hon-or than hav-ing earned the title Chief - ...
Chief Keef Net Worth is $500 Thousand. Chief Keef net worth: Chief Keefs net worth is $500 thousand dollars. Chief Keef, also known as Keith Cozart, was born in Chicago, Illinois. He was arrested for aggravated unlawful use of a weapon, and put un
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cell death, or apoptosis (Kerr et al., 1972; One part of proliferated epithelia migrates Wyllie et al., 1980; Thompson, 1995; Raff, 1998). This article will focus on the role of which line the foveolae (pits) and the consideration of gastric histology, which epithelia migrate downwards in the gastric differs in the four anatomical subsites of glands. In the antrum, they differentiate the stomach. These four zones, i.e. cardia, within few days to mucous-secreting cells forming the pyloric glands. In the fundus for the TNM classification system) (UICC, and corpus, they differentiate within few 1997) are lined by two basically different weeks to chief cells, parietal cells, and suspected precursor cells can be identified mucosa is characterized by rather straight, Proliferation kinetics of the gastric antral cells, chief (or zymogenic) cells, parietal have concentrated on proliferation of the 1997). A second type of mucosa is present foveloar epithelium (Lipkin et al., 1963; in the distal third ...
From chairman to chief of the National Guard Bureau, here are the current Joint Chiefs of Staff PositionName, group Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Gen. Joseph F. Dunford, Jr., U.S.
Health, Sarasota Fla (PRWEB) September 07 2017 AltMed Enterprises a fully i,AltMed,Enterprises,Appoints,Matthew,Duffy,as,President,and,Chief,Operating,Officer,,and,Mark,Miller,as,Chief,Financial,Officer,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
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Im from Fresno and was headed to Knotts Berry Farm when tragedy strike... read through much more Im from Fresno and was headed to Knotts Berry Farm when tragedy strikes!! motor vehicle troubles!!!! I Phone Chief Cell MEchanic and Ali picks up, discusses the car hassle with me and suggests, Im 25 minutes away but Ill be there in forty and itll be eighty bucks.. which came to my shock as I had been expecting to hear not less than $two hundred since it was after hrs. twenty minutes later on, Ali demonstrates up with his mobile garage and stuck the issue within just twenty minutes ...
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by DigitalPh33r Bungie has given Master Chief the secret Recon armor thanks to the Arbiter, but the Chief has developed a terrible attitude as a result, and unleashes it by doing something terrible.
Gerresheimer AG - Düsseldorf (ots) - Dr. Bernd Metzner (48) is to become Chief Financial Officer of Gerresheimer AG, taking up office at the latest on July 1, 2019. Dr. Bernd Metzner has been Chief Financial Officer of SDAX-listed Ströer SE & ...
Rabia Ozden has joined Akouos as chief development officer. She was most recently the chief medical officer of gene therapy developer Nightstar
The Chief Ombudsman Peter Boshier has launched investigations into the Ministry of Healths oversight of facilities and services for intellectually disabled people with high and complex needs.
There was a broad consensus among G20 financial chiefs that open trade was key to strengthening economic resilience, German Finance Minister Wolfgang Schaeuble said on Saturday, downplaying the lack of a clear rejection of protectionism. Some members like France said they were frustrated by the
Invacare Corporation today announced the resignation of Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer Robert K. Gudbranson, who will be leaving the company to pursue a new opportunity, effective November 26, 2017.
Last week, numerous media outlets highlighted a working paper submitted to the National Bureau of Economic Research contending that Chief Diversity Officers hav
Chiefs are expected to decide the fate of the former Boca Juniors frontman in the near future, with the player currently undergoing a medical
PharmAthene Appoints Industry Leader Thomas R. Fuerst Chief Scientific Officer Seasoned R&D and Manufacturing Executive Brings Over Two Decades of Specialized Experience to PharmAthene ANNAPOLIS,
Read Warner Bros chief Kevin Tsujihara steps down amid Charlotte Kirk affair scandal latest on ITV News. All the Entertainment news
With Jung-jae Lee, Min-a Shin, Dong-jun Kim, Kap-su Kim. As a chief of staff in the National Assembly, Jang Tae-jun influences power behind the scenes while pursuing his own ambitions to rise to the top.
Industry Leader John Reynders Joins Moderna Therapeutics as Chief Information Officer CAMBRIDGE, Mass., May 22, 2013 /PRNewswire/ -- Moderna Therapeutics, the pioneering company developing messenger...
As the registration for the third phase vaccination, covering people between 18-44 years, has started today, Ram Sewak Sharma, Chief of CoWin portal where eligible people have to register themselves, said the government is expecting the daily registration numbers to double from the existing 50 lakhs.
/PRNewswire/ -- Dianrong today announced the appointment of Tony Zhang as Chief Technology Officer (CTO). Mr. Zhang will report to Long Hsiang Loh, CEO of...
Dr. Richard Green is to retire in late 2009, meaning CableLabs will be seeking a new chief for the first time in its 20-year history
Sheain Fernandopulle Courtesy The Daily Mirror There is always a possibility of sub-clusters emerging from the Minuwangoda main cluster and one has already been created from a private apparel factory in Katunayake, Chief Epidemiologist Dr Sudath Samaraweera said today. He told the media that each case reported daily was either directly or indirectly linked to […]
McLaren believe new chief engineer Peter Prodromou will help drive the team to future success, after confirming his return on Monday.
Future FinTech Group Inc. (NASDAQ: FTFT) (hereinafter referred to as "Future Fintech", "FTFT" or "Company" ) a leading blockchain e-commerce company and a service provider for financial technology, today announced it has appointed Mr. Weicheng Pan as Chief Strategy Officer
Few health organizations or consumers feel theyve achieved their goals of improved outcomes, lower cost and higher satisfaction. And clinicians are overwhelmed with administrative volume and complexity. A new role is needed to synchronize the needs of providers, health plans and patients - Chief Outcomes Officer ...
Chicago-based insurer CNA has appointed Jane Possell as chief information officer. Possell will be responsible for leading the development and execution
An angling club chief in South Tyneside says fishermen who took to a pier which was being battered by strong seas are “lucky” to have escaped unscathed.
Infinity Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (NASDAQ: INFI) today announced that Jeffery Kutok , M.D., Ph.D. has been promoted to the role of chief scientific officer, effective immediately. In
Advantage Group Limited (NZSE: ADV) today announced the appointment of Andy Wilkinson as Chief Operating Office, reporting directly to CEO Greg Cross. Previously General Manager, Point of Sale Equipment, Wilkinson will assume responsibility for day to ...
CAMBRIDGE, Mass., Jan. 9, 2014 /PRNewswire/ -- Zafgen Appoints Chief Commercial Officer and New Member of Board of Directors. - Industry Veterans Bring a...
Fresh details about the arrest in New York of former IMF chief Dominique Strauss-Kahn have emerged. Transcripts released by the prosecutors reveal
Chymosin /ˈkaɪməsɪn/ or rennin /ˈrɛnɪn/ is a protease found in rennet. It is an aspartic endopeptidase belonging to MEROPS A1 family. It is produced by newborn ruminant animals in the lining of the abomasum to curdle the milk they ingest, allowing a longer residence in the bowels and better absorption. It is widely used in the production of cheese. Bovine chymosin is now produced recombinantly in E. coli, Aspergillus niger var awamori, and K. lactis as alternative resource. Chymosin is produced by ruminant animals in the lining of the abomasum. Chymosin is produced by gastric chief cells in young ruminants and some other newborn animals to curdle the milk they ingest, allowing a longer residence in the bowels and better absorption. Some other non-ruminant species, including pigs, cats, and seals, produce it. One study reported finding a chymosin-like enzyme in some human infants, but others have failed to replicate this finding. Humans have a pseudogene for chymosin that does not generate ...
참고문헌 1: Goldenring & Nam. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci (2010) Review; Oxyntic atrophy, metaplasia, and gastric cancer - Gastric carcinogenesis involves the loss of parietal cells (oxyntic atrophy) and subsequent replacement of the normal gastric lineages with metaplastic cells. In humans, two metaplastic lineages develop as sequelae of chronic Helicobacter pylori infection: intestinal metaplasia and spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM). Mouse models of both chronic Helicobacter infection and acute pharmacological oxyntic atrophy have led to the discovery that SPEM arises from transdifferentiation of mature chief cells. The presence of inflammation promotes the expansion of SPEM in mice. Furthermore, studies in Mongolian gerbils as well as increasing evidence from human studies indicate that SPEM likely represents a precursor for the development of intestinal metaplasia. These findings suggest that loss of parietal cells, augmented by chronic inflammation, leads to a cascade ...
The balance of protective and aggressive factors in the gastric mucosal barrier is an important consideration in gastrointestinal diseases (4). Gastric acid, pepsin, and external stimuli are known aggravating factors of gastric mucosal cells, while microcirculatory system, HCO3−, prostaglandins, epidermal growth factor synthesis, and epithelial cell reconstitution are gastro-protective factors that maintain integrity of the gastric mucosal layer. Obviously, there are several viewpoints in association with the effect of ethanol on gastric mucosal cells. However, the main pathogenesis of ethanol-induced gastritis is vascular damage followed by mucosal cell-hypoxia, -degeneration, and -necrosis, respectively. The decline of anti-oxidant level and over production of oxygen free radicals especially super-oxide and hydrogen peroxide, are also link to ethanol-induced gastric injury and play a crucial role to further induce gastric inflammatory response. In addition, ethanol itself destroys gastric ...
Chief is a handsome wolf dog sold to a family by a breeder who represented him as a dog with no wolf content. Uneducated on the difficulties in caring for a wolf-dog, Chief pulled a Houdini and escaped his owners property by jumping the fence. A neighbor shot him, but luckily his injury caused him to lose only a toe and not his life. But after that, his owners knew he was unsafe and surrendered him to a foster who had experience caring for wolf dogs. While in foster care, Chief went to the vet to be neutered. Unfortunately, the vet found Chiefs left testicle in his abdomen beneath his bladder. Without surgery, the risk of Chief developing life-threatening cancer would be high. The Plan B Emergency Response Fund stepped in and paid for the advanced surgery required to remove both testicles. After an extended recovery due to the complexity of the surgery, Chief was successfully fostered, placed in a loving new home.. ...
Gulf Breeze P.D.-Chief Richard Hawthorne Lynn Haven P.D.-Chief Matthew E. Riemer Madison P.D.-Chief Reginald L. Alexander Maitland P.D.-Chief David Manuel Mascotte P.D.-Chief Eric ...
Chiefs Rounds Presenter: Douglas Matsunaga, MD - Wills Eye Hospital Resident On Friday mornings at 7AM, tables are turned during Chiefs Rounds. Two cases are presented as unknowns by the residents to the Service Chiefs and Attending Staff. Chiefs Rounds provide a chance for the residents to see their Attending Staff think through the clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, and management of a difficult case. This approach invariably leads to a lively discussion among the staff and remains a vital teaching tool in resident education.. ...
Chiefs Rounds Presenter: Jeff McMahon, MD - Wills Eye Hospital Resident On Friday mornings at 7AM, tables are turned during Chiefs Rounds. Two cases are presented as unknowns by the residents to the Service Chiefs and Attending Staff. Chiefs Rounds provide a chance for the residents to see their Attending Staff think through the clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, and management of a difficult case. This approach invariably leads to a lively discussion among the staff and remains a vital teaching tool in resident education.. ...
NEW YORK (MarketWatch) -- Advanced Micro Devices Inc. AMD, -2.50% said Thursday that it has named Thomas Seifert to serve as its chief financial officer. The Sunnyvale, Calif.-based semiconductor maker said that Seifert, 46, succeeds Robert Rivet, who was promoted to chief operations and administrative officer. Seifert most recently worked at Qimonda, where he worked as chief operating officer and chief financial officer.. ...
But many, including Attawapiskat Chief Theresa Spence, who is on a liquids-only hunger strike, wanted a meeting with both Harper and Governor General David Johnston, and Atleo faced criticism, boycotts by chiefs from Manitoba and Ontario, and pressure from citizen protestors in the Idle No More movement.. In his statement, Atleo said First Nations citizens have just witnessed one of the most important chapters in our recent history.. Through the pressure of the grassroots, the sacrifices made by Chief Spence and her fellow strikers, and the work of many regional chiefs and the National Executive of the AFN, we have seized the attention of Canadians and of this government, he said. We forced open the door to the PMO and to the Governor-General. We achieved a commitment to the personal leadership of the Prime Minister, the Privy Council Office and other senior ministers. Now they know that the whole world is watching what progress we make. Now they understand the consequences of ...
Army Chief General V K Singhs phenomenal record and leadership qualities could not prevent a number of controversies that marked his over two years stint as the Army Chief. Rediff.com takes a look. | FLASHBACK: The chequered stint of Army Chief Gen Singh
Following a nationwide search, Mass. Eye and Ear named Aalok Agarwala, MD, MBA, as Chief Medical Officer, and Kathrin Bourdeu, MD, PhD, as Chief of Anesthesia.
Chief Complaint Form - Sample Download Page - Free Download Chief Complaint Form - Sample 2.0.0.0, Computer Fillable Medical PDF Forms. Patient records can be typed, e-mailed, saved and stored on your computer. Easy access and retrieval ...
Cells with conspicuous eosinophilic cytoplasm and centrally located nuclei (sometimes paired) are the parietal cells (P in the figure above).. Cells with basal nuclei, basally basophilic cytoplasm, and apical vesicles are the chief cells (C in the figure above).. The glands are separated by thinner strands of lamina propria, visible as strands of denser, flattened or irregular nuclei. ...
Nearly a decade ago, a new organization of chief state school officers was charting new ground. The Education Leaders Council (ELC) was THE hip group to belong to. NCLB was the freshly minted law of the land. Chiefs, influencers, and vendors wanted to be part of the ELC posse, seeing the group as the drivers…
Horizon Media announced that it has elevated its Chief Financial Officer, Vincent OToole, to Chief Operating Officer. OToole will also retain his Chief Financial Officer title. Before his time at Horizon Media, OToole was Senior Vice President and Controller at MTV Networks. He has also held senior-level positions at Simon & Schuster Publishing, Paramount Communications and Arthur Andersen.. Federated Wireless, Inc., a subsidiary of Allied Minds (LSE: ALM), announced the appointment of John Brunoas Chief Financial Officer and Senior Vice President. Before joining Federated Wireless, John worked at VidSys. Prior to VidSys, John served as Chief Financial Officer for Appfluent Technologies. He also previously held executive positions at Access Spectrum, LLC, Ericsson IP Infrastructure, and Torrent Networking Technologies, Inc.. M.D.C. Holdings, Inc. (NYSE: MDC) announced that the Companys current Chief Financial Officer, John M. Stephens, is resigning effective May 22, 2015. Mr. Stephens has ...
Manufacturing giant Emerson announced the promotion of Vice President and Chief Compliance Officer Lisa Flavin to a senior vice president role. Flavin will also join Emersons office of the chief executive.
The average salary for a Chief People Officer with Full-Cycle Recruiting skills is $100,000. Visit PayScale to research chief people officer salaries by city, experience, skill, employer and more.
Israeli bank chief blames slowdown on demography - AP News: JERUSALEM (AP) - Israels central bank chief says demographic changes .01/18/2018 3:59:21AM EST.
Kaplowitz, who was named CEO of MEC N.A. eight months ago, said shes known Bamberger for more than 20 years, beginning when she was a DMB&B media planner on Procter & Gamble and he was a sales rep for Parade. Citing his expertise in integrated marketing, she said she was impressed with the path his career has taken since then. Hes taken some large interesting risks because of his curiosity, she said. He was very interested in social early on and figuring out where brands could fit in.. Before Dentsu, Bamberger was chief client officer at ad technology company, appssavvy. Prior to that job, he was executive vp of Katalyst, hired by co-founders Ashton Kutcher and Jason Goldberg. Earlier in his career, he worked on the publishing side when he worked at Meredith Corp. where his roles included the lead on Meredith 360 as chief innovation officer. Hes also held senior positions at Gruner & Jahr, USA and Time Warner Inc. where he worked with the companys The Parenting Group and Sports ...
Chiefs history was murky. Chief was very old but fortunate that someone along the way had cared enough not to call the meat wagon or drop him at auction.
Nigeria Chief of Defense Nigerias chief of defense staff Air Marshal Alex Badeh, centre, speaks during a demonstration calling on the government to rescue the kidnapped girls of the government secondary school in Chibok, in Abuja, Nigeria, Monday, May 26, 2014. Scores of protesters chanting Bring Back Our Girls marched in the Nigerian capital ...
Find Chief WT Welded Cylinder, 2 in. Bore x 4 in. Stroke, 1.25 in. Rod Dia. in the Hydraulic Cylinders category at Tractor Supply Co.The Chief W
Police Chief Wade Parsons is to be charged today after a teenage boy shot himself with the chiefs service weapon when it was left sitting unsecured on top of a safe at Parsons home, Rockingham County Attorney James Reams said Thursday.
Buy Chief RSMA152 Mini RPA Elite Projector Mount features Compact Design, Ideal for Smaller Projectors. Review Chief Projector Mounts, Projector Mounts & Accessories
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Bashaud Breeland vs Kenny Golladay: Chiefs Matchup. For this weeks Chiefs and Lions game, we look at the Bashaud Breeland vs Kenny Golladay matchup.
Police chiefs radical drugs call The Chief Constable of Tayside Police has called for a radical approach in tackling drug-related...
New London Mayor-elect Daryl Justin Finizio said it had been a pledge of his since January to keep both chiefs if elected, and that Police Chief Margaret
Halfpenny Technologies announced that Kirk Paul Kirkman has joined the company as its new Chief Revenue and Customer Experience Officer.. BLUE BELL, PA, UNITED STATES, February 13, 2018 /EINPresswire.com/ - Halfpenny Technologies, Inc., a recognized leader of clinical data exchange and business intelligence solutions, today announced that Kirk Paul Kirkman has joined the company as its new Chief Revenue and Customer Experience Officer. Effective immediately, in this newly created executive position, Kirk will oversee all aspects of Halfpenny Technologies sales, marketing, account management and customer relations teams.. When we created this new executive position, we sought a leader in the healthcare industry with the experience to support and drive the companys continued growth in the health plan, hospital, pharmacy, commercial laboratory and care coordination segments of the U.S. healthcare industry, said Tim Kowalski, president and CEO of Halfpenny Technologies. Kirk brings unique and ...
Serous cells secrete proteins, often enzymes. Examples include gastric chief cells and Paneth cells Mucous cells secrete mucus ... Merocrine secretion - cells excrete their substances by exocytosis; for example, pancreatic acinar cells. Apocrine secretion - ... a portion of the cell membrane that contains the excretion buds off. Holocrine secretion - the entire cell disintegrates to ...
... is released by the gastric chief cells in the stomach wall, and upon mixing with the hydrochloric acid of the gastric juice, ... In the stomach, gastric chief cells release pepsinogen. This zymogen is activated by hydrochloric acid (HCl), which is released ... It is produced in the gastric chief cells of the stomach lining and is one of the main digestive enzymes in the digestive ... Pepsin is retained within the cell for up to 24 hours. Such exposure to pepsin at neutral pH and endocyctosis of pepsin causes ...
Relative incidences of gastric polyps (with fundic gland polyp at upper right). The glands are lined by chief cells and ... "Gastric polyps". UpToDate.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Literature review current through: Sep 2020. , This ... parietal cells, and possibly also mucinous foveolar cells. Naziheh Assarzadegan, M.D., Raul S. Gonzalez, M.D. "Stomach Polyps ... "Gastric polyps: analysis of endoscopic and histological features in our center". Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas. ...
Parietal cells: Produce hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor.. *Gastric chief cells: Produce pepsinogen. Chief cells are ... Gastric lipase: Gastric lipase is an acidic lipase secreted by the gastric chief cells in the fundic mucosa in the stomach. It ... Pepsin is the main gastric enzyme. It is produced by the stomach cells called "chief cells" in its inactive form pepsinogen, ... Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP): This peptide decreases gastric motility and is produced by duodenal mucosal cells. ...
"Association of protein kinase A with AKAP150 facilitates pepsinogen secretion from gastric chief cells". Am. J. Physiol. ... Cell. Neurosci. 22 (1): 87-97. doi:10.1016/s1044-7431(02)00017-9. PMID 12595241. Human AKAP5 genome location and AKAP5 gene ... 2001). "Membrane-bound protein kinase A inhibits smooth muscle cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo by amplifying cAMP- ... and confining the holoenzyme to discrete locations within the cell. This gene is intronless and encodes a member of the AKAP ...
... by the parietal cells of the stomach and aids in gastric motility. It is released by G cells in the pyloric antrum of the ... Stimulates parietal cell maturation and fundal growth. Causes chief cells to secrete pepsinogen, the zymogen (inactive) form of ... The presence of gastrin stimulates parietal cells of the stomach to secrete hydrochloric acid (HCl)/gastric acid. This is done ... "Calcium-sensing receptor is a physiologic multimodal chemosensor regulating gastric G-cell growth and gastrin secretion". ...
Pepsinogen is activated when chief cells release it into the gastric acid, whose hydrochloric acid partially activates it. ... The external environment has a different pH than inside the fungal cell and this changes the zymogen's structure into an active ... The pancreas secretes zymogens partly to prevent the enzymes from digesting proteins in the cells in which they are synthesised ...
A prime example of this is pepsin, which is secreted in the stomach by chief cells. Pepsin in its secreted form is inactive ( ... pepsinogen). However, once it reaches the gastric lumen it becomes activated into pepsin by the high H+ concentration, becoming ... Mucus is made by two types of specialized cells termed mucus cells in the stomach and goblet cells in the intestines. Signals ... These cells cause spontaneous cycles of slow wave potentials that can cause action potentials in smooth muscle cells. They are ...
... is a glycoprotein produced by the parietal cells (in humans) or chief cells (in rodents) of the stomach. It is necessary for ... The intrinsic factor is secreted by the stomach, and so is present in the gastric juice as well as in the gastric mucous ... This new complex is then absorbed by the epithelial cells (enterocytes) of the ileum. Inside the cells, vitamin B12 dissociates ... ISBN 978-019-856878-0. Alpers DH, Russell-Jones G (May 2013). "Gastric intrinsic factor: the gastric and small intestinal ...
Gastric lipase is synthesized and secreted from gastric chief cells in the stomach and is stable at pH 1,5-8, but has maximum ... Because of the difference in FAS expression between normal cells and cancer cells, orlistat selectively targets tumor cells. ... Gastric- and lingual lipases are the two acidic lipolytic enzymes that origin preduodenal but the gastric lipase is in much ... However the gastric lipase activity against phospholipids and cholesterol esters is poor. Gastric lipase is composed of 379 ...
... is produced by gastric chief cells in newborn mammals to curdle the milk they ingest, allowing a longer residence in ... and pepsinogen-producing cells in the abomasum of sheep". Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia. 30 (4): 231-5. doi:10.1046/j.1439- ... "Gastric proteases in the human infant". Biology of the Neonate. 52 (5): 268-72. doi:10.1159/000242719. PMID 3118972. Szecsi PB ...
Affected glands lack differentiated acid-producing parietal and pepsinogen producing chief cells. Type I and type II disease is ... In the host's rumen, the L3 larvae shed their protective sheath and pass into the abomasum, where they penetrate the gastric ... The tail of the larvae within the sheath is rounded and the body contains 16 intestinal cells. The external sheath of the O. ... O. ostertagi has been shown to induce cytokines and T-cells in the adaptive immune response in cattle, and recent advances have ...
The encoded precursor is secreted by gastric chief cells and undergoes autocatalytic cleavage in acidic conditions to form the ... Pepsinogen levels in serum may serve as a biomarker for atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Pimanov SI, Makarenko EV, Voropaeva AV, Matveenko ME, Voropaev EV (2008). "Helicobacter pylori eradication improves gastric ... "Serum gastrin and the pepsinogen I/II ratio as markers for diagnosis of premalignant gastric lesions". Asian Pac. J. Cancer ...
... gastric fundus MeSH A03.556.875.875.440 - gastric mucosa MeSH A03.556.875.875.440.150 - chief cells, gastric MeSH A03.556. ... parietal cells, gastric MeSH A03.556.875.875.440.854 - somatostatin-secreting cells MeSH A03.556.875.875.578 - gastric stump ... goblet cells MeSH A03.556.124.369.700 - paneth cells MeSH A03.556.124.526 - intestine, large MeSH A03.556.124.526.070 - anal ... pancreatic polypeptide-secreting cells MeSH A03.734.414.793 - somatostatin-secreting cells The list continues at List of MeSH ...
It also has the function of stimulating pepsinogen secretion by chief cells. VIP seems to be an important neuropeptide during ... and cause inhibition of gastric acid secretion and absorption from the intestinal lumen. Its role in the intestine is to ... Sanders MJ, Amirian DA, Ayalon A, Soll AH (November 1983). "Regulation of pepsinogen release from canine chief cells in primary ... The SCN coordinates daily timekeeping in the body and VIP plays a key role in communication between individual brain cells ...
... gastric mucosa MeSH A10.615.550.291.150 - chief cells, gastric MeSH A10.615.550.291.162 - enterochromaffin cells MeSH A10.615. ... parietal cells, gastric MeSH A10.615.550.291.825 - somatostatin-secreting cells MeSH A10.615.550.444 - intestinal mucosa MeSH ... goblet cells MeSH A10.615.550.760.600 - nasal mucosa MeSH A10.615.550.760.600.320 - goblet cells MeSH A10.615.550.760.600.640 ... A10.615.550.444.290 - enterocytes MeSH A10.615.550.444.321 - goblet cells MeSH A10.615.550.444.700 - paneth cells MeSH A10.615. ...
... epithelium of the gastric mucosa with intestinal metaplasia, gallbladder, intercalated ducts of the pancreas, chief cells of ... American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology. 16 (3): 242-9. doi:10.1165/ajrcmb.16.3.9070608. PMID 9070608. ... of a novel dexamethasone responsive enhancer in the human CYP3A5 gene and its activation in human and rat liver cells". ...
The chief utility of indigo carmine is in the identification of dysplastic cells in individuals with chronic ulcerative colitis ... Congo red is used as a test for achlorhydria in the stomach, to test adequacy of vagotomy ( post adequate vagotomy, gastric ... Toluidine blue stains nuclei of malignant cells blue, and is used in oral and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Crystal ... Tóth, E.; Sjölund, K.; Thorsson, O.; Thorlacius, H. (2002). "Evaluation of gastric acid secretion at endoscopy with a modified ...
... specialized adult cells can naturally revert to stem cells. For example, "chief" cells express the stem cell marker Troy. While ... they can make this transition even in the absence of noticeable injuries and are capable of replenishing entire gastric units, ... "Differentiated Troy+ Chief Cells Act as Reserve Stem Cells to Generate All Lineages of the Stomach Epithelium". Cell. 155 (2): ... human iPS cell-derived myeloid cell lines as unlimited cell source for dendritic cell-like antigen-presenting cells". Gene ...
... lined by all three types of cells of acid-producing mucosa: mucous, parietal and chief cells. As sometimes parietal cell ... where parietal cells are more numerous. They have the same colour as the gastric mucosa, and never have a stalk. When the ... Both the β-catenin gene and the APC gene are involved in the same cell growth signalling pathway, but the APC gene is known to ... In the gastric adenocarcinoma associated with proximal polyposis of the stomach (GAPPS), there is a high risk of early ...
The enzyme is first made in the inactive form, pepsinogen by chief cells in the lining of the stomach. With an impulse from the ... Pepsin works best at the pH of gastric acid, 1.5 to 2.5, and is deactivated when the acid is neutralized to a pH of 7. Also one ... An exoenzyme, or extracellular enzyme, is an enzyme that is secreted by a cell and functions outside that cell. Exoenzymes are ... Hemolysins target erythrocytes, a.k.a. red blood cells. Attacking and lysing these cells harms the host organism, and provides ...
... there are three types of chief cells, the gastric chief cell, the parathyroid chief cell, and the type 1 chief cells found in ... Cell types[edit]. The gastric chief cell (also known as a zymogenic cell or peptic cell) is a cell in the stomach that releases ... Gastric chief cells are epithelial cells which are found within the gastric unit or gastric gland, and form the base of the ... Parietal cells may secrete factors that lead to transdifferentiation of chief cells, so if lost, chief cells do not normally ...
Parietal cells produce potent hydrochloric acid, which damages cells. Gastric chief cells produce pepsinogen, which is ... These cells line the gastric mucosa (mucous neck cells are found in the necks of the gastric pits). The mucus-secreting cells ... and mucous neck cells, which are a part of the neck of gastric glands along parietal cells. Surface mucous cells have large ... Foveolar cells line the surface of the stomach, the gastric pits, and the top part of gastric glands: the neck. They constitute ...
It works in conjunction with gastric chief cells and parietal cells. G cells are found deep within the pyloric glands of the ... G cells have a distinctive microscopic appearance that allows one to separate them from other cells in the gastric antrum; ... They are found in the middle portion of the gastric glands. List of human cell types derived from the germ layers "G cell", ... In anatomy, the G cell or gastrin cell, is a type of cell in the stomach and duodenum that secretes gastrin. ...
This leads to an increase in gastric pH, impaired digestion of food and increased risk of gastroenteritis. Gastric chief cell ... Minor changes: 11 December 2019 Illustration of Chief cells and Parietal cells at anatomyatlases.org The Parietal Cell: ... Parietal cells (also known as oxyntic cells) are epithelial cells in the stomach that secrete hydrochloric acid (HCl) and ... These cells are located in the gastric glands found in the lining of the fundus and body regions of the stomach. They contain ...
Gastric Chief Cell (or peptic cell, or gastric zymogenic cell) is a cell that works in the stomach. He used to have a tough, ... Gastric chief cell (胃主細胞, I shu Saibō) Voiced by: Takashi Narumi (Japanese); John E. Bentley (English) ... Cells at Work! Code Black (Japanese: はたらく細胞BLACK, Hepburn: Hataraku Saibō Burakku) is a Japanese manga series spin-off to Cells ... Friedman, Nicholas (December 18, 2021). "Cells at Work!! Season 2 and Cells at Work! CODE BLACK to Stream on Funimation Two ...
The cells met to read Marxist texts and hold self-criticism sessions.[51] Sâr joined a cell that met on the rue Lacepède; his ... In September 1985, Pol Pot resigned as commander-in-chief of the Khmer Rouge forces in favour of Son Sen; he nevertheless ... Pol Pot also received medical treatment for his malaria and gastric ailments.[223] Pol Pot then travelled to North Korea, ... The Khmer Rouge Western Zone regional chief Koh Kong and his followers began launching small-scale attacks on government ...
Some scientists have indicated that a fast will cause white blood cells to break down during the fasting, resulting in new ones ... In modern times as well the Israeli Chief Rabbinate has occasionally declared fasts in periods of drought. ... prior to surgery or other procedures that require general anesthetics because of the risk of pulmonary aspiration of gastric ...
Gastric lipase secreted by the chief cells in the fundic glands in the gastric mucosa of the stomach, is an acidic lipase, in ... These include the various cells of the gastric glands, taste cells, pancreatic duct cells, enterocytes and microfold cells. ... Pepsinogen is a precursor enzyme (zymogen) produced by the gastric chief cells, and gastric acid activates this to the enzyme ... A peptide hormone, gastrin, produced by G cells in the gastric glands, stimulates the production of gastric juice which ...
Upon binding, the complex is taken into the cell via receptor-mediated endocytosis. Once inside the cell, the disulfide bond is ... Elliot Bovill, Chief Justice of the Straits Settlements (1893)[136]. *Nikola Tesla, Serbian-American inventor, engineer and ... is less in those with lowered gastric acidity (for instance those using proton pump inhibitors).[14] Children are also more ... The five B subunits form a five-membered ring that binds to GM1 gangliosides on the surface of the intestinal epithelium cells ...
Preliminary care consists of gastric decontamination with either activated carbon or gastric lavage; due to the delay between ... essential protein synthesis and hence cell metabolism grind to a halt and the cell dies.[64] The liver is the principal organ ... α-amanitin is the chief component and along with β-amanitin is likely responsible for the toxic effects.[62][63] Their major ... Though phallotoxins are highly toxic to liver cells,[67] they have since been found to add little to the death cap's toxicity, ...
The first secretes no gastric juices and has very thick muscular walls to crush the food (since whales cannot chew) and resist ... and were important in negotiations between rival chiefs.[226] Friedrich Ratzel in The History of Mankind reported in 1896 that ... The blood has a high density of red blood cells, which contain oxygen-carrying haemoglobin. The oxygenated blood can be ...
The differential diagnosis of a renal tumor in a young patient with hypertension includes Juxtaglomerular cell tumor, Wilms' ... Arsenic Author: Frances M Dyro, MD, Chief of the Neuromuscular Section, Associate Professor, Department of Neurology, New York ... Méndez GP, Klock C, Nosé V (December 2008). "Juxtaglomerular Cell Tumor of the Kidney: Case Report and Differential Diagnosis ... tumor, and renal cell carcinoma, all of which may produce renin.[12] ...
In 2007, Marcia Angell, former editor-in-chief of the New England Journal of Medicine and a lecturer in social medicine at the ... In 2002, its drug Iressa was approved in Japan as monotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer.[12] On 3 January 2004 Dr Robert ... prevention of gastric ulcers in those on chronic NSAID therapy, and treatment of gastrointestinal ulcers associated with ... "Astra Zeneca appoints Roches Pascal Soriot as new chief". The Telegraph. Retrieved 19 March 2016.. ...
Gastric chief cell. *Enterochromaffin-like cell. Lower. Small intestine. Microanatomy. *Intestinal villus ... Reducing gastric reflux[edit]. The stomach produces gastric acid, a strongly acidic mixture consisting of hydrochloric acid ( ... Squamous cell carcinoma is a carcinoma that can occur in the squamous cells lining the esophagus. This type is much more common ... Reflux of gastric acids from the stomach, infection, substances ingested (for example, corrosives), some medications (such as ...
doi:10.1016/j.cell.2016.12.033. PMC 5289311. PMID 28129538.. *^ a b c d e Shulgin A, Shulgin A (1997). "LSD". TiHKAL. Berkeley ... "The CIA's Secret Quest For Mind Control: Torture, LSD And A 'Poisoner In Chief'". NPR.org. Retrieved October 6, 2019.. ... gastric bleeding, and respiratory problems-all survived, however, with supportive care.[7] According to more recent reports, ... "Cell. 168 (3): 339-341. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2017.01.012. PMC 5520807. PMID 28129534.. ...
Gastric dilatation volvulus[edit]. Like many other deep-chested breeds, ridgebacks are prone to gastric dilatation volvulus, ... which are the chief forerunners to the modern Rhodesian Ridgeback." Other breeds came from Arabian traders around the Horn of ... Cell Reports 19.4 (2017): 697-708. ...
Beta cellscells) are a type of cell found in pancreatic islets that synthesize and secrete insulin and amylin. Beta cells ... Gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor. *List of terms associated with diabetes. *Guangxitoxin. *Alpha cell ... Then the cytokines activate CD8+ cytotoxic-T cells, which lead to beta-cell destruction.[18] The destruction of these cells ... cell-signal pathways in early stem cell development will lead to those stem cells differentiating into viable beta cells.[31][ ...
Enterochromaffin-like cells or ECL cells are a type of neuroendocrine cell found in the gastric glands of the gastric mucosa ... stimulators of hydrochloric acid secretion from parietal cells and stimulators of secretion of pepsinogen from chief cells. The ... Gastrin is transferred from a specific type of G cell in the gastric epithelium to the ECL cells by blood. Histamine and ... List of human cell types derived from the germ layers. References[edit]. *^ Enterochromaffin-like+Cells at the US National ...
If this is allowed to happen, tissue repair cells such as macrophages, fibroblasts, and blood vessel cells penetrate into the ... It appears that the omentum is the chief organ responsible for "spontaneous" adhesion formation (i.e. no prior history of ... Gastric antral vascular ectasia. *Gastric dumping syndrome. *Gastric volvulus. *Buried bumper syndrome ...
Pariente, Barbara, Chief Justice Archived October 31, 2012, at the Wayback Machine (for The Court). "JEB BUSH, Governor of ... Throughout the cerebral cortex, the large pyramidal neurons that comprise some 70% of cortical cells - critical to the ... "by a gastric tube or intravenously". At that time, it was common to remove people from ventilators, but the law in Florida was ... Pariente, Barbara Chief Justice (for The Court). (September 23, 2004). "Jeb Bush, Governor of Florida, et al., Appellants, vs. ...
... expressed in chief cells; and gastric ATPase ATP4A and gastric intrinsic factor GIF, expressed in parietal cells.[14] ... The hormone gastrin causes an increase in the secretion of HCl from the parietal cells, and pepsinogen from chief cells in the ... Right gastric artery, left gastric artery, right gastro-omental artery, left gastro-omental artery, short gastric arteries. ... Right gastric vein, left gastric vein, right gastroepiploic vein, left gastroepiploic vein, short gastric veins. ...
Cell Proliferation. 39 (2): 147-155. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2184.2006.00377.x. PMID 16542349.. ... said he was the first to discover an aspirin formulation that did not have the unpleasant side effects of nausea and gastric ... "Bayer confirms Werner Baumann as new chief". Financial Times.. *^ a b Tammen 1978, p. 195. ... renal cell carcinoma), and certain types of thyroid cancer.[66] ... therapeutics-to-build-leading-position-in-cell-therapy/?s=79 ...
Cell, 161(1), pp.146-160. *^ "Mental Illness-Glossary". US National Institute of Mental Health. Archived from the original on ... A chief difficulty in nosology is that diseases often cannot be defined and classified clearly, especially when cause or ... when it was realized that gastric ulcers are often associated with Helicobacter pylori infection).. Incurable disease disease ... the virus may remain dormant in nerve cells for many years, and later cause herpes zoster (shingles). ...
It also has the function of stimulating pepsinogen secretion by chief cells.[15] It is also found in the heart and has ... and cause inhibition of gastric acid secretion and absorption from the intestinal lumen.[12] Its role in the intestine is to ... "Regulation of pepsinogen release from canine chief cells in primary monolayer culture". The American Journal of Physiology. 245 ... positive regulation of cell proliferation. • innate immune response. • positive regulation of protein catabolic process. • ...
Endothelial cell injury[edit]. Any inflammatory process, such as trauma, surgery or infection, can cause damage to the ... and in the United Kingdom the Chief Medical Officer has issued guidance to the effect that preventative measures should be used ... Instead, the platelet-derived growth factor degranulated by the clotted platelets will attract a layer of smooth muscle cells ... The main causes of thrombosis are given in Virchow's triad which lists thrombophilia, endothelial cell injury, and disturbed ...
... such as giant cell carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, and small-cell carcinoma.[citation needed] ... Gastric (stomach) cancer. *Gastrointestinal carcinoid tumor. *Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). *Hepatocellular cancer ... Germ cell tumor: Cancers derived from pluripotent cells, most often presenting in the testicle or the ovary (seminoma and ... cancers are additionally classified by the type of cell that the tumor cells originated from. These types include: *Carcinoma: ...
ImSAIDs work by altering the activation and migration of inflammatory cells, which are immune cells responsible for amplifying ... John's wort's chief constituent, hyperforin, has been found to be a potent COX-1 and 5-LO inhibitor, with anti-inflammatory ... Long-term use of NSAIDs can cause gastric erosions, which can become stomach ulcers and in extreme cases can cause severe ... feG and related peptides are known to modulate leukocyte (white blood cells) activity by influencing cell surface receptors to ...
Gastric mucosa at low magnification (H&E stain). Epithelial tissue is composed of closely packed cells, bound to each other by ... The extracellular matrix contains proteins, the chief and most abundant of which is collagen. Collagen plays a major part in ... The outer epithelial layer may include cells of several types including sensory cells, gland cells and stinging cells. There ... Unlike plant cells, animal cells have neither a cell wall nor chloroplasts. Vacuoles, when present, are more in number and much ...
the body's cells exhibit impaired responses to insulin (Type 2 diabetes).. When glucose builds up in the bloodstream, it can ... Likewise, gastric acidity converts sucrose to glucose and fructose during digestion, the bond between them being an acetal bond ... Venice, at the height of its financial power, was the chief sugar-distributing center of Europe.[20] Arabs started producing it ... the body attacks the cells producing insulin, the hormone that allows the metabolizing of sugar (Type 1 diabetes) ...
... expressed in chief cells; and gastric ATPase ATP4A and gastric intrinsic factor GIF, expressed in parietal cells.[25] ... Additional cells present include parietal cells that secrete hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor, chief cells that secrete ... Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) decreases both gastric acid release and motility. GIP is synthesized by K-cells, which are ... The hormone gastrin causes an increase in the secretion of HCl from the parietal cells, and pepsinogen from chief cells in the ...
Adjustable gastric band. *Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty. *Gastric bypass surgery. *Sleeve gastrectomy. *Vertical banded ... Islet cell transplantation *see also digestive system procedures. Pituitary. *Hypophysectomy. *Transsphenoidal surgery * ...
The duodenum wall is composed of a very thin layer of cells that form the muscularis mucosae. The duodenum is almost entirely ... Physiology: 6/6ch2/s6ch2_30 - Essentials of Human Physiology editor-in-chief, Susan Standring ; section editors, Neil R. Borley ... predisposing it to damage from gastric acids. The first part of the duodenum is the most common location of ulcers as it is ... About 20,000 protein coding genes are expressed in human cells and 70 % of these genes are expressed in the normal duodenum. ...
... while Ranariddh was minted to the twin positions of commander-in-chief and the chief-of-staff of the ANS in January 1986, ... he was diagnosed with B cell lymphoma in the prostate[297] and was treated with chemotherapy and surgery.[298] Sihanouk's ... lymphoma went into remission in 1995,[299] but returned again in 2005 in the gastric region. He suffered a third bout of ... Norodom Vakrivan, the chief of protocol, was killed instantly when he opened the package. Sihanouk's parents, Suramarit and ...
Gastric chief cell. *Enterochromaffin-like cell. Lower. Small intestine. Microanatomy. *Intestinal villus ... and is thought to be caused by autonomic dysfunction of salivary myoepithelial cells.[7] ...
An alpha-emitting substance can cause significant damage only if ingested or inhaled, acting on living cells like a short-range ... and former chief of security for the Russian TV channel ORT. Kovtun is now a businessman. Litvinenko had also had lunch at Itsu ... Former FSB chief Nikolay Kovalyov, for whom Litvinenko worked, said that the incident "looks like [the] hand of Berezovsky. I ...
A gastric chief cell (or peptic cell, or gastric zymogenic cell) is a type of gastric gland cell that releases pepsinogen and ... parathyroid chief cells). Chief cells are also known as peptic cells. Gastric acid Fundic glands List of human cell types ... The terms chief cell and zymogenic cell are often used without the word "gastric" to name this type of cell. However those ... Gastric chief cells are generally located deep in the mucosal layer of the stomach lining. Chief cells release the zymogen ( ...
"Chief Cells, Gastric" by people in this website by year, and whether "Chief Cells, Gastric" was a major or minor topic of these ... Epithelial cells that line the basal half of the GASTRIC GLANDS. Chief cells synthesize and export an inactive enzyme ... "Chief Cells, Gastric" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Chief Cells, Gastric*Chief Cells, Gastric. *Chief Cell, Gastric. *Gastric Chief Cell ...
Chief cells synthesize and export an inactive enzyme PEPSINOGEN which is converted into the highly proteolytic enzyme PEPSIN in ... Epithelial cells that line the basal half of the GASTRIC GLANDS. ... Chief Cells, Gastric. Epithelial cells that line the basal half ... of the GASTRIC GLANDS. Chief cells synthesize and export an inactive enzyme PEPSINOGEN which is converted into the highly ...
Here, we show that the gastric parietal cell (PC) i … ... part by interactions of stem and early lineage progenitor cells ... the cell fate decisions that specify the development of multiple, diverse lineages are governed in large ... The gastric epithelial progenitor cell niche and differentiation of the zymogenic (chief) cell lineage Dev Biol. 2009 Jan 1;325 ... we show that the gastric parietal cell (PC) is a key cellular component of the previously undescribed niche for the gastric ...
Adult , Animals , Chief Cells, Gastric , Citric Acid , DNA , Electrons , Epithelial Cells , Formaldehyde , Gastric Mucosa , ... responses of the gastric epithelial cells and the gastric chief cells of the mouse inoculated with Ehrlich carcinoma cells in ... Effects of AG60 on Gastric Chief Cells of the Mouse Implanted with Ehrlich Carcinoma Cells / 대한해부학회지 ... Effects of AG60 on Gastric Chief Cells of the Mouse Implanted with Ehrlich Carcinoma Cells ...
doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2013.09.008. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... Troy(+) chief cells can be cultured to generate long-lived gastric organoids. Troy marks a specific subset of chief cells that ... chief cell arrays with a chief cell array prepared from laser-captured chief cells, while pit and parietal cell arrays cluster ... Edu: proliferative cells; cell borders marked by E-cadherin. (F) Dividing (Ki67 positive) chief cells (gastric intrinsic factor ...
Entero-chromaffin like cells which are always close to parietal cells. Secrete histamine which is a trigger for gastric acid ... Ach acting directly on the parietal cells causing H+ secretion.. - ACh acting on the G cells that produce gastrin, which acts ... Role of chief cells. Secrete pepsinogen, precursor of the active pepsin which breaks down proteins ... How many parietal cells are in the human stomach and what is the concentration of the acid they produce? ...
... showing several enzyme-secreting chief cells with many secretory granules, and a single parietal cell, which produces stomach ... Transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of a section through the deep region of a gastric (fundus) gland, ... Gastric glands are found in the body, the gastric mucosa, and fundus of the stomach. Chief cells secrete pepsinogen. Acid ... showing several enzyme-secreting chief cells with many secretory granules, and a single parietal cell, which produces stomach ...
contains 3 types of secretory cells. -mucous cell. -chief cells. -parietal cells ... Gastric Juice- Gastric Glands. what kind of cells does it contain? what are the 3 types? ... moves food w/ gastric juice (mix w/ food to break down). initiates digestion of proteins. carries on limited absorption. bolus ... absorptive cells w/ enzymes in them. Function: increase surface area of intestine for absorption. -contains blood & lymph ...
... there are three types of chief cells, the gastric chief cell, the parathyroid chief cell, and the type 1 chief cells found in ... Cell types[edit]. The gastric chief cell (also known as a zymogenic cell or peptic cell) is a cell in the stomach that releases ... Gastric chief cells are epithelial cells which are found within the gastric unit or gastric gland, and form the base of the ... Parietal cells may secrete factors that lead to transdifferentiation of chief cells, so if lost, chief cells do not normally ...
Basal cells , fibroblasts , prickle cells. Gastric mucosa (Aida et al. 2007). Fibroblasts , chief cells, parietal cells , neck ... Gastric mucosa. Through the measurement of cell types in the gastric mucosa, we were able to show that progressively shorter ... Fibroblasts , basal cells , parabasal cells , prickle cells. Esophageal mucosa (Kammori et al. 2006). ... The spleen consists of lymphocytes, endothelial cells, reticular cells and some other cells. Reduction of telomere length might ...
Chief Cells. Secretes pepsinogen, gastric lipase and intrinsic factor; Created by: 100000434525601 ... 1) Mixes Saliva, food, and gastric juices = chyme 2) Reservoir for food 3) Gastric juic secretion with HCL, pepsin, intrinsic ... Parietal Cells. HCL secretion --, kills microbes in food; denatures proteins; turns pepsinogen into pepsin. ... Surface Mucous Cells. Secrete mucus; form protective barrier that prevents digestion of stomach. ...
Gastric glands * chief cells or central cells * parietal cells or oxyntic cells ... Macula densa • Juxtaglomerular cells • Extraglomerular mesangial cell. Filtration. Glomerular basement membrane • Podocyte • ... Urethra , Testes , Scrotum , Spermatic cord , Epididymis , Seminiferous tubules , Sertoli cell , Rete testis , Efferent ducts ... Urethra , Testes , Scrotum , Spermatic cord , Epididymis , Seminiferous tubules , Sertoli cell , Rete testis , Efferent ducts ...
PAR-2 modulates pepsinogen secretion from gastric-isolated chief cells. Am J Physiol 285: G611-G620. ... Activation of PAR-1 appears to be cytoprotective in a gastric epithelial cell line (Toyoda et al. 2003) and in a rat model ( ... Expression and cytoprotective effect of protease-activated receptor-1 in gastric epithelial cells. Scand J Gastroenterol 38: ... cell types. Finally, PARs and their ability to promote epithelial cell proliferation are discussed in terms of colon cancer. ...
KCNQ1 is expressed in both gastric parietal and chief cells of the mouse (7). Moreover, intrinsic factor-expressing chief cells ... In rats and mice, intrinsic factor is mostly secreted by gastric chief cells, and only 4-10% of parietal cells stain positive ... Gastric Function: pH Recovery in Parietal Cells Is Drastically Reduced in kcnq1-/- Mice. Microdissected gastric glands of kcnq1 ... In gastric parietal cells, KCNQ1 colocalizes with the β-subunit KCNE2 (3, 11, 12). Pharmacological blockade of KCNQ1 by ...
Cells found in the gastric glands include foveolar cells, chief cells, parietal cells, G cells and enterochromaffin-like cells ... The cells of the exocrine glands are foveolar (mucus), chief cells, and parietal cells. The other type of gastric gland is the ... Fundic glands found in the fundus and also in the body have another two cell types-gastric chief cells and parietal cells ( ... They secrete gastrin produced by their G cells. There are millions of gastric pits in the gastric mucosa and their necessary ...
Enzyme precursor secreted by the chief cells in the stomach. Hydrochloric Acid. HCl; normal part of gastric juice in cats and ... Protein-degrading enzyme that is activated from pepsinogen in the stomach; the principal digestive component of gastric juice. ... complex, gel-like substance secreted by specific cells or mucous glands; acts as a protective barrier and lubricant. ... Area on the free surface of an epithelial cell that is covered with microvilli. ...
PAI-2 was expressed mainly in chief and mucous cells. In a gastric cancer cell line (AGS), H. pylori increased PAI-2 expression ... by Helicobacter pylori in human gastric epithelial cells: role in epithelial cell migration. J. Cell Sci., 116: 3017-3026, 2003 ... A, AGS cells transfected with PAI-2-luc were cocultured with either AGS cells or human gastric glands on 0.2-μm pore Transwell ... Cell and Tumor Biology Helicobacter pylori Induces Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 2 in Gastric Epithelial Cells through ...
Proteins allow cells to detect and react to hormones and toxins in their surroundings, and as the chief ingredient in ... by the parietal cells located in the gastric mucosa of the GI (gastrointestinal ) tract. Hydrochloric acid provides for a very ... Molecular Cell Biology, 4th ed. New York: W. H. Freeman, 2000.. Sadava, David E. Cell Biology: Organelle Structure and Function ... epithelial cell- Sheet of cells lining organs throughout the body.. glycolysis- Cellular reaction that begins the breakdown of ...
Parietal cells: Produce hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor.. *Gastric chief cells: Produce pepsinogen. Chief cells are ... Gastric lipase: Gastric lipase is an acidic lipase secreted by the gastric chief cells in the fundic mucosa in the stomach. It ... Pepsin is the main gastric enzyme. It is produced by the stomach cells called "chief cells" in its inactive form pepsinogen, ... Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP): This peptide decreases gastric motility and is produced by duodenal mucosal cells. ...
The gastric epithelial progenitor cell niche and differentiation of the zymogenic (chief) cell lineage. ... Tuning T Cell Signaling Sensitivity Alters the Behavior of CD4+ T Cells during an Immune Response. ... Malaria impairs T cell clustering and immune priming despite normal signal 1 from dendritic cells. ... Cell. 2015 Mar 12;160(6):1061-71. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2015.01.049. Epub 2015 Feb 26. ...
Cholecystokinin-Stimulated Pepsinogen Secretion and Cholecystokinin Receptors on Gastric Chief Cells in Guinea Pigs. (1987) ...
What is neurosecretory cell? Meaning of neurosecretory cell medical term. What does neurosecretory cell mean? ... Looking for online definition of neurosecretory cell in the Medical Dictionary? neurosecretory cell explanation free. ... chief cells 1. columnar or cuboidal epithelial cells that line the lower portions of the gastric glands and secrete pepsin. ... See also betz cells, gauchers cells, golgis cells, hela cells, hürthle cell, kupffers cells, merkel cell, mesangial cell, ...
... segmented cell explanation free. What is segmented cell? Meaning of segmented cell medical term. What does segmented cell mean? ... Looking for online definition of segmented cell in the Medical Dictionary? ... chalice cell. Goblet cell.. chemoreceptor cell. Chemoreceptor.. chief cell. 1. Any of the cells of the parathyroid gland that ... oxyntic cell. A parietal cell of the gastric glands; it produces hydrochloric acid and the intrinsic factor. ...
Chief cells, located at the bottom of the gastric pits, secrete enzymes important in the breakdown of foodstuffs. Click on the ... and is organized into units called gastric pits. Parietal cells secrete HCl while neck and surface mucus cells secrete mucus to ... An epithlielium lines the interior of the stomach (gastric epithelium). This epithelium contains many cell types, ... In the lungs red blood cells exchange carbon dioxide for oxygen. mesentary: The mesentaries connect the intestines and internal ...
Pepsinogen is secreted by chief cells in the gastric glands of the body and antrum of the stomach. ... en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gastric_acid. Gastric acid, gastric juice, or stomach acid, is a digestive fluid formed in the stomach ... The role of hydrochloric acid in the stomach, along with the other gastric juices, is to break down foods and cause the release ... Hydrochloric acid (also known as stomach acid) is the main component of gastric juices produced in the stomach. It is the only ...
gastric chief cell, Wasmanns glands. stomach. serous. - glomus coccygeum, coccygeal gland, Luschkas gland or ganglion. coccyx ... Examples include chief cells and Paneth cells. *Mucous cells secrete mucus. Examples include Brunners glands, esophageal ... Merocrine glands - cells secrete their substances by exocytosis. Also called "eccrine.". Product secreted. *Serous cells ... goblet cells. digestive tract, respiratory tract. mucous. simple unicellular Henles glands. eyelids, in the conjuctiva. -. ...
Within these pits are parietal cells and chief cells. The parietal cells pump hydrogen ions (H+) and chloride ions (Cl-) into ... the gastric proton pump) of the gastric parietal cells.8 Stated another way, PPIs essentially shut down the pumps that make ... The chief cells have primary responsibility for production of pepsinogen.) Protein digestion, therefore, is initiated in the ... These drugs work by reversibly blocking the H2 receptors of the gastric parietal cells responsible for acid secretion and, in ...
... cells in the stomach revert to stem cells and lead to cancer, but new results do not observe such dedifferentiation. ... M. Hata et al., "GPR30-expressing gastric chief cells do not dedifferentiate but are eliminated via PDK-dependent cell ... conclusions depend largely on the assertion that GRP30 labels all chief cells and only chief cells, which he does not think has ... Regardless of whether the chief cell hypothesis turns out to be true, the question of how SPEM gives rise to gastric cancer ...
Cells 1. Chief cells or zymogenic cellsGastric amylase - digests CHO  Gastric lipase - digests fats  Pepsin - proteins  ... Gastric analysis reveals A. INCIDENCE RATE  Normal gastric acid secretion if gastric 1. Men  Increased gastric acid secretion ... gastric ischemia milk and milk containing products 4. Alcoholism  release of histamine  parietal cells 2. Admin meds as ... Gastric  Duodenal Differences Gastric Ulcer Duodenal Ulcer (90%) Location Antrum Duodenal bulb Pain 30 mins-1hour p.c. 2-3 ...
  • Gastric glands are found in the body, the gastric mucosa, and fundus of the stomach. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Gastric glands are mostly exocrine glands and are all located beneath the gastric pits within the gastric mucosa-the mucous membrane of the stomach. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gastric mucosa is pitted with innumerable gastric pits which each house 3-5 gastric glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are fewer in number than the other gastric glands and are more shallowly positioned in the mucosa. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are millions of gastric pits in the gastric mucosa and their necessary narrowness determines the tubular form of the gastric gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • The epithelium from the gastric mucosa travels into the pit and at the neck the epithelial cells change to short columnar granular cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is thought to be different from the mucus produced by the gastric mucosa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gastric lipase is an acidic lipase secreted by the gastric chief cells in the fundic mucosa in the stomach. (wikipedia.org)
  • The host immune response is not able to eliminate the bacterium, and infection persists for the life of the host, setting up a situation whereby the gastric mucosa, which is normally devoid of inflammatory cells, becomes chronically inflamed (reviewed in Ref. 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Cytokines present within the gastric mucosa are thought to determine the type and severity of damage. (jimmunol.org)
  • Microscopic evaluation showed rectal mucosa with gastric heterotopia composed of oxyntic glands lined by chief and parietal cells. (ispub.com)
  • Microscopic evaluation of the rectal polyp revealed rectal mucosa with underlying oxyntic glands lined by chief and parietal cells as well as adjacent colonic crypts and glands. (ispub.com)
  • The mucosa contains mucus-secreting goblet cells in the columnar epithelium layer. (s-cool.co.uk)
  • Depletion of the epithelial HS leads to stomach hypoplasia, with phenotypic differences in the gastric mucosa between the forestomach and hindstomach. (biologists.org)
  • The target autoantigen for the pathogenic CD4 + T cells has been defined as the H + /K + ATPase, the proton pump of the parietal cells located in the gastric mucosa ( 14 , 15 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The chief cells also appear normal and occupy about a quadrant of the gastric mucosa. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Histologically, pernicious anemia is characterized by gastric mucosal atrophy, selective loss of parietal and chief cells from the gastric mucosa, and submucosal lymphocytic infiltrate. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Pepsin enzyme extracted from porcine gastric mucosa through exclusive skill. (chinaqualitycrafts.com)
  • We hypothesised that leptin of gastric origin may participate in the maintenance of the normal (non-inflamed) oesophageal mucosa, or of the more acid-resistant Barrett's epithelium. (bmj.com)
  • There are specialized goblet cells that secrete mucus throughout the GI tract located within the mucosa. (wikibooks.org)
  • hydrochloric acid, also produced by the gastric mucosa, is necessary to convert the inactive enzyme and to maintain the optimum acidity ( p H 1-3) for pepsin function. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It is secreted by gastric chief cells in the fundic mucosa of the stomach, and it hydrolyzes the ester bonds of triglycerides under acidic pH conditions. (fishersci.com)
  • Gastric atrophy with little evidence of inflammation but with thinning of the mucosa, loss of gastric glands and intestinal metaplasia which may be premalignant. (doctorslounge.com)
  • The polyps developed after long-term PPI therapy are described as fundic gland polyps and seem to be very similar to the gastric glandular cysts of the oxyntic mucosa, firstly reported by Elster in 1977 [ 5 ]. (hon.ch)
  • The histological studies performed [ 2 - 4 ] have shown that they consist of mucosal cysts, developing preferentially in oxyntic mucosa, and lined by a mix of mucus, parietal and chief cells. (hon.ch)
  • Available data suggest that the development of fundic polyps after long-term PPI treatment is related to a functional-secretory impairment of gastric mucosa, due to the drug administration. (hon.ch)
  • The inner lining of the gastrointestinal tract (the mucosa ) is covered by a layer of cells, the epithelium that performs the separate processes of secretion and absorption. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Proteins in the stomach are broken down to polypeptides by the enzyme pepsin , which works best in acidic environments and is produced by 'chief', or 'zymogen', cells in the gastric mucosa. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A peptic ulcer is not a condition with a single cause, but involves several interrelated factors which affect the health and integrity of the gastric and duodenal mucosa. (news-medical.net)
  • Some of these factors have to do with gastric acid production, while others involve pepsinogen secretion and activation, and still others deal with repair of the gastric and duodenal mucosa, to keep it in good shape against the constant action of peptic enzymes and hydrochloric acid. (news-medical.net)
  • The mucosa often shows inflammation, which becomes chronic, resulting in cellular changes including gastric metaplasia. (news-medical.net)
  • Chronic gastritis (CG) is defined as chronic inflammatory cells infiltration in gastric mucosa [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • They are classified into chronic nonatrophic gastritis (CSG) and chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) based on the endoscopic appearances and histopathologic patterns of the gastric mucosa. (hindawi.com)
  • The cell in the gastric mucosa that is most associated with the secretion of pepsin is which of the following? (coursehero.com)
  • One of the first enzymes to initiate protein digestion, pepsin is synthesized in the parietal cells of the gastric mucosa and secreted as the inactive precursor, pepsinogen. (orthomolecularproducts.com)
  • We therefore set out to study gastric mucosa of patients with HD, looking for abnormalities of mucosal cells using immunohistochemistry. (plos.org)
  • In gastric mucosa from HD subjects, compared to control subject biopsies, a reduced expression of gastrin (a marker of G cells) was found. (plos.org)
  • Chronic Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) infection in gastric mucosa increases the risk of developing gastric cancer [ 1 - 5 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • In particular, patients with H. pylori -associated severe atrophic gastric mucosa are at high risk of developing intestinal metaplasia, gastric adenoma, and gastric cancer [ 2 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Such a detection modality often finds early gastric cancer with tumor invasion restricted to the mucosa or to the mucosa and submucosa, leading to better long-term survival after early treatment ( 5 - 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • it secretes mucosa, proenzyme pepsinogen (chief cells), and parietal cells secrete lots of HCL and intrinsic factor required for the absorption of vitamin B12. (nestacertified.com)
  • 1. A phospholipase A2 (PLA2) was purified from rat gastric mucosa and its NH-2-terminal amino acid sequence, peptide maps obtained on lysylendopeptidase digestion, and immunochemical properties were identical to those of rat pancreatic PLA2. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 3. RNA blot analysis showed that group II PLA2 transcript existed in rat gastric mucosa. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 7. These results suggested that pancreatic PLA2 in gastric mucosa may play a role in digestion of phospholipids in foods and in the apical membrane turnover of parietal cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Sakata,T.: 'Presence of pancreatic type phospholipase A2 mRNA in rat gastric mucosa and lung' Biochim.Biophys.Acta. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Epithelial cells that line the basal half of the GASTRIC GLANDS. (rush.edu)
  • Here, we show that the gastric parietal cell (PC) is a key cellular component of the previously undescribed niche for the gastric epithelial neck cell, the progenitor of the digestive enzyme secreting zymogenic (chief) cell (ZC). (nih.gov)
  • This experiment was performed to evaluate the morphological responses of the gastric epithelial cells and the gastric chief cells of the mouse inoculated with Ehrlich carcinoma cells in the inguinal area following administration of acriflavine - guanosine composition (AG60). (bvsalud.org)
  • The number of labeled epithelial cells in the gastric mucosae were observed and calculated. (bvsalud.org)
  • From the above results, AG60 may suppress the DNA synthesis of the gastric epithelial cells , but does not results severe fine structural defect on the gastric chief cells . (bvsalud.org)
  • This high rate of turnover is a protective mechanism designed to protect the epithelial lining of the stomach from both the proteolytic action of pepsin and the acid produced by parietal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gastric chief cells are epithelial cells which are found within the gastric unit or gastric gland, and form the base of the gastric unit. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, PARs located on subepithelial nerves, fibroblasts and mast cells have important implications for epithelial function. (bioline.org.br)
  • Finally, PARs and their ability to promote epithelial cell proliferation are discussed in terms of colon cancer. (bioline.org.br)
  • Furthermore, as detailed below, PARs are found on cell types that have been demonstrated to affect epithelial function, including enteric neurons, fibroblasts and immune cells. (bioline.org.br)
  • Besides heart and inner ear epithelial cells, KCNQ1 is expressed in a variety of epithelial cells including renal proximal tubule and gastrointestinal tract epithelial cells. (pnas.org)
  • In humans, lymphocytes are small cells (~6 µm in diameter), columnar epithelial cells (10 µm x 20 µm) are medium-size cells, and mature ova (120-150 µm) are some of the largest cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1. In the lung, either of two types of epithelial cells lining the alveoli. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Type I cells are simple thin squamous epithelial cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 2. In the mammary glands, the milk-secreting epithelial cells, which are activated during lactation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The Wnt family members can be divided into three distinct types based on their ability to induce transformation of the mouse mammary epithelial cell line C57MG ( 2 , 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • EGFP or inducible CreERT2 expression may also be observed in other Lgr5 -expressing cell types (including pre-malignant mouse adenomas, colon cancer cells, epithelial stem cells of the stomach gland, basal epithelial layer stem cells of the mammary glands, and hair follicle stem cells). (jax.org)
  • Cytoplasmic and nuclear acidophilic inclusion bodies were detected in respiratory epithelial cells, gastric surface mucous and chief cells , intestinal crypt epithelial cells, and hepatic and pancreatic duct epithelial cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Immunolocalization showed intense reactions with gastric glands (parietal and chief cells), intestine (columnar epithelial cells), parotid gland, and pancreas. (physiology.org)
  • Receptors for leptin were highly expressed on oesophageal epithelial cells, with similar density and staining pattern in all three conditions, and plasma and antral leptin levels did not differ significantly. (bmj.com)
  • Leptin receptor expression on oesophageal epithelial cells provides a pathway for leptin-mediated signal transduction. (bmj.com)
  • In humans, lymphocytes are small cells (6 µm in diameter), columnar epithelial cells (10 µm x 20 µm) are medium-size cells, and mature ova (120 to 150 µm) are some of the largest cells. (tabers.com)
  • In this review, we focused on the role of MAPKs and their major partners in the signaling networks that lead to epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation, and we summarized recent findings on nutritional aspects that can influence MAPK pathway. (mdpi.com)
  • CD44 variant (CD44v) that enhances the ability to defend against reactive oxygen species (ROS) in epithelial cells is expressed de novo in SPEM of K19-Wnt1 / C2mE mice, a transgenic model of gastric tumorigenesis, and is required for the efficient development of SPEM and gastric tumor in these animals. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Oxyntic glands, the predominant type of gastric gland, comprise several types of fully differentiated epithelial cells, including acid-secreting parietal cells and pepsinogen-secreting chief cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Mucus - It lubricates and protects the epithelial cells of the stomach wall from the damaging effect of the acidic chyme and pepsin. (prezi.com)
  • 1998 ), and leptin and its receptor are expressed in human gastric epithelial cells (Sobhani et al. (wiley.com)
  • In the urogenital tract, inclusion bodies were observed in endometrial, vaginal, and epididymal epithelial cells as well as epithelial cells of the renal pelvis and urinary bladder. (cdc.gov)
  • Cylindrical epithelial cells in the innermost layer of the ENAMEL ORGAN. (slicksurface.com)
  • Axin2 peribiliary glands in the periampullary region generate biliary epithelial stem cells that give rise to ampullary carcinoma. (stembook.org)
  • The aim of the present study was to determine the involvement of epithelial cell transforming 2 (ECT2) in gastric cancer. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Epithelial cell transforming 2 (ECT2) is a proto-oncogene gene encoding a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the Rho GTPases ( 8 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Which of the following substances are absorbed directly into the bloodstream after passing through the epithelial cells of the intestine? (coursehero.com)
  • For example, differentiated airway epithelial cells can revert into stable and functional stem cells in vivo after the ablation of airway [24] . (wikiversity.org)
  • Mucin 13 (MUC13) is a high-molecular-weight transmembrane glycoprotein that is frequently and aberrantly expressed in a variety of epithelial carcinomas, including gastric, colorectal, and ovarian cancers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • MUC13 protein is normally localized to the apical surface of epithelial cells, as expected by the role in protection and lubrication of the mucosal surface. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A gastric chief cell (or peptic cell, or gastric zymogenic cell) is a type of gastric gland cell that releases pepsinogen and gastric lipase and is the cell responsible for secretion of chymosin in ruminants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acid secretion by the parietal cells converts pepsinogen to pepsin for partial digestion of proteins within the stomach. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Employing pharmacologic inhibition and gene knockout, the present study demonstrates the importance of KCNQ1 K + channel complexes for the maintenance of the driving force for proximal tubular and intestinal Na + absorption, gastric acid secretion, and cAMP-induced jejunal Cl - secretion. (pnas.org)
  • Pharmacological blockade of KCNQ1 by chromanol 293B provided evidence for a role of KCNQ1/KCNE2 channel complexes in gastric acid secretion ( 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • Because gastric acid secretion is mediated primarily by luminal H + /K + -ATPase, it was postulated that KCNQ1/KCNE2 channel complexes recycle K + from the cell to the lumen to provide K + for the H + /K + exchange mechanism. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, the contribution of a reduced parietal cell number and the impairment of acid secretion of remaining parietal cells to the observed achlorhydria remained unclear, indicating the necessity to assess on the cellular level gastric acid secretion of mice lacking KCNQ1. (pnas.org)
  • Another important secretion of the parietal cells is intrinsic factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The release of histamine is stimulated by the secretion of gastrin from the G cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cholecystokinin-Stimulated Pepsinogen Secretion and Cholecystokinin Receptors on Gastric Chief Cells in Guinea Pigs. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Apocrine glands - a portion of the plasma membrane buds off the cell, containing the secretion. (wikidoc.org)
  • The production and secretion of gastric acid produces a luminal pH of approximately 2-3 in humans, depending on the food intake, time of the day, drug use, and other factors. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The stomach can produce and secrete about 2 to 3 liters of gastric acid per day, with secretion levels peaking during the evening hours in humans . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, a peptide hormone secreted by enteroendocrine cells in the distal small bowel and colon, exerts a diverse set of complementary actions on islet β-cells, resulting in glucose-dependent augmentation of insulin biosynthesis and secretion ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Moreover, exogenous GLP-1 administration inhibits glucagon secretion and gastric emptying and induces satiety, leading to weight loss after prolonged GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) activation ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • GLP-1R agonists induce transdifferentiation of pancreatic exocrine cells to an endocrine cell phenotype in vitro ( 5 ), and GLP-1 inhibits hypoglycemia-induced pancreatic bicarbonate and protein secretion in the isolated perfused pig pancreas ( 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 3.) Postganglionic neurons stimulates secretion by parietal and chiel cells and stimulates gastrin and histamine secretion by endocrine cells. (prezi.com)
  • 2.) The medulla oblongata increases action potentials in the vagus nerves that stimulates secretions by parietal and chief cells and stimulate gastrin and histamine secretion by endocrine cells. (prezi.com)
  • 3.) Local reflexes activated by H+ or lipids also inhibit gastric secretion (orange arrows). (prezi.com)
  • In particular it has been suggested that the PPI treatment may induce an accumulation of mucus in the foveola which, due the viscosity of the secretion in the glands ( PPI drugs inhibit acid secretion but do not modify the chief cells and mucus cells secretions ) can lead to a relative obstruction with a formation of retention cysts. (hon.ch)
  • The Russian physiologist I. P. Pavlov identified three phases in the control of acid secretion during digestion - the cephalic, gastric, and intestinal phases. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It has been estimated 30% of U.S. men and women older than age 60 have atrophic gastritis, a condition in which little or no acid is secreted by the stomach, 1 and 40% of postmenopausal women have no basal gastric acid secretion. (life-enthusiast.com)
  • In this phase, sight, odors or even the thought of food can stimulate the secretion of a small amount of gastric juice. (life-enthusiast.com)
  • The autonomic nervous system profusely innervates the digestive system with parasympathetic fibers (vagus nerve) which function largely to increase gastric secretion and motility, thus enhancing digestion. (life-enthusiast.com)
  • Gastric secretion is also responsive to hormonal control. (life-enthusiast.com)
  • In addition, the powerful ammonia-producing activity of H. pylori means that the local alkaline effect of ammonia around the colonies prevents the antral D cells from sensing the actual level of gastric acid, instead pushing up the secretion of gastrin and somatostatin. (news-medical.net)
  • Genetic patterns of acid secretion, sensitivity of acid-secreting cells to hormonal and nervous stimulation. (news-medical.net)
  • It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter. (drugbank.ca)
  • and (5) development of a novel, non-invasive method of determining the level of gastric acid secretion necessary to monitor response to acid suppression therapy in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease and acid hypersecretory states (e.g. (nih.gov)
  • Gastric chief cells are generally located deep in the mucosal layer of the stomach lining. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chief cells release the zymogen (enzyme precursor) pepsinogen when stimulated by a variety of factors including cholinergic activity from the vagus nerve and acidic condition in the stomach. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chief cells synthesize and export an inactive enzyme PEPSINOGEN which is converted into the highly proteolytic enzyme PEPSIN in the acid environment of the STOMACH. (rush.edu)
  • Differentiated Troy+ chief cells act as reserve stem cells to generate all lineages of the stomach epithelium. (nih.gov)
  • What areas of the stomach are G cell rich? (brainscape.com)
  • Transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of a section through the deep region of a gastric (fundus) gland, showing several enzyme-secreting chief cells with many secretory granules, and a single parietal cell, which produces stomach acid. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The gastric chief cell (also known as a zymogenic cell or peptic cell) is a cell in the stomach that releases pepsinogen [1] and chymosin . (wikipedia.org)
  • [3] There is also evidence that the gastric chief cell secretes leptin in response to the presence of food in the stomach. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we summarize the results obtained for various cell types in the stomach, tongue and breast. (wiley.com)
  • The gastric glands are located in different regions of the stomach. (wikipedia.org)
  • The glands and gastric pits are located in the stomach lining. (wikipedia.org)
  • This needs to be readily available for the stomach in a plentiful supply, and so from their positions in the walls, their secretory networks of fine channels called canaliculi can project and ingress into all the regions of the gastric-pit lumen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enterochromaffin-like cells store and release histamine when the pH of the stomach becomes too high. (wikipedia.org)
  • Histamine promotes the production and release of HCL from the parietal cells to the blood and protons to the stomach lumen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Digestive enzymes of diverse specificities are found in the saliva secreted by the salivary glands , in the secretions of cells lining the stomach, in the pancreatic juice secreted by pancreatic exocrine cells, and in the secretions of cells lining the small and large intestines. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzymes that are secreted in the stomach are gastric enzymes . (wikipedia.org)
  • It is produced by the stomach cells called "chief cells" in its inactive form pepsinogen , which is a zymogen . (wikipedia.org)
  • Pepsinogen is secreted by chief cells in the gastric glands of the body and antrum of the stomach. (reference.com)
  • Hydrochloric acid (also known as stomach acid) is the main component of gastric juices produced in the stomach. (reference.com)
  • The role of hydrochloric acid in the stomach, along with the other gastric juices, is to break down foods and cause the release of enzymes that further aid digestion. (reference.com)
  • Gastric acid, gastric juice, or stomach acid, is a digestive fluid formed in the stomach and is composed of hydrochloric acid (HCl), potassium chloride (KCl), and sodium chloride (NaCl). (reference.com)
  • Several studies have supported the idea that "chief" cells in the stomach revert to stem cells and lead to cancer, but new results do not observe such dedifferentiation. (the-scientist.com)
  • This idea emerged more than a decade ago from the observation of a specific type of metaplasia in stomach tissue called spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM), which appeared to originate from chief cells. (the-scientist.com)
  • To address some of the limitations of previous research, Hayakawa and his colleagues identified a new, more-specific chief cell maker that targets the estrogen receptor GPR30 and established a mouse model of gastric metaplasia that activates Kras within the stomach without tamoxifen. (the-scientist.com)
  • According to Hayakawa, although these findings don't rule out that chief cells may give rise to metaplasia in rare cases, they suggest that gastric stem cells from the upper part of the gland are the main source of metaplasia in the stomach. (the-scientist.com)
  • As soon as you put food into your mouth your stomach begins releasing gastric juices. (verywellhealth.com)
  • It mixes with the gastric juices secreted by special glands found in the lining of your stomach. (verywellhealth.com)
  • However, not all stomach glands contain every type of cell. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Amylase is also found in gastric juices, but it isn't made by the stomach. (verywellhealth.com)
  • The mucus is secreted by the neck cells and helps coat and protect your stomach lining from the acid environment. (verywellhealth.com)
  • As with each part of a living organism ( cells , tissues , glands , systems, etc.), the stomach interacts harmoniously with other parts of the body to keep the organism functioning. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Assisting the acidic environment of the stomach are the various cells of the stomach, which release secretions that also aide in molecule breakdown and digestion. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Absorption of vitamin B 12 from the small intestine is dependent on conjugation to a glycoprotein called intrinsic factor, which is produced by parietal cells of the stomach. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In the wall of the stomach are pits ( gastric glands ) created by infoldings of the epithelium. (s-cool.co.uk)
  • They are released because the presence of food in the mouth, the smell of the food etc. triggers off impulses to the brain which then send impulses to the gastric glands in the stomach to release these substances. (s-cool.co.uk)
  • The stomach, which is in the essence a large muscle sack, contains three sets of glands which produce gastric fluids. (artscolumbia.org)
  • The posterior region is the glandular stomach (hindstomach), which develops a columnar epithelium, and can be subdivided into a corpus and an antrum with regional-specific cell lineages. (biologists.org)
  • After the posterior foregut adopts its gastric identity, the stomach undergoes regionalization, specification and differentiation. (biologists.org)
  • The chief cells of the stomach wall secrete at least two enzymes that function in digestion. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Left gastric supplies upper right stomach. (coursehero.com)
  • Its zymogen (pepsinogen) is released by the chief cells in the stomach and that degrades food proteins into peptides. (chinaqualitycrafts.com)
  • The enzymes responsible for digestion of lipids are called lipase's and they are released from the gastric chief cells (zymogenic cells) contained in the stomach. (wikibooks.org)
  • Loss of parietal cells initiates the development of spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM), a precancerous lesion in stomach. (aacrjournals.org)
  • With the use of the K19-Wnt1/C2mE mouse, we now show that parietal cells in the inflamed stomach are highly sensitive to oxidative stress and manifest activation of p38 MAPK signaling by ROS. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Chronic inflammation induces histopathologic progression of the stomach epithelium leading to the development of metaplasia followed by gastric adenocarcinoma ( 1, 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Parietal cells, thus, play a key role in the homeostasis of gastric glands, with the loss of these cells being considered an early and critical event in the histopathologic progression of the stomach epithelium and eventual development of gastric cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, the intestine showed significantly thicker outer longitudinal muscle while gastric glands were observed only in the stomach. (hindawi.com)
  • 17 Pepsinogen I and II, the two main precursors of pepsin, are both produced by chief cells and mucous neck cells of the stomach. (bmj.com)
  • Surface Mucous Cells - inner surface of the stomach and lining of the gastric pits. (prezi.com)
  • 4.) Secretin and cholecystokinin produced by the duodenum (brown arrows) decrease gastric secretions in the stomach. (prezi.com)
  • A constitutively active AhR expressed in transgenic mice reduced the life span of the mice and induced tumors in the glandular part of the stomach, demonstrating the oncogenic potential of the AhR and implicating the receptor in regulation of cell proliferation. (pnas.org)
  • A cell that forms and secretes an enzyme, especially a secretory cell that lines the lumen of the gastric glands of the stomach or a pepsin-secreting acinar cell of the pancreas. (dictionary.com)
  • The adjective 'gastric' applies to all things pertaining to the stomach. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Important early observations on human gastric digestion were made at about the same time by William Beaumont on his patient, the Canadian trapper Alexis St Martin, who had survived a gun-shot wound leaving him with a permanent hole, or fistula, connecting the stomach with the exterior of the upper left side of the abdomen. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Food placed into the mouth substantially increases gastric secretions, preparing the stomach to receive food. (life-enthusiast.com)
  • The second phase, the gastric phase of digestion, is regulated by stretch receptors which sense the arrival of food in the stomach and by chemoreceptors which sense the presence of dietary peptides. (life-enthusiast.com)
  • The presence of reflux of the duodenal contents into the stomach (duodenogastric reflux), and atrophic gastritis, are both associated with peptic ulceration of the body of the stomach, or type 1 ulcers, supporting the etiological role of poor gastric mucosal protection. (news-medical.net)
  • Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection in the stomach lining is the most common and likely causes, leading to some gastric glandular cells which can be lost and eventually replaced by intestinal and fibrous tissues or even worse associated with gastric cancer during their long process of the disease [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Once the pH of the stomach reaches around 2.0, the gastrin mechanism slows and the negative feedback causes parietal cells to decrease production of HCl. (orthomolecularproducts.com)
  • In addition, maintaining an acidic pH in the stomach helps support normal gastric and intestinal flora. (orthomolecularproducts.com)
  • While they normally produce digestive fluids for the stomach, they can revert into stem cells to make temporary repairs to stomach injuries, such as a cut or damage from infection. (wikiversity.org)
  • In the stomach, gastric acid might partly break down sucrose to. (marcorestauranteycafe.com)
  • The most usual causes of iron deficiency anemia are related to the digestive disease: acute or chronic blood loss (due to cancer or polyp of colon or stomach, peptic ulcer, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs use, inflammatory bowel disease, vascular lesions) or reduced iron absorption (in celiac disease, small bowel bacterial overgrowth, Whipple's disease, lymphangiectasia, gastrectomy and gastric atrophy, gut resection or bypass). (omicsonline.org)
  • A study suggests that "chief" cells in the stomach act as reserve stem cells that are activated by tissue damage and may be the long-sought source of gastric cancer. (the-scientist.com)
  • The liquid inside your stomach is called gastric juice. (thoughtco.com)
  • Hydrochloric Acid - This potent acid is secreted by the parietal cells of the stomach. (thoughtco.com)
  • Gastric Lipase - This is an enzyme made by chief cells in the stomach that aids in breaking up short-chain and medium-chain fats. (thoughtco.com)
  • Intrinsic Factor - The parietal cells of the stomach secrete intrinsic factor, which is necessary for vitamin B-12 absorption. (thoughtco.com)
  • Protein digestion begins in the stomach when they interact with gastric pepsin and are broken down to smaller polypeptide chains. (nestacertified.com)
  • It works in conjunction with the parietal cell, which releases gastric acid, converting the pepsinogen into pepsin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chief cells secrete pepsinogen. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Pepsinogen is activated into the digestive enzyme pepsin when it comes in contact with acid produced by gastric parietal cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • Leptin has been found in the pepsinogen granules of chief cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chief cells are found in the basal regions of the gland and release a zymogen - pepsinogen, a precursor to pepsin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pepsinogen levels in serum may serve as a biomarker for atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer. (genecards.org)
  • Pepsinogen is secreted by chief cells, and when it's in the presence of hydrochloric acid, it's converted to pepsin. (verywellhealth.com)
  • For example, pepsinogen is secreted by chief cells and turns into pepsin under low pH conditions. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Of the 5 types of secretory cells in the gastric glands, which ones secrete pepsinogen? (flashcardmachine.com)
  • Pepsin is produced by the gastric chief cells in the form of inactive pepsinogen. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The combination of serum pepsinogen and anti- H pylori antibody provides a good predictive marker for the development of gastric cancer. (bmj.com)
  • 17 In that study, gastric atrophy was estimated by serum pepsinogen levels, which were determined in serum samples. (bmj.com)
  • 18, 19 Pepsinogen II is also produced by pyloric gland cells. (bmj.com)
  • Chief cells are replaced by pyloric glands, leading to a decrease in pepsinogen I as gastric atrophy develops. (bmj.com)
  • HCl activates pepsinogen to convert it to pepsin once it is outside the cell. (orthomolecularproducts.com)
  • 1 Available evidence indicates that the chief cells of the gastric glands secrete pepsinogen both into the gastric lumen and into the blood in a ratio of about 99:1. (annals.org)
  • Serum pepsinogen (PG) I/PG II ratios were calculated as a serological marker of gastric atrophy . (omicsonline.org)
  • Gastric mucosal IFN-γ and IL-12 were significantly elevated and IL-10 substantially reduced in dual-infected mice. (jimmunol.org)
  • These changes were associated with severe gastric mucosal inflammation, parietal cell loss, atrophy, and metaplastic cell changes. (jimmunol.org)
  • Through its effects on cell growth, leptin may influence oesophageal mucosal homeostasis. (bmj.com)
  • Oesophageal mucosal injury in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease patients is not directly associated with increased gastric acid production, 3 but the duration of oesophageal exposure to refluxed gastric contents contributes to the development of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease sequelae. (bmj.com)
  • gastric leptin thus may contribute to both mucosal homeostasis and abnormal proliferation. (bmj.com)
  • Gastric pits - formed by the mucosal surface. (prezi.com)
  • The only difference that has been found, in comparison with the Elster's cysts, is the location in mucosal area showing parietal cell hyperplasia and increased thickness of the parietal cell zone [ 4 ]. (hon.ch)
  • All regions of the gut have a capacity for the renewal of mucosal cells, and for protection against toxic or damaging agents. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The disaccharidases, maltase, sucrase-isomaltase (a bifunctional enzyme catalyzing hydrolysis of sucrose and isomaltose), lactase, and trehalase are located on the brush border of the intestinal mucosal cell where the resultant monosaccharides and others arising from the diet are absorbed. (amazonaws.com)
  • Mean normal acid levels are not exceeded in many gastric peptic ulcers, thus pointing to a failure of mucosal repair as the primary reason behind the evolution of an ulcer. (news-medical.net)
  • The major histopathological characteristics of FGPs are cystically dilated fundic glands, lined by flattened parietal cells, chief cells and variable numbers of mucosal neck cells. (omicsonline.org)
  • Endoscopic gastric mucosal atrophy was also assessed according to the Kimura-Takemoto classification system. (omicsonline.org)
  • Incidence of severe gastric mucosal atrophy in the Hp+/IgG- group was highest of the four groups. (omicsonline.org)
  • In gastric tissue, a loss of parietal cells due to chronic inflammation has been shown to affect chief cell differentiation and can induce chief cells to transdifferentiate back into neck cells and can lead to the formation of mucus cell metaplasia known as spasmolytic polypeptide expressing metaplasia (SPEM) that could be precancerous. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists have proposed that, in the face of injury or genetic mutations, these cells revert back to stem cells-or dedifferentiate-and give rise to abnormal changes in tissue called metaplasia, a precancerous state. (the-scientist.com)
  • The team did find stem cells that gave rise to metaplasia in the spots where the chief cells had died. (the-scientist.com)
  • The data clearly suggests stem cells or progenitors give rise to metaplasia but chief cells do not," he says. (the-scientist.com)
  • Jason Mills , whose lab at Washington University School of Medicine has published several studies supporting the hypothesis that dedifferentiated chief cells can give rise to metaplasia, is not convinced. (the-scientist.com)
  • Mills adds that the results from this study aren't actually too far off from those obtained in his own work, which has also revealed a subset of chief cells that do not undergo metaplasia. (the-scientist.com)
  • However, while his lab demonstrated that there are other chief cells that do give rise to SPEM, Hayakawa's team concludes that the cells that give rise to the metaplasia in their experiments must not be chief cells. (the-scientist.com)
  • Linda Samuelson of the University of Michigan says that a tamoxifen-independent mouse model of gastric metaplasia is an important contribution to the field. (the-scientist.com)
  • To determine whether leptin receptors are present in the oesophagus, and whether serum or gastric leptin levels are associated with oesophageal inflammation and metaplasia. (bmj.com)
  • Variation in gastric leptin production could contribute to differential oesophageal healing and metaplasia progression. (bmj.com)
  • Spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) is triggered by the parietal cell loss, and is recognized as a precancerous lesion ( 5, 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • 5 They also reported in the same study that subjects with severe gastric atrophy, corpus predominant gastritis, or intestinal metaplasia were at increased risk for gastric cancer. (bmj.com)
  • Atrophic gastritis with the development of deeper inflammation, loss of parietal and chief cells and occasionally intestinal metaplasia. (doctorslounge.com)
  • GPR30-expressing Gastric Chief Cells do not Dedifferentiate but are Eliminated via PDK-dependent Cell Competition During Development of Metaplasia. (stembook.org)
  • Gastric metaplasia induced by Helicobacter pylori is associated with enhanced SOX9 expression via IL-1 signaling. (stembook.org)
  • The occurrence of gastric metaplasia in the duodenum. (news-medical.net)
  • [20] The reversible transformation of cells of one differentiated cell type to another is called w:metaplasia . (wikiversity.org)
  • Digestive enzymes are found in the digestive tracts of animals (including humans) and in the tracts of carnivorous plants , where they aid in the digestion of food , as well as inside cells , especially in their lysosomes , where they function to maintain cellular survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acidic lipases make up 30% of lipid hydrolysis occurring during digestion in the human adult, with gastric lipase contributing the most of the two acidic lipases. (wikipedia.org)
  • C hief cells lie at the base of the stomach's gastric glands, and in healthy individuals they are responsible for secreting enzymes required for digestion. (the-scientist.com)
  • The encoded precursor is secreted by gastric chief cells and undergoes autocatalytic cleavage in acidic conditions to form the active enzyme, which functions in the digestion of dietary proteins. (genecards.org)
  • Lingual lipase is an enzyme secreted by the acinar cells of the sublingual gland that aids lipid digestion. (jove.com)
  • 1.) Chyme in the duodenum with a pH less than 2 or containing fat digestion products (lipids) inhibits gastric secretions by three mechanisms (2-4). (prezi.com)
  • This gene encodes gastric lipase, an enzyme involved in the digestion of dietary triglycerides in the gastrointestinal tract, and responsible for 30% of fat digestion processes occurring in human. (fishersci.com)
  • Gastric HCl causes hydrolysis of sucrose, while there is no hydrolytic enzyme present in gastric juice for the digestion of carbohydrates. (amazonaws.com)
  • Maintaining adequate levels of HCl is fundamental to healthy protein digestion, nutrient availability and maintenance of beneficial gastric flora. (orthomolecularproducts.com)
  • Support of natural gastric secretions and acidity with Betaine & Pepsin supports normal digestion, absorption and optimal immune health. (orthomolecularproducts.com)
  • Betaine HCl, the acidic form of betaine, has been used for years to support digestion and absorption due to its ability to lower gastric pH. (orthomolecularproducts.com)
  • Chemical digestion, on the other hand, is a complex process that reduces food into its chemical building blocks, which are then absorbed to nourish the cells of the body. (lumenlearning.com)
  • Hormones and Electrolytes - Gastric juice also contains hormones and electrolytes , which aid in organ function, food digestion, and nutrient absorption. (thoughtco.com)
  • Proliferation of the self-renewing epithelium of the gastric corpus occurs almost exclusively in the isthmus of the glands, from where cells migrate bidirectionally toward pit and base. (nih.gov)
  • This review surveys the data which demonstrate the wide distribution of PARs, particularly PAR-1 and PAR-2, in the gastrointestinal tract and accessory organs, focusing on the epithelium and those cells which communicate with the epithelium to affect its function. (bioline.org.br)
  • Therefore, this review will focus on PARs expressed on the gastrointestinal epithelium and on cells which interact with the epithelium to regulate its function in health and disease. (bioline.org.br)
  • The glands themselves are in the lamina propria of the mucous membrane and they open into the bases of the gastric pits formed by the epithelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • often restricted to the cells of the alveolar epithelium (squamous alveolar cells and great alveolar cells) and alveolar phagocytes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Arias-Stella cells columnar cells in the endometrial epithelium which have a hyperchromatic enlarged nucleus and which appear to be associated with chorionic tissue in an intrauterine or extrauterine site. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • basal granular cells APUD cells located at the base of the epithelium at many places in the gastrointestinal tract. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 8 Both leptin and its receptor (ob-R) are expressed by the gastric epithelium. (bmj.com)
  • It is composed of simple epithelium cells and a thin connective tissue. (wikibooks.org)
  • Inflammation of the gastric epithelium results in a gradual loss of parietal cells and their replacement with proliferative metaplastic cells derived from transdifferentiated chief cells ( 3, 4 ), suggesting that chronic inflammation disrupts homeostasis of the gastric epithelium by altering the viability or differentiation status of these differentiated cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The gastric epithelium therefore maintains one of the steepest concentration gradients of an electrolyte in the body. (encyclopedia.com)
  • For example: transformation of iris cells to lens cells in the process of maturation and transformation of w:retinal pigment epithelium cells into the neural retina during regeneration in adult w:newt eyes. (wikiversity.org)
  • Under normal physiologic conditions, MUC13 mRNA and/or protein have been detected in the large intestine, trachea, kidney, small intestine, gastric epithelium, and esophagus ( 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The other type of gastric gland is the pyloric gland which is an endocrine gland that secretes the hormone gastrin produced by its G cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • They secrete gastrin produced by their G cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The G cells secrete gastrin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gastric pits of these glands are much deeper than the others and here the gastrin is secreted into the bloodstream not the lumen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Previous studies indicated that the gastric hormone gastrin, which may be increased in H. pylori infection, stimulates gastric expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-2, which is an inhibitor of the urokinase plasminogen activator and has previously been shown to be increased in gastric adenocarcinoma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In gastric biopsies of H. pylori -positive subjects there was increased PAI-2, including subjects with plasma gastrin concentrations in the normal range. (aacrjournals.org)
  • the data implicate both gastrin-dependent and gastrin-independent components in the response, and interestingly, both components include NFκB induction of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) so that H. pylori -associated increases in PAI-2 occur not just in cells directly exposed to the bacterium but also in adjacent cells activated via paracrine signals. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Gastrin signals the gastric glands and parietal cells to produce HCl, and stimulates chief cells to produce pepsin. (orthomolecularproducts.com)
  • In order to investigate possible histological differences related to gastric acid production, we evaluated the cell density of acid producing parietal cells, as well as gastrin producing cells (the endocrine cell controlling parietal cell function). (plos.org)
  • Pepsin is the main gastric enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, pepsin is stable in a strongly acid medium and reaches its maximum activity at pH 1-2, the pH of gastric juice. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The activation process involves several stages and is catalyzed by the hydrochloric acid in gastric juice and by pepsin itself (autocatalysis). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Since pepsin is most active in low pH values, gastric juices must be acidic for the enzyme to function. (orthomolecularproducts.com)
  • Pepsin is released by the chief cells and is responsible for breaking down proteins into peptides. (orthomolecularproducts.com)
  • Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric atrophy are both risk factors for gastric cancer. (bmj.com)
  • We aimed to elucidate the natural history of gastric cancer development according to H pylori infection and gastric atrophy status. (bmj.com)
  • We also confirmed that gastric atrophy status was essential for cancer development in our previous cross sectional study. (bmj.com)
  • Moreover it has been recently suggested [ 6 ] that the simultaneous presence in these patients of an Helicobacter pylori infection may promote the development of gastric atrophy. (hon.ch)
  • We investigated characteristics of patients falsely seronegative for H. pylori in relation to gastric atrophy. (omicsonline.org)
  • The gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori is associated with a progression to gastric cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The gastric carcinogenic pathogen Helicobacter pylori infects a high proportion of the population in third-world countries and up to 50% in western countries. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative spiral bacteria that infects over half of the world population ( 1 ) and is the leading cause of gastric adenocarcinoma. (jimmunol.org)
  • Helicobacter ♦ Implicated as precursor of gastric cancer. (coursehero.com)
  • The pathogenic role of Helicobacter pylori for gastric cancer has been documented in a large number of epidemiological studies 1- 5 and basic research investigations. (bmj.com)
  • However, the studies performed on patients with gastric polyps after PPI therapy had not shown the presence of Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis. (hon.ch)
  • It is speculated that gastric carcinogenesis may be associated with Helicobacter pylori infection, inherited susceptibilities, and environmental and dietary factors ( 5 , 6 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Another newer approach with the eradication of Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) infection has been suggested as primary prevention of gastric cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • What are the functions of gastric secretions? (brainscape.com)
  • Action potentials generated by the chemoreceptors are carried by the vagus nerves to the medulla oblongata (green arrow), where they inhibit parasympathetic action potentials (pink arrow), thereby decreasing gastric secretions. (prezi.com)
  • Human gastric cancer modelling using organoids. (uniklinikum-dresden.de)
  • The results of the present study demonstrated that ECT2 expression was upregulated in human gastric cancer samples. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Human lysosomal acid lipase/cholesteryl ester hydrolase (HLAL), human gastric lipase (HGL), and rat lingual lipase (RLL) constitute a family of mammalian lipases characterized by an acidic pH optimum. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The Gastrointestinal Cell Biology Section conductions studies on the cellular basis of action of GI hormones, as well as clinical and laboratory studies on human gastric acid hypersecretory states (e.g. (nih.gov)
  • We find that the stem cell marker Troy is expressed at the gland base by a small subpopulation of fully differentiated chief cells. (nih.gov)
  • Both chief and parietal cells at the gland base express eGFP and positive cells possess characteristics of maturation specific to that lineage. (nih.gov)
  • The parathyroid chief cell is the primary cell of the parathyroid gland . (wikipedia.org)
  • Parathyroid chief cells make up the majority of the parathyroid gland along with adipocytes and oxyphil cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • As in many endocrine organs, with age, more oxyphil cells appear in the parathyroid gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • Askanazy cells large eosinophilic cells found in the thyroid gland in autoimmune thyroiditis and Hürthle cell tumors. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A cell present in the acinus of an acinous gland, e.g., of the pancreas. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • But based on lineage tracing experiments with their Kras -activated mice, the authors conclude that these cells were not derived from chief cells, but had instead migrated from higher up in the gland. (the-scientist.com)
  • This observation is consistent with a long-standing idea that stem cells from elsewhere in the gland are responding to replenish the dead chief cells, Hayakawa tells The Scientist . (the-scientist.com)
  • Present study revealed that oxyphil cells were less numerous than chief cells , placed either at periphery of gland adjacent to capsule or in the centre of gland. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Protic MB, Seibold FW, Weimann R (2014) An Unusual Cause of Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Gastric Fundic Gland Polyps. (omicsonline.org)
  • Fundic gland polyps (FGPs) are the most common type of gastric polyps. (omicsonline.org)
  • Gastric lipase is another digestive enzyme made by the chief cells. (verywellhealth.com)
  • a proteolytic enzyme of the hydrolase class, found in the gastric juice of mammals, birds, reptiles, and most species of fish. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Answer- Lactose intolerance is caused by a deficiency of lactase enzyme, which is produced by the cells lining the small intestine. (amazonaws.com)
  • If one adds malonic acid to cells, or to a test tube mixture of succinic acid and the enzyme, the action of the enzyme is strongly inhibited. (biology-pages.info)
  • The enzyme is antibacterial because it degrades the polysaccharide that is found in the cell walls of many bacteria. (biology-pages.info)
  • 5. The contents of pancreatic PLA2 in isolated chief cells and parietal cells were determined by EIA and enzyme activity measurement. (nii.ac.jp)
  • [1] These stem cells differentiate into mucous neck cells in the isthmus and transition into chief cells as they migrate towards the base. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first cells of all of the glands are foveolar cells in the neck region-also called mucous neck cells that produce mucus. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL1F5 is expressed by a variety of cells including monocytes, Bcells, dendritic cells/Langerhans cells, keratinocytes,and gastric fundus Parietal and Chief cells. (prospecbio.com)
  • The resident macrophages in murine pancreatic islets are constantly probing their local environment, capturing beta cell granules and blood particles. (nih.gov)
  • acinar cell , acinic cell , acinous cell any of the cells lining an acinus, especially the zymogen-secreting cells of the pancreatic acini. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1. An enteroendocrine cell that produces glucagon and is found in the pancreatic islets. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Riviello C, Tanini I, Cipriani G, Pantaleo P, Nozzoli C, Poma A, Riccardo V, Valeri A. Unusual gastric and pancreatic metastatic renal cell carcinoma presentation 10 years after surgery and immunotherapy: A case report and a review of literature. (wjgnet.com)
  • In this article, we describe the clinical course of a patient who developed a pancreatic recurrence of RCC and 1 year later a gastric recurrence of RCC treated 10 years ago with a resection and interleukin-2 (IL-2). (wjgnet.com)
  • The nucleotide sequence of gastric PLA2 cDNA was completely identical to that of pancreatic PLA2 cDNA. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Pancreatic-type PLA2 was mainly present in the chief cell fractions and parietal cells contained a small, but significant amount of pancreatic PLA2. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Immunoelectron microscopic observation showed that pancreatic PLA2 not only existed in the zymogen granules in chief cells but also in the intracellular canaliculi in parietal cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 6. Pancreatic PLA2 was Secreted from Gastric Chief Cells on Stimulation by Carbachol. (nii.ac.jp)
  • What's in Your Stomach's Gastric Juice? (verywellhealth.com)
  • The hormone is released into the blood and its target cells are those of the gastric glands so this too causes the release of the gastric juice. (s-cool.co.uk)
  • Hydrochloric acid in gastric juice was identified by the physician-chemist William Prout in the 1820s. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The concentration of hydrogen ions in gastric juice is about a million times higher than in blood. (encyclopedia.com)
  • About 80% of gastric juice is secreted during the gastric phase. (life-enthusiast.com)
  • The parietal cells secrete hydrochloric acid-the main component of gastric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Parietal cells secrete hydrochloric acid. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Hydrochloric acid is a strong acid secreted by the parietal cells, and it lowers your stomach's pH to around 2. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Other cells called parietal cells (or oxyntic cells) release HCl (hydrochloric acid). (s-cool.co.uk)
  • Since the mucus neck cells do not divide as it becomes a chief cell this process is known as transdifferentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • [6] The gene Mist1 has been shown to regulate mucus neck cell to chief cell transdifferentiation and plays a role in the normal development of the chief cell organelles and structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells of the exocrine glands are foveolar (mucus), chief cells, and parietal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mucous cells secrete mucus . (wikidoc.org)
  • Neck cells secrete bicarbonate and mucus. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Finally, the gastric juices contain water and mucus. (verywellhealth.com)
  • The stomach's muscular walls move around the "food" and mucus, mixing them with the gastric fluids produced. (artscolumbia.org)
  • Mucous - Mucous (or mucus) is produced by cells in the mouth. (thoughtco.com)
  • [2] This type of cell also secretes gastric lipase enzymes, which help digest triglycerides into free fatty acids and di- and mono-glycerides. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gastric chief cell also contains many large secretory vesicles filled with digestive enzymes in the apical cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serous cells secrete proteins , often enzymes . (wikidoc.org)
  • One of the enzymes needed for the release of energy within the cell is succinic dehydrogenase . (biology-pages.info)
  • Cells found in the gastric glands include foveolar cells, chief cells, parietal cells, G cells and enterochromaffin-like cells (ECLs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple peduncular polyps (size 5-15 mm) were found in the gastric fundus and corpus. (omicsonline.org)
  • C-E ) Confocal microscopy reveals that Troy-eGFP + cells are co-expressing either the parietal cell marker H + K + -ATPase (C) or the chief cell marker gastric intrinsic factor (D). Basal enteroendocrine cells marked by chromogranin A are Troy-eGFP − (E). ( F ) Electron microscopy of cryo immunogold labeled Troy-eGFP + cells. (nih.gov)
  • Pernicious anemia is caused when damaged parietal cells fail to produce the intrinsic factor necessary for the absorption of vitamin B12. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intrinsic factor is secreted by parietal cells and is necessary for your body to absorb vitamin B-12 . (verywellhealth.com)
  • It is associated with circulating antibodies to parietal cells and intrinsic factor. (doctorslounge.com)
  • The prevalence of self-antigen expression on cancer cells implies that many tumors will be protected from cytotoxic immune responses via intrinsic host mechanisms of self-tolerance. (frontiersin.org)
  • Furthermore, anti-Wnt-5a antibody suppressed gastric cancer cell migration. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Normal diploid cells from humans show a limited capacity for proliferation in culture, 1 and this finite replicative lifespan has frequently been used as a model of human aging in mitotic tissues and organs. (wiley.com)
  • Wnt-5a negatively regulates B-cell proliferation, and Wnt-5a heterozygous mice develop B-cell lymphoma ( 15 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, Wnt-5a inhibits proliferation, migration, and invasiveness in thyroid tumor and colorectal cancer cell lines ( 16 , 17 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • H + /K + ATPase specific iTregs were able to inhibit the initial priming and proliferation of autoreactive T cells, and appear to do so by acting on H + /K + ATPase presenting dendritic cells (DC). (jimmunol.org)
  • DC exposed to iTregs in vivo were reduced in their ability to stimulate proliferation and cytokine production by H + /K + ATPase specific T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Although nTregs have been shown to prevent IL-2 production and proliferation of responding T cells in vitro ( 4 ), the mechanism(s) used by nTregs in vivo is more complex and controversial, with possibilities ranging from the suppression of initial activation and proliferation, differentiation, migration, and effector functions of responding T cells, to effects on dendritic cells (DCs) and other cells types ( 1 , 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • GLP-1 also restores glucose sensitivity to diabetic β-cells and promotes expansion of β-cell mass via stimulation of β-cell proliferation and enhancement of β-cell survival ( 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are activated by several stimuli and transduce the signal inside cells, generating diverse responses including cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis. (mdpi.com)
  • More importantly, we describe how MAPKs regulate cell proliferation and differentiation in the rapidly renewing epithelia that lines the gastrointestinal tract and, finally, we highlight the recent findings on nutritional aspects that affect MAPK transduction cascades. (mdpi.com)
  • After injury, mature terminally differentiated kidney cells dedifferentiate into more primordial versions of themselves, and then differentiate into the cell types needing replacement in the damaged tissue [26] Macrophages can self-renew by local proliferation of mature differentiated cells. (wikiversity.org)
  • Locations of gastric heterotopia include: the esophagus, duodenum, small intestine, Meckel's diverticulum, and gallbladder 1 The occurrence of gastric heterotopia within the rectum or any portion of the embryologic hindgut is rare. (ispub.com)
  • These mice may be useful for lineage-tracing or marking Lgr5 -expressing stem cells of the small intestine. (jax.org)
  • EGFP fluorescence is observed in crypt base columnar cells in small intestine (aka stem cells of the small intestine) and colon. (jax.org)
  • Fundus or body mucoid cells, chief cells, parietal cells. (coursehero.com)
  • A precursor cell that can also give rise to identical precursor cells: daughters of a stem cell can develop into a terminally-differentiated cell type or they can remain a stem cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A precursor cell that can also give rise to identical precursor cells. (tabers.com)
  • On the autoradiographic study, number of labeled cells in the area of 3.5 mm width (6 micrometer thickness) of mouse gastric mucosae of normal control , tumor control and AG60-treated groups were 319.7+/-66.46, 343.7+/-47.72 and 102.3+/-54.99 respectively. (bvsalud.org)
  • On the electron microscopic study, the size of zymogen granule in the gastric chief cells of normal control , tumor control and AG60-treated groups were 0.74+/-0.208 micrometer, 1.18+/-0.291 micrometer and 0.97+/-0.259 micrometer, respectively. (bvsalud.org)
  • And the mitochondrial size of the gastric chief cells of normal control , tumor control and AG60-treated groups were 0.86+/-0.364 micrometer, 1.02+/-0.466 micrometer and 0.92+/-0.390 micrometer, respectively. (bvsalud.org)
  • Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common renal tumor, accounting for 2%-3% of all malignancies. (wjgnet.com)
  • 1) We showed a possible role of glutathione peroxidase1(GPX-1) as a biomakar for early recurrence and metastasis in giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB). (nii.ac.jp)
  • 2) We showed that fibroblast growth factor receptor(FGFR4) is a trnascriptional target of EWS-WT1 in desmoplastic small round cell tumor, and FGFR4 and as a possible terapeutic target in this tumor. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Cancer stem cells (CSCs), also known as tumor-initiating cells, are characterized by stem-like properties, including self-renewal and ability to generate daughter cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • This review surveys the tumor-promoting and tumoricidal activities of several prominent cytokines: IFN-γ, TNF-α, TGF-β, IL-17, IL-23, IL-4, and IL-13, produced by three major subsets of T helper cells that interact with innate immune cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • The molecular sequence that links chronic inflammation to cancer development involves intricate and context-dependent interactions among differentiated tissue cells, immune cells, organ-specific stem cells, and other cell types present at the incipient tumor site ( 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • 5 A study by Murray et al found that five of nineteen patients with gastric heterotopia had other associated anomalies, most commonly vertebral (four patients). (ispub.com)
  • In addition, patients with gastric cancer, with high ECT2 expression exhibited a significantly shorter overall survival time than those with low ECT2 expression, and Cox regression analysis demonstrated that ECT2 expression was an independent prognostic marker for overall survival time. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The present study aimed to investigate the association between ECT2 expression and the clinicopathological characteristics of patients with gastric cancer. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Seventy minutes after the thymidine injection , gastric tissues were taken and fixed in 10% buffered neutral formalin . (bvsalud.org)
  • And for electron microscopic observation , gastric tissues were prefixed with 2.5% glutaraldehyde -1.5% paraformaldehyde solution, followed by post-fixation with 1% osmium tetroxide solution. (bvsalud.org)
  • Using the quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (Q-FISH) method for telomere measurement, we were able to measure the telomere lengths of various cell types within tissues. (wiley.com)
  • 5 Telomeric repeats of DNA sequences at chromosome ends are shortened by 33-120 bp with each cell division in human fibroblasts 6 and lymphocytes 7 in vitro , but the question of telomere shortening with aging in many other cell types, and human tissues and organs in vivo remains unclear. (wiley.com)
  • In mammals, all new cells arise from existing cells through cell division, and an animal's growth results largely from increases in the number of its cells, most of which differentiate into specialized cell types to form the body's various tissues. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Histologic lesions consisted of interstitial pneumonia with multinucleated syncytial cells and a moderate-to-severe lymphocytic depletion in the lymphoid tissues. (cdc.gov)
  • Crown antibodies pass additional stringent quality requirements, including extended control sets, uniform results against multiple biologically relevant cell lines and tissues, and function in multiple applications. (abgent.com)
  • Rather, targeted killing of cancer cells and autoimmune damage to healthy tissues may be intricately linked through molecular mechanisms, in particular inflammatory cytokine signaling. (frontiersin.org)
  • It enables red blood cells to transport carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs. (biology-pages.info)
  • basal cell an early keratinocyte, present in the stratum basale of the epidermis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Right, in cancer cells, MUC13 is localized at basal, lateral, and apical cell surface membranes, which possibly contributes to the loss of cell-cell and cell-ECM binding. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These results suggest that Wnt-5a stimulates cell migration by regulating focal adhesion complexes and that Wnt-5a is not only a prognostic factor but also a good therapeutic target for gastric cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The accumulated β-catenin is translocated to the nucleus, where it binds to the transcription factor T-cell factor (Tcf)/lymphoid enhancer factor (Lef) and thereby stimulates the expression of various genes ( 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • A new method stimulates B cells to make human antigen-specific antibodies, obviating the need for vaccinating blood donors or hunting for rare B cells. (the-scientist.com)
  • In a gastric cancer cell line (AGS), H. pylori increased PAI-2 expression, which was associated with inhibition of H. pylori -stimulated cell invasion and apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the present study, we asked whether H. pylori infection was associated with changes in gastric PAI-2 expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 6- 9 In earlier epidemiological studies using H pylori antibody as a marker of infection, various risk ratios of H pylori infection for gastric cancer were reported, ranging widely from none to 10 or above. (bmj.com)
  • Recently, a follow up study by Uemura et al showed that gastric cancer developed only in patients infected with H pylori when using a full set of diagnostic tests for H pylori infection. (bmj.com)
  • The relative cost-effectiveness was most sensitive to the infection rate of H. pylori and proportion of early gastric cancer in all detectable cases. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The theory is based on the strong association between H. pylori infection and risk of gastric cancer ( 11 , 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Several health economic models have suggested the cost-effectiveness of H. pylori eradication programs in decreasing the mortality of gastric cancer ( 14 - 18 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, these studies mainly focused on populations with low H. pylori prevalence and low gastric cancer incidence. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The terms chief cell and zymogenic cell are often used without the word "gastric" to name this type of cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic ablation of PCs led to failed patterning of the entire zymogenic lineage: progenitors showed premature expression of differentiated cell markers, and fully differentiated ZCs failed to develop. (nih.gov)
  • Surprisingly, these mislocalized PCs did not maintain adjacent zymogenic lineage cells in the progenitor state, demonstrating that PCs, though necessary, are not sufficient to define the progenitor niche. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, certain populations of gastric CSCs abilities to self-renewal and undergo multipotent differentiation have been detected in gastric cancer ( 2 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Progenitors are obtained by so-called direct reprogramming or directed differentiation and are also called induced somatic stem cells . (wikiversity.org)
  • This meant that the cells can change their differentiation pathway. (wikiversity.org)
  • In w:Drosophila imaginal discs, cells have to choose from a limited number of standard discrete differentiation states. (wikiversity.org)
  • The fact that transdetermination (change of the path of differentiation) often occurs for a group of cells rather than single cells shows that it is induced rather than part of maturation. (wikiversity.org)
  • The size of zymogen granules and mitochondria in the gastric chief cells were observed and calculated. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cells are highly variable and specialized in both structure and function, although all must at some stage replicate proteins and nucleic acids, use energy, and reproduce themselves. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It is thought that the Wnt proteins showing the high transforming activity in C57MG cells activate the β-catenin pathway. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Some Wnt proteins activate a β-catenin-independent pathway that primarily modulates cell movement and polarity ( 3 , 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, in addition to these, the variety of stimuli and the specific expression of proteins in the different cell types increase the complexity of MAPK system [ 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Recognize the sources of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins and their uses in cell metabolism. (jdenuno.com)
  • Betaine also functions as an osmolyte, which supports the integrity of cells and proteins during fluctuations in hydration, salinity and temperature. (orthomolecularproducts.com)
  • Abgent has over fifteen years of experience producing recombinant proteins in E. coli and mammalian cells (CHO and HEK293, etc), and we have added a powerful yeast expression platform to our menu of services. (abgent.com)
  • Gastric lipase, together with lingual lipase, comprise the two acidic lipases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lingual lipase and gastric lipase comprise the two acidic lipases found in the human digestive system. (jove.com)
  • In the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, the cell fate decisions that specify the development of multiple, diverse lineages are governed in large part by interactions of stem and early lineage progenitor cells with their microenvironment, or niche. (nih.gov)
  • The isthmus is therefore generally viewed as the stem cell zone. (nih.gov)
  • Troy marks a specific subset of chief cells that display plasticity in that they are capable of replenishing entire gastric units, essentially serving as quiescent "reserve" stem cells. (nih.gov)
  • These observations challenge the notion that stem cell hierarchies represent a "one-way street. (nih.gov)
  • [5] Gastric chief cells are much longer lived and are believed to differentiate from stem cells located higher in the gastric unit in the isthmus. (wikipedia.org)
  • When they induced a cancer-causing mutation in the mice, they found that most of the GPR30- expressing chief cells died instead of reverting their identity to stem cells. (the-scientist.com)
  • So, in this case, stem cells actually expand and try to give rise to chief cells, which are lost. (the-scientist.com)
  • This variegated expression is advantageous for performing clonal lineage tracing and sorting intestinal stem cells, but may have limitations for more quantitative studies such as Lgr5-Cre driven knockout strategies. (jax.org)
  • This construct was inserted into the targeted gene via electroporation into male 129P2/OlaHsd-derived IB10/E14IB10 embryonic stem (ES) cells. (jax.org)
  • In the new report, Mills, graduate student Greg Sibbel and Hans Clevers, MD, PhD, a geneticist at Utrecht Medical Centre, identified markers that show a small number of chief cells become stem cells even in the absence of serious injury. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Daughters of a stem cell can develop into a terminally differentiated cell type, or they can remain a stem cell. (tabers.com)
  • Defining the Identity and Dynamics of Adult Gastric Isthmus Stem Cells. (uniklinikum-dresden.de)
  • Characterization of the transcriptome profiles of ECT2 upregulated gastric tumors indicated that ECT2 upregulation may be associated with transcriptional features of cancer stem cells (CSCs). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Villin + and Lgr5 + gastric stem cells have been detected in the antrum, while Troy + chief cells have been found in the corpus ( 3 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Additionally, Sox2 + gastric stem cells are present in both the antrum and the corpus ( 3 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Welcome to the Wikiversity learning project for Induced stem cells (Guide to publications). (wikiversity.org)
  • This project provides learning resources that help participants learn about Induced stem cells and efforts to produce useful stem cells and obtaining their derivatives for medical therapies. (wikiversity.org)
  • Induced stem cells (iSC) are stem cells artificially derived from somatic , reproductive , pluripotent or other cell types by deliberate w:epigenetic reprogramming. (wikiversity.org)
  • Some types of mature, specialized adult cells can naturally revert to stem cells. (wikiversity.org)
  • Another example, "chief" cells express the stem cell marker Troy. (wikiversity.org)
  • Moreover, they can make this transition even in the absence of noticeable injuries and are capable of replenishing entire gastric units, in essence serving as quiescent "reserve" stem cells. (wikiversity.org)
  • This capacity to regenerate does not decline with age and may be linked to their ability to make new stem cells from muscle cells on demand. (wikiversity.org)
  • A variety of nontumorigenic stem cells display the ability to generate multiple cell types. (wikiversity.org)
  • For instance, multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells are stress-tolerant adult human stem cells that can self-renew. (wikiversity.org)
  • Can Young Stem Cells Make Older People Stronger? (the-scientist.com)
  • Small trials using younger donors and elderly recipients hint that mesenchymal stem cell transfers might reduce frailty. (the-scientist.com)
  • Once implanted into animals' brains, neural stem cells that secrete microRNA-containing vesicles seem to contribute to an anti-aging effect. (the-scientist.com)
  • Dr. Lauwers' areas of clinical focus include luminal malignancies of the gut (particularly esophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma) and hepatocellular carcinoma. (moffitt.org)
  • Neck cells also secrete bicarbonate, which buffers the acid and controls pH. (thoughtco.com)
  • Why are there so many phagocytic cells (in lymph nodes and the liver, for example) associated with the digestive system? (flashcardmachine.com)
  • Smooth muscle cells all along the digestive tract were also highly reactive. (physiology.org)
  • Dr. Lauwers serves on the editorial boards of several journals, he is Deputy Editor-in-Chief of the Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, and he contributed to the WHO Classification of Tumours of the Digestive System (2010). (moffitt.org)
  • induction of PAI-2 inhibits cell invasion and apoptosis and is a candidate for influencing the progression to gastric cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Together, gastric lipase and lingual lipase account for 10-30% of lipid hydrolysis that occurs in human adults, with gastric lipase contributing the most. (jove.com)
  • 2b: High power view shows oxyntic glands lined by parietal cells (H&E, 600x). (ispub.com)
  • 1. a type of cell found in the periphery of the islets of Langerhans that secretes glucagon . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1. a type of basophilic cell that makes up most of the bulk of the islets of Langerhans and secretes insulin . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The cell stains basophilic upon H&E staining due to the large proportion of rough endoplasmic reticulum in its cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. any of the protoplasmic masses making up organized tissue, consisting of a nucleus surrounded by cytoplasm enclosed in a cell or plasma membrane. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Photomicrograph showing chief cells with pale eosinophilic cytoplasm and round to oval nuclei surrounded by sustentacular cells (hematoxylin-eosin, original magnification X20). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Once in the cytoplasm, the glucose is phosphorylated and thereby trapped inside cells. (amazonaws.com)
  • In affected areas of the brain, neurons and glial cells contained morbillivirus antigen in the nuclei and cytoplasm. (cdc.gov)
  • Gastric acid Fundic glands List of human cell types derived from the germ layers Kitamura N, Tanimoto A, Hondo E, Andrén A, Cottrell DF, Sasaki M, Yamada J (2001). (wikipedia.org)