Chief Cells, Gastric
Parietal Cells, Gastric
Chief Executive Officers, Hospital
Reappraisal of potassium permanganate oxidation applied to Lowicryl K4M embedded tissues processed by high pressure freezing/freeze substitution, with special reference to differential staining of the zymogen granules of rat gastric chief cells. (1/37)The high pressure freezing/freeze substitution technique is known to yield a deep vitreous freezing of tissues. Combination of this technique with Lowicryl K4M embedding allows us histochemical studies of dynamic cellular processes with improved structural preservation. The disadvantage of Lowicryl K4M embedding is its poor electron density in electron microscopy. To address this problem, we examined the effects of KMnO4 oxidation applied to Lowicryl K4M embedded rat gastric glands processed by high pressure freezing. The KMnO4 oxidation-uranyl acetate-lead citrate sequence succeeded not only in contrast enhancement of cellular components, but also in differential staining of the zymogen granules of rat gastric chief cells. This technique could be applied to semi-thin sections of Lowicryl K4M embedded rat gastric glands. The KMnO4 oxidation-toluidine blue staining provided sufficient contrast with regard to the zymogen granules. Various experiments used in this study verified that the KMnO4 oxidation plays an essential role in the differential staining of the zymogen granules. Combined use of the KMnO4 oxidation with phospholipase A2-immunostaining demonstrated that gold labeling was localized to the zymogen granules without the loss of immunolabeling. Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis revealed some manganese depositions on the zymogen granules. It is highly anticipated that the KMnO4 oxidation will become a useful tool for histochemical investigations combined with cryofixation/freeze substitution and low temperature embedding techniques. (+info)
Acute parietal and chief cell changes induced by a lethal dose of lipopolysaccharide in mouse stomach before thrombus formation. (2/37)The common lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced gastric lesions, such as erosions or ulcers, have been investigated in depth. Little is known, however, about the acute gastric lesions following a high dose of LPS. In a time-course study, ICR female mice were given a high subcutaneous dose of LPS (50 mg/kg). Mice were sacrificed at 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours after dosing and were assessed histopathologically for acute gastric lesions. The major gastric changes were seen in the fundic region and included vacuolar degeneration of parietal cells and apoptosis of chief cells. The vacuole in parietal cells was apparent as early as 4 hours postinjection (PI), and apoptosis of chief cells was apparent at 12 hours PI. Thrombus formation, in contrast, was not seen until 24 hours PI. No erosion, ulcer, or hemorrhage was seen in any gastric region in any of the treated animals at 24 hours PI. These results indicate that a subcutaneous high dose of LPS in mice causes vacuolar degeneration of parietal cells and apoptosis of chief cells before thrombus formation or subsequent ulcerative lesions. (+info)
The LIM and SH3 domain-containing protein, lasp-1, may link the cAMP signaling pathway with dynamic membrane restructuring activities in ion transporting epithelia. (3/37)Lasp-1 is a unique LIM and src homology 3 (SH3) domain-containing protein that was initially identified as a 40 kDa cAMP-dependent phosphoprotein in the HCl-secreting gastric parietal cell. Because cAMP is a potent stimulator of parietal cell acid secretion, we have hypothesized that changes in lasp-1 phosphorylation might be involved in the regulation of ion transport-related activities, perhaps by modulating interactions among cytoskeletal and/or vesicle-associated proteins. In this study, we demonstrate that the cAMP-dependent acid secretory agonist, histamine, induces a rapid, sustained rise in parietal cell lasp-1 phosphorylation and this increase in phosphorylation is closely correlated with the acid secretory response. In addition, elevation of intracellular cAMP concentrations appear to induce a partial redistribution of lasp-1 from the cell cortex, where it predominates along with the gamma-isoform of actin in unstimulated cells, to the beta-actin enriched, apically-directed intracellular canalicular region, which is the site of active proton transport in the parietal cell. Additional studies demonstrate that although lasp-1 mRNA and protein are expressed in a wide range of tissues, the expression is specific for certain actin-rich cell types present within these tissues. For example, gastric chief cells, which contain relatively little F-actin and secrete the enzyme, pepsinogen, by regulated exocytosis, do not appear to express lasp-1. Similarly, lasp-1 was not detected in pancreatic acinar cells, which secrete enzymes by similar mechanisms and also contain relatively low levels of F-actin. Lasp-1 also was not detectable in proximal tubules in the kidney, in gastrointestinal smooth muscle, heart or skeletal muscle. In contrast, expression was prominent in the cortical regions of ion-transporting duct cells in the pancreas and in the salivary parotid gland as well as in certain F-actin-rich cells in the distal tubule/collecting duct. Interestingly, moderate levels of expression were also detected in podocytes present in renal glomeruli and in vascular endothelium. In primary cultures of gastric fibroblasts, lasp-1 was present mainly within the tips of lamellipodia and at the leading edges of membrane ruffles. Taken together these results support the hypothesis that the lasp-1 plays an important role in the regulation of dynamic actin-based, cytoskeletal activities. Agonist-dependent changes in lasp-1 phosphorylation may also serve to regulate actin-associated ion transport activities, not only in the parietal cell but also in certain other F-actin-rich secretory epithelial cell types. (+info)
Mist1 expression is a common link among serous exocrine cells exhibiting regulated exocytosis. (4/37)Mist1 is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that represses E-box-mediated transcription. Previous studies have suggested that the Mist1 gene is expressed in a wide range of tissues, although a complete characterization of Mist1 protein accumulation in the adult organism has not been described. In an effort to identify specific cell types that contain the Mist1 protein, antibodies specific for Mist1 were generated and used in Western blot and immunohistochemical assays. Our studies show that the Mist1 protein is present in many different tissues but that it is restricted to cell types that are exclusively secretory in nature. Pancreatic acinar cells, serous or seromucous cells of the salivary glands, chief cells of the stomach, and secretory cells of the prostate and seminal vesicle show high levels of Mist1 protein, whereas nonserous exocrine cells, including the mucus-producing cells of the salivary glands, remain Mist1 negative. These results identify Mist1 as the first transcription factor that exhibits this unique serous-specific expression pattern and suggest that Mist1 may have a key role in establishing and maintaining a pathway responsible for the exocytosis of serous secretions. (+info)
Leptin secretion and leptin receptor in the human stomach. (5/37)BACKGROUND AND AIM: The circulating peptide leptin produced by fat cells acts on central receptors to control food intake and body weight homeostasis. Contrary to initial reports, leptin expression has also been detected in the human placenta, muscles, and recently, in rat gastric chief cells. Here we investigate the possible presence of leptin and leptin receptor in the human stomach. METHODS: Leptin and leptin receptor expression were assessed by immunohistochemistry, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and western blot analysis on biopsy samples from 24 normal individuals. Fourteen (10 healthy volunteers and four patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia and normal gastric mucosa histology) were analysed for gastric secretions. Plasma and fundic mucosa leptin content was determined by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: In fundic biopsies from normal individuals, immunoreactive leptin cells were found in the lower half of the fundic glands. mRNA encoding ob protein was detected in the corpus of the human stomach. The amount of fundic leptin was 10.4 (3.7) ng leptin/g mucosa, as determined by radioimmunoassay. Intravenous infusions of pentagastrin or secretin caused an increase in circulating leptin levels and leptin release into the gastric juice. The leptin receptor was present in the basolateral membranes of fundic and antral gastric cells. mRNA encoding Ob-RL was detected in both the corpus and antrum, consistent with a protein of approximately 120 kDa detected by immunoblotting. CONCLUSION: These data provide the first evidence of the presence of leptin and leptin receptor proteins in the human stomach and suggest that gastric epithelial cells may be direct targets for leptin. Therefore, we conclude that leptin may have a physiological role in the human stomach, although much work is required to establish this. (+info)
Association of protein kinase A with AKAP150 facilitates pepsinogen secretion from gastric chief cells. (6/37)Cross talk between signal transduction pathways augments pepsinogen secretion from gastric chief cells. A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) associate with regulatory subunits of protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C (PKC), and protein phosphatase 2B (PP2B) and localize this protein complex to specific cell compartments. We determined whether an AKAP-signaling protein complex exists in chief cells and whether this modulates secretion. In Western blots, we identified AKAP150, a rodent homologue of human AKAP79 that coimmunoprecipitates with PKA, PKC, and actin. The association of PKA and PP2B was demonstrated by affinity chromatography. Confocal microscopy revealed colocalized staining at the cell periphery for AKAP150 and PKC. Ht31, a peptide that competitively displaces PKA from the AKAP complex, but not Ht31P, a control peptide, inhibited 8-Br-cAMP-induced pepsinogen secretion. Ht31 did not inhibit secretion that was stimulated by agents whose actions are mediated by PKC and/or calcium. However, Ht31, but not Ht31P, inhibited carbachol- and A23187-stimulated augmentation of secretion from cells preincubated with cholera toxin. These data suggest the existence in chief cells of a protein complex that includes AKAP150, PKA, PKC, and PP2B. Disruption of the AKAP-PKA linkage impairs cAMP-mediated pepsinogen secretion and cross talk between signaling pathways. (+info)
Laminins and TGF-beta maintain cell polarity and functionality of human gastric glandular epithelium. (7/37)The human gastric glandular epithelium produces a gastric lipase enzyme (HGL) that plays an important role in digestion of dietary triglycerides. To assess the involvement of extracellular matrix components and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) in the regulation of this enzymic function, normal gastric epithelial cells were cultured on collagen type I, Matrigel, and laminins (LN)-1 and -2 with or without TGF-beta1. Epithelial morphology and HGL expression were evaluated using microscopy techniques, enzymic assays, Western blot, Northern hybridization, and RT-PCR. A correlation was observed between the cell polarity status and the level of HGL expression. TGF-beta1 alone or individual matrix components stimulated cell spreading and caused a downfall of HGL activity and mRNA. By contrast, Matrigel preserved the morphological features of differentiated epithelial cells and maintained HGL expression. The combination of LNs with TGF-beta1 (two constituents of Matrigel) exerted similar beneficial effects on epithelial cell polarity and evoked a 10-fold increase of HGL levels that was blunted by a neutralizing antibody against the alpha(2)-integrin subunit and by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors PD-98059 (p42/p44) or SB-203580 (p38). This investigation demonstrates for the first time that a powerful synergism between a growth factor and basement membrane LNs positively influences cell polarity and functionality of the human gastric glandular epithelium through an activation of the alpha(2)beta(1)-integrin and effectors of two MAPK pathways. (+info)
Defining epithelial cell progenitors in the human oxyntic mucosa. (8/37)In the human stomach, the oxyntic epithelium includes numerous tubular invaginations consisting of short pits opening into long glands. The pit is lined by pit cells, whereas the gland is composed of three regions: the base, containing zymogenic cells; the neck, containing neck cells; and the isthmus, composed of little known immature cells and of parietal cells, which are also scattered through the neck and base. The aim of this study was to examine the ultrastructure of the immature cells and to determine their relation to mature cells. To do so, normal oxyntic mucosal biopsies from subjects ranging from 20-43 years old were fixed in aldehydes and postfixed in reduced osmium for electron microscopy and morphometric analysis. The immature cells were sorted out into four classes, whose roles were clarified by comparison with the thoroughly investigated mouse oxyntic epithelium. The first class was composed of the least differentiated immature cells, which were rare and characterized by minute, dense, or cored secretory granules and were accordingly named mini-granule cells. Their function was not clarified. The second class consisted of pre-pit cells, which were characterized by few dense mucous granules and give rise to pit cells that ascend the pit wall and, after reaching the luminal surface, die or are extruded. Both pre-pit and pit cells underwent continuous renewal and, therefore, together constituted a renewal system referred to as pit cell lineage. The third class, or pre-neck cells, characterized by cored secretory granules, give rise to neck cells that descend toward the base region and differentiate further into pre-zymogenic cells, which finally become zymogenic cells. The latter eventually degenerate and die. Thus pre-neck cells and their progeny constitute a renewing system, designated zymogenic cell lineage. The fourth class, or pre-parietal cells, characterized by long microvilli and few tubulovesicles, differentiate into parietal cells that descend along the neck and base regions and eventually degenerate and die. Pre-parietal and parietal cells represent a renewing system referred to as parietal cell lineage. While the origin of the last three classes of progenitor cells has not been elucidated, it is likely that they arise either from an unidentified multipotential stem cell, possibly the mini-granule cell itself, or from the mitotic activity of pre-pit and pre-neck cells. In conclusion, the human oxyntic epithelium is composed of continually renewing cells organized in distinct cell lineages. (+info)
Pepsinogens are inactive precursors of the digestive enzyme pepsin, which is produced in the stomach lining. There are two main types of pepsinogens: pepsinogen A and pepsinogen B. Pepsinogen A is produced by chief cells in the stomach lining and is found in the stomach juice. Pepsinogen B is produced by parietal cells in the stomach lining and is also found in the stomach juice. Pepsinogens are activated to pepsin by hydrochloric acid, which is produced by parietal cells in the stomach lining. Pepsin then breaks down proteins in the food we eat, helping to digest them. In the medical field, pepsinogens are often measured in blood or stool samples as a way to diagnose and monitor certain conditions, such as stomach ulcers, gastritis, and Helicobacter pylori infection. High levels of pepsinogens in the blood or stool may indicate inflammation or damage to the stomach lining, while low levels may indicate a deficiency in stomach acid production.
Pepsinogen A is a precursor protein of the digestive enzyme pepsin, which is produced in the chief cells of the stomach lining. Pepsinogen A is inactive until it is converted to pepsin by hydrochloric acid in the stomach. Pepsin then helps to break down proteins in the food we eat, making them easier to digest and absorb. Pepsinogen A levels can be measured in blood or stool samples as a diagnostic tool for certain medical conditions, such as stomach cancer or Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, which is a condition characterized by excessive stomach acid production.
Parathyroid diseases refer to disorders that affect the parathyroid glands, which are four small glands located in the neck, behind the thyroid gland. These glands produce parathyroid hormone (PTH), which plays a crucial role in regulating calcium levels in the body. There are several types of parathyroid diseases, including: 1. Primary hyperparathyroidism: This is the most common type of parathyroid disease, and it occurs when one or more of the parathyroid glands produce too much PTH. This can lead to high levels of calcium in the blood, which can cause a range of symptoms, including fatigue, weakness, bone pain, and kidney stones. 2. Primary hypoparathyroidism: This occurs when one or more of the parathyroid glands do not produce enough PTH, leading to low levels of calcium in the blood. Symptoms may include muscle cramps, spasms, and numbness or tingling in the extremities. 3. Secondary hyperparathyroidism: This occurs when the parathyroid glands produce too much PTH in response to low levels of calcium in the blood. This is often seen in people with chronic kidney disease or vitamin D deficiency. 4. Tertiary hyperparathyroidism: This occurs when the parathyroid glands become overactive due to long-term exposure to high levels of calcium in the blood. This is often seen in people with kidney failure who are on long-term dialysis. Treatment for parathyroid diseases depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, surgery to remove the affected parathyroid gland(s) may be necessary. Other treatments may include medications to lower calcium levels or increase vitamin D levels.
Intrinsic factor is a glycoprotein produced by cells in the stomach that is essential for the absorption of vitamin B12 (cobalamin) in the small intestine. It binds to vitamin B12 in the stomach and forms a complex that is then transported to the small intestine, where it is absorbed into the bloodstream. Intrinsic factor deficiency can lead to a condition called pernicious anemia, which is characterized by low levels of vitamin B12 and can cause anemia, nerve damage, and other health problems.
Parathyroid neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the parathyroid glands, which are four small glands located in the neck, behind the thyroid gland. These tumors can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and they can cause an overproduction of parathyroid hormone (PTH), which regulates calcium levels in the blood. PTH plays a critical role in maintaining proper calcium balance in the body. When PTH levels are too high, it can lead to a condition called hyperparathyroidism, which can cause a range of symptoms, including fatigue, weakness, bone pain, kidney stones, and osteoporosis. Parathyroid neoplasms can be detected through imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scans, or MRI, and a biopsy may be performed to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment options for parathyroid neoplasms depend on the size, location, and type of the tumor, as well as the severity of the symptoms. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the tumor and restore normal PTH levels.
Sincalide is a medication used in the medical field to help diagnose and treat certain conditions related to the pancreas and bile ducts. It is a synthetic version of a hormone called cholecystokinin (CCK), which is naturally produced by the body and helps to stimulate the release of bile from the liver and gallbladder. Sincalide is typically used in two main ways: 1. To diagnose conditions such as chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, and bile duct obstruction. In these cases, sincalide is injected into a vein and the patient's response to the medication is monitored. If the patient experiences symptoms such as abdominal pain or nausea, it may indicate that there is a problem with the pancreas or bile ducts. 2. To stimulate the release of bile in patients who have had their gallbladder removed (a condition known as cholecystectomy). In this case, sincalide is used to help prevent the development of a condition called postcholecystectomy syndrome, which can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain and nausea. Sincalide is generally considered safe and well-tolerated, although it can cause side effects such as abdominal pain, nausea, and diarrhea. It is important to note that sincalide should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.
Metaplasia is a biological process in which one type of mature cell is replaced by another type of mature cell in a tissue. This process is usually triggered by chronic inflammation, injury, or other forms of tissue damage. For example, in the lining of the stomach, normal cells are replaced by cells that are better able to withstand the acidic environment of the stomach. This is a normal response to chronic inflammation and is not usually considered a disease. However, if the process of metaplasia continues unchecked, it can lead to the development of cancer. Metaplasia can occur in many different tissues throughout the body, including the respiratory tract, the urinary tract, and the digestive tract. It is an important area of study in the field of medicine, as it can provide insights into the development of cancer and other diseases.
Pepsinogen C is a precursor protein of the digestive enzyme pepsin, which is produced in the chief cells of the stomach lining. Pepsinogen C is synthesized as a inactive precursor called pepsinogen, which is then converted to pepsin by the action of hydrochloric acid and other factors in the stomach. Pepsinogen C is a glycoprotein that is composed of 316 amino acids and has a molecular weight of approximately 35,000 daltons. It is found in the blood and gastric juice of humans and other animals, and its levels can be used as a biomarker for certain medical conditions, such as gastric cancer and Helicobacter pylori infection.
Hyperparathyroidism is a medical condition characterized by the overproduction of parathyroid hormone (PTH) by the parathyroid glands. The parathyroid glands are four small glands located in the neck, behind the thyroid gland, and are responsible for regulating the levels of calcium in the blood. There are three main types of hyperparathyroidism: primary, secondary, and tertiary. Primary hyperparathyroidism is caused by a problem with the parathyroid glands themselves, such as a benign tumor or hyperplasia (enlargement) of the glands. Secondary hyperparathyroidism occurs when the parathyroid glands produce too much PTH in response to low levels of calcium in the blood, which can be caused by kidney disease or vitamin D deficiency. Tertiary hyperparathyroidism is a rare form of the condition that occurs in people with long-term kidney failure who are on dialysis. Symptoms of hyperparathyroidism can include fatigue, weakness, bone pain, kidney stones, and digestive problems. Treatment options for hyperparathyroidism depend on the underlying cause and severity of the condition, and may include medication, lifestyle changes, or surgery to remove the affected parathyroid gland(s).
Carbachol is a medication that is used in the medical field to treat certain conditions such as glaucoma, irritable bowel syndrome, and urinary incontinence. It is a cholinergic agonist, which means that it works by stimulating the action of a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine in the body. Acetylcholine is involved in a wide range of bodily functions, including muscle contraction, digestion, and the regulation of the heart rate and blood pressure. By stimulating the action of acetylcholine, carbachol can help to relax muscles, increase the production of digestive juices, and slow down the heart rate and blood pressure. It is usually administered as an eye drop for glaucoma, as a suppository for irritable bowel syndrome, or as an injection for urinary incontinence.
Receptors, Calcium-Sensing (CaSR) are a type of protein receptor found in various cells throughout the body, including those in the parathyroid gland, kidney, and bone. These receptors are responsible for detecting changes in extracellular calcium levels and regulating the body's calcium homeostasis. The CaSR is a G-protein coupled receptor that is activated by changes in extracellular calcium levels. When calcium levels are low, the CaSR is activated and triggers a signaling cascade that leads to an increase in parathyroid hormone (PTH) production, which in turn increases calcium levels in the blood. Conversely, when calcium levels are high, the CaSR is activated and triggers a signaling cascade that leads to a decrease in PTH production and an increase in calcium excretion by the kidneys. The CaSR plays a critical role in maintaining calcium homeostasis in the body and is involved in a variety of physiological processes, including bone metabolism, kidney function, and the regulation of blood pressure. Dysregulation of the CaSR can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including hyperparathyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, and calcium-related disorders such as osteoporosis and kidney stones.
Hyperplasia is a medical term that refers to an increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ. It is a normal response to various stimuli, such as injury, inflammation, or hormonal changes, and can be either physiological or pathological. In a physiological sense, hyperplasia is a normal process that occurs in response to growth factors or hormones, such as estrogen or testosterone, which stimulate the growth of cells in certain tissues. For example, during puberty, the ovaries and testes undergo hyperplasia to produce more hormones. However, in a pathological sense, hyperplasia can be a sign of disease or dysfunction. For example, in the prostate gland, benign hyperplasia (also known as BPH) is a common condition that occurs when the gland becomes enlarged due to an overproduction of cells. This can cause symptoms such as difficulty urinating or frequent urination. In the breast, hyperplasia can be a precursor to breast cancer, as it involves an increase in the number of cells in the breast tissue. Similarly, in the uterus, hyperplasia can be a sign of endometrial cancer. Overall, hyperplasia is a complex process that can have both normal and pathological consequences, depending on the tissue or organ involved and the underlying cause of the increase in cell number.
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a hormone produced by the parathyroid glands, which are four small glands located in the neck, near the thyroid gland. PTH plays a crucial role in regulating the levels of calcium and phosphorus in the body. PTH acts on the bones, kidneys, and intestines to increase the levels of calcium in the blood. It stimulates the release of calcium from the bones into the bloodstream, increases the reabsorption of calcium by the kidneys, and promotes the absorption of calcium from the intestines. PTH also plays a role in regulating the levels of phosphorus in the body. It stimulates the kidneys to excrete phosphorus in the urine, which helps to maintain the proper balance of calcium and phosphorus in the blood. Abnormal levels of PTH can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including hyperparathyroidism (too much PTH), hypoparathyroidism (too little PTH), and parathyroid cancer. Hyperparathyroidism can cause osteoporosis, kidney stones, and other complications, while hypoparathyroidism can lead to muscle cramps, seizures, and other symptoms.
Pepsin A is a digestive enzyme that is produced in the lining of the stomach. It is responsible for breaking down proteins into smaller peptides and amino acids, which can then be absorbed by the body. Pepsin A is activated by hydrochloric acid, which is also produced in the stomach, and is typically secreted in an inactive form called pepsinogen. Once it is activated, pepsin A has a pH optimum of around 2, which is the acidic environment of the stomach. It is an important part of the digestive process and is involved in the breakdown of many different types of proteins, including those found in meat, dairy products, and eggs.
An adenoma is a benign (non-cancerous) tumor that develops from glandular cells. It is a type of neoplasm, which is an abnormal growth of cells. Adenomas can occur in various parts of the body, including the colon, rectum, breast, thyroid gland, and prostate gland. In the colon and rectum, adenomas are commonly referred to as polyps. They can vary in size and shape and may or may not cause symptoms. However, some adenomas can develop into cancer if left untreated, which is why they are often removed during a colonoscopy or other screening tests. In other parts of the body, adenomas may cause symptoms depending on their location and size. For example, an adenoma in the thyroid gland may cause a goiter, while an adenoma in the prostate gland may cause difficulty urinating. Treatment for adenomas depends on their size, location, and whether they are causing symptoms. Small adenomas may not require treatment, while larger ones may be removed through surgery or other procedures. In some cases, medication may be used to shrink the adenoma or prevent it from growing back.
Hypercalcemia is a medical condition characterized by abnormally high levels of calcium in the blood. The normal range of blood calcium levels is typically between 8.5 and 10.5 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) in adults. Hypercalcemia can be caused by a variety of factors, including excessive intake of calcium-rich foods or supplements, certain medications, kidney or parathyroid gland disorders, cancer, and bone disorders such as osteoporosis or osteomalacia. Symptoms of hypercalcemia can include fatigue, weakness, constipation, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, kidney stones, and confusion. In severe cases, hypercalcemia can lead to more serious complications such as cardiac arrhythmias, seizures, and coma. Treatment for hypercalcemia depends on the underlying cause and may include medications to lower calcium levels, dietary changes, and in some cases, surgery. It is important to diagnose and treat hypercalcemia promptly to prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a hormone that is produced by cells in the small intestine and the pancreas. It plays a role in regulating the digestive process by stimulating the release of digestive enzymes and bile from the pancreas and gallbladder, respectively. CCK also helps to slow down the movement of food through the small intestine, allowing more time for digestion and absorption of nutrients. In addition to its role in digestion, CCK has been found to have other functions in the body, including the regulation of appetite and the control of blood sugar levels.
Streptolysins are a group of enzymes produced by certain strains of the bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes (also known as Group A Streptococcus or GAS). These enzymes are capable of breaking down the cell walls of other bacteria, which can lead to the lysis (rupture) of the bacterial cells. Streptolysins are classified into two main types: Streptolysin O (SLO) and Streptolysin S (SLS). SLO is the more common of the two and is responsible for the majority of the lysis caused by GAS. SLS is less common and is thought to play a role in the invasion of host cells by GAS. Streptolysins are important virulence factors for GAS, meaning they contribute to the ability of the bacteria to cause disease. They are thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of a variety of GAS infections, including strep throat, scarlet fever, and necrotizing fasciitis (a severe skin infection). In addition, streptolysins have been shown to have potential therapeutic applications, such as in the treatment of bacterial infections and as adjuvants in vaccines.
Gastrins are a family of hormones that are produced by cells in the lining of the stomach and small intestine. They play a key role in regulating the production of stomach acid and the movement of food through the digestive tract. Gastrins are also involved in the growth and development of the stomach and other digestive organs. In the medical field, gastrins are often measured as a diagnostic tool for conditions such as peptic ulcers, stomach cancer, and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, which is a rare condition characterized by excessive production of stomach acid.
Receptors, Neurokinin-1 (NK1 receptors) are a type of G protein-coupled receptor found on the surface of certain cells in the body, including nerve cells (neurons) and immune cells. These receptors are activated by a group of signaling molecules called neurokinins, which are released by nerve cells in response to various stimuli, such as injury, stress, or inflammation. NK1 receptors play a role in a number of physiological processes, including pain perception, inflammation, and regulation of the immune system. They are also involved in the development of certain diseases, such as chronic pain, asthma, and irritable bowel syndrome. In the medical field, NK1 receptors are targeted by drugs used to treat a variety of conditions, including pain, nausea, and inflammation. One example of a drug that targets NK1 receptors is aprepitant, which is used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy. Other drugs that target NK1 receptors include telaprevir and maraviroc, which are used to treat hepatitis C and HIV, respectively.
Calcimycin, also known as FK506, is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called immunosuppressants. It is primarily used to prevent organ rejection in people who have received a transplant, such as a kidney or liver transplant. Calcimycin works by inhibiting the activity of a protein called calcineurin, which plays a key role in the activation of T-cells, a type of white blood cell that is involved in the immune response. By inhibiting calcineurin, calcimycin helps to suppress the immune system and reduce the risk of organ rejection. Calcimycin is usually given as an oral tablet or as an injection. It can cause side effects such as headache, nausea, and diarrhea, and it may interact with other medications.
Calcium is a chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20. It is a vital mineral for the human body and is essential for many bodily functions, including bone health, muscle function, nerve transmission, and blood clotting. In the medical field, calcium is often used to diagnose and treat conditions related to calcium deficiency or excess. For example, low levels of calcium in the blood (hypocalcemia) can cause muscle cramps, numbness, and tingling, while high levels (hypercalcemia) can lead to kidney stones, bone loss, and other complications. Calcium supplements are often prescribed to people who are at risk of developing calcium deficiency, such as older adults, vegetarians, and people with certain medical conditions. However, it is important to note that excessive calcium intake can also be harmful, and it is important to follow recommended dosages and consult with a healthcare provider before taking any supplements.
Cholera toxin is a protein complex produced by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which is the causative agent of cholera. The toxin is composed of two subunits: A1 and A2. The A1 subunit binds to the GM1 ganglioside receptor on the surface of host cells, while the A2 subunit is responsible for the toxic effects of the toxin. When cholera toxin enters the body, it binds to the GM1 ganglioside receptor on the surface of cells in the small intestine. This binding triggers the release of intracellular calcium ions, which leads to the activation of a signaling pathway that results in the secretion of large amounts of water and electrolytes into the intestinal lumen. This excessive secretion of fluids leads to severe diarrhea, dehydration, and electrolyte imbalances, which can be life-threatening if left untreated. Cholera toxin is a potent virulence factor that plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of cholera. It is also used as a tool in research to study the mechanisms of cellular signaling and to develop vaccines against cholera.
Substance P is a neuropeptide that is involved in the transmission of pain signals in the nervous system. It is a small protein that is produced by sensory neurons in the peripheral nervous system and is released into the spinal cord and brain when these neurons are activated by noxious stimuli such as injury or inflammation. Substance P acts on specific receptors on nerve cells in the spinal cord and brain, triggering the release of other neurotransmitters and hormones that contribute to the perception of pain. It is also involved in other physiological processes, such as regulating blood pressure and heart rate. In the medical field, substance P is often studied in the context of pain management and the development of new pain medications. It is also used as a diagnostic tool in certain conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome, where it may be present in higher levels in the body.
Calmodulin-binding proteins (CaMBPs) are a group of proteins that interact with the calcium-binding protein calmodulin (CaM) in the cell. These proteins play important roles in various cellular processes, including signal transduction, gene expression, and cell division. CaM is a small, ubiquitous protein that is found in all eukaryotic cells. It is composed of two globular domains, each of which can bind to one molecule of calcium. When calcium levels in the cell increase, CaM binds to calcium ions and undergoes a conformational change that allows it to interact with other proteins, including CaMBPs. CaMBPs are a diverse group of proteins that include enzymes, ion channels, and transcription factors. Some examples of CaMBPs include: * Phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D): an enzyme that breaks down cyclic AMP (cAMP) in the cell, which is an important second messenger in signal transduction. * Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII): an enzyme that plays a key role in the regulation of neuronal signaling and learning and memory. * Ryanodine receptor (RyR): a protein that regulates the release of calcium ions from the endoplasmic reticulum in muscle cells. * Calmodulin-dependent transcription activator (CAMTA): a transcription factor that regulates the expression of genes involved in plant development and stress responses. Overall, CaMBPs are important regulators of cellular signaling and function, and their activity is tightly controlled by calcium levels in the cell.
Gastric chief cell
Cells at Work! Code Black
Discovery and development of gastrointestinal lipase inhibitors
Pepsinogen 3, group I (pepsinogen A)
Fundic gland polyposis
Induced stem cells
Phases of digestion
List of human cell types derived from the germ layers
List of MeSH codes (A03)
Vasoactive intestinal peptide
Chronic Gastritis Workup: Approach Considerations, Laboratory Studies, Endoscopy
Glass Slide images Flashcards by brittany gouse | Brainscape
9 Effects on the Gastrointestinal, Renal, Hepatic, and Immune Systems | Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA...
Chronic Gastritis: Background, Pathophysiology, Etiology
Gastrectomy - procedure, recovery, blood, tube, removal, pain, complications, adults
digestive system | Memory
Pesquisa | Prevenção e Controle de Câncer
Yale School of Medicine - Medscape
Balance Digest - Dr Lisa O
Serological Testing in Management of Dyspeptic Patients and in Screening of Gastric Cancer Risks
What enzymes are in the digestive system and what do those enzymes do? | Socratic
Leydig Cells | Profiles RNS
Immuno-Grade Somatostatin Receptor 1 Antibody | 7TM Antibodies
Chronic Gastritis: Background, Pathophysiology, Etiology
No Credit Card Seniors Singles Online Dating Sites | Biyao & ON-SITEmassage
1685439689 - Passmed UK
DeCS 2018 - July 31, 2018 version
DeCS 2020 - June 23, 2020 version
DeCS 2017 - July 04, 2017 version
DeCS 2018 - July 31, 2018 version
Liz Shared 'Exam II Patho II' - 28 Picmonics
Parietal Cells, Gastric | Profiles RNS
National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, 1992
Gastric Cancer: Practice Essentials, Background, Anatomy
Keywords - Veterinary Histology
RedHill Announces FDA sNDA Approval for Talicia®
- The endoscopic findings of reflux and chemical gastropathy are those of a gastric mucosa that is red or has red streaks with areas of apparent hemorrhage. (medscape.com)
- 1997). Reported GI symptoms, such as nausea, may not be accompanied by visible damage to the gastric mucosa. (nationalacademies.org)
- Other classifications are based on the endoscopic appearance of the gastric mucosa (eg, varioliform gastritis). (medscape.com)
- Chemical or reactive gastritis is caused by injury to the gastric mucosa resulting from reflux of bile and pancreatic secretions into the stomach, but it can also be caused by exogenous substances, including NSAIDs, acetylsalicylic acid, chemotherapeutic agents, and alcohol. (medscape.com)
- 1 The mucosa is composed of an epithelial layer with innumerable invaginations (pits or fovea) where the gastric glands are found. (webstek.org)
- The inner wall (mucosa and submucosa layers) is thrown into folds known as rugae, or gastric folds, which allow the stomach to distend upon the entry of the food. (webstek.org)
- Giant hypertrophic gastritis (GHG) is a general term for inflammation of the stomach due to the accumulation of inflammatory cells in the inner wall (mucosa) of the stomach resulting in abnormally large, coiled ridges or folds that resemble polyps in the inner wall of the stomach (hypertrophic gastric folds). (webstek.org)
- Both of these risk factors can be identified in a simple blood test, which is based on the simultaneous measurement of four stomach-specific biomarkers that characterize the structure and function of the gastric mucosa. (ommegaonline.org)
- The SST1 receptor is expressed the in anterior pituitary, pancreatic islets, distal tubules, enteric ganglion cells and nerve fibers, chief cells of the gastric mucosa, macrophages and mast cells. (7tmantibodies.com)
- The mucosa has a wrinkled aspect, consisting of ridges called gastric folds, or rugae. (dewandhoney.com)
- A well-delineated region of non-glandular (squamous) gastric mucosa within the proximal portion of the stomach in the pig, immediately distal (aborad) to the esophagus. (pressbooks.pub)
- For duodenal ulcers, antrectomy may be combined with other surgical procedures that are aimed at reducing the secretion of gastric acid, which is associated with ulcer formation. (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
- Introduction to the musculoskeletal system, Connective tissue, submucosal (Meissner's) plexus, Smooth muscle layers (longitudinal, circular, oblique), myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus, Mucus secretion (less alkaline than that of the surface epithelial mucous cells). (webstek.org)
- G-17 level also gives indication of gastric acid secretion, being low with high acid output and high when stomach is acid-free (due to PPI treatment or AG). (ommegaonline.org)
- Dr. Geibel's areas of research interests include gastric acid secretion, colonic fluid transport, renal physiology and diarrheal disease. (medscape.com)
- The stomach also plays a role in controlling secretion and motility within the digestive tract by releasing several hormones such as gastrin, cholecystokinin, secretin, and gastric inhibitory peptide. (dewandhoney.com)
- Acid secretion by parietal cells: relative roles for [Ca2+]i and protein kinase C. Gastroenterology. (uchicago.edu)
- HF easily crosses the gastric epithelium, and is the major form in which fluoride is absorbed from the stomach (see Chapter 3 ). (nationalacademies.org)
- [ 9 ] The bacteria survive within the mucous layer that covers the gastric surface epithelium and the upper portions of the gastric foveolae. (medscape.com)
- METHODS: We used immunostaining and electron microscopy to characterize the expression pattern of SRY-box transcription factor 9 (SOX9) during murine gastric development, homeostasis, and injury in homeostasis, after genetic deletion of Sox9 and after targeted genetic misexpression of Sox9 in the gastric epithelium and chief cells. (bvsalud.org)
- The surface mucous cells, also known as foveolar epithelium, are the simple columnar epithelium lining the lumen of the stomach. (webstek.org)
- The fibrovascular supporting core underlying mucosal epithelium, often containing lymphatics, blood vessels, and resident immune cells. (pressbooks.pub)
- Other cells produce intrinsic factor, a glycoprotein whose presence in the digestive tract is required for the absorption of vitamin B12in the small intestine. (socratic.org)
- The lesser curvature of the human stomach is supplied by the right gastric artery inferiorly and the left gastric artery superiorly, which also supplies the cardiac region. (explained.today)
- It has a short length (about 1 cm) and trifurcates into the common hepatic artery (CHA), the splenic artery, and the left gastric artery (LGA). (medscape.com)
- The right gastric artery, a branch from the proper hepatic artery, runs along the lesser curvature from right to left and joins the descending branch of the LGA to form an arcade along the lesser curvature between the 2 leaves of peritoneum of the lesser omentum. (medscape.com)
- Multiple ion channels and transporters are located and expressed in the parietal cells, which is not only regulate the gastric acid-base homeostasis, but also regulate the growth and development of parietal cells. (bvsalud.org)
- Studies have shown the ability to secrete gastric acid decreases with age. (drlisao.com)
- would be a lactic acid build up which causes fermentation instead of cell respiration. (freezingblue.com)
- Gastric juice is secreted by gastric mucosal glands, and contains hydrochloric acid, mucu s, and proteolytic enzymes pepsin (which breaks down proteins), and lipase (which breaks down fats). (webstek.org)
- Parietal cells in the stomach secrete hydrochloric acid (HCl) which break bonds between compounds. (socratic.org)
- Chief cells in the stomach secrete pepsinogen which is converted by the acid in the gastric lumen to pepsin, an enzyme that breaks down proteins . (socratic.org)
- The stomach secretes digestive enzyme s and gastric acid to aid in food digestion. (explained.today)
- Pepsinogen, pepsin's proenzyme, is released by cells in the stomach wall, but cannot be converted to active pepsin unless sufficient levels of hydrochloric acid are present. (lwtinternational.com)
- The various enzymes and hydrochloric acid (pH 1-2) in the gastric juice break food down even more, forming a semi-liquid substance called chyme. (dewandhoney.com)
- They secrete HYDROCHLORIC ACID and produce gastric intrinsic factor, a glycoprotein that binds VITAMIN B12. (uchicago.edu)
- It contains blood and lymphatic vessels, lymphoid tissue and surrounds the gastric glands. (webstek.org)
- Gastric pits connect to gastric glands and thus allow the glandular products to be delivered into the stomach lumen. (webstek.org)
- Enteroendocrine cells are scattered throughout all types of gastric glands. (webstek.org)
- Its function is to help expel the secretions of the gastric glands into the stomach lumen. (webstek.org)
- Mucoid cells are the main cell type found in the gastric glands in the cardiac and pyloric areas of the stomach. (webstek.org)
- Churning' of the muscles in the The necks of the glands in the body and fundic parts of the stomach are lined with mucoid cells. (webstek.org)
- It is a transitional area between the gastric glands and the gastric pits. (webstek.org)
- 2) Zymogenic, or chief, cells are located predominantly in gastric glands in the body and fundic portions of the stomach. (webstek.org)
- Gastric pits and gastric glands are made up of the same 5 cell types: mucous neck cells, stem cells, parietal (oxyntic) cells, chief (zymogenic) cells and enteroendocrine cells. (webstek.org)
- Gastric glands open into the base of gastric pits. (webstek.org)
- The pyloric glands also contain D cells, which release somatostatin, a hormone that inhibits the release of gastrin. (socratic.org)
- Intestinal glands also contain enteroendocrine cells responsible for the production of several intestinal hormones, including gastrin, cholecystokinin, and secretin. (socratic.org)
- Rounded or pyramidal cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS. (uchicago.edu)
- Glands, located at the base of intestinal villi, in which reside the proliferative stem-like cells of the intestine. (pressbooks.pub)
- epithelial cells. (cdc.gov)
- Phocine distem- epithelial cells as well as epithelial cells of the renal pelvis per virus 1 was isolated from seals in German waters. (cdc.gov)
- and §State Veterinary epithelial cells of the lung. (cdc.gov)
- Secretory epithelial cells of the stomach that produce pepsinogen. (pressbooks.pub)
- In addition, sst1 is present in pituitary adenomas, gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors and pheochromocytoma as well as in pancreatic adenocarcinomas, gastric carcinomas, urinary bladder carcinomas and sarcomas. (7tmantibodies.com)
- to provide early intervention and treatment for people with gastrointestinal cancers including but not limited to colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, gastric cancer, gastroesophageal junction cancer, liver cancer and cholangiocarcinoma, for which effective treatment options are scanty with high mortality rates. (kualalumpurtimes.com)
- Helicobacter pylori is the leading cause of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma and primary gastric lymphoma. (medscape.com)
- While the vast majority of peptic ulcers (gastric ulcers in the stomach or duodenal ulcers in the duodenum) are managed with medication, partial gastrectomy is sometimes required for peptic ulcer patients who have complications. (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
- Gastrectomy, either total or subtotal (also called partial), is the treatment of choice for gastric adenocarcinomas, primary gastric lymphomas (originating in the stomach), and the rare leiomyosarcomas (also called gastric sarcomas). (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
Mucous neck cells3
- Overall, pyloric metaplastic units show increased proliferation and specific expansion of mucous lineages, both by proliferation of normal mucous neck cells and recruitment of SPEM cells. (bvsalud.org)
- RESULTS: SOX9 is expressed in all early gastric progenitors and strongly expressed in mature mucous neck cells with minor expression in the other principal gastric lineages during adult homeostasis. (bvsalud.org)
- Adult corpus units derived from Sox9-deficient gastric progenitors lacked normal mucous neck cells. (bvsalud.org)
- Common symptoms of low gastric acidity include: bloating, belching, burning and flatulence immediately after meals, a sense of "fullness" after eating, indigestion, diarrhea or constipation, multiple food sensitivities, and nausea after taking supplements. (drlisao.com)
- It is typically taken with meals to support normal digestion by promoting optimal gastric acidity. (lwtinternational.com)
- The term "gastritis" was first used in 1728 by the German Physician, Georg Ernst Stahl to describe the inflammation of the inner lining of the stomach- now known to be secondary to mucosal injury (ie, cell damage and regeneration). (medscape.com)
- In this review, multiple ion channels and transporters in parietal cells, including K+ channels, aquaporins, Cl- channels, Na+/H+ transporters, and Cl-/HCO3- transporters are described, and their roles in gastric diffused mucosal injury are discussed. (bvsalud.org)
- the stomach with epithelial lined villous folds that invaginate into gastric pits. (webstek.org)
- During distension of the organ, the gastric folds disappear. (dewandhoney.com)
- Along the lesser curvature of the stomach, a temporary, continuous furrow called gastric canal is formed between the gastric folds. (dewandhoney.com)
- Gastric carcinoma occurs, especially the intestinal type, usually in association with severe atrophic gastritis. (medscape.com)
- Tissue sampling from the gastric antrum, incisura, and corpus is essential to establish the topography of gastritis and to identify atrophy and intestinal metaplasia, which usually is patchy. (medscape.com)
- Gastric juices break down proteins and starches prior to the action of intestinal enzymes. (lwtinternational.com)
- Secretory intestinal pithelial cells located within intestinal crypts with eosinophilic, round cytoplasmic granules containing antimicrobial compounds. (pressbooks.pub)
- Gastrointestinal diseases (including gastric ulcers) affect an estimated 25-30% of the world's population. (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
- The fundus of the stomach, and also the upper portion of the greater curvature, is supplied by the short gastric arteries , which arise from the splenic artery. (explained.today)
- The level of PGI in the serum decreases as gastric chief cells are lost during gastric atrophy, resulting in a decreased PGI/PGII ratio. (medscape.com)
- Therefore, the mucous secretions they produce protect the esophagus and the duodenum from the corrosive effects of the gastric juices. (webstek.org)
- Measuring the levels of PGI and PGII and the PGI/PGII ratio in the serum is useful in screening for atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer in regions with a high incidence of these diseases. (medscape.com)
- [ 97 ] Using this technique, investigators from the United Kingdom were able to describe the normal gastric microvasculature pattern and identify characteristic patterns in two cases of autoimmune atrophic gastritis. (medscape.com)
- The two major risk factors of gastric cancer (GC) are Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection and Atrophic gastritis (AG). (ommegaonline.org)
- Pyloric metaplasia is characterized by the death of parietal cells and reprogramming of mitotically quiescent zymogenic chief cells into proliferative, mucin-rich spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) cells. (bvsalud.org)
- Ingested food enters the stomach from the esophagus via the cardiac orifice, falling into gastric juice produced by the stomach. (dewandhoney.com)
- This ultimately passes into the duodenum through the pyloric orifice by a process called gastric peristalsis. (dewandhoney.com)
- The stomach and the first part of the duodenum are attached to the liver by the hepatogastric ligament (the left portion of the lesser omentum), to the left hemidiaphragm by the gastrophrenic ligament, to the spleen by the gastrosplenic/gastrolienal ligament containing short gastric vessels, and to the transverse colon by the gastrocolic ligament (part of the greater omentum). (medscape.com)
- Leptin (from Greek λεπτός leptos , 'thin' or 'light' or 'small') is a protein hormone predominantly made by adipose cells and its primary role is likely to regulate long-term energy balance . (cloudfront.net)
- Predominantly, the 'energy expenditure hormone' leptin is made by adipose cells , and is thus labeled fat cell-specific . (cloudfront.net)
- Similarly, hepatic sinusoidal endothelial E-selectin expression is up regulated by highly metastatic cells entering the liver [ 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Removal of the tumor, often with removal of the surrounding lymph nodes, is the only curative treatment for various forms of gastric (stomach) cancer. (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
- Gastrectomy for gastric cancer is almost always done using the traditional open surgery technique, which requires a wide incision to open the abdomen. (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
- Gastric cancer (GC) is a type of the most common cancers. (bvsalud.org)
- Therefore, it is particularly important for preventing or treating AIG and avoiding the risk of gastric cancer to clarify the confirmed action mode of immune cells and cytokines in the gastric system. (bvsalud.org)
- Parietal cells loss is related to the occurrence of gastric mucosal diffused injury, with two phenotypes of spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia and neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia, which is the basis of gastric cancer and gastric neuroendocrine tumor respectively. (bvsalud.org)
- These data allow for continued dose escalation with the aim of identifying the optimal dose where ARB202 mediates CDH17-specific immunological synapse formation between target cancer cells and T-cells in solid tumors with minimal on-target effects on normal cells. (kualalumpurtimes.com)
- It targets both CDH17 on GI cancer as well as CD3 on T cells. (kualalumpurtimes.com)
- More than 27,000 Americans are diagnosed with gastric cancer annually  . (mystateline.com)
- However, DC-SIGNR as a family member of selectin participates in gastric cancer liver metastasis remains unknown. (biomedcentral.com)
- The serum level of DC-SIGNR was evaluated in gastric cancer patients by ELISA. (biomedcentral.com)
- Investigation the biological effects of DC-SIGNR were verified by MTT, wounding and transwell in vitro and experiments on animals to confirm gastric cancer liver metastasis by IVIS. (biomedcentral.com)
- DC-SIGNR serum level was significantly increased in gastric cancer patients compared with healthy group. (biomedcentral.com)
- Additionally, DC-SIGNR level was associated with an advanced pathological stage in gastric cancer patients. (biomedcentral.com)
- DC-SIGNR knockdown inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells in vitro and suppressed the liver metastasis in vivo. (biomedcentral.com)
- DC-SIGNR promoted gastric cancer liver metastasis mediated with HNRNPKP2 which expression was regulated by STAT5A. (biomedcentral.com)
- These findings indicated potential therapeutic candidates for gastric cancer liver metastasis. (biomedcentral.com)
- In China, gastric cancer is also a main malignant tumour and a chief reason of cancer deaths. (biomedcentral.com)
- Despite surgical resection and chemoradiotherapy can control most cancer cells [ 5 ], a surgical resection has been rarely indicated for liver metastasis from gastric cancer [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Recently the roles of intrinsic cancer cell properties have been investigated, such as selectin. (biomedcentral.com)
- In experimental metastasis studies, researchers demonstrate that liver sinusoidal endothelial cell lectin (LSECtin) mediated colon cancer cells metastasis to liver displays enhanced abilities to the specific organ [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Also, serum of soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin) concentration in gastric cancer patients are detected by ELISA, but increasing only in gastric cancer patients with peritoneal metastasis [ 9 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Recently, several long ncRNAs have been reported to have a role in gastric cancer metastasis. (biomedcentral.com)
- BACKGROUND & AIMS: Acute and chronic gastric injury induces alterations in differentiation within the corpus of the stomach called pyloric metaplasia. (bvsalud.org)
- Autopsy and histologic findings at the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner in New York City included presence in the lung of chronic inflammatory cells with intranuclear inclusions, consistent with adenoviral bronchiolitis and acute respiratory distress syndrome. (cdc.gov)
- Gastric serosa is the outermost layer of the stomach wall. (webstek.org)
- After injury, strong SOX9 expression was induced in the neck and base of corpus units in SPEM cells. (bvsalud.org)
- Misexpression of Sox9 during postnatal development and adult homeostasis expanded mucous gene expression throughout corpus units including within the chief cell zone in the base. (bvsalud.org)
- They are consistent with us entering the therapeutic window which is competitive and perhaps even more specific than other T-cell engagers directed at solid tumors. (kualalumpurtimes.com)
- Wu X, Zhang N, Lee MM. Mullerian inhibiting substance recruits ALK3 to regulate Leydig cell differentiation. (umassmed.edu)
- The stomach is surrounded by parasympathetic (stimulant) and sympathetic (inhibitor) plexuses (networks of blood vessel s and nerve s in the anterior gastric, posterior, superior and inferior, celiac and myenteric), which regulate both the secretory activity of the stomach and the motor (motion) activity of its muscles. (explained.today)
- Various immune cells or cytokines play a central role in the process of regulating gastric parietal cells. (bvsalud.org)
- Therefore, alteration and dysregulation of ion channels and transporters in the parietal cells impairs the morphology and physiological functions of stomach, resulted in gastric diffused mucosal damage. (bvsalud.org)
- Parietal Cells, Gastric" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (uchicago.edu)
- This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Parietal Cells, Gastric" by people in this website by year, and whether "Parietal Cells, Gastric" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (uchicago.edu)
- Below are the most recent publications written about "Parietal Cells, Gastric" by people in Profiles. (uchicago.edu)
- It is one of the chief digestive enzymes and needed to break proteins down into smaller peptides. (lwtinternational.com)
- Anterior pituitary cells which produce GROWTH HORMONE. (bvsalud.org)
- Histologic lesions consisted of interstitial pneumonia with Seals, 2002 multinucleated syncytial cells and a moderate-to-severe lymphocytic depletion in the lymphoid tissues. (cdc.gov)
- The neurons of this plexus are linked to smooth muscle cells through interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs). (webstek.org)
- Steroid-producing cells in the interstitial tissue of the TESTIS. (umassmed.edu)
- or interstitial cell-stimulating hormone. (umassmed.edu)
- Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell. (bvsalud.org)
- The central location of action ( effect ) of the fat cell-specific hormone leptin is the hypothalamus , a part of the brain , which is a part of the central nervous system. (cloudfront.net)
- CONCLUSIONS: Sox9 is a master regulator of mucous neck cell differentiation during gastric development. (bvsalud.org)
- His research interests include the role of endothelial cells in graft rejection, complement activation in both kidney and liver transplantation. (medscape.com)
- Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. (bvsalud.org)