A highly contagious infectious disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). It usually affects children, is spread by direct contact or respiratory route via droplet nuclei, and is characterized by the appearance on the skin and mucous membranes of successive crops of typical pruritic vesicular lesions that are easily broken and become scabbed. Chickenpox is relatively benign in children, but may be complicated by pneumonia and encephalitis in adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.
The type species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing CHICKENPOX (varicella) and HERPES ZOSTER (shingles) in humans.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
An acute infectious, usually self-limited, disease believed to represent activation of latent varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN) in those who have been rendered partially immune after a previous attack of CHICKENPOX. It involves the SENSORY GANGLIA and their areas of innervation and is characterized by severe neuralgic pain along the distribution of the affected nerve and crops of clustered vesicles over the area. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Skin diseases caused by viruses.
Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
An attenuated vaccine used to prevent and/or treat HERPES ZOSTER, a disease caused by HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 3.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
An acute, highly contagious, often fatal infectious disease caused by an orthopoxvirus characterized by a biphasic febrile course and distinctive progressive skin eruptions. Vaccination has succeeded in eradicating smallpox worldwide. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE. Its species include those causing CHICKENPOX and HERPES ZOSTER in humans (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN), as well as several animal viruses.
Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.
Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.
A GUANOSINE analog that acts as an antimetabolite. Viruses are especially susceptible. Used especially against herpes.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.
Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
A fulminating bacterial infection of the deep layers of the skin and FASCIA. It can be caused by many different organisms, with STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES being the most common.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.
The non-susceptibility to infection of a large group of individuals in a population. A variety of factors can be responsible for herd immunity and this gives rise to the different definitions used in the literature. Most commonly, herd immunity refers to the case when, if most of the population is immune, infection of a single individual will not cause an epidemic. Also, in such immunized populations, susceptible individuals are not likely to become infected. Herd immunity can also refer to the case when unprotected individuals fail to contract a disease because the infecting organism has been banished from the population.
An acute infectious disease caused by RUBULAVIRUS, spread by direct contact, airborne droplet nuclei, fomites contaminated by infectious saliva, and perhaps urine, and usually seen in children under the age of 15, although adults may also be affected. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.
An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.
A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from patients to health professionals or health care workers. It includes transmission via direct or indirect exposure to bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral agents.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.
Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.
A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.
A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).
Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Israel" is a country in the Middle East and does not have a medical definition. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like me to define, I'd be happy to help!
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with DENGUE VIRUS. These include live-attenuated, subunit, DNA, and inactivated vaccines.
Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.

Risk factors for breakthrough varicella in healthy children. (1/283)

AIM: To evaluate the risk factors for breakthrough varicella in a follow up study of a cohort of 181 healthy children immunised when aged 9-24 months with a reformulated Oka strain varicella vaccine (SmithKline Beecham Biologicals/Oka). DESIGN: The children were randomised in a double blind manner into one of four groups to receive one of two production lot vaccine batches, at two different titres (high titre, 10(3.9) and 10(4.0) plaque forming units (pfu); low titre (heat exposed), 10(2.7) and 10(2.8) pfu). The overall seroconversion rate after immunisation was 99%. RESULTS: One hundred and sixty-eight patients were available for review after a mean (SD) follow up of 35 (9) months after vaccination. Multivariate analysis indicated that risk factors for breakthrough varicella were household contact with varicella (adjusted odds ratio (OR), 19.89; 95% confidence interval (CI), 18.39 to 21.39), vaccination age of < or = 14 months (adjusted OR, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.69 to 2.90), and receiving low titre (10(2.7) pfu) vaccine (adjusted OR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.54 to 2.73). All children who developed breakthrough varicella, had a modified varicella illness, except for three, all of whom had received low titre vaccine. CONCLUSION: The identification of young immunisation age (< or = 14 months) and low titre vaccine as risk factors for breakthrough varicella have important implications for the implementation of varicella vaccination programmes in healthy children.  (+info)

Prevention of varicella. Update recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). (2/283)

In February 1999, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) expanded recommendations for varicella (chickenpox) vaccine to promote wider use of the vaccine for susceptible children and adults. The updated recommendations include establishing child care and school entry requirements, use of the vaccine following exposure and for outbreak control, use of the vaccine for some children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and vaccination of adults and adolescents at high risk for exposure. These recommendations also provide new information on varicella vaccine postlicensure safety data.  (+info)

Varicella-zoster virus-specific cellular immunity in subjects given acyclovir after household chickenpox exposure. (3/283)

The time course of primary cell-mediated immune responses to varicella-zoster virus (VZV) among persons receiving acyclovir prophylaxis after exposure to chickenpox has not been well defined. Fifteen children who had household exposure to varicella received prophylactic acyclovir (40 mg/kg/day for 7-14 days after exposure) and were studied for development of both antibody and cell-mediated immunity (CMI) to VZV. Twelve developed antibodies and/or CMI; 10 had no symptoms and 2 manifested mild varicella. Two were already immune to varicella and had booster immune responses. One was not infected and subsequently developed full-blown varicella. Although acyclovir given after exposure to VZV is highly effective and does not appear to attenuate the immune response, it remains necessary to confirm whether, in the absence of clinical varicella, persons acquire specific immunity.  (+info)

Infant vaccinations and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in the USA. (4/283)

Previous studies have suggested that infant vaccinations may reduce the risk of subsequent childhood leukaemia. Vaccination histories were compared in 439 children (ages 0-14) diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in nine Midwestern and Mid-Atlantic states (USA) between 1 January 1989 and 30 June 1993 and 439 controls selected by random-digit dialing and individually matched to cases on age, race and telephone exchange. Among matched pairs, similar proportions of cases and controls had received at least one dose of oral poliovirus (98%), diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (97%), and measles-mumps-rubella (90%) vaccines. Only 47% of cases and 53% of controls had received any Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine (relative risk (RR) = 0.73; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-1.06). Although similar proportions of cases (12%) and controls (11%) received the polysaccharide Hib vaccine (RR = 1.13; 95% CI 0.64-1.98), more controls (41%) than cases (35%) received the conjugate Hib vaccine (RR = 0.57; 95% CI 0.36-0.89). Although we found no relationship between most infant vaccinations and subsequent risk of childhood ALL, our findings suggest that infants receiving the conjugate Hib vaccine may be at reduced risk of subsequent childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Further studies are needed to confirm this association and, if confirmed, to elucidate the underlying mechanism.  (+info)

Immunisation against varicella in end stage and pre-end stage renal failure. Trans-Pennine Paediatric Nephrology Study Group. (5/283)

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the seroconversion rate and duration of persistence of protective antibody titres after varicella immunisation in children with renal failure. DESIGN: 32 children (25 end stage and 7 pre-end stage renal failure) were immunised using 2 x 2,000 plaque forming unit doses of varicella vaccine 3 months apart. Varicella antibody titres were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: All children initially seroconverted after immunisation. At a mean follow up of 20.3 months, 23 of 28 had protective antibody titres, 4 children having died of unrelated causes. Two children required a third booster dose. 11 children underwent renal transplantation; 10 had protective titres at the time of transplantation and, at a mean of 23.4 months after immunisation, 6 currently have protective titres. Minor side effects occurred after 11 vaccine doses in 9 children. No child developed varicella, despite 10 clear episodes of exposure to the wild-type virus. CONCLUSIONS: Varicella immunisation in children with end stage and pre-end stage renal failure results in a high rate of seroconversion and persistence of protective antibody titres. More widespread use of the vaccine before renal transplantation is recommended.  (+info)

Incidence, risk factors and outcome of varicella-zoster virus infection in children after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (6/283)

We report a retrospective analysis of VZV infection after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in children. Thirty-three (30%) of the total 109 children who were transplanted during a 7 year period developed post-transplant VZV infection. Twenty-four of these 33 (73%) children had VZV infection within 1 year following HSCT. The cumulative incidences of post-transplant VZV infection at 1 and 5 years were 26% and 45%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values of pretransplant VZV serology in recipients on the development of HZ following HSCT were 39% and 88%, respectively. Pretransplant VZV seropositivity in recipients was the only risk factor for post-transplant herpes zoster (HZ) infection on multivariate analysis. All patients responded to acyclovir. The median duration of VZV infection was 5 days. Three (11%) and one (3%) children with HZ developed visceral dissemination and post-herpetic neuralgia, respectively. No mortality was directly attributed to VZV infection. VZV infection remains a major cause of morbidity in children after HSCT. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the potential use of VZV vaccine in these children. Bone Marrow Transplantation (2000) 25, 167-172.  (+info)

Vaccination coverage among adolescents 1 year before the institution of a seventh grade school entry vaccination requirement--San Diego, California, 1998. (7/283)

In 1996, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Association of Family Physicians, and the American Medical Association recommended routine health-care visits for children aged 11-12 years, emphasizing vaccination with hepatitis B vaccine; measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR); tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (Td); and varicella vaccine. Because no national data exist regarding vaccination coverage among adolescents, the impact of these recommendations is unknown. In October 1997, California enacted Assembly Bill 381 (AB381) that requires students entering the seventh grade on or after July 1, 1999, to have received three doses of hepatitis B vaccine and two doses of MMR. To assist in planning and implementing AB381, the San Diego County Health Department expanded its 1998 infant and adult vaccination survey to include fifth and sixth graders. This report summarizes the findings from that survey, which indicate that most fifth and sixth graders lacked required and recommended vaccinations.  (+info)

Nucleotide sequences that distinguish Oka vaccine from parental Oka and other varicella-zoster virus isolates. (8/283)

The sequences of approximately 34 kb from the 3' end of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) Oka vaccine strain and the previously sequenced Dumas strain were compared. Sequence differences were noted in the coding sequences of several VZV open reading frames (ORFs), including ORFs 48, 51, 52, 55, 56, 58, 59, 60, 62, 64, and 68. Tests based on differences in the ORF62 gene and in the ORF64 poly-A region successfully distinguished the Oka vaccine strain from its wild-type parent and from other Japanese and US clinical isolates. These changes remained stable after passage of the virus in humans.  (+info)

Chickenpox is a highly contagious viral infection caused by the varicella-zoster virus. It is characterized by an itchy, blister-like rash that typically covers the body and can also affect the mouth, eyes, and scalp. The rash progresses through various stages, from red bumps to fluid-filled blisters to scabs, before ultimately healing.

Chickenpox is usually a mild disease in children but can be more severe in adults, pregnant women, and individuals with weakened immune systems. Common symptoms include fever, fatigue, headache, and loss of appetite, which often precede the onset of the rash. The infection typically lasts about 1-2 weeks, and once a person has had chickenpox, they usually develop immunity to future infections.

A vaccine is available to prevent chickenpox, and it is routinely administered to children as part of their childhood vaccination schedule. In some cases, the vaccine may be recommended for adults who have not had chickenpox or been vaccinated previously.

The chickenpox vaccine, also known as varicella vaccine, is a preventive measure against the highly contagious viral infection caused by the varicella-zoster virus. The vaccine contains a live but weakened form of the virus, which stimulates the immune system to produce a response without causing the disease itself.

The chickenpox vaccine is typically given in two doses, with the first dose administered between 12 and 15 months of age and the second dose between 4 and 6 years of age. In some cases, the vaccine may be given to older children, adolescents, or adults who have not previously been vaccinated or who have never had chickenpox.

The chickenpox vaccine is highly effective at preventing severe cases of the disease and reducing the risk of complications such as bacterial infections, pneumonia, and encephalitis. It is also effective at preventing transmission of the virus to others.

Like any vaccine, the chickenpox vaccine can cause mild side effects such as soreness at the injection site, fever, or a mild rash. However, these side effects are generally mild and short-lived. Serious side effects are rare but may include allergic reactions or severe immune responses.

Overall, the chickenpox vaccine is a safe and effective way to prevent this common childhood disease and its potential complications.

Also known as Varicella-zoster virus (VZV), Herpesvirus 3, Human is a species-specific alphaherpesvirus that causes two distinct diseases: chickenpox (varicella) during primary infection and herpes zoster (shingles) upon reactivation of latent infection.

Chickenpox is typically a self-limiting disease characterized by a generalized, pruritic vesicular rash, fever, and malaise. After resolution of the primary infection, VZV remains latent in the sensory ganglia and can reactivate later in life to cause herpes zoster, which is characterized by a unilateral, dermatomal vesicular rash and pain.

Herpesvirus 3, Human is highly contagious and spreads through respiratory droplets or direct contact with the chickenpox rash. Vaccination is available to prevent primary infection and reduce the risk of complications associated with chickenpox and herpes zoster.

A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular infectious disease. It typically contains an agent that resembles the disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the agent as a threat, destroy it, and "remember" it, so that the immune system can more easily recognize and destroy any of these microorganisms that it encounters in the future.

Vaccines can be prophylactic (to prevent or ameliorate the effects of a future infection by a natural or "wild" pathogen), or therapeutic (to fight disease that is already present). The administration of vaccines is called vaccination. Vaccinations are generally administered through needle injections, but can also be administered by mouth or sprayed into the nose.

The term "vaccine" comes from Edward Jenner's 1796 use of cowpox to create immunity to smallpox. The first successful vaccine was developed in 1796 by Edward Jenner, who showed that milkmaids who had contracted cowpox did not get smallpox. He reasoned that exposure to cowpox protected against smallpox and tested his theory by injecting a boy with pus from a cowpox sore and then exposing him to smallpox, which the boy did not contract. The word "vaccine" is derived from Variolae vaccinae (smallpox of the cow), the term devised by Jenner to denote cowpox. He used it in 1798 during a conversation with a fellow physician and later in the title of his 1801 Inquiry.

Herpes zoster, also known as shingles, is a viral infection that causes a painful rash. It's caused by the varicella-zoster virus, which also causes chickenpox. After you recover from chickenpox, the virus lies dormant in your nerve cells and can reactivate later in life as herpes zoster.

The hallmark symptom of herpes zoster is a unilateral, vesicular rash that occurs in a dermatomal distribution, which means it follows the path of a specific nerve. The rash usually affects one side of the body and can wrap around either the left or right side of your torso.

Before the rash appears, you may experience symptoms such as pain, tingling, or itching in the area where the rash will develop. Other possible symptoms include fever, headache, fatigue, and muscle weakness. The rash typically scabs over and heals within two to four weeks, but some people may continue to experience pain in the affected area for months or even years after the rash has healed. This is known as postherpetic neuralgia (PHN).

Herpes zoster is most common in older adults and people with weakened immune systems, although anyone who has had chickenpox can develop the condition. It's important to seek medical attention if you suspect you have herpes zoster, as early treatment with antiviral medications can help reduce the severity and duration of the rash and lower your risk of developing complications such as PHN.

Inactivated vaccines, also known as killed or non-live vaccines, are created by using a version of the virus or bacteria that has been grown in a laboratory and then killed or inactivated with chemicals, heat, or radiation. This process renders the organism unable to cause disease, but still capable of stimulating an immune response when introduced into the body.

Inactivated vaccines are generally considered safer than live attenuated vaccines since they cannot revert back to a virulent form and cause illness. However, they may require multiple doses or booster shots to maintain immunity because the immune response generated by inactivated vaccines is not as robust as that produced by live vaccines. Examples of inactivated vaccines include those for hepatitis A, rabies, and influenza (inactivated flu vaccine).

A viral vaccine is a biological preparation that introduces your body to a specific virus in a way that helps your immune system build up protection against the virus without causing the illness. Viral vaccines can be made from weakened or inactivated forms of the virus, or parts of the virus such as proteins or sugars. Once introduced to the body, the immune system recognizes the virus as foreign and produces an immune response, including the production of antibodies. These antibodies remain in the body and provide immunity against future infection with that specific virus.

Viral vaccines are important tools for preventing infectious diseases caused by viruses, such as influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, polio, hepatitis A and B, rabies, rotavirus, chickenpox, shingles, and some types of cancer. Vaccination programs have led to the control or elimination of many infectious diseases that were once common.

It's important to note that viral vaccines are not effective against bacterial infections, and separate vaccines must be developed for each type of virus. Additionally, because viruses can mutate over time, it is necessary to update some viral vaccines periodically to ensure continued protection.

Skin diseases of viral origin are conditions that affect the skin caused by viral infections. These infections can lead to various symptoms such as rashes, blisters, papules, and skin lesions. Some common examples of viral skin diseases include:

1. Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) infection: This causes cold sores or genital herpes, which are characterized by small, painful blisters on the skin.
2. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection: This causes chickenpox and shingles, which are characterized by itchy, fluid-filled blisters on the skin.
3. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection: This causes warts, which are small, rough growths on the skin.
4. Molluscum contagiosum: This is a viral infection that causes small, raised, and pearly white bumps on the skin.
5. Measles: This is a highly contagious viral disease characterized by fever, cough, runny nose, and a rash that spreads all over the body.
6. Rubella: Also known as German measles, this viral infection causes a red rash on the face and neck that spreads to the rest of the body.

Viral skin diseases can be spread through direct contact with an infected person or contaminated objects, such as towels or bedding. Some viral skin diseases can be prevented through vaccination, while others can be treated with antiviral medications or other therapies.

Combined vaccines are defined in medical terms as vaccines that contain two or more antigens from different diseases, which are given to provide protection against multiple diseases at the same time. This approach reduces the number of injections required and simplifies the immunization schedule, especially during early childhood. Examples of combined vaccines include:

1. DTaP-Hib-IPV (e.g., Pentacel): A vaccine that combines diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (whooping cough), Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease, and poliovirus components in one injection to protect against these five diseases.
2. MMRV (e.g., ProQuad): A vaccine that combines measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella (chickenpox) antigens in a single injection to provide immunity against all four diseases.
3. HepA-HepB (e.g., Twinrix): A vaccine that combines hepatitis A and hepatitis B antigens in one injection, providing protection against both types of hepatitis.
4. MenACWY-TT (e.g., MenQuadfi): A vaccine that combines four serogroups of meningococcal bacteria (A, C, W, Y) with tetanus toxoid as a carrier protein in one injection for the prevention of invasive meningococcal disease caused by these serogroups.
5. PCV13-PPSV23 (e.g., Vaxneuvance): A vaccine that combines 13 pneumococcal serotypes with PPSV23, providing protection against a broader range of pneumococcal diseases in adults aged 18 years and older.

Combined vaccines have been thoroughly tested for safety and efficacy to ensure they provide a strong immune response and an acceptable safety profile. They are essential tools in preventing various infectious diseases and improving overall public health.

I could not find a specific medical definition for "Vaccines, DNA." However, I can provide you with some information about DNA vaccines.

DNA vaccines are a type of vaccine that uses genetically engineered DNA to stimulate an immune response in the body. They work by introducing a small piece of DNA into the body that contains the genetic code for a specific antigen (a substance that triggers an immune response). The cells of the body then use this DNA to produce the antigen, which prompts the immune system to recognize and attack it.

DNA vaccines have several advantages over traditional vaccines. They are relatively easy to produce, can be stored at room temperature, and can be designed to protect against a wide range of diseases. Additionally, because they use DNA to stimulate an immune response, DNA vaccines do not require the growth and culture of viruses or bacteria, which can make them safer than traditional vaccines.

DNA vaccines are still in the experimental stages, and more research is needed to determine their safety and effectiveness. However, they have shown promise in animal studies and are being investigated as a potential tool for preventing a variety of infectious diseases, including influenza, HIV, and cancer.

Synthetic vaccines are artificially produced, designed to stimulate an immune response and provide protection against specific diseases. Unlike traditional vaccines that are derived from weakened or killed pathogens, synthetic vaccines are created using synthetic components, such as synthesized viral proteins, DNA, or RNA. These components mimic the disease-causing agent and trigger an immune response without causing the actual disease. The use of synthetic vaccines offers advantages in terms of safety, consistency, and scalability in production, making them valuable tools for preventing infectious diseases.

The Herpes Zoster vaccine, also known as the shingles vaccine, is a preventive measure against the reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in individuals who have previously had chickenpox. The vaccine contains a live but weakened form of VZV that boosts the immune system's ability to recognize and fight off the virus, thereby reducing the risk of developing shingles and its complications. It is typically administered as a single dose for people aged 50 and older, or as a two-dose series for those aged 19 and older who have weakened immune systems.

Bacterial vaccines are types of vaccines that are created using bacteria or parts of bacteria as the immunogen, which is the substance that triggers an immune response in the body. The purpose of a bacterial vaccine is to stimulate the immune system to develop protection against specific bacterial infections.

There are several types of bacterial vaccines, including:

1. Inactivated or killed whole-cell vaccines: These vaccines contain entire bacteria that have been killed or inactivated through various methods, such as heat or chemicals. The bacteria can no longer cause disease, but they still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response.
2. Subunit, protein, or polysaccharide vaccines: These vaccines use specific components of the bacterium, such as proteins or polysaccharides, that are known to trigger an immune response. By using only these components, the vaccine can avoid using the entire bacterium, which may reduce the risk of adverse reactions.
3. Live attenuated vaccines: These vaccines contain live bacteria that have been weakened or attenuated so that they cannot cause disease but still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response. This type of vaccine can provide long-lasting immunity, but it may not be suitable for people with weakened immune systems.

Bacterial vaccines are essential tools in preventing and controlling bacterial infections, reducing the burden of diseases such as tuberculosis, pneumococcal disease, meningococcal disease, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease. They work by exposing the immune system to a harmless form of the bacteria or its components, which triggers the production of antibodies and memory cells that can recognize and fight off future infections with that same bacterium.

It's important to note that while vaccines are generally safe and effective, they may cause mild side effects such as pain, redness, or swelling at the injection site, fever, or fatigue. Serious side effects are rare but can occur, so it's essential to consult with a healthcare provider before receiving any vaccine.

Vaccination is a simple, safe, and effective way to protect people against harmful diseases, before they come into contact with them. It uses your body's natural defenses to build protection to specific infections and makes your immune system stronger.

A vaccination usually contains a small, harmless piece of a virus or bacteria (or toxins produced by these germs) that has been made inactive or weakened so it won't cause the disease itself. This piece of the germ is known as an antigen. When the vaccine is introduced into the body, the immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign and produces antibodies to fight it.

If a person then comes into contact with the actual disease-causing germ, their immune system will recognize it and immediately produce antibodies to destroy it. The person is therefore protected against that disease. This is known as active immunity.

Vaccinations are important for both individual and public health. They prevent the spread of contagious diseases and protect vulnerable members of the population, such as young children, the elderly, and people with weakened immune systems who cannot be vaccinated or for whom vaccination is not effective.

An AIDS vaccine is a type of preventive vaccine that aims to stimulate the immune system to produce an effective response against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The goal of an AIDS vaccine is to induce the production of immune cells and proteins that can recognize and eliminate HIV-infected cells, thereby preventing the establishment of a persistent infection.

Despite decades of research, there is still no licensed AIDS vaccine available. This is due in part to the unique challenges posed by HIV, which has a high mutation rate and can rapidly evolve to evade the immune system's defenses. However, several promising vaccine candidates are currently being tested in clinical trials around the world, and researchers continue to explore new approaches and strategies for developing an effective AIDS vaccine.

Smallpox is a severe, contagious, and fatal infectious disease caused by the variola virus. It's characterized by fever, malaise, prostration, headache, and backache; followed by a distinctive rash with flat, red spots that turn into small blisters filled with clear fluid, then pus, and finally crust, scab, and fall off after about two weeks, leaving permanent scarring. There are two clinical forms of smallpox: variola major and variola minor. Variola major is the severe and most common form, with a mortality rate of 30% or higher. Variola minor is a less common presentation with milder symptoms and a lower mortality rate of about 1%.

Smallpox was declared eradicated by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1980 following a successful global vaccination campaign, and routine smallpox vaccination has since been discontinued. However, due to concerns about bioterrorism, military personnel and some healthcare workers may still receive smallpox vaccinations as a precautionary measure.

Viral pneumonia is a type of pneumonia caused by viral infection. It primarily affects the upper and lower respiratory tract, leading to inflammation of the alveoli (air sacs) in the lungs. This results in symptoms such as cough, difficulty breathing, fever, fatigue, and chest pain. Common viruses that can cause pneumonia include influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and adenovirus. Viral pneumonia is often milder than bacterial pneumonia but can still be serious, especially in young children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as rest, hydration, and fever reduction, while the body fights off the virus. In some cases, antiviral medications may be used to help manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Varicellovirus is a genus of viruses in the family Herpesviridae, subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae. This genus includes several human and animal viruses that are closely related to each other. The most well-known member of this genus is the Varicella-zoster virus (VZV), which causes two distinct diseases: chickenpox (varicella) and shingles (zoster).

The Varicellovirus genus includes the following species:

1. Human alphaherpesvirus 3 (Varicella-zoster virus)
2. Simian varicella virus
3. Bovine herpesvirus 1
4. Bovine herpesvirus 5
5. Pseudorabies virus
6. Equid herpesvirus 1
7. Equid herpesvirus 3
8. Equid herpesvirus 4
9. Equid herpesvirus 8
10. Equid herpesvirus 9
11. Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (Herpes B virus)
12. Cercopithecine herpesvirus 2
13. Suid herpesvirus 1 (Aujeszky's disease virus)
14. Canid herpesvirus 1
15. Felid herpesvirus 1

These viruses are characterized by their ability to establish latency in the nervous system of their hosts and reactivate later in life, causing recurrent disease. They typically have a broad host range and can infect multiple species within a family or genus.

A subunit vaccine is a type of vaccine that contains a specific piece or component of the microorganism (such as a protein, sugar, or part of the bacterial outer membrane), instead of containing the entire organism. This piece of the microorganism is known as an antigen, and it stimulates an immune response in the body, allowing the development of immunity against the targeted infection without introducing the risk of disease associated with live vaccines.

Subunit vaccines offer several advantages over other types of vaccines. They are generally safer because they do not contain live or weakened microorganisms, making them suitable for individuals with weakened immune systems or specific medical conditions that prevent them from receiving live vaccines. Additionally, subunit vaccines can be designed to focus on the most immunogenic components of a pathogen, potentially leading to stronger and more targeted immune responses.

Examples of subunit vaccines include the Hepatitis B vaccine, which contains a viral protein, and the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, which uses pieces of the bacterial polysaccharide capsule. These vaccines have been crucial in preventing serious infectious diseases and reducing associated complications worldwide.

Conjugate vaccines are a type of vaccine that combines a part of a bacterium with a protein or other substance to boost the body's immune response to the bacteria. The bacterial component is usually a polysaccharide, which is a long chain of sugars that makes up part of the bacterial cell wall.

By itself, a polysaccharide is not very immunogenic, meaning it does not stimulate a strong immune response. However, when it is conjugated or linked to a protein or other carrier molecule, it becomes much more immunogenic and can elicit a stronger and longer-lasting immune response.

Conjugate vaccines are particularly effective in protecting against bacterial infections that affect young children, such as Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and pneumococcal disease. These vaccines have been instrumental in reducing the incidence of these diseases and their associated complications, such as meningitis and pneumonia.

Overall, conjugate vaccines work by mimicking a natural infection and stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies that can protect against future infections with the same bacterium. By combining a weakly immunogenic polysaccharide with a protein carrier, these vaccines can elicit a stronger and more effective immune response, providing long-lasting protection against bacterial infections.

Acyclovir is an antiviral medication used for the treatment of infections caused by herpes simplex viruses (HSV) including genital herpes, cold sores, and shingles (varicella-zoster virus). It works by interfering with the replication of the virus's DNA, thereby preventing the virus from multiplying further. Acyclovir is available in various forms such as oral tablets, capsules, creams, and intravenous solutions.

The medical definition of 'Acyclovir' is:

Acyclovir (brand name Zovirax) is a synthetic nucleoside analogue that functions as an antiviral agent, specifically against herpes simplex viruses (HSV) types 1 and 2, varicella-zoster virus (VZV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Acyclovir is converted to its active form, acyclovir triphosphate, by viral thymidine kinase. This activated form then inhibits viral DNA polymerase, preventing further replication of the virus's DNA.

Acyclovir has a relatively low toxicity profile and is generally well-tolerated, although side effects such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and headache can occur. In rare cases, more serious side effects such as kidney damage, seizures, or neurological problems may occur. It is important to take acyclovir exactly as directed by a healthcare provider and to report any unusual symptoms promptly.

Antibodies, viral are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection with a virus. These antibodies are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens on the surface of the virus, which helps to neutralize or destroy the virus and prevent its replication. Once produced, these antibodies can provide immunity against future infections with the same virus.

Viral antibodies are typically composed of four polypeptide chains - two heavy chains and two light chains - that are held together by disulfide bonds. The binding site for the antigen is located at the tip of the Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains.

There are five classes of antibodies in humans: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has a different function and is distributed differently throughout the body. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody found in the bloodstream and provides long-term immunity against viruses, while IgA is found primarily in mucous membranes and helps to protect against respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.

In addition to their role in the immune response, viral antibodies can also be used as diagnostic tools to detect the presence of a specific virus in a patient's blood or other bodily fluids.

Malaria vaccines are biological preparations that induce immunity against malaria parasites, thereby preventing or reducing the severity of malaria disease. They typically contain antigens (proteins or other molecules derived from the parasite) that stimulate an immune response in the recipient, enabling their body to recognize and neutralize the pathogen upon exposure.

The most advanced malaria vaccine candidate is RTS,S/AS01 (Mosquirix), which targets the Plasmodium falciparum parasite's circumsporozoite protein (CSP). This vaccine has shown partial protection in clinical trials, reducing the risk of severe malaria and hospitalization in young children by about 30% over four years. However, it does not provide complete immunity, and additional research is ongoing to develop more effective vaccines against malaria.

Mass vaccination is a coordinated effort to administer vaccine doses to a large portion of a population in a short amount of time. This strategy is often used during outbreaks of infectious diseases, such as influenza or measles, to quickly build up community immunity (herd immunity) and reduce the spread of the disease. Mass vaccination campaigns can also be implemented as part of public health initiatives to control or eliminate vaccine-preventable diseases in a population. These campaigns typically involve mobilizing healthcare workers, volunteers, and resources to reach and vaccinate as many people as possible, often through mobile clinics, community centers, and other accessible locations.

Papillomavirus vaccines are vaccines that have been developed to prevent infection by human papillomaviruses (HPV). HPV is a DNA virus that is capable of infecting the skin and mucous membranes. Certain types of HPV are known to cause cervical cancer, as well as other types of cancer such as anal, penile, vulvar, and oropharyngeal cancers. Other types of HPV can cause genital warts.

There are currently two papillomavirus vaccines that have been approved for use in the United States: Gardasil and Cervarix. Both vaccines protect against the two most common cancer-causing types of HPV (types 16 and 18), which together cause about 70% of cervical cancers. Gardasil also protects against the two most common types of HPV that cause genital warts (types 6 and 11).

Papillomavirus vaccines are given as a series of three shots over a period of six months. They are most effective when given to people before they become sexually active, as this reduces the risk of exposure to HPV. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that all boys and girls get vaccinated against HPV at age 11 or 12, but the vaccine can be given to people as young as age 9 and as old as age 26.

It is important to note that papillomavirus vaccines do not protect against all types of HPV, and they do not treat existing HPV infections or cervical cancer. They are intended to prevent new HPV infections and the cancers and other diseases that can be caused by HPV.

Necrotizing fasciitis is a serious bacterial infection that affects the fascia, which is the tissue that surrounds muscles, nerves, and blood vessels. The infection can also spread to the muscle and skin. It is often caused by a combination of different types of bacteria, including group A Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus.

The infection causes extensive tissue damage and necrosis (death) of the fascia and surrounding tissues. It can progress rapidly and can be fatal if not treated promptly with aggressive surgical debridement (removal of dead tissue) and antibiotics.

Symptoms of necrotizing fasciitis include severe pain, swelling, redness, and warmth in the affected area; fever; chills; and general weakness. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if these symptoms occur, as early diagnosis and treatment can significantly improve outcomes.

Meningococcal vaccines are vaccines that protect against Neisseria meningitidis, a type of bacteria that can cause serious infections such as meningitis (inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord) and septicemia (bloodstream infection). There are several types of meningococcal vaccines available, including conjugate vaccines and polysaccharide vaccines. These vaccines work by stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies that can protect against the different serogroups of N. meningitidis, including A, B, C, Y, and W-135. The specific type of vaccine used and the number of doses required may depend on a person's age, health status, and other factors. Meningococcal vaccines are recommended for certain high-risk populations, such as infants, young children, adolescents, and people with certain medical conditions, as well as for travelers to areas where meningococcal disease is common.

Herd immunity, also known as community immunity or population immunity, is a form of indirect protection from infectious diseases that occurs when a large percentage of a population has become immune to an infection, either through vaccination or previous illness. This reduces the likelihood of infection for individuals who are not immune, especially those who cannot receive vaccines due to medical reasons. The more people in a community who are immune, the less likely the disease will spread and the entire community is protected, not just those who are immune.

Mumps is a viral infection that primarily affects the parotid salivary glands, causing them to swell and become painful. The medical definition of mumps is: "An acute infectious disease, caused by the mumps virus, characterized by painful enlargement of one or more of the salivary glands, especially the parotids."

The infection spreads easily through respiratory droplets or direct contact with an infected person's saliva. Symptoms typically appear 16-18 days after exposure and include fever, headache, muscle aches, tiredness, and swollen, tender salivary glands. Complications of mumps are rare but can be serious and include meningitis, encephalitis, deafness, and inflammation of the reproductive organs in males.

Prevention is through vaccination with the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine, which is part of routine childhood immunization schedules in many countries.

"Hepatitis B vaccines are vaccines that prevent infection caused by the hepatitis B virus. They work by introducing a small and harmless piece of the virus to your body, which triggers your immune system to produce antibodies to fight off the infection. These antibodies remain in your body and provide protection if you are exposed to the real hepatitis B virus in the future.

The hepatitis B vaccine is typically given as a series of three shots over a six-month period. It is recommended for all infants, children and adolescents who have not previously been vaccinated, as well as for adults who are at increased risk of infection, such as healthcare workers, people who inject drugs, and those with certain medical conditions.

It's important to note that hepatitis B vaccine does not provide protection against other types of viral hepatitis, such as hepatitis A or C."

A measles vaccine is a biological preparation that induces immunity against the measles virus. It contains an attenuated (weakened) strain of the measles virus, which stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies that protect against future infection with the wild-type (disease-causing) virus. Measles vaccines are typically administered in combination with vaccines against mumps and rubella (German measles), forming the MMR vaccine.

The measles vaccine is highly effective, with one or two doses providing immunity in over 95% of people who receive it. It is usually given to children as part of routine childhood immunization programs, with the first dose administered at 12-15 months of age and the second dose at 4-6 years of age.

Measles vaccination has led to a dramatic reduction in the incidence of measles worldwide and is considered one of the greatest public health achievements of the past century. However, despite widespread availability of the vaccine, measles remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in some parts of the world, particularly in areas with low vaccination coverage or where access to healthcare is limited.

A Pertussis vaccine is a type of immunization used to protect against pertussis, also known as whooping cough. It contains components that stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies against the bacteria that cause pertussis, Bordetella pertussis. There are two main types of pertussis vaccines: whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccines and acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines. wP vaccines contain killed whole cells of B. pertussis, while aP vaccines contain specific components of the bacteria, such as pertussis toxin and other antigens. Pertussis vaccines are often combined with diphtheria and tetanus to form combination vaccines, such as DTaP (diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis) and TdaP (tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis). These vaccines are typically given to young children as part of their routine immunization schedule.

Haemophilus vaccines are vaccines that are designed to protect against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), a bacterium that can cause serious infections such as meningitis, pneumonia, and epiglottitis. There are two main types of Hib vaccines:

1. Polysaccharide vaccine: This type of vaccine is made from the sugar coating (polysaccharide) of the bacterial cells. It is not effective in children under 2 years of age because their immune systems are not yet mature enough to respond effectively to this type of vaccine.
2. Conjugate vaccine: This type of vaccine combines the polysaccharide with a protein carrier, which helps to stimulate a stronger and more sustained immune response. It is effective in infants as young as 6 weeks old.

Hib vaccines are usually given as part of routine childhood immunizations starting at 2 months of age. They are administered through an injection into the muscle. The vaccine is safe and effective, with few side effects. Vaccination against Hib has led to a significant reduction in the incidence of Hib infections worldwide.

BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) vaccine is a type of immunization used primarily to prevent tuberculosis (TB). It contains a live but weakened strain of Mycobacterium bovis, which is related to the bacterium that causes TB in humans (Mycobacterium tuberculosis).

The BCG vaccine works by stimulating an immune response in the body, enabling it to better resist infection with TB bacteria if exposed in the future. It is often given to infants and children in countries where TB is common, and its use varies depending on the national immunization policies. The protection offered by the BCG vaccine is moderate and may not last for a very long time.

In addition to its use against TB, the BCG vaccine has also been investigated for its potential therapeutic role in treating bladder cancer and some other types of cancer. The mechanism of action in these cases is thought to be related to the vaccine's ability to stimulate an immune response against abnormal cells.

Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated (IPV) is a vaccine used to prevent poliomyelitis (polio), a highly infectious disease caused by the poliovirus. IPV contains inactivated (killed) polioviruses of all three poliovirus types. It works by stimulating an immune response in the body, but because the viruses are inactivated, they cannot cause polio. After vaccination, the immune system recognizes and responds to the inactivated viruses, producing antibodies that protect against future infection with wild, or naturally occurring, polioviruses. IPV is typically given as an injection in the leg or arm, and a series of doses are required for full protection. It is a safe and effective way to prevent polio and its complications.

Rabies vaccines are medical products that contain antigens of the rabies virus, which stimulate an immune response in individuals who receive them. The purpose of rabies vaccines is to prevent the development of rabies, a viral disease that is almost always fatal once symptoms appear.

There are two primary types of rabies vaccines available:

1. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) vaccines: These vaccines are given to individuals who are at high risk of coming into contact with the rabies virus, such as veterinarians, animal handlers, and travelers visiting areas where rabies is common. The vaccine series typically consists of three doses given over a period of 28 days.
2. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) vaccines: These vaccines are administered to individuals who have already been exposed to the rabies virus, usually through a bite or scratch from an infected animal. The vaccine series typically consists of four doses given over a period of 14 days, along with a dose of rabies immune globulin (RIG) to provide immediate protection while the immune system responds to the vaccine.

Both types of rabies vaccines are highly effective at preventing the disease, but it is essential to receive them as soon as possible after exposure or before potential exposure, as the virus can be fatal if left untreated.

Patient-to-professional transmission of infectious diseases refers to the spread of an infectious agent or disease from a patient to a healthcare professional. This can occur through various routes, including:

1. Contact transmission: This includes direct contact, such as touching or shaking hands with an infected patient, or indirect contact, such as touching a contaminated surface or object.
2. Droplet transmission: This occurs when an infected person coughs, sneezes, talks, or breathes out droplets containing the infectious agent, which can then be inhaled by a nearby healthcare professional.
3. Airborne transmission: This involves the spread of infectious agents through the air over long distances, usually requiring specialized medical procedures or equipment.

Healthcare professionals are at risk of patient-to-professional transmission of infectious diseases due to their close contact with patients and the potential for exposure to various pathogens. It is essential for healthcare professionals to follow standard precautions, including hand hygiene, personal protective equipment (PPE), and respiratory protection, to minimize the risk of transmission. Additionally, proper vaccination and education on infection prevention and control measures can further reduce the risk of patient-to-professional transmission of infectious diseases.

Rotavirus vaccines are preventive measures used to protect against rotavirus infections, which are the leading cause of severe diarrhea and dehydration among infants and young children worldwide. These vaccines contain weakened or inactivated forms of the rotavirus, a pathogen that infects and causes symptoms by multiplying inside cells lining the small intestine.

The weakened or inactivated virus in the vaccine stimulates an immune response in the body, enabling it to recognize and fight off future rotavirus infections more effectively. The vaccines are usually administered orally, as a liquid droplet or on a sugar cube, to mimic natural infection through the gastrointestinal tract.

There are currently two licensed rotavirus vaccines available globally:

1. Rotarix (GlaxoSmithKline): This vaccine contains an attenuated (weakened) strain of human rotavirus and is given in a two-dose series, typically at 2 and 4 months of age.
2. RotaTeq (Merck): This vaccine contains five reassortant viruses, combining human and animal strains to provide broader protection. It is administered in a three-dose series, usually at 2, 4, and 6 months of age.

Rotavirus vaccines have been shown to significantly reduce the incidence of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis and related hospitalizations among infants and young children. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the inclusion of rotavirus vaccination in national immunization programs, particularly in countries with high child mortality rates due to diarrheal diseases.

Cholera vaccines are preventive measures used to protect against the infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. There are several types of cholera vaccines available, including:

1. Inactivated oral vaccine (ICCV): This vaccine contains killed whole-cell bacteria and is given in two doses, with each dose administered at least 14 days apart. It provides protection for up to six months and can be given to adults and children over the age of one year.
2. Live attenuated oral vaccine (LCV): This vaccine contains weakened live bacteria that are unable to cause disease but still stimulate an immune response. The most commonly used LCV is called CVD 103-HgR, which is given in a single dose and provides protection for up to three months. It can be given to adults and children over the age of six years.
3. Injectable cholera vaccine: This vaccine contains inactivated bacteria and is given as an injection. It is not widely available and its effectiveness is limited compared to oral vaccines.

Cholera vaccines are recommended for travelers visiting areas with known cholera outbreaks, particularly if they plan to eat food or drink water that may be contaminated. They can also be used in response to outbreaks to help control the spread of the disease. However, it is important to note that vaccination alone is not sufficient to prevent cholera infection and good hygiene practices, such as handwashing and safe food handling, should always be followed.

Immunization programs, also known as vaccination programs, are organized efforts to administer vaccines to populations or communities in order to protect individuals from vaccine-preventable diseases. These programs are typically implemented by public health agencies and involve the planning, coordination, and delivery of immunizations to ensure that a high percentage of people are protected against specific infectious diseases.

Immunization programs may target specific age groups, such as infants and young children, or populations at higher risk of certain diseases, such as travelers, healthcare workers, or individuals with weakened immune systems. The goals of immunization programs include controlling and eliminating vaccine-preventable diseases, reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these diseases, and protecting vulnerable populations from outbreaks and epidemics.

Immunization programs may be delivered through a variety of settings, including healthcare facilities, schools, community centers, and mobile clinics. They often involve partnerships between government agencies, healthcare providers, non-governmental organizations, and communities to ensure that vaccines are accessible, affordable, and acceptable to the populations they serve. Effective immunization programs require strong leadership, adequate funding, robust data systems, and ongoing monitoring and evaluation to assess their impact and identify areas for improvement.

A disease outbreak is defined as the occurrence of cases of a disease in excess of what would normally be expected in a given time and place. It may affect a small and localized group or a large number of people spread over a wide area, even internationally. An outbreak may be caused by a new agent, a change in the agent's virulence or host susceptibility, or an increase in the size or density of the host population.

Outbreaks can have significant public health and economic impacts, and require prompt investigation and control measures to prevent further spread of the disease. The investigation typically involves identifying the source of the outbreak, determining the mode of transmission, and implementing measures to interrupt the chain of infection. This may include vaccination, isolation or quarantine, and education of the public about the risks and prevention strategies.

Examples of disease outbreaks include foodborne illnesses linked to contaminated food or water, respiratory infections spread through coughing and sneezing, and mosquito-borne diseases such as Zika virus and West Nile virus. Outbreaks can also occur in healthcare settings, such as hospitals and nursing homes, where vulnerable populations may be at increased risk of infection.

Typhoid-Paratyphoid vaccines are immunizations that protect against typhoid fever and paratyphoid fevers, which are caused by the Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi, respectively. These vaccines contain inactivated or attenuated bacteria or specific antigens that stimulate an individual's immune system to develop immunity against these diseases without causing the illness itself. There are several types of typhoid-paratyphoid vaccines available, including:

1. Ty21a (oral live attenuated vaccine): This is a live but weakened form of the Salmonella Typhi bacteria. It is given orally in capsule form and requires a series of 4 doses taken every other day. The vaccine provides protection for about 5-7 years.
2. Vi polysaccharide (ViPS) typhoid vaccine: This vaccine contains purified Vi antigens from the Salmonella Typhi bacterium's outer capsular layer. It is given as an injection and provides protection for approximately 2-3 years.
3. Combined typhoid-paratyphoid A and B vaccines (Vi-rEPA): This vaccine combines Vi polysaccharide antigens from Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi A and B. It is given as an injection and provides protection for about 3 years against typhoid fever and paratyphoid fevers A and B.
4. Typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCVs): These vaccines combine the Vi polysaccharide antigen from Salmonella Typhi with a protein carrier to enhance the immune response, particularly in children under 2 years of age. TCVs are given as an injection and provide long-lasting protection against typhoid fever.

It is important to note that none of these vaccines provides 100% protection, but they significantly reduce the risk of contracting typhoid or paratyphoid fevers. Additionally, good hygiene practices, such as handwashing and safe food handling, can further minimize the risk of infection.

The Smallpox vaccine is not a live virus vaccine but is instead made from a vaccinia virus, which is a virus related to the variola virus (the virus that causes smallpox). The vaccinia virus used in the vaccine does not cause smallpox, but it does cause a milder illness with symptoms such as a fever and a rash of pustules or blisters at the site of inoculation.

The smallpox vaccine was first developed by Edward Jenner in 1796 and is one of the oldest vaccines still in use today. It has been highly effective in preventing smallpox, which was once a major cause of death and disability worldwide. In fact, smallpox was declared eradicated by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1980, thanks in large part to the widespread use of the smallpox vaccine.

Despite the eradication of smallpox, the smallpox vaccine is still used today in certain circumstances. For example, it may be given to laboratory workers who handle the virus or to military personnel who may be at risk of exposure to the virus. The vaccine may also be used as an emergency measure in the event of a bioterrorism attack involving smallpox.

It is important to note that the smallpox vaccine is not without risks and can cause serious side effects, including a severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis), encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), and myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle). As a result, it is only given to people who are at high risk of exposure to the virus and who have been determined to be good candidates for vaccination by a healthcare professional.

In epidemiology, the incidence of a disease is defined as the number of new cases of that disease within a specific population over a certain period of time. It is typically expressed as a rate, with the number of new cases in the numerator and the size of the population at risk in the denominator. Incidence provides information about the risk of developing a disease during a given time period and can be used to compare disease rates between different populations or to monitor trends in disease occurrence over time.

A tuberculosis vaccine, also known as the BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) vaccine, is a type of immunization used to prevent tuberculosis (TB), a bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The BCG vaccine contains a weakened strain of the bacteria that causes TB in cattle.

The BCG vaccine works by stimulating an immune response in the body, which helps to protect against severe forms of TB, such as TB meningitis and TB in children. However, it is not very effective at preventing pulmonary TB (TB that affects the lungs) in adults.

The BCG vaccine is not routinely recommended for use in the United States due to the low risk of TB infection in the general population. However, it may be given to people who are at high risk of exposure to TB, such as healthcare workers, laboratory personnel, and people traveling to countries with high rates of TB.

It is important to note that the BCG vaccine does not provide complete protection against TB and that other measures, such as testing and treatment for latent TB infection, are also important for controlling the spread of this disease.

The Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis (DTaP) vaccine is a combination immunization that protects against three bacterial diseases: diphtheria, tetanus (lockjaw), and pertussis (whooping cough).

Diphtheria is an upper respiratory infection that can lead to breathing difficulties, heart failure, paralysis, or even death. Tetanus is a bacterial infection that affects the nervous system and causes muscle stiffness and spasms, leading to "lockjaw." Pertussis is a highly contagious respiratory infection characterized by severe coughing fits, which can make it difficult to breathe and may lead to pneumonia, seizures, or brain damage.

The DTaP vaccine contains inactivated toxins (toxoids) from the bacteria that cause these diseases. It is typically given as a series of five shots, with doses administered at 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 15-18 months, and 4-6 years of age. The vaccine helps the immune system develop protection against the diseases without causing the actual illness.

It is important to note that there are other combination vaccines available that protect against these same diseases, such as DT (diphtheria and tetanus toxoids) and Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis), which contain higher doses of the diphtheria and pertussis components. These vaccines are recommended for different age groups and may be used as booster shots to maintain immunity throughout adulthood.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody, which is a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to foreign substances like bacteria or viruses. IgG is the most abundant type of antibody in human blood, making up about 75-80% of all antibodies. It is found in all body fluids and plays a crucial role in fighting infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and toxins.

IgG has several important functions:

1. Neutralization: IgG can bind to the surface of bacteria or viruses, preventing them from attaching to and infecting human cells.
2. Opsonization: IgG coats the surface of pathogens, making them more recognizable and easier for immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytose (engulf and destroy) them.
3. Complement activation: IgG can activate the complement system, a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body. Activation of the complement system leads to the formation of the membrane attack complex, which creates holes in the cell membranes of bacteria, leading to their lysis (destruction).
4. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC): IgG can bind to immune cells like natural killer (NK) cells and trigger them to release substances that cause target cells (such as virus-infected or cancerous cells) to undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death).
5. Immune complex formation: IgG can form immune complexes with antigens, which can then be removed from the body through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis by immune cells or excretion in urine.

IgG is a critical component of adaptive immunity and provides long-lasting protection against reinfection with many pathogens. It has four subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) that differ in their structure, function, and distribution in the body.

The Mumps Vaccine is a biological preparation intended to induce immunity against mumps, a contagious viral infection that primarily affects the salivary glands. The vaccine contains live attenuated (weakened) mumps virus, which stimulates the immune system to develop a protective response without causing the disease.

There are two types of mumps vaccines available:

1. The Jeryl Lynn strain is used in the United States and is part of the Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR) vaccine and the Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella (MMRV) vaccine. This strain is derived from a clinical isolate obtained from the throat washings of a child with mumps in 1963.
2. The Urabe AM9 strain was used in some countries but has been discontinued in many places due to an increased risk of meningitis as a rare complication.

The MMR vaccine is typically given to children at 12-15 months of age and again at 4-6 years of age, providing long-lasting immunity against mumps in most individuals. The vaccine has significantly reduced the incidence of mumps and its complications worldwide.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Hepatitis A vaccines are inactivated or live attenuated viral vaccines that are administered to prevent infection and illness caused by the hepatitis A virus. The vaccine contains antigens that stimulate an immune response in the body, leading to the production of antibodies that protect against future infection with the virus.

The inactivated hepatitis A vaccine is made from viruses that have been chemically treated to destroy their ability to cause disease while preserving their ability to stimulate an immune response. This type of vaccine is typically given in two doses, six months apart, and provides long-term protection against the virus.

The live attenuated hepatitis A vaccine contains a weakened form of the virus that is unable to cause illness but can still stimulate an immune response. This type of vaccine is given as a single dose and provides protection against the virus for at least 20 years.

Hepatitis A vaccines are recommended for people who are at increased risk of infection, including travelers to areas where hepatitis A is common, men who have sex with men, people who use injection drugs, and people with chronic liver disease or clotting factor disorders. The vaccine is also recommended for children in certain states and communities where hepatitis A is endemic.

An immunization schedule is a series of planned dates when a person, usually a child, should receive specific vaccines in order to be fully protected against certain preventable diseases. The schedule is developed based on scientific research and recommendations from health organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

The immunization schedule outlines which vaccines are recommended, the number of doses required, the age at which each dose should be given, and the minimum amount of time that must pass between doses. The schedule may vary depending on factors such as the individual's age, health status, and travel plans.

Immunization schedules are important for ensuring that individuals receive timely protection against vaccine-preventable diseases, and for maintaining high levels of immunity in populations, which helps to prevent the spread of disease. It is important to follow the recommended immunization schedule as closely as possible to ensure optimal protection.

Immunologic adjuvants are substances that are added to a vaccine to enhance the body's immune response to the antigens contained in the vaccine. They work by stimulating the immune system and promoting the production of antibodies and activating immune cells, such as T-cells and macrophages, which help to provide a stronger and more sustained immune response to the vaccine.

Immunologic adjuvants can be derived from various sources, including bacteria, viruses, and chemicals. Some common examples include aluminum salts (alum), oil-in-water emulsions (such as MF59), and bacterial components (such as lipopolysaccharide or LPS).

The use of immunologic adjuvants in vaccines can help to improve the efficacy of the vaccine, particularly for vaccines that contain weak or poorly immunogenic antigens. They can also help to reduce the amount of antigen needed in a vaccine, which can be beneficial for vaccines that are difficult or expensive to produce.

It's important to note that while adjuvants can enhance the immune response to a vaccine, they can also increase the risk of adverse reactions, such as inflammation and pain at the injection site. Therefore, the use of immunologic adjuvants must be carefully balanced against their potential benefits and risks.

Secondary immunization, also known as "anamnestic response" or "booster," refers to the enhanced immune response that occurs upon re-exposure to an antigen, having previously been immunized or infected with the same pathogen. This response is characterized by a more rapid and robust production of antibodies and memory cells compared to the primary immune response. The secondary immunization aims to maintain long-term immunity against infectious diseases and improve vaccine effectiveness. It usually involves administering additional doses of a vaccine or booster shots after the initial series of immunizations, which helps reinforce the immune system's ability to recognize and combat specific pathogens.

The Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccine is a combination immunization that protects against three infectious diseases: measles, mumps, and rubella. It contains live attenuated viruses of each disease, which stimulate an immune response in the body similar to that produced by natural infection but do not cause the diseases themselves.

The MMR vaccine is typically given in two doses, the first at 12-15 months of age and the second at 4-6 years of age. It is highly effective in preventing these diseases, with over 90% effectiveness reported after a single dose and near 100% effectiveness after the second dose.

Measles is a highly contagious viral disease that can cause fever, rash, cough, runny nose, and red, watery eyes. It can also lead to serious complications such as pneumonia, encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), and even death.

Mumps is a viral infection that primarily affects the salivary glands, causing swelling and tenderness in the cheeks and jaw. It can also cause fever, headache, muscle aches, and fatigue. Mumps can lead to serious complications such as deafness, meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord), and inflammation of the testicles or ovaries.

Rubella, also known as German measles, is a viral infection that typically causes a mild fever, rash, and swollen lymph nodes. However, if a pregnant woman becomes infected with rubella, it can cause serious birth defects such as hearing impairment, heart defects, and developmental delays in the fetus.

The MMR vaccine is an important tool in preventing these diseases and protecting public health.

Streptococcal vaccines are immunizations designed to protect against infections caused by Streptococcus bacteria. These vaccines contain antigens, which are substances that trigger an immune response and help the body recognize and fight off specific types of Streptococcus bacteria. There are several different types of streptococcal vaccines available or in development, including:

1. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV): This vaccine protects against Streptococcus pneumoniae, a type of bacteria that can cause pneumonia, meningitis, and other serious infections. PCV is recommended for all children under 2 years old, as well as older children and adults with certain medical conditions.
2. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV): This vaccine also protects against Streptococcus pneumoniae, but it is recommended for adults 65 and older, as well as younger people with certain medical conditions.
3. Streptococcus pyogenes vaccine: This vaccine is being developed to protect against Group A Streptococcus (GAS), which can cause a variety of infections, including strep throat, skin infections, and serious diseases like rheumatic fever and toxic shock syndrome. There are several different GAS vaccine candidates in various stages of development.
4. Streptococcus agalactiae vaccine: This vaccine is being developed to protect against Group B Streptococcus (GBS), which can cause serious infections in newborns, pregnant women, and older adults with certain medical conditions. There are several different GBS vaccine candidates in various stages of development.

Overall, streptococcal vaccines play an important role in preventing bacterial infections and reducing the burden of disease caused by Streptococcus bacteria.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Israel" is not a medical term. It is a country located in the Middle East. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I would be happy to help!

Anthrax vaccines are biological preparations designed to protect against anthrax, a potentially fatal infectious disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax can affect both humans and animals, and it is primarily transmitted through contact with contaminated animal products or, less commonly, through inhalation of spores.

There are two types of anthrax vaccines currently available:

1. Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA): This vaccine is licensed for use in the United States and is approved for pre-exposure prophylaxis in high-risk individuals, such as military personnel and laboratory workers who handle the bacterium. AVA contains a cell-free filtrate of cultured B. anthracis cells that have been chemically treated to render them non-infectious. The vaccine works by stimulating the production of antibodies against protective antigens (PA) present in the bacterial culture.
2. Recombinant Anthrax Vaccine (rPA): This vaccine, also known as BioThrax, is a newer generation anthrax vaccine that was approved for use in the United States in 2015. It contains only the recombinant protective antigen (rPA) of B. anthracis, which is produced using genetic engineering techniques. The rPA vaccine has been shown to be as effective as AVA in generating an immune response and offers several advantages, including a more straightforward manufacturing process, fewer side effects, and a longer shelf life.

Both vaccines require multiple doses for initial immunization, followed by periodic booster shots to maintain protection. Anthrax vaccines are generally safe and effective at preventing anthrax infection; however, they may cause mild to moderate side effects, such as soreness at the injection site, fatigue, and muscle aches. Severe allergic reactions are rare but possible.

It is important to note that anthrax vaccines do not provide immediate protection against anthrax infection. They require several weeks to stimulate an immune response, so they should be administered before potential exposure to the bacterium. In cases of known or suspected exposure to anthrax, antibiotics are used as a primary means of preventing and treating the disease.

Dengue vaccines are designed to protect against dengue fever, a mosquito-borne viral disease that can cause severe flu-like symptoms and potentially life-threatening complications. Dengue is caused by four distinct serotypes of the virus (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4), and infection with one serotype does not provide immunity against the others.

The first licensed dengue vaccine, Dengvaxia (CYD-TDV), is a chimeric yellow fever-dengue tetravalent vaccine developed by Sanofi Pasteur. It is approved for use in several countries and has demonstrated efficacy against dengue fever caused by all four serotypes in clinical trials. However, the vaccine has raised concerns about the risk of severe disease in individuals who have not been previously exposed to dengue. As a result, it is recommended primarily for people with a documented past dengue infection or living in areas with high dengue prevalence and where the benefits outweigh the risks.

Another dengue vaccine candidate, Takeda's TAK-003 (also known as TDV), is a live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine that has shown efficacy against all four serotypes in clinical trials. It was granted approval by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and several other countries for use in individuals aged 4-16 years old, living in endemic areas.

Research and development of additional dengue vaccine candidates are ongoing to address concerns about safety, efficacy, and accessibility, particularly for at-risk populations in low- and middle-income countries where dengue is most prevalent.

Virosomes are artificially constructed spherical vesicles composed of lipids and viral envelope proteins. They are used as a delivery system for vaccines and other therapeutic agents. In the context of vaccines, virosomes can be used to present viral antigens to the immune system in a way that mimics a natural infection, thereby inducing a strong immune response.

Virosome-based vaccines have several advantages over traditional vaccines. For example, they are non-infectious, meaning they do not contain live or attenuated viruses, which makes them safer for certain populations such as immunocompromised individuals. Additionally, virosomes can be engineered to target specific cells in the body, leading to more efficient uptake and presentation of antigens to the immune system.

Virosome-based vaccines have been developed for a variety of diseases, including influenza, hepatitis A, and HIV. While they are not yet widely used, they show promise as a safe and effective alternative to traditional vaccine approaches.

... , or chicken pox, also known as varicella, is a highly contagious, vaccine-preventable disease caused by the initial ... "Chickenpox vaccine FAQs". 23 January 2019. "Live Attenuated Varicella Vaccine: Prevention of Varicella and of Zoster". 30 ... girl with a chickenpox rash on her torso Lower leg of a child with chickenpox A child with chickenpox A child with chickenpox ... In the UK as of 2014, the vaccine is only recommended in people who are particularly vulnerable to chickenpox. This is to keep ...
"Bill Proposes Mandatory Chickenpox Vaccine." The Columbus Dispatch. February 16, 2000. 6B. ^ . James C. Benton. "Senator ... introducing legislation in 2000 to require all children twelve and under to be vaccinated against chicken pox.[12] Johnson ...
This vaccine has shown to be immunogenic and safe in adults with human immunodeficiency virus. Chickenpox-like rashes were ... In 1974 the first chickenpox vaccine was introduced. The varicella zoster virus was first isolated by Evelyn Nicol while she ... It causes chickenpox (varicella) commonly affecting children and young adults, and shingles (herpes zoster) in adults but ... A live attenuated VZV Oka/Merck strain vaccine is available and is marketed in the United States under the trade name Varivax. ...
Out of 152 students at the school, 110 had not received the Varicella vaccine that protects against chickenpox. The United ... "NC DPH, WCH: Immunization: Family: Vaccines: Varicella (Chickenpox)". www.immunize.nc.gov. North Carolina DPH. Archived from ... In US states where nonmedical vaccine exemption is legal, 2015 reports showed Waldorf schools as having a high rate of vaccine ... "Vaccine deniers: inside the dumb, dangerous new fad". The Verge. Archived from the original on 3 December 2018. Retrieved 3 ...
Michiaki Takahashi, 85, Japanese virologist (chickenpox vaccine), heart failure. Uthradom Thirunal Marthanda Varma, 91, Indian ... Marshall Michiaki Takahashi, 85, Who Tamed Chickenpox, Dies Travancore bids adieu to its maharaja OUD-International Arie ...
"Superdrug becomes first high street retailer to offer chickenpox vaccine". Manchester Evening News. 12 July 2017. Retrieved 12 ... It became the first high street retailer in the United Kingdom to offer chickenpox vaccination in 58 of its shops, at a cost of ...
... chickenpox) vaccine, has been proposed as a replacement for the MMR vaccine to simplify administration of the vaccines. ... The MMRV vaccine, which also covers chickenpox, may be used instead. An MR vaccine, without coverage for mumps, is also ... "Measles virus vaccine / mumps virus vaccine / rubella virus vaccine (M-M-R II) Use During Pregnancy". Drugs.com. 16 October ... Vaccine. 30 (48): 6731-6733. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.08.075. PMID 22975026. "Vaccines and porcine gelatine" (PDF). Public ...
... , also known as chickenpox vaccine, is a vaccine that protects against chickenpox. One dose of vaccine ... Another vaccine, known as zoster vaccine, is simply a larger-than-normal dose of the same vaccine used against chickenpox, and ... Chickenpox, Live vaccines, Vaccines, Merck & Co. brands, World Health Organization essential medicines (vaccines), Wikipedia ... The vaccine is available either by itself or along with the MMR vaccine, in a version known as the MMRV vaccine. It is made ...
Yetter, Deborah; Loftus, Tom (March 20, 2019). "Bevin exposed his 9 kids to chickenpox, says vaccine not for everyone". ... Bevin said in an interview that he deliberately exposed all nine of his children to chickenpox so they would "catch the disease ...
... risk can be reduced in children by the chickenpox vaccine if the vaccine is administered before the individual gets ... S2CID 184486904.*Lay summary in: "Two-for-One: Chickenpox Vaccine Lowers Shingles Risk in Children". Scientific American. 11 ... Shingles vaccines reduce the risk of shingles by 50% to 90%, depending on the vaccine used. Vaccination also decreases rates of ... concluded that since the introduction of the chickenpox vaccine, hospitalization costs for complications of shingles increased ...
Hilleman also developed the first Hepatitis B vaccine and the first varicella vaccine, for chickenpox. The company was ... "vaccine farms", and the beginnings of the vaccine industry". Vaccine. 38 (30): 4773-4779. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.05.037. ... "vaccine farms", and the beginnings of the vaccine industry". Vaccine. 38 (30): 4773-4779. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.05.037. ... an HPV vaccine that had $3.9 billion in 2020 revenue; Varivax, a varicella vaccine used to protect against chickenpox that had ...
... vaccine Chickenpox vaccine (varicella) COVID-19 vaccine Diphteria vaccine, included in the DPT vaccine Influenza (flu) vaccine ... pentavalent and hexavalent vaccines Pneumococcus vaccine Polio vaccine, included in the hexavalent vaccine Rabies vaccines ... included in the MMR vaccine Meningococcus vaccine Mumps vaccine, included in the MMR vaccine Pertussis (whooping cough) vaccine ... Initially, the vaccines consisted of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, oral polio vaccine (OPV), measles vaccine (MV) and ...
The chickenpox vaccine is approved for infants to prevent chickenpox, which also protects against PHN from a herpes zoster ... The chickenpox vaccine is approved for infants to prevent chickenpox, which also protects against PHN from a herpes zoster ... The varicella vaccine is approved for infants to prevent chickenpox, which also protects against PHN from a herpes zoster ... with two vaccines approved for use in people over age 50. The zoster vaccine Shingrix provides around 90% protection from ...
... chickenpox) vaccines. Below is the list of measles-containing vaccines: Measles vaccine (standalone vaccine) Measles and ... a combination with the rubella vaccine and mumps vaccine) or the MMRV vaccine (a combination of MMR with the chickenpox vaccine ... MR vaccine) Mumps, measles and rubella combined vaccine (MMR vaccine) Mumps, measles, rubella and varicella combined vaccine ( ... MMRV vaccine) Most health insurance plans in the United States cover the cost of vaccines, and Vaccines for Children Program ...
it is a member of the Vaccine Safety Net. 1995 - Kiwanis International Award and $10,000 grant for "bringing attention to early ... including chickenpox, whooping cough, and HPV. VYF has partnered with such groups as the American Nurses Association, Parents ... Braff, Danielle (May 7, 2014). "HPV vaccines still face uphill battle: An STD association may obscure the fact that these shots ... p. 2. Szabo, Liz (January 6, 2010). "Vaccine gaps cause outbreaks: missed shots weaken 'herd immunity,' and other children can ...
Zostavax (Merck), in use since 2006, is an attenuated vaccine which consists of a larger-than-normal dose of chickenpox vaccine ... The live vaccine (Zostavax) is very safe; one to a few percent of people develop a mild form of chickenpox, often with about ... of Medicare Part D vaccine spending was for the zoster vaccine. 5.8 million vaccine doses were administered to Part D ... A zoster vaccine is a vaccine that reduces the incidence of herpes zoster (shingles), a disease caused by reactivation of the ...
... chickenpox) vaccines. Below is the list of measles-containing vaccines: Rubella vaccine (standalone vaccine) Measles and ... measles and mumps vaccine (MMR vaccine) and measles, mumps and varicella vaccine (MMRV vaccine). A rubella vaccine was first ... MR vaccine) Measles, mumps and rubella combined vaccine (MMR vaccine) Measles, mumps, rubella and varicella combined vaccine ( ... The rubella vaccine is a live attenuated vaccine. It is available either by itself or in combination with other vaccines. ...
This enabled the development of vaccines against influenza, chicken pox, smallpox, yellow fever, typhus, Rocky mountain spotted ... Many vaccines for infectious diseases are produced in fertile chicken eggs. The basis of this technology was the discovery in ...
This enabled the development of vaccines against influenza, chicken pox, smallpox, yellow fever, typhus, Rocky mountain spotted ... This technique made possible the development and production of a wide range of vaccines against viral diseases. Goodpasture was ... Ernest Goodpasture Dead; Developed Vaccine for Mumps: Pathologist's Chicken Embryo Virus Led to Immunization Against Many ... development of antiviral vaccines, and studies of rickettsial, fungal, and protozoan human diseases. In a major advance, he ...
Live or attenuated vaccines, including the MMR vaccine (measles, mumps, rubella), varicella vaccine (chickenpox), and zoster ... In addition to medications, most inactivated vaccines, including the influenza vaccine, are given as an IM injection. ... "Administer the Vaccine(s)". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2017-09-01. Retrieved 2017-11-15. Taylor CR, ... Wolicki E, Weinbaum C, Weaver D (2017-10-04). "Pinkbook: Vaccine Administration: Epidemiology of VPDs". Centers for Disease ...
When evaluating a vaccine against chickenpox, it is necessary to define whether or not the endpoint would include shingles due ... If evaluating a HIV vaccine, the NNV may vary depending upon the expected standard of care in the absence of a vaccine, which ... Vaccine. 22 (17-18): 2192-2198. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2003.11.052. PMID 15149776. Brisson M (2008). "Estimating the number ... Vaccine. 22 (23-24): 3154-65. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.01.067. PMID 15297068. (Articles with short description, Short ...
Before the chickenpox vaccine became available, 100 to 150 children in the U.S. died from chickenpox annually. In the UK, ... While chickenpox parties are still held today, they are far less common than before the chickenpox vaccine was introduced.[ ... "Vaccine Safety". Vaccine.gov. US National Vaccine Program Office. Archived from the original on March 13, 2019. Retrieved ... The chickenpox vaccine is now recommended by health officials, citing vastly superior safety when compared with infection. Some ...
Vaccines for polio, measles, mumps, rubella, and chickenpox are currently made in cell cultures. Due to the H5N1 pandemic ... The injectable polio vaccine developed by Jonas Salk was one of the first products mass-produced using cell culture techniques ... This vaccine was made possible by the cell culture research of John Franklin Enders, Thomas Huckle Weller, and Frederick ... "Quickie Bird Flu Vaccine Created". Wired. Reuters. 26 January 2006. Retrieved 31 January 2010. Gao W, Soloff AC, Lu X, ...
The basic vaccination scheme for the entire population was extended, through the incorporation of four new vaccines for ... children: chickenpox, pneumococcus, pertussis, and rotavirus. In April 2010, Law 8809 was passed, creating the National ...
In 1984, the vaccine was certified by the WHO as the most suitable chickenpox vaccine, and in 1986, the Japanese Ministry of ... best known for inventing the first chickenpox vaccine. He developed the "Oka" vaccine by producing v-Oka, a live-attenuated ... First Person: 'I created the vaccine for chickenpox' NYTimes obituary v t e (CS1 Japanese-language sources (ja), CS1 maint: ... Michiaki Takahashi, developer of first chickenpox vaccine". USA Today. Retrieved 17 February 2022. Takahashi, Dr. Michiaki ( ...
In contrast, the success of the live-attenuated chickenpox vaccine demonstrates that an appropriately live-attenuated α- ... Below is a list of vaccines that are no longer being pursued. One vaccine that was under trial was Herpevac, a vaccine against ... Profectus BioSciences intends to use its PBS Vax therapeutic vaccine technology to engineer a vaccine for HSV-2. The vaccine is ... Vaccine. 36 (20): 2842-2849. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.03.075. PMID 29655629. "Herpes Virus Mutant Points Towards New Vaccine ...
... vaccine with the addition of the chickenpox vaccine or varicella vaccine (V stands for varicella). The MMRV vaccine is ... Measles vaccine MMR vaccine Mumps vaccine Rubella vaccine Varicella vaccine "Measles virus vaccine / mumps virus vaccine / ... Chickenpox, Combination drugs, Combination vaccines, GSK plc brands, Live vaccines, Measles, Merck & Co. brands, Mumps, Rubella ... The MMRV vaccine, a combined MMR and varicella vaccine, simplifies administration of the vaccines. One 2008 study indicated a ...
... and chicken pox. After the vaccines were given, the child had developed erythema, swelling, and itch at the two sites, and the ... "Persistent localized hypertrichosis in a Caucasian child at sites of DTPa and chickenpox vaccination". Vaccine. 38 (21): 3808- ... doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.03.051. PMID 32280044. S2CID 215750787. Akoglu G, Emre S, Metin A, Bozkurt M (2012). "High frequency ... In 2020, a case study reported that a Caucasian child developed two patches of hypertrichosis at the sites of vaccine injection ...
... essentially a larger-dose chickenpox vaccine) and the protein subunit Shingrix. Treatments for Ramsay Hunt syndrome type 2 are ... "Shingles (Herpes Zoster) - Get the new shingles vaccine if you are 50 or older". CDC. 2019-07-02. Retrieved 15 June 2022. ... Shingles is prevented by immunizing against the causal virus, varicella zoster, using a zoster vaccine. Vaccination is ... Two versions of the vaccine are available, the live attenuated Zostavax (now discontinued in the US, ...
Other vaccines containing live viruses include measles, mumps, rubella, polio and chickenpox. The vaccine is administered using ... Smallpox vaccine development is now in its second generation. First-generation vaccines were derived from calf-lymph, and ... "Vaccine Basics , Smallpox , CDC". www.cdc.gov. 2017-07-13. Retrieved 2018-09-08. "Vaccine Safety , Smallpox , CDC". www.cdc.gov ... "Questions about Vaccines - ACAM2000 (Smallpox Vaccine) Questions and Answers". www.fda.gov. Retrieved 2018-09-08. "About ...
"Varicella (chickenpox) vaccine: What you need to know" (PDF). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 30 December ... When a patient receives multiple vaccines in one visit or a combination vaccine, a VIS should be given for each vaccine or ... vaccine in 1976. Over the following decade, more than 50 ISSs were created for various vaccines. An increase in vaccine-related ... The Multi-Vaccine VIS can be used for children receiving DTaP, polio, Hib, hepatitis B, and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. ...
Vaccine: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Varicella vaccine can prevent varicella.. Varicella, also called "chickenpox," causes an itchy rash that usually lasts about a ... It doesnt happen often, but people can die from chickenpox.. Most people who are vaccinated with 2 doses of varicella vaccine ... Varicella vaccine may be given at the same time as other vaccines. Also, a child between 12 months and 12 years of age might ...
The chickenpox vaccine is safe and very effective. ... learn more about chickenpox and the vaccine that can prevent it ... The chickenpox shot is safe.. The chickenpox shot is safe, and it is effective at protecting against chickenpox. Vaccines, like ... Older children or adolescents should also get two doses of the chickenpox vaccine if they have never had chickenpox or were ... What is chickenpox?. Chickenpox is a disease that causes an itchy rash of blisters and a fever. A person with chickenpox may ...
The chickenpox vaccine is safe and very effective. ... learn more about chickenpox and the vaccine that can prevent it ... The chickenpox shot is safe.. The chickenpox shot is safe, and it is effective at protecting against chickenpox. Vaccines, like ... Older children or adolescents should also get two doses of the chickenpox vaccine if they have never had chickenpox or were ... What is chickenpox?. Chickenpox is a disease that causes an itchy rash of blisters and a fever. A person with chickenpox may ...
chicken pox vaccine. Popular posts. Category: Medical Research Cyclic sighing can help breathe away anxiety Stanford Medicine ... Stanford Medicine infectious disease expert Anne Liu provides guidance on the RSV, flu and new COVID-19 vaccines this fall. ...
Discover how Chickenpox is spread person to person. ... What is chickenpox vaccine? * History of chickenpox vaccine in ... Chickenpox lesions in a person previously vaccinated with the chickenpox vaccine may not always crust over.. ... IMPORTANT NOTE: NVIC encourages you to become fully informed about Chickenpox and the Chickenpox vaccine by reading all ... Individuals previously vaccinated with the chickenpox vaccine and who develop chickenpox are considered to be contagious until ...
His sons own experience with the highly contagious disease inspired the Japanese virologist to develop a vaccine. ... Google Doodle Celebrates Chickenpox Vaccine Pioneer Dr. Michiaki Takahashis 94th Birthday His sons own experience with the ... The Oka vaccine for the varicella virus that causes chickenpox was developed in 1974, and widespread vaccination began in Japan ... Nearly 60 years ago, a 3-year-old boy suffering from chickenpox inspired his father to create a vaccine to treat the highly ...
Chicken Pox combo vaccine), rather than the MMR and separate Chicken Pox vaccine, results in "slightly more" or more than ... months who received the MMRV vaccine and 314,599 children of the same age who received the MMR vaccine and chicken pox vaccine ... So CDC removes its preference for the MMRV vaccine, but does not change its preference to the MMR and separate chicken pox ... WASHINGTON (Reuters) - Children who get a combined vaccine against measles, mumps, rubella and chicken pox are slightly more ...
Choosing not to be immunized or delaying immunization puts you/your child at risk of getting sick with chickenpox. This vaccine ... This vaccine protects against chickenpox virus. This disease is easily prevented with immunization. ... Had a bad reaction to a vaccine or an ingredient in the vaccine, had a serious reaction to neomycin, porcine gelatine, or have ... What is chickenpox (varicella)?. *Highly contagious infection that causes an itchy rash or spots on the skin that look like ...
Most kids today will never know the misery of a bout of chicken pox because of the chicken pox vaccine, but it looks like all ... shingles vaccine, side effects, suppressed science, vaccine damage, vaccines, Varicella, varicella vaccine. This article may ... Tagged Under: adverse events, buried research, CDC, chicken pox, Chicken pox vaccine, Collusion, Cover-Up, disease causes, ... Chicken pox vaccine driving demand for the shingles vaccine. Not surprisingly, the CDCs answer to the rise in shingles is to ...
Varicella vaccine contains live, attenuated VZV. Single-antigen varicella vaccine is licensed for people aged ≥12 months, and ... For detailed information regarding the varicella vaccine, visit CDCs website, Chickenpox (Varicella) Vaccination. ... Compared with use of separate MMR and varicella vaccines at the same visit, use of the combination MMRV vaccine is associated ... Vaccine. CDC recommends administering postexposure varicella vaccine to unvaccinated healthy people aged ≥12 months without ...
... chickenpox); and the seasonal flu vaccine. Determine what specific vaccines are recommended for the destinations your patient ... For those who do not, administer measles-containing vaccine, primarily as the MMR vaccine. Infants 6-11 months of age who will ... Make sure your patients are up to date on all routine vaccines, including measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR); varicella ( ... Additional vaccine recommendations for international travelers are available on the CDC Measles website. ...
Most kids today will never know the misery of a bout of chicken pox because of the chicken pox vaccine, but it looks like all ... shingles vaccine, side effects, suppressed science, vaccine damage, vaccines, Varicella, varicella vaccine. This article may ... Tagged Under: adverse events, buried research, CDC, chicken pox, Chicken pox vaccine, Collusion, Cover-Up, disease causes, ... Chicken pox vaccine driving demand for the shingles vaccine. Not surprisingly, the CDCs answer to the rise in shingles is to ...
Chicken Pox Vaccine. by Tash Hughes of Word Constructions. Chicken pox is a mild viral disease, most commonly experienced by ... Like all vaccines, there are some minor side effects possible from the chicken pox vaccine. Various disadvantages to the ... v Chicken pox is itchy and uncomfortable. A study of children showed 7 out of 10 of them would prefer the vaccine to the ... The vaccine was developed in Japan over 25 years ago and has been thoroughly tested. It is a live attenuated vaccine; it ...
Chickenpox Vaccine Chickenpox is a highly contagious disease that is easily preventable with the use of a vaccine. ... Chickenpox Chickenpox is a highly contagious disease caused by a virus. It once was a common childhood disease until a vaccine… ... Childhood Vaccines: What They Are and Why Your Child Needs Them Most schools and daycares require certain childhood vaccines, ... COVID Vaccines for Young Children: What Parents Need to Know On December 8, 2022, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ...
... please dont take your healthy and happy child to a chickenpox party or any other party where they are exposed to a vaccine- ... Someone mentioned "Chickenpox parties" the other day, and while I had heard of that before, this time it really got me heated. ... Spare yourself from seeing them.) They werent photos of just the chicken pox (thats not the disturbing part), they were ... Taryn is a mother of two and a molecular biologist specializing in vaccines, infectious disease, and molecular medicine. ...
Chickenpox is caused by the varicella-zoster virus. Varicella is part of the herpes family of viruses. It causes an itchy rash ... Chickenpox vaccine is very safe and effective at preventing the disease. Most people who get the vaccine wont get chickenpox. ... A vaccine can prevent chickenpox. The best way to prevent chickenpox is to get the vaccine! ... A vaccine is your best protection against catching chickenpox. The CDC recommends two doses of the varicella vaccine for:. * ...
For chickenpox vaccine book online at our Private GP clinics in Birmingham. Established since 1998. Care Quality Commission ... Find out about chickenpox vaccine side-effects.. How is the chickenpox vaccine given?. The vaccine is given as two separate ... How does the chickenpox vaccine work?. The chickenpox vaccine contains a small amount of weakened live varicella zoster virus. ... vaccine provides protection against the varicella zoster virus that causes chickenpox.. The chickenpox vaccine is not part of ...
Home › Single/Bundled VaccinesChicken Pox. Chicken Pox. All links on this page provide information on Chicken Pox:. * ... Shingles vaccine and eye disorders The shingles vaccine is one of the most widely marketed vaccines on the market. It is ... The vaccine contains live varicella zoster virus - the chickenpox virus that also causes shingles. Once a person has had ... Shingles Vaccine Dangers Exposed In FDA Letter to Merck The CDC claims the shingles vaccine is safe, but a letter the FDA wrote ...
... vaccine protects against the chickenpox, a highly contagious disease affecting people of all ages. The disease is serious in ... Please call your preferred clinic prior to book your vaccine, and quote "Vaccinations E-health" and the selected vaccination. ... Varicella zoster is the virus that causes chicken pox and Shingles (a reactivation of the virus). Varicella is highly ... Those who have developed severe allergic reaction to any component of the vaccine , including neomycin should not receive the ...
rash after the chickenpox vaccine. Rash After the Chickenpox Vaccine. By Vincent Iannelli, MD / May 27, 2020 / attenuated ... vaccines, causal relationship, causation, chickenpox rash, coincidence, live vaccines, rash after the chickenpox vaccine, ... Vaccines Work. autism benefits Bobby Kennedy Bob Sears conspiracy theories COVID-19 vaccine herd immunity measles deaths ... What does it mean if you develop a rash after getting the chickenpox vaccine? ...
... contact our experienced vaccine injury lawyers today for a free consultation. We are here to help! ... If you believe you or a loved one has been affected by a chickenpox vaccine injury, ... What is the Chickenpox vaccine?. The Chickenpox vaccine is specifically designed to prevent Chickenpox. It is a live attenuated ... Serious complications from the Chickenpox Vaccine. In rare cases, the Chickenpox vaccine can cause serious complications such ...
Categories: Chickenpox Vaccine Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted ...
Research reveals that children receiving the chickenpox vaccine have an increased risk of shingles. Discover the danger of ... How dangerous is the chickenpox vaccine?. Other countries have been less willing to make chickenpox vaccines a part of ... Vaccine Safety and Contamination, Forced Childhood Vaccines, 10 flu vaccine dangers revealed, allergic reactions to vaccines ... This chickenpox vaccine became available in 1995. But, the vast majority of children who grew up before then, came through the ...
The chicken pox vaccine is a type of prophylactic that is used to protect people from chicken pox. The effectiveness of the... ... The chicken pox vaccine contains a weak form of the virus to help build antibodies. The schedule for giving chicken pox vaccine ... The chicken pox vaccine or varicella vaccine is a relatively recent addition to vaccines available in many parts of the world. ... A girl with chicken pox. However, there is a difference between the chicken pox and the shingles vaccine. The US Centers for ...
Shingles is caused by the chicken pox virus. A vaccine for shingles has been available since May 2006. Have you ever had the ...
Chickenpox can lead to a painful rash called shingles.. "I knew about the first vaccine but wasnt aware of the booster until ... Children should receive a second dose of chickenpox vaccine at four years of age. If a child is older than four and has not had ... An appointment just for the second dose of vaccine isnt necessary.. "Chickenpox is quite uncommon in 2007 but that is not a ... The chickenpox vaccines are covered by Medicaid and most insurance plans. Parents are encouraged to contact their insurance ...
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... commonly known in the United States as chickenpox, is caused by the varicella-zoster virus. The disease is generally regarded ... Before varicella vaccine use became widespread, 4 million cases of chickenpox were reported annually. National seroprevalence ... Since the varicella vaccine was introduced for children aged 12-18 months in the United States in 1995 and booster vaccine ... Vaccine-era varicella epidemiology and vaccine effectiveness in a public elementary school population, 2002-2007. Pediatrics. ...
  • Varicella, also called "chickenpox," causes an itchy rash that usually lasts about a week. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some people who get chickenpox get a painful rash called "shingles" (also known as herpes zoster) years later. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Chickenpox is a disease that causes an itchy rash of blisters and a fever. (cdc.gov)
  • Chickenpox can spread 1 to 2 days before the infected person gets a rash, and then doesn't stop spreading until all the blisters have formed scabs. (cdc.gov)
  • Less commonly, a person who lacks immunity to chickenpox can also develop the illness by coming into contact with a shingles rash. (nvic.org)
  • When the chickenpox rash occurs, it usually begins with raised red or pink itchy bumps (papules). (nvic.org)
  • As the rash appears over several days, chickenpox lesions can be simultaneously present on the body as papules, vesicles, and scabs. (nvic.org)
  • Chickenpox is considered contagious for 1 to 2 days prior to the onset of the rash and remains so until all lesions have become scabs. (nvic.org)
  • A person who has chickenpox can spread the disease one to two days before the rash begins. (wisconsin.gov)
  • The authors describe a 53-year-old woman with no known immunodeficiency who presented with diffuse pruritic rash 17 days after receiving the varicella virus vaccine live. (wisconsinforvaccinechoice.org)
  • What does it mean if you develop a rash after getting the chickenpox vaccine? (vaxopedia.org)
  • The hallmark symptom of Chickenpox is a red, itchy rash that usually begins on the chest, back, and face and then spreads to the rest of the body. (myvaccinelawyer.com)
  • Diagnosing Chickenpox is usually based on the characteristic symptoms of the disease, including the appearance of the rash and other symptoms like fever and headache. (myvaccinelawyer.com)
  • Chickenpox causes a rash, itching, fever and tiredness. (spectrumhealth.org)
  • Chickenpox can lead to a painful rash called shingles. (spectrumhealth.org)
  • Chickenpox can cause an itchy rash that usually lasts about a week. (kidshealthyhearts.net)
  • Sore arm from the injection, fever, or redness or rash where the shot is given can happen after varicella vaccine. (kidshealthyhearts.net)
  • The pruritic(itchy) rash of chickenpox is typically concentrated on the trunk and face and less so on the arms and legs (ie, centripetal distribution). (com.ng)
  • Though chickenpox is often a gentle an infection, kids have an itchy rash and sometimes have a fever which makes them really feel very depressing. (biruim.com)
  • Children with chickenpox should be kept home from school until the rash has crusted over. (healthychildren.org)
  • All have been diseases other than smallpox, most commonly chickenpox or other rash illnesses. (cdc.gov)
  • Shingle are a reactivation of the chickenpox virus in the body, causing a painful rash. (ipl.org)
  • Chickenpox is a highly contagious viral infection causing an itchy, blister-like rash on the skin. (ipl.org)
  • Chickenpox is a contagious infection that causes an itchy rash , fever, and fatigue. (healthline.com)
  • Chickenpox is a highly infectious disease that mostly affects children and can cause an itchy rash, blisters and fever. (wwlp.com)
  • Treatment of chickenpox includes use of pain medications and topical treatments for the itchy rash, blisters, and scabs. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • Chickenpox Chickenpox is a highly contagious viral infection with the varicella-zoster virus that causes a characteristic itchy rash, consisting of small, raised, blistered, or crusted spots. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Shingles Shingles is a painful skin rash caused by a viral infection that results from reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus, the virus that causes chickenpox. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Very occasionally, a chickenpox-like rash develops. (msdmanuals.com)
  • People who develop this rash after the vaccine should diligently avoid contact with people who have a weakened immune system until after the rash resolves. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Some vaccines may cause mild reactions, such as soreness where the shot was given, a rash, or a fever. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Pediatricians should be aware of the potential for reactivation of varicella vaccine derived from the Oka/Biken strain, which can cause aseptic meningitis in vaccinated children even in the absence of a skin rash. (bvsalud.org)
  • Chickenpox is very contagious . (cdc.gov)
  • Chickenpox (Varicella) is a highly contagious infection that is generally mild for most children. (nvic.org)
  • Individuals previously vaccinated with the chickenpox vaccine and who develop chickenpox are considered to be contagious until 24 hours following the final appearance of lesions. (nvic.org)
  • Previously vaccinated individuals who develop chickenpox are still contagious and can spread the infection to others. (nvic.org)
  • His son's own experience with the highly contagious disease inspired the Japanese virologist to develop a vaccine. (cnet.com)
  • Nearly 60 years ago, a 3-year-old boy suffering from chickenpox inspired his father to create a vaccine to treat the highly contagious disease. (cnet.com)
  • Chickenpox is a highly contagious disease caused by a virus. (familydoctor.org)
  • Chickenpox is a highly contagious disease that is easily preventable with the use of a vaccine. (familydoctor.org)
  • They are contagious until all their chickenpox blisters heal and form into scabs. (wisconsin.gov)
  • Chickenpox, or varicella, is a highly contagious viral infection caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV). (myvaccinelawyer.com)
  • Chickenpox, or chicken pox, also known as varicella, is a highly contagious, vaccine-preventable disease caused by the initial infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV), a member of the herpesvirus family. (wikipedia.org)
  • These symptoms of chickenpox appear 10 to 21 days after exposure to a contagious person. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chickenpox is contagious, meaning that somebody who has it can easily spread it to other people. (kidshealth.org)
  • Someone with chickenpox is most contagious during the first 2-5 days of being sick. (kidshealth.org)
  • A person with chickenpox is most contagious during the first 2 to 5 days of being sick. (akronchildrens.org)
  • Health care providers must report cases of chickenpox. (wisconsin.gov)
  • In 2013, there were 140 million cases of chickenpox and shingles worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • British experts have previously estimated there are more than 650,000 cases of chickenpox in England and Wales. (wwlp.com)
  • Roughly 350,000 cases of chickenpox occur in the U.S. annually. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • Also, a child between 12 months and 12 years of age might receive varicella vaccine together with MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella) vaccine in a single shot, known as MMRV. (medlineplus.gov)
  • WASHINGTON ( Reuters ) - Children who get a combined vaccine against measles, mumps, rubella and chicken pox are slightly more likely to have seizures compared to those getting two separate shots for the same diseases, U.S. officials said on Thursday. (blogspot.com)
  • The seizures are not usually life-threatening and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said it was no longer expressing a preference that children get the so-called MMRV combined vaccine rather than two shots -- the MMR vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella (German measles) and a separate one against varicella (chicken pox). (blogspot.com)
  • Sometimes it's combined with other vaccines to prevent measles , mumps, rubella, and varicella in a single shot, known as MMRV. (wisconsin.gov)
  • We experienced a similar phenomenon with the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine. (spectrumhealth.org)
  • A study published in 2008 concluded that optic neuritis is a rare complication from the vaccine for the measles-rubella (MR) vaccine. (allaboutvision.com)
  • Previously, live vaccines to guard against measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) have not been advised for patients that have received solid organ transplants, as there were concerns regarding the risk of vaccine strain infection in children that are immunocompromised. (renalinterventions.net)
  • It's a combination of the vaccines for measles , mumps , rubella , and varicella. (healthline.com)
  • In a statement, Britain's Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation said that children between 1 year and 18 months should be offered two doses of the vaccine, in a shot that also combines protection against measles, mumps and rubella. (wwlp.com)
  • The chicken pox vaccine, also known as the varicella vaccine, was added to the childhood vaccination schedule for babies aged 12 to 15 months in 1995. (dangerousmedicine.com)
  • Varivax (the vaccine for Varicella) was approved by the US Food and Drug Association in March 1995 and has been in use in Australia about as long. (wordconstructions.com.au)
  • This chickenpox vaccine became available in 1995. (naturalhealth365.com)
  • Since the varicella vaccine was introduced for children aged 12-18 months in the United States in 1995 and booster vaccine given at age 4-5 years, disease incidence has substantially decreased. (medscape.com)
  • Since its introduction in 1995 in the United States, the varicella vaccine has resulted in a decrease in the number of cases and complications from the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before the vaccine that protects against chickenpox became available in 1995, it was one of the most comon disease of childhood, affecting almost all children before the age of 9 years. (healthychildren.org)
  • the U.S. was the first country to introduce an immunization program against chickenpox in 1995. (wwlp.com)
  • A person with chickenpox may have as many as 500 blisters. (cdc.gov)
  • Chickenpox is transmitted through direct contact with or by inhaling particles from the chickenpox blisters. (nvic.org)
  • Vaccinated people who get chickenpox may develop blisters that don't scab. (wisconsin.gov)
  • If a vaccinated person does get chickenpox, the symptoms are usually milder with fewer or no blisters (they may have just red spots) and mild or no fever. (wisconsin.gov)
  • It can also be spread by contact with the fluid from the chickenpox blisters. (regentstreetclinic.co.uk)
  • The total number of chickenpox blisters is usually between 250 and 500. (regentstreetclinic.co.uk)
  • Avoid long-term scarring of the body from chickenpox blisters, which can occur in 18% of children - more than 40% of these children will have scarring on their face. (regentstreetclinic.co.uk)
  • The chickenpox virus can be spread from person to person through the air or by contact with fluid from chickenpox blisters. (spectrumhealth.org)
  • Those with shingles may spread chickenpox to those who are not immune through contact with the blisters. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chickenpox blisters are small and sit on an area of red skin that can be anywhere from the size of a pencil eraser to the size of a dime. (kidshealth.org)
  • Chickenpox blisters show up in waves. (kidshealth.org)
  • Chickenpox blisters itch, but you shouldn't scratch them. (kidshealth.org)
  • An expert scientific committee advising the British government said for the first time Tuesday Nov. 14, 2023 that children should be immunized with the chickenpox vaccine decades after the shots were made widely available in other rich countries, including the U.S., Canada and Australia. (wwlp.com)
  • In people with serious immune system problems, this vaccine may cause an infection that may be life-threatening. (medlineplus.gov)
  • After primary infection as varicella (chickenpox), VZV remains latent in the sensory-nerve ganglia and can reactivate later, causing herpes zoster (shingles). (cdc.gov)
  • Factors affecting scarring include age, skin colour and whether a separate skin infection also develops.1,3 Scarring resulting from chickenpox has been shown to occur in approximately 19% of children with an average of 3 scars per child.3 In many of these cases (40%) the scars are found on the face. (regentstreetclinic.co.uk)
  • Prevention of infection by vaccination is the optimum approach for the management of chickenpox. (regentstreetclinic.co.uk)
  • Chickenpox is a common childhood infection. (regentstreetclinic.co.uk)
  • Almost all children develop immunity to chickenpox after infection, so they usually only catch it once. (regentstreetclinic.co.uk)
  • Chickenpox can be very serious for an unborn baby when a pregnant woman catches the infection. (regentstreetclinic.co.uk)
  • The benefits of antiviral drugs for uncomplicated chickenpox infection are marginal and treatment may not be required. (com.ng)
  • At current, the vaccine, referred to as the varicella vaccination after the varicella zoster virus that causes the illness, is just accessible on the NHS for youngsters and adults who're in common or shut contact with individuals who might develop into severely sick with a chickenpox an infection or have weak point. (biruim.com)
  • Chickenpox an infection can even result in critical issues comparable to dangerous bacterial pores and skin infections and pneumonia. (biruim.com)
  • If your child has chickenpox and is feverish or uncomfortable, you may choose to give him appropriate doses of acetaminophen (keep in mind, however, that a fever helps the body fight off an infection). (healthychildren.org)
  • Chickenpox used to be a common infection in the United States. (healthline.com)
  • Coadministration with live attenuated vaccines may increase infection risk. (medscape.com)
  • When you get a vaccine, it sparks your immune system to create immune responses that help your body fight off infection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Repeat subclinical infection can occur in these persons, but second attacks of chickenpox are extremely rare in immunocompetent persons. (medscape.com)
  • Chickenpox is usually mild, but it can be serious in infants under 12 months of age, adolescents, adults, pregnant people, and people with a weakened immune system. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Older children, adolescents, and adults also need 2 doses of varicella vaccine if they are not already immune to chickenpox. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Complications from chickenpox can be serious and can occur in any person who develops chickenpox, although they are more common in healthy babies, adults, and people with weakened immune systems. (cdc.gov)
  • Before the vaccine was introduced, most adults were able to avoid getting shingles because their exposure in their communities to natural chicken pox regularly boosted their cell-mediated immunity to it. (dangerousmedicine.com)
  • He found that the vaccine was not only accelerating the recurrence of shingles among children who had naturally gotten chicken pox, but it was also boosting the chances of adults getting shingles. (dangerousmedicine.com)
  • Moreover, it's not terribly effective, with one study on adults over the age of 50 showing the vaccine is only 50 percent effective during the first year, and it has "no effect" five years after vaccination. (dangerousmedicine.com)
  • For adults, it is cost effective to have serum testing first to determine if the vaccine is required. (wordconstructions.com.au)
  • Chickenpox can be serious, especially for babies, adolescents, adults, pregnant women, and people with a lowered ability to fight germs and sickness (weakened immune system). (wisconsin.gov)
  • However, some deaths from chickenpox continue to occur in healthy, unvaccinated children and adults. (wisconsin.gov)
  • Adults who never had chickenpox and were never vaccinated. (wisconsin.gov)
  • Read about our Vaccines For Children and Vaccines For Adults programs. (wisconsin.gov)
  • In some cases, antiviral medications may be prescribed to treat Chickenpox, especially for people at high risk of developing complications, such as pregnant women, adults, and people with weakened immune systems. (myvaccinelawyer.com)
  • Today's adults are not likely to have received the chickenpox vaccine, so the exposure is actually re-exposure to the virus for most people. (naturalhealth365.com)
  • Fewer children with the actual chickenpox virus equates to fewer adults with the opportunity to be around the virus as adults. (naturalhealth365.com)
  • Researchers in Belgium recently published findings that showed when children within a population were vaccinated at about one year of age for chickenpox, there was double the incidence of shingles among adults aged 31 to 40. (naturalhealth365.com)
  • Those adults likely had chickenpox as children. (naturalhealth365.com)
  • But with far fewer children contracting chickenpox because of the vaccine, that effect would disappear, and unvaccinated adults would be at much higher risk of shingles. (naturalhealth365.com)
  • The chicken pox vaccine, though, may still cause some prevention of shingles in adults younger than 60. (thehealthboard.com)
  • Most adults vividly remember their childhood experience with the chickenpox. (spectrumhealth.org)
  • Persons especially adults with chickenpox must compulsory do an HIV test because it may be a point to sometime sinister. (com.ng)
  • For some infants, younger kids and even adults, chickenpox or its issues may be very critical, resulting in hospitalization and even dying," he mentioned. (biruim.com)
  • The proposal represents a shift in pondering: JCI beforehand warned that such a transfer might result in a rise in circumstances of shingles in adults, as a result of it will cut back the unfold of the chickenpox virus locally. (biruim.com)
  • The CDC recommends the varicella vaccine for almost all children, adolescents, and adults who've never had chickenpox. (healthline.com)
  • There are two varicella vaccines available in the U.S. One has clearance for use in children and adults, but the other has clearance for use as a children's vaccine. (healthline.com)
  • For some babies, young children and even adults, chickenpox or its complications can be very serious, resulting in hospitalization and even death," said Andrew Pollard, chair of the expert vaccine group in a statement. (wwlp.com)
  • Britain's National Health Service has long said that introducing the chickenpox vaccine might leave some adults vulnerable to shingles, if unvaccinated children catch the virus as adults, which can be more severe than chickenpox. (wwlp.com)
  • Experts noted, however, that Britain's government offers the shingles vaccine to adults at risk of the disease. (wwlp.com)
  • It is also recommended for all adolescents and adults who have not had chickenpox or the vaccine. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The diseases that vaccines prevent are often more serious for babies and young children than they are for adults. (webmd.com)
  • On December 8, 2022, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration authorized the updated (Bivalent) COVID-19 vaccine to include children 6 months and older. (familydoctor.org)
  • An advisory committee to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) voted on October 20, 2022, in favor of including the Wuhan coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccine in the recommended immunization schedule for children aged six months and over. (newstarget.com)
  • But data from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), which is under the CDC, showed that 57,622 children (aged 0 to 17) have suffered an injury because of COVID-19 vaccination as of September 29, 2022. (newstarget.com)
  • The report discovered that compared to the 2021-22 school year, vaccination coverage reduced the most for the DTaP vaccine, dropping in 31 states for the 2022-23 school year. (newstarget.com)
  • The CDC report also discovered that Idaho had the lowest percentage of children who were up to date for all four vaccines during the 2022-23 school year, while Mississippi had the highest percentage of up-to-date children. (newstarget.com)
  • Chickenpox is usually mild in children, but the itching can be very uncomfortable. (cdc.gov)
  • Chickenpox is a mild disease for many children, but not all. (cdc.gov)
  • While chickenpox is certainly uncomfortable and not an experience most of us would like to repeat, it's actually pretty mild when you look back on it. (dangerousmedicine.com)
  • However, there are people who believe the disease is mild enough to not worry and who doubt the usefulness of the vaccine. (wordconstructions.com.au)
  • A fever is often one of the first symptoms of Chickenpox and can range from mild to severe. (myvaccinelawyer.com)
  • Many people with chickenpox experience headaches, which can range from mild to severe. (myvaccinelawyer.com)
  • Other side effects caused by the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine are "mostly mild to moderate," according to a report published by the World Health Organisation (WHO). (allaboutvision.com)
  • In rare cases, some patients who've received the flu vaccine experienced mild symptoms like eye redness, eye pain and blurred vision. (allaboutvision.com)
  • Most children with chickenpox have relatively mild symptoms. (healthychildren.org)
  • Side effects of the varicella vaccine are typically mild and generally resolve on their own within a day or two. (healthline.com)
  • The varicella vaccine is very safe, and common side effects are mild. (msdmanuals.com)
  • So they could spread chickenpox without even knowing it! (kidshealth.org)
  • Direct contact with a chickenpox blister or the saliva from an infected person can spread chickenpox to other people. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • This vaccine protects against chickenpox virus. (bchu.org)
  • Incubation period: 10-21 days after exposure, symptoms of chickenpox appear. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • Getting infected with vaccine-preventable diseases can even lead to death. (thevaccinemom.com)
  • Autoimmune disease: In some cases, the chickenpox vaccine has been linked to developing autoimmune diseases such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis. (myvaccinelawyer.com)
  • It presents a comparison of COVID-19 vaccine formulations, updates of authorized and approved vaccines, updates on vaccines to other infectious diseases such as varicella, pneumococcus and hepatitis, and reminders of contraindications and precautions for vaccines covered. (cmelist.com)
  • August is National Immunization Awareness Month, which brings attention to the value of protecting yourself and your family from vaccine-preventable diseases like chickenpox and the flu. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Vaccines help control and sometimes get rid of diseases like measles or polio that in years past sickened or killed many people. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Vaccine research is a priority for the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It supports research to identify potential vaccines for a variety of emerging infectious diseases, including COVID-19, Zika virus, and HIV/AIDS. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Vaccines help control and sometimes get rid of diseases like measles or polio. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 2000 objective 20.1, which tracked the number of cases of vaccine-preventable diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • Some people who are vaccinated against chickenpox get shingles (herpes zoster) years later. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Almost anyone more than 13 years old can get two doses of the varicella vaccine. (healthline.com)
  • Two doses of the varicella vaccine usually give lifetime protection. (healthline.com)
  • So CDC removes its preference for the MMRV vaccine, but does not change it's preference to the MMR and separate chicken pox vaccine. (blogspot.com)
  • The CDC said a study examined the risk for febrile seizures seven to 10 days after vaccination among 43,353 children ages 12 months to 23 months who received the MMRV vaccine and 314,599 children of the same age who received the MMR vaccine and chicken pox vaccine administered separately. (blogspot.com)
  • Most kids today will never know the misery of a bout of chicken pox because of the chicken pox vaccine, but it looks like all of us could be paying a pretty big price for it in the form of shingles . (dangerousmedicine.com)
  • Author Gary S. Goldman is a former research analyst for the Los Angeles Department of Health, and he monitored the introduction of the chicken pox vaccine . (dangerousmedicine.com)
  • So, why then is there a vaccine for Chicken pox, and why is it recommended by health officials? (wordconstructions.com.au)
  • The chicken pox vaccine is 100% effective against the severe disease and 80-90 % effective against the disease in total. (wordconstructions.com.au)
  • Like all vaccines, there are some minor side effects possible from the chicken pox vaccine. (wordconstructions.com.au)
  • v 2% breakthrough rate this means that 2 out of every hundred vaccinated people actually develop chicken pox from the vaccine. (wordconstructions.com.au)
  • What is the Chicken Pox Vaccine? (thehealthboard.com)
  • The chicken pox vaccine or varicella vaccine is a relatively recent addition to vaccines available in many parts of the world. (thehealthboard.com)
  • This would suggest that people, who haven't had a case of chicken pox prior to reaching adulthood, should probably get the chicken pox vaccine. (thehealthboard.com)
  • The chicken pox vaccine contains a weak form of the virus to help build antibodies. (thehealthboard.com)
  • The schedule for giving chicken pox vaccine may vary. (thehealthboard.com)
  • There are some people that should not get the chicken pox vaccine. (thehealthboard.com)
  • To keep these numbers low, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends the chicken pox vaccine for almost anyone who has never had chickenpox or received the vaccine. (healthline.com)
  • The chicken pox vaccine is also called the varicella vaccine. (healthline.com)
  • Varicella (chicken pox) previously was not included as a vaccine-preventable disease. (cdc.gov)
  • The vaccine is currently only offered on the NHS to people who are in close contact with someone who is particularly vulnerable to chickenpox or its complications. (regentstreetclinic.co.uk)
  • People undergoing chemotherapy or radiation, who are pregnant, who have a moderate illness, who take steroids, or who have autoimmune conditions like lupus or HIV are advised to skip this vaccine too. (thehealthboard.com)
  • Vaccinated people who get chickenpox may develop lesions that do not form scabs. (cdc.gov)
  • Vaccinated people who get chickenpox might develop lesions that do not crust. (cdc.gov)
  • Other countries have been less willing to make chickenpox vaccines a part of childhood immunization programs. (naturalhealth365.com)
  • Dr. Gayatri Amirthalingam, deputy director of public health programs at Britain's Health Security Agency, said the new chickenpox vaccine recommendations would "help make chickenpox a problem of the past. (wwlp.com)
  • FILE - A chickenpox (also known as varicella) vaccine sits next to syringes and ready for a student at a free immunization clinic at a Seattle public school on Dec. 30, 2019, in Seattle. (wwlp.com)
  • People with serious immune system problems should not get varicella vaccine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Very rarely, these people may spread the vaccine virus to somebody who is not immune or has a weak immune system. (bchu.org)
  • v The vaccine is tolerated by immune people so there is no problem with receiving it if in doubt. (wordconstructions.com.au)
  • The vaccine causes your immune system to produce antibodies that will help protect against chickenpox. (regentstreetclinic.co.uk)
  • For example, if you were having chemotherapy treatment, it would be recommended that non-immune children close to you are given the chickenpox vaccination. (regentstreetclinic.co.uk)
  • The vaccine stimulates the body's immune system to produce protective antibodies against the virus. (myvaccinelawyer.com)
  • After contracting chickenpox in childhood, the virus remains dormant in the body, held in check by the body's immune system. (naturalhealth365.com)
  • Keep your youngster away from other children who have never had chickenpox or the chickenpox vaccine, especially children with weakened immune systems. (healthychildren.org)
  • Because the vaccine contains live virus, it is not given to pregnant women, people with a weakened immune system, or people with cancer of the bone marrow or lymphatic system. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A vaccine helps your immune system build the tools, called antibodies, it needs to fight viruses and bacteria that cause illnesses. (webmd.com)
  • The age when a vaccine works best in the immune system. (webmd.com)
  • anthrax immune globulin decreases effects of zoster vaccine recombinant by pharmacodynamic antagonism. (medscape.com)
  • Some people with weakened immune systems or those who are pregnant may not be able to get vaccines. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Two doses of the chickenpox shot are recommended for children by doctors as the best way to protect against chickenpox (varicella). (cdc.gov)
  • The chickenpox vaccine is not part of the routine childhood vaccination schedule. (regentstreetclinic.co.uk)
  • Helen Bedford, professor of kid well being at College Faculty London and co-author of the analysis, mentioned: "Including a vaccine to the UK vaccination schedule to guard kids from chickenpox can be welcomed by many mother and father. (biruim.com)
  • New research has found that almost three quarters of parents would support a chickenpox vaccine being added to the childhood vaccination schedule. (keele.ac.uk)
  • Stanford Medicine infectious disease expert Anne Liu provides guidance on the RSV, flu and new COVID-19 vaccines this fall. (stanford.edu)
  • Taryn is a mother of two and a molecular biologist specializing in vaccines, infectious disease, and molecular medicine. (thevaccinemom.com)
  • The chickenpox (varicella) virus is highly infectious and is usually spread in airborne droplets when an infected person coughs or sneezes. (regentstreetclinic.co.uk)
  • For example, infectious disease modelers at the Health Protection Agency in Britain have estimated that shingles could increase 30 to 50 percent in the adult population if childhood vaccination for chickenpox becomes widespread. (naturalhealth365.com)
  • Tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (Tdap ) - This is a follow-up shot to the DTaP vaccine kids get when they're younger. (webmd.com)
  • Chickenpox spreads easily from people with chickenpox to others who have never had the disease or never been vaccinated. (cdc.gov)
  • Some people with chickenpox experience muscle aches, joint pain, or general discomfort. (myvaccinelawyer.com)
  • People with chickenpox can pass it to others by coughing or sneezing, when tiny drops come out of their mouth and nose. (kidshealth.org)
  • However, the advantages of a second dose of varicella vaccine (VarV) in students who had received one dose before an outbreak and the potential benefits of EV at more than 5 days after exposure have not been fully evaluated. (bvsalud.org)
  • the patient received a single dose of varicella vaccine at 1 year of age. (bvsalud.org)
  • Certain groups of people, however, are at greater risk of serious complications from chickenpox. (regentstreetclinic.co.uk)
  • Common side effects of the flu vaccine include soreness, redness or swelling where the injection is given, along with headache, fever, nausea and muscle aches. (allaboutvision.com)
  • Moderna disclosed this Friday that it is developing vaccines against the herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella-zoster (VZV), which causes chickenpox, and another with applications for two types of cancer, based on messenger RNA (mRNA) technology. (iwebwire.com)
  • "We are committed to addressing latent viruses with the goal of avoiding lifelong medical illnesses with our mRNA vaccine programs," said Moderna CEO Stéphane Bancel, adding that more lines could soon be added to the current five. (iwebwire.com)
  • Inactivated or mRNA vaccines are not recommended within 2 weeks before teplizumab treatment, during treatment, or 6 weeks after completion of treatment. (medscape.com)
  • Takahashi, who had spent years studying the measles and polio viruses in Japan, was on a research fellowship in the mid-1960s at Baylor College of Medicine in Texas when his young son, Teruyuki, contracted chickenpox from a playmate. (cnet.com)
  • This was followed by decreasing coverage for the MMR vaccine in 29 states, the polio vaccine in 28 states, and the chickenpox vaccine in 25 states, all over the same time. (newstarget.com)
  • Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) - Four doses protect against polio. (webmd.com)
  • Infants 6-11 months of age who will be traveling internationally should receive one dose of MMR vaccine, although this dose does not count toward the routine Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices schedule. (medscape.com)
  • Did you know that there is now a chickenpox vaccine, and it is administered as a matter of routine to perfectly healthy one-year-old human beings? (johnlebon.com)
  • The vaccine to guard in opposition to chickenpox ought to develop into a routine vaccine for youngsters within the UK, authorities advisers mentioned, including that the transfer wouldn't solely cut back the variety of kids contracting the virus, but additionally cut back the variety of critical circumstances that might result in dying. (biruim.com)
  • The authors stated it was not clear whether the rise in exemptions is because there has been a surge in parents opposing routine childhood vaccines, or if they are opting for non-medical exemptions because they have obstacles that make it hard to vaccinate their children. (newstarget.com)
  • Routine wellness visits that include vaccines are another important way to protect your child's health. (webmd.com)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, American Academy of Family Physicians, and American Academy of Pediatrics strongly recommend children receive all vaccines according to the recommended vaccine schedule . (cdc.gov)
  • Determine what specific vaccines are recommended for the destinations your patient will be visiting by searching the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Destinations pages . (medscape.com)
  • This 2-hour CE discusses vaccine recommendations, as outlined in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Immunization Schedule. (cmelist.com)
  • If you think you experienced monkeypox exposure or that you are at high risk for monkeypox, there are vaccines available in health centers across the country. (healthline.com)
  • The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention describes chickenpox cases in the country as "rare," estimating there are fewer than 150,000 cases and 30 deaths every year. (wwlp.com)
  • For more information, see the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Chickenpox vaccine information statement . (msdmanuals.com)
  • That man was Dr. Michiaki Takahashi, and his vaccine is now used to protect millions of children all over the world from the disease. (cnet.com)
  • Michiaki Takahashi - Today's Google doodle commemorated the birth anniversary of Japanese virologist Dr. Michiaki Takahashi who was responsible for developing the first vaccine against chickenpox. (sharetechstudio.com)
  • Chickenpox is caused by the varicella-zoster virus. (wisconsin.gov)
  • You also can get chickenpox from people who have shingles, which is caused by the same varicella-zoster virus. (wisconsin.gov)
  • The chickenpox (varicella) vaccine provides protection against the varicella zoster virus that causes chickenpox. (regentstreetclinic.co.uk)
  • The chickenpox vaccine contains a small amount of weakened live varicella zoster virus. (regentstreetclinic.co.uk)
  • The vaccine contains live varicella zoster virus - the chickenpox virus that also causes shingles. (wisconsinforvaccinechoice.org)
  • Shingles virus is actually caused by reactivation in the body of the varicella-zoster virus, the same virus that causes chickenpox. (naturalhealth365.com)
  • Varicella, commonly known in the United States as chickenpox, is caused by the varicella-zoster virus . (medscape.com)
  • Shingles happens in individuals who have beforehand had chickenpox when the varicella zoster virus turns into lively within the physique. (biruim.com)
  • Varicella-zoster is the virus that causes chickenpox . (healthline.com)
  • If this happens, the varicella vaccine virus could be spread to an unprotected person. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Symptoms of chickenpox generally begin between 10- and 21-days following exposure to the virus and the illness typically lasts between 5 and 10 days. (nvic.org)
  • After five years of working with live but weakened versions of the virus in animal and human cells, he'd developed an early version of the vaccine that was ready for clinical trials. (cnet.com)
  • The Oka vaccine for the varicella virus that causes chickenpox was developed in 1974, and widespread vaccination began in Japan and other countries in 1986. (cnet.com)
  • Approved in 2006, the vaccine uses a live virus. (wisconsinforvaccinechoice.org)
  • Once a person has had chickenpox, the virus remains dormant in their body. (wisconsinforvaccinechoice.org)
  • There is documented evidence that exposure to children who are suffering from chickenpox helps give a boost to adult immunity to the virus re-emerging as shingles. (naturalhealth365.com)
  • In addition to concern over higher incidence of shingles during adulthood, there are concerns over live virus vaccines causing potentially dangerous vaccine-strain infections. (naturalhealth365.com)
  • Plus, let's not forget, there is growing evidence that immunity to the virus - brought about by the vaccine - can be short-lived. (naturalhealth365.com)
  • Moderna, which at the moment only has the vaccine against covid-19 approved, explained that the serum understudy for the herpes simplex virus is aimed at the HSV-2 type, which mainly infects the genitals, with the idea that it offers cross-protection. (iwebwire.com)
  • Chickenpox virus or varicella zooster virus (VZV) is a dermotropic (skin loving) and neutropic ( nervous system loving) virus that produces primary infect, usually in childhood, which may reactivate in later life. (com.ng)
  • chickenpox virus is spread via aerosols, droplets and direct contact. (com.ng)
  • A study led by researchers at the University of Toronto and the University of Manitoba has brought science one step closer to using the chickenpox virus to develop a vaccine against HIV. (aau.edu)
  • These drops are full of the chickenpox virus. (kidshealth.org)
  • Before you know it, the chickenpox virus has infected someone new. (kidshealth.org)
  • Smallpox vaccine (vaccinia virus) is a highly effective immunizing agent against smallpox. (cdc.gov)
  • CDC provides smallpox vaccine to protect laboratory workers occupationally exposed to smallpox virus and other closely related orthopox viruses (14). (cdc.gov)
  • After someone have the virus chickenpox they have a 1 in 3 change of getting shingles. (ipl.org)
  • It's also the same virus that causes chickenpox (varicella). (ipl.org)
  • A different virus causes monkeypox, so you'll need a different vaccine to teach your body to clear it. (healthline.com)
  • Includes an educational card with fascinating science and history facts about the Chickenpox varicella virus. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • Six deaths were caused by the chickenpox virus in 2007. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • The varicella vaccine contains weakened, live varicella virus. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Chickenpox lesions in a person previously vaccinated with the chickenpox vaccine may not always crust over. (nvic.org)
  • Varicella (chickenpox) is now a vaccine-preventable disease and has been included in the infant immunization schedule in many parts of the world [1,2]. (who.int)
  • Local safety organisations are investigating this among other rare allergic reactions to the coronavirus vaccine produced by Pfizer and BioNTech. (allaboutvision.com)
  • This is much less common after vaccination than after chickenpox disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some people who have been vaccinated against chickenpox can still get the disease, called breakthrough chickenpox. (cdc.gov)
  • The disease spreads mainly through close contact with someone who has chickenpox or shingles. (cdc.gov)
  • When your child gets the chickenpox shots, he or she is getting immunity from chickenpox without the risk of serious complications of the disease. (cdc.gov)
  • A study of children showed 7 out of 10 of them would prefer the vaccine to the disease. (wordconstructions.com.au)
  • v The vaccine reduces the effect of the disease if is caught anyway. (wordconstructions.com.au)
  • Likewise, having the vaccine within days of exposure may reduce the severity of the disease in that child, if not prevent it entirely. (wordconstructions.com.au)
  • In the past, some parents held "chickenpox parties" to expose their unvaccinated children to a child with chickenpox in hopes that they would get the disease. (wisconsin.gov)
  • Chickenpox vaccine is very safe and effective at preventing the disease. (wisconsin.gov)
  • Chickenpox is a communicable disease. (wisconsin.gov)
  • It should, however, be remembered that no vaccine is 100% effective in preventing disease and that vaccination in children under the age of 1 year is an unlicensed use of the vaccine reserved for exceptional circumstances. (regentstreetclinic.co.uk)
  • Four students at Washington Academic Middle School (California) are home with chickenpox - and each had previously had vaccinations to prevent getting the disease. (wisconsinforvaccinechoice.org)
  • Are vaccines actually weaken our ability to prevent disease? (naturalhealth365.com)
  • Chickenpox is usually a benign disease in children, and almost all children recover uneventfully. (medscape.com)
  • Chickenpox is an airborne disease which easily spreads via human-to-human transmission, typically through the coughs and sneezes of an infected person. (wikipedia.org)
  • As uncomfortable as chickenpox may be, the disease clears up completely without complications in most children. (healthychildren.org)
  • The AAP recommends a first dose of the chickenpox vaccine at 12 to 15 months of age for all healthy youngsters who have never had the disease. (healthychildren.org)
  • Until your child reaches his first birthday, the best way to protect him from chickenpox is to keep him away from children with the active disease. (healthychildren.org)
  • Two doses of the vaccine offer more than 90% protection against the disease. (wwlp.com)
  • GIANTmicrobes Chickenpox provides a hands-on-way to learn all about this disease, how it impacts your health and how to avoid it. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • So if you're exposed to the disease right before or right after getting the vaccine for it, you could still get sick. (webmd.com)
  • Meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4) - This protects against four types of meningococcal bacteria that causes meningitis, a disease that affects the brain and spinal cord. (webmd.com)
  • Meningococcal b vaccine -- The MenB shot protects against a fifth type of meningococcal bacterium (called type B). It is fairly new and is recommended for 16 years and older who are at increased risk for meningococcal disease. (webmd.com)
  • This study evaluated the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of EV in preventing disease development during a varicella outbreak in Shanghai, China, in 2020. (bvsalud.org)
  • Adverse reactions should be reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The CDC said it made the change after seeing evidence that children who got the combined MMRV vaccine faced an elevated, but still very small, risk of suffering febrile seizures after vaccination compared to those who got the two shots. (blogspot.com)
  • Older children or adolescents should also get two doses of the chickenpox vaccine if they have never had chickenpox or were never vaccinated. (cdc.gov)
  • Children who get chickenpox can miss about a week of school or child care. (cdc.gov)
  • In Australia, the vaccine is on the schedule of immunisations recommended for all children, but it isn t funded by the Government. (wordconstructions.com.au)
  • The best way to protect infants and children against chickenpox is to get them vaccinated. (wisconsin.gov)
  • Find out if you and your children are up to date on vaccines to prevent chickenpox. (wisconsin.gov)
  • The vaccine can be administered to healthy children 9 months of age and older. (regentstreetclinic.co.uk)
  • Loss of appetite is a common symptom of Chickenpox, especially in children. (myvaccinelawyer.com)
  • The chickenpox vaccine is now routinely given to children before they start school. (thehealthboard.com)
  • The AAP is now recommending that children should receive a second dose of chickenpox vaccine at age four. (spectrumhealth.org)
  • Up to 10 percent of children do not respond to the first vaccine, leaving them vulnerable to acquiring chickenpox," said William Stratbucker, MD, pediatrician, Helen DeVos Children's Hospital. (spectrumhealth.org)
  • Evidence suggests that if we give a second chickenpox vaccine we will "catch" some of the non-responders and reduce the percentage of vulnerable children. (spectrumhealth.org)
  • I am one of five children and remember the chickenpox sweeping through our house growing up. (spectrumhealth.org)
  • Children should get the first dose of chickenpox vaccine between 12 and 18 months of age. (spectrumhealth.org)
  • Children should receive a second dose of chickenpox vaccine at four years of age. (spectrumhealth.org)
  • medical citation needed] Chickenpox is rarely fatal, although it is generally more severe in adult men than in women or children. (wikipedia.org)
  • While COVID-19 vaccines haven't been tied to serious vision issues, researchers have detected eye problems in a number of children infected with COVID. (allaboutvision.com)
  • The cohort included 281 children on chronic immunosuppressive medications with a median age of 8.9 years at the time of the first post-transplant vaccine. (renalinterventions.net)
  • Most children with chickenpox do not need to be seen by a pediatrician. (healthychildren.org)
  • The CDC encourages that children receive their first dose of the varicella vaccine when they are between 12 and 15 months old and their second dose when they are between 4 and 6 years old. (healthline.com)
  • This vaccine is for use in children under 12 years old. (healthline.com)
  • The Pfizer vaccine has triggered the hospitalization of 13,636 children, while the Moderna vaccine caused 1,001, and the Janssen vaccine 62. (newstarget.com)
  • The Pfizer vaccine has almost killed or permanently disabled 1,073 children, the Moderna vaccine 119 children, and the Janssen vaccine four children. (newstarget.com)
  • The Pfizer vaccine has killed at least 143 children, while the Moderna vaccine has killed at least 20 children. (newstarget.com)
  • LONDON (AP) - An expert scientific committee advising the British government recommended for the first time Tuesday that children should be immunized with the chickenpox vaccine - decades after the shots were made widely available in other countries, including the U.S., Canada and Australia. (wwlp.com)
  • In 2010, 90% of children under three years old received the vaccine for chickenpox. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • Children should get 2 doses of the vaccine starting at age 1. (webmd.com)
  • But keep in mind that there's lots of evidence that the vaccine schedule recommended by the CDC is the best for children. (webmd.com)
  • Below the proposal, all kids can be supplied two doses of the vaccine - one at 12 months and one at 18 months - whereas suggestions additionally embrace offering a short lived catch-up program for older kids. (biruim.com)
  • Chickenpox was not separated from smallpox until the late 19th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • These revised ACIP recommendations on smallpox vaccine update the previous recommendations (MMWR 1980;29:417-20) to include current information on the changes in the International Health Regulations and the ending of distribution of smallpox vaccine to civilians. (cdc.gov)
  • The basic recommendation is unchanged--smallpox vaccine is only indicated for civilians who are laboratory workers occupationally exposed to smallpox or other closely related orthopox viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • The judicious use of smallpox vaccine has eradicated smallpox. (cdc.gov)
  • Misuse of smallpox vaccine to treat herpes infections has been associated with severe complications (9-11). (cdc.gov)
  • Smallpox vaccine should never be used therapeutically. (cdc.gov)
  • In May 1983, the only active, licensed producer of smallpox vaccine in the United States discontinued distribution of smallpox vaccine to civilians (13). (cdc.gov)
  • As a result, smallpox vaccine is no longer available to civilians. (cdc.gov)
  • In 1767, English doctor William Heberden first distinguished chickenpox from smallpox. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • For those who do not, administer measles-containing vaccine, primarily as the MMR vaccine. (medscape.com)
  • As with any medicine, there is a very remote chance of a vaccine causing a severe allergic reaction, other serious injury, or death. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The chickenpox vaccine prevents almost all cases of severe illness. (wisconsin.gov)
  • Allergic reactions: Severe allergic reactions can occur in some individuals who receive the chickenpox vaccine. (myvaccinelawyer.com)
  • Due to the severe itching, the skin becomes secondarily infected from scratching and this is the most common complications of primary chickenpox. (com.ng)
  • Chickenpox within 5 days of delivery leads to severe neonatal varicella with involvement of the internal organs and bleeding. (com.ng)