Chicken anemia virus: The type species of GYROVIRUS, a small, non-enveloped DNA virus originally isolated from contaminated vaccines in Japan. It causes chicken infectious anemia and may possibly play a key role in hemorrhagic anemia syndrome, anemia dermatitis, and blue wing disease.Gyrovirus: A genus in the family CIRCOVIRIDAE comprising the single species CHICKEN ANEMIA VIRUS.Circoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the CIRCOVIRIDAE.Infectious Anemia Virus, Equine: A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus equine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, EQUINE), causing acute and chronic infection in horses. It is transmitted mechanically by biting flies, mosquitoes, and midges, and iatrogenically through unsterilized equipment. Chronic infection often consists of acute episodes with remissions.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Poultry Diseases: Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Reticuloendotheliosis, Avian: A group of pathologic syndromes found in avian species caused by RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUS. The distinct syndromes include non-neoplastic runting, acute neoplastic disease, and chronic neoplastic disease. Humans and mammals appear resistant.Equine Infectious Anemia: Viral disease of horses caused by the equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV; INFECTIOUS ANEMIA VIRUS, EQUINE). It is characterized by intermittent fever, weakness, and anemia. Chronic infection consists of acute episodes with remissions.Anemia: A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Isavirus: A genus in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE containing one species: Infectious salmon anemia virus.Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.Dissertations, Academic as Topic: Dissertations embodying results of original research and especially substantiating a specific view, e.g., substantial papers written by candidates for an academic degree under the individual direction of a professor or papers written by undergraduates desirous of achieving honors or distinction.Malaysia: A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)Libraries, Digital: Libraries in which a major proportion of the resources are available in machine-readable format, rather than on paper or MICROFORM.Nuclear Export Signals: Specific amino acid sequences present in the primary amino acid sequence of proteins which mediate their export from the CELL NUCLEUS. They are rich in hydrophobic residues, such as LEUCINE and ISOLEUCINE.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Pest Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous plants, insects, or other animals. This includes control of plants that serve as habitats or food sources for animal pests.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Nose Diseases: Disorders of the nose, general or unspecified.Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Dosage Forms: Completed forms of the pharmaceutical preparation in which prescribed doses of medication are included. They are designed to resist action by gastric fluids, prevent vomiting and nausea, reduce or alleviate the undesirable taste and smells associated with oral administration, achieve a high concentration of drug at target site, or produce a delayed or long-acting drug effect.Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.EthersRivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Famous PersonsHistory, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Hallucinations: Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with MENTAL DISORDERS.History, 16th Century: Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.Molecular Farming: The large scale production of pharmaceutically important and commercially valuable RECOMBINANT PROTEINS.Vaccines, Edible: Vaccines or candidate vaccines derived from edible plants. Transgenic plants (PLANTS, TRANSGENIC) are used as recombinant protein production systems and the edible plant tissue functions as an oral vaccine.Coleus: A plant genus of the family Lamiaceae. The species of Coleus should be distinguished from PLECTRANTHUS BARBATUS - which is also known as Coleus forskohlii.NebraskaFellowships and Scholarships: Stipends or grants-in-aid granted by foundations or institutions to individuals for study.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Circoviridae: A family of very small viruses containing circular, single-stranded DNA and possessing no envelope. The modes of transmission are not known.Wasting Syndrome: A condition of involuntary weight loss of greater then 10% of baseline body weight. It is characterized by atrophy of muscles and depletion of lean body mass. Wasting is a sign of MALNUTRITION as a result of inadequate dietary intake, malabsorption, or hypermetabolism.Circovirus: A genus of the family CIRCOVIRIDAE that infects SWINE; PSITTACINES; and non-psittacine BIRDS. Species include Beak and feather disease virus causing a fatal disease in psittacine birds, and Porcine circovirus causing postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in pigs (PORCINE POSTWEANING MULTISYSTEMIC WASTING SYNDROME).Porcine Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome: A worldwide emerging disease of weaned piglets first recognized in swine herds in western Canada in 1997. This syndrome is characterized by progressive weight loss, rapid (tachypnea) and difficult (dyspnea) breathing, and yellowing of skin. PMWS is caused by PORCINE CIRCOVIRUS infection, specifically type 2 or PCV-2.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)

The viral protein Apoptin induces apoptosis in UV-C-irradiated cells from individuals with various hereditary cancer-prone syndromes. (1/58)

Apoptin, a protein derived from chicken anemia virus, has previously been shown to induce apoptosis in a p53-independent and Bcl-2-stimulated manner in transformed and tumorigenic human cells but not in normal diploid human cells, suggesting that it is a potential agent for tumor therapy. Here we report that Apoptin can induce apoptosis in UV-C-irradiated diploid skin fibroblasts from individuals with various hereditary cancer-prone syndromes that are characterized by a germ-line mutation in a tumor suppressor gene. The same effect is found when these cells are irradiated with X-rays. In contrast, diploid skin fibroblasts from healthy donors or from individuals with DNA repair disorders are not responsive to Apoptin-induced apoptosis upon UV-C or X-ray irradiation. After transfection of untreated cells, Apoptin is found predominantly in the cytoplasm, whereas in UV-C-exposed Apoptin-responsive cancer-prone cells, it migrates to the nucleus, where it causes rapid apoptosis. Apoptin remains localized in the cytoplasm after UV-C treatment of diploid cells from healthy individuals. The induction of apoptosis by Apoptin in cancer-prone cells with a germ-line mutation in a tumor suppressor gene is UV dose-dependent and transient, just like many other UV-induced processes. These results suggest that Apoptin may be used as a diagnostic tool for detection of individuals with an increased risk for hereditary cancer and premalignant lesions.  (+info)

The chicken anemia virus-derived protein apoptin requires activation of caspases for induction of apoptosis in human tumor cells. (2/58)

The chicken anemia virus protein Apoptin has been shown to induce apoptosis in a large number of transformed and tumor cell lines, but not in primary cells. Whereas many other apoptotic stimuli (e.g., many chemotherapeutic agents and radiation) require functional p53 and are inhibited by Bcl-2, Apoptin acts independently of p53, and its activity is enhanced by Bcl-2. Here we study the involvement of caspases, an important component of the apoptotic machinery present in mammalian cells. Using a specific antibody, active caspase-3 was detected in cells expressing Apoptin and undergoing apoptosis. Although Apoptin activity was not affected by CrmA, p35 did inhibit Apoptin-induced apoptosis, as determined by nuclear morphology. Cells expressing both Apoptin and p35 showed only a slight change in nuclear morphology. However, in most of these cells, cytochrome c is still released and the mitochondria are not stained by CMX-Ros, indicating a drop in mitochondrial membrane potential. These results imply that although the final apoptotic events are blocked by p35, parts of the upstream apoptotic pathway that affect mitochondria are already activated by Apoptin. Taken together, these data show that the viral protein Apoptin employs cellular apoptotic factors for induction of apoptosis. Although activation of upstream caspases is not required, activation of caspase-3 and possibly also other downstream caspases is essential for rapid Apoptin-induced apoptosis.  (+info)

Distribution of chicken anaemia virus in the reproductive tissues of specific-pathogen-free chickens. (3/58)

The specific-pathogen-free (SPF) flocks of chickens maintained by the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at Cornell University became infected, inadvertently, with chicken anaemia virus (CAV), as demonstrated by seroconversion. Chickens from five flocks representing three different strains were examined for the presence of CAV using nested PCR. Virus was detected in ovaries, infundibula, vas deferentia, testes and spleens. Ovaries were positive in 38 to 72% of the hens in four flocks with 13 to 56 birds examined per flock. Interestingly, the ovaries were often the only positive tissues, while a few hens had only positive spleens. In roosters, the vas deferens was positive in 30 to 79% of the birds with 5 to 19 birds examined per flock; the vas deferens was the only positive tissue in 20 to 37%. Individual cells in the theca externa and rare epithelial cells in the infundibular epithelium were positive for CAV by in situ PCR. Positive cells were not detected in testes or vas deferentia. The SH-1 strain of CAV was isolated from these tissues and partially sequenced. Only minor sequence differences were found compared to CIA-1 and Cux-1. Embryos from matings between persistently infected dams and sire had CAV-positive cells in mesenchyme near the developing vertebral column. The data show that CAV persists in the reproductive tissues far longer than previously thought, and that it can be vertically transmitted from persistently infected birds.  (+info)

Serological monitoring on layer farms with specific pathogen-free chickens. (4/58)

To monitor the existence of avian pathogens in laying chicken flocks, specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens were introduced into two layer farms and reared with laying hens for 12 months. SPF chickens were bled several times after their introduction and examined for their sero-conversion to avian pathogens. As a result, antibodies to eight or ten kinds of pathogens were detected in SPF chickens on each farm. Antibodies to infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), avian nephritis virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum and M. synoviae were detected early within the first month. Antibody titer to IBV suggested that the laying chickens were infected with IBV repeatedly during the experiment on both farms. However, antibodies to infectious bursal disease virus and 6 pathogens were not detected.  (+info)

Identification of a genetic determinant of pathogenicity in chicken anaemia virus. (5/58)

The molecular basis of pathogenicity of the chicken anaemia virus (CAV) needs to be clarified in order to develop a safe, live virus vaccine. In this study, several high- and low-pathogenic infectious DNA clones were obtained from field virus samples after 12 or 38 passages in MDCC-MSB1 cells. The high-pathogenic clones induced a low haematocrit, low weight gain and high mortality. Nucleotide sequence analyses identified one amino acid, at residue 394 of the VP1 capsid protein, as a major determinant of pathogenicity. To determine the role of this amino acid in pathogenicity, chimeric infectious DNA clones and point-mutated clones were used for chicken pathogenicity tests. These analyses clearly demonstrated that residue 394 of VP1 was crucial for the pathogenicity of CAV; all of the cloned viruses with glutamine at this position were highly pathogenic, whereas those with histidine had low pathogenicity. Low-pathogenic CAV, based on an infectious DNA clone, is a candidate for a genetically homogeneous and stable CAV live vaccine.  (+info)

Molecular basis of the attenuation exhibited by molecularly cloned highly passaged chicken anemia virus isolates. (6/58)

Chimeric virus experiments indicated that the pathogenicity and monoclonal antibody reactivity differences between two molecularly cloned, highly passaged chicken anemia virus isolates could be attributed to the VP1 amino acid change at residue 89. The introduction of this change into a pathogenic cloned low-passage isolate was not sufficient to cause attenuation.  (+info)

A tumor-specific kinase activity regulates the viral death protein Apoptin. (7/58)

Apoptin, a chicken anemia virus-encoded protein, is thought to be activated by a general tumor-specific pathway, because it induces apoptosis in a large number of human tumor or transformed cells but not in their normal, healthy counterparts. Here, we show that Apoptin is phosphorylated robustly both in vitro and in vivo in tumor cells but negligibly in normal cells, and we map the site to threonine 108. A gain-of-function point mutation (T108E) conferred upon Apoptin the ability to accumulate in the nucleus and kill normal cells, implying that phosphorylation is a key regulator of the tumor-specific properties of Apoptin. An activity that could phosphorylate Apoptin on threonine 108 was found specifically in tumor and transformed cells from a variety of tissue origins, suggesting that activation of this kinase is generally associated with the cancerous or pre-cancerous state. Moreover, analyses of human tissue samples confirm that Apoptin kinase activity is detectable in primary malignancies but not in tissue derived from healthy individuals. Taken together, our results support a model whereby the dysregulation of the cellular pathway leading to the phosphorylation of Apoptin contributes to human tumorigenesis.  (+info)

Apoptin induces tumor-specific apoptosis as a globular multimer. (8/58)

The chicken anemia virus-derived Apoptin protein induces tumor-specific apoptosis. Here, we show that recombinant Apoptin protein spontaneously forms non-covalent globular aggregates comprising 30 to 40 subunits in vitro. This multimerization is robust and virtually irreversible, and the globular aggregates are also stable in cell extracts, suggesting that they remain intact within the cell. Furthermore, studies of Apoptin expressed in living cells confirm that Apoptin indeed exists in large complexes in vivo. We map the structural motifs responsible for multimerization in vitro and aggregation in vivo to the N-terminal half of the protein. Moreover, we show that covalently fixing the Apoptin monomers within the recombinant protein multimer by internal cross-linking does not affect the biological activity of Apoptin, as these fixed aggregates exhibit similar tumor-specific localization and apoptosis-inducing properties as non-cross-linked Apoptin. Taken together, our results imply that recombinant Apoptin protein is a multimer when inducing apoptosis, and we propose that this multimeric state is an essential feature of its ability to do so. Finally, we determine that Apoptin adopts little, if any, regular secondary structure within the aggregates. This surprising result would classify Apoptin as the first protein for which, rather than the formation of a well defined tertiary and quaternary structure, semi-random aggregation is sufficient for activity.  (+info)

Chicken anaemia virus (CAV) isolate BL-5 VP3 gene was amplified, sequenced and expressed in E. coli as a fusion protein together with a six-histidine tag. The deduced amino acid sequence of VP3 was identical to other CAV isolates Cux-1, A2 and CIA-1 except for a single amino acid substitution at position 12. SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis indicated that the expressed protein is insoluble and was found primarily from the cell lysate fraction. Expression of the protein was detected as early as 1 h, with maximum expression (~12% of the total protein) at 6 h post induction with IPTG. This study indicates that VP3 protein is highly expressed in insoluble form in E. coli. However, the biological function of the protein remains to be studied ...
Infection of poultry with chicken anemia virus (CAV) is implicated in several field problems in broiler flocks due to the immunosuppression generated and, consequently, the increased susceptibility to secondary infections. Recently, we have reported an increased occurrence of clinical cases caused by CAV strains distantly related to those commonly used for vaccination. In order to understand the behavior of two Argentinean CAV strains (CAV-10 and CAV-18) in two-week-old chickens, an immune and histopathological study was performed. Neither mortality nor clinical signs were observed in the infected or control groups. Thymus lobes from chickens infected with both CAV viruses were smaller compared to the negative control group. At 14 days post-infection (dpi), only chickens inoculated with CAV-10 show a severe depletion of lymphocytes in the thymus cortex and in follicles from the bursa of Fabricius. Also thymopoiesis disorders, such as reduction in the percentage of total DP (CD4 + CD8α+) thymocytes and
VP2 of chicken anemia virus (CAV) is a dual-specificity phosphatase required for virus infection, assembly and replication. The functions of the nuclear localization signal (NLS) and nuclear export signal (NES) of VP2 in the cell, however, are poorly understood. Our study identified the presence of a NLS in VP2 and showed that the protein interacted significantly with mini-chromosome maintenance protein 3 (MCM3) in the cell. An arginine-lysine rich NLS could be predicted by software and spanned from amino acids 133 to 138 of VP2. The critical amino acids residues between positions 136 and 138, and either residue 133 or 134 are important for nuclear import in mammalian cells based on systematic mutagenesis. A NES is also predicted in VP2; however the results suggest that no functional NES is present and that this protein is CRM1 independent. It was also shown that VP2 is a chromatin binding protein and, notably, using a co-immunoprecipitation assay, it was found that VP2 association with MCM3 and that
The chicken anaemia virus is associated with increased mortality rates amongst chickens. This study makes considerable progress towards developing a defined attenuated vaccine against the virus.
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The clinico-pathological picture of the disease by PCR alongwith specific RE pattern of the PCR amplified product and the experimental reproduction of the disease confirmed the disease outbreak in Himachal Pradesh was due to chicken infectious anaemia virus. Keeping in view the economical importance of CIA worldwide poultry farmers need to be educated about the various aspects of this disease ...
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Apoptosis, Human, Tumor, Oxygen, Amylose, Anemia, Cancer, Cells, Chicken, Chicken Anemia Virus, Cytoplasm, Virus, Bacteria, Burn, Cell, Cell Migration, Heart, Infarction, Injury, Literature
Ol h, I., Magyar, A., Nagy, N., Horv th, E., Kov cs, A., Nagy, E. (2001): Effect of IBDV infection on the secretory dendritic cells. - In: van den Berg, T. (szerk.) EU Cost Action 839: International Symposium on Infectious Bursal Disease and Chicken Infectious Anemia. Office for Official Publication of the European Communities, Luxemburg, pp. 329-340 ...
the aetiology of an outbreak of haemorrhagic syndrome (hs) in a commercial broiler flock was examined. at a rearing farm, 596 of 6376 chicks (9.3%) in a flock were culled with depression and increased mortality from 12 to 26 days of age, with a peak at 16 to 19 days of age. most of the affected chicks examined had haemorrhagic lesions of the muscles, atrophic changes of the lymphoid organs and aplastic bone marrow. chicken anaemia agent (caa) was isolated from the livers of all the 21 chicks exa ...
La bursite infectieuse aviaire (IBD) est une des causes majeures de pertes économiques pour lindustrie aviaire. La vaccination est le principal outil de contrôle de cette maladie et les oiseaux susceptibles doivent être vaccinés aussitôt que le niveau des anticorps maternels (MA) anti-IBDV est suffisamment bas. Lestimation du moment de vaccination est habituellement déterminée par la formule de Deventer qui utilise le titre initial de MA anti-IBDV et la demi-vie des anticorps pour prédire lévolution du titre. Dans la présente étude, leffet du gain de poids sur la vitesse de disparition des MA a été étudié dans le but de lutiliser pour prédire la détermination du moment de la vaccination. Lanalyse des taux danticorps neutralisants par ELISA a montré que les poussins avec une forte croissance avaient un taux de disparition plus rapide des MA que ceux à faible croissance. Une formule pour la prédiction du moment de vaccination contre le IBDV, basée sur le gain de poids ...
Immunosuppressive viruses are frequently found as co-infections in the chicken industry, potentially causing serious economic losses. Because traditional molecular biology methods have limited detection ability, a rapid, high-throughput method for the differential diagnosis of these viruses is needed. The objective of this study is to develop a GenomeLab Gene Expression Profiler Analyser-based multiplex PCR method (GeXP-multiplex PCR) for simultaneous detection of eight immunosuppressive chicken viruses. Using chimeric primers, eight such viruses, including Mareks disease virus (MDV), three subgroups of avian leucosis virus (ALV-A/B/J), reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), chicken infectious anaemia virus (CIAV) and avian reovirus (ARV), were amplified and identified by their respective amplicon sizes. The specificity and sensitivity of the optimised GeXP-multiplex PCR assay were evaluated, and the data demonstrated that this technique could selectively amplify
Titanium dioxide, barium salt, strontium salt, zinc, plastic additives, metallic soaps, electronic materials, catalysts, organic chemicals, magnetic iron oxide, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and thiochemicals
View Notes - Unit 01 Flashcards from PSIO 201 at Arizona. Class I Double-stranded DNA T4; pox viruses; lambda phage; mimivirus (APMV); Sputnik (virophage) Class II Single-stranded DNA Chicken anemia
186\186"Microscopically, extensive dystrophic changes and necroses of liver parenchyma are detected. In the nuclei of hepatocytes, basophilic or eosinophilic inclusion bodies are detected. The basophilic inclusion bodies are usually dense and occupy the entire nuclear inner space (arrow b), whereas the eosinophilic ones are round or irregularly shaped and surrounded by a light halo (arrow e). The diagnosis is based upon the typical gross lesions and the history records.A principal approach in IBH diagnostics is the histological investigation that helps to detect the intranuclear inclusion bodies. IBH should be distinguished mainly from IBD and chicken infectious anaemia (CIA). With regard to IBH prevention and control, the eggs of broiler parent flocks, where the disease is consecutively appearing in the progeny, should not be used for hatching. The access of wild birds should be prevented as they are potential carriers and distributors of the virus. The most important steps in IBH prevention ...
Cook, R., Berger, S., Leroux, C., Ghabrial, N., Gantz, M., Bolin, P., ... Issel, C. (2003). Enhancement of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Virulence by Identification and Removal of Suboptimal Nucleotides. Virology, Vol. 313, 588 - 603 ...
Biobest provides serological testing for antibodies to Equine Infectious Anaemia Virus (EIA). Biobest is the only GLP compliant laboratory in the UK offering the EIA Coggins test for horses.
Circoviridae is a family of viruses. Birds and mammals serve as natural hosts. There are currently 70 species in this family, divided among 2 genera. Diseases associated with this family include: PCV-2: postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome; CAV: chicken infectious anemia. Viruses in the family Circoviridae are non-enveloped, with icosahedral and round geometries, and T=1 symmetry. The diameter is around 20 nm. Genomes are circular and non-segmented, around 3.8kb in length. The capsid consists of 12 pentagonal trumpet shaped pentamers. There are two main open reading frames arranged in opposite directions that encode the replication (Rep) and capsid (Cap) proteins. Alternative start codons are common in the avian species. Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by penetration into the host cell. Replication follows the ssDNA rolling circle model. DNA templated transcription, with some alternative splicing mechanism is the method of transcription. The virus exits ...
Baltimore Classification== ===Higher order taxa=== Viruses; ssDNA viruses; Circoviridae; Circovirus ===Species=== Beak and feather disease virus, Canary circovirus, Goose circovirus ==Description and Significance== Circoviruses are very small non-enveloped icosahedral viruses with a single stranded circular DNA genome. They have been described in pigs (porcine circovirus, PCV), chickens (chicken anemia virua, ChAV), psittacines (psittacine beak and feather disease virus, PBFD) and pigeons. The virus targets the lymphoid tissue and causes immunosuppression in the host. Circoviruses are the smallest pathogenic DNA viruses that have been identified and characterized in animals. ==Genome Structure== The genome of the circovirus is monomeric. It is unsegmented and contains a single molecule of circular, ambisense, sinle-stranded DNA that forms a covalently closed circle. The complete genome is 1800-2000 nucleotides long and the genome has a guanine+cytosine content of 48.4-53.1 %. (source: ...
How do chickens reproduce? In order to breed chickens, you must know how do chickens reproduce? We are here to explain this to you.
There are many ways to prepare crispy, crackling chicken thighs. Luckily, chicken comes equipped with its own potentially crispy coating...
The Crunchy Chicken is all about sustainable living, going green, being eco friendly and saving money by urban homesteading, raising city chickens and self-sufficient frugal living
This is a great tutorial explaining how to marinate chicken. It gives full instructions, including mixing, covering and storing. It also gives a chicken
How to Vaccinate Chickens. If you own chickens-be it thousands or just three-you will need to vaccinate them in order to keep them healthy. There are many ways to do this, though some are more effective for large scale productions, like the...
I admit, I was somewhat dismissive of the impact of the obvious political morass into which Big Chicken had been led by the people in whom he had so naively trusted never, ever to lie to him.
The use of tumor-specific therapeutic agents is a promising option for efficient and safe nonviral gene transfer in gene therapy. In this study, we describe the efficacy of polyamidoamine (PAMAM)-based nonviral gene delivery carriers, namely, an ornithine conjugated PAMAM (PAMAM-O) dendrimer in delivering apoptin, a tumor-specific killer gene, into human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2 cells) and dermal fibroblasts. We analyzed the transfection efficiency by the luciferase assay and assessed cell viability in both cell types. The transfection efficiency of the PAMAM-O dendrimer was found to be higher than that of the PAMAM dendrimer. Moreover, the cytotoxicity of the PAMAM-O dendrimer was very low. We treated both cell types with a polyplex of PAMAM-O dendrimer with apoptin, and analyzed its cellular uptake and localization by confocal microscopy. Cell cycle distribution, tetramethylrhodamine, ethyl ester (TMRE) analysis, and transmission electron microscopy imaging showed that apoptin induced cell
Gastrointestinal symptoms, in particular diarrhoea, are common in non-treated HIV-1 infected individuals. Although various enteric pathogens have been implicated, the aetiology of diarrhoea remains unexplained in a large proportion of HIV-1 infected patients. Our aim is to identify the cause of diarrhoea for patients that remain negative in routine diagnostics. In this study stool samples of 196 HIV-1 infected persons, including 29 persons with diarrhoea, were examined for enteropathogens and HIV-1. A search for unknown and unexpected viruses was performed using virus discovery cDNA-AFLP combined with Roche-454 sequencing (VIDISCA-454). HIV-1 RNA was detected in stool of 19 patients with diarrhoea (66%) compared to 75 patients (45%) without diarrhoea. In 19 of the 29 diarrhoea cases a known enteropathogen could be identified (66%). Next to these known causative agents, a range of recently identified viruses was identified via VIDISCA-454: cosavirus, Aichi virus, human gyrovirus, and non-A non-B
Read the Ribs and Chicken barbecue question discussion from the Chowhound Bbq Smoking Grilling, Chicken food community. Join the discussion today.
Grilled chicken is an American classic. Buttermilk chicken is also a classic. Southern cooks use buttermilk for fried chicken. It work for grilling too.
I want a horse, a cow, a couple of pigs ... but chickens!!! I never thought I could love a chicken but here I am and here they are and well ... this is my life with chickens.
The Crunchy Chicken is all about sustainable living, going green, being eco friendly and saving money by urban homesteading, raising city chickens and self-sufficient frugal living
Iodo-hormones in the serum of chick-embryos and post-hatching chickens as influenced by incubation-temperature - relationship with the hatching process and ...
Recipe for a baked version of General Tsos chicken which is tasty and healthy than traditional methods. An easy to make dish will make everyone pleased.
Before you buy Pacific Organic Chicken Simply Stock Unsalted , check out 9 Influenster reviews. Dawn B. said I like this product because it is organic and...
Whether youve always wanted to keep your own birds or just want a fun day out with a difference, this introduction to chickens is a great hands-on experience.
what kind of chicken do you perfer, are you the original chicken or extra crispy kind of person, me i like the original chicken, extar crispy is just extar...
This Greek egg-and-lemon soup needs a rich stock. The croutons offer a way of turning stale ends of loaves into something moreishly delicious.
Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA) is an infectious and potentially fatal viral disease of horses. No vaccine or treatment exists for the disease. Clinical signs of EIA include fever, weight loss, icterus (yellowing of body tissues), anemia, swelling in the limbs, and weakness. However, not all equids infected with the equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) show signs of illness, and these animals serve as inapparent carriers ...
Located in Woodland Park, Chicken Delights fresh chicken is tender and filled with flavor.Slip into something more comfortable before dining at Chicken Delight, where dress code calls for business casual.Chicken Delight is surrounded by endless parking options.Most items on the menu are reasonably priced, so expect to spend around $30 per person at Chicken Delight. Oh, the chicken at Chicken Delight will certainly have you coming back to Woodland Park for more.
You can buy chicken halves, or if youd rather do it yourself, use a pair of poultry shears to cut out the backbone of a whole bird. You can leave the chicken connected at the breastbone if you have a pan large enough to hold it. If not, cut the chicken apart at the breastbone, too.
FROZEN Quality Chicken from human grade sources with Chicken Liver too Pre minced and packed into a convenient 400gm formed square for ease of
what that be? fried chicken served on some waffles? doesnt the waffle be getting greasy from all that grease? we black folks love us some fried chicken and waffles!
Raising healthy chickens is important to us, and we recognize that consumers want to better understand how their food is raised. Chicken is Americas
Obviously, the reason you are raising chickens will decide precisely what they ought to eat. In the event that you are raising them for laying eggs, their...
Beat the summer heat and still enjoy your whole pastured chickens cooking them spatchcock style in less time - with summer BBQ sauce!
Read "Genetic characterization of type 2 porcine circoviruses detected in Hungarian wild boars, Archives of Virology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
The plant alkaloid camptothecin (CPT) has demonstrated the ability to inhibit replication of the equine anemia virus (E1AV) and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in infected cells in culture....
We eat quite a bit of chicken, ok, a lot of chicken. Mostly thighs, but also breasts and whole chicken. Chicken wings and drumsticks we rarely eat, unless as a by product of roasting a whole chicken, and even then they quite often end up in the stock pot, or pulled apart for shredded chicken…
Our Parmesan-crusted chicken is an easy but impressive recipe thats great even on busy weeknights. Sprinkle chicken with Parmesan to make a crunchy crust that puts a little twist on your usual chicken. This Parmesan-crusted chicken recipe from Martha Ste
when i first made homemade chicken stock i could not believe how easy it was. although the process is long, the actual work time is short, it makes your home smell incredible for the entire day, and the health benefits are great. ingredients: 3 lbs of chicken parts, roughly the bones/carcass of (2) 3-4lb chickens…
If your interested in introducing herbs and natural supplements to your chicken keeping regiment these articles are very helpful. Personally, Ive no experience with using herbs on my flock, but Im certainly open to the idea if it will help keep my chickens healthy. A big thank you to these content contributors for sharing their…
VICS Acquisition is recalling happi foodi Bloody Mary Inspired Chicken and Southeast Grocers Marsala Chicken and Mediterranean Herb Chicken.
Learn how to make fried chicken from one of more than 80 of the best fried chicken recipes. We have buttermilk, garlic, southern fried chicken and more.
*EDIT* after several reviews general opinion says that its NOT the real deal. Be that as it may I still think that it makes a fine flavored chicken *EDIT*. Reportedly this is the real thing. Please decide for yourself, I cant say as I have never had chicken from this restaurant. While I dont know if its The Real Deal I do know that its mighty good chicken.
House 9-12 chickens in this attractive, roomy, affordable chicken coop. Your purchase even includes a wire mesh floor to keep rodents out!
Reversing an earlier decision to ban chickens, the village board now allows residents to keep chickens in their backyards with certain restrictions.
Before you buy Stouffers Oven Roasted Chicken, check out 1 Influenster reviews. kimberly m. said This is good but wish there was more chicken in it and...
Photos and breed information for Dominique Chickens, one of the oldest recorded American breeds and one of the first to become established in the country.
HCTs about more than just chicken.* We are about our people. Beyond an amazing community of customers, HCT provides supportive jobs to men and women who need a second chance at work. Be it homelessne
Þessi síða notar fótspor fyrir greiningu, sérsniðið efni og auglýsingar. Með því að halda áfram að skoða þetta vefsvæði samþykkir þú þessa notkun. Læra meira ...
Development of the first conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for the diagnoses of duck circovirus (DuCV) infections is described. Both tests amplified a 230 bp fragment specific to the DuCV Rep gene. Although both tests had the same detection limit (13 x 10(3) target DNA/ml) when the target DNA was diluted in water, the detection limit of the real-time test (13 x 10(4 ...
You may know it or not, boiled chicken is one of the tastiest yet versatile type of food that you can ever eat. When we say versatile, it means that boiled chicken can be eaten in many ways, in soup or along with green salads or even with mouthwatering sauces. However be careful while eating boiled chicken as you can easily risk adding o a few extra pounds when you eat too much of chicken and not take enough precautions for measuring your calorie intake.. Still if we compare between other chicken recipes, where chicken is fried or cooked with spices, boiled chicken comes with many benefits since it has much lesser calories than spicy and fried chicken recipes, but nevertheless boiled chicken can effectively curb your appetite.. ...
Incredible Chickens! The Complete Guide to Raising Chickens at Home! ebook. Author: Martin Ashway. Home ebooks. Price: 19.99 Buy here!
This flat pack, do-it-yourself version of a chicken has a lot of features, but can it help raise happy chickens on a city balcony?
You may not know his name but you will certainly know his work: Morris Cassanova (aka Mr Chicken) designs and makes signs for most of the fried chicken shops in the UK. In an extract from her book Chicken: Low Art, High Calorie, Siâron Hughes meets him. ...
My chickens, I like to think, are the most highly entertained chickens in the world. I sunbathe with them, hang out in the bushes with them, and sing t ...
Chicken and rice may be any dish that primarily consists of these two ingredients. However, it usually refers specifically to a dish of baked chicken and...
GAMEDAY GOURMET | In a time of Redskins turmoil, this beers for the fans by way of this weeks recipe, beer can chicken man.
WE HATCHED 15 BABY CHICKENS!!!! AHHHHHH!!! They are soooo cute and I am so excited!! :) [Well actually the incubator hatched them.... just to clear that up..... ;) ]
FROZEN A Rabbit and Chicken Blend pre minced and packed into a convenient 400gm formed square for ease of storage These are simply minced whole meats
We asked dozens of experts to pick the best fried chicken joints in every Southern state. Here are 100-plus places, listed by state.
A one-pan dinner! Perfectly seasoned and spiced chicken, roasted potatoes, and fresh herbs make this a perfect (and easy) meal. Family & friend will love it!
Seasoned Cooking Paper for Barbeque Chicken. For other authentic & delicious meal ideas go to maggi.co.uk Good to remember Portions should be adjusted for children of different ages.
Check out these five tips to help you become an egg-incubation master and incubate your own eggs, rather than depending on the chicken.
For SHOOTING CHICKEN BrutalSuckers on the Xbox 360, GameFAQs has game information and a community message board for game discussion.
Ta stran uporablja piškotke za analitiko, prilagojene vsebine in oglase. Če nadaljujete brskanje po tej spletni strani, se strinjate s to uporabo. Nauči se več ...
Blog on anti-Infectious Salmon Anemia Virus antibody product: The Infectious Salmon Anemia Virus n/a (Catalog #MBS530136) is an Antibody produced from Mouse and is int...
By systematically dissecting the Rev proteins of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), we have identified within each a short peptide that is functionally interchangeable with the effector domains found in Rev-like proteins from other retroviruses. The active sequences from FIV and EIAV differ in several respects from other known effectors and may represent a distinct class of effector domain. ...
Afrikaans: Beak and feather disease (BFD), wat veroorsaak word deur Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) is n dermatologiese toestand wat papegaai spesies versmag. Dit word toenemend moeilik om nie net die beduidende negatiewe ekonomiese impak wat die virus het op die papegaai teling bedryf nie, maar ook die nadelige uitwerking wat dit op die voortbestaan van die endemiese Kaapse papegaai (Poicephalus robustus) te ignoreer. Die virus, n lid van die Circoviridae, is bekend as n nie-omvou, sirkulêre, enkelstring DNA genoom in besit te neem. Twee groot oop lees rame (OLRe) enkodeer die replikasie verwante proteïene (Rep) en die kapsied proteïen (KP). Die studie was uiteengesit om die huidige diagnostiese strategie vir BFDV te evalueer en te verbeter, met beide molekulêre en serologiese tegnieke. Die volgende doelwitte is gepoog: 1. Om polimerase kettingreaksie (PKR) en kwantitatiewe werklike tyd polimerase kettingreaksie (qPCR) as diagnostiese instrumente vir BFDV te vergelyk. Opsporing van ...
The detection of avian viruses in wild populations has considerable conservation implications. For DNA-based studies, feathers may be a convenient sample type for virus screening and are, therefore, an increasingly common technique. This is despite recent concerns about DNA quality, ethics, and a paucity of data comparing the reliability and sensitivity of feather sampling to other common sample types such as blood. Alternatively, skeletal muscle tissue may offer a convenient sample to collect from dead birds, which may reveal viraemia. Here, we describe a probe-based quantitative real-time PCR for the relative quantification of beak and feather disease virus (BFDV), a pathogen of serious conservation concern for parrots globally. We used this method to test for BFDV in wild crimson rosellas (Platycercus elegans), and compared three different sample types. We detected BFDV in samples from 29 out of 84 individuals (34.5%). However, feather samples provided discordant results concerning virus ...
Title: Phylogenetic analysis of beak and feather disease virus across a host ring-species complex. Authors: Eastwood, Justin R.; Berg, Mathew L.; Ribot, Raoul F. H.; Raidal, Shane R.; Buchanan, Katherine L.; Walder, Ken R.; Bennett, Andrew T. D. Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, vol. 111, no. 39, page(s) 14153-14158, September 2014. Brief…
Human coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6) is an enterically transmitted enterovirus. Until recently, CVA6 infections were considered as being of minor clinical significance, and only rarely aetiologically linked with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) associated with other species A enteroviruses (particularly EV71 and CVA16). From 2008 onwards, however, CVA6 infections have been associated with several outbreaks worldwide of atypical HFMD (aHFMD) accompanied by a varicelliform rash. We recently reported CVA6-associated eczema herpeticum occurring predominantly in children and young adults in Edinburgh in January and February 2014. To investigate genetic determinants of novel clinical phenotypes of CVA6, we genetically characterized and analysed CVA6 variants associated with eczema herpeticum in Edinburgh in 2014 and those with aHFMD in CAV isolates collected from 2008. A total of eight recombinant forms (RFs) have circulated worldwide over the past 10 years, with the particularly recent appearance of RF-H
Guy Regnanrd will present the MCB seminar with a talk entitled, Development of a potential challenge model and plant-produced vaccine candidate for beak and feather disease virus.. ...
The more I gaze upon its dark wonder, the more I think to myself.... Chicken. Poop? Chicken. Poop? Chick. Chick Chick. (Rooster Crow sound). Chicken poop oh chicken poop, ahh haa haa love you sooo. Chicken Poop oh chicken poop ...
i know that some dogs see a chicken its normal to chase or kill the chicken,and there are dogs that dont mind chickens at all,i have a dachshund and...
Cheesy Chicken Karahi and Chikoo Mousse - Chicken Cooking seem to reach its heights in flavor and ease when its a chicken day. Let your taste-buds go chicky with this chicken recipe.
A detailed guide for backyard beginners on how to raise chickens, includes information onn types of chickens to buy, chicken feed and setting up a dust bath for chickens.
I am new to this chicken business! I dont know how or what to feed my chickens! I have only hens and their ages are 2 are 9 months old and 6 that are...
I always think of chicken tandoori as a gateway dish to Indian food; its simply and recognizably cooked chicken with a different hue. The flavors are usually mild and its not swimming in sauce like many Indian dishes. This recipe, from Cl
A federal prosecutor is warning parents against trading chicken pox-laced lollipops by mail in what authorities describe as misguided attempts to expose their children to the virus to build immunity later in life.
Anderson County resident Scott Haire is suing his government and his neighbors for allegedly falsely accusing him of violating environmental and noise codes with his small home-based chicken farm.
The first gene-edited chickens are scheduled to hatch at the Roslin Institute at The University of Edinburgh in Scotland. The designer birds have been modified to resist flu, which spreads rapidly among CAFO (concentrated animal feeding operation) birds and has the potential to be transmitted to humans.
Make sure you used cooked chicken; put all ingredients in a pan, bring to a boil. Simmer until rice is done. 7-25-00 tgraydesigns ...
Question Can you tell me whats going on with my sick wheezing chicken: Her comb has turned dark red, which makes me think she isnt getting enough oxygen.
Trying the Whole30 diet? Heres a Whole30 compliant recipe to make 1 Rotisserie Chicken for 5 easy and delicious Paleo or Whole30 Meals.
This delicious dish features all fresh ingredients and flavorful spices. The wildflower chicken requires little stove work so its perfect for the summer.
Consumer Reports investigation found 97 percent of the chicken tested was tainted with harmful bacteria that can make you sick. Find out how to protect yourself. (January, 2014)
Did you know you can find marinated chicken fajita meat and veggies behind your Hy-Vee meat counter? Were just trying to make your taco Tuesday that much easier.
Many factors influence the taste and texture of commercially raised chickens, but salting or brining the bird is the key to success.
Avian Rhinotracheitis Virus; Avian Rotavirus; Avian Tuberculosis M. avium; Chicken Anemia Virus; Endogenous GS Antigen; Fowl ... Avian Lymphoid Leukosis Virus; Lymphoid Leukosis Viruses A,B,C,D,E,J; Marek's Disease (Serotypes 1,2, 3); Mycoplasma ... Avian Nephritis Virus, Avian Paramyxovirus Type 2, Avian Reovirus S 1133, ... gallisepticum; Mycoplasma synoviae; Newcastle Disease LaSota; Reticuloendotheliosis Virus; Salmonella pullorum-gallinarum ; ...
... chicken infectious anemia. Viruses in the family Circoviridae are non-enveloped, with icosahedral and round geometries, and T=1 ... Chicken anemia virus The family Circoviridae contains two genera-Circovirus and Cyclovirus. Two yet-uncategorized circovirus- ... The same virus has been isolated from the faeces of healthy children and also from pigs and chickens. This suggests an ... Animal viruses Breitbart, Mya; Delwart, Eric; Rosario, Karyna; Segalés, Joaquim; Varsani, Arvind (1 August 2017). "ICTV Virus ...
It has a low level of homology to the Circovirus chicken anemia virus. The virus can be isolated from the blood and all the ... ORF 2 has some homology to the viral protein 2 of chicken anaemia virus. ORF 3 has no homology to any known protein. Similarly ... Sea turtle tornovirus 1 is a single stranded DNA virus that was isolated from a turtle with fibropapillomatosis in 2009. The ... The final classification of this virus has yet to be decided. ... Discovery of a novel single-stranded DNA virus from a sea ...
These include Marek's Disease, Duck Hepatitis Virus, Chicken Anemia Virus, Turkeypox, Fowlpox and others. Bird immunity is ... Infectious bursal disease virus and chicken anemia are ubiquitous and have increased interest in combatting avian pathogens. ... Massive internal bleeding and hemorrhaging follow and this has earned the H5N1 virus the moniker "chicken ebola." Much like ... The most common immunosuppressive viruses are Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV), Avian Leukosis, Marek's Disease (MD) and ...
... infectious bursal disease virus, and chicken anemia virus. Avian reoviruses are also typically resistant to certain ... Engstrom, B.E.; Fossum, O; Luthman, M (1988). "Blue wing disease of chickens: isolation of avian reovirus and chicken anemia ... Virus particles can range between 70-80 nm. Morphologically, the virus is a double stranded RNA virus that is composed of ten ... Jones, R.C.; Guneratne, J.R.M.; Georgiou, K (1981). Isolation of viruses from outbreaks of suspected tenosynovitis in chickens ...
... is a genus of viruses, in the family Anelloviridae. Until 2011, chicken anemia virus was the only Gyrovirus ... a virus related to chicken anemia virus. J Virol 85(15):7948-7950 Maggi F, Macera L, Focosi D, Vatteroni ML, Boggi U, Antonelli ... Chicken anemia virus, porcine circovirus type 2, and beak and feather disease virus." Journal of Virology, v. 77 issue 24, 2003 ... Chicken anemia virus (CAV) was, until 2011, the only member of Gyrovirus genus identified. It causes disease worldwide in areas ...
The first anticancer gene to be isolated was Apoptin, a gene encoded by the chicken anaemia virus genome. Brevinin-2R is a ...
... chicken anemia virus MeSH B04.280.350.500 --- maize streak virus MeSH B04.280.375.100 --- avihepadnavirus MeSH B04.280.375.100. ... chicken anemia virus MeSH B04.909.204.210 --- dna tumor viruses MeSH B04.909.204.210.400 --- gammaherpesvirinae MeSH B04.909. ... yellow fever virus MeSH B04.820.250.400 --- gb virus a MeSH B04.820.250.405 --- gb virus b MeSH B04.820.250.410 --- GB virus C ... gb virus a MeSH B04.909.777.310.405 --- gb virus b MeSH B04.909.777.310.410 --- GB virus C MeSH B04.909.777.310.475 --- ...
Angola Chicken anaemia virus, a virus that affects poultry Clarion Municipal Airport (FAA identifier), in Clarion, Iowa Colegio ...
Chicken anaemia virus Lymphoid leucosis caused by avian sarcoma leukosis virus Marek's disease Newcastle disease Viral ... Major types of poultry include the chicken, turkey, duck, goose and ostrich. The eradication of poultry disease is very ... Infectious coryza in chickens Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale Riemerella anatipestifer Streptococcal infection in poultry ... arthritis Turkeypox virus Scaly leg, caused by the mite Knemidocoptes mutans Infestions: Dermanyssus gallinae, the red poultry ...
... and chicken anaemia virus". Virology. 249 (2): 453-9. doi:10.1006/viro.1998.9324. PMID 9791035. Fogell, Deborah J.; Martin, ... The causative virus-beak and feather disease virus (BFDV)-belongs to the taxonomic genus Circovirus, family Circoviridae. It ... The virus was originally designated PCV (psittacine circovirus), but has since been renamed Beak and feather disease virus. ... Adult birds coming into contact with the virus usually (but not always) develop resistance to it, but the virus is retained in ...
... infectious chicken anaemia, chicken infectious anaemia virus and chicken anaemia agent.[citation needed] When this virus was ... Chicken anaemia virus, or CAV, is a member of the circoviridae family which is found worldwide. The virus only affects chickens ... The disease/virus has many names including chicken anaemia, blue wing disease, anaemia dermatitis syndrome, chicken/avian ... Chicken anaemia virus infects preursor T cells in the thymus and hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow, causing ...
Chicken anemia virus Family: Geminiviridae Genus: Becurtovirus Beet curly top Iran virus Spinach curly top Arizona virus Genus ... virus Shuni virus Simbu virus Tacaiuma virus Tete virus Thimiri virus Timboteua virus Turlock virus Wyeomyia virus Zegla virus ... virus Uganda S virus Usutu virus Wesselsbron virus West Nile virus Yaounde virus Yellow fever virus Yokose virus Zika virus ... Capim virus Caraparu virus Catu virus Estero Real virus Gamboa virus Guajara virus Guama virus Guaroa virus Kaeng Khoi virus ...
... virus Cherry virus A Chick syncytial virus Chicken anemia virus Chickpea chlorosis Australia virus Chickpea chlorosis virus ... virus A Potato virus H Potato virus M Potato virus P Potato virus S Potato virus T Potato virus U Potato virus V Potato virus X ... virus Garlic virus A Garlic virus B Garlic virus C Garlic virus D Garlic virus E Garlic virus X Gayfeather mild mottle virus ... virus Vibrio virus 493 Vibrio virus CTXphi Vibrio virus fs1 Vibrio virus fs2 Vibrio virus K139 Vibrio virus Kappa Vibrio virus ...
Circoviruses are small single-stranded DNA viruses. There are to genera: gyrovirus, with one species called chicken anemia ... Louis encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, Israel turkey meningoencephalomyelitis virus, Sitiawan virus, Wesselsbron virus, ... Flaviviruses include the West Nile virus, dengue virus, Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus, Yellow Fever Virus, and several other ... Virus History of virology Virus evolution Social history of viruses Bourhy H, Gubala AJ, Weir RP, Boyle DB (2009). Mahy BWJ, ...
Specifically, Egg Drop Syndrome can be diagnosed by hemagglutinin inhibition and the virus causes haemagglutination in chickens ... Anaemia and dehydration may develop secondary to this haemorrhagic enteritis. Signs of reproductive disease (Egg Drop Syndrome ... The virus is mainly spread horizontally by the oro-fecal route, but vertical transmission can occur in serogroup 1. Once it has ... The virus exits the host cell by nuclear envelope breakdown, viroporins, and lysis. Birds serve as the natural host. ICTV. " ...
Related viruses have been found in chimpanzees, apes, African monkeys, tupaias, chickens, pigs, cows, sheep and dogs. Vertical ... Hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia during a primary infection of genotype 1a torque teno virus. Eur J Pediatr. 2010 Jul;169(7 ... TT virus (TTV) was the first member of the new family Anelloviridae to be discovered. TTV, for transfusion transmitted virus or ... These viruses are not currently believed to cause disease in humans. Infection with these viruses tends to lead to lifelong ...
QI01AD04 Chicken anaemia QI01AD05 Avian adenovirus QI01AD06 Newcastle disease virus/paramyxovirus QI01AD07 Avian infectious ... disease virus + newcastle disease virus/paramyxovirus QI01AD12 Avian pox virus QI01AD13 Avian leucosis virus QI01AD14 Avian ... disease virus + newcastle disease virus/paramyxovirus + avian rhinotracheitis virus QI01AA07 Avian infectious bronchitis virus ... avian herpes virus (Marek's disease) QI01AD16 Avian herpes virus (marek's disease) + avian infectious bursal disease virus ( ...
Aleutian mink disease virus), vii) Aveparvovirus (e.g. chicken parvovirus) and viii) Copiparvovirus (e.g. bovine parvovirus 2 ... anemia, and death. Dogs, cats and swine can be vaccinated against parvovirus. To enter host cells, parvoviruses bind to a ... They are classified as group II viruses in the Baltimore classification of viruses. Parvoviruses are among the smallest viruses ... which only work with a helper virus such as adenovirus. Other viruses that can infect without helper viruses are called as ...
West Nile virus was also found to be able to infect the tick when feeding on an infected membrane. This was tested using ... Blood loss during infection could occur as well and result in clinical anemia. Controlling the larvae is important as it acts ... "Avian Spirochetosis in Chickens following Experimental Transmission of Borrelia Anserina by Argas (Persicargas) Miniatus." ... "Avian Spirochetosis in Chickens following Experimental Transmission of Borrelia Anserina by Argas (Persicargas) Miniatus." ...
Iron deficiency anemia is sometimes associated with chronic cases. Staphylococcus aureus folliculitis. Hot-tub folliculitis is ... rash (reddened skin area) itching skin pimples or pustules located around a hair follicle; may be confused with chicken pox may ... Herpetic folliculitis may occur when herpes simplex virus infection spreads to nearby hair follicles - mostly around the mouth ...
Aleutian mink disease virus), vii) Aveparvovirus (e.g. chicken parvovirus) and viii) Copiparvovirus (e.g. bovine parvovirus 2). ... anemia, and death. ... Other viruses that can infect without helper viruses are called ... They are classified as group II viruses in the Baltimore classification of viruses. Parvoviruses are among the smallest viruses ... The Parvoviridae family has two subfamilies; the Parvovirinae (vertebrate viruses) and the Densovirinae (invertebrate viruses ...
Circulating antibodies are produced by clonal B cells that specifically respond to only one antigen (an example is a virus ... Antigens are also injected into chickens for generation of polyclonal antibodies in egg yolk. To obtain antibody that is ... Antibodies directed against red blood cell surface antigens in immune mediated hemolytic anemia are detected with the Coombs ... For example, in biochemical assays for disease diagnosis, a titer of antibodies directed against Epstein-Barr virus or Lyme ...
... chicken pox, shingles), and coxsackie A virus (hand, foot and mouth disease). Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) creates ... anemia, leukemia, Epstein-Barr virus, HIV infection, diabetes) microbiological swabs (infection), or urinalysis (diabetes). A ... Hematological causes include anemia, hematinic deficiencies, neutropenia, hypereosinophilic syndrome, leukemia, myelodysplastic ... herpes viruses) or nutritional disorders (e.g., vitamin deficiencies). Simple mechanisms which predispose the mouth to trauma ...
An avian virus has been described that is associated with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome in chickens. This virus is ... Hemolytic anemia in people with the hereditary risk factor glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD deficiency) ... A new virus designated rat hepatitis E virus has been isolated. A rabbit hepatitis E virus has been described, with a study ... caused by infection with a virus called hepatitis E virus. It is one of five known human hepatitis viruses: A, B, C, D, and E. ...
ALAS2: aminolevulinate, δ-, synthase 2 (deficiency causes sideroblastic/hypochromic anemia). *CPOX: coproporphyrinogen oxidase ... Myeloperoxidase is present in mammalian neutrophils and is responsible for the destruction of invading bacteria and viruses. It ... The heme content of red meat is 10 times higher than that of white meat such as chicken.[38] ... Lactoperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase are protective enzymes responsible for the destruction of invading bacteria and virus ...
The antibody to chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) was positive in a specific pathogen-free (SPF) chicken population by ... Genomic Analysis of the Chicken Infectious Anemia Virus in a Specific Pathogen-Free Chicken Population in China. Yang Li, Yixin ... In this study, blood samples collected from the SPF chickens were used to isolate CIAV by inoculating into MSB1 cells and PCR ... In this study, we first reported that CIAV exists in Chinese SPF chicken populations and may be an important reason why ...
... infectious chicken anaemia, chicken infectious anaemia virus and chicken anaemia agent.[citation needed] When this virus was ... Chicken anaemia virus, or CAV, is a member of the circoviridae family which is found worldwide. The virus only affects chickens ... The disease/virus has many names including chicken anaemia, blue wing disease, anaemia dermatitis syndrome, chicken/avian ... Chicken anaemia virus infects preursor T cells in the thymus and hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow, causing ...
sp,P54092,VP2_CAV26 Dual specificity protein phosphatase VP2 OS=Chicken anemia virus (isolate USA 26p4) OX=73477 GN=VP2 PE=2 SV ... help/virus_host target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Virus hosti. Gallus gallus (Chicken) [TaxID: 9031]. ... Chicken anemia virus (isolate USA 26p4) (CAV). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_ ... either as a specific organism or taxonomic group of organisms that are susceptible to be infected by a virus.,p>,a href=/ ...
CIRCOMUNE® is a live Chicken Infectious Anemia Virus vaccine, Del Ros strain, for use in chickens using wing web administration ... Maternal antibodies are transferred to progeny to aid in the prevention of disease caused by Chicken Infectious Anemia Virus. ... CIRCOMUNE® is recommended for the active immunization of chickens against Chiken Anemia Virus. ... Use only by wing web administration to healthy, susceptible chickens 9 to 12 weeks of age.. Wing Web: Insert the applicator ...
Chicken anaemia virus enhances and prolongs subsequent avian influenza (H9N2) and infectious bronchitis viral infections.. ... 2.2.3 Assess factors that make novel (seasonal or newly emerged) viruses successful, including replacement of other viral ...
... is the causative agent of chicken infectious anemia. CAV putative intergenotypic recombinants have been reported previously. ... Chicken anemia virus (CAV) is the causative agent of chicken infectious anemia. CAV putative intergenotypic recombinants have ... Chicken anemia virus (CAV) was first reported in 1979 in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens [1]. CAV belongs to the ... Van Santen VL, Li L, Hoerr FJ, Lauerman LH: Genetic characterization of chicken anemia virus from commercial broiler chickens ...
... is the causative agent of chicken infectious anemia (CIA). Study on the type of CAV isolates present and their genetic ... Chicken anemia virus (CAV) is the causative agent of chicken infectious anemia (CIA). Study on the type of CAV isolates present ... Effects of chicken anemia virus on cell-mediated immune function in chickens exposed to the virus by a natural route. Avian Dis ... Chicken anemia virus (CAV) is a small DNA virus with a circular, covalently linked, single negative-strand genome. It is the ...
... is the causative agent of chicken infectious anemia (CIA). A high prevalence of CAV has been reported in China. However, VP1 ... Chicken anemia virus (CAV) is the causative agent of chicken infectious anemia (CIA). A high prevalence of CAV has been ... Chicken anemia virus (CAV), a member of the family Circoviridae, is a non-enveloped, icosahedral virus with a negative-sense, ... Biological and molecular characterization of chicken anaemia virus isolates of Indian origin. Virus Res 2006, 118: 78-86. ...
2009; Avian Dis.; PMID 19848068; Chicken infectious anemia virus (CAV) is a worldwide-distributed infectious agent that affects ... Molecular characterization of chicken infectious anemia virus circulating in Argentina during 2007; Craig MI, Rimondi A, ... Improving the potency of DNA vaccine against chicken anemia virus (CAV) by fusing VP1 protein of CAV to Mareks Disease Virus ( ... Detection and characterization of chicken anemia virus from commercial broiler breeder chickens ...
Cys-Ala-Asn-Ala-Arg-Ala-Pro-Thr-Leu-Arg-Ser-Ala-Thr-Ala-Asp-Asn-Ser-Glu-Ser-Thr-Gly-Phe-Lys-Asn-Val-Pro-Asp-Leu-Arg-Thr-Asp-Gln-Pro-Lys-Pro-Pro-Ser
Chicken anaemia virus (CAV) isolate BL-5 VP3 gene was amplified, sequenced and expressed in E. coli as a fusion protein ... View statistics for "Sequence analysis and expression of VP3 gene of chicken anaemia virus" ... Sequence analysis and expression of VP3 gene of chicken anaemia virus. Jurnal Veterinar Malaysia, 15 (1-2). pp. 47-51. ISSN ... amino acid sequences, anaemia, fowl diseases, gene expression, genes, nucleotide sequences, poultry, viral proteins. ...
Chicken anaemia virus (CAV, blue wing disease) Occurrence: Worldwide.. Species affected: Chicken.. Age affected: Young birds, ... Causes: Circo virus of 19-24nm in diameter.. Effects: 8-10 day incubation period. Anaemia, weight depression and up to 60% ... An aplastic anaemia with gross lesions (swollen liver) is characteristic. Isolation of the virus from liver in MSB1 cells, ... It causes acute to chronic disease in young chickens. The virus is spread horizontally and vertically. ...
Chicken Anaemia Virus \ K 132 for more molecular products just contact us ... We have also other products like : Chicken Anaemia Virus. Related products : Chicken Anaemia Virus ... WP1438: Influenza A virus infection. Related Genes :. [TAOK2 KIAA0881 MAP3K17 PSK PSK1 UNQ2971/PRO7431] Serine/threonine- ... TAOK3 KFC RCJMB04_21d18] Serine/threonine-protein kinase TAO3 (EC 2.7.11.1) (Kinase from chicken) (Thousand and one amino acid ...
... is a dual-specificity phosphatase required for virus infection, assembly and replication. The functions of the nuclear ... From: Identification of the NLS and NES motifs of VP2 from chicken anemia virus and the interaction of VP2 with mini-chromosome ...
Timely and efficient diagnosis of the viruses is needed in order to practice prevention and control strategies. In the first ... Avian Adeno viruses and Chicken Anemia Viruses cause serious economic losses to the poultry industry of Pakistan each year. ... Chicken Anemia Virus) samples tested by duplex PCR. From: Duplex PCR assay for the detection of avian adeno virus and chicken ... anemia virus prevalent in Pakistan. Source of Samples No. of samples PCR positive Clinical Manifestation/Organ (Used for DNA ...
Timely and efficient diagnosis of the viruses is needed in order to practice prevention and control strategies. In the first ... Avian Adeno viruses and Chicken Anemia Viruses cause serious economic losses to the poultry industry of Pakistan each year. ... Chicken anaemia virus, previously known as chicken anaemia agent (CAA), was first isolated by Yuasa et al in 1979 [16]. The ... Avian Adeno viruses and Chicken Anemia Viruses cause serious economic losses to the poultry industry of Pakistan each year. ...
This study makes considerable progress towards developing a defined attenuated vaccine against the virus. ... The chicken anaemia virus is associated with increased mortality rates amongst chickens. ... The chicken anaemia virus is associated with increased mortality rates amongst chickens. This study makes considerable progress ... Development of a live attenuated vaccine for chicken anaemia virus PDF (79 KB) ...
This study is a follow up to a previous study on chicken anaemia virus and the improvement of a Live Attenuated Vaccine for the ... virus. The aim of this project was to perform a full assessment of the potential of the mutants developed thus far, determining ... This study is a follow up to a previous study on chicken anaemia virus and the improvement of a Live Attenuated Vaccine for the ... Further development of a live attenuated vaccine for chicken anaemia virus PDF (131 KB) ...
Virus-like-particle (VLP) vaccine for chicken infectious anemia. SBC: LARAD Inc. Topic: 83 ... Chicken anemia virus (CAV) is an important immunosuppressive pathogen of poultry. We are proposing to improve vaccines and ...
Additionally, chickens infected with the rescued viruses compared with the parental virus rM9905 to evaluate the viral ... lower than that induced by the parental virus. The rescued viruses altered the nuclear localization in MDCC-MSB1 cells. ... Based on the infectious clone, we rescued two viruses in which were deleted NES-NLS2 (rCAV-VP3N88) or NLS1-NES-NLS2 (rCAV- ... The deletion of the C-terminal region of apoptin also impaired the replication of CAV and attenuated its virulence in chickens. ...
Thymus lobes from chickens infected with both CAV viruses were smaller compared to the negative control group. At 14 days post- ... In order to understand the behavior of two Argentinean CAV strains (CAV-10 and CAV-18) in two-week-old chickens, an immune and ... Altogether our results show that, although both Argentinean CAV strains produce subclinical infections in chickens causing ... infection (dpi), only chickens inoculated with CAV-10 show a severe depletion of lymphocytes in the thymus cortex and in ...
For example, chicken anemia virus is a similar TTV-like circovirus that frequently infects commercial chicken flocks; although ... it causes anemia in chickens coinfected with a second virus such as the herpes virus responsible for Mareks leukemia (39). ... 2009) Chicken anemia virus. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 331:151-83.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Perhaps TTV incidence correlates with CLL disease severity, analogous to the situation observed for chicken anemia virus and ...
The virus was not detected in plasma samples from healthy persons. Furthermore, during observation, persons for whom ... Prevalence, biologic properties, and clinical associations of this novel virus are still incompletely understood. We used ... Effects of chicken anemia virus and infectious bursal disease virus in commercial chickens. Avian Dis. 2009;53:94-102. DOI ... Pathological and immunohistochemical study of chickens with co-infection of Mareks disease virus and chicken anaemia virus. ...
The presence of unwanted CAV in vaccines not only influences the epidemiology of chicken infectious anemia disease, but it may ... Exogenous chicken anemia virus (CAV) has been detected in commercial poultry vaccines in various countries of the world. ... Exogenous chicken anemia virus (CAV) has been detected in commercial poultry vaccines in various countries of the world. The ... "Development of TaqMan Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for Detection of Chicken Anemia Virus in Newcastle disease ...
... is an important viral pathogen that causes anemia and severe immunodeficiency syndrome in chickens worldwide. Generally, CAV ... The results indicated that VP2 and VP3 show good immunoreactivity with CAV-positive chicken sera, whereas VP1 was found to show ... These peptides were then used as antigens in indirect ELISAs against chicken sera. The results of these ELISAs using truncated ... Therefore, epidemiological investigations of CAV infection and/or the evaluation of the immunization status of chickens is ...
  • In order to understand the behavior of two Argentinean CAV strains (CAV-10 and CAV-18) in two-week-old chickens, an immune and histopathological study was performed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Altogether our results show that, although both Argentinean CAV strains produce subclinical infections in chickens causing immunosuppression at 14 dpi, they might differ in their in vivo pathogenicity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The polymerase chain reaction detected CIAV DNA in tissues, blood and sera of infected chickens while restriction endonuclease analysis indicated the circulation of a mixed population of CIAV strains among chickens in Africa. (ajol.info)
  • among our strains, five mutations were identical to those in the viruses causing hemangioma. (deepdyve.com)
  • 2013. A deletion in the glycoprotein L (gL) gene of U.S. Marek's disease virus (MDV) field strains is insufficient to confer increased pathogenicity to the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based strain, RB-1B. (illinois.edu)
  • 0.05) total white blood cell counts compared with the other groups vaccinated with various commercial strains of the Newcastle disease virus. (scielo.org.za)
  • This is the first study conducted on the pathogenic and apathogenic strains FAdV-1/A and FAdV-8a/E, showing the presence of the virus in multiple tissues in chickens in Poland. (springer.com)
  • As a result of these findings, a study on two FAdVs strains isolated from diseased chickens in Poland, including phylogenetic and pathogenic analysis, was undertaken. (springer.com)
  • Abplanalp H, Schat KA, Calnek BW (1985) Genetic resistance to Marek's disease in congenic strains of chickens. (springer.com)
  • TTV genogroup 3 also includes the 8 virus strains known as SENV-A to H. These viruses are not currently believed to cause disease in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gyrovirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Anelloviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diseases associated with this genus include: chicken infectious anemia, which is associated with depletion of cortical thymocytes and erythroblastoid cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chicken anemia virus (CAV) was, until 2011, the only member of Gyrovirus genus identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • A second virus in this genus-Avian gyrovirus 2-has been described. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aves polyomavirus 1 (APyV), formerly known as budgerigar fledgling disease virus, is a double-stranded DNA virus and a member of the family Polyomaviridae (genus Gammapolyomcivirus). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Several of the viruses characterised in the thesis (egg 'drop syndrome virus, ovine adenovirus 287, and the bovine adenovirus types 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8) were shown to be sufficiently different to warrant separation into a separate Adenovirus genus' (Atadenovirus). (bl.uk)
  • Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a member of the Aphthovirus genus in the Picornaviridae family and is the cause of foot-and-mouth disease in pigs, cattle, sheep and goats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Torovirus is a genus of viruses within the family Coronaviridae, subfamily Torovirinae that primarily infect vertebrates and include Berne virus of horses and Breda virus of cattle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bluetongue virus (BTV), a member of Orbivirus genus within the Reoviridae family causes serious disease in livestock (sheep, goat, cattle). (wikipedia.org)
  • There are currently eight species in this genus including the type species Fowl aviadenovirus A. Viruses in this genus cause specific disease syndromes such as Quail Bronchitis (QB), Egg Drop Syndrome (EDS), Haemorrhagic Enteritis (HE), Pheasant Marble Spleen Disease (MSD), Falcon adenovirus A and Inclusion Body Hepatitis (IBH). (wikipedia.org)
  • Group: dsDNA Order: Unassigned Family: Adenoviridae Genus: Aviadenovirus Falcon aviadenovirus A Fowl aviadenovirus A Fowl aviadenovirus B Fowl aviadenovirus C Fowl aviadenovirus D Fowl aviadenovirus E Goose aviadenovirus A Turkey aviadenovirus B Viruses in Aviadenovirus are non-enveloped, with icosahedral geometries, and T=25 symmetry. (wikipedia.org)
  • The family includes equine arteritis virus (EAV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus (LDV) of mice and simian haemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV). (wikipedia.org)
  • Between April and November 2010, a total of 350 spleen samples were collected from diseased chickens, aged 6-36 weeks, during necropsy at veterinary hospitals in Anhui ( n = 51),Fujian( n = 14), Hunan ( n = 127) and Jiangsu ( n = 158) provinces. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Meng, Fanfeng;Li, Qiuchen;Zhang, Yubiao;Cui, Zhizhong;Chang, Shuang;Zhao, Peng 2018-07-11 00:00:00 Abstract There was an outbreak of hemangioma associated with avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) between 2006 and 2010 in China in commercial layer chickens. (deepdyve.com)
  • ez MF Abstract Since the emergence of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H9N2 viruses in Morocco in 2016, severe respiratory problems have been encountered in the field. (medworm.com)
  • Chicken anaemia virus infects preursor T cells in the thymus and hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow, causing destruction of these cells via apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thymus lobes from chickens infected with both CAV viruses were smaller compared to the negative control group. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Adenoviral DNA was detected in the liver, spleen, kidney, gizzard, intestine, bursa of Fabricius, and thymus of every examined dead and euthanized chicken from groups I and II between the third and fourth week postinfection. (springer.com)
  • Alignment of nucleotide sequences from the UTR of TTV and related human viruses (upper box) and homologs in other primates and mammalian species and the avian virus CAV (lower box). (asmscience.org)
  • Purification and immunogenicity of hemagglutinin from highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Circoviruses are the smallest pathogenic DNA viruses that have been identified and characterized in animals. (kenyon.edu)
  • Paramyxoviruses are a diverse family of non-segmented negative strand RNA viruses that include many highly pathogenic viruses affecting humans, animals, and birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Foodborne illness (also foodborne disease and colloquially referred to as food poisoning) is any illness resulting from the food spoilage of contaminated food, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, or parasites that contaminate food, as well as toxins such as poisonous mushrooms and various species of beans that have not been boiled for at least 10 minutes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results of these ELISAs using truncated recombinant VP2 and VP3 subunit proteins as coating antigen showed that VP2-345N, VP2-396N and VP3-246M gave good immunoreactivity with CAV-positive chicken sera compared to the other subunit proteins. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Many combinations of H and N antigen in virus subtypes have been reported in domestic and wild birds. (farm.com.np)
  • In addition, virus antigen can be detected double immunodiffusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Charles River offers a wide array of avian diagnostic and regulatory testing services, including serological profiling, virus isolation and vaccine testing. (criver.com)
  • Influenza A virus is classified into subtypes based on the serological reactions of surface glycoproteins, haemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N). Sixteen H and 9 N antigens have been recognized. (farm.com.np)
  • Identification of the chicken anemia agent, reproduction of the disease, and serological survey in the United States. (elsevier.com)
  • Osiowy C , Sauder C . Detection of TT virus in human hair and skin. (cdc.gov)
  • The cloning of the newly christened TT virus provided nucleotide sequences that allowed the development of methods for its detection by PCR. (asmscience.org)
  • Moreover, although initially suspected to be transmitted only by blood transfusion, the global dispersion of the virus in populations and its detection in various biologic samples (plasma, saliva, feces, etc...) suggest combined modes of diffusion, and in particular the spread by saliva droplets. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of attenuated vaccines or the occurrence of low virulent T-lymphotropic or B-lymphotropic viruses in flocks may alter the immune responses of young chicks in spite of the absence of clinical signs. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The family includes pathogens such as rabies virus, vesicular stomatitis virus and potato yellow dwarf virus that are of public health, veterinary, and agricultural significance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flow cytometry was uesed to analyze virus-induced apoptosis in MDCC-MSB1 cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Additionally, rM9905 induced 85.39 ± 2.18% apoptosis at 96 hpi, whereas rCAV-VP3N88 and rCAV-VP3N80 induced 63.08 ± 4.78% and 62.56 ± 7.35% apoptosis, respectively, which were significantly (about 20%) lower than that induced by the parental virus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Apoptosis-Inducing Proteins in Chicken Anemia Virus and TT Virus. (wisepress.com)
  • The ability of avian reovirus to induce apoptosis is not restricted to a distinct cell type of virus strain due to the fact that several different isolates of this pathogen could induce apoptosis in different mammalian and avian cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disregarding infectivity, the number of inoculated virus particles is the significant factor that leads to apoptosis from avian reovirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • This effect is also observed when the U937 cells are infected with a recombinant H-1 virus which expresses the nonstructural (NS) proteins but in which the capsid genes are replaced by a reporter gene, indicating that the induction of apoptosis can be assigned to the cytotoxic nonstructural proteins in this cell system. (asm.org)
  • The characterisation studies were successful in identifying subgroups of adenoviruses which behaved differently from the conventional viruses, or were unusual in some of their 'properties. (bl.uk)
  • Avian Adenoviruses, reviewed and published by WikiVet at http://en.wikivet.net/Avian_Adenoviruses, accessed 18/08/2011. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though not used by the ICTV, Baltimore classification, which groups viruses together based on how they produce mRNA, is used in conjunction with the ICTV's work in modern virus classification. (wikipedia.org)
  • The next step of the study was the estimation of the pathogenicity of these isolates in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. (springer.com)
  • This hypothesis was therefore tested and confirmed in laboratory conditions using specific pathogen free chickens. (medworm.com)
  • may be confused with chicken pox may crust over typically occur on neck, armpit, or groin may present as genital lesions spreading from leg to arm to body through improper treatment with antibiotics Most carbuncles, boils, and other cases of folliculitis develop from Staphylococcus aureus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isolation of the virus from liver in MSB1 cells, identification with fluorescent conjugated antisera, and PCR are diagnostic. (poultryworld.net)
  • They can be confirmed using virus isolation, complement fixation , ELISA , immunodiffusion or histopathology (following postmortem exam ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Six isolates of ALV-J, named SDAU1701-SDAU1706, were characterized by virus isolation and sequence analysis of the complete proviral genomes. (deepdyve.com)
  • Virus Isolation Blood samples were collected aseptically from the infected Hy-Line brown layer chickens with suspected hemangioma, and all blood samples were centrifuged at 2,000 revolutions per minute for 2 min at 4°C to obtain plasma for virus isolation. (deepdyve.com)