The type species of GYROVIRUS, a small, non-enveloped DNA virus originally isolated from contaminated vaccines in Japan. It causes chicken infectious anemia and may possibly play a key role in hemorrhagic anemia syndrome, anemia dermatitis, and blue wing disease.
A genus in the family CIRCOVIRIDAE comprising the single species CHICKEN ANEMIA VIRUS.
Virus diseases caused by the CIRCOVIRIDAE.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus equine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, EQUINE), causing acute and chronic infection in horses. It is transmitted mechanically by biting flies, mosquitoes, and midges, and iatrogenically through unsterilized equipment. Chronic infection often consists of acute episodes with remissions.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
A group of pathologic syndromes found in avian species caused by RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUS. The distinct syndromes include non-neoplastic runting, acute neoplastic disease, and chronic neoplastic disease. Humans and mammals appear resistant.
Viral disease of horses caused by the equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV; INFECTIOUS ANEMIA VIRUS, EQUINE). It is characterized by intermittent fever, weakness, and anemia. Chronic infection consists of acute episodes with remissions.
A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
A genus in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE containing one species: Infectious salmon anemia virus.
A peninsula in Southeast EUROPE between the Adriatic and Ionian seas on the West and Aegean and Black Seas on the East. (from www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/balkan%20peninsula)
A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with improving and maintaining farm income and developing and expanding markets for agricultural products. Through inspection and grading services it safeguards and insures standards of quality in food supply and production.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.
The provision of monetary resources including money or capital and credit; obtaining or furnishing money or capital for a purchase or enterprise and the funds so obtained. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)
Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)
Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

The viral protein Apoptin induces apoptosis in UV-C-irradiated cells from individuals with various hereditary cancer-prone syndromes. (1/58)

Apoptin, a protein derived from chicken anemia virus, has previously been shown to induce apoptosis in a p53-independent and Bcl-2-stimulated manner in transformed and tumorigenic human cells but not in normal diploid human cells, suggesting that it is a potential agent for tumor therapy. Here we report that Apoptin can induce apoptosis in UV-C-irradiated diploid skin fibroblasts from individuals with various hereditary cancer-prone syndromes that are characterized by a germ-line mutation in a tumor suppressor gene. The same effect is found when these cells are irradiated with X-rays. In contrast, diploid skin fibroblasts from healthy donors or from individuals with DNA repair disorders are not responsive to Apoptin-induced apoptosis upon UV-C or X-ray irradiation. After transfection of untreated cells, Apoptin is found predominantly in the cytoplasm, whereas in UV-C-exposed Apoptin-responsive cancer-prone cells, it migrates to the nucleus, where it causes rapid apoptosis. Apoptin remains localized in the cytoplasm after UV-C treatment of diploid cells from healthy individuals. The induction of apoptosis by Apoptin in cancer-prone cells with a germ-line mutation in a tumor suppressor gene is UV dose-dependent and transient, just like many other UV-induced processes. These results suggest that Apoptin may be used as a diagnostic tool for detection of individuals with an increased risk for hereditary cancer and premalignant lesions.  (+info)

The chicken anemia virus-derived protein apoptin requires activation of caspases for induction of apoptosis in human tumor cells. (2/58)

The chicken anemia virus protein Apoptin has been shown to induce apoptosis in a large number of transformed and tumor cell lines, but not in primary cells. Whereas many other apoptotic stimuli (e.g., many chemotherapeutic agents and radiation) require functional p53 and are inhibited by Bcl-2, Apoptin acts independently of p53, and its activity is enhanced by Bcl-2. Here we study the involvement of caspases, an important component of the apoptotic machinery present in mammalian cells. Using a specific antibody, active caspase-3 was detected in cells expressing Apoptin and undergoing apoptosis. Although Apoptin activity was not affected by CrmA, p35 did inhibit Apoptin-induced apoptosis, as determined by nuclear morphology. Cells expressing both Apoptin and p35 showed only a slight change in nuclear morphology. However, in most of these cells, cytochrome c is still released and the mitochondria are not stained by CMX-Ros, indicating a drop in mitochondrial membrane potential. These results imply that although the final apoptotic events are blocked by p35, parts of the upstream apoptotic pathway that affect mitochondria are already activated by Apoptin. Taken together, these data show that the viral protein Apoptin employs cellular apoptotic factors for induction of apoptosis. Although activation of upstream caspases is not required, activation of caspase-3 and possibly also other downstream caspases is essential for rapid Apoptin-induced apoptosis.  (+info)

Distribution of chicken anaemia virus in the reproductive tissues of specific-pathogen-free chickens. (3/58)

The specific-pathogen-free (SPF) flocks of chickens maintained by the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at Cornell University became infected, inadvertently, with chicken anaemia virus (CAV), as demonstrated by seroconversion. Chickens from five flocks representing three different strains were examined for the presence of CAV using nested PCR. Virus was detected in ovaries, infundibula, vas deferentia, testes and spleens. Ovaries were positive in 38 to 72% of the hens in four flocks with 13 to 56 birds examined per flock. Interestingly, the ovaries were often the only positive tissues, while a few hens had only positive spleens. In roosters, the vas deferens was positive in 30 to 79% of the birds with 5 to 19 birds examined per flock; the vas deferens was the only positive tissue in 20 to 37%. Individual cells in the theca externa and rare epithelial cells in the infundibular epithelium were positive for CAV by in situ PCR. Positive cells were not detected in testes or vas deferentia. The SH-1 strain of CAV was isolated from these tissues and partially sequenced. Only minor sequence differences were found compared to CIA-1 and Cux-1. Embryos from matings between persistently infected dams and sire had CAV-positive cells in mesenchyme near the developing vertebral column. The data show that CAV persists in the reproductive tissues far longer than previously thought, and that it can be vertically transmitted from persistently infected birds.  (+info)

Serological monitoring on layer farms with specific pathogen-free chickens. (4/58)

To monitor the existence of avian pathogens in laying chicken flocks, specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens were introduced into two layer farms and reared with laying hens for 12 months. SPF chickens were bled several times after their introduction and examined for their sero-conversion to avian pathogens. As a result, antibodies to eight or ten kinds of pathogens were detected in SPF chickens on each farm. Antibodies to infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), avian nephritis virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum and M. synoviae were detected early within the first month. Antibody titer to IBV suggested that the laying chickens were infected with IBV repeatedly during the experiment on both farms. However, antibodies to infectious bursal disease virus and 6 pathogens were not detected.  (+info)

Identification of a genetic determinant of pathogenicity in chicken anaemia virus. (5/58)

The molecular basis of pathogenicity of the chicken anaemia virus (CAV) needs to be clarified in order to develop a safe, live virus vaccine. In this study, several high- and low-pathogenic infectious DNA clones were obtained from field virus samples after 12 or 38 passages in MDCC-MSB1 cells. The high-pathogenic clones induced a low haematocrit, low weight gain and high mortality. Nucleotide sequence analyses identified one amino acid, at residue 394 of the VP1 capsid protein, as a major determinant of pathogenicity. To determine the role of this amino acid in pathogenicity, chimeric infectious DNA clones and point-mutated clones were used for chicken pathogenicity tests. These analyses clearly demonstrated that residue 394 of VP1 was crucial for the pathogenicity of CAV; all of the cloned viruses with glutamine at this position were highly pathogenic, whereas those with histidine had low pathogenicity. Low-pathogenic CAV, based on an infectious DNA clone, is a candidate for a genetically homogeneous and stable CAV live vaccine.  (+info)

Molecular basis of the attenuation exhibited by molecularly cloned highly passaged chicken anemia virus isolates. (6/58)

Chimeric virus experiments indicated that the pathogenicity and monoclonal antibody reactivity differences between two molecularly cloned, highly passaged chicken anemia virus isolates could be attributed to the VP1 amino acid change at residue 89. The introduction of this change into a pathogenic cloned low-passage isolate was not sufficient to cause attenuation.  (+info)

A tumor-specific kinase activity regulates the viral death protein Apoptin. (7/58)

Apoptin, a chicken anemia virus-encoded protein, is thought to be activated by a general tumor-specific pathway, because it induces apoptosis in a large number of human tumor or transformed cells but not in their normal, healthy counterparts. Here, we show that Apoptin is phosphorylated robustly both in vitro and in vivo in tumor cells but negligibly in normal cells, and we map the site to threonine 108. A gain-of-function point mutation (T108E) conferred upon Apoptin the ability to accumulate in the nucleus and kill normal cells, implying that phosphorylation is a key regulator of the tumor-specific properties of Apoptin. An activity that could phosphorylate Apoptin on threonine 108 was found specifically in tumor and transformed cells from a variety of tissue origins, suggesting that activation of this kinase is generally associated with the cancerous or pre-cancerous state. Moreover, analyses of human tissue samples confirm that Apoptin kinase activity is detectable in primary malignancies but not in tissue derived from healthy individuals. Taken together, our results support a model whereby the dysregulation of the cellular pathway leading to the phosphorylation of Apoptin contributes to human tumorigenesis.  (+info)

Apoptin induces tumor-specific apoptosis as a globular multimer. (8/58)

The chicken anemia virus-derived Apoptin protein induces tumor-specific apoptosis. Here, we show that recombinant Apoptin protein spontaneously forms non-covalent globular aggregates comprising 30 to 40 subunits in vitro. This multimerization is robust and virtually irreversible, and the globular aggregates are also stable in cell extracts, suggesting that they remain intact within the cell. Furthermore, studies of Apoptin expressed in living cells confirm that Apoptin indeed exists in large complexes in vivo. We map the structural motifs responsible for multimerization in vitro and aggregation in vivo to the N-terminal half of the protein. Moreover, we show that covalently fixing the Apoptin monomers within the recombinant protein multimer by internal cross-linking does not affect the biological activity of Apoptin, as these fixed aggregates exhibit similar tumor-specific localization and apoptosis-inducing properties as non-cross-linked Apoptin. Taken together, our results imply that recombinant Apoptin protein is a multimer when inducing apoptosis, and we propose that this multimeric state is an essential feature of its ability to do so. Finally, we determine that Apoptin adopts little, if any, regular secondary structure within the aggregates. This surprising result would classify Apoptin as the first protein for which, rather than the formation of a well defined tertiary and quaternary structure, semi-random aggregation is sufficient for activity.  (+info)

Chicken anemia virus (CAV) is a small, non-enveloped DNA virus that belongs to the family *Circoviridae* and genus *Gyrovirus*. It primarily infects chickens and causes a variety of clinical signs, including severe anemia, immunosuppression, and runting in young birds.

The virus is highly contagious and can be spread through horizontal transmission via feces, contaminated equipment, or vertically from infected breeder hens to their offspring. CAV infection can lead to significant economic losses in the poultry industry due to decreased growth rates, increased mortality, and reduced egg production.

In addition to its impact on the poultry industry, CAV has also been used as a vector for gene delivery in biomedical research. Its small genome size and ability to infect a wide range of avian species make it an attractive candidate for vaccine development and gene therapy applications.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Gyrovirus" is not a widely recognized or established term in medical virology. It appears that "Gyrovirus" is a term used to describe a genus of viruses in the family Anelloviridae. These viruses are small, non-enveloped DNA viruses that infect a variety of animals, including birds and mammals. They are known for their genetic diversity and complex replication strategy. However, they are not typically associated with human diseases.

If you have any further questions or need information on a specific medical topic, please don't hesitate to ask!

Circoviridae is a family of small, non-enveloped viruses that infect a wide range of hosts, including animals and birds. The infection caused by circoviruses in animals and birds can result in a variety of symptoms depending on the species infected and the particular circovirus involved.

In pigs, circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the most well-known member of this family and is associated with a number of clinical conditions, collectively known as porcine circovirus diseases (PCVD). These conditions include postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS), and reproductive failure.

In birds, circoviruses can cause various symptoms such as runting and stunting, feather abnormalities, and immunosuppression, leading to secondary infections. The most well-known avian circovirus is the beak and feather disease virus (BFDV), which infects psittacine birds, including parrots, causing beak deformities, feather loss, and immune suppression.

However, it's important to note that circoviruses are also found in humans, but currently, there is no evidence that human circovirus infections cause disease.

In general, circoviridae infections can be diagnosed through various laboratory tests such as PCR, sequencing, and serology. Treatment typically involves supportive care and management of secondary infections, as there are no specific antiviral therapies available for circovirus infections. Prevention strategies include good biosecurity practices, vaccination, and avoidance of contact with infected animals or their feces.

Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA) is a viral disease that affects horses and other equine animals. The causative agent of this disease is the Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV), which belongs to the family Retroviridae and genus Lentivirus. This virus is primarily transmitted through the transfer of infected blood, most commonly through biting insects such as horseflies and deerflies.

The EIAV attacks the immune system of the infected animal, causing a variety of symptoms including fever, weakness, weight loss, anemia, and edema. The virus has a unique ability to integrate its genetic material into the host's DNA, which can lead to a lifelong infection. Some animals may become chronic carriers of the virus, showing no signs of disease but remaining infectious to others.

There is currently no cure for EIA, and infected animals must be isolated to prevent the spread of the disease. Vaccines are available in some countries, but they do not provide complete protection against infection and may only help reduce the severity of the disease. Regular testing and monitoring of equine populations are essential to control the spread of this virus.

"Chickens" is a common term used to refer to the domesticated bird, Gallus gallus domesticus, which is widely raised for its eggs and meat. However, in medical terms, "chickens" is not a standard term with a specific definition. If you have any specific medical concern or question related to chickens, such as food safety or allergies, please provide more details so I can give a more accurate answer.

Poultry diseases refer to a wide range of infectious and non-infectious disorders that affect domesticated birds, particularly those raised for meat, egg, or feather production. These diseases can be caused by various factors including viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, genetic predisposition, environmental conditions, and management practices.

Infectious poultry diseases are often highly contagious and can lead to significant economic losses in the poultry industry due to decreased production, increased mortality, and reduced quality of products. Some examples of infectious poultry diseases include avian influenza, Newcastle disease, salmonellosis, colibacillosis, mycoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and coccidiosis.

Non-infectious poultry diseases can be caused by factors such as poor nutrition, environmental stressors, and management issues. Examples of non-infectious poultry diseases include ascites, fatty liver syndrome, sudden death syndrome, and various nutritional deficiencies.

Prevention and control of poultry diseases typically involve a combination of biosecurity measures, vaccination programs, proper nutrition, good management practices, and monitoring for early detection and intervention. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of poultry diseases is crucial to implementing effective treatment and prevention strategies, and can help minimize the impact of disease outbreaks on both individual flocks and the broader poultry industry.

Capsid proteins are the structural proteins that make up the capsid, which is the protective shell of a virus. The capsid encloses the viral genome and helps to protect it from degradation and detection by the host's immune system. Capsid proteins are typically arranged in a symmetrical pattern and can self-assemble into the capsid structure when exposed to the viral genome.

The specific arrangement and composition of capsid proteins vary between different types of viruses, and they play important roles in the virus's life cycle, including recognition and binding to host cells, entry into the cell, and release of the viral genome into the host cytoplasm. Capsid proteins can also serve as targets for antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Avian reticuloendotheliosis is a viral disease that primarily affects chickens and other birds. It is caused by the Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), which belongs to the family Retroviridae. The virus is capable of transforming cells, making it capable of causing various types of tumors and neoplastic diseases in birds.

The disease is characterized by a variety of symptoms, including weight loss, anemia, weakness, and decreased egg production. In addition, birds may develop enlarged organs such as the liver, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius. The virus can also cause immunosuppression, making infected birds more susceptible to other infections.

Avian reticuloendotheliosis is typically transmitted through the horizontal route, which means that it is spread from bird to bird through direct contact or through contaminated feed and water. The virus can also be transmitted vertically, meaning that it can be passed from parent to offspring through the egg.

There is no specific treatment for avian reticuloendotheliosis, and prevention is focused on implementing strict biosecurity measures to prevent the spread of the virus. Vaccination may also be used in some cases to help control the disease.

Equine infectious anemia (EIA) is a viral disease that affects horses and other equine animals. It is caused by the Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV), which is transmitted through the bloodstream of infected animals, often through biting insects such as horseflies and deerflies.

The symptoms of EIA can vary widely, but often include fever, weakness, weight loss, anemia, and edema. In severe cases, the disease can cause death. There is no cure for EIA, and infected animals must be isolated to prevent the spread of the virus.

EIA is diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of antibodies to the virus. Horses that test positive for EIA are typically euthanized or permanently quarantined. Prevention measures include testing horses before they are bought, sold, or moved, as well as controlling insect populations and using insect repellents. Vaccines are not available for EIA in most countries.

Anemia is a medical condition characterized by a lower than normal number of red blood cells or lower than normal levels of hemoglobin in the blood. Hemoglobin is an important protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. Anemia can cause fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, and a pale complexion because the body's tissues are not getting enough oxygen.

Anemia can be caused by various factors, including nutritional deficiencies (such as iron, vitamin B12, or folate deficiency), blood loss, chronic diseases (such as kidney disease or rheumatoid arthritis), inherited genetic disorders (such as sickle cell anemia or thalassemia), and certain medications.

There are different types of anemia, classified based on the underlying cause, size and shape of red blood cells, and the level of hemoglobin in the blood. Treatment for anemia depends on the underlying cause and may include dietary changes, supplements, medication, or blood transfusions.

Viral DNA refers to the genetic material present in viruses that consist of DNA as their core component. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is one of the two types of nucleic acids that are responsible for storing and transmitting genetic information in living organisms. Viruses are infectious agents much smaller than bacteria that can only replicate inside the cells of other organisms, called hosts.

Viral DNA can be double-stranded (dsDNA) or single-stranded (ssDNA), depending on the type of virus. Double-stranded DNA viruses have a genome made up of two complementary strands of DNA, while single-stranded DNA viruses contain only one strand of DNA.

Examples of dsDNA viruses include Adenoviruses, Herpesviruses, and Poxviruses, while ssDNA viruses include Parvoviruses and Circoviruses. Viral DNA plays a crucial role in the replication cycle of the virus, encoding for various proteins necessary for its multiplication and survival within the host cell.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

A viral genome is the genetic material (DNA or RNA) that is present in a virus. It contains all the genetic information that a virus needs to replicate itself and infect its host. The size and complexity of viral genomes can vary greatly, ranging from a few thousand bases to hundreds of thousands of bases. Some viruses have linear genomes, while others have circular genomes. The genome of a virus also contains the information necessary for the virus to hijack the host cell's machinery and use it to produce new copies of the virus. Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is important for developing vaccines and antiviral treatments.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Isavirus" is not a commonly used medical term or a name of a specific disease in humans or animals. It appears to be a term used in virology to describe a group of viruses that infect certain marine algae. Isaviruses are double-stranded RNA viruses that belong to the family "Rironaviridae" and order "Ligamenvirales." They infect a variety of marine diatoms, which are important primary producers in marine ecosystems.

If you have any questions related to human or animal health, I would be happy to help with those!

The Balkan Peninsula, also known as the Balkans, is a geographical region located in southeastern Europe. It is surrounded by the Adriatic Sea to the west, the Ionian Sea to the southwest, the Aegean Sea to the south and the Black Sea to the east. The peninsula is made up of several countries including Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Kosovo, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Serbia, Slovenia, and parts of Greece and Romania.

The Balkan Peninsula has a diverse landscape with mountain ranges, rivers, and coastlines. It is home to a variety of cultures, languages, and religions, making it a unique and complex region in Europe. The term "Balkanization" was coined based on the political fragmentation that occurred in this region during the 19th and 20th centuries.

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) is not a medical organization or entity, so it does not provide medical definitions. However, I can give you some information about what the USDA is and what it does.

The USDA is a federal executive department of the U.S. government responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food. It was established in 1862 by President Abraham Lincoln and is headed by the Secretary of Agriculture, who is a member of the President's cabinet.

The USDA has several key missions, including:

* Promoting agricultural trade and production
* Ensuring the safety of the food supply
* Providing nutrition assistance to vulnerable populations
* Protecting natural resources and the environment
* Promoting rural development and economic stability

In terms of food and nutrition, the USDA plays an important role in setting dietary guidelines for Americans, establishing standards for school meals and other federal food programs, and regulating the safety of meat, poultry, and egg products. The agency also conducts research on agricultural and food-related topics and provides education and outreach to farmers, ranchers, and consumers.

"Klebsiella pneumoniae" is a medical term that refers to a type of bacteria belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. It's a gram-negative, encapsulated, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium that can be found in various environments, including soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals.

"Klebsiella pneumoniae" is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause a range of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions. It's a common cause of healthcare-associated infections, such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, and wound infections.

The bacterium is known for its ability to produce a polysaccharide capsule that makes it resistant to phagocytosis by white blood cells, allowing it to evade the host's immune system. Additionally, "Klebsiella pneumoniae" has developed resistance to many antibiotics, making infections caused by this bacterium difficult to treat and a growing public health concern.

In the context of medical research, authorship refers to the recognition of individuals who have made significant contributions to the development and completion of a scientific paper or research project. The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) has established guidelines for determining authorship, which include the following four criteria:

1. Substantial contribution to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work.
2. Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content.
3. Final approval of the version to be published.
4. Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

All authors should meet these criteria, and their contributions should be clearly described in the manuscript. It is important to note that authorship should not be granted based on position or status alone, but rather on the basis of substantial intellectual contribution and commitment to the work.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Financial Support" is not a medical term. It generally refers to the provision of money or other financial resources to help meet expenses or needs. In a healthcare context, it might refer to assistance provided to patients who are unable to afford their medical costs, such as through insurance, government programs, or charitable organizations. However, there is no specific medical definition for this term.

In the context of medicine, "publications" typically refers to the dissemination of research findings or other medical information through various forms of media. This can include:

1. Peer-reviewed journals: These are scientific or medical publications that undergo a rigorous review process by experts in the field before they are accepted for publication. They represent some of the most reliable sources of medical information.

2. Conference proceedings: Medical conferences often publish abstracts, presentations, or posters from the event. These can provide early insights into ongoing research and new developments in the field.

3. Books and book chapters: Medical texts and reference books are a common form of publication, offering comprehensive overviews of specific topics or conditions.

4. Online platforms: Websites, blogs, and social media platforms have become increasingly popular ways to share medical information. While these can be valuable resources, it's important to critically evaluate the quality and reliability of the information presented.

5. News articles and press releases: Media outlets may report on new medical research or developments, although these should also be approached with caution as they may not always accurately represent the findings or context of the original research.

It's worth noting that all publications should be evaluated based on their source, methodology, and relevance to the specific question or issue at hand.

Disease notification is the process by which health care professionals, laboratories, or other relevant individuals or organizations inform public health authorities about cases of specific diseases or conditions that are reportable (also known as notifiable) within a particular jurisdiction. Reportable diseases are those that have been designated by law or regulation as posing a significant risk to public health and for which timely reporting is necessary to enable effective surveillance, control measures, and prevention strategies.

The specific diseases and conditions that must be reported, as well as the procedures for reporting, vary by jurisdiction. Common reportable diseases include infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, measles, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), as well as non-infectious conditions like cancer and lead poisoning.

The purpose of disease notification is to provide public health officials with accurate and up-to-date information about the occurrence and spread of diseases in a population. This information can help inform policy decisions, guide resource allocation, and support the development and implementation of evidence-based interventions to protect and promote the health of communities.

... anemia_virus_infection/overview_of_chicken_anemia_virus_infection.html 2. Chicken Anaemia Virus Disease, expert reviewed and ... infectious chicken anemia, chicken infectious anemia virus, and chicken anemia agent.[citation needed] When this virus was ... The disease and virus have many names including chicken anemia, blue wing disease, anemia dermatitis syndrome, chicken/avian ... Chicken anemia virus, or CAV, is currently a member of the Anelloviridae family which is found worldwide. The virus only ...
Avian Rhinotracheitis Virus; Avian Rotavirus; Avian Tuberculosis M. avium; Chicken Anemia Virus; Endogenous GS Antigen; Fowl ... Avian Lymphoid Leukosis Virus; Lymphoid Leukosis Viruses A,B,C,D,E,J; Marek's Disease (Serotypes 1,2, 3); Mycoplasma ... Avian Nephritis Virus, Avian Paramyxovirus Type 2, Avian Reovirus S 1133, ... gallisepticum; Mycoplasma synoviae; Newcastle Disease LaSota; Reticuloendotheliosis Virus; Salmonella pullorum-gallinarum ; ...
... caused by Anatid alphaherpesvirus 1 Chicken infectious anemia, caused by Chicken anaemia virus Epidemic tremor, caused by ... Fatoba, A. J.; Adeleke, M. A. (2019). "Chicken anemia virus: A deadly pathogen of poultry". Acta Virologica. 63 (1): 19-25. doi ... caused by Infectious bursal disease virus Lymphoid leukosis caused by avian sarcoma leukosis virus Marek's disease Newcastle ... Focus on avian influenza virus and infectious bronchitis virus". Cytokine. 127: 154961. doi:10.1016/j.cyto.2019.154961. PMC ...
... is a genus of viruses, in the family Anelloviridae. Until 2011, chicken anemia virus was the only Gyrovirus ... a virus related to chicken anemia virus". J Virol. 85 (15): 7948-7950. doi:10.1128/jvi.00639-11. PMC 3147908. Maggi, F; Macera ... Chicken anemia virus, porcine circovirus type 2, and beak and feather disease virus". Journal of Virology. 77 (24): 13036-13041 ... Chicken anemia virus (CAV) was, until 2011, the only member of genus Gyrovirus identified. It causes disease worldwide in areas ...
It has a low level of homology to the Circovirus chicken anemia virus. The virus can be isolated from the blood and all the ... ORF 2 has some homology to the viral protein 2 of chicken anaemia virus. ORF 3 has no homology to any known protein. Similarly ... Sea turtle tornovirus 1 is a single stranded DNA virus that was isolated from a turtle with fibropapillomatosis in 2009. The ... J Virol 83(6):2500-2509 (Articles with 'species' microformats, Single-stranded DNA viruses). ...
These include Marek's Disease, Duck Hepatitis Virus, Chicken Anemia Virus, Turkeypox, Fowlpox and others. Bird immunity is ... Infectious bursal disease virus and chicken anemia are ubiquitous and have increased interest in combatting avian pathogens. ... Massive internal bleeding and hemorrhaging follow and this has earned the H5N1 virus the moniker "chicken ebola." Much like ... The most common immunosuppressive viruses are Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV), Avian Leukosis, Marek's Disease (MD) and ...
From 1987 to 1992 he performed research on the chicken anemia virus together with Mathieu Noteborn. In 1988 his teaching ... "HEK293: when the virus meets the cell". synabs.be. 6 October 2020. Archived from the original on 16 October 2020. Sander Becker ... In 1974 van der Eb and Graham demonstrated that loose virus DNA could cause cancer. In 1974 van der Eb became a lector of ... He studied adenoviruses and characterized the virus DNA in 1966. He obtained his PhD at Leiden University in 1968 with a thesis ...
... circular minus-strand DNA found in the Chicken Anemia Virus (CAV) genome. This virus belongs to the Gyrovirus genus, and is ... Toolan, H.W., Saunders, E.L., Southam, C.M., Moore, A.E. and Levin, A.G. (1965) H-l virus viremia in the human. Proc. Sot. Exp ... However, because he was focusing his studies on SV40, a tumor-causing virus affecting monkeys and humans, he did not pay much ... Toolan, H.W. and Ledinko, N. (1968) Inhibition by H-l virus of the incidence of tumors produced by adenovirus 12 in hamsters. ...
... infectious bursal disease virus, and chicken anemia virus. Avian reoviruses are also typically resistant to certain ... Engstrom, B.E.; Fossum, O; Luthman, M (1988). "Blue wing disease of chickens: isolation of avian reovirus and chicken anemia ... Virus particles can range between 70 and 80 nm. Morphologically, the virus is a double stranded RNA virus that is composed of ... When young chickens are experimentally infected with avian reovirus, it is spread rapidly throughout all tissues. This virus is ...
... and chicken anaemia virus". Virology. 249 (2): 453-9. doi:10.1006/viro.1998.9324. PMID 9791035. Fogell, Deborah J.; Martin, ... The causative virus-beak and feather disease virus (BFDV)-belongs to the taxonomic genus Circovirus, family Circoviridae. It ... The virus was originally designated PCV (psittacine circovirus), but has since been renamed beak and feather disease virus. ... Adult birds coming into contact with the virus usually (but not always) develop resistance to it, but the virus is retained in ...
... chicken infectious anemia. Viruses in the family Circoviridae are non-enveloped, with icosahedral and round geometries, and T=1 ... The same virus has been isolated from the faeces of healthy children and also from pigs and chickens. This suggests an ... Animal viruses Breitbart, Mya; Delwart, Eric; Rosario, Karyna; Segalés, Joaquim; Varsani, Arvind (2017). "ICTV Virus Taxonomy ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2020 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2021. Retrieved 11 May 2021. ...
... chicken anemia virus MeSH B04.280.350.500 - maize streak virus MeSH B04.280.375.100 - avihepadnavirus MeSH B04.280.375.100.450 ... chicken anemia virus MeSH B04.909.204.210 - dna tumor viruses MeSH B04.909.204.210.400 - gammaherpesvirinae MeSH B04.909. ... yellow fever virus MeSH B04.820.250.400 - gb virus a MeSH B04.820.250.405 - gb virus b MeSH B04.820.250.410 - GB virus C MeSH ... yellow fever virus MeSH B04.909.777.310.400 - gb virus a MeSH B04.909.777.310.405 - gb virus b MeSH B04.909.777.310.410 - GB ...
Angola Chicken anaemia virus, a virus that affects poultry Clarion Municipal Airport (FAA identifier), in Clarion, Iowa Colegio ...
... virus Equine foamy virus Equine infectious anemia virus Equine mastadenovirus A Equine mastadenovirus B Equine rhinitis A virus ... Gutovirus Vc1 Gwanakrovirus SNUABM08 Gyeongsanvirus DURPI Gyeongsanvirus RsoP1EGY Gylbovirus aagae Gyrovirus chickenanemia ... virus A Potato virus H Potato virus M Potato virus P Potato virus S Potato virus T Potato virus V Potato virus X Potato virus Y ... Garlic mite-borne filamentous virus Garlic virus A Garlic virus B Garlic virus C Garlic virus D Garlic virus E Garlic virus X ...
Circoviruses are small single-stranded DNA viruses. There are two genera: gyrovirus, with one species called chicken anemia ... Louis encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, Israel turkey meningoencephalomyelitis virus, Sitiawan virus, Wesselsbron virus, ... Flaviviruses include the West Nile virus, dengue virus, Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus, Yellow Fever Virus, and several other ... The family includes pathogens such as rabies virus, vesicular stomatitis virus and potato yellow dwarf virus that are of public ...
QI01AD04 Chicken anaemia QI01AD05 Avian adenovirus QI01AD06 Newcastle disease virus/paramyxovirus QI01AD07 Avian infectious ... disease virus + newcastle disease virus/paramyxovirus QI01AD12 Avian pox virus QI01AD13 Avian leucosis virus QI01AD14 Avian ... disease virus + newcastle disease virus/paramyxovirus + avian rhinotracheitis virus QI01AA07 Avian infectious bronchitis virus ... avian herpes virus (Marek's disease) QI01AD16 Avian herpes virus (Marek's disease) + avian infectious bursal disease virus ( ...
Goodpasture and Alice Miles Woodruff publish their results on growing influenza and several other viruses in fertilised chicken ... Wills, L. (1931). "Treatment of 'pernicious anaemia' of pregnancy and 'tropical anaemia', with special reference to yeast ... Goodpasture, E. W.; Woodruff, Alice M.; Buddingh, G. J. (9 October 1931). "The Cultivation of Vaccine and Other Viruses in the ... Richard Shope publishes three papers identifying influenza A virus as the cause of swine influenza. December 3 - The drug Alka- ...
Specifically, Egg Drop Syndrome can be diagnosed by hemagglutinin inhibition and the virus causes haemagglutination in chickens ... Anaemia and dehydration may develop secondary to this haemorrhagic enteritis. Signs of reproductive disease (Egg Drop Syndrome ... The virus exits the host cell by nuclear envelope breakdown, viroporins, and lysis. Birds serve as the natural host. "Virus ... The virus is mainly spread horizontally by the oro-fecal route, but vertical transmission can occur in serogroup 1. Once it has ...
Thereafter, the matured chickens begin to excrete virus and transmit through the eggs and droppings. The virus is also ... The fall in egg production can be up to 40%. The affected chickens may show transient diarrhoea, anaemia, and loss of appetite ... Moreover, the virus become apparent and more susceptible in chickens of all ages and breeds, especially broilers and brown egg ... The virus can survive both inside the eggs and on the eggshell. The virus can migrate from the eggshell to the tray and back to ...
Related viruses have been found in chimpanzees, apes, African monkeys, tupaias, chickens, pigs, cows, sheep and dogs. Vertical ... Hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia during a primary infection of genotype 1a torque teno virus. Eur J Pediatr. 2010 Jul;169(7 ... virus 5 Torque teno virus 1 Torque teno virus 2 Torque teno virus 3 Torque teno virus 4 Torque teno virus 5 Torque teno virus 6 ... Torque teno virus 7 Torque teno virus 9 Torque teno virus 10 Torque teno virus 13 Torque teno virus 14 Torque teno virus 15 ...
... influenza viruses that contribute to the inability to agglutinate chicken erythrocytes". Virology. 289 (1): 74-85. doi:10.1006/ ... of red blood cells is used in the Coombs test in diagnostic immunohematology to test for autoimmune hemolytic anemia. In the ... Mumps hemagglutinin-neuraminidase: a kind of hemagglutinin that the mumps virus (MuV) produces, which is the virus that causes ... consists of mixing virus samples with serum dilutions so that antibodies bind to the virus before RBCs are added to the mix. ...
... chicken) Glycine max (soybean) Hepatitis C Virus Homo sapiens (human) Human Herpesvirus (1,2,3,4,5,6A,6B,7,8) Human ... Fanconi Anemia, and COVID-19. As of 18 October 2020[update], BioGRID themed curation project efforts have resulted in the ... Tobacco Mosaic Virus Ustilago maydis 521 (corn smut) Vaccinia Virus Vitis vinifera (common grape vine) Xenopus laevis (African ... Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1) Human Immunodeficiency Virus 2 (HIV-2) Human Papillomavirus (HPV, 10, 16, 32, 5, 6B, 7, 9) ...
"Multiplicity reactivation and mutagenesis of trimethylpsoralen-damaged herpes virus in normal and Fanconi's anaemia cells". ... "Safety and efficacy of a turkey herpesvirus vector laryngotracheitis vaccine for chickens". Avian Diseases. 57 (2): 192-8. doi: ... adenovirus simian virus 40, vaccinia virus, reovirus, poliovirus and herpes simplex virus. When HSV particles are exposed to ... Animal herpes viruses all share some common properties. The structure of herpes viruses consists of a relatively large, double- ...
Yoo, Patrick C. Y. (2019). "Viruses and Bats". Viruses. 11 (10): 884. doi:10.3390/v11100884. PMC 6832948. PMID 31546572. Downes ... The 1999 version of The Oxford Companion to Food states that the flavor of fruit bats is similar to that of chicken, and that ... One study in Madagascar predicted that the rate of childhood anemia would increase 29% if access to bushmeat, including bat ... 90 (23). "Ebola virus disease". World Health Organization. 30 May 2019. Leendertz, Siv Aina J.; Gogarten, Jan F.; Düx, Ariane; ...
Rash (reddened skin area) Itching skin Pimples or pustules located around a hair or follicle; may be confused with chicken pox ... Herpetic folliculitis is rarer, but may occur when herpes simplex virus infection spreads to nearby hair follicles appearing in ... Folliculitis can affect people of all ages.[citation needed] Iron-deficiency anemia is sometimes associated with chronic cases ...
Circulating antibodies are produced by clonal B cells that specifically respond to only one antigen (an example is a virus ... Antigens are also injected into chickens for generation of polyclonal antibodies in egg yolk. To obtain antibody that is ... Antibodies directed against red blood cell surface antigens in immune mediated hemolytic anemia are detected with the Coombs ... For example, in biochemical assays for disease diagnosis, a titer of antibodies directed against Epstein-Barr virus or Lyme ...
... chicken pox, shingles), and coxsackie A virus (hand, foot and mouth disease). Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) creates ... anemia, leukemia, Epstein-Barr virus, HIV infection, diabetes) microbiological swabs (infection), or urinalysis (diabetes). A ... Epstein-Barr virus-positive mucocutaneous ulcer is a rare form of the Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative ... Rezk SA, Zhao X, Weiss LM (September 2018). "Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoid proliferations, a 2018 update". Human ...
A. persicus is a natural reservoir for B. anserina as it helps these spirochetes survive longer.West Nile virus was also found ... Blood loss during infection could occur as well and result in clinical anemia. Controlling the larvae is important as it acts ... "Avian Spirochetosis in Chickens following Experimental Transmission of Borrelia Anserina by Argas (Persicargas) Miniatus." ... "Avian Spirochetosis in Chickens following Experimental Transmission of Borrelia Anserina by Argas (Persicargas) Miniatus." ...
Because herpes simplex virus (HSV) proteins are richer in arginine and poorer in lysine than the cells they infect, lysine ... Lysine has also been shown to play a role in anaemia, as lysine is suspected to have an effect on the uptake of iron and, ... to animal feed because it is a limiting amino acid when optimizing the growth of certain animals such as pigs and chickens for ... "Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to L-lysine and immune defence against herpes virus (ID 453 ...
Zidovudine may worsen anemia so anemic patients are advised to use an alternative agent. For women who are coinfected with ... During this time, the virus itself is not latent or inactive, but it is sequestered inside of the lymph nodes, where it is ... Chicken pox) vaccine regardless of their HIV statuses, as these vaccines can potentially harm the fetus. The following ... This test also detects a protein called p24 in maternal blood, which is a specific component of the HIV virus itself and also ...
... anemia_virus_infection/overview_of_chicken_anemia_virus_infection.html 2. Chicken Anaemia Virus Disease, expert reviewed and ... infectious chicken anemia, chicken infectious anemia virus, and chicken anemia agent.[citation needed] When this virus was ... The disease and virus have many names including chicken anemia, blue wing disease, anemia dermatitis syndrome, chicken/avian ... Chicken anemia virus, or CAV, is currently a member of the Anelloviridae family which is found worldwide. The virus only ...
Effects of chicken anemia virus and infectious bursal disease virus in commercial chickens. Avian Dis. 2009;53:94-102. DOI ... Pathological and immunohistochemical study of chickens with co-infection of Mareks disease virus and chicken anaemia virus. ... Persistent infection with chicken anaemia virus and some effects of highly virulent infectious bursal disease virus infection ... a virus related to chicken anemia virus. J Virol. 2011;85:7948-50. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Newcastle disease virus (PMV-1) is the most important pathogen of this group for poultry, but PMV-2, -3, -6, and -7 infections ... have been reported in chickens and turkeys in association with respiratory disease or decreases in egg production. ...
VP 3 (Chicken anemia virus) (89-121) (Linear) 100 g call us. ... VP 3 (Chicken anemia virus) (49-85) 100 g call us. V004 VMAT 2 ...
In preparation of a study to resolve whether H5N1 viruses are transmissible by aerosol in an animal model that is a surrogate ... Influenza H5N1 and H3N2 viruses remain stable under the conditions used for aerosol generation and sample collection. The NBIES ... The NBIES delivers doses of aerosolized influenza viruses with high efficacy, and uses less starting material than other ... Particular attention was paid towards system safety, efficacy of dissemination, the viability of aerosolized virus, and ...
... were screened by PCR for Newcastle disease virus (NDV), coronavirus (CoV) and chicken anaemia virus (CAV). Chicken sera were ... Diverse coronavirus and chicken anemia virus strains co-circulated. Phylogenetic analyses suggested virus transmission between ... Fishers exact test and logistic regression were applied to identify factors potentially influencing virus shedding in chickens ... Cross-species transmission of poultry pathogens in backyard farms: ducks as carriers of chicken viruses. ...
Intervet/Schering-Plough Animal Health sponsors peer-reviewed website on chicken anemia virus. ...
Chicken anemia virus Antibody * Chicken Antibody * Clostridium perfringens Antibody * Danio rerio Antibody ...
Chicken Anaemia Virus Infection: Chicken anemia virus infection or CAV is an acute viral infection found worldwide. It can ... Chicken Anaemia Virus Infection, Gumboro Disease, Fowl Pox, etc.. Talk to your vet and get the right vaccination and medication ... infect chickens of all ages; however, it is mostly detected in young chickens. CAV affects the immune system of the chicken, ... Posted in PoultryTagged Chicken Diseases, Mortality, Mortality Rate Post navigation. Incubator vs HEN - Which is Best for ...
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) exists as a complex population of multiple genotypic variants in persons with ... Multiple V1/V2 env variants are frequently present during primary infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1.在哪里下载?这篇文献 ... abstract::Apoptin, a viral death protein derived from chicken anemia virus, displays a number of tumor-specific behaviors. In ... Sindbis virus and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Glycopeptides isolated from Sindbis virus and VSV grown in the same host ...
High prevalence of norovirus GII.P16/GII.2 and chicken anemia virus in two acute gastroenteritis outbreaks in Huzhou, China. Li ... Viruses 2019 Sep (10) HOST-MICROBE INTERACTIONS. * The Need to Focus on Therapy Instead of Associations. Reid Gregor et al. ... Is the Bombali virus pathogenic in humans? Martell Henry J et al. Bioinformatics (Oxford, England) 2019 Oct (19) 3553-3558 ... Emergence of the Asian lineage of Zika virus in Angola: an outbreak investigation. Hill Sarah C et al. The Lancet. Infectious ...
If it does happen, we surveil for infectious bursal disease (IBD) as well as chicken anemia virus and Mareks disease. Those ... When more virus is present, it takes fewer cycles to be identified with the test. When less virus is present, it takes more ... Some even boost in the field with yet another virus. So what does that actually do to virus evolution? I dont know; I dont ... We should have a vaccine virus thats going to induce an antibody thats going to bind to a circulating field virus in a place ...
Chicken Anaemia Virus Infection (or CAV). *Chlamydophilosis. *Coccidiosis. *Colibacillosis. *Cryptosporidiosis. *Differences ...
Effects of chicken anaemia virus and infectious bursal disease virus-induced immunodeficiency on infectious bronchitis virus ... Infectious Bronchitis Virus Subpopulations in Vaccinated Chickens After Challenge. Avian Diseases 2012, 56:501-508.. ... PERK-Mediated Unfolded Protein Response Signaling Restricts Replication of the Tick-Borne Flavivirus Langat Virus. Viruses 2020 ... Bovine viral diarrhea virus fetal persistent infection after immunization with a contaminated modified-live virus vaccine. ...
Chicken anemia virus B4.909.204.120.400.150 Chicory J2.500.850.237 Chikungunya virus B4.909.777.923.54.198 Chilblains C26.212. ... Infectious Anemia Virus, Equine B4.909.777.731.589.520.400 Infectious bronchitis virus B4.909.777.500.540.150.500 Infectious ... GB virus A B4.909.777.310.400 GB virus B B4.909.777.310.475.405 GB virus C B4.909.777.310.410 Gemella B3.353.500.310 Gene ... Hepatitis A virus B4.909.777.618.400.410 Hepatitis A Virus, Human B4.909.777.618.400.410.500 Hepatitis B virus B4.909.204.340. ...
Chicken anemia virus B4.909.204.120.400.150 Chicory J2.500.850.237 Chikungunya virus B4.909.777.923.54.198 Chilblains C26.212. ... Infectious Anemia Virus, Equine B4.909.777.731.589.520.400 Infectious bronchitis virus B4.909.777.500.540.150.500 Infectious ... GB virus A B4.909.777.310.400 GB virus B B4.909.777.310.475.405 GB virus C B4.909.777.310.410 Gemella B3.353.500.310 Gene ... Hepatitis A virus B4.909.777.618.400.410 Hepatitis A Virus, Human B4.909.777.618.400.410.500 Hepatitis B virus B4.909.204.340. ...
The virus can cause infected chickens to show signs of loss of appetite, anaemia or temporary diarrhoea. ... The broiler chicken family tree. 14 March 2022. Chickens raised for meat are called broilers, or broiler chickens. With chicken ... This would suggest that the chicken has been infected with the virus. Serological testing works for non-vaccinated chickens. ... Infected chickens can pass the virus through their eggs or droppings. Egg Drop Syndrome can also be transmitted horizontally ...
Avian viruses *Circoviridae *Chicken Anaemia Virus. *Birnaviruses *Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) ... A new paper, on the "Presence of Vaccine-Derived Newcastle Disease Viruses in Wild Birds" by the contributors to our recent ... New in Avian Pathology: "Spotlight on Avian Pathology: Fowlpox virus" * Meeting: Molecular biology and pathogenesis of avian ... viruses in from Monday 3 to Tuesday 4 September 2018 at St Catherines College, University of Oxford, UK. ...
chicken (2) *Chicken anaemia virus (CAV) (1) *chicken broilers (2) *chickens (4) ...
Kylt® Chicken Anaemia Virus (CAV) Kylt® Dichelobacter nodosus Kylt® Dichelobacter nodosus typing ...
Our Chicken Pox Test In Kendall Identifies Immunity From Previous Exposure Or Vaccination. ... Wondering If You Need To Be Vaccinated For Chicken Pox? ... Varicella Virus (Chicken Pox) Titer. The Varicella Zoster Virus ... However, this test is mainly used to determine certain types of anemia. ... VZV) Titer is a blood test that checks if you are immune to Varicella Zoster Virus, also known as Chickenpox and Shingles. It ...
Assessment of Zoonotic Risk from Infectious Salmon Anaemia virus. *The Welfare of Chickens kept for Meat Production (Broilers) ... Report of the Scientific Committee on the Suggested Protocol for the Importation of Live Animals from Bluetongue Virus (BTV) ... and Epizootic Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (EHDV) into the European Union adopted 21 October 1998 ... and Epizootic Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (EHDV) Endemic Areas adopted 21 October 1998 ...
... anemia" HAM15V = "Medical reason to change eating: stroke" HAM15W = "Med reason change eating: psychological" HAM15X = "Med to ... "Chicken and turkey - times/month" HAN2JS = "Eggs - times/month" HAN3AS = "Orange juice, etc - times/month" HAN3BS = "Other ... change eating:infections/viruses" HAM15Y = "Medical reason to change eating: dietary" HAM15Z = "Med reason to change eat: ...
Comparing his work with the chicken viruses, which started with a cancer and led to a virus, and with the Shope virus, which ... Significance of the hemo- siderosis of pernicious anemia. l. Exp. Med., 35:521-31. With H. Haessler and G. O. Broun. The renal ... It was expedient to say that the chicken tumor was not a cancer, but some kind of reaction to the virus more akin to ... Yet this does not exclude a virus causation for them, since the sera of fowls with Chicken Tumor I and Fujinami Sarcoma ...
The result is they become stressed, suffering anaemia, reducing egg production and even de ... These nasty bugs dont live on your chickens but hide in the framework of your coop, perches and nest boxes, only coming out at ... Chickens (1) All collections * *Chicken Housing Toggle submenu Chicken Housing * Omlet Chicken Coops ... Its also a powerful disinfectant, killing bacteria, viruses and odour in coops.. Appletons Poultry Safeguard is New Zealand ...
You should also be tested to make sure you have antibodies against rubella (German measles) and varicella zoster virus (chicken ... Anemia. Anemia is a fairly common pregnancy condition that occurs when you have low levels of hemoglobin in your blood. ... The most common cause of anemia is iron deficiency because your body uses iron to make hemoglobin. Other common anemias are ... hepatitis B virus and some sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). You may also be tested for the HIV virus. You may also have a ...
Viruses - eg herpes/chicken pox etc. SUFFER NOW. SUFFERED IN THE PAST. ... anemia. SUFFER NOW. SUFFERED IN THE PAST. *. Forgetful/vague. SUFFER NOW. SUFFERED IN THE PAST. ...
Chicken Pox:. Chicken Pox, in extreme cases, has been found to be one cause of strokes in children.. Author Credentials:. ... Sickle Cell Anemia:. Sickle Cell Anemia is a disease which causes red blood cells to produce abnormal hemoglobin, the portion ... Antibodies are usually produced by the immune system in order to fight foreign substances in the body, such as viruses and ... Sickle Cell Anemia is caused by Hemoglobin, S, which is an abnormal type of Hemoglobin. A person inherits the disease from ...
Anemia may result from folate deficiency, hemolysis, or hypersplenism. [48] Thrombocytopenia usually is secondary to ... Only rarely are patients not able to tolerate proteins in the form of chicken, fish, vegetables, and nutritional supplements. ... Concomitant human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitor therapy markedly reduces tacrolimus metabolism and increases blood ... Gonzalez-Casas R, Jones EA, Moreno-Otero R. Spectrum of anemia associated with chronic liver disease. World J Gastroenterol. ...
  • In older chickens, an infection with no apparent symptoms may cause reduced growth rates due to a poor feed conversion ratio. (wikipedia.org)
  • She was initially very frightened of my older chickens - and with good reason, since the four. (backyardchickens.com)
  • Sickle Cell Anemia is a disease which causes red blood cells to produce abnormal hemoglobin, the portion of the blood that carries oxygen throughout the body. (disabled-world.com)
  • Sickle Cell Anemia is caused by Hemoglobin, 'S,' which is an abnormal type of Hemoglobin. (disabled-world.com)
  • The disease and virus have many names including chicken anemia, blue wing disease, anemia dermatitis syndrome, chicken/avian infectious anemia, hemorrhagic aplastic anemia syndrome, infectious chicken anemia, chicken infectious anemia virus, and chicken anemia agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toro H , van Santen VL , Hoerr FJ , Breedlove C . Effects of chicken anemia virus and infectious bursal disease virus in commercial chickens. (cdc.gov)
  • Imai K , Mase M , Tsukamoto K , Hihara H , Yuasa N . Persistent infection with chicken anaemia virus and some effects of highly virulent infectious bursal disease virus infection on its persistence. (cdc.gov)
  • Poultry Safeguard is a blend of high foaming surfactants, sequestrates and alkaline builders and quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) which effectively dissolves waxy accumulations and is effective against a range of microbes (including Avian Influenza Virus, Avian Infectious Bronchitis and Newcastle's disease) and micro-organisms including bacteria, mildew, moulds and fungi. (chooks.co.nz)
  • HHV-4, also known as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), causes the primary infection infectious mononucleosis , and it is implicated in various diseases, such as African Burkitt lymphoma , other immunoproliferative disorders, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. (medscape.com)
  • It's also a powerful disinfectant, killing bacteria, viruses and odou r in coops. (chooks.co.nz)
  • Antibodies are usually produced by the immune system in order to fight foreign substances in the body, such as viruses and bacteria. (disabled-world.com)
  • There are a number of bacteria and viruses are present in the raw salmon like salmonella, shigella, vibrio, clostridium botulinum, staphylococcus aureus, listeria Monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, hepatitis A, and Norovirus which are very fatal for humans. (exactlyhowlong.com)
  • CAV is a non-enveloped icosahedral single stranded DNA virus, which causes bone marrow atrophy, anemia, and severe immunosuppression. (wikipedia.org)
  • https://web.archive.org/web/20131125042946/http://www.merckmanuals.com/vet/poultry/chicken_anemia_virus_infection/overview_of_chicken_anemia_virus_infection.html 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dermanyssus gallinae , the poultry red mite, chicken mite or roost mite, is a major pest of fowl, pigeons, and other caged birds worldwide. (koppert.ca)
  • The Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) Titer is a blood test that checks if you are immune to Varicella Zoster Virus, also known as Chickenpox and Shingles. (anylabtestnow.com)
  • Zovirax is an antiviral drug, a synthetic analog of the purine nucleoside, which has the ability to inhibit in vitro and in vivo replication of Herpes simplex type 1 and 2 viruses, Varicella zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV). (bestpharmbuy.com)
  • HHV-3, also known as varicella-zoster virus (VZV), causes the primary infection chickenpox and the secondary reactivation disease herpes zoster. (medscape.com)
  • Clinical disease is rare today because of the widespread practice of vaccinating breeders, but the subclinical form of the disease-which normally affects birds more than two weeks of age following horizontal transmission of the virus via the fecal-oral route-is ubiquitous. (wikipedia.org)
  • Birds that have been infected develop immunity to the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Histomonas meleagridis, a flagellated protozoan parasite, is the causative agent of histomonosis in turkeys, chickens, and occasionally other galliform birds. (kitpcr.com)
  • A new paper , on the " Presence of Vaccine-Derived Newcastle Disease Viruses in Wild Birds " by the contributors to our recent page on NDV , is reviewed on TWiV in episode 411 ("Chicken runs" ). (avianvirusresearch.org)
  • These nasty bugs don't live on your chickens but hide in the framework of your coop, perches and nest boxes, only coming out at night to feed on the blood of your birds. (chooks.co.nz)
  • Avian Flu, otherwise known as bird flu , is a highly contagious virus that impacts birds. (chipperbirds.com)
  • Infected birds can spread the virus through their saliva, poo and also contaminate their environment and other birds. (chipperbirds.com)
  • Chicken Anaemia Virus Disease, expert reviewed and published by Wikivet, accessed 30/08/2011. (wikipedia.org)
  • Haridy M , Goryo M , Sasaki J , Okada K . Pathological and immunohistochemical study of chickens with co-infection of Marek's disease virus and chicken anaemia virus. (cdc.gov)
  • Wart virus foot oxiuri in timpul sarcinii, hpv and cancer nci chicken papilloma disease. (transroute.ro)
  • The name "fifth disease" is used because it is considered the fifth viral infection that commonly causes rash in children (the first four are measles, rubella, chicken pox, and roseola). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Hemolytic Disease of the Fetus and Neonate Hemolytic disease of the fetus and neonate is hemolytic anemia in the fetus (or neonate, as erythroblastosis neonatorum) caused by transplacental transmission of maternal antibodies to fetal. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Sickle Cell Disease Sickle cell disease (a hemoglobinopathy) causes a chronic hemolytic anemia occurring almost exclusively in people with African ancestry. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Rapid antigen tests were performed for influenza A and B and respiratory syncytial virus. (bvsalud.org)
  • Herpesvirus family members are icosahedral DNA viruses. (medscape.com)
  • It's caused by the influenza A virus and can exist in different strains. (chipperbirds.com)
  • fowl pox virus) as well as bacterial infections ( Escherichia coli , Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae , Pasteurella multocida , Salmonella gallinarum and S. enteritidis ). (koppert.ca)
  • For prevention of recurrence of infections caused by the virus Herpes simplex type 1 and 2 at patients with normal immune status The recommended dose of Zovirax is 200 mg 4 times / day (every 6 hours). (bestpharmbuy.com)
  • 1997 USPHS/IDSA guidelines for the prevention of opportunistic infections in persons infected with human immuno- deficiency virus. (cdc.gov)
  • Sauvage V , Chevalb J , Foulongnec V , Gouilha MA , Parientea K , Manuguerra JC , Identification of the first human gyrovirus, a virus related to chicken anemia virus. (cdc.gov)
  • This reduces the production of red blood cells (RBC) and white blood cells (WBC), leading to severe immunosuppression and anemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Herpes genital virus papiloma humano uterine cancer treatment, papiloma que es y como se contagia testicular cancer xenograft. (transroute.ro)
  • Thymidine kinase of cells infected with Herpes simplex type 1 and 2 viruses, Varicella zoster, EBV and CMV, converts acyclovir into acyclovir monophosphate, a nucleoside analogue, which is then sequentially converted to diphosphate and triphosphate under the action of cellular enzymes. (bestpharmbuy.com)
  • The effect of acyclovir on strains of the Herpes simplex virus in vitro can also lead to the formation of less sensitive strains. (bestpharmbuy.com)
  • The correlation between the sensitivity of Herpes simplex virus strains to acyclovir in vitro and the clinical efficacy of the drug has not been established. (bestpharmbuy.com)
  • HHV-1, also known as herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1, causes primary herpetic gingivostomatitis, or oral herpes. (medscape.com)
  • The helminths infection has symptoms like weight loss, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and in severe cases, it can cause anemia. (exactlyhowlong.com)
  • [ 5 , 6 ] In a localized primary infection, the virus penetrates the mucosal epithelium and invades the cells of the basal layer, where the viral DNA inserts into the host DNA. (medscape.com)
  • The chicken anemia virus-derived protein apoptin requires activation of caspases for induction of apoptosis in human tumor cells. (cdc.gov)
  • DNA damage response signaling triggers nuclear localization of the chicken anemia virus protein apoptin. (cdc.gov)
  • If the chicken has other symptoms such as lethargy, lack of appetite, or breathing difficulty, get a vet right away. (chipperbirds.com)
  • Infected saliva or droplets spread the viruses in the oral cavity. (medscape.com)
  • Tan J , Tannock GA . Role of viral load in the pathogenesis of chicken anemia virus. (cdc.gov)
  • Virus isolation, increased antibody titres, immunoperoxidase staining, ELISA, PCR or indirect immunofluorescence can be used to confirm the presence of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isolation and characterization of Akhmeta virus from wild caught rodents ( Apodemus spp. (cdc.gov)
  • Hereditary Spherocytosis and Hereditary Elliptocytosis Hereditary spherocytosis and hereditary elliptocytosis are congenital red blood cell (RBC) membrane disorders that can cause a mild hemolytic anemia. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Osiowy C , Sauder C . Detection of TT virus in human hair and skin. (cdc.gov)
  • The result is they become stressed, suffering anaemia, reducing egg production and even death if not treated. (chooks.co.nz)
  • Chicken anemia virus, or CAV, is currently a member of the Anelloviridae family which is found worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Maggi F , Focosi D , Lanini L , Sbranti S , Mazzetti P , Macera L , Xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus is not found in peripheral blood cells from treatment-naive human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients. (cdc.gov)
  • citation needed] When this virus was first discovered in 1979, it was named chicken anemia agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Uterine cancer walk papilloma on eyelid pictures, cancer laringe metastase human papilloma virus portal of entry. (transroute.ro)
  • Ninth report of the International Committee for the Taxonomy of Viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • Pure Red Blood Cell Aplasia Acquired pure red blood cell aplasia is a disorder of erythroid precursors that results in an isolated normocytic anemia. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The virus is very resistant in the environment, making elimination very difficult. (wikipedia.org)