The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.
An extra-embryonic membranous sac derived from the YOLK SAC of REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. It lies between two other extra-embryonic membranes, the AMNION and the CHORION. The allantois serves to store urinary wastes and mediate exchange of gas and nutrients for the developing embryo.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Common name for two distinct groups of BIRDS in the order GALLIFORMES: the New World or American quails of the family Odontophoridae and the Old World quails in the genus COTURNIX, family Phasianidae.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.
The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.
Proteins obtained from species of BIRDS.
The outermost extra-embryonic membrane surrounding the developing embryo. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it adheres to the shell and allows exchange of gases between the egg and its environment. In MAMMALS, the chorion evolves into the fetal contribution of the PLACENTA.
A highly vascularized extra-embryonic membrane, formed by the fusion of the CHORION and the ALLANTOIS. It is mostly found in BIRDS and REPTILES. It serves as a model for studying tumor or cell biology, such as angiogenesis and TISSUE TRANSPLANTATION.
Early pregnancy loss during the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN stage of development. In the human, this period comprises the second through eighth week after fertilization.
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).
A layer of cells lining the fluid-filled cavity (blastocele) of a BLASTULA, usually developed from a fertilized insect, reptilian, or avian egg.
The earliest developmental stage of a fertilized ovum (ZYGOTE) during which there are several mitotic divisions within the ZONA PELLUCIDA. Each cleavage or segmentation yields two BLASTOMERES of about half size of the parent cell. This cleavage stage generally covers the period up to 16-cell MORULA.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
Paired, segmented masses of MESENCHYME located on either side of the developing spinal cord (neural tube). Somites derive from PARAXIAL MESODERM and continue to increase in number during ORGANOGENESIS. Somites give rise to SKELETON (sclerotome); MUSCLES (myotome); and DERMIS (dermatome).
A genus of BIRDS in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES, containing the common European and other Old World QUAIL.
An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.
A cartilaginous rod of mesodermal cells at the dorsal midline of all CHORDATE embryos. In lower vertebrates, notochord is the backbone of support. In the higher vertebrates, notochord is a transient structure, and segments of the vertebral column will develop around it. Notochord is also a source of midline signals that pattern surrounding tissues including the NEURAL TUBE development.
The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.
Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
A paralytic condition of the legs caused by ingestion of lathyrogens, especially BETA-AMINOPROPIONITRILE or beta-N-oxalyl amino-L-alanine, which are found in the seeds of plants of the genus LATHYRUS.
The posterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of an embryonic brain. It consists of myelencephalon, metencephalon, and isthmus rhombencephali from which develop the major BRAIN STEM components, such as MEDULLA OBLONGATA from the myelencephalon, CEREBELLUM and PONS from the metencephalon, with the expanded cavity forming the FOURTH VENTRICLE.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.
The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.
Utilization or disposal of an embryo that is fertilized but not immediately transplanted and resulting course of action.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.
An early embryo that is a compact mass of about 16 BLASTOMERES. It resembles a cluster of mulberries with two types of cells, outer cells and inner cells. Morula is the stage before BLASTULA in non-mammalian animals or a BLASTOCYST in mammals.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Distinct regions of mesenchymal outgrowth at both flanks of an embryo during the SOMITE period. Limb buds, covered by ECTODERM, give rise to forelimb, hindlimb, and eventual functional limb structures. Limb bud cultures are used to study CELL DIFFERENTIATION; ORGANOGENESIS; and MORPHOGENESIS.
A tube of ectodermal tissue in an embryo that will give rise to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, including the SPINAL CORD and the BRAIN. Lumen within the neural tube is called neural canal which gives rise to the central canal of the spinal cord and the ventricles of the brain. For malformation of the neural tube, see NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.
A fibroblast growth factor that preferentially activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 4. It was initially identified as an androgen-induced growth factor and plays a role in regulating growth of human BREAST NEOPLASMS and PROSTATIC NEOPLASMS.
The first of four extra-embryonic membranes to form during EMBRYOGENESIS. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it arises from endoderm and mesoderm to incorporate the EGG YOLK into the DIGESTIVE TRACT for nourishing the embryo. In placental MAMMALS, its nutritional function is vestigial; however, it is the source of INTESTINAL MUCOSA; BLOOD CELLS; and GERM CELLS. It is sometimes called the vitelline sac, which should not be confused with the VITELLINE MEMBRANE of the egg.
A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.
Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An epithelial outgrowth of the cloaca in birds similar to the thymus in mammals. It atrophies within 6 months after birth and remains as a fibrous remnant in adult birds. It is composed of lymphoid tissue and prior to involution, is the site of B-lymphocyte maturation.
A technique in which electric pulses of intensity in kilovolts per centimeter and of microsecond-to-millisecond duration cause a temporary loss of the semipermeability of CELL MEMBRANES, thus leading to ion leakage, escape of metabolites, and increased uptake by cells of drugs, molecular probes, and DNA.
Cells in certain regions of an embryo that self-regulate embryonic development. These organizers have been found in dorsal and ventral poles of GASTRULA embryos, including Spemann organizer in amphibians, and Hensen node in chicken and mouse. These organizer cells communicate with each other via a network of secreted signaling proteins, such as BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS and their antagonists (chordin and noggin).
1,4-Dihydro-2,4,6-trimethyl-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylic acid diethyl ester.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
Transference of tissue within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
One of a pair of excretory organs (mesonephroi) which grows caudally to the first pair (PRONEPHROI) during development. Mesonephroi are the permanent kidneys in adult amphibians and fish. In higher vertebrates, proneprhoi and most of mesonephroi degenerate with the appearance of metanephroi. The remaining ducts become WOLFFIAN DUCTS.
A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Experimentation on, or using the organs or tissues from, a human or other mammalian conceptus during the prenatal stage of development that is characterized by rapid morphological changes and the differentiation of basic structures. In humans, this includes the period from the time of fertilization to the end of the eighth week after fertilization.
An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes condensation of the succinyl group from succinyl coenzyme A with glycine to form delta-aminolevulinate. It is a pyridoxyal phosphate protein and the reaction occurs in mitochondria as the first step of the heme biosynthetic pathway. The enzyme is a key regulatory enzyme in heme biosynthesis. In liver feedback is inhibited by heme. EC
The techniques used to select and/or place only one embryo from FERTILIZATION IN VITRO into the uterine cavity to establish a singleton pregnancy.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
Reagent used as an intermediate in the manufacture of beta-alanine and pantothenic acid.
An allylic compound that acts as a suicide inactivator of CYTOCHROME P450 by covalently binding to its heme moiety or surrounding protein.
The formation of one or more genetically identical organisms derived by vegetative reproduction from a single cell. The source nuclear material can be embryo-derived, fetus-derived, or taken from an adult somatic cell.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
A region, of SOMITE development period, that contains a number of paired arches, each with a mesodermal core lined by ectoderm and endoderm on the two sides. In lower aquatic vertebrates, branchial arches develop into GILLS. In higher vertebrates, the arches forms outpouchings and develop into structures of the head and neck. Separating the arches are the branchial clefts or grooves.
A hard or leathery calciferous exterior covering of an egg.
Embryonic and fetal development that takes place in an artificial environment in vitro.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Methods of implanting a CELL NUCLEUS from a donor cell into an enucleated acceptor cell.
Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The founding member of the nodal signaling ligand family of proteins. Nodal protein was originally discovered in the region of the mouse embryo primitive streak referred to as HENSEN'S NODE. It is expressed asymmetrically on the left side in chordates and plays a critical role in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during vertebrate development.
Goosecoid protein is a homeodomain protein that was first identified in XENOPUS. It is found in the SPEMANN ORGANIZER of VERTEBRATES and plays an important role in neuronal CELL DIFFERENTIATION and ORGANOGENESIS.
A process of complicated morphogenetic cell movements that reorganizes a bilayer embryo into one with three GERM LAYERS and specific orientation (dorsal/ventral; anterior/posterior). Gastrulation describes the germ layer development of a non-mammalian BLASTULA or that of a mammalian BLASTOCYST.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
A technique for maintaining or growing TISSUE in vitro, usually by DIFFUSION, perifusion, or PERFUSION. The tissue is cultured directly after removal from the host without being dispersed for cell culture.
Congenital malformations of the central nervous system and adjacent structures related to defective neural tube closure during the first trimester of pregnancy generally occurring between days 18-29 of gestation. Ectodermal and mesodermal malformations (mainly involving the skull and vertebrae) may occur as a result of defects of neural tube closure. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp31-41)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
The plasma membrane of the egg.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
The three primary germinal layers (ECTODERM; ENDODERM; and MESODERM) developed during GASTRULATION that provide tissues and body plan of a mature organism. They derive from two early layers, hypoblast and epiblast.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).
A vitamin antagonist which has teratogenic effects.
The field of biology which deals with the process of the growth and differentiation of an organism.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.
Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.
The arterial trunk arising from the fetal heart. During development, it divides into AORTA and the PULMONARY ARTERY.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
The study of the development of an organism during the embryonic and fetal stages of life.
A HEPARIN binding fibroblast growth factor that may play a role in LIMB BUDS development.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
An agent that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.
The potential of the FETUS to survive outside the UTERUS after birth, natural or induced. Fetal viability depends largely on the FETAL ORGAN MATURITY, and environmental conditions.
Compounds that contain three methine groups. They are frequently used as cationic dyes used for differential staining of biological materials.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
A unisexual reproduction without the fusion of a male and a female gamete (FERTILIZATION). In parthenogenesis, an individual is formed from an unfertilized OVUM that did not complete MEIOSIS. Parthenogenesis occurs in nature and can be artificially induced.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Plant extracts from several species, including genera STRYCHNOS and Chondodendron, which contain TETRAHYDROISOQUINOLINES that produce PARALYSIS of skeletal muscle. These extracts are toxic and must be used with the administration of artificial respiration.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Ducts that serve exclusively for the passage of eggs from the ovaries to the exterior of the body. In non-mammals, they are termed oviducts. In mammals, they are highly specialized and known as FALLOPIAN TUBES.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
The head of a long bone that is separated from the shaft by the epiphyseal plate until bone growth stops. At that time, the plate disappears and the head and shaft are united.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Somewhat flattened, globular echinoderms, having thin, brittle shells of calcareous plates. They are useful models for studying FERTILIZATION and EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Cytoplasm stored in an egg that contains nutritional reserves for the developing embryo. It is rich in polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins.
Transforming protein coded by myc oncogenes. The v-myc protein has been found in several replication-defective avian retrovirus isolates which induce a broad spectrum of malignancies.
The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).
A linear band of rapidly proliferating cells that begins near the posterior end of an embryo and grows cranially. Primitive streak is formed during GASTRULATION by the convergent migration of primary ectodermal cells (EPIBLAST). The knot at the tip of the streak is called HENSEN NODE.
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE family. Previously a large group of serotypes, most are now considered separate species.
Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.
The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.
Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the OVUM; ZYGOTE; or BLASTOCYST prior to implantation. CYTOGENETIC ANALYSIS is performed to determine the presence or absence of genetic disease.
A glycoprotein albumin from hen's egg white with strong iron-binding affinity.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
An early embryonic developmental process of CHORDATES that is characterized by morphogenic movements of ECTODERM resulting in the formation of the NEURAL PLATE; the NEURAL CREST; and the NEURAL TUBE. Improper closure of the NEURAL GROOVE results in congenital NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.
Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
Ganglia of the parasympathetic nervous system, including the ciliary, pterygopalatine, submandibular, and otic ganglia in the cranial region and intrinsic (terminal) ganglia associated with target organs in the thorax and abdomen.
Preparations made from animal tissues or organs (ANIMAL STRUCTURES). They usually contain many components, any one of which may be pharmacologically or physiologically active. Tissue extracts may contain specific, but uncharacterized factors or proteins with specific actions.
Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.
Congenital structural deformities of the upper and lower extremities collectively or unspecified.
The most well known avian paramyxovirus in the genus AVULAVIRUS and the cause of a highly infectious pneumoencephalitis in fowl. It is also reported to cause CONJUNCTIVITIS in humans. Transmission is by droplet inhalation or ingestion of contaminated water or food.
The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.
The anatomical parts that make up an organism in the early stages of development.
A family of VERTEBRATE homeodomain proteins that share homology with orthodenticle protein, Drosophila. They regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and play an important role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT of the BRAIN.
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A mucopolysaccharide constituent of chondrin. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

Studies on the response of ewes to live chlamydiae adapted to chicken embryos or tissue culture. (1/14041)

Ewes infected before gestation with chicken embryo or tissue culture adapted chlamydial strain B-577 were challenge inoculated with the homologous strain at four to 18 weeks of gestation. The ewes responsed with group specific complement fixing antibody titers of 1:8 to 1:256 by the second week after initial infection. A secondary antibody response in the surviving challenge inoculated ewes occurred at the time of lambing and reached titers of 1:32 to 1:256 by the second week after parturition. Group specific complement fixing antibodies did not appear to play a significant role in resistance to chlamydial infection. Ewes infected with the chicken embryo adapted strain B-577 excreted chlamydiae in their feces 60 days after inoculation. However, chlamydiae were not recovered from feces of ewes infected with the tissue culture adapted strain B-577. Placentas of ewes challenge inoculated by the intravenous route were consistently infected. Chlamydiae were recovered from placentas, some fetuses and lambs. In two instances when challenge inoculation was given by the intramuscular route, infection was detected only by the direct fluorescent antibody method.  (+info)

The surface ectoderm is essential for nephric duct formation in intermediate mesoderm. (2/14041)

The nephric duct is the first epithelial tubule to differentiate from intermediate mesoderm that is essential for all further urogenital development. In this study we identify the domain of intermediate mesoderm that gives rise to the nephric duct and demonstrate that the surface ectoderm is required for its differentiation. Removal of the surface ectoderm resulted in decreased levels of Sim-1 and Pax-2 mRNA expression in mesenchymal nephric duct progenitors, and caused inhibition of nephric duct formation and subsequent kidney development. The surface ectoderm expresses BMP-4 and we show that it is required for the maintenance of high-level BMP-4 expression in lateral plate mesoderm. Addition of a BMP-4-coated bead to embryos lacking the surface ectoderm restored normal levels of Sim-1 and Pax-2 mRNA expression in nephric duct progenitors, nephric duct formation and the initiation of nephrogenesis. Thus, BMP-4 signaling can substitute for the surface ectoderm in supporting nephric duct morphogenesis. Collectively, these data suggest that inductive interactions between the surface ectoderm, lateral mesoderm and intermediate mesoderm are essential for nephric duct formation and the initiation of urogenital development.  (+info)

FGF8 induces formation of an ectopic isthmic organizer and isthmocerebellar development via a repressive effect on Otx2 expression. (3/14041)

Beads containing recombinant FGF8 (FGF8-beads) were implanted in the prospective caudal diencephalon or midbrain of chick embryos at stages 9-12. This induced the neuroepithelium rostral and caudal to the FGF8-bead to form two ectopic, mirror-image midbrains. Furthermore, cells in direct contact with the bead formed an outgrowth that protruded laterally from the neural tube. Tissue within such lateral outgrowths developed proximally into isthmic nuclei and distally into a cerebellum-like structure. These morphogenetic effects were apparently due to FGF8-mediated changes in gene expression in the vicinity of the bead, including a repressive effect on Otx2 and an inductive effect on En1, Fgf8 and Wnt1 expression. The ectopic Fgf8 and Wnt1 expression domains formed nearly complete concentric rings around the FGF8-bead, with the Wnt1 ring outermost. These observations suggest that FGF8 induces the formation of a ring-like ectopic signaling center (organizer) in the lateral wall of the brain, similar to the one that normally encircles the neural tube at the isthmic constriction, which is located at the boundary between the prospective midbrain and hindbrain. This ectopic isthmic organizer apparently sends long-range patterning signals both rostrally and caudally, resulting in the development of the two ectopic midbrains. Interestingly, our data suggest that these inductive signals spread readily in a caudal direction, but are inhibited from spreading rostrally across diencephalic neuromere boundaries. These results provide insights into the mechanism by which FGF8 induces an ectopic organizer and suggest that a negative feedback loop between Fgf8 and Otx2 plays a key role in patterning the midbrain and anterior hindbrain.  (+info)

Requirement of a novel gene, Xin, in cardiac morphogenesis. (4/14041)

A novel gene, Xin, from chick (cXin) and mouse (mXin) embryonic hearts, may be required for cardiac morphogenesis and looping. Both cloned cDNAs have a single open reading frame, encoding proteins with 2,562 and 1,677 amino acids for cXin and mXin, respectively. The derived amino acid sequences share 46% similarity. The overall domain structures of the predicted cXin and mXin proteins, including proline-rich regions, 16 amino acid repeats, DNA-binding domains, SH3-binding motifs and nuclear localization signals, are highly conserved. Northern blot analyses detect a single message of 8.9 and 5.8 kilo base (kb) from both cardiac and skeletal muscle of chick and mouse, respectively. In situ hybridization reveals that the cXin gene is specifically expressed in cardiac progenitor cells of chick embryos as early as stage 8, prior to heart tube formation. cXin continues to be expressed in the myocardium of developing hearts. By stage 15, cXin expression is also detected in the myotomes of developing somites. Immunofluorescence microscopy reveals that the mXin protein is colocalized with N-cadherin and connexin-43 in the intercalated discs of adult mouse hearts. Incubation of stage 6 chick embryos with cXin antisense oligonucleotides results in abnormal cardiac morphogenesis and an alteration of cardiac looping. The myocardium of the affected hearts becomes thickened and tends to form multiple invaginations into the heart cavity. This abnormal cellular process may account in part for the abnormal looping. cXin expression can be induced by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) in explants of anterior medial mesoendoderm from stage 6 chick embryos, a tissue that is normally non-cardiogenic. This induction occurs following the BMP-mediated induction of two cardiac-restricted transcription factors, Nkx2.5 and MEF2C. Furthermore, either MEF2C or Nkx2.5 can transactivate a luciferase reporter driven by the mXin promoter in mouse fibroblasts. These results suggest that Xin may participate in a BMP-Nkx2.5-MEF2C pathway to control cardiac morphogenesis and looping.  (+info)

Mechanisms of GDF-5 action during skeletal development. (5/14041)

Mutations in GDF-5, a member of the TGF-beta superfamily, result in the autosomal recessive syndromes brachypod (bp) in mice and Hunter-Thompson and Grebe-type chondrodysplasias in humans. These syndromes are all characterised by the shortening of the appendicular skeleton and loss or abnormal development of some joints. To investigate how GDF-5 controls skeletogenesis, we overexpressed GDF-5 during chick limb development using the retrovirus, RCASBP. This resulted in up to a 37.5% increase in length of the skeletal elements, which was predominantly due to an increase in the number of chondrocytes. By injecting virus at different stages of development, we show that GDF-5 can increase both the size of the early cartilage condensation and the later developing skeletal element. Using in vitro micromass cultures as a model system to study the early steps of chondrogenesis, we show that GDF-5 increases chondrogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. We did not detect changes in proliferation. However, cell suspension cultures showed that GDF-5 might act at these stages by increasing cell adhesion, a critical determinant of early chondrogenesis. In contrast, pulse labelling experiments of GDF-5-infected limbs showed that at later stages of skeletal development GDF-5 can increase proliferation of chondrocytes. Thus, here we show two mechanisms of how GDF-5 may control different stages of skeletogenesis. Finally, our data show that levels of GDF-5 expression/activity are important in controlling the size of skeletal elements and provides a possible explanation for the variation in the severity of skeletal defects resulting from mutations in GDF-5.  (+info)

The cytoskeletal network controls c-Jun expression and glucocorticoid receptor transcriptional activity in an antagonistic and cell-type-specific manner. (6/14041)

The physical and functional link between adhesion molecules and the cytoskeletal network suggests that the cytoskeleton might mediate the transduction of cell-to-cell contact signals, which often regulate growth and differentiation in an antagonistic manner. Depolymerization of the cytoskeleton in confluent cell cultures is reportedly sufficient to initiate DNA synthesis. Here we show that depolymerization of the cytoskeleton is also sufficient to repress differentiation-specific gene expression. Glutamine synthetase is a glia-specific differentiation marker gene whose expression in the retinal tissue is regulated by glucocorticoids and is ultimately dependent on glia-neuron cell contacts. Depolymerization of the actin or microtubule network in cells of the intact retina mimics the effects of cell separation, repressing glutamine synthetase induction by a mechanism that involves induction of c-Jun and inhibition of glucocorticoid receptor transcriptional activity. Depolymerization of the cytoskeleton activates JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and induces c-Jun expression by a signaling pathway that depends on tyrosine kinase activity. Induction of c-Jun expression is restricted to Muller glial cells, the only cells in the tissue that express glutamine synthetase and maintain the ability to proliferate upon cell separation. Our results suggest that the cytoskeletal network might play a part in the transduction of cell contact signals to the nucleus.  (+info)

Regulation of chamber-specific gene expression in the developing heart by Irx4. (7/14041)

The vertebrate heart consists of two types of chambers, the atria and the ventricles, which differ in their contractile and electrophysiological properties. Little is known of the molecular mechanisms by which these chambers are specified during embryogenesis. Here a chicken iroquois-related homeobox gene, Irx4, was identified that has a ventricle-restricted expression pattern at all stages of heart development. Irx4 protein was shown to regulate the chamber-specific expression of myosin isoforms by activating the expression of the ventricle myosin heavy chain-1 (VMHC1) and suppressing the expression of the atrial myosin heavy chain-1 (AMHC1) in the ventricles. Thus, Irx4 may play a critical role in establishing chamber-specific gene expression in the developing heart.  (+info)

Studies on a nonpolysomal ribonucleoprotein coding for myosin heavy chains from chick embryonic muscles. (8/14041)

A messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) particle containing the mRNA coding for the myosin heavy chain (MHC mRNA) has been isolated from the postpolysomal fraction of homogenates of 14-day-old chick embryonic muscles. The mRNP sediments in sucrose gradient as 120 S and has a characteristic buoyant density of 1.415 g/cm3, which corresponds to an RNA:protein ratio of 1:3.8. The RNA isolated from the 120 S particle behaved like authentic MHC mRNA purified from chick embryonic muscles with respect to electrophoretic mobility and ability to program the synthesis of myosin heavy chain in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system as judged by multi-step co-purification of the in vitro products with chick embryonic leg muscle myosin added as carrier. The RNA obtained from the 120 S particle was as effective as purified MHC mRNA in stimulating the synthesis of the complete myosin heavy chains in rabbit reticulocyte lysate under conditions where non-muscle mRNAs had no such effect. Analysis of the protein moieties of the 120 S particle by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis shows the presence of seven distinct polypeptides with apparent molecular weights of 44,000, 49,000, 53,000, 81,000, 83,000, and 98,000, whereas typical ribosomal proteins are absent. These results indicate that the 120 S particles are distinct cellular entities unrelated to ribosomes or initiation complexes. The presence of muscle-specific mRNAs as cytoplasmic mRNPs suggests that these particles may be involved in translational control during myogenesis in embryonic muscles.  (+info)

In the preprimitive streak chick embryo, the search for a region capable of inducing the organizer, equivalent to the Nieuwkoop Center of the amphibian embryo, has focused on Kollers sickle, the hypoblast and the posterior marginal zone. However, no clear evidence for induction of an organizer without contribution from the inducing tissue has been provided for any of these structures. We have used DiI/DiO labeling to establish the fate of midline cells in and around Kollers sickle in the normal embryo. In the epiblast, the boundary between cells that contribute to the streak and those that do not lies at the posterior edge of Kollers sickle, except at stage X when it lies slightly more posteriorly in the epiblast. Hypoblast and endoblast (a second lower layer formed under the streak) have distinct origins in the lower layer, and goosecoid expression distinguishes between them. We then used anterior halves of chick prestreak embryos as recipients for grafts of quail posterior marginal zone; ...
1. The accumulation of [1-(14)C]glycine and the uptake, accumulation, incorporation (into protein, lipid, glycogen) and oxidation of l-[1-(14)C]leucine in 5-day-old chick embryo hearts were investigated in vitro, and the effects of insulin, puromycin and 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoic acid on these processes were studied. 2. With glycine, the ratio of concentration of the labelled amino acid in the cell water to that in medium markedly exceeded unity. Insulin significantly increased this ratio. Puromycin did not prevent the insulin effect. 3. With leucine, the concentration ratio of the labelled amino acid between intracellular and extracellular water approached unity in the absence of puromycin and was doubled by its presence. In neither case did insulin substantially alter this ratio. The addition of 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoic acid had no effect in the absence of insulin, but produced a significant increase of the concentration ratio in the presence of the hormone. 4. Leucine uptake was increased slightly by
We investigated the roles of sodium-calcium exchange, sarcoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria in Cai homeostasis in cultured chick ventricular cells. Specifically, the influence of low sodium medium on contractile state, calcium fluxes, and cytosolic free [Ca] [( Ca]i) was examined. [Ca]i was measured using fura-2. Mean [Ca]i in control medium was 126 +/- 14 nM. Exposure of cells to sodium-free or sodium- and calcium-free medium (choline-substituted) resulted in contracture development, which returned toward the baseline level over 2-3 minutes. The Nao-free contracture was associated with a tenfold increase in [Ca]i (1,280 +/- 110 nM) followed by a gradual decrease to a level fourfold above control [Ca]i (460 +/- 58 nM). Nao- and Cao-free contracture was associated with a fivefold increase in [Ca]i (540 +/- 52 nM) followed by a rapid decrease to below 80 nM. Sodium-free medium failed to produce an increase in [Ca]i or contracture in cells preexposed to calcium-free medium, although caffeine, ...
MHM is a chicken Z chromosome-linked locus that is methylated and transcriptionally silent in male cells, but is hypomethylated and transcribed into a long non-coding RNA in female cells. MHM has been implicated in both localised dosage compensation and sex determination in the chicken embryo, but direct evidence is lacking. We investigated the potential role of MHM in chicken embryonic development, using expression analysis and retroviral-mediated mis-expression. At embryonic stages, MHM is only expressed in females. Northern blotting showed that both sense and antisense strands of the MHM locus are transcribed, with the sense strand being more abundant. Whole mount in situ hybridization confirmed that the sense RNA is present in developing female embryos, notably in gonads, limbs, heart, branchial arch and brain. Within these cells, the MHM RNA is localized to the nucleus. The antisense transcript is lowly expressed and has a cytoplasmic localization in cells. Mis-expression of MHM sense and antisense
We have studied the lineage history of the progenitors of the somite mesoderm and of the neural tube in the chick embryo by injecting single cells with the fluorescent tracer, rhodamine-lysine-dextran. We find that, although single cells within the segmental plate give rise to discrete clones in the somites to which they contribute, neither the somites nor their component parts (sclerotome, dermatome, myotome or their rostral and caudal halves) are `compartments in the sense defined in insects. Cells in the rostral two thirds or so of the segmental plate contribute only to somite tissue and divide about every 10 h, while those in the caudal portions of this structure contribute both to the somites and to intermediate and lateral plate mesoderm derivatives. In the neural tube, the descendants of individual prospective ventral horn cells remain together within the horn, with a cycle time of 10 h.. We have also investigated the role of the cell division cycle in the formation and subsequent ...
Annulate lamellae have been observed in the myocardium of 18-day-old chick embryos maintained at the normal temperature of 100°F and at 90°F during the last week of incubation. An increased number of annulate lamellae was observed in heart muscle of embryos incubated at 90°F. This is probably caused by a persistent production of these organelles, since annulate lamellae are present in greater frequency than in 11-day-old embryos incubated at 100°F. In the hypertrophic hearts of 18-day-old embryos incubated at 90°F, the annulate lamellae were associated with a net increase of protein content and an elevated concentration of myocardial glycogen. It is suggested that the increased number of annulate lamellae is a sequela of reduced environmental temperature during incubation. ...
In 1951 Viktor Hamburger and Howard Hamilton created an embryonic staging series from a combination of photographs and drawings from other researchers. The Hamburger-Hamilton stages are a sequence of images depicting 46 chronological stages in chick development. The images begin with a fertilized egg and end with a fully developed chick. The Hamburger-Hamilton staging series was produced in order to replace a previous chick staging series created in 1900. The earlier attempt lacked specific details and staged the chick embryo by using only morphological characteristics.. Format: Articles Subject: Processes ...
Acetylcholine, acetyl-β-methylcholine and carbamylcholine inhibited sinoatrial pacemaker activity in atria isolated from chick embryos on the 6th, 12th and 18th incubation days. Cardioinhibition persisted throughout the 5-minute exposure to cholinergic agonists in sinoatrial preparations from the 12th and l8th incubation days whereas automaticity recovered completely within 1 to 2 minutes in preparations from the 6th incubation day. Neither hydrolysis by acetylcholinesterase nor release of catecholamines from cardiac stores accounted adequately for the brevity of pacemaker inhibition by choline esters on the 6th incubation day. Evidence suggested that desensitization, most prominently observed with carbamylcholine, restricted the duration of cholinergic inhibition of the pacemaker on the 6th incubation day. Although automaticity recovered completely within 2 minutes after initial application of acetylcholine and carbamylcholine, pacemaker cells were not inhibited by a second application until ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Excess ROS induced by AAPH causes myocardial hypertrophy in the developing chick embryo. AU - Li, Yan. AU - Wang, Xiao-Yu. AU - Zhang, Zhao-long. AU - Cheng, Xin. AU - Li, Xiao-Di. AU - Chuai, Manli. AU - Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho. AU - Kurihara, Hiroshi. AU - Yang, Xuesong. PY - 2014/9. Y1 - 2014/9. N2 - Background The developing embryo is very sensitive to oxidative stress and excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is often associated with cardiovascular malformation. However, little is known about the adverse effects of ROS during heart morphogenesis, especially during the formation of the atria and ventricles. Methods and Results We have treated early chick embryos with 2,2-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) to generate free radicals in the developing heart. We established that excess ROS induced by AAPH caused cardiomegaly to develop in 4-, 14- and 17-day-old embryos. The cardiomyocytes of these AAPH-treated hearts were hypertrophic, in both the compact and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular analysis of regulative events in the developing chick limb. AU - Mahony, Chris. AU - Vargesson, Neil. PY - 2013/7/1. Y1 - 2013/7/1. N2 - The developing chick limb has the remarkable ability to regulate for the loss of large amounts of mesenchyme and maintain a normal limb pattern in early (Hamburger and Hamilton Stage 19; E3) limbs. How the limb can regulate for tissue loss and why this ability is lost as development proceeds (after Hamburger and Hamilton Stage 21; E3.5) is unclear. We have investigated the origins of cells involved in regulative processes and, for the first time, the molecular changes occurring, and find striking differences between developmental time points just 0.5 days apart. We demonstrate that subtle changes in cell dispersal and cell proliferation occur in HH St21 limbs but not in HH St19 limbs and also demonstrate that there is no net replacement of removed tissue at either HH St21 or St19. We further show that changes in the ...
Synonyms for head process in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for head process. 352 synonyms for head: skull, crown, pate, bean, nut, loaf, cranium, conk, noggin, noddle, mind, reasoning, understanding, thought, sense, brain, brains.... What are synonyms for head process?
Hamburger Hamilton Stages 5-10== {, ! colspan=3,[[Hamburger Hamilton Stages,Hamburger Hamilton Stages (1951)]]   ,-bgcolor=DDCEF2 , width=150px, ,center>Hamburger Hamilton Stages,/center> , width=100px, ,center>Age,/center> , ,center>Identification of Stages,/center> ,-bgcolor=FAF5FF , colspan=3 , ,center>Before Laying,/center> ,- , ,center>14,/center> , 50-53 hr , 22 somites; trunk flexure; visceral arches I and II, clefts 1 and 2 ,} ,br> {{HHstage links ...
The tracheal organ cultures (TOC) were prepared with tracheas from 19-day-old chicken embryos, The 1-2 mm thick rings were hand chopped and transfered to tubes with different medium cultures with five repetions of each for comparative evaluation and kept under continuous rotation using a roller and sored at 37° C. Medium RPMI 1640 added with HyQCCM proved superior in maintaining ciliary activity as compared to non-supplemented 199, or RPMI 1640 media. The rings with good (50%) and excellent (100%) ciliary activity, 24 or 48 hours aiier the preparation, were evaluated as regards sensibility to titration of a IBG and to the test of serum neutralisation. The use of TOC was evaluated for the titration of IBV strains M41, A5968 and H-120. The vaccine strains H-120 was carried out simultaneously and compared to the titration in embryonated hens eggs (EE) SPF. Results of titration of IBV in TOC, as compared to EE, were reproducible and represent na excellent alternative to titrating IBV field strains, ...
Paranemin was initially found to copurify with the intermediate filament (IF) proteins vimentin and desmin from embryonic chick skeletal muscle and was described as an IF-associated protein (IFAP). We have purified paranemin from embryonic chick skeletal muscle, prepared antibodies, and demonstrated that they label at the Z-lines of both adult avian and porcine cardiac and skeletal muscle myofibrils. We determined the cDNA sequence of paranemin by immunoscreening a λgt22A cDNA library from embryonic chick skeletal muscle. Northern blot analysis revealed a single transcript of 5.3 kilobases, which is much smaller than predicted from the size of paranemin (280 kDa) by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The derived amino acid sequence of paranemin (1,606 residues; 178,161 kDa) contains the conserved IF rod domain (308 amino acids), which has highest homology to the rod domains of nestin and tanabin. Thus, paranemin is an IF protein rather than an IFAP. Sequence analysis ...
Developmental changes in regulation of embryonic chick heart gap junctions.: Embryonic chick myocyte pairs were isolated from ventricular tissue of 4-day, 14-da
Duodena from 20-day-old chick embryos can be maintained in large scale organ culture on specially designed stainless-steel grids in contact with serum-free medium for 48 h with excellent preservation of mucosal structure at both the light and electron microscope levels. Although mitotic rate was subnormal, several other factors attest to the essential viability of the cultured intestine: L-leucine incorporation into protein, as well as the synthesis of a specific vitamin D3-induced calcium-binding protein (CaBP), increased over a 48-h culture period, and the electropotential gradient across the intestine was maintained throughout the culture period as was a concentration gradient for calcium. The tissue responded to vitamin D3 in the medium by synthesizing the calcium-binding protein within 6 h and by exhibiting enhanced 45Ca uptake within 12-24 h. Concentrations of vitamin D3, or its 25-hydroxylated derivative, higher than necessary for CaBP induction, also increased the activity of alkaline ...
The differentiation of chick embryonic skeletal myoblasts results in the formation of myotubes which are the precursors of muscle fibres. The fusion of mononucleated myoblasts represents an apparent switching point in differentiation since it results in both the formation of multinucleated myotubes and the stimulation of muscle specific protein synthesis. The aim of this project has been to examine the biochemical events involved in this process of terminal differentiation by using primary cultures of chick embryonic myoblasts as a model system.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - WNT signals control FGF-dependent limb initiation and AER induction in the chick embryo. AU - Kawakami, Yasuhiko. AU - Capdevila, Javier. AU - Büscher, Dirk. AU - Itoh, Tohru. AU - Esteban, Concepción Rodríguez. AU - Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos. PY - 2001/3/23. Y1 - 2001/3/23. N2 - A regulatory loop between the fibroblast growth factors FGF-8 and FGF-10 plays a key role in limb initiation and AER induction in vertebrate embryos. Here, we show that three WNT factors signaling through β-catenin act as key regulators of the FGF-8/FGF-10 loop. The Wnt-2b gene is expressed in the intermediate mesoderm and the lateral plate mesoderm in the presumptive chick forelimb region. Cells expressing Wnt-2b are able to induce Fgf-10 and generate an extra limb when implanted into the flank. In the presumptive hindlimb region, another Wnt gene, Wnt-8c, controls Fgf-10 expression, and is also capable of inducing ectopic limb formation in the flank. Finally, we also show that the induction of ...
Pretreatment of mouse L cells with mouse interferon (IFN) inhibits the penetration of vesicular stomatitis virus without affecting viral adsorption. The inhibition of virus uptake by IFN is dose dependent and, at the highest dose tested (1,000 units/ml), reaches 65%; 24 hr of treatment with IFN are required for maximal effect. A similar inhibition of uptake of virus occurs in human diploid fibroblasts and primary chicken embryo fibroblasts treated with homologous IFN. No significant inhibition occurs when cells are treated with heterologous IFN. These results document a previously unrecognized antiviral effect of IFN--namely, inhibition at the level of viral uptake.. ...
Chimaeric alleles were constructed to assay the biological functions of an N-terminal deletion and C-terminal mutations which were found in a naturally occurring mutant of feline vMyc, T17. The mutant alleles were assayed for their ability to transform chick embryo fibroblasts in vitro by a number of criteria, namely the ability to induce morphological transformation, an accelerated growth rate and growth in soft agar. Feline cMyc could transform the avian cells, whilst T17 vMyc could not, and the N-terminal deletion was responsible for conferring the primary transformation defect on the mutant protein. The C-terminal mutations which consist of a point mutation adjacent to the nuclear localisation signal and a point mutation/amino acid insertion within the basic region (BR) could, however, dissociate the Myc-induced parameters of transformation. This effect was a specific function of the BR mutation alone, and the mutation could be transferred into avian cMyc with comparable biological ...
Hi, Im looking for a commercial source of primary chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) culture. Any leads? Thanks, Vladimir Yamshchikov ...
In a series of tissue cultures of fragments taken from different parts of young chick embryos, at various stages, it was found that differentiation frequently occurred, the characteristic cells of highly specialised tissues appearing in cultures in which they could not possibly have been present at explantation. The most striking differentiations were the development of red blood corpuscles, capillary vessels, nerve cells with axons and of rhythmically contracting cardiac muscle. This paper describes a simple method by which may be obtained regularly and quickly the development of very large numbers of red cells, and an account is given of the histology of the cultures. It is intended to be introductory to a physiological study, now in progress, of the conditions of hæmatopoiesis Literature. Erythropoiesis in vitro has been reported by several authors, but it has not been thoroughly investigated and, with the exceptions of the works of Slonimski (1930, a, 1931) and Shipley (1915-16), the ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
PDF Similar Articles Mail to Author Mail to Editor The Effect of Phenyramidol on Neural Development in Early Chicken Embryo Model Onur OZGURAL,Burak BAHADIR,Ihsan DOGAN,Umit EROGLU,Serhat AKTAN,Irem KAR,Gizem CAKICI,Eyyub S M AL-BEYATI,Gokmen KAHILOGULLARI,Agahan UNLU ...
Simultaneous left and right atrial surface electrograms were obtained from the right and left atria of 30 chick embryos. These were divided into 3 equal groups that were studied at 15 to 16, 10 to 11, and 5 to 7 days of incubation. The embryos were removed from the shell with their circulation intact and temperature maintained constant. In an early stage of development (5 to 6 days), the left atrium and its appendage were larger than the right, and left preceded right atrial depolarization. At and after 7 days of incubation, the right atrium and its appendage were larger than the left, and right preceded left atrial depolarization. The intervals for interatrial conduction and for atrio-ventricular conduction were about the same at all stages of development. Since the length and width of the heart at 15 to 16 days of incubation were about 3 times those of a heart at 5 to 7 days of incubation, it is proposed that the higher the stage of development of the chick embryo the greater must be the ...
Romans 5:3-4: Not only so, but we also glory in our sufferings, because we know that suffering produces perseverance; perseverance, character; and character, hope.. The first step in chick hatching is called pipping. This is when the chick first breaks through a small hole in the outside of the shell. The chick is still considered an embryo at this stage, because it is not fully developed or ready to hatch. The following 8 - 18 hours allow the chicks body to make some final developments for the outside world. The chicks body will absorb the remains of the yolk sack and its lungs will adapt to the change in air pressure.[i] To assist the chick in exiting the egg at this stage would be dangerous, and usually fatal. While it may be difficult to just watch the chick struggle, when we understand that this stage is vital to the chicks development, it is easier to sit back and wait.. A good coach will know when to allow their athletes to struggle on their own. While it is tempting to give advice ...
Newly hatched chicks are covered in dark downy feathers above with white bellies. Unlike adult loons, a young loon chick is able to walk upright on land. Although they can swim immediately after hatching, chicks spend a lot of time riding on their parents backs during the first several days of their lives. This helps to regulate their body temperature and protects them from underwater predators. Chicks are entirely dependent on their parents for food, and one adult typically remains on the waters surface with the chicks while the other catches fish and feeds them.. ...
A method for the determination of red cell mass, which employs the use of radioisotopically-labeled erythrocytes, in the embryonated hen egg is described and results of total blood volume, plasma volume, red cell mass and red cell concentration determinations during the period from 9 to 18 days of incubation presented. Considerations of the values obtained in terms of absolute quantities and relative to embryonic mass are discussed. It is suggested that expansion of the red cell mass and somatic growth are portions of a common process and may be subject to a complex of similar regulatory factors in the normal chick embryo.. ...
Cleared and stained whole mount of a chick embryo at 72 hours. The limb buds, branchial arches, heart, brain, eyes, and many other structures can be clearly identified.
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Presence of PACAP and VIP in embryonic chicken brain. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Fig. 1. Anatomy and gene expression in dissected Xenopus guts. A: Dorsal view of a gut from a 3-day-old embryo. B: Ventral view of a gut from a 3-day-old embryo. C: Gut from a 5-day-old embryo. D: Gut from a 7-day-old embryo. E: Stomach region from a 7-day-old gut. F: Boundary between small and large intestine of 7-day-old gut. G: Activity of endogenous alkaline phosphatase in 3-day gut. H: Activity of endogenous alkaline phosphatase in 7-day gut. Inset shows a section through stained gut (arrow highlights alkaline phosphatase staining (blue) in epithelium, arrowhead highlights mesodermal tissue counterstained green). I: Activity of endogenous alkaline phosphatase in stomach region of 7-day gut (1 and 2 show the first and second expression boundaries). J: Ventral view of IFABP expression in 3-day gut. K: Dorsal view of IFABP expression in 3-day gut. L: IFABP expression in 5-day gut. M: IFABP expression in 7-day gut. N: Endodermin expression in 3-day gut. O: Endodermin expression in 5-day gut. P: ...
Classic TEM. First description of the endoplasmic reticulum. Whole mount of unfixed, dried chick embryo fibroblast. Embryonic chick cells were grown ...
Kawakami, Y.; Capdevila, J.; Buscher, D.; Itoh, T.; Rodriguez Esteban, C.; Ng, J.; Izpisua Belmonte, J.C.rlos, 2001: WNT signals control FGF-dependent limb initiation and AER induction in the chick embryo
What might appear in this picture to be an exotic, green glow worm served up on a collard leaf actually comes from something we all know well: an egg. Its a 3-day-old chicken embryo thats been carefully removed from its shell, placed in a special nutrient-rich bath to keep it alive, and then photographed through…
BACKGROUND: Chicken embryos are widely used as a model for studies of obesity; however, no detailed information is available about the dynamic changes of proteins during the regulation of adipose biology and metabolism. Thus, the present study used an isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomic approach to identify the changes in protein abundance at different stages of chicken embryonic development. RESULTS: In this study, the abundances of 293 hepatic proteins in 19-day old of chicken embryos compared with 14-day old and 160 hepatic proteins at hatching compared with 19-day old embryos were significantly changed ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
See all results for Memorial Day Chicken Papaya No Flour Recipes. Find more recipes at - the largest recipe search site - and see the ones your friends like.
Since Ms. Cormier was willing to house the chicks on her farm after the class finished with them, I decided that bringing back, and even expanding, this work with live chicks seemed like a really good fit for my vision for the course, said Bailey.. Unfortunately, there have been incidents of chicks passing away. After a power outage in Gelb while the eggs were still incubating, the humidity dropped very low in the incubator. The chicks were already partially hatched during this time, causing the exposed membrane to dry up. According to students interviewed by The Phillipian, two chicks did not hatch as a result of the outage.. The first 36 hours after hatching are a critical time for the chicks - after this period, the birds switch from innate imprinting to associative learning and will not be able to imprint on their mother. According to students, another factor that facilitates the imprinting process is being rough and showing tough love to the chicks.. Macey Mannion 19 said, If we spent ...
Hello, everybody! Does anyone have any experience with RNase Protection Assay? I have been doing it for a few months now, using a non-radioactive method for detection (biotin) and I have problems with transferring from the PAGE to a nylon membrane (low efficiency of transfer). My other problem is that after I stain the urea/PAGE with EtBr I see the same band pattern with my control probe (beta-actin) and with my probe (in this case for titin). Its absolutely the same picture-with actin, with titin and with both probes. What I am looking for is differential expression of titin at different stages of primary chick embryo muscle culture and if there is no way of comparing titins expression with that of actin (housekeeping gene), I am in a bad shape. I would greatly appreciate any help! Thanks a lot in advance! Vesselina Ivanova Graduate student in the Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics Iowa State University -- Vesselina Ivanova vivanova at ...
Youre a smart chick wearing Chick with Brains Nightshirt Gifts for Her Let everyone know youre a smart chick wearing this Chick with Brains Nightshirt sporting a geeky little chick embellished on a comfy 100% cotton women Chick with Brains Nightshirt nightshirt. White; one size fits most. Makes an
McKay, Liz. (2007, Fall). Assessment of blood vessel area growth in the developing chick embryo under chronic exposure to 0.5 mL of caffeine. Wheaton Journal of Developmental Biology Research, 2. Retrieved from ...
Origin of lungs, liver, and pancreas in the chick. The mesoderm is shaded; the endoderm dark. lg., One of the lungs; St., stomach; l., liver; p., pancreas. -Thomson, 1916. ...
Hi all. Thanks for all the help last weekend with my little Ameraucana--shes now doing fine! I noticed today that 3 of my chicks have a lump about...
Inovotion is showcasing its technology via the NC3Rs CRACK IT Solutions partnering programme. Funding is available to focus on immuno-oncology drug screening, and aims to streamline early in vivo efficacy and toxicity evaluations using Inovotions model instead of mice (click here to learn more). The CRACK-IT Solutions programme allows academics and SMEs to showcase their 3Rs Solutions to the wider scientific community, to identify new partners and customers to use, develop and validate the technology. It provides a gateway for industry and others to scan for new strategically-relevant approaches to minimize animal suffering. In a previous CRACK IT Solution, Inovotion had partnered with AstraZeneca to test the utility of a chick embryo model to replace mouse xenograft studies in some Antibody-Drug Conjugates (ADC) developments (Download publication).. ...
The most commonly used commercial method for sexing chicks as young as 1 day old is called vent sexing. We strongly discourage any amateur chicken keeper from trying this as it can cause severe injuries to the chick if done improperly. The people who do this commercially are professionally trained in doing so which means you are unlikely to be able to sex your chicks even if you do the method correctly. In a nutshell the method involves inspecting the inside of the chicks vent for a very small lump (to signify male) or no lump (to signify female). As said before, please do not try this without proper training as you are likely to injure or even kill your chicks and you still probably wont know if you have boys or girls.. ...
The most commonly used commercial method for sexing chicks as young as 1 day old is called vent sexing. We strongly discourage any amateur chicken keeper from trying this as it can cause severe injuries to the chick if done improperly. The people who do this commercially are professionally trained in doing so which means you are unlikely to be able to sex your chicks even if you do the method correctly. In a nutshell the method involves inspecting the inside of the chicks vent for a very small lump (to signify male) or no lump (to signify female). As said before, please do not try this without proper training as you are likely to injure or even kill your chicks and you still probably wont know if you have boys or girls.. ...
Polyamine potentiation and inhibition of NMDA-mediated increases of intracellular free Ca2+ in cultured chick cortical neurons. Eur J Pharmacol. 1994 Jan 15; 266(2):107-15 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Native avian c-erbB gene expresses a secreted protein product corresponding to the ligand-binding domain of the receptor. AU - Maihle, N. J.. AU - Flickinger, T. W.. AU - Raines, M. A.. AU - Sanders, M. L.. AU - Kung, Hsing-Jien. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - A primer-directed cDNA library was used to obtain cDNA clones corresponding to the 5′ end (i.e., the ligand-binding domain) of the avian c-erbB gene. Bacterial c-erbB fusion proteins were synthesized and used to obtain polyclonal antisera specific for the ligand-binding domain of the avian receptor. These antisera and antisera specific for the carboxyl terminal domain of the chicken c-erbB gene product have been used to study the native protein products of the c-erbB locus in primary cell cultures by in vivo labeling and immunoprecipitation. Our studies reveal that three c-erbB gene products of Mr 300,000, Mr 170,000, and Mr 95,000 are synthesized in uninfected chicken embryo fibroblasts. Only the Mr 300,000 and Mr 170,000 ...
in which she provides a sarcastic quiz with a series of multiple-choice questions as to the books author, cover, main character and themes in order to highlight chick lit as formulaic (Ferriss and Young, 2006: 1).. On the one hand, it is perhaps unsurprising that chick lit has garnered a fair degree of criticism. Along with external clearly gendered cover art and the internal preoccupation with the search for a man, the very term chick lit, as Imelda Whelehan (2005: 171) points out, is simultaneously interesting and provocative, as the term brings into play both negative and positive connotations, and raises issues of gender and genre (Gormley, forthcoming). As Jane Mills (1989: 47) notes, the term chick, when applied to humans, first entered the English language circa 1400 to mean a child or young girl. In the 1500s, chick became, a term of endearment applied to a female sweetheart; yet by the early 1900s the term had degenerated to denote, a young promiscuous woman (ibid.). In the ...
One was named Spotty because he had black spots on him. I loved listening to the sound of the chicks chirping. They are so cute! First the chicks were a little germ spot in an egg and then the spot got bigger and bigger and when it got so crammed up in there the chick popped out. It takes 21 days for them to hatch. How a chick gets formed is a hen meets a rooster. The parts of the egg are called the air pocket, the yolk, chilaza, and the embryo. By Maisie ...
... is the process of growing chick embryos in vitro, without their protective egg shells, for ... Chick embryos and other avian embryos have been used as biological models to visualize the developmental stages of embryos for ... The technique was used in India to scrutinize glucose-induced deformities in chick embryos. Fisher, C. J. (1993). "Chick ... Tahara, Y.; Obara, K. (2014). "A novel shell-less culture system for chick embryos using a plastic film as culture vessels". ...
Summerbell D, Lewis JH, Wolpert L (August 1973). "Positional information in chick limb morphogenesis". Nature. 244 (5417): 492- ... "Thomas Hunt Morgan's Definition of Regeneration: Morphallaxis and Epimorphosis". The Embryo Project Encyclopedia. Retrieved ...
Tang, F. F.; Huang, Y. T.; Chang, H. L.; Wong, K. C. (1957). "Isolation of trachoma virus in chick embryo". Journal of Hygiene ... "Studies on the etiology of trachoma with special reference to isolation of the virus in chick embryo". Chinese Medical Journal ...
Goldman, M.; Glasser, S. R.; Tuttle, L. W. (1958). "Extraembryonic Vascular Deterioration in Irradiated Chick Embryo". ...
Tang FF, Huang YT, Chang HL, Wong KC (1957). "Isolation of trachoma virus in chick embryo". J Hyg Epidemiol Microbiol Immunol. ... "Studies on the etiology of trachoma with special reference to isolation of the virus in chick embryo". Chin Med J. 75 (6): 429- ...
Studies on the etiology of trachoma with special reference to isolation of the virus in chick embryo. Chin Med J. 1957 Jun;75(6 ... Isolation of trachoma virus in chick embryo. J Hyg Epidemiol Microbiol Immunol. 1957;1(2):109-20 Ji Qiang; Ji Shu-an (1996). " ...
Beard JW, Finkelstein H, Sealy WC, Wyckoff RW (May 1938). "Immunization Against Equine Encephalomyelitis with Chick Embryo ...
Vieira C, Garda AL, Shimamura K, Martinez S (2005). "Thalamic development induced by Shh in the chick embryo". Developmental ... "Fate map of the diencephalon and the zona limitans at 10-somites stage in chick embryos". Developmental Biology. 268 (2): 514- ... The top (roof plate, on the dorsal side of the embryo) and bottom (floor plate, on the ventral side) play a crucial role in ... In the explant experiments, cells in the region that will become the ZLI, the prethalamus, and the thalamus in the chick were ...
Crossley P.H.; Martinez S.; Martin G.R. (1996). "Midbrain development induced by FGF* in the chick embryo". Nature. 380 (6569 ... She is known for her pioneering work on the isolation of pluripotent stem cells from normal embryos, for which she coined the ... This work laid the groundwork for the future isolation of pluripotent stem cells from normal mouse and human embryos. In 1976, ... Martin G.R. (1981). "Isolation of a pluripotent cell line from early mouse embryos cultured in medium conditioned by ...
Her doctoral dissertation was on the study of chick embryos, and she went on to do research with time-lapse microscopy (then ... Reddick ML (1951). Histogenesis of the cellular elements in the postotic medulla of the chick embryo. The Anatomical Record: ... Reddick, Mary Logan (January 1951). "Histogenesis of the cellular elements in the postotic medulla of the chick embryo". The ... Reddick studied techniques for transplanting tissues and nerve cell differentiation in chick embryos there for two years, ...
His own research was on the canarypox virus, which he used in developing a chick embryo assay for the isolation and ... Simonsen had shown in 1957 that when a chick embryo was inoculated intravenously with adult-fowl blood, a graft-versus-host ... Burnet, F. M.; Stone, J. D.; Edney, M. (1950). "The failure of antibody production in the chick embryo". Australian Journal of ... its embryogenesis through complex interactions between immune cells and all the other cells and molecules within an embryo. ...
Endo Y (2019). "The history of the development of chick embryo tumor xenograft models". The Enzymes. Vol. 46. Elsevier. pp. 11- ... Ribatti D (August 2018). "The use of the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane as experimental model to study virus growth and ... Fried B, Stableford LT (1991). "Cultivation of helminths in chick embryos". Advances in Parasitology. 30: 108-65. PMID 2069072 ... Ribatti D (August 2016). "The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). A multifaceted experimental model". Mechanisms of ...
"Type I procollagen carboxyl-terminal proteinase from chick embryo tendons. Purification and characterization". The Journal of ...
"Sulphonated phthalocyanine induced caudal malformative syndrome in the chick embryo". Morphol Embryol (Bucur). 31 (3): 173-81. ... Sulfonated phthalocyanine has been found to cause neuroanatomical defects in developing chicken embryos when injected directly ...
Distinct modes of floor plate induction in the chick embryo. 19 June 2003. Development 130, 4809-4821" "Guan KL and Rao Y. ... Induction of the floor plate during embryogenesis of vertebrate embryos has been studied extensively in chick and zebrafish and ... Through chick - quail hybrid experiments as well as genetic interaction experiments in zebrafish, it appears that notochord and ... In vertebrates, this choice is mediated by the floor plate, and enables the embryo to develop successful left and right body ...
Insulin is present in chicken eggs and early chick embryos. Receptor genes for insulin and insulin- like growth factor I are ... differentially expressed in Xenopus oocyte and embryos The developing CNS: a scenario for the action of proinsulin, insulin and ...
In the chick embryo somites are formed every 90 minutes. In the mouse the interval is 2 hours. For some species, the number of ... The paraxial mesoderm is initially called the "segmental plate" in the chick embryo or the "unsegmented mesoderm" in other ... The number of somites is species dependent and independent of embryo size (for example, if modified via surgery or genetic ... Fibronectin and N-cadherin are key to the mesenchymal-epithelial transition process in the developing embryo. The process is ...
Rashidi H, Sottile V (April 2009). "The chick embryo: hatching a model for contemporary biomedical research". BioEssays. 31 (4 ... Free-living embryos do not grow in mass as they have no external food supply. But embryos fed by a placenta or extraembryonic ... Good embryo supply. Well developed genetics. Nematode: Caenorhabditis elegans. Good embryo supply. Well developed genetics. Low ... Growth in embryos is mostly autonomous. For each territory of cells the growth rate is controlled by the combination of genes ...
The chick embryo as a model organism has provided much information about the formation of the primitive streak. In the chick ... The marginal zone of a chick embryo contains cells that will contribute to the streak. This region has a defined anterior-to- ... Finally, BMP signaling is also important for regulating the process of streak formation in the chick embryo. The site of streak ... Hatada Y, Stern CD (1994). "A fate map of the epiblast of the early chick embryo". Development. 120 (10): 2879-89. doi:10.1242/ ...
Chuai M, Weijer CJ (2008). The mechanisms underlying primitive streak formation in the chick embryo. Curr Top Dev Biol. Current ... Before gastrulation, the embryo is a continuous epithelial sheet of cells; by the end of gastrulation, the embryo has begun ... Research has been conducted on the first 14 days of an embryo, but no known studies have been done after the 14 days. With the ... The countries that believe this have created a 14-day rule in which it is illegal to study or experiment on a human embryo ...
July-September 1985). "Sulphonated phthalocyanine induced caudal malformative syndrome in the chick embryo". Romanian Journal ... Phthalocyanine Blue BN is non-biodegradable and has been found to cause neuroanatomical defects in developing chicken embryos ...
In the chick embryo it is expressed in the anterior cells of Koller's sickle, which form the anterior cells of the primitive ... Vasiev B, Balter A, Chaplain M, Glazier JA, Weijer CJ (May 2010). "Modeling gastrulation in the chick embryo: formation of the ... Experiments with Xenopus embryos showed that overexpression of BMP1 and TLL1 can be used to counteract chordin's dorsalization ... The discoverers of chordin concluded that it is expressed in embryo regions where gsc and Xnot were also expressed, which ...
Subsequently, Chapman in 1918 discovered that removing a chick embryo's heart disrupted the remodelling process, but the ... October, 2003). Flow regulates arterial-venous differentiation in the chick embryo yolk sac. Development 131: 361 - 375. doi: ... Inside the embryo, the dorsal aorta forms and eventually connect the heart to the capillary plexus of the yolk sac. This forms ... In embryos devoid of blood flow, endothelial cells retain an undifferentiated morphology similar to angioblasts (compared to ...
Hamburger, V.; Wenger, E.; Oppenheim, R. (1966). "Motility in the chick embryo in the absence of sensory input". Journal of ... In the 1960s, Hamburger did embryological work that established that chick movements in embryo were spontaneous patterns, a ... In 1951 he and Howard Hamilton published a standardized stage series to describe chicken embryo development, now called the ... They believed developmental biologists should have a well-grounded reference system to identify the stages of embryo ...
A thorough study of perlecan expression during chick embryo development has shown that perlecan is present at the morula stage ... Soulintzi N, Zagris N (2007). "Spatial and temporal expression of perlecan in the early chick embryo". Cells Tissues Organs ( ... In the rat embryo, perlecan expression has been shown to increase in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) post e19 in fetal ... Morpholinos were used to block translation of the perlecan mRNA in zebrafish embryos, as part of an investigation into perlecan ...
Much of the investigation of the genetic basis of symmetry breaking has been done on chick embryos. In chick embryos the left ... Raya, Angel; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos (2004). "Unveiling the establishment of left-right asymmetry in the chick embryo". ... In a region of the embryo referred to as the node there are small hair-like structures (monocilia) which all rotate together in ... For example, left-right asymmetry in mammals has been investigated extensively in the embryos of mice. Such studies have led to ...
Vasiev B, Balter A, Chaplain M, Glazier JA, Weijer CJ (May 2010). "Modeling gastrulation in the chick embryo: formation of the ... In early embryo development, the formation of the primary body axes is a crucial step in establishing the organism's overall ... Part C, Embryo Today. 90 (4): 243-56. doi:10.1002/bdrc.20195. PMID 21181886. van Amerongen R, Nusse R (October 2009). "Towards ... Gordon NK, Gordon R (March 2016). "The organelle of differentiation in embryos: the cell state splitter". Theoretical Biology ...
Murray PDF (1932). "The development in vitro of the blood of early chick embryo". Proceedings of the Royal Society. 111 (773): ... In the mouse embryo, the emergence of blood islands in the yolk sac at embryonic day 7 marks the onset of hematopoiesis. From ... close spatial and temporal proximity of the emergence of blood vessels and red blood cells within the yolk sac in chick embryos ... It has been shown that these pre-endothelial/pre-hematopoietic cells in the embryo arise out of a phenotype CD34 population. It ...
Mills, C. L.; Bellairs, R. (1989). "Mitosis and cell death in the tail of the chick embryo". Anatomy and Embryology. 180 (3): ... When the notochord is ablated during somitogenesis in the chick embryo, the proper number of somites forms, but the ... Somite number is unaffected by changes in the size of the embryo through experimental procedure. Because all developing embryos ... "An experimental and morphological analysis of the tail bud mesenchyme of the chick embryo". Anatomy and Embryology. 174 (2): ...
"Plasminogen-Independent Fibrinolysis by Proteases Produced by Transformed Chick Embryo Fibroblasts". JSTOR. Lan Bo Chen, Keith ... Chen, Lan Bo; Buchanan, John M. (1975). "Plasminogen-Independent Fibrinolysis by Proteases Produced by Transformed Chick Embryo ...
Earlier findings by Viktor Hamburger and Rita Levi-Montalcini in the chick embryo have been confirmed by more recent studies ...
The net result is that this ubiquitin ligase complex is important for limb outgrowth in embryos. In the absence of cereblon, ... However, the idea that cereblon modulation is responsible for the teratogenic activity of thalidomide in the chick and ... "Pomalidomide is nonteratogenic in chicken and zebrafish embryos and nonneurotoxic in vitro". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110 ...
One form is called "Attenuvax". The measles component of the MMR vaccine uses Attenuvax, which is grown in a chick embryo cell ... Enders was able to use the cultivated virus to develop a measles vaccine in 1963 by attenuation through cultured chicken embryo ...
Pre-fledgling chicks of gamebirds are particularly vulnerable due to the fact that they can only run when being pursued. In ... including one abnormally large egg with twin embryos". J. Raptor Res. 23: 113-115. Glutz von Blotzheim, U., Bauer, K. & Bezzel ... In turn, the female must feed the young about twice a day in order for the chicks to avoid starvation. Caching of food has been ... Conversely, the median brood size is about half a chick smaller in North America than in Europe. In Europe, clutch size overall ...
The AGM region is derived from the mesoderm layer of the embryo. During organogenesis (around the fourth week in human embryos ... is a region of embryonic mesoderm that develops during embryonic development from the para-aortic splanchnopleura in chick, ... RUNX1 knockout studies have shown a complete removal of definitive haematopoietic activity in all foetal tissues before embryo ... Furthermore, isolated organ cultures of the AGM from mouse embryos can autonomously initiate hematopoietic stem cell activity, ...
... a potential tool to provide nutrient to embryo as well as to modulate performance and gut health of pre and post hatched chicks ... In medical usage it refers to the growth of live virus in chicken egg embryos for vaccine development for human use, as well as ... These machines perform a number of actions to ensure good vaccination of the chick inside the egg. Benefits of In ovo ... Stone H, Mitchell B, Brugh M (1997). "In ovo vaccination of chicken embryos with experimental Newcastle disease and avian ...
The chicks take 18-22 days to fledge. A study in southern India found that 77% of the eggs hatched and 67% fledged. Nests with ... ISBN 0-19-850213-3. Shelford R (1900). "On the pterylosis of the embryos and nestlings of Centropus sinensis". Ibis. 42 (4): ...
... chicks do not have an egg tooth; they use their powerful claws to break out of the egg, and then tunnel their way up ... affect embryo mortality and resulting offspring sex ratios. The nonsocial nature of their incubation raises questions as to how ... Göth, A. & Evans, C.S. (2004). "Social responses without early experience: Australian brush-turkey chicks use specific visual ...
Because the first embryo may have a different father from the eaten embryos, this form of siblicide early during development ... Staggered hatching creates chicks in different stages of growth. Older, and thus larger, chicks kill their younger siblings, ... The relative development of the embryo in the uterus can affect their chance of survival. Pig embryos follow different ... senior chicks may sometimes eliminate siblings when there are food shortages. During these shortages, chicks exhibit higher ...
Parkin showed that the sex ratio was equal among echo parakeet chicks and embryos and that the male-biased sex ratio among ... After fifty days, the chicks are rather active, flapping their wings and venturing near the entrance hole. Chicks fledge after ... and such surplus chicks would be given to pairs that had failed to hatch their eggs. Many surplus chicks were also taken to the ... Chicks develop slowly, with dark feather tracts visible on the back and primary quills after five days. The tracts are more ...
"Embryo Blotting Paper Models". The Embryo Project Encyclopedia (website). Accessed Nov. 21, 2015. Miller, William S. "The Use ... Deposited in the egg and transmitted to the chick" (1908) Oakes, Elizabeth H. (2002). International encyclopedia of women ... human embryo, with especial reference to the brain and the nephric system" (1905) "The Method of Making Models from Sheets of ... Blotting Paper" (1905) "The notochord of the head in human embryos of the third to the twelfth week and comparisons with other ...
In Judaism, the embryo of a chick inside an egg of a bird, even a kosher bird, is forbidden for consumption. The Quran forbids ... The broth surrounding the embryo is sipped from the egg before the shell is peeled, and the yolk and young chick inside can be ... Duck embryos are often taken off incubation in order to stunt the growth process; the embryos no longer develop, and become ... The embryo is very sensitive to high temperatures, and is easily killed upon cooking in the sun. After nine days, the eggs are ...
As of 2016, her research interests include actin-binding proteins in chick embryos and breast cancer, human sperm chromatin ...
In such a region, eccentricities of embryos may become so large that the embryos pass close to a giant planet, which may cause ... Chick, Kenneth M.; Cassen, Patrick (1997). "Thermal processing of interstellar dust grains in the primitive solar environment ... What follows after the embryo formation is not completely clear. Some embryos appear to continue to grow and eventually reach 5 ... to Mars-sized planetary embryos. Near the star, the planetary embryos go through a stage of violent mergers, producing a few ...
Human diploid cell culture rabies vaccine (HDCV) and purified chick embryo cell culture rabies vaccine (PCEC) are used to treat ... Dietzschold, B.; Hooper, D. C. (1 October 1998). "Human diploid cell culture rabies vaccine (HDCV) and purified chick embryo ...
A study of the developing leg muscle in a 12-day chick embryo using electron microscopy proposes a mechanism for the ... Fischman, Donald A. (1967). "An electron microscope study of myofibril formation in embryonic chick skeletal muscle". The ...
Gary Greenburg then entered Betty' lab as a graduate student, and they started working with 48-hour chick embryos. They were ... While at Harvard she moved on from studying salamanders to focus more on the embryonic chick cornea. Hay then accepted the ... ECM and were able to show that the ECM can induce cell differentiation and that it directly interacts with cells in the embryo ... signaling pathways involved in EMT during development led to the discovery that Smads can activate these pathways in the embryo ...
A chorion is the outer membrane around the embryo. In aseptic conditions, the eggs are washed twice for 2.5 minutes each, in ... Harrison, G. F. (April 1969). "Production of germ-free chicks: a comparison of the hatchability of eggs sterilized externally ... To create a germ-free mouse, an embryo is created through in vitro fertilization and then transplanted into a germ-free mother ...
2) Regulations (SI 2009/2161) The Welfare Reform Act (Relevant Enactment) Order (SI 2009/2162) The Eggs and Chicks (England) ... Statutory Storage Period for Embryos and Gametes) (Amendment) Regulations (SI 2009/2581) The Mersey Docks and Harbour Revision ... The Eggs and Chicks (Wales) Regulations (SI 2009/793) The Occupational Pension Schemes (Levy Ceiling) Order (SI 2009/794) The ... Statutory Storage Period for Embryos and Gametes) Regulations (SI 2009/1582) The Pensions Act 2004 (Commencement No.6, ...
The A-chick is dominant to the B-chick, which in turn is dominant to the C chick, etc. (when there are more than two chicks per ... In sand tiger sharks, the first embryo to hatch from its egg capsule kills and consumes its younger siblings while still in the ... In the few days before the second egg hatches, the first-born chick, known as the senior chick or A-chick, enjoys a period of ... either it did not hatch or the chick died soon after hatching). When both eggs hatch successfully, the second chick, or B-chick ...
... administered to hens has no effect on fertility or the survival of chicks. The main effect is the increase in embryo ... In the recovery phase, when the processed feed was removed, the 11 pairs produced 18 chicks. All the chicks born during the ... of fertile eggs with birth of as many chicks in the control group (0 ppm), they corresponded fertility rates of 33.3% to 50 ppm ... reduction compared to the pre-treatment period in which each of the 11 couples under study produced 2 chicks. ...
In 1817, Heinz Christian Pander discovered three primordial germ layers while studying chick embryos. Between 1850 and 1855, ... The ectoderm generates the outer layer of the embryo, and it forms from the embryo's epiblast. The ectoderm develops into the ... In the human embryo, after about three days, the zygote forms a solid mass of cells by mitotic division, called a morula. This ... The mesoderm germ layer forms in the embryos of triploblastic animals. During gastrulation, some of the cells migrating inward ...
Reptile embryo development involves separate processes of differentiation and embryo growth. Differentiation is determined by ... Other sources of protein include canned insects, scrambled or hard boiled eggs, snails, ducklings, chicks, boiled organ meats, ... As the embryo approaches hatching, development stages are categorized into periods rather than ages (characterized by ... quail and chicks. Crustaceans such as crayfish are also readily consumed. Like all lizards, blue tegus need a properly balanced ...
Epidemiological evidence indicates infection of the embryo within the first two trimesters of pregnancy has potential to cause ... first described radially oriented cells spanning from the central canal to the outer surface of the embryonic chick spinal cord ...
As the embryo divides, quartets of cells are oriented at angles to each other. In the snail Lymnaea stagnalis, the direction of ... "Cell Movements at Hensen's Node Establish Left/Right Asymmetric Gene Expression in the Chick". Science. 324 (5929): 941-944. ... In each case the LR organizer is found on the dorsal side of the embryo and each organizer cell has a single cilia located on ... In the sea urchin, Nodal is expressed on the right side of the embryo, in contrast to the tunicate and vertebrate condition on ...
The Dixie Chicks are an American country music band. During a London concert ten days before the 2003 invasion of Iraq, lead ... Seeing Exoplanets Cancer Genes New High-Temperature Superconductors Watching Proteins at Work Water to Burn The Video Embryo ... "Y2K Disco - Taylor Swift, Justin Bieber + 2000s Pop at Dreamland". Film:Shut up and Sing "Dixie Chicks 'Shut Up and Sing' in ...
"chick") = (female) prostitute yā (鸭; lit. "duck") = (male) prostitute xiǎo lǎopó (小老婆) = mistress (lit. "little wife" or " ... the idea being that the mother mated with two or more males in quick succession and a mosaic embryo was formed. hún zhang ...
Kaplan, C. (‎1960)‎. Titration of vaccinia virus by intravenous injection of chick embryos. Bulletin of the World Health ...
Ueda, K., Diena, B. B., Sato, H. & Greenberg, L. (‎1969)‎. The chick embryo neutralization test in the assay of meningococcal ...
Hydroxytryptamine Binding Site Development in Chick Embryo by Serotonergic Compounds J.Neurochem. 1985 44:544-551 ... The overall evidence indicated that the chick embryo htnin may have a functioning serotonergic system and that the chick embryo ... "Influence on 5-3H]Hydroxytryptamine Binding Site Development in Chick Embryo by Serotonergic Compounds". ... characterized by a KD of 3.5-4.5 nM were detected in the chick embryo brain and were shown to develop linearly as a function of ...
... rabies vaccine chick embryo cell derived), frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, contraindications, ... encoded search term (rabies vaccine chick embryo cell derived (RabAvert)) and rabies vaccine chick embryo cell derived ( ... rabies vaccine chick embryo cell derived (Rx). Brand and Other Names:RabAvert ... rituximab, rabies vaccine chick embryo cell derived. immunosuppressive effects; risk of infection. Use Caution/Monitor. When ...
... a new high-resolution imaging technology to study cardiac development in chick embryos. ... Normal chick embryos from stages 14 to 22 and sham-operated and cardiac neural crest-ablated embryos from stages 15 and 18 were ... Optical coherence tomography: a new high-resolution imaging technology to study cardiac development in chick embryos. Journal ... We visualized embryonic chick hearts at looping stages using an OCT system with a 22 micro m axial and 27 micro m lateral ...
Oxygen uptake was studied during the establishment of cephalocaudal polarity in the very early chick embryo, i.e., 10 hr before ...
Immunofluorescent study of histone H5 in chick erythroid cells from developing embryos and adults. / Mura, Casilda; Huang, P. C ... Immunofluorescent study of histone H5 in chick erythroid cells from developing embryos and adults. Mechanisms of Ageing and ... Mura, C, Huang, PC & Craig, SW 1978, Immunofluorescent study of histone H5 in chick erythroid cells from developing embryos ... Dive into the research topics of Immunofluorescent study of histone H5 in chick erythroid cells from developing embryos and ...
Measurement of junctional tension in epithelial cells at the onset of primitive streak formation in the chick embryo via non- ...
Purified Chick Embryo Cell Vaccine (PCEC). In studies of PCEC use, local reactions (e.g., pain at the injection site, redness, ...
Exonucleolytic proofreading enhances the fidelity of DNA synthesis by chick embryo DNA polymerase-gamma. ... The high fidelity of chick embryo DNA polymerase-gamma (pol-gamma) ... The high fidelity of chick embryo DNA polymerase-gamma ( ... Highly purified chick embryo pol-gamma preparations do contain exonuclease activity capable of digesting radiolabeled DNA in a ... Exonucleolytic proofreading enhances the fidelity of DNA synthesis by chick embryo DNA polymerase-gamma. Kunkel TA, Soni A ...
... Author: Busch, Christian; Krochmann, Jelena; Drews, ... The Chick Embryo as an Experimental System for Melanoma Cell Invasion. DSpace Repository. Login ...
Fatal rabies encephalomyelitis despite chick embryo vaccine prophylaxis.. Authors: Sheth, S S. Gharpure, V. Nair, K. Nadkarni, ... Fatal rabies encephalomyelitis despite chick embryo vaccine prophylaxis. Indian Pediatrics. 1992 Jun; 29(6): 766-9. ...
title = "The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane in the study of angiogenesis and metastasis: The CAM assay in the study of ... The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane in the study of angiogenesis and metastasis: The CAM assay in the study of ... The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane in the study of angiogenesis and metastasis : The CAM assay in the study of ... The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane in the study of angiogenesis and metastasis : The CAM assay in the study of ...
rabies vaccine (purified chick embryo cell vaccine) (RabAvert) Report issue Vaccine Approved FDA ...
Z. S. AL-Kaaby, A. H. Salal, and H. Kudair, "Histological Study of Wing Limb in Chick Embryos at Ten Days Age", JUBPAS, vol. ... Histological Study of Wing Limb in Chick Embryos at Ten Days Age Article Sidebar. ... Samples of embryos limbs were removed and subjected to histological procedures and used three different stains:. The results of ...
chick embryo various None monkey (yg) P 4 ic None, NT antibody ...
Whole chick corneas with limbus were obtained from chick embryo aged 6-20 days (E6-E20), and corneal nerve fiber was labeled ... Corneal nerve starts to develop in E9 of chick embryo, and the corneal surface area, the total length of the corneal nerve ... This study attempted to understand the distribution of corneal nerve fibers in the development of chick embryo, and to evaluate ... Cornea/innervation; Nerve fibers, corneal/embryology; Development; Ophthalmic nerve/physiology; Chick embryo ...
This method is applicable to other vertebrate embryos and is an important tool with which to address cell and developmental ... creating an exciting opportunity to build upon the classical manipulative advantages of the chick embryonic system. ... Efficient gene transfer by electroporation of chick embryos in ovo has allowed the development of new approaches to the ... Figure 3: Spatially restricted expression in chick embryos, using region-specific enhancers from different species. ...
Chick Embryo Retina. Composed of many layers, the retina of humans and most vertebrates contains a stratum of rods and cones, ...
The chronic infusion of nicotine into the developing chick embryo does not alter tensity of (-)-[3H]nicotine-binding sites or ... Nicotine (1.2 mg/day) or saline was infused into chick embryos (Gallus domesticus) for 10 days beginning 12 h beyond the eight ... The chronic infusion of nicotine into the developing chick embryo does not alter tensity of (-)-[3H]nicotine-binding sites or ... The chronic infusion of nicotine into the developing chick embryo does not alter tensity of (-)-[3H]nicotine-binding sites or ...
title = "Tbx genes and limb identity in chick embryo development",. abstract = "Tbx-2, Tbx-3, Tbx-4 and Tbx-5 chick genes have ... keywords = "Chick embryos, FGF-2, Limb development, Limb mesoderm, Tbx genes",. author = "Alison Isaac and Concepci{\o}n ... Tbx genes and limb identity in chick embryo development. Alison Isaac*, Concepción Rodriguez-Esteban, Aimee Ryan, Muriel ... Tbx genes and limb identity in chick embryo development. In: Development. 1998 ; Vol. 125, No. 10. pp. 1867-1875. ...
AF treated animals were given 2 ml/kg of the chick embryo AF subcutaneously, once daily, five times a week for up to 2 weeks. ... The AF was aspirated from the amniotic cavity of incubating chick embryos at day 14. The sciatic nerve was exposed and sharply ... The results of this study demonstrate that chick AF can enhance peripheral nerve regeneration. ... "The effect of chick embryo amniotic fluid on sciatic nerve regeneration of rats". Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research, 16, 2 ...
... purified chick embryo cell vaccine, and purified duck embryo cell vaccine. [42] The WHO published updated postexposure ... Purified chick embryo cell vaccine (PCEC; RabAvert) - Licensed in the United States in 1997 for IM use only ...
Abbreviations: HDCV, human diploid cell vaccine; IM, intramuscular; PCEC, purified chick embryo cell.. 1Patients who are ... Abbreviations: RIG, rabies immune globulin; IM, intramuscular; HDCV, human diploid cell vaccine; PCEC, purified chick embryo ... or purified chick embryo cell (PCEC) vaccine given on days 0, 7, and 21 or 28. Based on recent changes in WHO recommendations ... For example, commercially available purified Vero cell rabies vaccine and purified duck embryo cell vaccine are acceptable ...
Chick Embryo * Collagen / metabolism * Collagen / ultrastructure* * Corneal Stroma / embryology* * Corneal Stroma / metabolism ...
Infections in the chick-embryo with two recently isolated human strains of influenzal virus and two strains of swine-virus have ... Studies on Influenzal Infections in the Chick-Embryo Björn Sigurdsson Björn Sigurdsson ... Infections in the chick-embryo with two recently isolated human strains of influenzal virus and two strains of swine-virus have ... How 37 C compares with 35-36 C as to susceptibility of the embryo and amount of virus produced would have to be clarified by ...
Purified chick embryo cell vaccine. Table 2: Outcomes and Rankings. Table 2: Outcomes and Rankings. Outcome. Importance*. ... and purified chick embryo cell vaccine [PCECV]) have shown favorable safety profiles for decades and no new concerns have been ... One-year immunogenicity kinetics and safety of a purified chick embryo cell rabies vaccine and an inactivated Vero cell-derived ... open label study of intradermal administration of an inactivated purified chick embryo cell culture rabies virus vaccine in ...
Giuliano, M., Taibi, G., Calvaruso, G., & Vento, R. (1987). Ornithine decarboxylase activity during chick embryo retina ... Giuliano, M, Taibi, G, Calvaruso, G & Vento, R 1987, Ornithine decarboxylase activity during chick embryo retina development: ... Ornithine decarboxylase activity during chick embryo retina development:hydrocortisone effect. Michela Giuliano, Gennaro Taibi ... Ornithine decarboxylase activity during chick embryo retina development:hydrocortisone effect. / Giuliano, Michela; Taibi, ...
Chick embryos and cell culture. Fertilized White Leghorn chicken eggs (Ozark Hatchery, Meosho, MO, USA) were placed in a ... We used the chick embryo transplant model to study the reprogramming of human metastatic melanoma cells towards a benign cell ... Although the chick embryo transplant model and CAM metastasis assay do not entirely mimic real-life human melanoma disease, ... Chick embryos, 9-10 somites, were prepared for transplantation of melanoma cells by cutting a hole in the vitelline membrane ...
  • Nicotine (1.2 mg/day) or saline was infused into chick embryos (Gallus domesticus) for 10 days beginning 12 h beyond the eight day of incubation (E8 + 12 h). (
  • Induction of the neural canal in young blastoderms of chick embryos (Gallus domesticus). (
  • Dive into the research topics of 'Induction of the neural canal in young blastoderms of chick embryos (Gallus domesticus). (
  • A 3-D fate map of the chicken (Gallus gallus) embryo with the prospective point of ingression and yolk. (
  • This image shows a chicken (Gallus gallus) embryo undergoing gastrulation in stage four (18-19 hrs after laying) according to the Hamburger-Hamilton staging series. (
  • She researched how body and head segments formed in chicks (Gallus gallus) and spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias). (
  • Adverse events were not evaluated because the two rabies vaccines recommended in the United States (human diploid cell culture vaccine [HDCV] and purified chick embryo cell vaccine [PCECV]) have shown favorable safety profiles for decades and no new concerns have been identified. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Fatal rabies encephalomyelitis despite chick embryo vaccine prophylaxis. (
  • Why are chicken embryos typically the go-to for flu vaccine cultivation? (
  • Twelve h beyond the eightenenth day if incubation (E8 + 12 h), the eggs were opened to access the embryos and subcutaneous skull electrodes placed. (
  • Infections in the chick-embryo with two recently isolated human strains of influenzal virus and two strains of swine-virus have been studied with relation to the influence of the temperature of incubation and the age of the host. (
  • In the embryo cultures where the embryos were transferred to the culture vessel after 55-56 h incubation, more than 90% of embryos survived until day 17 when a polymethylpentene film was used as a culture vessel with calcium lactate and distilled water supplementations. (
  • Students identify how the basic needs of a growing chick are met during egg incubation, diagram the parts of an egg, and hatch eggs in class. (
  • This is what develops into a chick during incubation . (
  • Six embryos were taken every 24 hrs from 3-16 days of incubation. (
  • After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching. (
  • Comparison of three non-viral transfection methods for foreign gene expression in early chicken embryos in ovo . (
  • n -hexane (Ph.Hex), chloroform (Ph.Chf), ethyl acetate (Ph.EtAc), n -Butanol (Ph.Bt), aqueous (Ph.Aq), saponins (Ph.Sp) were performed using the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. (
  • The chicken Chorio-Allantoic Membrane (CAM) model, the chick embryo is surrounded by the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), a highly vascularized extra-embryonic membrane that can be used to graft human cells. (
  • tumour grafts derived from sarcoma patients retain tumour morphology, viability, and invasion potential and indicate disease outcomes in the chick chorioallantoic membrane model, Cancer Letters, 326, 69-78, 2012. (
  • We visualized embryonic chick hearts at looping stages using an OCT system with a 22 micro m axial and 27 micro m lateral resolution and an acquisition rate of 4000 A-scans per second. (
  • Efficient gene transfer by electroporation of chick embryos in ovo has allowed the development of new approaches to the analysis of gene regulation, function and expression, creating an exciting opportunity to build upon the classical manipulative advantages of the chick embryonic system. (
  • The hypoblast is generally thought to be responsible for inducing the mesoderm in the chick embryo because the primitive streak, and subsequently the embryonic axis, form according to the orientation of the hypoblast However, some cells become specified as embryonic mesoderm very late in development, towards the end of the gastrulation period and long after the hypoblast has left the embryonic region. (
  • Created by Lewis Wolpert in the late 1960s, the model uses the French tricolor flag as visual representation to explain how embryonic cells can interpret genetic code to create the same pattern even when certain pieces of the embryo are removed. (
  • Platt followed the paths of cells in developing mudpuppy embryos to see how embryonic cells migrated during the formation of the head. (
  • Normal chick embryos from stages 14 to 22 and sham-operated and cardiac neural crest-ablated embryos from stages 15 and 18 were scanned by OCT. Three-dimensional data sets were acquired and processed to create volumetric reconstructions and short video clips. (
  • Kulesa, P. Neural crest cell dynamics revealed by time-lapse video microscopy of whole chick explant cultures. (
  • Julia Barlow Platt studied neural crests in animal embryos and became involved in politics in the US during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. (
  • Platt observed that in the mudpuppy (Necturus maculosus), the coordinated migration of neural crest cells in the embryo produced parts of the nervous system, bones, and connective tissues in the head. (
  • We compare some of the findings with in-vivo imaging of the primitive streak formation in chick embryos. (
  • Soblosky JS, Jeng I. "Influence on 5-3H]Hydroxytryptamine Binding Site Development in Chick Embryo by Serotonergic Compounds" J.Neurochem. . (
  • The overall evidence indicated that the chick embryo htnin may have a functioning serotonergic system and that the chick embryo may be an ideal system for the study of [3H]5-HT binding site regulation and development. (
  • Optical coherence tomography: a new high-resolution imaging technology to study cardiac development in chick embryos. (
  • Mura, C, Huang, PC & Craig, SW 1978, ' Immunofluorescent study of histone H5 in chick erythroid cells from developing embryos and adults ', Mechanisms of Ageing and Development , vol. 7, no. (
  • This study attempted to understand the distribution of corneal nerve fibers in the development of chick embryo, and to evaluate the changes of the length and density of corneal nerve fibers with aging of chick embryo. (
  • Corneal nerve starts to develop in E9 of chick embryo, and the corneal surface area, the total length of the corneal nerve fibers and the density rapidly increase concurrently with the development of chick embryo. (
  • Recording and contextualizing the science of embryos, development, and reproduction. (
  • Myogenesis is the formation of muscle that occurs throughout an animal's development, from embryo to the end of life. (
  • and retardation of growth and development in rat embryos. (
  • embed][/embed] A Novel Shell-less Culture System for Chick Embryos Using a Plastic Film as Culture Vessels 'The development of shell-less culture methods for bird embryos with high hatchability would be useful for the efficient generation of transgenic chickens, embryo manipulations, tissue engineering, and basic studies in regenerative medicine. (
  • She abandoned the project-after a series of unpleasant forays for subject matter-and with Levi's permission began to study the development of the nervous system in chick embryos. (
  • The 7- and 12-day embryos apparently did not differ markedly in their resistance although the 7-day eggs were probably slightly more susceptible. (
  • If the eggs have been fertilized by a rooster , chicks may grow and develop inside given the right conditions. (
  • The eggs can't develop because the oil cuts off the air supply to the embryo within, but the parents continue trying to incubate the egg for up to two months (eggs normally take about three weeks to hatch). (
  • However, researchers such as Munro, Major and Martin are very worried about the long-term implications of destroying ibis eggs, chicks and habitat, except from areas where ibis pose a real threat. (
  • There were 4 fully formed chicks in eggs that did not make it for some reason. (
  • Couly, G. F., Coltey, P. M. & Le Douarin, N. M. The developmental fate of the cephalic mesoderm in quail-chick chimeras. (
  • The OCT-scanned embryos (2 in each group) were photographed after histological sectioning in comparable planes to those visualized by OCT. The optical and histological results showing cardiovascular microstructures such as myocardium, the cardiac jelly, and endocardium are presented. (
  • The other three embryos have been processed for histological examination. (
  • This method is applicable to other vertebrate embryos and is an important tool with which to address cell and developmental biology questions. (
  • The black spot at the top was a developing embryo in the very beginning stages when it died. (
  • As the embryo develops, blood vessels attach to the yolk to access nutrition and to the inner membrane to access oxygen and release carbon dioxide. (
  • The albumen (al byoo min), or the egg white, cushions the egg yolk floating within it and is the main source of protein and water for the embryo. (
  • The yolk provides food for the embryo. (
  • Patterns of oxygen consumption during establishment of cephalocaudal polarity in the early chick embryo. (
  • Summary: Admp is an upstream regulator of tail bending in the chordate Ciona tailbud embryo, determining tissue polarity of the ventral midline epidermis by localizing phosphorylated myosin. (
  • Tunicate Tail bending Intercalation Polarity Boat cell Embryo shape Japan. (
  • To date, studies of culture methods for bird embryos include the whole embryo culture using narrow windowed eggshells, surrogate eggshells, and an artificial vessel using a gas-permeable membrane. (
  • To establish a simple method for culturing chick embryos with high hatchability, we examined various culture conditions, including methods for calcium supplementation and oxygen aeration. (
  • Cardiac outflow tract malformations in chick embryos exposed to homocysteine. (
  • At this point in time the chicken embryo is a blastoderm (shown in blue). (
  • The first magnification of the embryo shows that the blastoderm cell layers have thickened to form the primitive streak and Hensen's node. (
  • Vaccines produced in chick embryo cells had significant reverse transcriptase activity. (
  • Scientists have applied somatic cell nuclear transfer to clone human and mammalian embryos as a means to produce stem cells for laboratory and medical use. (
  • A germ layer is a group of cells in an embryo that interact with each other as the embryo develops and contribute to the formation of all organs and tissues. (
  • With her research, Platt challenged then current theories about germ layers, the types of cells in an early embryo that develop into adult cells. (
  • this canal it Buy Valium 2Mg forms the embryo chick is the anterior horizontal cells on the history of poupart's ligament. (
  • Identifying the parts of a chicken egg and their functions can help students understand how a chicken embryo survives and develops. (
  • You've done future baby chicks everywhere a favor. (
  • How to grow baby chicks using plastic wrap instead of an eggshell. (
  • Fraser, S., Keynes, R. & Lumsden, A. Segmentation in the chick embryo hindbrain is defined by cell lineage restrictions. (
  • The air cell, located between the inner and outer membranes at the large end of the egg, holds oxygen for the chick to breathe. (
  • Just before hatching, the chick uses its egg tooth to puncture the air cell, which will provide about six hours of oxygen for the chick while it pecks its way out of the shell. (
  • If the humidity is too high, the chick may drown in excess fluid after it breaks into the air cell. (
  • The chick embryo is naturally immunocompetent, thus easily allowing mammal cell xenografts. (
  • It's a humane technique compared with killing adult birds or chicks, says Major in a research paper on the effectiveness of the method. (
  • On day 12 of gestation, 23 does were slaughtered to evaluate weights of carcass, organs and dissectible fat, and embryo implantation rate. (
  • The CAM has long been a favored system for the study of tumor angiogenesis and metastasis, because at this stage the chick immunocompetence system is not fully developed and the conditions for rejection have not been established. (
  • Couly, G. F., Coltey, P. M. & Le Douarin, N. M. The triple origin of skull in higher vertebrates - a study in quail-chick chimeras. (
  • The results of this study demonstrate that chick AF can enhance peripheral nerve regeneration. (
  • In 1893, Julia Barlow Platt published her research on the origins of cartilage in the developing head of the common mudpuppy (Necturus maculosus) embryo. (
  • Still hungry for an Embryo McMuffin? (
  • Ibis are especially bold in spring as they forage for food to feed their hungry chicks. (
  • Using chicken and mouse embryos as model systems, we combine developmental. (
  • The strains tested killed the embryos regularly at the lower temperature and infections and deaths were prevented by immune sera. (
  • A chicken embryo needs nutrients, water, oxygen, and the proper temperature and humidity to develop into a healthy chick . (
  • The aeration of pure oxygen to the surviving embryos from day 17 yielded a hatchability of 57.1% (8out of 14). (
  • Saturable and specific binding sites for 5- [3H]hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) characterized by a KD of 3.5-4.5 nM were detected in the chick embryo brain and were shown to develop linearly as a function of age, weight, and protein content. (
  • Watching the embryo develop under clear plastic, of course! (
  • Figure 1: Electroporation-mediated gene expression in cultured chick and mouse embryos. (
  • Tbx-2, Tbx-3, Tbx-4 and Tbx-5 chick genes have been isolated and, like the mouse homologues, are expressed in the limb regions. (
  • The effect of chick embryo amniotic fluid on sciatic nerve regeneration of rats', Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research , 16(2), pp. 167-171. (
  • Occurrence of the pellagra-like syndrome in range chicks. (
  • Highly purified chick embryo pol-gamma preparations do contain exonuclease activity capable of digesting radiolabeled DNA in a 3'----5' direction, releasing deoxynucleoside 5'-monophosphates. (