The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.
An extra-embryonic membranous sac derived from the YOLK SAC of REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. It lies between two other extra-embryonic membranes, the AMNION and the CHORION. The allantois serves to store urinary wastes and mediate exchange of gas and nutrients for the developing embryo.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Common name for two distinct groups of BIRDS in the order GALLIFORMES: the New World or American quails of the family Odontophoridae and the Old World quails in the genus COTURNIX, family Phasianidae.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.
The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.
Proteins obtained from species of BIRDS.
The outermost extra-embryonic membrane surrounding the developing embryo. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it adheres to the shell and allows exchange of gases between the egg and its environment. In MAMMALS, the chorion evolves into the fetal contribution of the PLACENTA.
A highly vascularized extra-embryonic membrane, formed by the fusion of the CHORION and the ALLANTOIS. It is mostly found in BIRDS and REPTILES. It serves as a model for studying tumor or cell biology, such as angiogenesis and TISSUE TRANSPLANTATION.
Early pregnancy loss during the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN stage of development. In the human, this period comprises the second through eighth week after fertilization.
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).
A layer of cells lining the fluid-filled cavity (blastocele) of a BLASTULA, usually developed from a fertilized insect, reptilian, or avian egg.
The earliest developmental stage of a fertilized ovum (ZYGOTE) during which there are several mitotic divisions within the ZONA PELLUCIDA. Each cleavage or segmentation yields two BLASTOMERES of about half size of the parent cell. This cleavage stage generally covers the period up to 16-cell MORULA.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
Paired, segmented masses of MESENCHYME located on either side of the developing spinal cord (neural tube). Somites derive from PARAXIAL MESODERM and continue to increase in number during ORGANOGENESIS. Somites give rise to SKELETON (sclerotome); MUSCLES (myotome); and DERMIS (dermatome).
A genus of BIRDS in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES, containing the common European and other Old World QUAIL.
An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.
A cartilaginous rod of mesodermal cells at the dorsal midline of all CHORDATE embryos. In lower vertebrates, notochord is the backbone of support. In the higher vertebrates, notochord is a transient structure, and segments of the vertebral column will develop around it. Notochord is also a source of midline signals that pattern surrounding tissues including the NEURAL TUBE development.
The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.
Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
A paralytic condition of the legs caused by ingestion of lathyrogens, especially BETA-AMINOPROPIONITRILE or beta-N-oxalyl amino-L-alanine, which are found in the seeds of plants of the genus LATHYRUS.
The posterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of an embryonic brain. It consists of myelencephalon, metencephalon, and isthmus rhombencephali from which develop the major BRAIN STEM components, such as MEDULLA OBLONGATA from the myelencephalon, CEREBELLUM and PONS from the metencephalon, with the expanded cavity forming the FOURTH VENTRICLE.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.
The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.
Utilization or disposal of an embryo that is fertilized but not immediately transplanted and resulting course of action.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.
An early embryo that is a compact mass of about 16 BLASTOMERES. It resembles a cluster of mulberries with two types of cells, outer cells and inner cells. Morula is the stage before BLASTULA in non-mammalian animals or a BLASTOCYST in mammals.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Distinct regions of mesenchymal outgrowth at both flanks of an embryo during the SOMITE period. Limb buds, covered by ECTODERM, give rise to forelimb, hindlimb, and eventual functional limb structures. Limb bud cultures are used to study CELL DIFFERENTIATION; ORGANOGENESIS; and MORPHOGENESIS.
A tube of ectodermal tissue in an embryo that will give rise to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, including the SPINAL CORD and the BRAIN. Lumen within the neural tube is called neural canal which gives rise to the central canal of the spinal cord and the ventricles of the brain. For malformation of the neural tube, see NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.
A fibroblast growth factor that preferentially activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 4. It was initially identified as an androgen-induced growth factor and plays a role in regulating growth of human BREAST NEOPLASMS and PROSTATIC NEOPLASMS.
The first of four extra-embryonic membranes to form during EMBRYOGENESIS. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it arises from endoderm and mesoderm to incorporate the EGG YOLK into the DIGESTIVE TRACT for nourishing the embryo. In placental MAMMALS, its nutritional function is vestigial; however, it is the source of INTESTINAL MUCOSA; BLOOD CELLS; and GERM CELLS. It is sometimes called the vitelline sac, which should not be confused with the VITELLINE MEMBRANE of the egg.
A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.
Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An epithelial outgrowth of the cloaca in birds similar to the thymus in mammals. It atrophies within 6 months after birth and remains as a fibrous remnant in adult birds. It is composed of lymphoid tissue and prior to involution, is the site of B-lymphocyte maturation.
A technique in which electric pulses of intensity in kilovolts per centimeter and of microsecond-to-millisecond duration cause a temporary loss of the semipermeability of CELL MEMBRANES, thus leading to ion leakage, escape of metabolites, and increased uptake by cells of drugs, molecular probes, and DNA.
Cells in certain regions of an embryo that self-regulate embryonic development. These organizers have been found in dorsal and ventral poles of GASTRULA embryos, including Spemann organizer in amphibians, and Hensen node in chicken and mouse. These organizer cells communicate with each other via a network of secreted signaling proteins, such as BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS and their antagonists (chordin and noggin).
1,4-Dihydro-2,4,6-trimethyl-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylic acid diethyl ester.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
Transference of tissue within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
One of a pair of excretory organs (mesonephroi) which grows caudally to the first pair (PRONEPHROI) during development. Mesonephroi are the permanent kidneys in adult amphibians and fish. In higher vertebrates, proneprhoi and most of mesonephroi degenerate with the appearance of metanephroi. The remaining ducts become WOLFFIAN DUCTS.
A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Experimentation on, or using the organs or tissues from, a human or other mammalian conceptus during the prenatal stage of development that is characterized by rapid morphological changes and the differentiation of basic structures. In humans, this includes the period from the time of fertilization to the end of the eighth week after fertilization.
An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes condensation of the succinyl group from succinyl coenzyme A with glycine to form delta-aminolevulinate. It is a pyridoxyal phosphate protein and the reaction occurs in mitochondria as the first step of the heme biosynthetic pathway. The enzyme is a key regulatory enzyme in heme biosynthesis. In liver feedback is inhibited by heme. EC 2.3.1.37.
The techniques used to select and/or place only one embryo from FERTILIZATION IN VITRO into the uterine cavity to establish a singleton pregnancy.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
Reagent used as an intermediate in the manufacture of beta-alanine and pantothenic acid.
An allylic compound that acts as a suicide inactivator of CYTOCHROME P450 by covalently binding to its heme moiety or surrounding protein.
The formation of one or more genetically identical organisms derived by vegetative reproduction from a single cell. The source nuclear material can be embryo-derived, fetus-derived, or taken from an adult somatic cell.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
A region, of SOMITE development period, that contains a number of paired arches, each with a mesodermal core lined by ectoderm and endoderm on the two sides. In lower aquatic vertebrates, branchial arches develop into GILLS. In higher vertebrates, the arches forms outpouchings and develop into structures of the head and neck. Separating the arches are the branchial clefts or grooves.
A hard or leathery calciferous exterior covering of an egg.
Embryonic and fetal development that takes place in an artificial environment in vitro.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Methods of implanting a CELL NUCLEUS from a donor cell into an enucleated acceptor cell.
Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The founding member of the nodal signaling ligand family of proteins. Nodal protein was originally discovered in the region of the mouse embryo primitive streak referred to as HENSEN'S NODE. It is expressed asymmetrically on the left side in chordates and plays a critical role in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during vertebrate development.
Goosecoid protein is a homeodomain protein that was first identified in XENOPUS. It is found in the SPEMANN ORGANIZER of VERTEBRATES and plays an important role in neuronal CELL DIFFERENTIATION and ORGANOGENESIS.
A process of complicated morphogenetic cell movements that reorganizes a bilayer embryo into one with three GERM LAYERS and specific orientation (dorsal/ventral; anterior/posterior). Gastrulation describes the germ layer development of a non-mammalian BLASTULA or that of a mammalian BLASTOCYST.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
A technique for maintaining or growing TISSUE in vitro, usually by DIFFUSION, perifusion, or PERFUSION. The tissue is cultured directly after removal from the host without being dispersed for cell culture.
Congenital malformations of the central nervous system and adjacent structures related to defective neural tube closure during the first trimester of pregnancy generally occurring between days 18-29 of gestation. Ectodermal and mesodermal malformations (mainly involving the skull and vertebrae) may occur as a result of defects of neural tube closure. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp31-41)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
The plasma membrane of the egg.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
The three primary germinal layers (ECTODERM; ENDODERM; and MESODERM) developed during GASTRULATION that provide tissues and body plan of a mature organism. They derive from two early layers, hypoblast and epiblast.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).
A vitamin antagonist which has teratogenic effects.
The field of biology which deals with the process of the growth and differentiation of an organism.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.
Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.
The arterial trunk arising from the fetal heart. During development, it divides into AORTA and the PULMONARY ARTERY.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
The study of the development of an organism during the embryonic and fetal stages of life.
A HEPARIN binding fibroblast growth factor that may play a role in LIMB BUDS development.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
An agent that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.
The potential of the FETUS to survive outside the UTERUS after birth, natural or induced. Fetal viability depends largely on the FETAL ORGAN MATURITY, and environmental conditions.
Compounds that contain three methine groups. They are frequently used as cationic dyes used for differential staining of biological materials.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
A unisexual reproduction without the fusion of a male and a female gamete (FERTILIZATION). In parthenogenesis, an individual is formed from an unfertilized OVUM that did not complete MEIOSIS. Parthenogenesis occurs in nature and can be artificially induced.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Plant extracts from several species, including genera STRYCHNOS and Chondodendron, which contain TETRAHYDROISOQUINOLINES that produce PARALYSIS of skeletal muscle. These extracts are toxic and must be used with the administration of artificial respiration.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Ducts that serve exclusively for the passage of eggs from the ovaries to the exterior of the body. In non-mammals, they are termed oviducts. In mammals, they are highly specialized and known as FALLOPIAN TUBES.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
The head of a long bone that is separated from the shaft by the epiphyseal plate until bone growth stops. At that time, the plate disappears and the head and shaft are united.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Somewhat flattened, globular echinoderms, having thin, brittle shells of calcareous plates. They are useful models for studying FERTILIZATION and EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Cytoplasm stored in an egg that contains nutritional reserves for the developing embryo. It is rich in polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins.
Transforming protein coded by myc oncogenes. The v-myc protein has been found in several replication-defective avian retrovirus isolates which induce a broad spectrum of malignancies.
The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).
A linear band of rapidly proliferating cells that begins near the posterior end of an embryo and grows cranially. Primitive streak is formed during GASTRULATION by the convergent migration of primary ectodermal cells (EPIBLAST). The knot at the tip of the streak is called HENSEN NODE.
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE family. Previously a large group of serotypes, most are now considered separate species.
Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.
The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.
Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the OVUM; ZYGOTE; or BLASTOCYST prior to implantation. CYTOGENETIC ANALYSIS is performed to determine the presence or absence of genetic disease.
A glycoprotein albumin from hen's egg white with strong iron-binding affinity.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
An early embryonic developmental process of CHORDATES that is characterized by morphogenic movements of ECTODERM resulting in the formation of the NEURAL PLATE; the NEURAL CREST; and the NEURAL TUBE. Improper closure of the NEURAL GROOVE results in congenital NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.
Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
Ganglia of the parasympathetic nervous system, including the ciliary, pterygopalatine, submandibular, and otic ganglia in the cranial region and intrinsic (terminal) ganglia associated with target organs in the thorax and abdomen.
Preparations made from animal tissues or organs (ANIMAL STRUCTURES). They usually contain many components, any one of which may be pharmacologically or physiologically active. Tissue extracts may contain specific, but uncharacterized factors or proteins with specific actions.
Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.
Congenital structural deformities of the upper and lower extremities collectively or unspecified.
The most well known avian paramyxovirus in the genus AVULAVIRUS and the cause of a highly infectious pneumoencephalitis in fowl. It is also reported to cause CONJUNCTIVITIS in humans. Transmission is by droplet inhalation or ingestion of contaminated water or food.
The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.
The anatomical parts that make up an organism in the early stages of development.
A family of VERTEBRATE homeodomain proteins that share homology with orthodenticle protein, Drosophila. They regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and play an important role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT of the BRAIN.
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A mucopolysaccharide constituent of chondrin. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

Studies on the response of ewes to live chlamydiae adapted to chicken embryos or tissue culture. (1/14041)

Ewes infected before gestation with chicken embryo or tissue culture adapted chlamydial strain B-577 were challenge inoculated with the homologous strain at four to 18 weeks of gestation. The ewes responsed with group specific complement fixing antibody titers of 1:8 to 1:256 by the second week after initial infection. A secondary antibody response in the surviving challenge inoculated ewes occurred at the time of lambing and reached titers of 1:32 to 1:256 by the second week after parturition. Group specific complement fixing antibodies did not appear to play a significant role in resistance to chlamydial infection. Ewes infected with the chicken embryo adapted strain B-577 excreted chlamydiae in their feces 60 days after inoculation. However, chlamydiae were not recovered from feces of ewes infected with the tissue culture adapted strain B-577. Placentas of ewes challenge inoculated by the intravenous route were consistently infected. Chlamydiae were recovered from placentas, some fetuses and lambs. In two instances when challenge inoculation was given by the intramuscular route, infection was detected only by the direct fluorescent antibody method.  (+info)

The surface ectoderm is essential for nephric duct formation in intermediate mesoderm. (2/14041)

The nephric duct is the first epithelial tubule to differentiate from intermediate mesoderm that is essential for all further urogenital development. In this study we identify the domain of intermediate mesoderm that gives rise to the nephric duct and demonstrate that the surface ectoderm is required for its differentiation. Removal of the surface ectoderm resulted in decreased levels of Sim-1 and Pax-2 mRNA expression in mesenchymal nephric duct progenitors, and caused inhibition of nephric duct formation and subsequent kidney development. The surface ectoderm expresses BMP-4 and we show that it is required for the maintenance of high-level BMP-4 expression in lateral plate mesoderm. Addition of a BMP-4-coated bead to embryos lacking the surface ectoderm restored normal levels of Sim-1 and Pax-2 mRNA expression in nephric duct progenitors, nephric duct formation and the initiation of nephrogenesis. Thus, BMP-4 signaling can substitute for the surface ectoderm in supporting nephric duct morphogenesis. Collectively, these data suggest that inductive interactions between the surface ectoderm, lateral mesoderm and intermediate mesoderm are essential for nephric duct formation and the initiation of urogenital development.  (+info)

FGF8 induces formation of an ectopic isthmic organizer and isthmocerebellar development via a repressive effect on Otx2 expression. (3/14041)

Beads containing recombinant FGF8 (FGF8-beads) were implanted in the prospective caudal diencephalon or midbrain of chick embryos at stages 9-12. This induced the neuroepithelium rostral and caudal to the FGF8-bead to form two ectopic, mirror-image midbrains. Furthermore, cells in direct contact with the bead formed an outgrowth that protruded laterally from the neural tube. Tissue within such lateral outgrowths developed proximally into isthmic nuclei and distally into a cerebellum-like structure. These morphogenetic effects were apparently due to FGF8-mediated changes in gene expression in the vicinity of the bead, including a repressive effect on Otx2 and an inductive effect on En1, Fgf8 and Wnt1 expression. The ectopic Fgf8 and Wnt1 expression domains formed nearly complete concentric rings around the FGF8-bead, with the Wnt1 ring outermost. These observations suggest that FGF8 induces the formation of a ring-like ectopic signaling center (organizer) in the lateral wall of the brain, similar to the one that normally encircles the neural tube at the isthmic constriction, which is located at the boundary between the prospective midbrain and hindbrain. This ectopic isthmic organizer apparently sends long-range patterning signals both rostrally and caudally, resulting in the development of the two ectopic midbrains. Interestingly, our data suggest that these inductive signals spread readily in a caudal direction, but are inhibited from spreading rostrally across diencephalic neuromere boundaries. These results provide insights into the mechanism by which FGF8 induces an ectopic organizer and suggest that a negative feedback loop between Fgf8 and Otx2 plays a key role in patterning the midbrain and anterior hindbrain.  (+info)

Requirement of a novel gene, Xin, in cardiac morphogenesis. (4/14041)

A novel gene, Xin, from chick (cXin) and mouse (mXin) embryonic hearts, may be required for cardiac morphogenesis and looping. Both cloned cDNAs have a single open reading frame, encoding proteins with 2,562 and 1,677 amino acids for cXin and mXin, respectively. The derived amino acid sequences share 46% similarity. The overall domain structures of the predicted cXin and mXin proteins, including proline-rich regions, 16 amino acid repeats, DNA-binding domains, SH3-binding motifs and nuclear localization signals, are highly conserved. Northern blot analyses detect a single message of 8.9 and 5.8 kilo base (kb) from both cardiac and skeletal muscle of chick and mouse, respectively. In situ hybridization reveals that the cXin gene is specifically expressed in cardiac progenitor cells of chick embryos as early as stage 8, prior to heart tube formation. cXin continues to be expressed in the myocardium of developing hearts. By stage 15, cXin expression is also detected in the myotomes of developing somites. Immunofluorescence microscopy reveals that the mXin protein is colocalized with N-cadherin and connexin-43 in the intercalated discs of adult mouse hearts. Incubation of stage 6 chick embryos with cXin antisense oligonucleotides results in abnormal cardiac morphogenesis and an alteration of cardiac looping. The myocardium of the affected hearts becomes thickened and tends to form multiple invaginations into the heart cavity. This abnormal cellular process may account in part for the abnormal looping. cXin expression can be induced by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) in explants of anterior medial mesoendoderm from stage 6 chick embryos, a tissue that is normally non-cardiogenic. This induction occurs following the BMP-mediated induction of two cardiac-restricted transcription factors, Nkx2.5 and MEF2C. Furthermore, either MEF2C or Nkx2.5 can transactivate a luciferase reporter driven by the mXin promoter in mouse fibroblasts. These results suggest that Xin may participate in a BMP-Nkx2.5-MEF2C pathway to control cardiac morphogenesis and looping.  (+info)

Mechanisms of GDF-5 action during skeletal development. (5/14041)

Mutations in GDF-5, a member of the TGF-beta superfamily, result in the autosomal recessive syndromes brachypod (bp) in mice and Hunter-Thompson and Grebe-type chondrodysplasias in humans. These syndromes are all characterised by the shortening of the appendicular skeleton and loss or abnormal development of some joints. To investigate how GDF-5 controls skeletogenesis, we overexpressed GDF-5 during chick limb development using the retrovirus, RCASBP. This resulted in up to a 37.5% increase in length of the skeletal elements, which was predominantly due to an increase in the number of chondrocytes. By injecting virus at different stages of development, we show that GDF-5 can increase both the size of the early cartilage condensation and the later developing skeletal element. Using in vitro micromass cultures as a model system to study the early steps of chondrogenesis, we show that GDF-5 increases chondrogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. We did not detect changes in proliferation. However, cell suspension cultures showed that GDF-5 might act at these stages by increasing cell adhesion, a critical determinant of early chondrogenesis. In contrast, pulse labelling experiments of GDF-5-infected limbs showed that at later stages of skeletal development GDF-5 can increase proliferation of chondrocytes. Thus, here we show two mechanisms of how GDF-5 may control different stages of skeletogenesis. Finally, our data show that levels of GDF-5 expression/activity are important in controlling the size of skeletal elements and provides a possible explanation for the variation in the severity of skeletal defects resulting from mutations in GDF-5.  (+info)

The cytoskeletal network controls c-Jun expression and glucocorticoid receptor transcriptional activity in an antagonistic and cell-type-specific manner. (6/14041)

The physical and functional link between adhesion molecules and the cytoskeletal network suggests that the cytoskeleton might mediate the transduction of cell-to-cell contact signals, which often regulate growth and differentiation in an antagonistic manner. Depolymerization of the cytoskeleton in confluent cell cultures is reportedly sufficient to initiate DNA synthesis. Here we show that depolymerization of the cytoskeleton is also sufficient to repress differentiation-specific gene expression. Glutamine synthetase is a glia-specific differentiation marker gene whose expression in the retinal tissue is regulated by glucocorticoids and is ultimately dependent on glia-neuron cell contacts. Depolymerization of the actin or microtubule network in cells of the intact retina mimics the effects of cell separation, repressing glutamine synthetase induction by a mechanism that involves induction of c-Jun and inhibition of glucocorticoid receptor transcriptional activity. Depolymerization of the cytoskeleton activates JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and induces c-Jun expression by a signaling pathway that depends on tyrosine kinase activity. Induction of c-Jun expression is restricted to Muller glial cells, the only cells in the tissue that express glutamine synthetase and maintain the ability to proliferate upon cell separation. Our results suggest that the cytoskeletal network might play a part in the transduction of cell contact signals to the nucleus.  (+info)

Regulation of chamber-specific gene expression in the developing heart by Irx4. (7/14041)

The vertebrate heart consists of two types of chambers, the atria and the ventricles, which differ in their contractile and electrophysiological properties. Little is known of the molecular mechanisms by which these chambers are specified during embryogenesis. Here a chicken iroquois-related homeobox gene, Irx4, was identified that has a ventricle-restricted expression pattern at all stages of heart development. Irx4 protein was shown to regulate the chamber-specific expression of myosin isoforms by activating the expression of the ventricle myosin heavy chain-1 (VMHC1) and suppressing the expression of the atrial myosin heavy chain-1 (AMHC1) in the ventricles. Thus, Irx4 may play a critical role in establishing chamber-specific gene expression in the developing heart.  (+info)

Studies on a nonpolysomal ribonucleoprotein coding for myosin heavy chains from chick embryonic muscles. (8/14041)

A messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) particle containing the mRNA coding for the myosin heavy chain (MHC mRNA) has been isolated from the postpolysomal fraction of homogenates of 14-day-old chick embryonic muscles. The mRNP sediments in sucrose gradient as 120 S and has a characteristic buoyant density of 1.415 g/cm3, which corresponds to an RNA:protein ratio of 1:3.8. The RNA isolated from the 120 S particle behaved like authentic MHC mRNA purified from chick embryonic muscles with respect to electrophoretic mobility and ability to program the synthesis of myosin heavy chain in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system as judged by multi-step co-purification of the in vitro products with chick embryonic leg muscle myosin added as carrier. The RNA obtained from the 120 S particle was as effective as purified MHC mRNA in stimulating the synthesis of the complete myosin heavy chains in rabbit reticulocyte lysate under conditions where non-muscle mRNAs had no such effect. Analysis of the protein moieties of the 120 S particle by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis shows the presence of seven distinct polypeptides with apparent molecular weights of 44,000, 49,000, 53,000, 81,000, 83,000, and 98,000, whereas typical ribosomal proteins are absent. These results indicate that the 120 S particles are distinct cellular entities unrelated to ribosomes or initiation complexes. The presence of muscle-specific mRNAs as cytoplasmic mRNPs suggests that these particles may be involved in translational control during myogenesis in embryonic muscles.  (+info)

In the preprimitive streak chick embryo, the search for a region capable of inducing the organizer, equivalent to the Nieuwkoop Center of the amphibian embryo, has focused on Kollers sickle, the hypoblast and the posterior marginal zone. However, no clear evidence for induction of an organizer without contribution from the inducing tissue has been provided for any of these structures. We have used DiI/DiO labeling to establish the fate of midline cells in and around Kollers sickle in the normal embryo. In the epiblast, the boundary between cells that contribute to the streak and those that do not lies at the posterior edge of Kollers sickle, except at stage X when it lies slightly more posteriorly in the epiblast. Hypoblast and endoblast (a second lower layer formed under the streak) have distinct origins in the lower layer, and goosecoid expression distinguishes between them. We then used anterior halves of chick prestreak embryos as recipients for grafts of quail posterior marginal zone; ...
1. The accumulation of [1-(14)C]glycine and the uptake, accumulation, incorporation (into protein, lipid, glycogen) and oxidation of l-[1-(14)C]leucine in 5-day-old chick embryo hearts were investigated in vitro, and the effects of insulin, puromycin and 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoic acid on these processes were studied. 2. With glycine, the ratio of concentration of the labelled amino acid in the cell water to that in medium markedly exceeded unity. Insulin significantly increased this ratio. Puromycin did not prevent the insulin effect. 3. With leucine, the concentration ratio of the labelled amino acid between intracellular and extracellular water approached unity in the absence of puromycin and was doubled by its presence. In neither case did insulin substantially alter this ratio. The addition of 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoic acid had no effect in the absence of insulin, but produced a significant increase of the concentration ratio in the presence of the hormone. 4. Leucine uptake was increased slightly by
We investigated the roles of sodium-calcium exchange, sarcoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria in Cai homeostasis in cultured chick ventricular cells. Specifically, the influence of low sodium medium on contractile state, calcium fluxes, and cytosolic free [Ca] [( Ca]i) was examined. [Ca]i was measured using fura-2. Mean [Ca]i in control medium was 126 +/- 14 nM. Exposure of cells to sodium-free or sodium- and calcium-free medium (choline-substituted) resulted in contracture development, which returned toward the baseline level over 2-3 minutes. The Nao-free contracture was associated with a tenfold increase in [Ca]i (1,280 +/- 110 nM) followed by a gradual decrease to a level fourfold above control [Ca]i (460 +/- 58 nM). Nao- and Cao-free contracture was associated with a fivefold increase in [Ca]i (540 +/- 52 nM) followed by a rapid decrease to below 80 nM. Sodium-free medium failed to produce an increase in [Ca]i or contracture in cells preexposed to calcium-free medium, although caffeine, ...
MHM is a chicken Z chromosome-linked locus that is methylated and transcriptionally silent in male cells, but is hypomethylated and transcribed into a long non-coding RNA in female cells. MHM has been implicated in both localised dosage compensation and sex determination in the chicken embryo, but direct evidence is lacking. We investigated the potential role of MHM in chicken embryonic development, using expression analysis and retroviral-mediated mis-expression. At embryonic stages, MHM is only expressed in females. Northern blotting showed that both sense and antisense strands of the MHM locus are transcribed, with the sense strand being more abundant. Whole mount in situ hybridization confirmed that the sense RNA is present in developing female embryos, notably in gonads, limbs, heart, branchial arch and brain. Within these cells, the MHM RNA is localized to the nucleus. The antisense transcript is lowly expressed and has a cytoplasmic localization in cells. Mis-expression of MHM sense and antisense
We have studied the lineage history of the progenitors of the somite mesoderm and of the neural tube in the chick embryo by injecting single cells with the fluorescent tracer, rhodamine-lysine-dextran. We find that, although single cells within the segmental plate give rise to discrete clones in the somites to which they contribute, neither the somites nor their component parts (sclerotome, dermatome, myotome or their rostral and caudal halves) are `compartments in the sense defined in insects. Cells in the rostral two thirds or so of the segmental plate contribute only to somite tissue and divide about every 10 h, while those in the caudal portions of this structure contribute both to the somites and to intermediate and lateral plate mesoderm derivatives. In the neural tube, the descendants of individual prospective ventral horn cells remain together within the horn, with a cycle time of 10 h.. We have also investigated the role of the cell division cycle in the formation and subsequent ...
Annulate lamellae have been observed in the myocardium of 18-day-old chick embryos maintained at the normal temperature of 100°F and at 90°F during the last week of incubation. An increased number of annulate lamellae was observed in heart muscle of embryos incubated at 90°F. This is probably caused by a persistent production of these organelles, since annulate lamellae are present in greater frequency than in 11-day-old embryos incubated at 100°F. In the hypertrophic hearts of 18-day-old embryos incubated at 90°F, the annulate lamellae were associated with a net increase of protein content and an elevated concentration of myocardial glycogen. It is suggested that the increased number of annulate lamellae is a sequela of reduced environmental temperature during incubation. ...
Acetylcholine, acetyl-β-methylcholine and carbamylcholine inhibited sinoatrial pacemaker activity in atria isolated from chick embryos on the 6th, 12th and 18th incubation days. Cardioinhibition persisted throughout the 5-minute exposure to cholinergic agonists in sinoatrial preparations from the 12th and l8th incubation days whereas automaticity recovered completely within 1 to 2 minutes in preparations from the 6th incubation day. Neither hydrolysis by acetylcholinesterase nor release of catecholamines from cardiac stores accounted adequately for the brevity of pacemaker inhibition by choline esters on the 6th incubation day. Evidence suggested that desensitization, most prominently observed with carbamylcholine, restricted the duration of cholinergic inhibition of the pacemaker on the 6th incubation day. Although automaticity recovered completely within 2 minutes after initial application of acetylcholine and carbamylcholine, pacemaker cells were not inhibited by a second application until ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Excess ROS induced by AAPH causes myocardial hypertrophy in the developing chick embryo. AU - Li, Yan. AU - Wang, Xiao-Yu. AU - Zhang, Zhao-long. AU - Cheng, Xin. AU - Li, Xiao-Di. AU - Chuai, Manli. AU - Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho. AU - Kurihara, Hiroshi. AU - Yang, Xuesong. PY - 2014/9. Y1 - 2014/9. N2 - Background The developing embryo is very sensitive to oxidative stress and excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is often associated with cardiovascular malformation. However, little is known about the adverse effects of ROS during heart morphogenesis, especially during the formation of the atria and ventricles. Methods and Results We have treated early chick embryos with 2,2-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) to generate free radicals in the developing heart. We established that excess ROS induced by AAPH caused cardiomegaly to develop in 4-, 14- and 17-day-old embryos. The cardiomyocytes of these AAPH-treated hearts were hypertrophic, in both the compact and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular analysis of regulative events in the developing chick limb. AU - Mahony, Chris. AU - Vargesson, Neil. PY - 2013/7/1. Y1 - 2013/7/1. N2 - The developing chick limb has the remarkable ability to regulate for the loss of large amounts of mesenchyme and maintain a normal limb pattern in early (Hamburger and Hamilton Stage 19; E3) limbs. How the limb can regulate for tissue loss and why this ability is lost as development proceeds (after Hamburger and Hamilton Stage 21; E3.5) is unclear. We have investigated the origins of cells involved in regulative processes and, for the first time, the molecular changes occurring, and find striking differences between developmental time points just 0.5 days apart. We demonstrate that subtle changes in cell dispersal and cell proliferation occur in HH St21 limbs but not in HH St19 limbs and also demonstrate that there is no net replacement of removed tissue at either HH St21 or St19. We further show that changes in the ...
Synonyms for head process in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for head process. 352 synonyms for head: skull, crown, pate, bean, nut, loaf, cranium, conk, noggin, noddle, mind, reasoning, understanding, thought, sense, brain, brains.... What are synonyms for head process?
Hamburger Hamilton Stages 5-10== {, ! colspan=3,[[Hamburger Hamilton Stages,Hamburger Hamilton Stages (1951)]]   ,-bgcolor=DDCEF2 , width=150px, ,center>Hamburger Hamilton Stages,/center> , width=100px, ,center>Age,/center> , ,center>Identification of Stages,/center> ,-bgcolor=FAF5FF , colspan=3 , ,center>Before Laying,/center> ,- , ,center>14,/center> , 50-53 hr , 22 somites; trunk flexure; visceral arches I and II, clefts 1 and 2 ,} ,br> {{HHstage links ...
The tracheal organ cultures (TOC) were prepared with tracheas from 19-day-old chicken embryos, The 1-2 mm thick rings were hand chopped and transfered to tubes with different medium cultures with five repetions of each for comparative evaluation and kept under continuous rotation using a roller and sored at 37° C. Medium RPMI 1640 added with HyQCCM proved superior in maintaining ciliary activity as compared to non-supplemented 199, or RPMI 1640 media. The rings with good (50%) and excellent (100%) ciliary activity, 24 or 48 hours aiier the preparation, were evaluated as regards sensibility to titration of a IBG and to the test of serum neutralisation. The use of TOC was evaluated for the titration of IBV strains M41, A5968 and H-120. The vaccine strains H-120 was carried out simultaneously and compared to the titration in embryonated hens eggs (EE) SPF. Results of titration of IBV in TOC, as compared to EE, were reproducible and represent na excellent alternative to titrating IBV field strains, ...
Paranemin was initially found to copurify with the intermediate filament (IF) proteins vimentin and desmin from embryonic chick skeletal muscle and was described as an IF-associated protein (IFAP). We have purified paranemin from embryonic chick skeletal muscle, prepared antibodies, and demonstrated that they label at the Z-lines of both adult avian and porcine cardiac and skeletal muscle myofibrils. We determined the cDNA sequence of paranemin by immunoscreening a λgt22A cDNA library from embryonic chick skeletal muscle. Northern blot analysis revealed a single transcript of 5.3 kilobases, which is much smaller than predicted from the size of paranemin (280 kDa) by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The derived amino acid sequence of paranemin (1,606 residues; 178,161 kDa) contains the conserved IF rod domain (308 amino acids), which has highest homology to the rod domains of nestin and tanabin. Thus, paranemin is an IF protein rather than an IFAP. Sequence analysis ...
Developmental changes in regulation of embryonic chick heart gap junctions.: Embryonic chick myocyte pairs were isolated from ventricular tissue of 4-day, 14-da
Duodena from 20-day-old chick embryos can be maintained in large scale organ culture on specially designed stainless-steel grids in contact with serum-free medium for 48 h with excellent preservation of mucosal structure at both the light and electron microscope levels. Although mitotic rate was subnormal, several other factors attest to the essential viability of the cultured intestine: L-leucine incorporation into protein, as well as the synthesis of a specific vitamin D3-induced calcium-binding protein (CaBP), increased over a 48-h culture period, and the electropotential gradient across the intestine was maintained throughout the culture period as was a concentration gradient for calcium. The tissue responded to vitamin D3 in the medium by synthesizing the calcium-binding protein within 6 h and by exhibiting enhanced 45Ca uptake within 12-24 h. Concentrations of vitamin D3, or its 25-hydroxylated derivative, higher than necessary for CaBP induction, also increased the activity of alkaline ...
The differentiation of chick embryonic skeletal myoblasts results in the formation of myotubes which are the precursors of muscle fibres. The fusion of mononucleated myoblasts represents an apparent switching point in differentiation since it results in both the formation of multinucleated myotubes and the stimulation of muscle specific protein synthesis. The aim of this project has been to examine the biochemical events involved in this process of terminal differentiation by using primary cultures of chick embryonic myoblasts as a model system.. ...
Pretreatment of mouse L cells with mouse interferon (IFN) inhibits the penetration of vesicular stomatitis virus without affecting viral adsorption. The inhibition of virus uptake by IFN is dose dependent and, at the highest dose tested (1,000 units/ml), reaches 65%; 24 hr of treatment with IFN are required for maximal effect. A similar inhibition of uptake of virus occurs in human diploid fibroblasts and primary chicken embryo fibroblasts treated with homologous IFN. No significant inhibition occurs when cells are treated with heterologous IFN. These results document a previously unrecognized antiviral effect of IFN--namely, inhibition at the level of viral uptake.. ...
Hi, Im looking for a commercial source of primary chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) culture. Any leads? Thanks, Vladimir Yamshchikov ...
In a series of tissue cultures of fragments taken from different parts of young chick embryos, at various stages, it was found that differentiation frequently occurred, the characteristic cells of highly specialised tissues appearing in cultures in which they could not possibly have been present at explantation. The most striking differentiations were the development of red blood corpuscles, capillary vessels, nerve cells with axons and of rhythmically contracting cardiac muscle. This paper describes a simple method by which may be obtained regularly and quickly the development of very large numbers of red cells, and an account is given of the histology of the cultures. It is intended to be introductory to a physiological study, now in progress, of the conditions of hæmatopoiesis Literature. Erythropoiesis in vitro has been reported by several authors, but it has not been thoroughly investigated and, with the exceptions of the works of Slonimski (1930, a, 1931) and Shipley (1915-16), the ...
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Simultaneous left and right atrial surface electrograms were obtained from the right and left atria of 30 chick embryos. These were divided into 3 equal groups that were studied at 15 to 16, 10 to 11, and 5 to 7 days of incubation. The embryos were removed from the shell with their circulation intact and temperature maintained constant. In an early stage of development (5 to 6 days), the left atrium and its appendage were larger than the right, and left preceded right atrial depolarization. At and after 7 days of incubation, the right atrium and its appendage were larger than the left, and right preceded left atrial depolarization. The intervals for interatrial conduction and for atrio-ventricular conduction were about the same at all stages of development. Since the length and width of the heart at 15 to 16 days of incubation were about 3 times those of a heart at 5 to 7 days of incubation, it is proposed that the higher the stage of development of the chick embryo the greater must be the ...
Newly hatched chicks are covered in dark downy feathers above with white bellies. Unlike adult loons, a young loon chick is able to walk upright on land. Although they can swim immediately after hatching, chicks spend a lot of time riding on their parents backs during the first several days of their lives. This helps to regulate their body temperature and protects them from underwater predators. Chicks are entirely dependent on their parents for food, and one adult typically remains on the waters surface with the chicks while the other catches fish and feeds them.. ...
A method for the determination of red cell mass, which employs the use of radioisotopically-labeled erythrocytes, in the embryonated hen egg is described and results of total blood volume, plasma volume, red cell mass and red cell concentration determinations during the period from 9 to 18 days of incubation presented. Considerations of the values obtained in terms of absolute quantities and relative to embryonic mass are discussed. It is suggested that expansion of the red cell mass and somatic growth are portions of a common process and may be subject to a complex of similar regulatory factors in the normal chick embryo.. ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Presence of PACAP and VIP in embryonic chicken brain. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Fig. 1. Anatomy and gene expression in dissected Xenopus guts. A: Dorsal view of a gut from a 3-day-old embryo. B: Ventral view of a gut from a 3-day-old embryo. C: Gut from a 5-day-old embryo. D: Gut from a 7-day-old embryo. E: Stomach region from a 7-day-old gut. F: Boundary between small and large intestine of 7-day-old gut. G: Activity of endogenous alkaline phosphatase in 3-day gut. H: Activity of endogenous alkaline phosphatase in 7-day gut. Inset shows a section through stained gut (arrow highlights alkaline phosphatase staining (blue) in epithelium, arrowhead highlights mesodermal tissue counterstained green). I: Activity of endogenous alkaline phosphatase in stomach region of 7-day gut (1 and 2 show the first and second expression boundaries). J: Ventral view of IFABP expression in 3-day gut. K: Dorsal view of IFABP expression in 3-day gut. L: IFABP expression in 5-day gut. M: IFABP expression in 7-day gut. N: Endodermin expression in 3-day gut. O: Endodermin expression in 5-day gut. P: ...
Classic TEM. First description of the endoplasmic reticulum. Whole mount of unfixed, dried chick embryo fibroblast. Embryonic chick cells were grown ...
Kawakami, Y.; Capdevila, J.; Buscher, D.; Itoh, T.; Rodriguez Esteban, C.; Ng, J.; Izpisua Belmonte, J.C.rlos, 2001: WNT signals control FGF-dependent limb initiation and AER induction in the chick embryo
What might appear in this picture to be an exotic, green glow worm served up on a collard leaf actually comes from something we all know well: an egg. Its a 3-day-old chicken embryo thats been carefully removed from its shell, placed in a special nutrient-rich bath to keep it alive, and then photographed through…
BACKGROUND: Chicken embryos are widely used as a model for studies of obesity; however, no detailed information is available about the dynamic changes of proteins during the regulation of adipose biology and metabolism. Thus, the present study used an isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomic approach to identify the changes in protein abundance at different stages of chicken embryonic development. RESULTS: In this study, the abundances of 293 hepatic proteins in 19-day old of chicken embryos compared with 14-day old and 160 hepatic proteins at hatching compared with 19-day old embryos were significantly changed ...
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Since Ms. Cormier was willing to house the chicks on her farm after the class finished with them, I decided that bringing back, and even expanding, this work with live chicks seemed like a really good fit for my vision for the course, said Bailey.. Unfortunately, there have been incidents of chicks passing away. After a power outage in Gelb while the eggs were still incubating, the humidity dropped very low in the incubator. The chicks were already partially hatched during this time, causing the exposed membrane to dry up. According to students interviewed by The Phillipian, two chicks did not hatch as a result of the outage.. The first 36 hours after hatching are a critical time for the chicks - after this period, the birds switch from innate imprinting to associative learning and will not be able to imprint on their mother. According to students, another factor that facilitates the imprinting process is being rough and showing tough love to the chicks.. Macey Mannion 19 said, If we spent ...
Hello, everybody! Does anyone have any experience with RNase Protection Assay? I have been doing it for a few months now, using a non-radioactive method for detection (biotin) and I have problems with transferring from the PAGE to a nylon membrane (low efficiency of transfer). My other problem is that after I stain the urea/PAGE with EtBr I see the same band pattern with my control probe (beta-actin) and with my probe (in this case for titin). Its absolutely the same picture-with actin, with titin and with both probes. What I am looking for is differential expression of titin at different stages of primary chick embryo muscle culture and if there is no way of comparing titins expression with that of actin (housekeeping gene), I am in a bad shape. I would greatly appreciate any help! Thanks a lot in advance! Vesselina Ivanova Graduate student in the Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics Iowa State University -- Vesselina Ivanova vivanova at iastate.edu ...
Youre a smart chick wearing Chick with Brains Nightshirt Gifts for Her Let everyone know youre a smart chick wearing this Chick with Brains Nightshirt sporting a geeky little chick embellished on a comfy 100% cotton women Chick with Brains Nightshirt nightshirt. White; one size fits most. Makes an
McKay, Liz. (2007, Fall). Assessment of blood vessel area growth in the developing chick embryo under chronic exposure to 0.5 mL of caffeine. Wheaton Journal of Developmental Biology Research, 2. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/11040/ ...
Origin of lungs, liver, and pancreas in the chick. The mesoderm is shaded; the endoderm dark. lg., One of the lungs; St., stomach; l., liver; p., pancreas. -Thomson, 1916. ...
Hi all. Thanks for all the help last weekend with my little Ameraucana--shes now doing fine! I noticed today that 3 of my chicks have a lump about...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Native avian c-erbB gene expresses a secreted protein product corresponding to the ligand-binding domain of the receptor. AU - Maihle, N. J.. AU - Flickinger, T. W.. AU - Raines, M. A.. AU - Sanders, M. L.. AU - Kung, Hsing-Jien. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - A primer-directed cDNA library was used to obtain cDNA clones corresponding to the 5′ end (i.e., the ligand-binding domain) of the avian c-erbB gene. Bacterial c-erbB fusion proteins were synthesized and used to obtain polyclonal antisera specific for the ligand-binding domain of the avian receptor. These antisera and antisera specific for the carboxyl terminal domain of the chicken c-erbB gene product have been used to study the native protein products of the c-erbB locus in primary cell cultures by in vivo labeling and immunoprecipitation. Our studies reveal that three c-erbB gene products of Mr 300,000, Mr 170,000, and Mr 95,000 are synthesized in uninfected chicken embryo fibroblasts. Only the Mr 300,000 and Mr 170,000 ...
in which she provides a sarcastic quiz with a series of multiple-choice questions as to the books author, cover, main character and themes in order to highlight chick lit as formulaic (Ferriss and Young, 2006: 1).. On the one hand, it is perhaps unsurprising that chick lit has garnered a fair degree of criticism. Along with external clearly gendered cover art and the internal preoccupation with the search for a man, the very term chick lit, as Imelda Whelehan (2005: 171) points out, is simultaneously interesting and provocative, as the term brings into play both negative and positive connotations, and raises issues of gender and genre (Gormley, forthcoming). As Jane Mills (1989: 47) notes, the term chick, when applied to humans, first entered the English language circa 1400 to mean a child or young girl. In the 1500s, chick became, a term of endearment applied to a female sweetheart; yet by the early 1900s the term had degenerated to denote, a young promiscuous woman (ibid.). In the ...
One was named Spotty because he had black spots on him. I loved listening to the sound of the chicks chirping. They are so cute! First the chicks were a little germ spot in an egg and then the spot got bigger and bigger and when it got so crammed up in there the chick popped out. It takes 21 days for them to hatch. How a chick gets formed is a hen meets a rooster. The parts of the egg are called the air pocket, the yolk, chilaza, and the embryo. By Maisie ...
We have made ten attempts to cultivate vaccine virus in tissue extracts prepared according to the method described by Eagles and Kordi (4). Renal, testicular, and chick embryo extracts were employed with a dermal strain of vaccine virus and with the Levaditi strain of neuro-vaccine virus. In no instance were we able to show that the virus multiplied in the extract media. Both of these strains of virus, however, multiplied in media containing bits of minced viable tissue. Furthermore, treatment of rabbit testicular tissue and chick embryo tissue in the manner described by Eagles and Kordi for the preparation of the extracts leaves some cells not only alive but capable of proliferation. Although the results of our work are not in accord with those obtained by Eagles and Kordi, we offer no explanation for the discrepancy. Nevertheless, one cannot examine the results of our work recorded in the six tables without recognizing the fact that in the types of media used the presence of viable cells ...
E hyaloid vessels. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053970.gused immunohistochemistry of melanocyte and melanoma cell specific markers HMB45 and Melan-A. Since in the early chick embryo neural crest cells have not yet differentiated, they do not express markers of the…. ...
Meantime two weeks later hatching occurred in the nest of Vergine (three eggs, three chicks) and Aloa (three eggs one chick). However, the newborn were too small to share the nest with the other chicks, Therefore we decided to move the chick from Aloa to Vergine and to give to Aloa the three older chicks. The most critical step was the replacement of the small chick of Aloa with one of the larger chicks. There was some difficulties because Aloa was still in the mood of brooding and she wanted to keep the larger chick under her wings whereas it did not like the idea. However, after a couple of hours they found a compromise and she sat next to him. Then after the small was replaced with the large chick, we could add the other two brothers in the nest ...
I have just cleared out eggs from an old coop. I thought they were old eggs, but when I threw them out I found that one of them had an embryo in it.
Despite the relatively large size, the whole mounts (item# 311676) are cleared and stained. Serial sections (item# 311688) show the beginning of most of the structures of the adult eye.
A transverse section through an embryo chick (26 hours). Labels: a, epiblast; b, mesoblast; c, hypoblast; d, central portion of mesoblast, which is here fused with epiblast; e, primitive groove; f, dorsal ridge.. ...
Ive got a big emergency with one of my chicks. When it hatched, it hadnt absorbed the yolk fully and it still had it attached. The chick was very...
Bicephalia is one of the scarcest malformations reported in birds and needs to be fully investigated in chick embryos. Among 1500 fertilised eggs used to examine the primordial germ cells in 2-day and 5.5-day chick embryos Gallus gallus domesticus, bicephalia was found and the condition of the heads, the heart and other parts of the body was fully described. Each twin had its own head; hearts were not completely separated from each other and the rest of the bodies were externally unique. This investigation urges others including poultry farms to share their data on a bigger scale. It may also encourage the monitoring of abnormalities randomly seen during early chick embryogenesis and consideration of environmental factors when poultry farms are faced with high percentages of unsuccessful hatching. The report can shed some light on developmental processes and may also help to clarify why bicephalia is not more common. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Draxin is involved in the proper development of the dI3 interneuron in chick spinal cord. AU - Su, Yuhong. AU - Zhang, Sanbing. AU - Islam, Shahidul M.. AU - Shinmyo, Yohei. AU - Bin Naser, Iftekhar. AU - Ahmed, Giasuddin. AU - Tanaka, Hideaki. PY - 2010/6. Y1 - 2010/6. N2 - Generation of the appropriate types, numbers and distribution of neurons during the development of the nervous system requires the careful coordination of proliferation, differentiation, and patterning. In this work, we analyzed the roles of a repulsive axon guidance protein, draxin, on the development of chick spinal cord dI3 interneuron. draxin mRNA and/or protein were detected in the roof plate at first and then the boundary region between the ventricular and the mantle zones in chick spinal cord and dorsal basement membrane of the chick spinal cord. Overexpression of draxin caused the decreased and delayed migration of the dI3 interneuron, the reduction of progenitor cell proliferation, and abnormal ...
Abstract Salinas, Carlo E., Mercedes Villena, Carlos E. Blanco, and Dino A. Giusssani. Adrenocortical suppression in highland chick embryos is restored during incubation at sea level. High Alt. Med. Biol. 12:79-87, 2011.-By combining the chick embryo model with incubation at high altitude, this study tested the hypothesis that development at high altitude is related to a fetal origin of adrenocortical but not adrenomedullary suppression and that hypoxia is the mechanism underlying the relationship. Fertilized eggs from sea-level or high altitude hens were incubated at sea level or high altitude. Fertilized eggs from sea-level hens were also incubated at altitude with oxygen supplementation. At day 20 of incubation, embryonic blood was taken for measurement of plasma corticotropin, corticosterone, and Po2. Following biometry, the adrenal glands were collected and frozen for measurement of catecholamine content. Development of chick embryos at high altitude led to pronounced adrenocortical ...
Effect of Electromagnetic Mobile Radiation on Chick Embryo Development Fatma Al-Qudsi and Solafa Azzouz Biology Department, Science Faculty, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia P.O. Box 42650, Jeddah 21551, Saudi Arabia [email protected] Abstract: The widespread use of mobile phones in the last decade has increased the concern about its potential effects on human body. This research aims to study the effect of electromagnetic waves emitted from mobile phones on chick embryos development. Fertile hen eggs were divided into two groups control and treated group. Both groups were incubated at 37.5 ◦C. The treated group had an active mobile device (900MHz- 1800MHz) during incubation. The mobile was rung 4 times daily for 15 minutes each time. Embryos were extracted on days 7, 10, and 14 of incubation. Congenital malformations were seen in treated embryos (bigger embryos, subcutaneous bleeding, and brain malformation) compared to the controls. Also increased eye growth in 7 and 10 ...
Jenn-Fa Liou, Yu-Min Shue, Hsiao-Lung Liu, Chein Tai, Lih-Ren Chen, and Jen-Wen Shiau. The objective of this study was to evaluate the capacity of gonadal migration and characterization for chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) after long-term in vitro culture. Chicken PGCs collected from the primitive gonads of 5.5-day-old White Leghorn chicken embryos were plated together with their own stroma cells as co-culture. The cultured PGCs began to from colonies 7-10 days after plating. The PGC-derived colonies maintained in culture up to 280 days were positively stained with antibodies specific to SSEA-1, SSEA-4, integrin α6 and integrin β1, and also strongly expressed periodic acid Schiff reaction. Their capacities of migration and colonizing in the primary gonadal ridge were further demonstrated by transferring to stage 14-15 (3 days old) recipient embryos. These results suggested that chicken PGCs maintained in long-term culture retains their capacity to express pluripotent markers and to ...
Introduction: The membrane-bound metalloproteinase aminopeptidase N (APN) is involved in several different cellular processes associated with the malignant phenotype. Furthermore APN has also been reported to have a functional role in tumor angiogenesis and there appear to be a strong correlation between the expression of APN and the invasive capacity of a numerous tumor cell types. The melphalan-derived prodrug melphalan-flufenamide (previously designated J1) can be activated by APN suggesting possible anti-angiogenic properties.. Experimental: A series of experiments were performed to evaluate the effects of melphalan-flufenamide on angiogenesis; cytotoxicity on bovine endothelial cells, the TCS Cellworks AngioKit model with human endothelial cells co-cultured with fibroblasts, the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay, and finally in vivo in mice using the Cultrex DIVAA angio-reactor assay.. Results: Melphalan-flufenamide displayed high cytotoxic activity against endothelial cells, ...
The mechanisms underlying the initiation of the heart beat are still poorly understood. Here we show that early embryonic heart cells display small, but stable, [Ca2+]i oscillations that can evoke contractions. Our biophysical and pharmacological evidence suggests that such oscillations can activate small depolarizations of the Em via the NCX. Such depolarizations, when reaching threshold potential, give rise to APs that synchronize the activity of individual heart cells. The [Ca2+]i oscillations are not restricted to cardiac subtypes but can be detected in pacemaker-, atrial-, and ventricular-like early embryonic cardiomyocytes. Thus, although the early embryonic heart consists of individual [Ca2+]i oscillators, APs appear to synchronize contractions and the coordinated pumping of blood.. The finding that [Ca2+]i oscillations drive spontaneous contractions without APs in early embryonic heart cells is in agreement with our observations in ES cell−derived cardiomyocytes, where persistence of ...
Interferons were first described in 1957 by Alick Isaacs and Jean Lindenmann at the National Institute for Medical Research in London;[42][43][44] the discovery was a result of their studies of viral interference. Viral interference refers to the inhibition of virus growth caused by previous exposure of cells to an active or a heat-inactivated virus. Isaacs and Lindenmann were working with a system that involved the inhibition of the growth of live influenza virus in chicken embryo chorioallantoic membranes by heat-inactivated influenza virus. Their experiments revealed that this interference was mediated by a protein released by cells in the heat-inactivated influenza virus-treated membranes. They published their results in 1957 naming the antiviral factor they had discovered interferon.[43] The findings of Isaacs and Lindenmann have been widely confirmed and corroborated in the literature.[45]. Furthermore, others may have made observations on interferons before the 1957 publication of Isaacs ...
Homeobox-containing genes are thought to be involved in the regulation of pattern formation and specification of positional information during vertebrate limb development. Because of its accessibility to microsurgical manipulation, the developing chick limb bud provides a powerful system for investi …
We have used carbocyanine dyes (DiI and DiO) to generate fate maps for the epiblast layer of the chick embryo between stage X and the early primitive streak stage (stages 2-3). The overall distribution of presumptive cell types in these maps is similar to that described for other laboratory species …
Chick embryo fibroblasts infected with Rous sarcoma virus in vitro are rendered malignant for such cells produce typical Rous sarcomas when injected into susceptible chicks since the tumors produced predominantly retain the sex chromatin patterns of the donor cells when such cells are injected into a recipient of the opposite sex. However, examination of the sex chromatin of cells at the periphery of the tumor shows presence of recipient cells though the bulk of the tumor is clearly of donor cell origin. Such tumors grow and cause death of the recipient. Injection of RSV induces tumors of the sex of the recipient as also does the injection of transformed cells rendered incapable of multiplication by x-rays. Following their injection into susceptible chicks, the cells transformed in vitro by virus behave in the same manner as tumor cells obtained from tumors induced by virus in vivo and cultivated in the same conditions in vitro.. When such tumors induced by transformed cells are serially ...
In the gastrulating chick embryo, the mesoderm cells arise from the epiblast layer by ingression through the linear accumulation of cells called the primitive streak. The mesoderm cells emerge from the streak with a fibroblastic morphology and proceed to move away from the mid-line of the embryo using, as a substratum, the basement membrane of the overlying epiblast and the extracellular matrix. We have investigated the roles of fibronectin and laminin as putative substrata for mesoderm cells using complementary in vivo and in vitro methods. We have microinjected agents into the tissue space adjacent to the primitive streak of living embryos and, after further incubation, we have examined the embryos for perturbation of the mesoderm tissue. These agents were: cell-binding regions from fibronectin (RGDS) and laminin (YIGSR), antibodies to these glycoproteins, and a Fab fragment of the antibody to fibronectin. We find that RGDS, antibody to fibronectin, and the Fab fragment cause a decrease in ...
Lactic acid production by chick embryo fibroblasts occurs in the absence of exogenous glucose. Fifteen to 50-fold less lactic acid is formed in the absence of glucose than in its presence. Nevertheless, serum and pH stimulation enhances this residual lactic acid production to the same r...read more ...
The chick embryo has prevailed as one of the major models to study developmental biology, cell biology and regeneration. From all the anatomical features of the chick embryo, the eye is one of the most studied. In the chick embryo, the eye develops between 26 and 33 h after incubation (Stages 8-9, Hamburger and Hamilton, 1951). It originates from the posterior region of the forebrain, called the diencephalon. However, the vertebrate eye includes tissues from different origins including surface ectoderm (lens and cornea), anterior neural plate (retina, iris, ciliary body and retinal pigmented epithelium) and neural crest/head mesoderm (stroma of the iris and of the ciliary body as well as choroid, sclera and part of the cornea). After gastrulation, a single eye field originates from the anterior neural plate and is characterized by the expression of eye field transcriptional factors (EFTFs) that orchestrate the program for eye development. Later in development, the eye field separates in two and the
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Effect of interferon on Sindbis virus growth in chick embryo cell cultures. by Robert B. Stewart et al.
The developing avian ciliary ganglion has been a particularly amenable system for the identification, isolation, and characterization of putative target-derived molecules that mediate retrograde interactions. To date a number of biochemically distinct activities that regulate neuronal survival, transmitter phenotype, and chemosensitivity of ciliary ganglion neurons have been identified. Of these, only two survival-promoting molecules have been purified to homogeneity: ciliary neurotrophic factor and a related molecule, growth-promoting activity. A somatostatin-inducing activity found in cultured choroid cells is very likely to be chick activin A. Other molecules that regulate acetylcholine and acetylcholine receptor expression comigrate on a gel filtration column at a molecular weight of 50-60 kD, but they have yet to be isolated. Once molecules that mimic retrograde influences are identified, a number of criteria must be met before their physiological significance can be established. These ...
The innervation of dorsoventrally reversed chick wings: evidence that motor axons do not actively seek out their appropriate targets.: In normal chick embryos t
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) play an essential role in development and patterning of the vertebrate embryo. Despite extensive literature documenting the diverse roles of FGF signalling during craniofacial development, comparatively little is known about the specific downstream effectors through which FGFs influence gene expression. A previous study in our laboratory reported exogenous FGF elicited differential chondrogenic responses in frontonasal and mandibular mesenchyme (Bobick et al., 2007). Pea3 transcription factors are crucial components of the downstream effector pathway through which FGFs influence gene expression (Raible and Brand, 2001). Therefore, the purpose of my research was to examine whether differences in pea3, erm, and er81 gene expression profiles underlie the distinct responses of the frontonasal and mandibular mesenchyme cells to FGF. The present study demonstrates that FGF2 treatment differentially affects chondrogenesis in micromass cultures of frontonasal and ...
1. Two populations of morphologically intact mitochondria were isolated from embryonic, neonatal and adult chick liver by isopycnic centrifugation. 2. The protein/phospholipid ratio of the total mitochondrial fraction, the low-density mitochondria (B2, d1.176) and the high-density mitochondria (B3, d1.206) did not differ significantly. 3. During development there is a marked increase in the B2 fraction in relation to the B3 fraction. 4. Cytochrome oxidase and malate dehydrogenase activities as well as respiratory control increased during the embryonic development of the chick, though their rates of increase were not correlated. 5. In the three different embryonic stages that were investigated, as well as in the neonatal and adult chick, the protein/lipid as well as the protein/phospholipid ratio stayed constant and showed no progressive increase, as had been previously reported. 6. It was shown that forces greater than 18400gav. for 2h have to be used before chick liver mitochondria reach ...
The mother will lay her clutch of eggs over a period of several days to a couple of weeks, depending upon the clutch size. However, she will not begin incubating the eggs until all eggs are laid to try and maintain a narrow hatch window as the newly hatched chicks will all need to be escorted together by the mother away from nest site in search of food.. To enable these precocial chicks to hatch together and leave the nest together, there are a couple of biological mechanisms in place to facilitate this function. First, in the hours leading up to the completion of the hatching process, precocial chicks engage in an activity called clicking where the chicks are able to communicate with each other from within the shell in an effort to synchronise the hatch time.. The second is that eggs that produce precocial chicks contain a higher percent yolk (~40 percent vs 25 percent) as compared to eggs from altricial chicks. This allows the chicks to remain in the nest after hatch to wait for the other ...
The fusion of myoblasts into multinucleated myotubes is a crucial step of muscle growth during development and of muscle repair in the adult. While multiple genes were shown to play a role in this process, a vertebrate model where novel candidates can be tested and analyzed at high throughput and relative ease has been lacking. Here, we show that the early chicken embryo is a fast and robust model in which functional testing of muscle fusion candidate genes can be performed. We have used known modulators of muscle fusion, Rac1 and Cdc42, along with the in vivo electroporation of integrated, inducible vectors, to show that the chicken embryo is a suitable model in which their function can be tested and quantified ...
Full nutritional breakdown of the calories in Busy day chicken based on the calories and nutrition in each ingredient, including Chicken Breast (cooked), no skin, roasted, White Rice, short grain, cooked, Cream of Chicken Soup, Cream of Mushroom Soup and the other ingredients in this recipe.
Fig. 5. Antisense Otx2 morpholino oligonucleotide rescues convergent extension and Xbra expression blocked by IGF-I and Otx2. Embryos at 4-cell stage were dorsaly-injected with IGF-I or Otx2-Myc mRNA alone or co-injected with Otx2 morpholino. They were either allowed to develop to various stages for phenotypes or fixed at stage 10.5 for in situ hybridization. (A) An uninjected embryo at stage 14 showing correct neural plate formation. (B) An Otx2-Myc-injected embryo with gastrulation defect and open blastopore. (C) Otx2 morpholino rescues blastopore closure and neural plate formation in Otx2-Myc-injected embryo. (D) Western blot showing that Otx2 morpholino specifically blocks translation of Otx2-Myc mRNA. (E) A control embryo at stage 38. (F) An Otx2-Myc-injected embryo at equivalent stage with dorsal development defect and shortened trunk and posterior region. (G) Otx2 morpholino rescues trunk and posterior development. (H-L) Otx2 morpholino rescues Xbra and Xwnt11 expression. (H) An ...
We have investigated the locations of the GABA(A) receptor α1-, β2-, γ2- and γ4-subunit mRNAs, in chick retina, by in situ hybridization. The α1-, β2- and γ2-subunit genes were chosen for study because they are co-expressed throughout the mammalian and avian brain. The γ4-polypeptide gene was selected because it is highly expressed, in the chick brain, in those regions that are involved in the processing of visual information. We find that the α1-, β2- and γ2-subunit mRNAs are present in both the inner nuclear layer (INL) and the ganglion cell layer (GCL); however, the distributions of the three transcripts in these two layers show significant differences. In contrast, the γ4-polypeptide mRNA is only detected in the inner portion of the INL. These results strongly suggest the existence of multiple GABA(A) receptor subtypes in chick retina.
Ba-Omar, T. and Downie, J. (2006) Microscopic study of cell death in the adrenal glands of mouse and chick embryos. Tissue and Cell, 38, pp. 243-250. (doi:10.1016/j.tice.2006.05.001) ...
The study comprised anatomical description of skeleton development in chick embryo Gallud domesticud which includes the appearance of ossification center during the embryological stages ...
Analysis of specific molecular markers and important genes in PGC from White Leghorn chicken Su Jiun Deng and Jen-Wen Shiau. The purpose of this study is to investigate the developmental and pluripotentcy related genes expression profile of PGC obtained from day 5.5 and day 8.5 chick embryos after incubation. PGC was obtained by micromanipulation and the total RNA was purified by commercial kit. The cDNA was synthesized using RT-PCR with total RNA as a template. The genes expression was detected by real-time PCR using various kinds of primers and the results showed that all the genes detected were expression both in day 5.5 and day 8.5 chick embryos except the Blimpl. Some genes that selected from the chicken germ cell database were also showed expression both in day 5.5 and day 8.5 chick embryos. Cvh is an important gene and preferentially expressed in whole period of germ cell differentiation. We constructured the siRNA of Cvh and transfect to PGCs. After 24 hours of transfection, the ...
Collective cell migration is often considered in the context of just one population of cells on the move, but can often actually involve several cell types, raising obvious questions about how such mass movement is coordinated. By studying the interaction between neural crest (NC) cells and placodal cells in developing Xenopus laevis and zebrafish embryos, Eric Theveneau et al. have identified a chase-and-run behaviour that ensures successful neural crest migration and placode segregation, and gained insight into the underlying molecular mechanisms.. The playground antics of placode cells and NC cells could be seen both in vivo and in vitro. By labelling both cell types in embryos, the researchers saw that placode cells moved randomly until NC cells arrived on the scene, at which point they ran away, leaving gaps in the placode region. In co-culture studies, placodal cells were seen to encourage NC cells - by secreting the chemoattractant Sdf1 - to chase them, but once the NC cells got ...
A monoclonal antibody, 8D9, has been obtained that binds to axons in the chick nervous system. Biochemical and immunological experiments indicate that the 8D9 antigen is related to the mouse L1 cell-adhesion molecule. The results of immunohistochemical experiments using monoclonal antibody 8D9 to study the development of the chick visual system are consistent with the 8D9 antigen functioning in axon fasciculation.. ...
Pang, Kar Lai and Parnall, Matthew and Loughna, Siobhan (2017) Effect of altered haemodynamics on the developing mitral valve in chick embryonic heart. Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology, 108 . pp. 114-126. ISSN 1095-8584 England, Jennifer and Pang, Kar Lai and Parnall, Matthew and Haig, Maria Isabel and Loughna, Siobhan (2016) Cardiac troponin T is necessary for normal development in the embryonic chick heart. Journal of Anatomy . ISSN 1469-7580 ...
Large scale, confinement growing of poultry allows for a lower price point. Just as small family farms find it hard to compete with industrialized agriculture, small poultry farmers have similar challenges when it comes to competing with large scale corporate hatcheries. Confining hundreds of breeding birds indoors limits the space, and resources, needed to raise them. Our farms require open space, strong fencing, secure housing and on-going pasture management efforts. Shipping chicks nation-wide, even with the high loss numbers of chicks that die in transit, is profitable when your animals number in the tens of thousands. Our farms house less than 100 birds, with each individual carefully selected for breeding based on traits we evaluate, observe and track. Because of the publics interest in purchasing female chicks for egg production, hatcheries normally kill male chicks at hatch, often by methods that many consider inhumane. Our farms believe all chicks should live to fulfill their purpose ...
The chicks are quite wet and weak when they first hatch (more like flop) out of the egg. They nap a bit, dry off, fluff up, and begin pecking at the other eggs within an hour or so. Do not be in a rush to take the chicks out of the incubator, their presence will encourage the unhatched chicks to hatch. They should be taken out and put into a brooder within 24 hours of hatching. Usually, all the chicks that are going to hatch have hatched, and you can put the whole clutch in your brooder ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prospects for transgenesis in the chick. AU - Sang, Helen. PY - 2004/9. Y1 - 2004/9. N2 - Research to develop a useful method for genetic modification of the chick has been on-going since the first demonstrations in the mouse in the 1980s that genetic modification is an invaluable tool for the study of gene function. Manipulation of the chick zygote is possible but inefficient. Considerable progress has been made in developing potentially pluripotent embryo stem cells and their contribution to somatic chimeric birds well-established. Germ line transmission of gametes derived from genetically modified embryo cells has not been described. Transfer of primordial germ cells from a donor embryo to a recipient and production of functional gametes from the donor-derived cells is possible. Genetic modification of primordial germ cells before transfer and their recovery through the germ line has not been achieved. The first transgenic birds described were generated using retroviral ...
Using quantitative PCR, we demonstrate how the well-established chick CAM model can be used to quantitatively analyze the metastasis of ...
All petrel chicks are independent of their parents as soon as they leave the breeding colony, meaning that translocated chicks do not require any artificial feeding once they complete their feather development and fly out to sea. We used the wing-length of each chick on Takapourewa to estimate how close it was from being ready to fly out to sea, to see if it fell within our selection criteria. The chicks selected for translocation were all estimated to be 2-10 days from fledging (the term used for a chick taking its first flight). Petrel chicks fly out to sea as soon as they get airborne for the first time, and do not return to land until they reach breeding age.. ...
The embryos heart is the first organ that forms in its tiny body, and like most complex instruments, it begins with some simple structures. Lets go back to 18 days after conception...Looking in the mothers uterus, you can see the embryo surrounded by its yolk sac and amnion. Lets take a look inside. Heres a diagram of the embryo seen from a side view. Right now, its about the size of a raisin. Theres the head region and that red-colored area slightly above it contains two tubes that will form the embryos heart. Heres what the tubes look like from a front view. On day 21, we see that the primitive heart tubes have moved below the embryos developing head region. And by day 22, the tubes have fused together, and have moved to the area that will eventually be our embryos thoracic, or chest cavity. Its also about this time that the heart begins to beat for the first time... Heres what it looks like from the front. Now lets go back to day 18 and watch this happen from a different ...
Shipping can be a stressful time for chicks. We pack each of our boxes of shipped chicks with the utmost of care. They have a cozy reed mat to dig their little talons into along with a 72 hour heat pack for comfort and gro gel to act as nourishment and hydration for the journey.. Even with all of this it is good to provide the chicks with an extra boost when you receive them after their journey. This pack of chick boost will make one gallons worth of water which will support a flock of 12 for one month. Simply mix 1/2 teaspoon of the powder into a quart jar and refresh the water once they have drunk it down. The mix of probiotics, electrolytes, vitamins and minerals will help them develop healthy gut flora and fauna so they are more resistant too diseases as they age.. ...
Much of the investigation of the genetic basis of symmetry breaking has been done on chick embryos. In chick embryos the left ... Raya, Angel; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos (2004). "Unveiling the establishment of left-right asymmetry in the chick embryo". ... In a region of the embryo referred to as the node there are small hair-like structures (monocilia) which all rotate together in ... For example, left-right asymmetry in mammals has been investigated extensively in the embryos of mice. Such studies have led to ...
Doherty, Peter C (8 January 2008). "Burnet, chick embryos, viruses, clones and quantitative biology". Immunology and Cell ... "Interference between inactive and active influenza viruses in the chick embryo. IV. The early stages of virus multiplication ...
Studies on host-virus interactions in the chick embryo-influenza virus system. VI. Evidence for multiplicity reactivation of ...
Broken or cracked eggs are likely to be infected by bacteria, followed by death of the embryo. Antiseptic can be used to kill ... "Watch a Chick Develop And Hatch Outside of The Egg". ScienceAlert. Retrieved 1 November 2019. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter ... A transparent substitute for eggshell made from polydimethylsiloxane allows observation of the growing embryo. Vriends, M.M. ( ... "WATCH: Scientists Have Created a See-Through Eggshell to Watch Embryo Development". ScienceAlert. Retrieved 1 November 2019. ...
"The subcommissural organ and the development of the posterior commissure in chick embryos". Cell and Tissue Research. 339 (2): ...
"Mechanical effects of the surface ectoderm on optic vesicle morphogenesis in the chick embryo". Journal of Biomechanics. 47 (16 ... Horizontal section through the eye of an eighteen days' embryo rabbit. X 30. Sagittal section of eye of human embryo of six ... "Mechanical effects of the surface ectoderm on optic vesicle morphogenesis in the chick embryo". Journal of Biomechanics. 47 (16 ... "Mechanical effects of the surface ectoderm on optic vesicle morphogenesis in the chick embryo". Journal of Biomechanics. 47 (16 ...
... frog embryos, rabbit ovary, re-aggregating cells, cockroach hemocyte capsules, rabbit skin, chick embryos, human islet of ... "Freeze-fracture replication of junctional complexes in unincubated and incubated chick embryos". Cell Tissue Res. 162 (2): 235- ... Embryos with areas of blocked gap junctions failed to develop normally. The mechanism by which antibodies blocked the gap ... Levin, M; Mercola, M (November 1999). "Gap junction-mediated transfer of left-right patterning signals in the early chick ...
Human embryo of 2.6 mm. Diagram of a transverse section, showing the mode of formation of the amnion in the chick. Model of ... In the human embryo, the earliest stages of the formation of the amnion have not been observed; in the youngest embryo which ... Human embryo-length, 2 mm. Dorsal view, with the amnion laid open. X 30. Section through the embryo. ... Human embryo of about fourteen days, with yolk-sac. Meconium-laden macrophages in meconium stained fetal membranes. H&E stain. ...
... and fibroblasts of the chick embryo. Of the following susceptible areas, liver cells from the chick embryo have been found to ... Isolation is most successfully attained through inoculation of material into chick embryo cultures or fertile chicken eggs. ... If infected into the yolk sac, the embryo will succumb to death accompanied by hemorrhaging of the embryos and cause the foci ... Congenitally infected chicks are assumed to act as a nucleus of infection for the rest of the hatch due to their high ...
In this assay, angiogenesis is promoted on the CAM membrane of a chicken embryo outside the organism (chicken).[citation needed ... One widely performed ex vivo study is the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. ...
Hirst GK (1941). "The agglutination of red blood cells by allantoic fluid of chick embryos infected with influenza virus". ...
Embryos of these species are easy to obtain and, unlike mammals, develop externally and are easily accessible to experimental ... Researchers used the chick to biochemically purify components from the tectum that showed specific activity against retinal ... There are two commissures, anterior and posterior, within each segment of the embryo. The currently accepted model is that Slit ... The large size and accessibility of the chicken embryo has made it a favorite model organism for embryologists. ...
The chicks are semi-precocial and leave the nest at about two to three weeks of age. The adults feed them with semi-digested ... Hoatzin embryos are known to develop very quickly compared to other birds. The hoatzin lives in tropical forested wetlands of ...
A-chicks always receive food before B-chicks. Although subordinate chicks beg just as much as their dominant siblings, the ... The smaller second eggs contained less yolk concentration, which could influence embryo development, hatching success, and ... will kill the younger B-chick if a food shortage exists. The initial size disparity between the A-chick and B-chick is retained ... If the parent blue-footed booby does not have enough food for all of the chicks, it will only feed the biggest chick, ensuring ...
Ribatti D (2008). "Chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane as a useful tool to study angiogenesis". Int Rev Cell Mol Biol. 270: ... Fried B, Stableford LT (1991). "Cultivation of helminths in chick embryos". Adv. Parasitol. 30: 108-65. doi:10.1016/s0065-308x( ... Cimpean AM, Ribatti D, Raica M (2008). "The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane as a model to study tumor metastasis". ... Fáncsi T, Fehér G (June 1979). "Ultrastructural studies of chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane during incubation". Anat ...
... effects of BMP signaling on Nodal expression in the lateral plate mesoderm during left-right axis formation in the chick embryo ... The permanent kidney of amniotes, the metanephros, develops during the 10th week in human embryos and is formed by the ... anamniote embryos form only a pronephros and mesonephros). The intermediate mesoderm will eventually develop into the kidney ... located between the paraxial mesoderm and the lateral plate of the developing embryo. The intermediate mesoderm develops into ...
"The Osteogenic Capacity in vitro of Periosteum and Endosteum Isolated from the Limb Skeleton of Fowl Embryos and Young Chicks ... using chick limb bones which were separated into periosteum and remaining parts. She obtained cells which possessed osteogenic ... characteristics from cultured tissue using chick limb bones which were separated into periosteum and remaining parts. She ...
In developing chick embryos, EC cells have been found in biopsies of developing GIT tissue before the migration of neural crest ...
Namely, the age of an embryo could be obtained by: Embryo Age (days) = sqrt of total foetal length in cm X 100. Mall, Franklin ... Sabin, Florence (1917). "Origin and Development of the Primitive Vessels of the Chick and of the Pig". Contributions to ... During his time with His, Mall also started a collection of human embryos that he would continue to expand for the rest of his ... While at Clark, Mall used the Born wax-plate method to create the first model of a human embryo in the United States. ...
Gelani, S; M. Morano (1980). "Congenital abnormalities in nickel poisoning in chick embryos". Archives of Environmental ... have known carcinogenic effects in chick embryos and rats.[71][72][73] The main nickel compound in NiMH batteries is nickel ...
Hassan Rashidi V.S. (2009). "The chick embryo: hatching a model for contemporary biomedical research". BioEssays. 31 (4): 459- ... Free-living embryos do not grow in mass as they have no external food supply. But embryos fed by a placenta or extraembryonic ... Fruit fly: Drosophila melanogaster.[39] Good embryo supply. Well developed genetics.. *Nematode: Caenorhabditis elegans.[40] ... Zebrafish: Danio rerio.[36] Good embryo supply. Well developed genetics.. *Chicken: Gallus gallus.[37] Early stages similar to ...
The marginal zone of a chick embryo contains cells that will contribute to the streak.[4] This region has a defined anterior-to ... Hatada Y, Stern CD (1994). "A fate map of the epiblast of the early chick embryo". Development. 120 (10): 2879-89. PMID 7607078 ... Chuai M, Weijer CJ (2008). "The mechanisms underlying primitive streak formation in the chick embryo". Curr Top Dev Biol. ... Finally, BMP signaling is also important for regulating the process of streak formation in the chick embryo. The site of streak ...
Tang, F. F.; Huang, Y. T.; Chang, H. L.; Wong, K. C. (1957). «Isolation of trachoma virus in chick embryo». Journal of hygiene ... Studies on the etiology of trachoma with special reference to isolation of the virus in chick embryo». Chinese Medical Journal ...
Drachman DB (August 1964). "Atrophy of skeletal muscle in chick embryos treated with botulinum toxin". Science. 145 (3633): 719 ... Finally, inspired by Daniel Drachman's work with chicks at Johns Hopkins,[62] Alan B. Scott and colleagues injected botulinum ...
The measles and mumps parts of the "MMR vaccine" (for measles, mumps, and rubella) are cultured on chick embryo cell culture ...
1973 Vitamin A economy of the developing chick embryo and of the freshly hatched chick: P. S. Joshi, S. N. Mathur, S. K. Murthy ... Effect of vitamin A - nutritional status on the growth of estrogen-primed chick oviduct: P. S. Joshi, S. K. Murthy and J. ... Effect of deprivation of vitamin A on the ultrastructural changes during estrogen induced growth of immature chick oviduct: R. ... ß-carotene in the rat and chick: L. Zechmeister, H. J. Deuel, Jr., H. H. Inhoffen, J. Leemann, S. M. Greenberg and J. Ganguly, ...
... removing a portion of the elbow joint in a chick embryo via window excision or slice excision and comparing joint tissue ... Coleman CM (September 2008). "Chicken embryo as a model for regenerative medicine". Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo ... "Regeneration of the elbow joint in the developing chick embryo recapitulates development". Developmental Biology. 372 (2): 229- ... Part C, Embryo Today. 84 (4): 265-80. doi:10.1002/bdrc.20137. PMID 19067422.. ...
As of 2016, her research interests include actin-binding proteins in chick embryos and breast cancer, human sperm chromatin ...
In 1917, Florence Sabin first observer of blood vessels and red blood cells in the yolk sac of chick embryos occur in close ... Avian embryos, Xenopus laevis embryos, are both fair models. However, zebrafish and mouse embryos have widespread use for ... 1932). "The development in vitro of the blood of the early chick embryo". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B ... Embryos lacking Tal1 fail to develop past embryonic day 9.5. However, the study found that Tal1 is actually required for ...
When dried, fava beans are eaten roasted, or mixed with other legumes, such as moong beans, chick peas, and peas, and called ... Boq'ullit (boiled salted broad beans embryo) is one of the most favorite snacks in the evening, the common story-telling time ...
In the early 1940s, Ernest Goodpasture developed the method of culturing vaccines in chick embryos, which allowed the mass ...
Relationship between the major phosphorylated metabolic intermediates and oxygen affinity of whole blood in chick embryos and ... New chicks are fawn in colour, with dark brown spots.[10] During the first year of life, chicks grow at about 25 cm (9.8 in) ... When the chick hatches hemoglobin E diminishes while hemoglobin A and D increase in concentration.[73] This shift in hemoglobin ... Water mass accounts for 68% of body mass in adult common ostriches; this is down from 84% water mass in 35-day-old chicks. The ...
... is a method used in embryology to study the growth and development of an embryo inside an egg. The method uses a ... Chick sexing. *Chick culling. *Candling. *Abnormal behaviour of birds in captivity. *European Union Council Directive 1999/74/ ... Ripe, viable seeds have a visible embryo within them when viewed in transmitted light, so good seeds can be sorted out from the ... as seed germination causes the embryo to enlarge. Candling can thus be used to estimate the optimal time for planting seeds ...
Helpless chicks are termed altricial, and tend to be born small, blind, immobile and naked; chicks that are mobile and ... Inbreeding causes early death (inbreeding depression) in the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata.[211] Embryo survival (that is, ... Altricial chicks need help thermoregulating and must be brooded for longer than precocial chicks. The young of many bird ... The point at which chicks fledge varies dramatically. The chicks of the Synthliboramphus murrelets, like the ancient murrelet, ...
... part of a chicken embryo) and examining the resulting pock lesions under defined temperature conditions.[46] Strains were ...
Cook, B (1998). "Developmental neuronal death is not a universal phenomenon among cell types in the chick embryo retina". ... For example, the differentiation of fingers and toes in a developing human embryo occurs because cells between the fingers ...
He identified the citricula as the point in the yolk from which the embryo develops and the blastoderm surrounding the embryo. ... the chick before its hatching and even the pigeon. A digression to an experiment can be made to this note: using the inactive ... Here he says, "...in embryos, whilst the lungs are in a state of inaction, performing no function, subject to no movement any ...
A fate map of the epiblast of the early chick embryo.. Development. 1994, 120 (10): 2879-89. PMID 7607078.. ... The mechanisms underlying primitive streak formation in the chick embryo.. Curr Top Dev Biol. 2008, 81: 135-56. PMID 18023726. ... Analysis of tissue flow patterns during primitive streak formation in the chick embryo.. Dev Biol. 2005, 284 (1): 37-47. PMID ... Cell movement during chick primitive streak formation.. Dev Biol. 2006,. 296(1)) (1): 137-49. PMC 2556955. PMID 16725136. doi: ...
The chicks of many ground-nesting birds such as partridges and waders are often able to run virtually immediately after ... Bird embryos begin development with smooth skin. On the feet, the corneum, or outermost layer, of this skin may keratinize, ... After the egg is laid by the female, the embryo continues to develop in the egg outside the female body. ... The process whereby a chick acquires feathers until it can fly is called "fledging". ...
... while auditory stimulation can reach the embryo even before birth.[23] It has also been shown that auditory development in ... Yellow-faced honeyeater chicks. In oviparious biology, a hatchling is a newly hatched fish, amphibian, reptile, or bird.[1] A ... hydration levels also play an important role in embryo survival.[20] ...
... embryo of the dog, the chick, [and] the turtle". He accused Haeckel of "playing fast and loose with the public and with science ... Richardson and Keuck say "Unfortunately His's embryos are mostly at later stages than the nearly identical early stage embryos ... chick and turtle embryos: he changed this in the next edition. ... shown above a 6-week turtle embryo and 8-day hen embryo, ... edition changed the duplicated embryo images to a single image captioned "embryo of a mammal or bird". Duplication using ...
Chick, Kenneth M.; Cassen, Patrick. Thermal processing of interstellar dust grains in the primitive solar environment. The ... Formation of planets by tidal downsizing of giant planet embryos. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters, ...
Dawkins, Richard (1966). Selective pecking in the domestic chick. bodleian.ox.ac.uk (DPhil thesis). University of Oxford.. ... "Dawkins Twitter This is almost as impressive as the prescient knowledge that embryo starts as a blob, semen comes from the ... that an embryo starts as a blob, that magic underwear will protect you, that Jesus was resurrected, that semen comes from the ...
Vitamin Bp: "antiperosis factor", which prevents perosis, a leg disorder, in chicks; can be replaced by choline and manganese ... deficiency in early embryo development has been linked to neural tube defects. Thus, women planning to become pregnant are ... Vitamin B11: pteryl-hepta-glutamic acid (PHGA; chick growth factor). Vitamin Bc-conjugate was also found to be identical to ...
... of canthaxanthin can potentially help to reduce oxidation in a number of tissues including broiler meat and the chick embryo. ... In the egg, canthaxanthin is transferred from yolk to the developing embryo where it might help to protect the developing bird ... "Effect of canthaxanthin content of the maternal diet on the antioxidant system of the developing chick". British Poultry ... Antioxidant Properties of Canthaxanthin and Its Potential Effects in the Poultry Eggs and on Embryonic Development of the Chick ...
... for the first hatched chick, 60% for the second chick, and just 6% for the third chick.[40] ... and found that DDT caused the pelican eggshells to be too thin to support the embryo to maturity.[49] In 1972, the United ... The newly hatched chicks are pink, turning gray or black within 4 to 14 days. It takes about 63 days for chicks to fledge. Six ... An adult brown pelican with a chick on a nest on Smith Island, Chesapeake Bay, Maryland, USA ...
When the embryo is adequately developed it hatches, i.e. breaks out of the egg's shell. Some embryos have a temporary egg tooth ... In some cases, the host's eggs are removed or eaten by the female, or expelled by her chick. Brood parasites include the ... so that this new individual develops into an embryo. In most animals the embryo is the sessile initial stage of the individual ... The egg is the organic vessel containing the zygote in which an embryo develops until it can survive on its own; at which point ...
Turner, DL; Weintraub, H (1994). "Expression of achaete-scute homolog 3 in Xenopus embryos converts ectodermal cells to a ... Groudine, M; Weintraub, H (1975). "Rous sarcoma virus activates embryonic globin genes in chick fibroblasts". Proc Natl Acad ... Weintraub, H; Campbell Gle, M; Holtzer, H (1971). "Primitive erythropoiesis in early chick embryogenesis. I. Cell cycle ... in chicken embryos. This work included the study of cell cycle kinetics, hemoglobin synthesis, and the control of cell division ...
Transverse section of a chick embryo of forty-five hours' incubation. ল্যাটিন d. mesonephricus, d. Wolffi ... Cloaca of human embryo from twenty-five to twenty-seven days old. ... Diagram of a transverse section, showing the mode of formation of the amnion in the chick. ... Tail end of human embryo; from eight and a half to nine weeks old. ...
... because in the process of the egg being incubated the chicken embryos are taking the protein from the shell making the chicks ... Eggless' chick laid by hen in Sri Lanka, BBC News Online, 2012-04-19, retrieved 2012-04-28. ... The chick hatched inside and emerged from its mother without the shell, leading to internal wounds that killed the mother hen.[ ... In the first phase, the embryo has no functional organs and relies on the yolk sac for sustenance. The yolk is absorbed by the ...
Transverse section of a chick embryo of forty-five hours' incubation.. Details. ... Cloaca of human embryo from twenty-five to twenty-seven days old. ... Urogenital sinus of female human embryo of eight and a half to nine weeks old. ... Diagram of a transverse section, showing the mode of formation of the amnion in the chick. ...
Berg RA, Prockop DJ (1973). „Affinity column purification of protocollagen proline hydroxylase from chick embryos and further ...
In warm climates, such as deserts and salt flats, heat rather than cold can kill the developing embryos. In such places, ... King penguins and emperor penguins also do not build nests; instead, they tuck their eggs and chicks between their feet and ... which would inhibit oxygen diffusion to the eggs and make it more difficult for the chicks to emerge after hatching.[39] The ... and will accept any chick put into that nest until right before the young fledge.[58] ...
... and tail bud is a potent mesoderm inducer in Xenopus embryos". Developmental Biology. 208 (1): 222-32. doi:10.1006/dbio. ... "Gdf11 is a negative regulator of chondrogenesis and myogenesis in the developing chick limb". Developmental Biology. 229 (2): ...
An infant turkey is called a chick or poult.[citation needed] Human conflicts with wild turkeys. Turkeys have been known to be ... which were kept in the woods around Wolterton Hall and in all probability were the embryo flock for the popular Norfolk turkey ... To prevent this, some farmers cut off the snood when the chick is young, a process known as de-snooding.[citation needed] ...
Parkin showed that the sex ratio was equal among echo parakeet chicks and embryos and that the male-biased sex ratio among ... After fifty days, the chicks are rather active, flapping their wings and venturing near the entrance hole. Chicks fledge after ... and such surplus chicks would be given to pairs that had failed to hatch their eggs. Many surplus chicks were also taken to the ... The eyes are almost fully open after fifteen days, and the chicks have a fine covering of greenish-grey down on most of the ...
Shell-less chick embryo culture is the process of growing chick embryos in vitro, without their protective egg shells, for ... Chick embryos and other avian embryos have been biological models to visualize the developmental stages of embryos for ... It was implemented in India to scrutinize glucose-induced deformities in chick embryos. Fisher, C. J. (1993). "Chick embryos in ... Tahara, Y.; Obara, K. (2014). "A novel shell-less culture system for chick embryos using a plastic film as culture vessels". ...
At least six different Wnt genes are expressed in the developing CNS of the chick embryo. The domains of expression overlap ... The timing and spatial distribution of Wnt-gene expression in the chick embryo further support the general hypothesis that Wnt ... Wnt expression patterns in chick embryo nervous system.. Hollyday M1, McMahon JA, McMahon AP. ... Several lines of evidence suggest that Wnt genes play a critical role in regulating development of the vertebrate embryo. To ...
To evaluate the role of FGFs in neural induction and patterning of the nervous system in chick embryos, we have targeted the ... Neural induction in whole chick embryo cultures by FGF.. Alvarez IS1, Araujo M, Nieto MA. ... The whole embryo culture system allows to directly assessing the neural inducing activity on nonneural ectodermal cells. Our ... ectopic expression of these factors by applying FGF-soaked beads to extended primitive streak chick embryos developing in ...
Chick Embryo , 96 hour Microscope Slides. 2 Items *bvseo_sdk, java_sdk, bvseo-4.0.0 ...
Chick embryos provide valuable genetic data for understanding human development. Kumamoto University ... data for human embryos or for murine embryos representing early developmental stages. ... Top panels show embryos in the first day of embryonic development (21 days in total), equivalent to... view more ... Early developmental research on human embryos is impossible due to ethical considerations, and is technically difficult to ...
Embryo viability and the incidence of external malformations were recorded. Five days after treatment, mortality rates were ... Fertile White-Leghorn-chick eggs were injected with 1 to 10 milligrams (mg) of carbaryl in acetone or sesame oil, and were ... Fertile White-Leghorn-chick eggs were injected with 1 to 10 milligrams (mg) of carbaryl in acetone or sesame oil, and were ... Embryo viability and the incidence of external malformations were recorded. Five days after treatment, mortality rates were ...
As part of a school experiment in conjunction with my 4H group I am performing several shell less embryo cultures.This method ... Chick embryos in Shell-Less Culture Discussion in Incubating & Hatching Eggs started by Cochin378, Jan 8, 2012. ... I am performing several shell less embryo cultures.This method allows for the continuous observation of living chick embryos ... I also think I know why his embryos died.. Thank you though..I will have a closer look. ...
Chick Embryo Antigenic Variation Avian Myeloblastosis Virus Chick Embryo Fibroblast This work was done while the author was at ... Antigenic variation of the Avian Myeloblastosis Virus obtained from chick embryo fibroblasts. ...
The left image shows a silver-stained gel of embryo chick retina at ED7 and the right image is that of embryo chick retina at ... "Proteome profiling of embryo chick retina.(Research) , HighBeam Research",Proteome profiling of embryo chick retina.(Research ... Chick retina has been extensively employed as a model of retinal cell differentiation. In an chick embryo, mitosis of retinal ... Finally, twenty spots that had increased or decreased volume in embryo chick retina were selected as significant spots and ...
... a chick model was developed recently in which a spectrum of conotruncal anomalies, in combination with abnormal semilunar ... Chick Embryo. Disease Models, Animal. Heart / embryology*. Heart Defects, Congenital / physiopathology*. Hemodynamics. Time ... In chick embryos of stage 24 and stage 34 control (n = 8; n = 21) and with venous clip (n = 11; n = 18), we simultaneously ... Physiologically, only a decrease in peak acceleration was found in these embryos (p , 0.05). At stage 34, a spectrum of ...
Vitamin E-treated chick embryo cerebrum showed decrease in GS activity in comparison to control Group I chick embryo cerebrum. ... and 20-day incubated chick embryos) for cytosolic (. ; ) and mitochondrial (. ; ) GDH activities were significant at and , ... 20-day incubated chick embryos only) and mitochondrial (15-day and 20-day incubated chick embryos) enzyme activities (Figure 5 ... and 20-day incubated chick embryos) for cytosolic (. ; ) and mitochondrial (. ; ) A-KGDHH activities were significant at . ...
A transverse section through an embryo chick (26 hours). Labels: a, epiblast; b, mesoblast; c, hypoblast; d, central portion of ...
In the chick embryo hindbrain, morphological segmentation into rhombomeres is matched by metameric patterns of early neuronal ... Segmentation in the chick embryo hindbrain is defined by cell lineage restrictions Nature. 1990 Mar 29;344(6265):431-5. doi: ... Rhombomeres in the chick embryo thus behave like polyclonal units, raising the possibility that they are analogous to the ... In the chick embryo hindbrain, morphological segmentation into rhombomeres is matched by metameric patterns of early neuronal ...
If the same experiment is performed, using quail embryo as a donor and chick as a recipient, acute rejection of the quail limb ... Successful Xenogeneic Transplantation in Embryos: Induction of Tolerance by Extrathymic Chick Tissue Grafted into Quail. Claude ... between MHC-mismatched chick embryos, are not only tolerated after birth, but induce in the recipient a state of split ... We report here the unexpected result that when a chick limb bud is grafted into a quail at E4, it is tolerated and, like ...
The Effects of Respiratory Acidosis in the Chick Embryo Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from Journal of ... 1. Embryos of the domestic fowl have been incubated in normal conditions and in an atmosphere of 9% carbon dioxide from day 9 ... 2. There is a rapid increase in blood bicarbonate and base excess when the embryos are exposed to carbon dioxide. The increase ...
Here, we describe the dynamic transcription landscape of early chick embryo development using advanced single-molecule long- ... Here, we describe the dynamic transcription landscape of early chick embryo development using advanced single-molecule long- ... Analysis of gene expression in the developing chicken embryo highlighted the dynamic nature and complexity of the chicken ... Analysis of gene expression in the developing chicken embryo highlighted the dynamic nature and complexity of the chicken ...
Public Health Sarcoma Specific Antigen Tumor Antigen Chick Embryo (Presented by Active Member AMN SSSR N. N. Zhukov-Verezhnikov ... Specific antigens from tumors after prolonged cultivation on the chorioallantoic membrane of the chick embryo. ... sarcoma of rats as well as in heterotransplants of these tumors on the chorioallantoic membrane of the developing chick embryo ...
Organization of hindlimb muscle afferent projections to lumbosacral motoneurons in the chick embryo. MT Lee and MJ ODonovan ... We have examined the organization of muscle afferent projections to motoneurons in the lumbosacral spinal cord of chick embryos ... Organization of hindlimb muscle afferent projections to lumbosacral motoneurons in the chick embryo ... Organization of hindlimb muscle afferent projections to lumbosacral motoneurons in the chick embryo ...
White-Leghorn-chick embryos were sacrificed at days one through six of incubation. No specific acid-phos ... of the chick embryo during their migration from extraembryonic areas to the gonads in order to assess the metabolic activity of ... White-Leghorn-chick embryos were sacrificed at days one through six of incubation. No specific acid-phosphatase activity was ... The disposition of alkaline and acid-phosphatase activity was examined in the primordial germ cells (PGCs) of the chick embryo ...
Manipulation of chick embryos. Manipulation of chick embryos of both sexes was performed as described previously (Yoshioka et ... were implanted into embryos of both sexes as described in Figs 2 and 3. An untreated embryo is shown in A. The embryos were ... The sex of chick embryos was determined by the presence or absence of the W chromosome. To detect the W chromosome, the W- ... Hamburger, V. and Hamilton, H. L. (1951). A series of normal stages in the development of the chick embryo. J. Morphol. 88,49 - ...
HUMAN IMMUNIZATION WITH A DERMAL VACCINE CULTIVATED ON THE MEMBRANES OF CHICK EMBRYOS ... HUMAN IMMUNIZATION WITH A DERMAL VACCINE CULTIVATED ON THE MEMBRANES OF CHICK EMBRYOS ... HUMAN IMMUNIZATION WITH A DERMAL VACCINE CULTIVATED ON THE MEMBRANES OF CHICK EMBRYOS ... HUMAN IMMUNIZATION WITH A DERMAL VACCINE CULTIVATED ON THE MEMBRANES OF CHICK EMBRYOS ...
In the early chick embryo the prelimb bud mesoderm induces the AER in the overlying ectoderm. However, the direct inducer of ... FGF7 and FGF10 directly induce the apical ectodermal ridge in chick embryos Dev Biol. 1999 Jul 1;211(1):133-43. doi: 10.1006/ ... In the early chick embryo the prelimb bud mesoderm induces the AER in the overlying ectoderm. However, the direct inducer of ... Formation of the AER of the dorsal median ectoderm in the chick embryo is likely to appear as a vestige of the dorsal fin of ...
The student will learn to dissect chick embryos, perform in situ hybridization, and then analyze and document the expression ... Project title: Characterization of Npc2 expression in chick embryos.. Project description (50-100 words suggested): The goal of ... Characterization of Npc2 expression in chick embryos - HGEN 396 Undergraduate Research Project Application Form ... this project is to examine the mRNA expression pattern of Npc2 in chick embryos by whole mount in situ hybridization. Npc2 is ...
The chick embryo is a valuable tool in the study of early embryonic development. Its transparency, accessibility and ease of ... Double Whole Mount in situ Hybridization of Early Chick Embryos. doi: 10.3791/904 Published: October 27, 2008 ... Psychoyos, D., Finnell, R. Double Whole Mount in situ Hybridization of Early Chick Embryos. J. Vis. Exp. (20), e904, doi: ... Psychoyos, D., Finnell, R. Double Whole Mount in situ Hybridization of Early Chick Embryos. J. Vis. Exp. (20), e904, doi: ...
A cell lineage analysis of segmentation in the chick embryo. Claudio D. Stern, Scott E. Fraser, Roger J. Keynes, Dennis R. N. ... A cell lineage analysis of segmentation in the chick embryo. Claudio D. Stern, Scott E. Fraser, Roger J. Keynes, Dennis R. N. ... A cell lineage analysis of segmentation in the chick embryo. Claudio D. Stern, Scott E. Fraser, Roger J. Keynes, Dennis R. N. ... A cell lineage analysis of segmentation in the chick embryo Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from Development ...
Transplantation of Heterologous Tumors by the Intravenous Inoculation of the Chick Embryo. Doris H. Bender, Charles E. ... Transplantation of Heterologous Tumors by the Intravenous Inoculation of the Chick Embryo ... Transplantation of Heterologous Tumors by the Intravenous Inoculation of the Chick Embryo ... Transplantation of Heterologous Tumors by the Intravenous Inoculation of the Chick Embryo ...
... and loss-of-function approaches in the chick embryo.. Gain- and loss-of-function approaches in the chick embryo.. Journal: ... Electroporation as the most popular method of the transient transfection into the chick embryos. Electroporation of chicken ... transient spatiotemporally targeted gene alterations have thus again re-established the chick embryo as an important ... The chicken embryo has been used as a classical embryological model for studying developmental events because of its ready ...
The development of hindlimb motor activity studied in the isolated spinal cord of the chick embryo. MJ ODonovan and L ... The development of hindlimb motor activity studied in the isolated spinal cord of the chick embryo ... The development of hindlimb motor activity studied in the isolated spinal cord of the chick embryo ... The development of hindlimb motor activity studied in the isolated spinal cord of the chick embryo ...
Lipoprotein lipase activity in tissues of the developing chick embryo BRIAN K. SPEAKE; BRIAN K. SPEAKE ... BRIAN K. SPEAKE, RAYMOND C. NOBLE, RUTH McCARTNEY; Lipoprotein lipase activity in tissues of the developing chick embryo. ... MiR-21 in extracellular vesicles contributes to the growth of fertilized eggs and embryo development in mice Biosci Rep (August ... Characterization of cell-free protein-synthesis systems from undeveloped and developing Artemia embryos Biochem J (June,1991) ...
I thought they were old eggs, but when I threw them out I found that one of them had an embryo in it. ... I am thinking that if we do end up with new chicks, I could move chicks and hen down to our cellar (it has a window and heating ... I thought they were old eggs, but when I threw them out I found that one of them had an embryo in it. A hen has just gone into ... shame i know but you can encourage her back to the same spot in the spring with china eggs and the chicks will have much more ...
  • Rabies purified chick embryo cell vaccine is used to protect people who have been bitten by animals (post-exposure) or otherwise may be exposed to the rabies virus (pre-exposure). (drugs.com)
  • Barth R., Bijok U., Gruschkau H., Jaeger O., Weinmann E. (1985) Purified Chick Embryo Cell (PCEC) Rabies Vaccine for Human Use - Laboratory Data. (springer.com)
  • As part of a school experiment in conjunction with my 4H group I am performing several shell less embryo cultures.This method allows for the continuous observation of living chick embryos from day 3 to day 18 of incubation. (backyardchickens.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: To obtain insight into hemodynamics during abnormal cardiac development, a chick model was developed recently in which a spectrum of conotruncal anomalies, in combination with abnormal semilunar valves and/or pharyngeal arch artery malformations, was induced through extraembryonic venous obstruction (venous clip) at stage 17 (70-h incubation). (biomedsearch.com)
  • White-Leghorn-chick embryos were sacrificed at days one through six of incubation. (cdc.gov)
  • Between 37 and 120 hours of incubation chick embryos with membranes intact were floated off the yolk in a saline bath on to a glass square. (docme.ru)
  • Artistic view of a chicken embryo, following three days of incubation. (ehu.es)
  • We report the hemodynamic parameters of stage 18, 21, 24, and 27 chick embryos (from 3 to 5 days of incubation). (ahajournals.org)
  • Acetylcholine, acetyl-β-methylcholine and carbamylcholine inhibited sinoatrial pacemaker activity in atria isolated from chick embryos on the 6th, 12th and 18th incubation days. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Since the length and width of the heart at 15 to 16 days of incubation were about 3 times those of a heart at 5 to 7 days of incubation, it is proposed that the higher the stage of development of the chick embryo the greater must be the conduction velocity between the two atria and from atrium to ventricle. (ahajournals.org)
  • We have microinjected agents into the tissue space adjacent to the primitive streak of living embryos and, after further incubation, we have examined the embryos for perturbation of the mesoderm tissue. (biologists.org)
  • 1. The effects of immobilization on the development of the knee and 3rd metatarsophalangeal joints and associated structures were studied in a staged series of chick embryos, paralysed by administration of decamethonium bromide from 6 days of incubation onwards. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Annulate lamellae have been observed in the myocardium of 18-day-old chick embryos maintained at the normal temperature of 100°F and at 90°F during the last week of incubation. (rupress.org)
  • incubation period the chick embryo is oval in shape. (com.pk)
  • Chick embryos were directly exposed to a source of white light during incubation and sacrificed before hatching. (um.es)
  • Representative images of chicken embryos used for RNA preparation and subsequent CAGE sequencing. (eurekalert.org)
  • Using CAGE technology, a highly reliable method for finding TSSs and cis-regulatory elements (those sequence blocks regulating the position and robustness of transcription) in the genome over the full chick developmental period, the collaborators were able to map 60% of all developmental chicken TSSs to the most recent chicken genome, with the other 40% likely being as of yet uncharacterized alternative promoters or noncoding RNA genes. (eurekalert.org)
  • Analysis of gene expression in the developing chicken embryo highlighted the dynamic nature and complexity of the chicken transcriptome and demonstrated that dramatically increased IR events are associated with distinct gene sets. (frontiersin.org)
  • We describe a method for performing gain- and loss-of-function experiments in early chicken embryos. (ca.gov)
  • The chicken embryo has been used as a classical embryological model for studying developmental events because of its ready availability, similarity to the human embryos, and amenability to embryological and surgical manipulations. (ca.gov)
  • This, together with sequencing of the chicken genome, has allowed the chicken embryo to enter the genomic era. (ca.gov)
  • Electroporation of chicken embryos involves application of an electric field to the exposed tissue that transiently disrupts the stability of the cell plasma membrane, creating reversible pores through which nucleic acids or their analogues can be readily transported into the cytosol. (ca.gov)
  • The induction of 5-aminolaevulinate synthase and of cytochrome P-450 by short-chain aliphatic alcohols was compared in primary cultures of chicken-embryo hepatocytes. (biochemj.org)
  • At HH25-26 (day 5 of development), the chicken embryo is removed from the egg using forceps and a small spatula and placed in the Petri dish (Figure 1a). (bio-protocol.org)
  • The chick or baby chicken is not only a favorite as a reminder of spring and as a live Easter gift for children in the United States, but is also well studied by embryologists, toxicologists, and histologists. (fsu.edu)
  • Because of their relatively low cost, abundance, and year-round supply, chicken embryos make ideal laboratory organisms. (fsu.edu)
  • The digital image presented below illustrates a darkfield microscopy view of a 72-hour chicken embryo. (fsu.edu)
  • Chicken embryos and cells grown in the laboratory may reduce animal testing by replacing exposure trials on mice and rats. (fsu.edu)
  • Chicken embryos develop in eggs rather than inside the mother, as in mice and rats, making the control of experiments much easier for research scientists utilizing the chicken. (fsu.edu)
  • Since 1967, when killed measles virus-derived vaccines were abandoned because of severe reactions in some children, measles vaccines are produced by weakening the live virus through transplantation from 40 times to 85 times into chicken embryos. (fsu.edu)
  • Similarly, a stronger mumps vaccine was developed by passing the virus repeatedly through hens' eggs and chicken embryos. (fsu.edu)
  • Kuhn, ER, Decuypere, E & Rudas, P 1984, ' Hormonal and environmental interactions on thyroid function in the chick embryo and posthatching chicken ', Journal of Experimental Zoology , vol. 232, no. 3, pp. 653-658. (elsevier.com)
  • A recent collaboration was founded with Drs. Hon Leong and Nicholas Power to extend this work to the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane xenograft model. (visualsonics.com)
  • Among various membrane-bound polyribosomes from chicken embryos the polyribosomes loosely bound with membranes proved to be highly active in synthesis of total proteins as well as of collagens in vitro. (msk.ru)
  • Chick embryo fibroblasts infected with Rous sarcoma virus in vitro are rendered malignant for such cells produce typical Rous sarcomas when injected into susceptible chicks since the tumors produced predominantly retain the sex chromatin patterns of the donor cells when such cells are injected into a recipient of the opposite sex. (rupress.org)
  • These chick embryo fibroblasts transformed in vitro show the same neo-plastic properties as tumor cells when they are introduced into the cheek pouch of the hamster or the eye of the guinea pig. (rupress.org)
  • The phorbol ester tumor promoter (12-0-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (10 -7 -10 -9 M) caused a rapid (1-3 hr after addition) release of arachidonic acid and prostaglandins E 2 and F 2α from chick embryo fibroblasts. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Cultured chick embryo fibroblasts derived from skin and skeletal muscle exhibit hyaluronidase activity both associated with the cell layer and secreted into the medium. (rupress.org)
  • Experimental Heart-block in the Chick Embryo ' GEORGE H. PAFF, ROBERT J. BOUCEK AND HAROLD S. KLOPFENSTEIN Departments of Anatomy and Medicine, University of Miami School of Medicine, Coral Gables, Florida ABSTRACT While studying the electrocardiograms of developing hearts it was noted that an adult type ECG could not be obtained in a n embryonic heart which could not be blocked with digitalis. (docme.ru)
  • Early developmental research on human embryos is impossible due to ethical considerations, and is technically difficult to perform in other mammals, making resources for this type of research extremely rare. (eurekalert.org)
  • For example, the Functional Annotation of Mammalian Genome (FANTOM) 5 project based in Japan, established in 2000, is a worldwide collaborative project with the goal of identifying all functional elements in mammalian genomes, but it has no Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (CAGE)-based transcription start site (TSS) data for human embryos or for murine embryos representing early developmental stages. (eurekalert.org)
  • The use of this method for transfection into the vertebrate embryos has been facilitated by adapting the voltage parameters and the type and the duration of the electric pulse. (ca.gov)
  • Localized regions of RA synthesis and degradation mediated by these two enzymes may therefore provide a mechanism to regulate RA homeostasis spatially in vertebrate embryos. (deepdyve.com)
  • The student will learn to dissect chick embryos, perform in situ hybridization, and then analyze and document the expression patterns. (mcgill.ca)
  • In situ hybridization with whole embryos is a powerful method to observe overall expression patterns of genes in embryos. (springer.com)
  • Expression patterns of RALDH-2 and CYP26 genes were determined in the early chick embryo by in situ hybridization. (deepdyve.com)
  • 7. The intra-articular structures of the knee joint developed initially in situ from the mesenchyme of the interzone, independently of movement, but their maintenance and further development was impaired in paralysed chicks and was therefore dependant upon movement. (gla.ac.uk)
  • After the hemodynamic recordings were collected, all 58 embryos were subjected to morphological examination. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In the chick embryo hindbrain, morphological segmentation into rhombomeres is matched by metameric patterns of early neuronal differentiation and axonogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • The vertebrate embryo undergoes extensive morphological changes during the processes of gastrulation and organogenesis ( Mitiku and Baker, 2007 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • During early developmental stages before sexual differentiation, chick embryonic gonads show no obvious morphological L-R asymmetry and consist of two components, the cortex and medulla ( Smith and Sinclair, 2004 ). (biologists.org)
  • The development of the antrioventricular canal (A-V canal) of embryonic chick hearts (35 to 120 h) was studied by morphological and electrophysiological techniques. (eurekamag.com)
  • Transformation of chick embryo fibroblast. (mendeley.com)
  • Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) play an essential role in development and patterning of the vertebrate embryo. (usask.ca)
  • Remarkably, affinity-purified angiostatin kringle 1-3 fragments generated by neutrophils inhibited basic fibroblast growth factor plus vascular endothelial growth factor-induced endothelial cell proliferation in vitro, and both vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis in the matrigel plug assay and fibroblast growth factor-induced angiogenesis in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay, in vivo. (jimmunol.org)
  • The whole embryo culture system allows to directly assessing the neural inducing activity on nonneural ectodermal cells. (nih.gov)
  • In an chick embryo, mitosis of retinal progenitor cells begins on embryonic day (ED) 3. (highbeam.com)
  • Overexpression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promoted differentiation of photoreceptor cells via TrkB in early chick retina [9]. (highbeam.com)
  • Activin is associated with the differentiation to amacrine cells until ED8 and it was reported that overexpression of follistatin, an activin binding protein and an inhibitor, cause a decreased in the frequency of amacrine cells generation during chick retina development [10]. (highbeam.com)
  • In previous experiments, we have demonstrated that limb buds engrafted during embryonic life at E4, between MHC-mismatched chick embryos, are not only tolerated after birth, but induce in the recipient a state of split tolerance toward cells expressing the donor MHC haplotype: donor's skin grafts are permanently tolerated while a proliferative response of host's T cells is generated in MLR by donor-type blood cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Acid and alkaline phosphatase activity in migrating primordial germ cells of the early chick embryo. (cdc.gov)
  • The disposition of alkaline and acid-phosphatase activity was examined in the primordial germ cells (PGCs) of the chick embryo during their migration from extraembryonic areas to the gonads in order to assess the metabolic activity of these cells during this critical early developmental period. (cdc.gov)
  • The monoclonal antibody HNK-1 recognizes the cells of the primitive streak in the chick embryo. (nih.gov)
  • We have now used two novel ways to study cell lineage and commitment to show that the epiblast of the early chick embryo contains two distinct populations of cells with different developmental fates at a stage during which 'mesodermal induction' is believed to occur. (nih.gov)
  • We have studied the lineage history of the progenitors of the somite mesoderm and of the neural tube in the chick embryo by injecting single cells with the fluorescent tracer, rhodamine-lysine-dextran. (biologists.org)
  • GABA was found to regulate the specific activity of glutamic acid decarboxylase in cells dissociated from chick embryo retina and cultured in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • Following their injection into susceptible chicks, the cells transformed in vitro by virus behave in the same manner as tumor cells obtained from tumors induced by virus in vivo and cultivated in the same conditions in vitro . (rupress.org)
  • Sections of the stained embryos can be used to identify cells expressing the mRNA in the embryo. (springer.com)
  • The Flury LEP-C25 strain was propagated in primary chick embryo cells (CEC), the tissue culture fluid was purified and concentrated by continuous density gradient centrifugation and inactivated by betapropiolactone. (springer.com)
  • In a series of tissue cultures of fragments taken from different parts of young chick embryos, at various stages, it was found that differentiation frequently occurred, the characteristic cells of highly specialised tissues appearing in cultures in which they could not possibly have been present at explantation. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The present paper, on the other hand, is based principally upon cultures of fragments of the primitive streak-that is, upon explants of presumptively hæmatopoietic cells isolated before they had arrived at the normal hæmatopoietic region of the embryo. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The literature may be very briefly summarised as follows : Shipley (1915-16) made plasma cultures from the area opaca of chick embryos at a time prior to the formation of the blood islands, and obtained the differen-tiation of erythrocytes from amœboid cells. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • We have cloned two chick NGNs and found that they are expressed in a subset of neural crest cells early in their migration. (caltech.edu)
  • In the gastrulating chick embryo, the mesoderm cells arise from the epiblast layer by ingression through the linear accumulation of cells called the primitive streak. (biologists.org)
  • The mesoderm cells emerge from the streak with a fibroblastic morphology and proceed to move away from the mid-line of the embryo using, as a substratum, the basement membrane of the overlying epiblast and the extracellular matrix. (biologists.org)
  • Dead cells were similarly distributed in the joint interzone, and at the same developmental stages, in paralysed and control embryos. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Dead cells were not seen in the region of the developing femoro-patellar joint in either control or paralysed embryos. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Dead cells were not seen along the cruciate ligaments (after Stage 32) or around tibialis anterior tendon in paralysed embryos, unlike controls. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Dead cells were more numerous in the interzone of the M-P joint of paralysed embryos, than in controls. (gla.ac.uk)
  • In paralysed chicks it later became more vascular and showed infiltration by white blood cells. (gla.ac.uk)
  • 1)The epithelial cells of the olfactory placode of the chick embryoswere labeled with a fluorescent carbocyanine dye DiI at embryonic days 3.5-4.0. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 2)In the embryos with a incomplete placodectomy, a small number of LHRH-immunoreactive (ir) cells expressing NCAM-H were detected in the olfactory epithelial fragments and in the NCAM-H-positive olfactory nerve remnants which ceased to extend their axons to the forebrain. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Hypoxia is the alleged stimulus for initiation of increase of carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) synthesis of red blood cells from late chick embryos. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • The ability of the chick embryo's chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) to efficiently support the growth of inoculated xenogenic tumor cells greatly facilitates analysis of human tumor cell metastasis. (mysciencework.com)
  • The tissue composition and accessibility of the CAM for experimental interventions makes chick embryo CAM systems attractive models to follow the fate and visualize microscopically the behavior of grafted tumor cells in both spontaneous and experimental metastasis settings. (mysciencework.com)
  • The principal cells of the chick tangential nucleus are vestibular nucleus neurons participating in the vestibular reflexes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • RT-qPCR and RNA dot blot analyses demonstrated that mRNA transcripts for the pea3, erm, and er81 genes are expressed by mesenchyme cells of both frontonasal and mandibular processes of stage 24/25 and stage 28/29 chick embryos. (usask.ca)
  • The dorsal mesoderm also form group of cells called somites , which are visible in 25-26 hours embryo. (magbin.net)
  • Objective: In this study we have compared in an in vivo assay, the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane, the angiogenic potential of mast cell suspensions isolated from rats, degranulated mast cells and their secretory granules. (elsevier.com)
  • S.E.P. thanks P. White for her introduction to chick embryology, L. Sommer for suggesting the use of the rodent NGNs in the RCAS constructs and C. Marcelle and members of the Bronner-Fraser laboratory for advice on concentrating RCAS virus. (caltech.edu)
  • Shell-less chick embryo culture is the process of growing chick embryos in vitro, without their protective egg shells, for scientific observation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we have demonstrated that this retrotransposon can act as a classical transcriptional regulatory domain in the context of a reporter gene construct both in vitro in the human SK-N-AS neuroblastoma cell line and in vivo in a chick embryo model. (isharonline.org)
  • Following overnight hybridization, the embryo is incubated with DIG coupled antibody. (jove.com)
  • The authors studied the specific tumor antigen in Crocker's sarcoma of mice and M-1 sarcoma of rats as well as in heterotransplants of these tumors on the chorioallantoic membrane of the developing chick embryo. (springer.com)
  • Normal embryonic growth of the chick and the effects of experimental excision of the prospective upper or lower bill were studied in chick and duck embryos. (brillonline.com)
  • Experimental excision was performed in chick and duck embryos of stages 26-28. (brillonline.com)
  • Chick embryos and other avian embryos have been biological models to visualize the developmental stages of embryos for education and to instigate embryological manipulations. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the arrival of the molecular era, however, avian embryos presented distinct experimental limitations, largely because of the difficulty of performing targeted mutagenesis or transgenic studies. (ca.gov)
  • Analysis of the spatial expression patterns of genes in animal embryos is essential to understanding functions of the genes especially for developmental biology. (springer.com)
  • Since their introduction almost a century ago, chick embryo model systems involving the technique of chorioallantoic grafting have proved invaluable in the in vivo studies of tumor development and angiogenesis and tumor cell dissemination. (mysciencework.com)
  • The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is commonly used in vivo to study both angiogenesis and anti-angiogenesis. (elsevier.com)
  • To evaluate the role of FGFs in neural induction and patterning of the nervous system in chick embryos, we have targeted the ectopic expression of these factors by applying FGF-soaked beads to extended primitive streak chick embryos developing in culture. (nih.gov)
  • Differential expression of multiple fork head-related genes during gastrulation and axial pattern formation in the mouse embryo. (springer.com)
  • In both stages, pressure readings showed no statistically significant differences between control and experimental embryos. (biomedsearch.com)
  • While attempts to establish germ line transgenesis are ongoing, methods for rapid, transient spatiotemporally targeted gene alterations have thus again re-established the chick embryo as an important experimental niche by making it possible to apply genetics in concert with classical embryological techniques. (ca.gov)
  • Experimental heart-block in the chick embryo. (docme.ru)
  • A Diffusible Agent of Mouse Sarcoma, Producing Hyperplasia of Sympathetic Ganglia and Hyperneurotization of Viscera in the Chick Embryo," by Rita Levi-Montalcini and Viktor Hamburger , appeared in 1953 in The Journal of Experimental Zoology . (asu.edu)
  • This investigation shows that the chick embryo may be a suitable experimental model for study of the neurotoxic effect of dithiocarbamates. (retrievo.pt)
  • Fertile White-Leghorn-chick eggs were injected with 1 to 10 milligrams (mg) of carbaryl in acetone or sesame oil, and were examined 5 or 12 days later. (cdc.gov)
  • I thought they were old eggs, but when I threw them out I found that one of them had an embryo in it. (mumsnet.com)
  • shame i know but you can encourage her back to the same spot in the spring with china eggs and the chicks will have much more of a chance. (mumsnet.com)
  • Note: For windowed eggs (experimentally manipulated), the embryo can be carefully lifted out of the egg through the window by inserting a closed pair of forceps under the neck. (bio-protocol.org)
  • The global Chick Embryo Cell Rabies Vaccine market is valued at XX million USD in 2016 and is expected to reach XX million USD by the end of 2022, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2016 and 2022. (bigmarketresearch.com)
  • This report studies the Chick Embryo Cell Rabies Vaccine development status and future trend in China, focuses on top players in China, also splits Chick Embryo Cell Rabies Vaccine by type and by applications, to fully and deeply research and reveal the market general situation and future forecast. (bigmarketresearch.com)
  • Major Findings: Two pathways for gamma-aminobutyric acid synthesis were found in chick embryo retina. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, in the developing embryo, neurotransmitters which affect cAMP levels may regulate ornithine decarboxylase activity and thereby control the rate of GABA synthesis from ornithine. (nih.gov)
  • RALDH-2 and CYP26, two key enzymes that carry out retinoic acid (RA) synthesis and degradation, respectively, were cloned from the chick and show significant homology with their orthologs in other vertebrates. (deepdyve.com)
  • In the present investigation we have analyzed whether interindividual differences in egg size (which result in different surface area-to-mass ratios) affect the timing of initiation of 2,3-DPG and CAII synthesis in late chick embryos. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • It appears that aspirin (in the doses used) affects neural tube formation by decreasing PGF2 alpha synthesis in chick embryo blastoderm . (bvsalud.org)
  • A single treatment of 2-day chick embryos with heat shock or a variety of drugs that affect the cell cycle all produce repeated anomalies in the pattern of somites and vertebrae that develop subsequent to the treatment. (biologists.org)
  • Hydrocortisone treatment of chick embryos caused acceleration of epidermis thickening and keratinization, decrease in dermal cell number and increase of dermal collagenous fibres. (edu.qa)
  • In addition to the yolk sac, tecoram was also injected into the air chamber, as it was shown by Gebhardt and van Logten (1968), that certain dithiocarbamates were more effective, at least in the very young chick embryo, when this method of inoculation was used. (retrievo.pt)
  • CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the hemodynamic changes seen in venous clip embryos reflect the presence of a compensatory mechanism. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Developmental hemodynamic changes in the chick embryo from stage 18 to 27. (ahajournals.org)
  • As a whole, quails exhibit a greater ability than the chick to become tolerant to antigens presented peripherally from early developmental stages. (hindawi.com)
  • Several lines of evidence suggest that Wnt genes play a critical role in regulating development of the vertebrate embryo. (nih.gov)
  • At least six different Wnt genes are expressed in the developing CNS of the chick embryo. (nih.gov)
  • The timing and spatial distribution of Wnt-gene expression in the chick embryo further support the general hypothesis that Wnt genes play key roles in patterning the developing vertebrate nervous system. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, using two different non-radioactive probes, expression patterns of two different genes can be observed simultaneously in an embryo, as a pattern of two colors. (springer.com)
  • Neural induction in whole chick embryo cultures by FGF. (nih.gov)
  • Organ cultures consisting of epidermis from sc/sc embryos combined with normal (+/+) scale dermis of the same developmental age produce the scaleless phenotype, but the same scaleless epidermis in combination with normal dermis from more differentiated embryonic scales forms perfectly normal scales. (sciencemag.org)
  • His claim was based on chick -heart tissue cultures in his laboratory that seemed to be able to proliferate forever. (asu.edu)
  • The present study demonstrates that FGF2 treatment differentially affects chondrogenesis in micromass cultures of frontonasal and mandibular mesenchyme isolated from stage 24/25 chick embryos. (usask.ca)
  • Micromass cultures of mandibular mesenchyme from stage 28/29 chick embryos exhibited significantly lower levels of pea3 expression than cultures of stage 24/25 mandibular mesenchyme. (usask.ca)
  • Vitamin E-deficient diets lead to encephalomalacia and ataxia in growing chicks, ataxia, and neuroaxonal degeneration in brain stem, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves and pigmentary degeneration of retina develops in rats and rhesus monkeys [ 5 - 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • We have examined the organization of muscle afferent projections to motoneurons in the lumbosacral spinal cord of chick embryos between stage 37, when muscle afferents first reach the motor nucleus, and stage 44, which is just before hatching. (jneurosci.org)
  • Like skeletal muscle, chick embryo atria underwent a change in reactivity to tetrodotoxin and to cholinergic agonists at the time of cholinergic innervation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Simultaneous left and right atrial surface electrograms were obtained from the right and left atria of 30 chick embryos. (ahajournals.org)
  • If the same experiment is performed, using quail embryo as a donor and chick as a recipient, acute rejection of the quail limb starts during the first two weeks after birth, thus suggesting that the peripheral type of tolerance induced in these experiments can be obtained only in allogeneic but not in xenogeneic combinations. (hindawi.com)
  • We report here the unexpected result that when a chick limb bud is grafted into a quail at E4, it is tolerated and, like allogeneic grafts in chickens, induces adult skin-graft tolerance without modifying the MLR response. (hindawi.com)
  • They obtained mouse sarcomas 180 and 37 from Jackson Memorial Laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine, and transplanted them into either the embryo directly anterior to the hind-limb, or in a similar location on the allantoic vessicle. (asu.edu)
  • Nerve growth promoting tumors were implanted into developing embryos to determine whether the tumors stimulated growth by direct contact or by a diffusible substance. (asu.edu)
  • Publications] Murakami,S.: 'Direct evidence for the migration of LHRH neurons from the nasal region to the forebrain in the chick embryo:a carbocyanine dye analysis. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Arai,Y.: 'Removal of olfactory placode prevents the development of the LHRH neurons in the forebrain of chick embryo:possible interaction between----' Acta Bioloaica Hungarica. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Spontaneous synaptic activity is primarily GABAergic in vestibular nucleus neurons of the chick embryo. (semanticscholar.org)
  • article{Shao2003SpontaneousSA, title={Spontaneous synaptic activity is primarily GABAergic in vestibular nucleus neurons of the chick embryo. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Motor neurons are segmentally organised in the developing chick hindbrain, with groups of neurons occupying pairs of hindbrain segments or rhombomeres. (sussex.ac.uk)
  • Induction of 5-aminolaevulinate synthase by two- to five-carbon alcohols in cultured chick-embryo hepatocytes. (biochemj.org)
  • RESULTS: At stage 24, venous clip embryos showed impaired looping. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Drachman, DB 1963, ' The developing motor end‐plate: pharmacological studies in the chick embryo ', Journal of Physiology , vol. 169, no. 4, pp. 707-712. (elsevier.com)
  • The paper ends with two possible conclusions for the mechanism of nerve growth, the tumor may have been directly stimulating the ganglia by a diffusible signal, or it may have reduced the resistance of the chick tissues to the nerve growth. (asu.edu)
  • The embryos also showed a large increase in the number of nerve fibers reaching into many tissues. (asu.edu)
  • Altered hemodynamics in chick embryos after extraembryonic venous obstruction. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Proteome profiling of embryo chick retina. (highbeam.com)
  • a href="https://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-176677058.html" title="Proteome profiling of embryo chick retina. (highbeam.com)
  • Here, we performed proteome profiling of chick retina to identify proteins that are differentially expressed between ED7 and ED11 in chick retina. (highbeam.com)
  • We report thirteen proteins whose expression is changed in embryonal retina of chick. (highbeam.com)
  • To identify the development-dependent proteins in the retina, we compared the proteome of ED7 chick retina with that of ED11. (highbeam.com)
  • The left image shows a silver-stained gel of embryo chick retina at ED7 and the right image is that of embryo chick retina at ED11. (highbeam.com)
  • A mother gel was constructed using images of three gels of chick retina by PD-Quest software. (highbeam.com)
  • Finally, twenty spots that had increased or decreased volume in embryo chick retina were selected as significant spots and MALDI TOF mass spectrometry was performed to identify the proteins. (highbeam.com)
  • Objectives: The objective of the project is to study the biochemical step required for synaptogenesis in chick embryo retina. (nih.gov)
  • The study comprised anatomical description of skeleton development in chick embryo Gallud domesticud which includes the appearance of ossification center during the embryological stages (5,10,14, 18 and 21) days. (umm.ac.id)
  • In human medicine, the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model is used as a cheap and easy to perform assay to assess new drug effectiveness in cancer treatment. (paperity.org)