A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
One of the MARTIAL ARTS and also a form of meditative exercise using methodically slow circular stretching movements and positions of body balance.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
An ATP-dependent exodeoxyribonuclease that cleaves in either the 5'- to 3'- or the 3'- to 5'-direction to yield 5'-phosphooligonucleotides. It is primarily found in BACTERIA.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Fodder converted into succulent feed for livestock through processes of anaerobic fermentation (as in a silo).
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
A statistical analytic technique used with discrete dependent variables, concerned with separating sets of observed values and allocating new values. It is sometimes used instead of regression analysis.
The consumption of edible substances.
The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.
A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Inorganic compounds that contain chromium as an integral part of the molecule.
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
The syrup remaining after sugar is crystallized out of SUGARCANE or sugar beet juice. It is also used in ANIMAL FEED, and in a fermented form, is used to make industrial ETHYL ALCOHOL and ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
A quantitative prediction of the biological, ecotoxicological or pharmaceutical activity of a molecule. It is based upon structure and activity information gathered from a series of similar compounds.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
An area of recreation or hygiene for use by the public.
Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.
Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A family of enzymes that catalyze the exonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. It includes members of the class EC 3.1.11 that produce 5'-phosphomonoesters as cleavage products.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Continuous frequency distribution of infinite range. Its properties are as follows: 1, continuous, symmetrical distribution with both tails extending to infinity; 2, arithmetic mean, mode, and median identical; and 3, shape completely determined by the mean and standard deviation.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A familial, nontransient HYPOGLYCEMIA with defects in negative feedback of GLUCOSE-regulated INSULIN release. Clinical phenotypes include HYPOGLYCEMIA; HYPERINSULINEMIA; SEIZURES; COMA; and often large BIRTH WEIGHT. Several sub-types exist with the most common, type 1, associated with mutations on an ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS (subfamily C, member 8).
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.
Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
A set of statistical methods for analyzing the correlations among several variables in order to estimate the number of fundamental dimensions that underlie the observed data and to describe and measure those dimensions. It is used frequently in the development of scoring systems for rating scales and questionnaires.
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.
A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.
In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Computer-assisted interpretation and analysis of various mathematical functions related to a particular problem.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
The sensory interpretation of the dimensions of objects.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
Analysis based on the mathematical function first formulated by Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier in 1807. The function, known as the Fourier transform, describes the sinusoidal pattern of any fluctuating pattern in the physical world in terms of its amplitude and its phase. It has broad applications in biomedicine, e.g., analysis of the x-ray crystallography data pivotal in identifying the double helical nature of DNA and in analysis of other molecules, including viruses, and the modified back-projection algorithm universally used in computerized tomography imaging, etc. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.
A genus of ascarid nematodes commonly parasitic in the intestines of cats and dogs.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)
Physical motion, i.e., a change in position of a body or subject as a result of an external force. It is distinguished from MOVEMENT, a process resulting from biological activity.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.
The physical effects involving the presence of electric charges at rest and in motion.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The illumination of an environment and the arrangement of lights to achieve an effect or optimal visibility. Its application is in domestic or in public settings and in medical and non-medical environments.
The comparison of the quantity of meaningful data to the irrelevant or incorrect data.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The measurement of curvature and shape of the anterior surface of the cornea using techniques such as keratometry, keratoscopy, photokeratoscopy, profile photography, computer-assisted image processing and videokeratography. This measurement is often applied in the fitting of contact lenses and in diagnosing corneal diseases or corneal changes including keratoconus, which occur after keratotomy and keratoplasty.
An illusion of vision usually affecting spatial relations.
Measurement of the various properties of light.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze reactions in which a group can be regarded as eliminated from one part of a molecule, leaving a double bond, while remaining covalently attached to the molecule. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.5.
The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.
The act and process of chewing and grinding food in the mouth.
Any device or element which converts an input signal into an output signal of a different form. Examples include the microphone, phonographic pickup, loudspeaker, barometer, photoelectric cell, automobile horn, doorbell, and underwater sound transducer. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Learning algorithms which are a set of related supervised computer learning methods that analyze data and recognize patterns, and used for classification and regression analysis.
Traumatic injuries to the cranium where the integrity of the skull is not compromised and no bone fragments or other objects penetrate the skull and dura mater. This frequently results in mechanical injury being transmitted to intracranial structures which may produce traumatic brain injuries, hemorrhage, or cranial nerve injury. (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p417)
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Asymmetries in the topography and refractive index of the corneal surface that affect visual acuity.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Architecture, exterior and interior design, and construction of facilities other than hospitals, e.g., dental schools, medical schools, ambulatory care clinics, and specified units of health care facilities. The concept also includes architecture, design, and construction of specialized contained, controlled, or closed research environments including those of space labs and stations.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
The entities of matter and energy, and the processes, principles, properties, and relationships describing their nature and interactions.
In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.
Activities in which participants learn self-defense mainly through the use of hand-to-hand combat. Judo involves throwing an opponent to the ground while karate (which includes kung fu and tae kwon do) involves kicking and punching an opponent.
Computer-assisted study of methods for obtaining useful quantitative solutions to problems that have been expressed mathematically.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Passage of food (sometimes in the form of a test meal) through the gastrointestinal tract as measured in minutes or hours. The rate of passage through the intestine is an indicator of small bowel function.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)

Sex differences in the effects of early neocortical injury on neuronal size distribution of the medial geniculate nucleus in the rat are mediated by perinatal gonadal steroids. (1/11846)

Freezing injury to the cortical plate of rats induces cerebrocortical microgyria and, in males but not females, a shift toward greater numbers of small neurons in the medial geniculate nucleus (MGN). The purpose of the current study was to examine a hormonal basis for this sex difference. Cross-sectional neuronal areas of the MGN were measured in male rats, untreated female rats and female rats treated perinatally with testosterone propionate, all of which had received either neonatal cortical freezing or sham injury. Both male and androgenized female rats with microgyria had significantly smaller MGN neurons when compared to their sham-operated counterparts, whereas untreated females with microgyria did not. These differences were also reflected in MGN neuronal size distribution: both male and androgenized female rats with microgyria had more small and fewer large neurons in their MGN in comparison to shams, while there was no difference in MGN neuronal size distribution between lesioned and sham females. These findings suggest that perinatal gonadal steroids mediate the sex difference in thalamic response to induction of microgyria in the rat cortex.  (+info)

Natural history of dysplasia of the uterine cervix. (2/11846)

BACKGROUND: A historical cohort of Toronto (Ontario, Canada) women whose Pap smear histories were recorded at a major cytopathology laboratory provided the opportunity to study progression and regression of cervical dysplasia in an era (1962-1980) during which cervical squamous lesions were managed conservatively. METHODS: Actuarial and Cox's survival analyses were used to estimate the rates and relative risks of progression and regression of mild (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 [CIN1]) and moderate (CIN2) dysplasias. In addition, more than 17,000 women with a history of Pap smears between 1970 and 1980 inclusive and who were diagnosed as having mild, moderate, or severe dysplasia were linked to the Ontario Cancer Registry for the outcome of any subsequent cervical cancers occurring through 1989. RESULTS: Both mild and moderate dysplasias were more likely to regress than to progress. The risk of progression from mild to severe dysplasia or worse was only 1% per year, but the risk of progression from moderate dysplasia was 16% within 2 years and 25% within 5 years. Most of the excess risk of cervical cancer for severe and moderate dysplasias occurred within 2 years of the initial dysplastic smear. After 2 years, in comparison with mild dysplasia, the relative risks for progression from severe or moderate dysplasia to cervical cancer in situ or worse was 4.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.0-5.7) and 2.5 (95% CI = 2.2-3.0), respectively. CONCLUSION: The risk of progression for moderate dysplasia was intermediate between the risks for mild and severe dysplasia; thus, the moderate category may represent a clinically useful distinction. The majority of untreated mild dysplasias were recorded as regressing to yield a normal smear within 2 years.  (+info)

Low-dose combination therapy as first-line hypertension treatment for blacks and nonblacks. (3/11846)

To assess the efficacy and safety of bisoprolol/6.25-mg hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), amlodipine, and enalapril in black and nonblack patients, data from two comparative studies were pooled and subgroup analyses performed. Both studies had similar designs and included all three active treatments. The second study also included a placebo group. Subjects (n = 541) with a sitting diastolic blood pressure of 95-114 mmHg were titrated to achieve a diastolic blood pressure < or = 90 mmHg. The studies included 114 blacks and 427 nonblacks. Results of an intention-to-treat analysis of mean change from baseline after 12 weeks of treatment showed the following: 1) blood pressure was significantly lowered by all three active drugs compared with baseline or placebo; 2) in blacks, bisoprolol/6.25-mg HCTZ resulted in significantly greater reductions of systolic and diastolic blood pressure than enalapril or placebo, but was not significantly different from amlodipine; 3) in nonblacks, bisoprolol/6.25-mg HCTZ resulted in significantly greater reduction of diastolic blood pressure than amlodipine, enalapril, or placebo. The placebo-corrected change in blood pressure was greater for blacks than whites on the bisoprolol/6.25-mg HCTZ combination, but this was not statistically significant. Bisoprolol/6.25-mg HCTZ controlled diastolic blood pressure to < or = 90 mmHg in significantly more patients than enalapril or placebo in blacks and nonblacks. The difference in control rates was not significant versus amlodipine. The incidence of drug-related adverse events was similar between treatments; however, bisoprolol/6.25-mg HCTZ had a lower discontinuation rate due to lack of blood pressure control or adverse experiences in both blacks and nonblacks.  (+info)

Extent and severity of atherosclerotic involvement of the aortic valve and root in familial hypercholesterolaemia. (4/11846)

OBJECTIVE: To compare the frequency of valvar and supravalvar aortic stenosis in homozygous and heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). DESIGN: Analysis of life time cholesterol exposure and prevalence of aortic atherosclerosis in 84 consecutive cases attending a lipid clinic. SETTING: A tertiary referral centre in London. PATIENTS: Outpatients with FH (six homozygous, 78 heterozygous). INTERVENTIONS: Maintenance of lipid lowering treatment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Calculated cholesterol x years score (CYS) and echocardiographic measurement of aortic root diameter, aortic valve thickness, and transaortic gradient. RESULTS: Four homozygotes with a mean (SD) CYS of 387 (124) mmol/1 x years had severe aortic stenosis (treatment started after seven years of age), whereas the other two had echocardiographic evidence of supravalvar thickening but no aortic valve stenosis (treatment started before three years of age). On multivariate analysis, mean transaortic gradient correlated significantly with CYS (mean = 523 (175) mmol/1 x years) in heterozygotes (p = 0.0001), but only two had severe aortic valve and root involvement. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia, aortic stenosis is common in homozygotes, and aortic root involvement is always present despite the lower CYS than in heterozygotes. It appears to be determined by short term exposure to high cholesterol concentrations in early life. Conversely, aortic root and valve involvement are rare in heterozygotes and occur only with severe, prolonged hypercholesterolaemia, possibly accelerating age related degenerative effects.  (+info)

Amino acid composition of protein termini are biased in different manners. (5/11846)

An exhaustive statistical analysis of the amino acid sequences at the carboxyl (C) and amino (N) termini of proteins and of coding nucleic acid sequences at the 5' side of the stop codons was undertaken. At the N ends, Met and Ala residues are over-represented at the first (+1) position whereas at positions 2 and 5 Thr is preferred. These peculiarities at N-termini are most probably related to the mechanism of initiation of translation (for Met) and to the mechanisms governing the life-span of proteins via regulation of their degradation (for Ala and Thr). We assume that the C-terminal bias facilitates fixation of the C ends on the protein globule by a preference for charged and Cys residues. The terminal biases, a novel feature of protein structure, have to be taken into account when molecular evolution, three-dimensional structure, initiation and termination of translation, protein folding and life-span are concerned. In addition, the bias of protein termini composition is an important feature which should be considered in protein engineering experiments.  (+info)

Prevalence of true vein graft aneurysms: implications for aneurysm pathogenesis. (6/11846)

BACKGROUND: Circumstantial evidence suggests that arterial aneurysms have a different cause than atherosclerosis and may form part of a generalized dilating diathesis. The aim of this study was to compare the rates of spontaneous aneurysm formation in vein grafts performed either for popliteal aneurysms or for occlusive disease. The hypothesis was that if arterial aneurysms form a part of a systemic process, then the rates of vein graft aneurysms should be higher for patients with popliteal aneurysms than for patients with lower limb ischemia caused by atherosclerosis. METHODS: Infrainguinal vein grafting procedures performed from 1990 to 1995 were entered into a prospective audit and graft surveillance program. Aneurysmal change was defined as a focal increase in the graft diameter of 1.5 cm or greater, excluding false aneurysms and dilatations after graft angioplasty. RESULTS: During the study period, 221 grafting procedures were performed in 200 patients with occlusive disease and 24 grafting procedures were performed in 21 patients with popliteal aneurysms. Graft surveillance revealed spontaneous aneurysm formation in 10 of the 24 bypass grafts (42%) for popliteal aneurysms but in only 4 of the 221 grafting procedures (2%) that were performed for chronic lower limb ischemia. CONCLUSION: This study provides further evidence that aneurysmal disease is a systemic process, and this finding has clinical implications for the treatment of popliteal aneurysms.  (+info)

Cryoglobulinaemia and rheumatic manifestations in patients with hepatitis C virus infection. (7/11846)

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association of cryoglobulinaemia and rheumatic manifestations in Korean patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. METHODS: Forty nine Korean patients with HCV infection were recruited. The prevalence, concentration, and type of cryoglobulin (by immunofixation), rheumatoid factor (RF), antinuclear antibody (ANA), and various rheumatological symptoms were investigated and HCV genotype was determined by polymerase chain reaction with genotype specific primer. RESULTS: The prevalence of cryoglobulin was 59% in Korean HCV patients and the concentration of cryoglobulin was 9.8 (7.9) g/l (mean (SD)). The type of cryoglobulinaemia was identified in 23 (80%) of 29 HCV patients with cryoglobulinaemia and they were all type III. There were no differences in age, sex, history of operation and transfusion, proportion of liver cirrhosis between the patients with cryoglobulinaemia and those without cryoglobulinaemia. The frequencies of RF and ANA were 14% and 3.4% respectively in HCV patients with cryoglobulinaemia. There was no difference in HCV genotype between the patients with cryoglobulinaemia and those without cryoglobulinaemia. Clinical features of HCV patients were as follows: arthralgia/arthritis (35%), cutaneous manifestation (37%), Raynaud's phenomenon (8%), paresthesia (44%), dry eyes (22%), dry mouth (10%), oral ulcer (33%), and abdominal pain (14%). However, these rheumatological symptoms did not differ between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Although the rheumatological symptoms were not different between HCV patients with and without cryoglobulinaemia, HCV patients showed various rheumatological manifestations. These result suggests that HCV infection could be included as one of the causes in patients with unexplained rheumatological symptoms.  (+info)

Fetal tachycardias: management and outcome of 127 consecutive cases. (8/11846)

OBJECTIVE: To review the management and outcome of fetal tachycardia, and to determine the problems encountered with various treatment protocols. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. SUBJECTS: 127 consecutive fetuses with a tachycardia presenting between 1980 and 1996 to a single tertiary centre for fetal cardiology. The median gestational age at presentation was 32 weeks (range 18 to 42). RESULTS: 105 fetuses had a supraventricular tachycardia and 22 had atrial flutter. Overall, 52 fetuses were hydropic and 75 non-hydropic. Prenatal control of the tachycardia was achieved in 83% of treated non-hydropic fetuses compared with 66% of the treated hydropic fetuses. Digoxin monotherapy converted most (62%) of the treated non-hydropic fetuses, and 96% survived through the neonatal period. First line drug treatment for hydropic fetuses was more diverse, including digoxin (n = 5), digoxin plus verapamil (n = 14), and flecainide (n = 27). The response rates to these drugs were 20%, 57%, and 59%, respectively, confirming that digoxin monotherapy is a poor choice for the hydropic fetus. Response to flecainide was faster than to the other drugs. Direct fetal treatment was used in four fetuses, of whom two survived. Overall, 73% (n = 38) of the hydropic fetuses survived. Postnatally, 4% of the non-hydropic group had ECG evidence of pre-excitation, compared with 16% of the hydropic group; 57% of non-hydropic fetuses were treated with long term anti-arrhythmics compared with 79% of hydropic fetuses. CONCLUSIONS: Non-hydropic fetuses with tachycardias have a very good prognosis with transplacental treatment. Most arrhythmias associated with fetal hydrops can be controlled with transplacental treatment, but the mortality in this group is 27%. At present, there is no ideal treatment protocol for these fetuses and a large prospective multicentre trial is required to optimise treatment of both hydropic and non-hydropic fetuses.  (+info)

Symptoms of CHI can include hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), seizures, poor feeding, and rapid breathing. If left untreated, the condition can lead to serious health problems, such as developmental delays, intellectual disability, and an increased risk of stroke or heart disease.

Treatment for CHI typically involves a combination of dietary changes, medications, and surgery. The goal of treatment is to manage hypoglycemia and prevent long-term complications. In some cases, a pancreatectomy (removal of the pancreas) may be necessary.

Early detection and intervention are critical for managing CHI and preventing long-term complications. Newborn screening for CHI is becoming increasingly common, allowing for earlier diagnosis and treatment. With appropriate management, many individuals with CHI can lead normal, healthy lives.

Explanation: Genetic predisposition to disease is influenced by multiple factors, including the presence of inherited genetic mutations or variations, environmental factors, and lifestyle choices. The likelihood of developing a particular disease can be increased by inherited genetic mutations that affect the functioning of specific genes or biological pathways. For example, inherited mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes increase the risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer.

The expression of genetic predisposition to disease can vary widely, and not all individuals with a genetic predisposition will develop the disease. Additionally, many factors can influence the likelihood of developing a particular disease, such as environmental exposures, lifestyle choices, and other health conditions.

Inheritance patterns: Genetic predisposition to disease can be inherited in an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or multifactorial pattern, depending on the specific disease and the genetic mutations involved. Autosomal dominant inheritance means that a single copy of the mutated gene is enough to cause the disease, while autosomal recessive inheritance requires two copies of the mutated gene. Multifactorial inheritance involves multiple genes and environmental factors contributing to the development of the disease.

Examples of diseases with a known genetic predisposition:

1. Huntington's disease: An autosomal dominant disorder caused by an expansion of a CAG repeat in the Huntingtin gene, leading to progressive neurodegeneration and cognitive decline.
2. Cystic fibrosis: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the CFTR gene, leading to respiratory and digestive problems.
3. BRCA1/2-related breast and ovarian cancer: An inherited increased risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer due to mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes.
4. Sickle cell anemia: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by a point mutation in the HBB gene, leading to defective hemoglobin production and red blood cell sickling.
5. Type 1 diabetes: An autoimmune disease caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, including multiple genes in the HLA complex.

Understanding the genetic basis of disease can help with early detection, prevention, and treatment. For example, genetic testing can identify individuals who are at risk for certain diseases, allowing for earlier intervention and preventive measures. Additionally, understanding the genetic basis of a disease can inform the development of targeted therapies and personalized medicine."

There are several different types of weight gain, including:

1. Clinical obesity: This is defined as a BMI of 30 or higher, and is typically associated with a range of serious health problems, such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and certain types of cancer.
2. Central obesity: This refers to excess fat around the waistline, which can increase the risk of health problems such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes.
3. Muscle gain: This occurs when an individual gains weight due to an increase in muscle mass, rather than fat. This type of weight gain is generally considered healthy and can improve overall fitness and athletic performance.
4. Fat gain: This occurs when an individual gains weight due to an increase in body fat, rather than muscle or bone density. Fat gain can increase the risk of health problems such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes.

Weight gain can be measured using a variety of methods, including:

1. Body mass index (BMI): This is a widely used measure of weight gain that compares an individual's weight to their height. A BMI of 18.5-24.9 is considered normal, while a BMI of 25-29.9 is considered overweight, and a BMI of 30 or higher is considered obese.
2. Waist circumference: This measures the distance around an individual's waistline and can be used to assess central obesity.
3. Skinfold measurements: These involve measuring the thickness of fat at specific points on the body, such as the abdomen or thighs.
4. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a non-invasive test that uses X-rays to measure bone density and body composition.
5. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive test that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage and other physiological parameters.

Causes of weight gain:

1. Poor diet: Consuming high amounts of processed foods, sugar, and saturated fats can lead to weight gain.
2. Lack of physical activity: Engaging in regular exercise can help burn calories and maintain a healthy weight.
3. Genetics: An individual's genetic makeup can affect their metabolism and body composition, making them more prone to weight gain.
4. Hormonal imbalances: Imbalances in hormones such as insulin, thyroid, and cortisol can contribute to weight gain.
5. Medications: Certain medications, such as steroids and antidepressants, can cause weight gain as a side effect.
6. Sleep deprivation: Lack of sleep can disrupt hormones that regulate appetite and metabolism, leading to weight gain.
7. Stress: Chronic stress can lead to emotional eating and weight gain.
8. Age: Metabolism slows down with age, making it more difficult to maintain a healthy weight.
9. Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions such as hypothyroidism, Cushing's syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) can also contribute to weight gain.

Treatment options for obesity:

1. Lifestyle modifications: A combination of diet, exercise, and stress management techniques can help individuals achieve and maintain a healthy weight.
2. Medications: Prescription medications such as orlistat, phentermine-topiramate, and liraglutide can aid in weight loss.
3. Bariatric surgery: Surgical procedures such as gastric bypass surgery and sleeve gastrectomy can be effective for severe obesity.
4. Behavioral therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and other forms of counseling can help individuals develop healthy eating habits and improve their physical activity levels.
5. Meal replacement plans: Meal replacement plans such as Medifast can provide individuals with a structured diet that is high in protein, fiber, and vitamins, and low in calories and sugar.
6. Weight loss supplements: Supplements such as green tea extract, garcinia cambogia, and forskolin can help boost weight loss efforts.
7. Portion control: Using smaller plates and measuring cups can help individuals regulate their portion sizes and maintain a healthy weight.
8. Mindful eating: Paying attention to hunger and fullness cues, eating slowly, and savoring food can help individuals develop healthy eating habits.
9. Physical activity: Engaging in regular physical activity such as walking, running, swimming, or cycling can help individuals burn calories and maintain a healthy weight.

It's important to note that there is no one-size-fits-all approach to treating obesity, and the most effective treatment plan will depend on the individual's specific needs and circumstances. Consulting with a healthcare professional such as a registered dietitian or a physician can help individuals develop a personalized treatment plan that is safe and effective.

Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.

There are several ways to measure body weight, including:

1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.

It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.

Examples of closed head injuries include:

* Concussions
* Contusions
* Cerebral edema (swelling of the brain)
* Brain hemorrhages (bleeding in the brain)

Closed head injuries can be caused by a variety of mechanisms, such as falls, motor vehicle accidents, sports injuries, and assaults.

Symptoms of closed head injuries may include:

* Headache
* Dizziness or loss of balance
* Confusion or disorientation
* Memory loss or difficulty concentrating
* Sleep disturbances
* Mood changes, such as irritability or depression
* Vision problems, such as blurred vision or sensitivity to light

Closed head injuries can be difficult to diagnose, as there may be no visible signs of injury. However, a healthcare provider may use imaging tests such as CT scans or MRI to look for evidence of damage to the brain. Treatment for closed head injuries typically involves rest, medication, and rehabilitation to help the patient recover from any cognitive, emotional, or physical symptoms. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to relieve pressure on the brain or repair damaged blood vessels.

The test works by shining a light into the eye and measuring the way the light is distorted as it passes through the cornea. This distortion is caused by the curvature of the cornea and by any imperfections or abnormalities in its surface. The resulting distortion is called a "wavefront aberration."

The CWA test produces a map of the wavefront aberrations in the eye, which can be used to identify specific conditions and to determine the appropriate treatment. The test is painless and takes only a few minutes to perform.

CWA is commonly used to diagnose and monitor a range of eye conditions, including:

1. Astigmatism: This is a condition in which the cornea is irregularly shaped, causing blurred vision at all distances.
2. Nearsightedness (myopia): This is a condition in which close objects are seen clearly, but distant objects appear blurry.
3. Farsightedness (hyperopia): This is a condition in which distant objects are seen clearly, but close objects appear blurry.
4. Keratoconus: This is a progressive thinning of the cornea that can cause distorted vision and increase the risk of complications such as corneal scarring or blindness.
5. Other conditions such as presbyopia (age-related loss of near vision), amblyopia (lazy eye), and ocular injuries.

Overall, CWA is a valuable diagnostic tool for assessing the quality of the cornea and for diagnosing and monitoring a range of eye conditions. It can help eye care professionals to identify the underlying causes of vision problems and to develop effective treatment plans to improve vision and prevent complications.

There are several different types of obesity, including:

1. Central obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the waistline, which can increase the risk of health problems such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
2. Peripheral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat in the hips, thighs, and arms.
3. Visceral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the internal organs in the abdominal cavity.
4. Mixed obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by both central and peripheral obesity.

Obesity can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lack of physical activity, poor diet, sleep deprivation, and certain medications. Treatment for obesity typically involves a combination of lifestyle changes, such as increased physical activity and a healthy diet, and in some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to achieve weight loss.

Preventing obesity is important for overall health and well-being, and can be achieved through a variety of strategies, including:

1. Eating a healthy, balanced diet that is low in added sugars, saturated fats, and refined carbohydrates.
2. Engaging in regular physical activity, such as walking, jogging, or swimming.
3. Getting enough sleep each night.
4. Managing stress levels through relaxation techniques, such as meditation or deep breathing.
5. Avoiding excessive alcohol consumption and quitting smoking.
6. Monitoring weight and body mass index (BMI) on a regular basis to identify any changes or potential health risks.
7. Seeking professional help from a healthcare provider or registered dietitian for personalized guidance on weight management and healthy lifestyle choices.

There are different types of Breast Neoplasms such as:

1. Fibroadenomas: These are benign tumors that are made up of glandular and fibrous tissues. They are usually small and round, with a smooth surface, and can be moved easily under the skin.

2. Cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can develop in both breast tissue and milk ducts. They are usually benign and can disappear on their own or be drained surgically.

3. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): This is a precancerous condition where abnormal cells grow inside the milk ducts. If left untreated, it can progress to invasive breast cancer.

4. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): This is the most common type of breast cancer and starts in the milk ducts but grows out of them and invades surrounding tissue.

5. Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): It originates in the milk-producing glands (lobules) and grows out of them, invading nearby tissue.

Breast Neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as a lump or thickening in the breast or underarm area, skin changes like redness or dimpling, change in size or shape of one or both breasts, discharge from the nipple, and changes in the texture or color of the skin.

Treatment options for Breast Neoplasms may include surgery such as lumpectomy, mastectomy, or breast-conserving surgery, radiation therapy which uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells, chemotherapy using drugs to kill cancer cells, targeted therapy which uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack cancer cells while minimizing harm to normal cells, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, and clinical trials.

It is important to note that not all Breast Neoplasms are cancerous; some are benign (non-cancerous) tumors that do not spread or grow.

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

In this article, we will explore the definition and impact of chronic diseases, as well as strategies for managing and living with them. We will also discuss the importance of early detection and prevention, as well as the role of healthcare providers in addressing the needs of individuals with chronic diseases.

What is a Chronic Disease?

A chronic disease is a condition that lasts for an extended period of time, often affecting daily life and activities. Unlike acute diseases, which have a specific beginning and end, chronic diseases are long-term and persistent. Examples of chronic diseases include:

1. Diabetes
2. Heart disease
3. Arthritis
4. Asthma
5. Cancer
6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
7. Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
8. Hypertension
9. Osteoporosis
10. Stroke

Impact of Chronic Diseases

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the WHO. In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

Chronic diseases can also have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, limiting their ability to participate in activities they enjoy and affecting their relationships with family and friends. Moreover, the financial burden of chronic diseases can lead to poverty and reduce economic productivity, thus having a broader societal impact.

Addressing Chronic Diseases

Given the significant burden of chronic diseases, it is essential that we address them effectively. This requires a multi-faceted approach that includes:

1. Lifestyle modifications: Encouraging healthy behaviors such as regular physical activity, a balanced diet, and smoking cessation can help prevent and manage chronic diseases.
2. Early detection and diagnosis: Identifying risk factors and detecting diseases early can help prevent or delay their progression.
3. Medication management: Effective medication management is crucial for controlling symptoms and slowing disease progression.
4. Multi-disciplinary care: Collaboration between healthcare providers, patients, and families is essential for managing chronic diseases.
5. Health promotion and disease prevention: Educating individuals about the risks of chronic diseases and promoting healthy behaviors can help prevent their onset.
6. Addressing social determinants of health: Social determinants such as poverty, education, and employment can have a significant impact on health outcomes. Addressing these factors is essential for reducing health disparities and improving overall health.
7. Investing in healthcare infrastructure: Investing in healthcare infrastructure, technology, and research is necessary to improve disease detection, diagnosis, and treatment.
8. Encouraging policy change: Policy changes can help create supportive environments for healthy behaviors and reduce the burden of chronic diseases.
9. Increasing public awareness: Raising public awareness about the risks and consequences of chronic diseases can help individuals make informed decisions about their health.
10. Providing support for caregivers: Chronic diseases can have a significant impact on family members and caregivers, so providing them with support is essential for improving overall health outcomes.


Chronic diseases are a major public health burden that affect millions of people worldwide. Addressing these diseases requires a multi-faceted approach that includes lifestyle changes, addressing social determinants of health, investing in healthcare infrastructure, encouraging policy change, increasing public awareness, and providing support for caregivers. By taking a comprehensive approach to chronic disease prevention and management, we can improve the health and well-being of individuals and communities worldwide.

Myopia occurs when the eyeball is too long or the cornea is too steep, causing light to focus in front of the retina instead of directly on it. Hyperopia is the opposite, where the eyeball is too short or the cornea is too flat, causing light to focus behind the retina. Astigmatism is caused by an irregularly shaped cornea, which causes light to focus at multiple points instead of one. Presbyopia is a loss of near vision that occurs as people age, making it harder to see close objects clearly.

In addition to these common refractive errors, there are other, less common conditions that can affect the eyes and cause blurred vision, such as amblyopia (lazy eye), strabismus (crossed eyes), and retinal detachment. These conditions can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, injury, or disease.

Refractive errors can have a significant impact on daily life, affecting everything from work and school performance to social interactions and overall quality of life. Fortunately, with the help of corrective lenses or surgery, many people are able to achieve clear vision and lead fulfilling lives.

Disease progression can be classified into several types based on the pattern of worsening:

1. Chronic progressive disease: In this type, the disease worsens steadily over time, with a gradual increase in symptoms and decline in function. Examples include rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and Parkinson's disease.
2. Acute progressive disease: This type of disease worsens rapidly over a short period, often followed by periods of stability. Examples include sepsis, acute myocardial infarction (heart attack), and stroke.
3. Cyclical disease: In this type, the disease follows a cycle of worsening and improvement, with periodic exacerbations and remissions. Examples include multiple sclerosis, lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Recurrent disease: This type is characterized by episodes of worsening followed by periods of recovery. Examples include migraine headaches, asthma, and appendicitis.
5. Catastrophic disease: In this type, the disease progresses rapidly and unpredictably, with a poor prognosis. Examples include cancer, AIDS, and organ failure.

Disease progression can be influenced by various factors, including:

1. Genetics: Some diseases are inherited and may have a predetermined course of progression.
2. Lifestyle: Factors such as smoking, lack of exercise, and poor diet can contribute to disease progression.
3. Environmental factors: Exposure to toxins, allergens, and other environmental stressors can influence disease progression.
4. Medical treatment: The effectiveness of medical treatment can impact disease progression, either by slowing or halting the disease process or by causing unintended side effects.
5. Co-morbidities: The presence of multiple diseases or conditions can interact and affect each other's progression.

Understanding the type and factors influencing disease progression is essential for developing effective treatment plans and improving patient outcomes.

1. A false or misleading sensory experience, such as seeing a shape or color that is not actually present.
2. A delusion or mistaken belief that is not based on reality or evidence.
3. A symptom that is perceived by the patient but cannot be detected by medical examination or testing.
4. A feeling of being drugged, dizzy, or disoriented, often accompanied by hallucinations or altered perceptions.
5. A temporary and harmless condition caused by a sudden change in bodily functions or sensations, such as a hot flash or a wave of dizziness.
6. A false or mistaken belief about one's own health or medical condition, often resulting from misinterpretation of symptoms or self-diagnosis.
7. A psychological phenomenon in which the patient experiences a feeling of being in a different body or experiencing a different reality, such as feeling like one is in a dream or a parallel universe.
8. A neurological condition characterized by disturbances in sensory perception, such as seeing things that are not there ( hallucinations) or perceiving sensations that are not real.
9. A type of hysteria or conversion disorder in which the patient experiences physical symptoms without any underlying medical cause, such as numbness or paralysis of a limb.
10. A condition in which the patient has a false belief that they have a serious medical condition, often accompanied by excessive anxiety or fear.


Illusions can be a significant challenge in medicine, as they can lead to misdiagnosis, mismanagement of symptoms, and unnecessary treatment. Here are some examples of how illusions can manifest in medical settings:

1. Visual illusions: A patient may see something that is not actually there, such as a shadow or a shape, which can be misinterpreted as a sign of a serious medical condition.
2. Auditory illusions: A patient may hear sounds or noises that are not real, such as ringing in the ears (tinnitus) or hearing voices.
3. Tactile illusions: A patient may feel sensations on their skin that are not real, such as itching or crawling sensations.
4. Olfactory illusions: A patient may smell something that is not there, such as a strange odor or a familiar scent that is not actually present.
5. Gustatory illusions: A patient may taste something that is not there, such as a metallic or bitter taste.
6. Proprioceptive illusions: A patient may feel sensations of movement or position changes that are not real, such as feeling like they are spinning or floating.
7. Interoceptive illusions: A patient may experience sensations in their body that are not real, such as feeling like their heart is racing or their breathing is shallow.
8. Cognitive illusions: A patient may have false beliefs about their medical condition or treatment, such as believing they have a serious disease when they do not.


Illusions are the result of complex interactions between the brain and the sensory systems. Here are some key factors that contribute to the experience of illusions:

1. Brain processing: The brain processes sensory information and uses past experiences and expectations to interpret what is being perceived. This can lead to misinterpretation and the experience of illusions.
2. Sensory integration: The brain integrates information from multiple senses, such as vision, hearing, and touch, to create a unified perception of reality. Imbalances in sensory integration can contribute to the experience of illusions.
3. Attention: The brain's attention system plays a critical role in determining what is perceived and how it is interpreted. Attention can be directed towards certain stimuli or away from others, leading to the experience of illusions.
4. Memory: Past experiences and memories can influence the interpretation of current sensory information, leading to the experience of illusions.
5. Emotion: Emotional states can also affect the interpretation of sensory information, leading to the experience of illusions. For example, a person in a state of fear may interpret ambiguous sensory information as threatening.


Treatment for illusions depends on the underlying cause and can vary from case to case. Some possible treatment options include:

1. Sensory therapy: Sensory therapy, such as vision or hearing therapy, may be used to improve sensory processing and reduce the experience of illusions.
2. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT): CBT can help individuals identify and change negative thought patterns and behaviors that contribute to the experience of illusions.
3. Mindfulness training: Mindfulness training can help individuals develop greater awareness of their sensory experiences and reduce the influence of illusions.
4. Medication: In some cases, medication may be prescribed to treat underlying conditions that are contributing to the experience of illusions, such as anxiety or depression.
5. Environmental modifications: Environmental modifications, such as changing the lighting or reducing noise levels, may be made to reduce the stimulus intensity and improve perception.


Illusions are a common experience that can have a significant impact on our daily lives. Understanding the causes of illusions and seeking appropriate treatment can help individuals manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life. By working with a healthcare professional, individuals can develop a personalized treatment plan that addresses their specific needs and helps them overcome the challenges of illusions.

Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.

Types of Neoplasms

There are many different types of neoplasms, including:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms

The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms

The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Unusual lumps or swelling
2. Pain
3. Fatigue
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

Prevention of Neoplasms

While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.

It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.

Neurasthenia was first described by American neurologist George Miller Beard in 1869, and was thought to be a distinct clinical entity caused by overstimulation of the nervous system, particularly by urban life and the stresses of modern civilization. The condition was said to affect primarily middle-class Americans who were experiencing rapid social and economic change.

However, the concept of neurasthenia has largely fallen out of favor in modern medicine, as it was found to be too vague and not well-defined. Many of the symptoms that were attributed to neurasthenia are now recognized as being part of a wider range of conditions, such as depression, anxiety disorders, and chronic fatigue syndrome.

In modern times, the term "neurasthenia" is rarely used in medical diagnosis, and is more commonly seen in historical or literary contexts. The condition was often associated with the "American nervousness" of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and was thought to be a product of the stresses of modern life and the rapid changes brought about by industrialization and urbanization.

Overall, while neurasthenia was a popular diagnosis in its time, it is no longer used in modern medical practice due to its lack of clarity and specificity. However, many of the symptoms that were attributed to neurasthenia continue to be recognized as legitimate medical conditions, and are treated with a range of therapeutic approaches.

Recurrence can also refer to the re-emergence of symptoms in a previously treated condition, such as a chronic pain condition that returns after a period of remission.

In medical research, recurrence is often studied to understand the underlying causes of disease progression and to develop new treatments and interventions to prevent or delay its return.

Examples of acute diseases include:

1. Common cold and flu
2. Pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Appendicitis and other abdominal emergencies
4. Heart attacks and strokes
5. Asthma attacks and allergic reactions
6. Skin infections and cellulitis
7. Urinary tract infections
8. Sinusitis and meningitis
9. Gastroenteritis and food poisoning
10. Sprains, strains, and fractures.

Acute diseases can be treated effectively with antibiotics, medications, or other therapies. However, if left untreated, they can lead to chronic conditions or complications that may require long-term care. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

There are several types of stomach neoplasms, including:

1. Adenocarcinoma: This is the most common type of stomach cancer, accounting for approximately 90% of all cases. It begins in the glandular cells that line the stomach and can spread to other parts of the body.
2. Squamous cell carcinoma: This type of cancer begins in the squamous cells that cover the outer layer of the stomach. It is less common than adenocarcinoma but more likely to be found in the upper part of the stomach.
3. Gastric mixed adenocarcinomasquamous cell carcinoma: This type of cancer is a combination of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.
4. Lymphoma: This is a cancer of the immune system that can occur in the stomach. It is less common than other types of stomach cancer but can be more aggressive.
5. Carcinomas of the stomach: These are malignant tumors that arise from the epithelial cells lining the stomach. They can be subdivided into adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and others.
6. Gastric brunner's gland adenoma: This is a rare type of benign tumor that arises from the Brunner's glands in the stomach.
7. Gastric polyps: These are growths that occur on the lining of the stomach and can be either benign or malignant.

The symptoms of stomach neoplasms vary depending on the location, size, and type of tumor. Common symptoms include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and difficulty swallowing. Diagnosis is usually made through a combination of endoscopy, imaging studies (such as CT or PET scans), and biopsy. Treatment depends on the type and stage of the tumor and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these. The prognosis for stomach neoplasms varies depending on the type and stage of the tumor, but early detection and treatment can improve outcomes.

Pseudophakia is considered a rare condition, as most cataract surgeries involve removal of the entire natural lens. However, there are certain situations where leaving behind some residual lens material can be beneficial, such as in cases where the patient has severe astigmatism or presbyopia (age-related loss of near vision).

The presence of pseudophakia can affect the visual outcome and refractive status of the eye, and may require additional surgical intervention to optimize visual acuity. It is important for ophthalmologists to be aware of this condition and consider it when evaluating patients with cataracts or other eye conditions.

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection is a condition in which the body is infected with HIV, a type of retrovirus that attacks the body's immune system. HIV infection can lead to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), a condition in which the immune system is severely damaged and the body is unable to fight off infections and diseases.

There are several ways that HIV can be transmitted, including:

1. Sexual contact with an infected person
2. Sharing of needles or other drug paraphernalia with an infected person
3. Mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Blood transfusions ( although this is rare in developed countries due to screening processes)
5. Organ transplantation (again, rare)

The symptoms of HIV infection can be mild at first and may not appear until several years after infection. These symptoms can include:

1. Fever
2. Fatigue
3. Swollen glands in the neck, armpits, and groin
4. Rash
5. Muscle aches and joint pain
6. Night sweats
7. Diarrhea
8. Weight loss

If left untreated, HIV infection can progress to AIDS, which is a life-threatening condition that can cause a wide range of symptoms, including:

1. Opportunistic infections (such as pneumocystis pneumonia)
2. Cancer (such as Kaposi's sarcoma)
3. Wasting syndrome
4. Neurological problems (such as dementia and seizures)

HIV infection is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests and physical examination. Treatment typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART), which is a combination of medications that work together to suppress the virus and slow the progression of the disease.

Prevention methods for HIV infection include:

1. Safe sex practices, such as using condoms and dental dams
2. Avoiding sharing needles or other drug-injecting equipment
3. Avoiding mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which is a short-term treatment that can prevent infection after potential exposure to the virus
5. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which is a daily medication that can prevent infection in people who are at high risk of being exposed to the virus.

It's important to note that HIV infection is manageable with proper treatment and care, and that people living with HIV can lead long and healthy lives. However, it's important to be aware of the risks and take steps to prevent transmission.

1. Infection: Bacterial or viral infections can develop after surgery, potentially leading to sepsis or organ failure.
2. Adhesions: Scar tissue can form during the healing process, which can cause bowel obstruction, chronic pain, or other complications.
3. Wound complications: Incisional hernias, wound dehiscence (separation of the wound edges), and wound infections can occur.
4. Respiratory problems: Pneumonia, respiratory failure, and atelectasis (collapsed lung) can develop after surgery, particularly in older adults or those with pre-existing respiratory conditions.
5. Cardiovascular complications: Myocardial infarction (heart attack), cardiac arrhythmias, and cardiac failure can occur after surgery, especially in high-risk patients.
6. Renal (kidney) problems: Acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease can develop postoperatively, particularly in patients with pre-existing renal impairment.
7. Neurological complications: Stroke, seizures, and neuropraxia (nerve damage) can occur after surgery, especially in patients with pre-existing neurological conditions.
8. Pulmonary embolism: Blood clots can form in the legs or lungs after surgery, potentially causing pulmonary embolism.
9. Anesthesia-related complications: Respiratory and cardiac complications can occur during anesthesia, including respiratory and cardiac arrest.
10. delayed healing: Wound healing may be delayed or impaired after surgery, particularly in patients with pre-existing medical conditions.

It is important for patients to be aware of these potential complications and to discuss any concerns with their surgeon and healthcare team before undergoing surgery.

There are two types of hypertension:

1. Primary Hypertension: This type of hypertension has no identifiable cause and is also known as essential hypertension. It accounts for about 90% of all cases of hypertension.
2. Secondary Hypertension: This type of hypertension is caused by an underlying medical condition or medication. It accounts for about 10% of all cases of hypertension.

Some common causes of secondary hypertension include:

* Kidney disease
* Adrenal gland disorders
* Hormonal imbalances
* Certain medications
* Sleep apnea
* Cocaine use

There are also several risk factors for hypertension, including:

* Age (the risk increases with age)
* Family history of hypertension
* Obesity
* Lack of exercise
* High sodium intake
* Low potassium intake
* Stress

Hypertension is often asymptomatic, and it can cause damage to the blood vessels and organs over time. Some potential complications of hypertension include:

* Heart disease (e.g., heart attacks, heart failure)
* Stroke
* Kidney disease (e.g., chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease)
* Vision loss (e.g., retinopathy)
* Peripheral artery disease

Hypertension is typically diagnosed through blood pressure readings taken over a period of time. Treatment for hypertension may include lifestyle changes (e.g., diet, exercise, stress management), medications, or a combination of both. The goal of treatment is to reduce the risk of complications and improve quality of life.

Type 2 diabetes can be managed through a combination of diet, exercise, and medication. In some cases, lifestyle changes may be enough to control blood sugar levels, while in other cases, medication or insulin therapy may be necessary. Regular monitoring of blood sugar levels and follow-up with a healthcare provider are important for managing the condition and preventing complications.

Common symptoms of type 2 diabetes include:

* Increased thirst and urination
* Fatigue
* Blurred vision
* Cuts or bruises that are slow to heal
* Tingling or numbness in the hands and feet
* Recurring skin, gum, or bladder infections

If left untreated, type 2 diabetes can lead to a range of complications, including:

* Heart disease and stroke
* Kidney damage and failure
* Nerve damage and pain
* Eye damage and blindness
* Foot damage and amputation

The exact cause of type 2 diabetes is not known, but it is believed to be linked to a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors, such as:

* Obesity and excess body weight
* Lack of physical activity
* Poor diet and nutrition
* Age and family history
* Certain ethnicities (e.g., African American, Hispanic/Latino, Native American)
* History of gestational diabetes or delivering a baby over 9 lbs.

There is no cure for type 2 diabetes, but it can be managed and controlled through a combination of lifestyle changes and medication. With proper treatment and self-care, people with type 2 diabetes can lead long, healthy lives.

Adenocarcinoma is a term used to describe a variety of different types of cancer that arise in glandular tissue, including:

1. Colorectal adenocarcinoma (cancer of the colon or rectum)
2. Breast adenocarcinoma (cancer of the breast)
3. Prostate adenocarcinoma (cancer of the prostate gland)
4. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (cancer of the pancreas)
5. Lung adenocarcinoma (cancer of the lung)
6. Thyroid adenocarcinoma (cancer of the thyroid gland)
7. Skin adenocarcinoma (cancer of the skin)

The symptoms of adenocarcinoma depend on the location of the cancer and can include:

1. Blood in the stool or urine
2. Abdominal pain or discomfort
3. Changes in bowel habits
4. Unusual vaginal bleeding (in the case of endometrial adenocarcinoma)
5. A lump or thickening in the breast or elsewhere
6. Weight loss
7. Fatigue
8. Coughing up blood (in the case of lung adenocarcinoma)

The diagnosis of adenocarcinoma is typically made through a combination of imaging tests, such as CT scans, MRI scans, and PET scans, and a biopsy, which involves removing a sample of tissue from the affected area and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

Treatment options for adenocarcinoma depend on the location of the cancer and can include:

1. Surgery to remove the tumor
2. Chemotherapy, which involves using drugs to kill cancer cells
3. Radiation therapy, which involves using high-energy X-rays or other particles to kill cancer cells
4. Targeted therapy, which involves using drugs that target specific molecules on cancer cells to kill them
5. Immunotherapy, which involves using drugs that stimulate the immune system to fight cancer cells.

The prognosis for adenocarcinoma is generally good if the cancer is detected and treated early, but it can be more challenging to treat if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

In medicine, thinness is sometimes used as a diagnostic criterion for certain conditions, such as anorexia nervosa or cancer cachexia. In these cases, thinness can be a sign of a serious underlying condition that requires medical attention.

However, it's important to note that thinness alone is not enough to diagnose any medical condition. Other factors, such as a person's overall health, medical history, and physical examination findings, must also be taken into account when making a diagnosis. Additionally, it's important to recognize that being underweight or having a low BMI does not necessarily mean that someone is unhealthy or has a medical condition. Many people with a healthy weight and body composition can still experience negative health effects from societal pressure to be thin.

Overall, the concept of thinness in medicine is complex and multifaceted, and it's important for healthcare providers to consider all relevant factors when evaluating a patient's weight and overall health.

There are several different types of pain, including:

1. Acute pain: This type of pain is sudden and severe, and it usually lasts for a short period of time. It can be caused by injuries, surgery, or other forms of tissue damage.
2. Chronic pain: This type of pain persists over a long period of time, often lasting more than 3 months. It can be caused by conditions such as arthritis, fibromyalgia, or nerve damage.
3. Neuropathic pain: This type of pain results from damage to the nervous system, and it can be characterized by burning, shooting, or stabbing sensations.
4. Visceral pain: This type of pain originates in the internal organs, and it can be difficult to localize.
5. Psychogenic pain: This type of pain is caused by psychological factors such as stress, anxiety, or depression.

The medical field uses a range of methods to assess and manage pain, including:

1. Pain rating scales: These are numerical scales that patients use to rate the intensity of their pain.
2. Pain diaries: These are records that patients keep to track their pain over time.
3. Clinical interviews: Healthcare providers use these to gather information about the patient's pain experience and other relevant symptoms.
4. Physical examination: This can help healthcare providers identify any underlying causes of pain, such as injuries or inflammation.
5. Imaging studies: These can be used to visualize the body and identify any structural abnormalities that may be contributing to the patient's pain.
6. Medications: There are a wide range of medications available to treat pain, including analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and muscle relaxants.
7. Alternative therapies: These can include acupuncture, massage, and physical therapy.
8. Interventional procedures: These are minimally invasive procedures that can be used to treat pain, such as nerve blocks and spinal cord stimulation.

It is important for healthcare providers to approach pain management with a multi-modal approach, using a combination of these methods to address the physical, emotional, and social aspects of pain. By doing so, they can help improve the patient's quality of life and reduce their suffering.

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"On limiting distribution laws of statistics analogous to Pearson's chi-square". Statistics: A Journal of Theoretical and ... Z. W. Birnbaum; I. Vincze (1973). "Limiting Distributions of Statistics Similar to Student's". Annals of Statistics. 1 (1973): ... Vincze, István (1996). "Cramér-Rao type inequality and a problem of mixture of distributions". Mathematical Institute, Slovak ... empirical distribution, Cramér-Rao inequality, and information theory. Considered by many, as an expert in theoretical and ...
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Curran, P. J., Bollen, K. A., Paxton, P., Kirby, J., & Chen, F. (2002). The noncentral chi-square distribution in misspecified ...
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The chi square distribution for k degrees of freedom will then be given by: P ( Q ) d Q = ∫ V ∏ i = 1 k ( N ( x i ) d x i ... There are several methods to derive chi-squared distribution with 2 degrees of freedom. Here is one based on the distribution ... The following are proofs of several characteristics related to the chi-squared distribution. Let random variable Y be defined ... And one gets the chi-squared distribution, noting the property of the gamma function: Γ ( 1 / 2 ) = π {\displaystyle \Gamma (1/ ...
Chi-square test, and T-Test. The program was offered in both disk and cassette stand-alone versions, as well as in a compendium ... Calculations performed by the program included mean, variance, standard deviation, Pearson correlation, normal distribution, ...
... chi ^{2}(p=0.001,\;df=1)=10.8\right]} follows the chi-square distribution with d f = 1 {\displaystyle df=1} . In the data of ... chi ^{2}} test calculating χ 2 = ( a d − b c ) 2 N A B C D ( = 336 , for data in Table 3; P < 0.001 ) . {\displaystyle \chi ^{2 ... χ 2 ( p = 0.001 , d f = 1 ) = 10.8 ] {\displaystyle \chi ^{2}=wy^{2}\;\left[=193>\ ... usually expressed as its square, r 2 {\displaystyle r^{2}} r 2 = D 2 p A ( 1 − p A ) p B ( 1 − p B ) . {\displaystyle r^{2}={\ ...
Royen worked mainly on probability distributions, in particular multivariate chi-squares and gamma distributions, to improve ... Royen, T. (2014). "A simple proof of the Gaussian correlation conjecture extended to multivariate gamma distributions". arXiv: ... Royen, Thomas (2 July 2015). "Some probability inequalities for multivariate gamma and normal distributions". arXiv:1507.00528 ... how to use the Laplace transform of the multivariate gamma distribution to achieve a relatively simple proof for the Gaussian ...
... chi-square); William Gosset (1876-1937) (Student's t-distribution); Ronald Fisher (1890-1962) (Analysis of variance); Frank ... "Paterson, Rex (1955). Fertilizer Distribution - Problems of Corrosion Prevention on the Farm. The International Fertilizer ...
The overall model fit, in comparison with other parametric distributions, was performed using the generalized chi-square test ... Using generalized chi-squared, the distribution of oil field quantities was represented by the Hyperbolastic distribution and ... The Hypertabastic cumulative distribution function or simply the hypertabastic distribution function F ( t ) {\displaystyle F(t ... This distribution can be used to analyze time-to-event data in biomedical and public health areas and normally called survival ...
Vassily Voinov, statistician, major developer of extensions of khi-square distributions KIMEP has active partnerships with more ... The 325-square-meter facility includes a basketball court, two fitness rooms and a yoga studio. All the technology is state-of- ...
... the sums-of-squares no longer have scaled chi-squared distributions. Comparison of sum-of-squares with degrees-of-freedom is no ... The residual sum-of-squares ‖ y − H y ‖ 2 {\displaystyle \,y-Hy\,^{2}} has a generalized chi-squared distribution, and the ... the sums of squares have scaled chi-squared distributions, with the corresponding degrees of freedom. The F-test statistic is ... these sums-of-squares no longer have (scaled, non-central) chi-squared distributions, and dimensionally defined degrees-of- ...
The distribution of the chi-square statistics for a given allele that is suspected to be associated with a given trait can then ... using a set of anonymous genetic markers to estimate the effect of population structure on the distribution of the chi-square ... The denominator is derived from the gamma distribution as a robust estimator of λ {\displaystyle \lambda } . Other estimators ... Under the null hypothesis of no population stratification the trend test is asymptotic χ 2 {\displaystyle \chi ^{2}} ...
... a continuous probability distribution chi-square test, name given to some tests using chi-square distribution chi-square target ... The term chi-square, chi-squared, or χ 2 {\displaystyle \chi ^{2}} has various uses in statistics: chi-square distribution, ... a mathematical model used in radar cross-section This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Chi-square. ...
... the square root of the median of a chi-squared distribution with 3 degrees of freedom. (Theory of probability distributions, ... The left panel shows the joint distribution of X 1 {\displaystyle X_{1}} and Y 2 {\displaystyle Y_{2}} ; the distribution has ... The right panel shows the joint distribution of Y 1 {\displaystyle Y_{1}} and Y 2 {\displaystyle Y_{2}} ; the distribution has ... This furnishes two examples of bivariate distributions that are uncorrelated and have normal marginal distributions but are not ...
Chi-squared distribution Bonferroni correction Latent class model Structural equation modeling Market segment Decision tree ... Chi-square automatic interaction detection (CHAID) is a decision tree technique based on adjusted significance testing ( ... 296-302 Luchman, J.N.; CHAID: Stata module to conduct chi-square automated interaction detection, Available for free download, ... Luchman, J.N.; CHAIDFOREST: Stata module to conduct random forest ensemble classification based on chi-square automated ...
This result is used to justify using a normal distribution, or a chi square distribution (depending on how the test statistic ... and then becomes the test statistic for a chi-squared distribution (and uses the same degrees of freedom). Although it is not ... and then becomes the test statistic for a chi-squared distribution with the degrees of freedom equal to the number of ... Homoscedastic distributions are especially useful to derive statistical pattern recognition and machine learning algorithms. ...
A Note on the Authenticity and Ideology of Shih-chi 24, "The Book on Music" Norman Yoffee, George L. Cowgill (1988). pp. 182, ... The Guozijian itself was equipped with a library and printing shop to create model printing blocks for distribution. The ... cultural and mythological features related to the examinations Mandarin square Music Bureau Nine-rank system, a predecessor to ...
Ho Chi Minh is frequently glorified in schools by schoolchildren. Opinions, publications and broadcasts that are critical of Ho ... After the fall of his regime, made visible by the toppling of his statue on Firdous Square in Baghdad on April 9, 2003, all ... Plaster images and portraits of him were prepared for public distribution, similar to those of Kim Il-sung and Mao Zedong; ... Choi, Chi-yuk; Jun, Mai (2017-09-18). "Xi Jinping's political thought will be added to Chinese Communist Party constitution, ...
... and Chis Fitzpatrick and Geoff Valley by 1995. By 1991 the 20-xxx BattleTech line had grown to include eleven box sets, and ... owners of Zocchi Distribution, a hobby shop supplier. FASA gained sole ownership in the spring of 1999, and Ral Partha began to ... and separate square bases. Chris Fitzpatrick designed a line of elves. Bob Olley produced new dwarves, goblins, trolls and ... marketing and distribution. In 2014 the production and productive capacities were reunited under Ral Partha Enterprises, a ...
... a section of the Ho Chi Minh trail. CSLA Iron Curtain was released on June 16, 2021 as the twelfth paid DLC released for Arma 3 ... featuring photorealistic land and water environments that can cover hundreds of square kilometres of ground. Many of the game's ... military tactical shooter video game developed and published by Bohemia Interactive exclusively through the Steam distribution ...
Their towns and cities have square walls, streets are winding and narrow, with shops lined along these roads. Wine is sold in ... King Harsha invited Xuanjang to Kumbh Mela in Prayag where he witnessed king Harsha's generous distribution of gifts to the ... Ta-T'ang Hsi-yü chi), which has become one of the primary sources for the study of medieval Central Asia and India. This book ...
... from solar PV would require about 60 square miles, and from a wind farm about 310 square miles. Not included in this is land ... Fang, Jianchun; Lau, Chi Keung Marco; Lu, Zhou; Wu, Wanshan (1 September 2018). "Estimating Peak uranium production in China - ... The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership was an international effort to create a distribution network in which developing ... The median land area used by US nuclear power stations per 1 GW installed capacity is 1.3 square miles. To generate the same ...
Chi - hyperbolic cosine integral function. Ci - cosine integral function. cis - cos + i sin function. (Also written as expi.) ... Also written as rank.) RMS, rms - root mean square. rng - non-unital ring. rot - rotor of a vector field. (Also written as curl ... cdf - cumulative distribution function. c.f. - cumulative frequency. c.c. - complex conjugate. char - characteristic of a ring ...
"Chi Onwurah , The Guardian". the Guardian. Retrieved 1 September 2022. "Allen Onyema Archives". The Guardian Nigeria News - ... giving the area an estimated average density of 1,500-2,000 persons per square kilometre. Anambra is rich in natural gas, crude ... Canback Global Income Distribution Database)". Canback Dangel. Archived from the original on 16 February 2012. Retrieved 20 ... holds the Nigerian record for the highest selling album Chief Stephen Osita Osadebe P-Square (Peter and Paul Okoye) - identical ...
If the distribution of charge is spherically symmetric, we can suppose that the distribution of x,y,z coordinates are ... is the mean square distance of the electrons perpendicular to the z axis. The magnetic moment is therefore μ = − Z e 2 B 4 m ⟨ ... chi =-\mu _{0}{\frac {e^{2}}{12\pi ^{2}m\hbar }}{\sqrt {2mE_{\rm {F}}}},} where E F {\displaystyle E_{\rm {F}}} is the Fermi ... chi ={\frac {\mu _{0}n\mu }{B}}=-{\frac {\mu _{0}e^{2}Zn}{6m}}\langle r^{2}\rangle .} In atoms, Langevin susceptibility is of ...
A chi-square test is made on the no.-of-throws cell counts. Each 32-bit integer from the test file provides the value for the ... This test uses n = 224 and m = 29, so that the underlying distribution for j is taken to be Poisson with λ = 227 / 226 = 2. A ... The covariance matrices for the runs-up and runs-down are well known, leading to chi-square tests for quadratic forms in the ... Ranks are found for 40000 such random matrices and a chi-square test is performed on counts for ranks 31, 30, 29 and ≤ 28. The ...
Frederick Potts, Group Distribution Director, William Timpson Ltd. Elvira Jean Powell, Personal Secretary to Chief Constable, ... Overseas Award Warrant Officer Class 1 Chi-Leung Pau, Royal Hong Kong Regiment (The Volunteers). Royal Air Force Squadron ... Henry Francis Morin Scott, Commodore, Square Rigger Club, TS Royalist, Sea Cadet Corps. James Scott, Professional and ... Ronald Arthur George Noble, lately Head, Valve Test Laboratory, GEC Transmission and Distribution Projects Ltd. Herbert Harvey ...
The distribution list was considerably bigger than was customary for the US Bulletin distribution. The distribution list: Eight ... As with OKW/Chi cryptanalysts, B-Dienst analysts misunderstood the extent of the size of the Allies' effort to break Enigma M. ... To paraphrase David Kahn The table consisted of a 26x26 square of letter pairs with single letters at the end of each column ... Subsection IIcb: Production and distribution of special keys. Subsection IIcc: Production and distribution of naval keys and ...
Household Income Distribution 2016, p. 5 Yau & Zhou 2017. Household Income Distribution 2016, p. 80 Jiang et al. 2003. "Hong ... Kwong, Chi Man (9 September 2015). "Hong Kong during World War II: A Transnational Battlefield". University of Nottingham. ... With 7.5 million residents of various nationalities in a 1,104-square-kilometre (426 sq mi) territory, Hong Kong is one of the ... Household Income Distribution 2016, p. 1 Household Income Distribution 2016, p. 86 Desjardins 2018. ...
"Sigma Chi back after 5-year disciplinary leave". Baylorlariat.com. March 3, 2015. Archived from the original on April 22, 2016 ... Baylor University has a total undergraduate enrollment of 13,859, with a gender distribution of 42 percent male students and 58 ... The Immortal Ten memorial was officially dedicated during Homecoming on November 2, 2007, in Traditions Square. That Good Ol' ...
They have the channel x → ρ x {\displaystyle x\rightarrow \rho _{x}} and a distribution p X ( x ) {\displaystyle p_{X}\left(x\ ... Due to concavity of the square root, we can bound this expression from above by 2 [ E X n { 1 M ∑ m Tr { ( I − Π ρ X n ( m ) , ... chi ({\mathcal {N}})=\max _{\rho ^{XA}}I(X;B)_{{\mathcal {N}}(\rho )}} where ρ X A {\displaystyle \rho ^{XA}} is a classical- ... is a probability distribution, and each ρ x A {\displaystyle \rho _{x}^{A}} is a density operator that can be input to the ...
... the largest in Fujian province with an area of 78,000 square metres (840,000 square feet). Although it is known as both a Hindu ... Chuan-chou Fu-chi (Ch.10) Year 1512 Skinner, George William; Baker, Hugh D. R. (1977). The City in late imperial China. ... Distribution & Minority in China". topchinatravel.com. Archived from the original on November 3, 2021. Retrieved August 9, 2021 ... Covering an area of six square miles, the island is swathed in luxuriant green foliage. The coastline is indented with over 12 ...
The complex hosted 13,400,000 square feet (1,240,000 m2) of office space, and was so large that it had its own zip code: 10048 ... According to a business writer, it also was the origin of the electronic component distribution business. The idea of ... Alfred Swenson & Pao-Chi Chang (2008). "Building construction: High-rise construction since 1945". Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The memorial features two square reflecting pools in the center marking where the Twin Towers stood. One World Trade Center, ...
... which criminalizes the distribution of obscene articles and the distribution of indecent articles without proper warnings to ... "Judicial Responses to the National Security Law: HKSAR v Lai Chee Ying". 51 HKLJ 1. "HKSAR v Lai Chi Ying [2021] HKCFA 3, §§30- ... of the Goddess of Democracy statue in Times Square in the absence of a license in order to commemorate the Tiananmen Square ... even if there was no record of distribution. This inaccurate statement of the law led to the objection of Leung Kwok-hung, who ...
Oly-ma-kitty-luca-chi-chi-chi) (Ian) Programme 4 I Don't Know Why (I Just Do) (Frank) Long Lonely Year (Swann) (John) Hard to ... A Nightingale Sang in Berkeley Square (Ian Wallace) Programme 7 Did You Ever See A Dream Walking? (Frank Muir) Tell Me Where Is ... when BBC ended US distribution. Series 1 (3 January - 28 March 1967 - 13 episodes) The programmes were broadcast each Tuesday ...
... chi }}}_{j}=\partial /\partial \chi ^{j}} are bosonic and fermionic momenta, and with square brackets denoting bi-graded ... being the normalized distribution of noise configurations, J = Det ⁡ δ ( x ˙ ( τ ) − F ( x ( τ ) ) ) δ x ( τ ′ ) {\displaystyle ... chi }}_{j}{\dot {x}}^{j}} and d ¯ = − i χ ¯ j δ j k ( ∂ k U + Θ i B k ) {\textstyle \textstyle {\bar {d}}=-i{\bar {\chi }}_{j}\ ... chi ^{i}(\tau )\delta /\delta x^{i}(\tau )+B_{i}(\tau )\delta /\delta {\bar {\chi }}_{i}(\tau ))A(\Phi )} . In the BRST ...
The Chi (2018-2021) Twenties (2020-2021) Queen & Slim (2019) Boomerang (2020) Them (2021) 2021's Candyman opened at the top of ... A trailblazer in telling stories that are socially relevant and providing distribution for stories that feature people of color ... Christmas on the Square (2020) Down in the Delta (1998) The Watermelon Women (1996) Black is Blue (2014) Queen Sugar (2019) ... Beck, Bernard (2020-10-01). "Our Kind of Town: The Chi, Lovecraft Country, and Black Lives That Matter on the Home Screen". ...
In the third, fourth, and fifth years, students can elect to live at either school or off-campus, and course distribution is ... The university recognizes thirteen active Greek organizations: six fraternities (Beta Omega Chi, Beta Rho Pi, Delta Tau, Delta ... As commercial corridor frequented by students, Thayer is comparable to Harvard Square or Berkeley's Telegraph Avenue. Wickenden ... The new curriculum eliminated mandatory "general education" distribution requirements, made students "the architects of their ...
Chi-kwan Mark, "To 'educate' Deng Xiaoping in capitalism: Thatcher's visit to China and the future of Hong Kong in 1982." Cold ... A large London demonstration against the poll tax in Trafalgar Square on 31 March 1990 - the day before it was introduced in ... where marginal changes in vote numbers and distribution have disproportionate effects on the number of seats won. Accordingly, ...
In 2021, former host for Headliner Tsang Chi-ho was fired from the RTHK Radio 2 talk show. A few days later, a veteran ... The journal came under pressure to downgrade the importance of a report on the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests and massacre. The ... By law, censorship is usually practised against the distribution of certain materials, particularly child pornography, obscene ... "Hong Kong's RTHK fires popular pro-democracy radio host Tsang Chi-ho". Hong Kong Free Press HKFP. 18 June 2021. Retrieved 29 ...
Moreover, χ λ ( e X ) = ∑ σ ∈ W s i g n ( σ ) e i λ ( σ X ) δ ( e X ) , {\displaystyle \chi _{\lambda }(e^{X})={\sum _{\sigma \ ... The Hilbert space H0 can be identified with L2(K\G/K), the space of K-biinvariant square integrable functions on G. The ... defines a distribution on G/K with support at the origin o. A further estimate for the integral shows that it is in fact given ... chi _{\lambda }(\pi (f))=\int _{G}f(g)\cdot \varphi _{\lambda }(g)\,dg.} for f in Cc(K\G/K), where π(f) denotes the convolution ...
... frequency distributions, correlations, regression, t-tests and chi-square tests. The results of Jelinek and Sun's study are ...
... with a total planning area of 22 square kilometres (8.5 sq mi) and now has 10.1 square kilometres (3.9 sq mi) built. It is ... On May 23, Japanese ships bombarded Mei-Hua, Huang-chi and Pei-Chiao while Japanese planes continued to harass Chinese forces. ... and distribution. Fuzhou High-tech Development Zone was set up in 1988 and approved by the State Council in March 1991. In 1995 ... It covers an area of 5.6 square kilometres (2.2 sq mi), and is in the area between Gushan Channel and Mawei Channel, Jiangbin ...
... [Home] [Up] [Notation] [Parameters] [Density Function] [ ... Distribution Function] [Mom. Gen. Function] [Moments Uncent.] [Expected Value] [Variance] [Mode] [Skewness] [Kurtosis] [ ...
... to reduce the chi-square distribution to the incomplete distribution. ... Upper limit of integration of the non-central chi-square distribution. Input range: [0, +infinity). Search range: [0,1E300] ... Degrees of freedom of the chi-square distribution. Input range: (0, +infinity). Search range: [ 1E-300, 1E300] ... Calculates any one parameter of the chi-square distribution given values for the others. ...
This distribution is called the chi-square distribution.. *. 11.2: Facts About the Chi-Square Distribution. he chi-square ... You use a chi-square test (meaning the distribution for the hypothesis test is chi-square) to determine if there is a fit or ... A chi-squared test is any statistical hypothesis test in which the sampling distribution of the test statistic is a chi-square ... 11.1: Prelude to The Chi-Square Distribution. You will now study a new distribution, one that is used to determine the answers ...
Chi-Square Distribution * Cost of Illness * Female * France * Humans * Male * Middle Aged ...
A Probability distribution function is a mathematical expression that describes the probability of possible outcomes for an ... Finding the t-distribution to the power of 2 gives Chi-Square distribution and finding the square root of Chi-Square of ... Chi-Square distribution. It is denoted as X~χ2(k). And is read as X is a continuous random variable that follows Chi-Square ... Poisson distribution. Chi-squared distribution. Before deep-diving into the types of distributions, it is important to revise ...
ChiSquareGoodnessOfFitTest apply the chi-square test for goodness-of-fit ChiSquareIndependenceTest... ... distribution. =. ChiSquare. ⁡. 9. ,. pvalue. =. 0.474985626461966. ,. statistic. & ... apply the one sample chi-square test for the population standard deviation ... distribution. =. ChiSquare. ⁡. 2. ,. pvalue. =. 0.00471928013399603. ,. statistic. & ...
quantile of a chi-square distribution with one degree of freedom, and the Z. i. {\displaystyle Z_{i}}. are jackknife pseudo- ... involves coarsening the joint distribution of (. X. ,. Y. ). {\displaystyle (X,Y)}. . For continuous X. ,. Y. {\displaystyle X, ... which is distributed approximately as Students t-distribution with n − 2 degrees of freedom under the null hypothesis.[11] A ... is a z-score for r, which approximately follows a standard normal distribution under the null hypothesis of statistical ...
7%) (p less than 0.001; chi-square test for distribution). Media Used. Participants watched television a median of 28 hours per ...
It can be seen as a second-order detector, since it is performed by means of the minimum mean square error criterion. The main ... has a chi-square distribution with a degree of liberty equal to 2: ... follows a centered normal distribution . Consequently, the metric has a chi distribution with one degree of liberty: ... then follows a chi-square distribution with degrees of freedom. The probability density function (pdf) noted of the decision ...
Chi-Square Distribution. 1. 2014. 3542. 0.020. Why? Decision Making. 1. 2022. 3846. 0.020. Why? ...
... we estimated the median chi-square distribution of the GWIS result. Next, the lambda value was estimated by the median of chi- ... square divided by 0.4565657 Finally, each chi-square of SNP is divided by the lambda value58. ... The distributions of raw and processed variables for obesity-related traits in the population are shown in Supplementary Fig. 4 ... Moreover, the distributions of the 14 lifestyle variables in all 331,282 participants are depicted as histograms, and both ...
However, it should be noted that these popular Chi-square tests are asym … ... it is a common practice to follow the Chi-square tests (Pearsons as well as likelihood ratio test) based on data in the form ... Chi-Square Distribution* Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Application of chi-square test and exact test in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium testing]. Huang DX, Yang QE. Huang DX, et al. Fa Yi ...
The distribution of categorical variables were compared between genders using the Chi-Square test. To determine the association ... distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, ... the current study adds to its strength by providing the chance of investigating the association between body fat distribution ...
The corresponding P values were calculated using a chi-square distribution. Thematic analysis of qualitative data was conducted ... distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work, first published in the Journal of Medical Internet ... This may enable greater equity in distribution of health information globally. ...
Chi Square Distribution Table. Table of critical chi square values for various degrees of freedom at various levels of alpha; ... Chi Square Calculator. This spreadsheet contains calculators that produce chi square values and p-values from observed ... Calculate a test statistic for chi square or calculate a z test ... Normal Distribution Table. Determine the area of mean to z for ... T Distribution Table. This spreadsheet contains calculators that determine a critical t-value for a given alpha and that ...
Gamma and Chi-Square Distribution Relationships. Problems. Answers to Selected Exercises. References. Index. ... Estimation of the Exponential Failure Rate λ Exponential Distribution Closure Property. Testing Goodness of Fit-the Chi-Square ... Weibull Distribution. Empirical Derivation of the Weibull Distribution. Properties of the Weibull Distribution. Extreme Value ... Normal Distribution Basics. Applications of the Normal Distribution. The Central Limit Theorem. Normal Distribution Parameter ...
stats_cdf_chisquare. (PECL stats ,= 1.0.0). stats_cdf_chisquare - Calculates any one parameter of the chi-square distribution ... Returns the cumulative distribution function, its inverse, or one of its parameters, of the chi-square distribution. The kind ... and the degree of freedom of the chi-square distribution, respectively. Return value and parameters. which. Return value. par1 ... stats_cdf_chisquare(float $par1. , float $par2. , int $which. ): float. ...
Significantly different from the distribution of SVRA clients at the 0.05 level, chi-square test. ... Significantly different from the distribution of SVRA clients at the 0.05 level, chi-square test. ... Significantly different from the distribution of SVRA clients at the 0.05 level, chi-square test. ... Significantly different from SVRA clients at the 0.05 level, chi-square test. ...
Derivation of F-distribution from inverse Chi-square? I am trying to derive F-distribution from Chi-square and inverse Chi- ... ratio of 2 chi square to get f-distribution How can I use two chi square functions to make a f function? I only see ... It is known that the expected value of the F-Distribution depends only on the degrees of freedom associated with the Chi-square ... Expected value of the F-Distribution dependent on the degrees of freedom associated with the Chi-square random variable in the ...
5 Normal Distribution. 09:26. *. 6 Chi Square T and F Distribution 03:56 ... Lesson 3.4 - Statistical Distributions(Understand). 32:44Preview*. 1 Welcome Screen. 01:07 ...
... and chi-square distributions; probability and hypothesis testing; and correlation and regression. Applications of statistical ...
Lectures cover distributions and probability, null hypothesis significance testing, t-tests, chi-square tests, and correlations ...
This includes correlation, t-tests, chi square tests, frequency distributions, and regression analysis. I have a PhD in ...
Other statistical tests might have an assumption of F or Chi-Square distributions. ... 2. Can the value of A-square be used for distributions other than normal? Yes, while the AD test and A-square are commonly used ... What you are really confirming with the AD test and A-square is whether the distribution of your data is close enough to normal ... The actual test for identifying the type of distribution was named after Theodore Anderson and Donald Darling. A-square is the ...
Age Distribution. EN. dc.subject. Body Weight. EN. dc.subject. Chi-Square Distribution. EN. ... Stool samples were examined 2-3 weeks and 3 months after treatment and results were tested with chi-squared. Weight and height ...
Chi-Square. Chi-Square Distribution. Coxs Regression. Survival Analysis. Cross Tabulation Analysis. Statistical Methods and ... Water Distribution. SP5 - Epidemiology and Biostatistics. Biostatistics, Uses in Medicine and Public Health. Biostatistics ( ...
However, the asymptotic distribution of our test statistics is still chisquare. ... In general, the asymptotic distribution of our estimators is found to be mixed normal due to random norming. ... This is an important ingredient to a tractable asymptotic distribution of our estimators. ...
Chi-Square. The Chi-Square test is the most commonly used test for the independence of the distribution of some categorical ... A significant Chi-square value tells us that the distribution of variable observations is not independant across groups. ... Whether a chi-square value is significant depends on the number of degrees of freedom in the data, which is (nrows-1)*(ncols-1 ... Every row in the table tells us how much every term reduces deviance in the model, and the chi-square test tells us if it is ...
  • And is read as X is a discrete random variable that follows Binomial distribution with parameters n, p. (analyticsvidhya.com)
  • Binomial distribution is a discrete probability distribution of the number of successes in 'n' independent experiments sequence. (analyticsvidhya.com)
  • For example, Binary logistic regression has an assumption of the binomial distribution. (isixsigma.com)
  • Rather, tests for proportions are based in the binomial distribution. (upenn.edu)
  • Where the normal distribution gives you the probability of getting a value within a certain range , the binomial distribution gives you the point probabilities of getting x sucessesful trials out of N trials given a probability p of success. (upenn.edu)
  • binom.test() is based on the binomial distribution, and should be used instead when possible, but it can only be used for one-sample type problems (i.e. it can't be used to see if two proportions are significantly different). (upenn.edu)
  • One chapter is about ANOVA, F distribution, and the null hypothesis. (stackexchange.com)
  • The null hypothesis (Ho) is that your data is not statistically different from a normal distribution. (isixsigma.com)
  • Your alternate or alternative hypothesis (Ha) is that your data is different from a normal distribution. (isixsigma.com)
  • The p-value, calculated using A-square, will tell you whether you can reject your null hypothesis or not. (isixsigma.com)
  • Rely on the A-square and p-value to tell you how to react to your null hypothesis. (isixsigma.com)
  • The AD statistic, also denoted as A-square, provides you the information on what decision to make about your null hypothesis. (isixsigma.com)
  • Returns the cumulative distribution function, its inverse, or one of its parameters, of the chi-square distribution. (php.net)
  • CDF, x, and k denotes cumulative distribution function, the value of the random variable, and the degree of freedom of the chi-square distribution, respectively. (php.net)
  • However, it should be noted that these popular Chi-square tests are asymptotic in nature and are useful when the cell frequencies are "not too small. (nih.gov)
  • In this article, we explore the accuracy of the Chi-square tests through an extensive simulation study and then propose their bootstrap versions that appear to work better than the asymptotic Chi-square tests. (nih.gov)
  • This is an important ingredient to a tractable asymptotic distribution of our estimators. (econometricsociety.org)
  • In general, the asymptotic distribution of our estimators is found to be mixed normal due to random norming. (econometricsociety.org)
  • However, the asymptotic distribution of our test statistics is still chi‐square. (econometricsociety.org)
  • Test that S is drawn from a normal distribution and return an embedded report. (maplesoft.com)
  • To test the mutual independence of two qualitative variables (or attributes), it is a common practice to follow the Chi-square tests (Pearson's as well as likelihood ratio test) based on data in the form of a contingency table. (nih.gov)
  • We will also explain the benefits of the A-square calculation as the output of the Anderson Darling Normality Test (AD) and offer a few tips for understanding when and how to use A-square. (isixsigma.com)
  • It is used to test whether a data sample comes from a specific distribution. (isixsigma.com)
  • What you are really confirming with the AD test and A-square is whether the distribution of your data is close enough to normal you can state you fulfilled the normality assumption to use your selected statistical tool for analysis. (isixsigma.com)
  • The AD test can be used to test any distribution, not just the normal. (isixsigma.com)
  • This kind of test is different in nature from testing whether the distribution of success vs. failures is independent from which group theY are in (a chi-squared test), but the result is about the same. (upenn.edu)
  • For this kind of data, just use a chi-squared test (to be discussed). (upenn.edu)
  • The Chi-Square test is the most commonly used test for the independence of the distribution of some categorical variable into some groups. (upenn.edu)
  • Allele and genotype frequencies between healthy subjects and glaucoma patients were compared by the chi(2) test, and intraocular pressure (IOP), cup/disc ratio (C/D) and visual field indices (MD and PSD) were compared among different APOE, p53, and p21 genotypes in POAG group. (nih.gov)
  • 11. A test of homogeneity of distributions when observations are subject to measurement errors. (nih.gov)
  • The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. (nih.gov)
  • A likelihood */ /* ratio test for a parameter is obtained by referring the difference in */ /* -2 times the log of the real data likelihoods between a model */ /* including an effect and a model omitting that effect to a chi square */ /* distribution with degrees of freedom appropriate for the effect. (nih.gov)
  • The likelihood ratio test is an approximation, and renders a chi-square distribution (which is converted to Z-value in the 3dLME output). (nih.gov)
  • 99% confidence intervals and is based on the chi-square distribution. (cdc.gov)
  • From DCDFLIB: Library of Fortran Routines for Cumulative Distribution Functions, Inverses, and Other Parameters (February, 1994) Barry W. Brown, James Lovato and Kathy Russell. (scilab.org)
  • Degrees of freedom of the chi-square distribution. (scilab.org)
  • This confidence interval contains all values for the parameter of the geometric distribution for which the observations are still sufficiently likely. (cdc.gov)
  • Other statistical tests might have an assumption of F or Chi-Square distributions. (isixsigma.com)
  • Chi-square tests were used to analyze variation in the distribution of these themes by survey mode. (cdc.gov)
  • The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another. (nih.gov)
  • In statistical terms, a distribution function is a mathematical expression that describes the probability of different possible outcomes for an experiment. (analyticsvidhya.com)
  • It is a statistical term that describes the probability distribution of a continuous random variable. (analyticsvidhya.com)
  • One distribution in particular, the normal distribution, is an underlying assumption for many of the statistical tools you might use to analyze your data. (isixsigma.com)
  • In addition to an underlying assumption of normality for certain statistical tools there are a number of other types of distribution for other tools. (isixsigma.com)
  • It is another method to describe the distribution of a random variable (either continuous or discrete). (analyticsvidhya.com)
  • It is described as a symmetrical continuous distribution defined by the mean and standard deviation. (isixsigma.com)
  • When working with categorical data (vs Continuous or Count), the normal distribution is no longer appropriate one for our purposes. (upenn.edu)
  • A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. (nih.gov)
  • This spreadsheet contains calculators that produce chi square values and p-values from observed frequencies for six common (1x2, 1x3, 2x2, 2x3, 3x2, and 3x3) contingency tables. (missouristate.edu)
  • Using analysis capabilities in spreadsheet software and two well-maintained, supported, and frequently updated, popular software packages-Minitab and SAS JMP-the third edition of Applied Reliability is an easy-to-use guide to basic descriptive statistics, reliability concepts, and the properties of lifetime distributions such as the exponential, Weibull, and lognormal. (routledge.com)
  • Determining the distribution of your data is often the first step in analyzing your data. (isixsigma.com)
  • And for instance, if we use X to denote the events, the probability distribution of X would take the value 0.5 for X=heads, and 0.5 for X=tails. (analyticsvidhya.com)
  • The mean, median, and mode of the data are the same for a normal distribution. (isixsigma.com)
  • In other words, small values of A-square will indicate your data is statistically the same as a normal distribution. (isixsigma.com)
  • Based on the types of data we deal with, we have two types of distribution functions. (analyticsvidhya.com)
  • Today, computer software is available to provide you a graphical picture of the data along with the A-square and p values. (isixsigma.com)
  • This information will give you confirmation about the distribution of your data. (isixsigma.com)
  • 19. Pair copula construction for longitudinal data with zero-inflated power series marginal distributions. (nih.gov)
  • Formula 26.4.19 of Abramowitz and Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions (1966) is used to reduce the chi-square distribution to the incomplete distribution. (scilab.org)
  • The 0.1396 was calculated from the A-square formula shown above. (isixsigma.com)
  • F$ distribution when the second degree of freedom approaches infinity? (stackexchange.com)
  • Before deep-diving into the types of distributions, it is important to revise the fundamental concepts like Probability Density Function (PDF), Probability Mass Function (PMF), and Cumulative Density Function (CDF). (analyticsvidhya.com)
  • Why is A-square important to understand? (isixsigma.com)
  • Fortunately, you will not have to do the complex hand calculations to determine A-square. (isixsigma.com)
  • In this article, we will be learning different types of Probability distribution functions. (analyticsvidhya.com)
  • Build a sample from a Rayleigh distribution and compare with the population mean and population standard deviation. (maplesoft.com)
  • What is a distribution function? (analyticsvidhya.com)
  • F ( i )(1- F ( i )) i =1 the probability density function of the geometric distribution, F(i) is the cumulative density function corresponding to p(i) and ( ) is the empirical cumulative density function. (cdc.gov)
  • 14. Impact of microbial count distributions on human health risk estimates. (nih.gov)
  • Here is an example of a probability plot that provides the results for A-square. (isixsigma.com)
  • Stool samples were examined 2-3 weeks and 3 months after treatment and results were tested with chi-squared. (who.int)
  • Noncentral F-distribution is used frequently in communication areas. (stackexchange.com)
  • 20. On performance of parametric and distribution-free models for zero-inflated and over-dispersed count responses. (nih.gov)