###### Chi-Square Distribution

###### Cross-Sectional Studies

###### Questionnaires

###### Retrospective Studies

###### Prevalence

###### Least-Squares Analysis

###### Logistic Models

###### Risk Factors

###### Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice

###### Age Factors

###### Prospective Studies

###### Treatment Outcome

###### Sex Factors

###### Follow-Up Studies

###### Socioeconomic Factors

###### Case-Control Studies

###### Prognosis

###### Pregnancy

###### Tai Ji

###### Severity of Illness Index

###### Cohort Studies

###### Rumen

###### Algorithms

###### Reproducibility of Results

###### Computer Simulation

###### Models, Statistical

###### Cattle

###### Exodeoxyribonuclease V

###### Nitrogen

###### Poaceae

###### Fatty Acids, Volatile

###### Models, Biological

###### Mathematics

###### Models, Theoretical

###### Random Allocation

###### Fermentation

###### Data Interpretation, Statistical

###### Regression Analysis

###### Sensitivity and Specificity

###### Analysis of Variance

###### Silage

###### Linear Models

###### Models, Molecular

###### Zea mays

###### Genotype

###### Discriminant Analysis

###### Dietary Fiber

###### Models, Genetic

###### Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared

###### Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted

###### Principal Component Analysis

###### Dietary Proteins

###### Image Processing, Computer-Assisted

###### Statistics as Topic

###### Models, Chemical

###### Multivariate Analysis

###### Calibration

###### Nutritive Value

###### Protein Conformation

###### Swine

###### Ammonia

###### Molasses

###### Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship

###### Soybeans

###### Breeding

###### Software

###### Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted

###### Gene Frequency

###### Food Handling

###### Freeze Fracturing

###### Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

###### Hydrogen-Ion Concentration

###### Exodeoxyribonucleases

###### Predictive Value of Tests

###### Temperature

###### Normal Distribution

###### Photic Stimulation

###### Escherichia coli

###### X-Ray Diffraction

###### Congenital Hyperinsulinism

###### Amino Acids

###### Pattern Recognition, Visual

###### Likelihood Functions

###### Sheep

###### Factor Analysis, Statistical

###### Electrodes

###### Alleles

###### Duodenum

###### Neural Networks (Computer)

###### Starch

###### Polymorphism, Genetic

###### Image Enhancement

###### Genetic Predisposition to Disease

###### Contrast Sensitivity

###### Monte Carlo Method

###### Feces

###### Nonlinear Dynamics

###### Magnetic Resonance Imaging

###### Mathematical Computing

###### Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide

###### Solutions

###### Molecular Sequence Data

###### Water

###### Fourier Analysis

###### Psychophysics

###### Ileum

###### Phantoms, Imaging

###### Motion

###### Dietary Supplements

###### Postural Balance

###### Reference Values

###### Artifacts

###### Double-Blind Method

###### Thermodynamics

###### Lighting

###### Signal-To-Noise Ratio

###### Proteins

###### Corneal Topography

###### Equipment Failure Analysis

###### Body Weight

###### Intramolecular Lyases

###### Animal Husbandry

###### Transducers

###### Diffusion

###### Incidence

###### Surface Properties

###### Support Vector Machines

###### Head Injuries, Closed

###### Crystallography, X-Ray

###### Visual Perception

###### Molecular Structure

###### Metabolomics

###### Body Mass Index

###### Corneal Wavefront Aberration

###### Computational Biology

###### Mutation

###### Adipokines

###### Risk Assessment

###### Electromyography

###### Cross-Over Studies

###### Biomechanical Phenomena

###### Facility Design and Construction

###### Electrochemistry

###### Urea

###### Movement

###### Physical Phenomena

###### Pattern Recognition, Automated

###### Seasons

###### Pilot Projects

###### Quality of Life

###### Brain

###### Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared

###### Scattering, Radiation

###### Phenotype

###### Martial Arts

###### Numerical Analysis, Computer-Assisted

###### Survival Analysis

###### Feeding Behavior

###### Gastrointestinal Transit

###### Imaging, Three-Dimensional

###### Recombination, Genetic

###### Genetic Markers

## Sex differences in the effects of early neocortical injury on neuronal size distribution of the medial geniculate nucleus in the rat are mediated by perinatal gonadal steroids. (1/11846)

Freezing injury to the cortical plate of rats induces cerebrocortical microgyria and, in males but not females, a shift toward greater numbers of small neurons in the medial geniculate nucleus (MGN). The purpose of the current study was to examine a hormonal basis for this sex difference. Cross-sectional neuronal areas of the MGN were measured in male rats, untreated female rats and female rats treated perinatally with testosterone propionate, all of which had received either neonatal cortical freezing or sham injury. Both male and androgenized female rats with microgyria had significantly smaller MGN neurons when compared to their sham-operated counterparts, whereas untreated females with microgyria did not. These differences were also reflected in MGN neuronal size distribution: both male and androgenized female rats with microgyria had more small and fewer large neurons in their MGN in comparison to shams, while there was no difference in MGN neuronal size distribution between lesioned and sham females. These findings suggest that perinatal gonadal steroids mediate the sex difference in thalamic response to induction of microgyria in the rat cortex. (+info)## Natural history of dysplasia of the uterine cervix. (2/11846)

BACKGROUND: A historical cohort of Toronto (Ontario, Canada) women whose Pap smear histories were recorded at a major cytopathology laboratory provided the opportunity to study progression and regression of cervical dysplasia in an era (1962-1980) during which cervical squamous lesions were managed conservatively. METHODS: Actuarial and Cox's survival analyses were used to estimate the rates and relative risks of progression and regression of mild (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 [CIN1]) and moderate (CIN2) dysplasias. In addition, more than 17,000 women with a history of Pap smears between 1970 and 1980 inclusive and who were diagnosed as having mild, moderate, or severe dysplasia were linked to the Ontario Cancer Registry for the outcome of any subsequent cervical cancers occurring through 1989. RESULTS: Both mild and moderate dysplasias were more likely to regress than to progress. The risk of progression from mild to severe dysplasia or worse was only 1% per year, but the risk of progression from moderate dysplasia was 16% within 2 years and 25% within 5 years. Most of the excess risk of cervical cancer for severe and moderate dysplasias occurred within 2 years of the initial dysplastic smear. After 2 years, in comparison with mild dysplasia, the relative risks for progression from severe or moderate dysplasia to cervical cancer in situ or worse was 4.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.0-5.7) and 2.5 (95% CI = 2.2-3.0), respectively. CONCLUSION: The risk of progression for moderate dysplasia was intermediate between the risks for mild and severe dysplasia; thus, the moderate category may represent a clinically useful distinction. The majority of untreated mild dysplasias were recorded as regressing to yield a normal smear within 2 years. (+info)## Low-dose combination therapy as first-line hypertension treatment for blacks and nonblacks. (3/11846)

To assess the efficacy and safety of bisoprolol/6.25-mg hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), amlodipine, and enalapril in black and nonblack patients, data from two comparative studies were pooled and subgroup analyses performed. Both studies had similar designs and included all three active treatments. The second study also included a placebo group. Subjects (n = 541) with a sitting diastolic blood pressure of 95-114 mmHg were titrated to achieve a diastolic blood pressure < or = 90 mmHg. The studies included 114 blacks and 427 nonblacks. Results of an intention-to-treat analysis of mean change from baseline after 12 weeks of treatment showed the following: 1) blood pressure was significantly lowered by all three active drugs compared with baseline or placebo; 2) in blacks, bisoprolol/6.25-mg HCTZ resulted in significantly greater reductions of systolic and diastolic blood pressure than enalapril or placebo, but was not significantly different from amlodipine; 3) in nonblacks, bisoprolol/6.25-mg HCTZ resulted in significantly greater reduction of diastolic blood pressure than amlodipine, enalapril, or placebo. The placebo-corrected change in blood pressure was greater for blacks than whites on the bisoprolol/6.25-mg HCTZ combination, but this was not statistically significant. Bisoprolol/6.25-mg HCTZ controlled diastolic blood pressure to < or = 90 mmHg in significantly more patients than enalapril or placebo in blacks and nonblacks. The difference in control rates was not significant versus amlodipine. The incidence of drug-related adverse events was similar between treatments; however, bisoprolol/6.25-mg HCTZ had a lower discontinuation rate due to lack of blood pressure control or adverse experiences in both blacks and nonblacks. (+info)## Extent and severity of atherosclerotic involvement of the aortic valve and root in familial hypercholesterolaemia. (4/11846)

OBJECTIVE: To compare the frequency of valvar and supravalvar aortic stenosis in homozygous and heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). DESIGN: Analysis of life time cholesterol exposure and prevalence of aortic atherosclerosis in 84 consecutive cases attending a lipid clinic. SETTING: A tertiary referral centre in London. PATIENTS: Outpatients with FH (six homozygous, 78 heterozygous). INTERVENTIONS: Maintenance of lipid lowering treatment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Calculated cholesterol x years score (CYS) and echocardiographic measurement of aortic root diameter, aortic valve thickness, and transaortic gradient. RESULTS: Four homozygotes with a mean (SD) CYS of 387 (124) mmol/1 x years had severe aortic stenosis (treatment started after seven years of age), whereas the other two had echocardiographic evidence of supravalvar thickening but no aortic valve stenosis (treatment started before three years of age). On multivariate analysis, mean transaortic gradient correlated significantly with CYS (mean = 523 (175) mmol/1 x years) in heterozygotes (p = 0.0001), but only two had severe aortic valve and root involvement. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia, aortic stenosis is common in homozygotes, and aortic root involvement is always present despite the lower CYS than in heterozygotes. It appears to be determined by short term exposure to high cholesterol concentrations in early life. Conversely, aortic root and valve involvement are rare in heterozygotes and occur only with severe, prolonged hypercholesterolaemia, possibly accelerating age related degenerative effects. (+info)## Amino acid composition of protein termini are biased in different manners. (5/11846)

An exhaustive statistical analysis of the amino acid sequences at the carboxyl (C) and amino (N) termini of proteins and of coding nucleic acid sequences at the 5' side of the stop codons was undertaken. At the N ends, Met and Ala residues are over-represented at the first (+1) position whereas at positions 2 and 5 Thr is preferred. These peculiarities at N-termini are most probably related to the mechanism of initiation of translation (for Met) and to the mechanisms governing the life-span of proteins via regulation of their degradation (for Ala and Thr). We assume that the C-terminal bias facilitates fixation of the C ends on the protein globule by a preference for charged and Cys residues. The terminal biases, a novel feature of protein structure, have to be taken into account when molecular evolution, three-dimensional structure, initiation and termination of translation, protein folding and life-span are concerned. In addition, the bias of protein termini composition is an important feature which should be considered in protein engineering experiments. (+info)## Prevalence of true vein graft aneurysms: implications for aneurysm pathogenesis. (6/11846)

BACKGROUND: Circumstantial evidence suggests that arterial aneurysms have a different cause than atherosclerosis and may form part of a generalized dilating diathesis. The aim of this study was to compare the rates of spontaneous aneurysm formation in vein grafts performed either for popliteal aneurysms or for occlusive disease. The hypothesis was that if arterial aneurysms form a part of a systemic process, then the rates of vein graft aneurysms should be higher for patients with popliteal aneurysms than for patients with lower limb ischemia caused by atherosclerosis. METHODS: Infrainguinal vein grafting procedures performed from 1990 to 1995 were entered into a prospective audit and graft surveillance program. Aneurysmal change was defined as a focal increase in the graft diameter of 1.5 cm or greater, excluding false aneurysms and dilatations after graft angioplasty. RESULTS: During the study period, 221 grafting procedures were performed in 200 patients with occlusive disease and 24 grafting procedures were performed in 21 patients with popliteal aneurysms. Graft surveillance revealed spontaneous aneurysm formation in 10 of the 24 bypass grafts (42%) for popliteal aneurysms but in only 4 of the 221 grafting procedures (2%) that were performed for chronic lower limb ischemia. CONCLUSION: This study provides further evidence that aneurysmal disease is a systemic process, and this finding has clinical implications for the treatment of popliteal aneurysms. (+info)## Cryoglobulinaemia and rheumatic manifestations in patients with hepatitis C virus infection. (7/11846)

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association of cryoglobulinaemia and rheumatic manifestations in Korean patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. METHODS: Forty nine Korean patients with HCV infection were recruited. The prevalence, concentration, and type of cryoglobulin (by immunofixation), rheumatoid factor (RF), antinuclear antibody (ANA), and various rheumatological symptoms were investigated and HCV genotype was determined by polymerase chain reaction with genotype specific primer. RESULTS: The prevalence of cryoglobulin was 59% in Korean HCV patients and the concentration of cryoglobulin was 9.8 (7.9) g/l (mean (SD)). The type of cryoglobulinaemia was identified in 23 (80%) of 29 HCV patients with cryoglobulinaemia and they were all type III. There were no differences in age, sex, history of operation and transfusion, proportion of liver cirrhosis between the patients with cryoglobulinaemia and those without cryoglobulinaemia. The frequencies of RF and ANA were 14% and 3.4% respectively in HCV patients with cryoglobulinaemia. There was no difference in HCV genotype between the patients with cryoglobulinaemia and those without cryoglobulinaemia. Clinical features of HCV patients were as follows: arthralgia/arthritis (35%), cutaneous manifestation (37%), Raynaud's phenomenon (8%), paresthesia (44%), dry eyes (22%), dry mouth (10%), oral ulcer (33%), and abdominal pain (14%). However, these rheumatological symptoms did not differ between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Although the rheumatological symptoms were not different between HCV patients with and without cryoglobulinaemia, HCV patients showed various rheumatological manifestations. These result suggests that HCV infection could be included as one of the causes in patients with unexplained rheumatological symptoms. (+info)## Fetal tachycardias: management and outcome of 127 consecutive cases. (8/11846)

OBJECTIVE: To review the management and outcome of fetal tachycardia, and to determine the problems encountered with various treatment protocols. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. SUBJECTS: 127 consecutive fetuses with a tachycardia presenting between 1980 and 1996 to a single tertiary centre for fetal cardiology. The median gestational age at presentation was 32 weeks (range 18 to 42). RESULTS: 105 fetuses had a supraventricular tachycardia and 22 had atrial flutter. Overall, 52 fetuses were hydropic and 75 non-hydropic. Prenatal control of the tachycardia was achieved in 83% of treated non-hydropic fetuses compared with 66% of the treated hydropic fetuses. Digoxin monotherapy converted most (62%) of the treated non-hydropic fetuses, and 96% survived through the neonatal period. First line drug treatment for hydropic fetuses was more diverse, including digoxin (n = 5), digoxin plus verapamil (n = 14), and flecainide (n = 27). The response rates to these drugs were 20%, 57%, and 59%, respectively, confirming that digoxin monotherapy is a poor choice for the hydropic fetus. Response to flecainide was faster than to the other drugs. Direct fetal treatment was used in four fetuses, of whom two survived. Overall, 73% (n = 38) of the hydropic fetuses survived. Postnatally, 4% of the non-hydropic group had ECG evidence of pre-excitation, compared with 16% of the hydropic group; 57% of non-hydropic fetuses were treated with long term anti-arrhythmics compared with 79% of hydropic fetuses. CONCLUSIONS: Non-hydropic fetuses with tachycardias have a very good prognosis with transplacental treatment. Most arrhythmias associated with fetal hydrops can be controlled with transplacental treatment, but the mortality in this group is 27%. At present, there is no ideal treatment protocol for these fetuses and a large prospective multicentre trial is required to optimise treatment of both hydropic and non-hydropic fetuses. (+info)**Congenital hyperinsulinism**(CHI) is a rare genetic disorder that affects the pancreas and causes an overproduction of insulin. It is present at birth and can be caused by mutations in several genes involved in insulin production and regulation.

Symptoms of CHI can include hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), seizures, poor feeding, and rapid breathing. If left untreated, the condition can lead to serious health problems, such as developmental delays, intellectual disability, and an increased risk of stroke or heart disease.

Treatment for CHI typically involves a combination of dietary changes, medications, and surgery. The goal of treatment is to manage hypoglycemia and prevent long-term complications. In some cases, a pancreatectomy (removal of the pancreas) may be necessary.

Early detection and intervention are critical for managing CHI and preventing long-term complications. Newborn screening for CHI is becoming increasingly common, allowing for earlier diagnosis and treatment. With appropriate management, many individuals with CHI can lead normal, healthy lives.

**Genetic predisposition to disease**refers to the likelihood that an individual may develop a particular disease due to inherited genetic mutations or variations. These mutations or variations can increase the risk of developing certain diseases, but they do not guarantee that the individual will definitely develop the disease.

Explanation: Genetic predisposition to disease is influenced by multiple factors, including the presence of inherited genetic mutations or variations, environmental factors, and lifestyle choices. The likelihood of developing a particular disease can be increased by inherited genetic mutations that affect the functioning of specific genes or biological pathways. For example, inherited mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes increase the risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer.

The expression of genetic predisposition to disease can vary widely, and not all individuals with a genetic predisposition will develop the disease. Additionally, many factors can influence the likelihood of developing a particular disease, such as environmental exposures, lifestyle choices, and other health conditions.

Inheritance patterns: Genetic predisposition to disease can be inherited in an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or multifactorial pattern, depending on the specific disease and the genetic mutations involved. Autosomal dominant inheritance means that a single copy of the mutated gene is enough to cause the disease, while autosomal recessive inheritance requires two copies of the mutated gene. Multifactorial inheritance involves multiple genes and environmental factors contributing to the development of the disease.

Examples of diseases with a known genetic predisposition:

1. Huntington's disease: An autosomal dominant disorder caused by an expansion of a CAG repeat in the Huntingtin gene, leading to progressive neurodegeneration and cognitive decline.

2. Cystic fibrosis: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the CFTR gene, leading to respiratory and digestive problems.

3. BRCA1/2-related breast and ovarian cancer: An inherited increased risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer due to mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes.

4. Sickle cell anemia: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by a point mutation in the HBB gene, leading to defective hemoglobin production and red blood cell sickling.

5. Type 1 diabetes: An autoimmune disease caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, including multiple genes in the HLA complex.

Understanding the genetic basis of disease can help with early detection, prevention, and treatment. For example, genetic testing can identify individuals who are at risk for certain diseases, allowing for earlier intervention and preventive measures. Additionally, understanding the genetic basis of a disease can inform the development of targeted therapies and personalized medicine."

**Weight gain**is an increase in body weight that is above what is considered healthy for a particular individual or population. It can be defined as an increase in body mass index (BMI) of 10% or more over a specific period of time, such as six months or a year. Weight gain can occur due to various factors, including changes in diet and exercise habits, hormonal imbalances, certain medical conditions, and genetic predisposition.

There are several different types of weight gain, including:

1. Clinical obesity: This is defined as a BMI of 30 or higher, and is typically associated with a range of serious health problems, such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and certain types of cancer.

2. Central obesity: This refers to excess fat around the waistline, which can increase the risk of health problems such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes.

3. Muscle gain: This occurs when an individual gains weight due to an increase in muscle mass, rather than fat. This type of weight gain is generally considered healthy and can improve overall fitness and athletic performance.

4. Fat gain: This occurs when an individual gains weight due to an increase in body fat, rather than muscle or bone density. Fat gain can increase the risk of health problems such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes.

Weight gain can be measured using a variety of methods, including:

1. Body mass index (BMI): This is a widely used measure of weight gain that compares an individual's weight to their height. A BMI of 18.5-24.9 is considered normal, while a BMI of 25-29.9 is considered overweight, and a BMI of 30 or higher is considered obese.

2. Waist circumference: This measures the distance around an individual's waistline and can be used to assess central obesity.

3. Skinfold measurements: These involve measuring the thickness of fat at specific points on the body, such as the abdomen or thighs.

4. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a non-invasive test that uses X-rays to measure bone density and body composition.

5. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive test that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage and other physiological parameters.

Causes of weight gain:

1. Poor diet: Consuming high amounts of processed foods, sugar, and saturated fats can lead to weight gain.

2. Lack of physical activity: Engaging in regular exercise can help burn calories and maintain a healthy weight.

3. Genetics: An individual's genetic makeup can affect their metabolism and body composition, making them more prone to weight gain.

4. Hormonal imbalances: Imbalances in hormones such as insulin, thyroid, and cortisol can contribute to weight gain.

5. Medications: Certain medications, such as steroids and antidepressants, can cause weight gain as a side effect.

6. Sleep deprivation: Lack of sleep can disrupt hormones that regulate appetite and metabolism, leading to weight gain.

7. Stress: Chronic stress can lead to emotional eating and weight gain.

8. Age: Metabolism slows down with age, making it more difficult to maintain a healthy weight.

9. Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions such as hypothyroidism, Cushing's syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) can also contribute to weight gain.

Treatment options for obesity:

1. Lifestyle modifications: A combination of diet, exercise, and stress management techniques can help individuals achieve and maintain a healthy weight.

2. Medications: Prescription medications such as orlistat, phentermine-topiramate, and liraglutide can aid in weight loss.

3. Bariatric surgery: Surgical procedures such as gastric bypass surgery and sleeve gastrectomy can be effective for severe obesity.

4. Behavioral therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and other forms of counseling can help individuals develop healthy eating habits and improve their physical activity levels.

5. Meal replacement plans: Meal replacement plans such as Medifast can provide individuals with a structured diet that is high in protein, fiber, and vitamins, and low in calories and sugar.

6. Weight loss supplements: Supplements such as green tea extract, garcinia cambogia, and forskolin can help boost weight loss efforts.

7. Portion control: Using smaller plates and measuring cups can help individuals regulate their portion sizes and maintain a healthy weight.

8. Mindful eating: Paying attention to hunger and fullness cues, eating slowly, and savoring food can help individuals develop healthy eating habits.

9. Physical activity: Engaging in regular physical activity such as walking, running, swimming, or cycling can help individuals burn calories and maintain a healthy weight.

It's important to note that there is no one-size-fits-all approach to treating obesity, and the most effective treatment plan will depend on the individual's specific needs and circumstances. Consulting with a healthcare professional such as a registered dietitian or a physician can help individuals develop a personalized treatment plan that is safe and effective.

**Body weight**is a term used to describe the total mass of an individual's body, including all tissues, organs, and bones. It is usually measured in kilograms (kg) or pounds (lb) and can be influenced by a variety of factors such as age, gender, height, muscle mass, and body composition.

Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.

There are several ways to measure body weight, including:

1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.

2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.

3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.

4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.

5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.

It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.

Examples of closed head injuries include:

* Concussions

* Contusions

* Cerebral edema (swelling of the brain)

* Brain hemorrhages (bleeding in the brain)

Closed head injuries can be caused by a variety of mechanisms, such as falls, motor vehicle accidents, sports injuries, and assaults.

Symptoms of closed head injuries may include:

* Headache

* Dizziness or loss of balance

* Confusion or disorientation

* Memory loss or difficulty concentrating

* Sleep disturbances

* Mood changes, such as irritability or depression

* Vision problems, such as blurred vision or sensitivity to light

Closed head injuries can be difficult to diagnose, as there may be no visible signs of injury. However, a healthcare provider may use imaging tests such as CT scans or MRI to look for evidence of damage to the brain. Treatment for closed head injuries typically involves rest, medication, and rehabilitation to help the patient recover from any cognitive, emotional, or physical symptoms. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to relieve pressure on the brain or repair damaged blood vessels.

**Corneal Wavefront Aberration**(CWA) is a diagnostic test used to measure the way light passes through the cornea, which is the clear outer layer of the eye. It is used to assess the quality of the cornea and to diagnose conditions that affect vision, such as astigmatism, nearsightedness, and farsightedness.

The test works by shining a light into the eye and measuring the way the light is distorted as it passes through the cornea. This distortion is caused by the curvature of the cornea and by any imperfections or abnormalities in its surface. The resulting distortion is called a "wavefront aberration."

The CWA test produces a map of the wavefront aberrations in the eye, which can be used to identify specific conditions and to determine the appropriate treatment. The test is painless and takes only a few minutes to perform.

CWA is commonly used to diagnose and monitor a range of eye conditions, including:

1. Astigmatism: This is a condition in which the cornea is irregularly shaped, causing blurred vision at all distances.

2. Nearsightedness (myopia): This is a condition in which close objects are seen clearly, but distant objects appear blurry.

3. Farsightedness (hyperopia): This is a condition in which distant objects are seen clearly, but close objects appear blurry.

4. Keratoconus: This is a progressive thinning of the cornea that can cause distorted vision and increase the risk of complications such as corneal scarring or blindness.

5. Other conditions such as presbyopia (age-related loss of near vision), amblyopia (lazy eye), and ocular injuries.

Overall, CWA is a valuable diagnostic tool for assessing the quality of the cornea and for diagnosing and monitoring a range of eye conditions. It can help eye care professionals to identify the underlying causes of vision problems and to develop effective treatment plans to improve vision and prevent complications.

**Obesity**is defined as an excess accumulation of body fat, usually 20% or more above the healthy weight range for an individual's height. This can be determined through a variety of methods, including measuring body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and skinfold measurements. Obesity is a complex condition that is influenced by genetics, lifestyle, and environmental factors, and it is associated with a number of serious health risks, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, sleep apnea, and certain types of cancer.

There are several different types of obesity, including:

1. Central obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the waistline, which can increase the risk of health problems such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

2. Peripheral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat in the hips, thighs, and arms.

3. Visceral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the internal organs in the abdominal cavity.

4. Mixed obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by both central and peripheral obesity.

Obesity can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lack of physical activity, poor diet, sleep deprivation, and certain medications. Treatment for obesity typically involves a combination of lifestyle changes, such as increased physical activity and a healthy diet, and in some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to achieve weight loss.

Preventing obesity is important for overall health and well-being, and can be achieved through a variety of strategies, including:

1. Eating a healthy, balanced diet that is low in added sugars, saturated fats, and refined carbohydrates.

2. Engaging in regular physical activity, such as walking, jogging, or swimming.

3. Getting enough sleep each night.

4. Managing stress levels through relaxation techniques, such as meditation or deep breathing.

5. Avoiding excessive alcohol consumption and quitting smoking.

6. Monitoring weight and body mass index (BMI) on a regular basis to identify any changes or potential health risks.

7. Seeking professional help from a healthcare provider or registered dietitian for personalized guidance on weight management and healthy lifestyle choices.

**Breast Neoplasms**also known as Breast Cancer, is a condition where abnormal cell growth develops in the breast tissue. It originates from various cell types including milk-producing glands (lobules), milk ducts, connective tissue, and fatty or fibrous tissue.

There are different types of Breast Neoplasms such as:

1. Fibroadenomas: These are benign tumors that are made up of glandular and fibrous tissues. They are usually small and round, with a smooth surface, and can be moved easily under the skin.

2. Cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can develop in both breast tissue and milk ducts. They are usually benign and can disappear on their own or be drained surgically.

3. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): This is a precancerous condition where abnormal cells grow inside the milk ducts. If left untreated, it can progress to invasive breast cancer.

4. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): This is the most common type of breast cancer and starts in the milk ducts but grows out of them and invades surrounding tissue.

5. Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): It originates in the milk-producing glands (lobules) and grows out of them, invading nearby tissue.

Breast Neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as a lump or thickening in the breast or underarm area, skin changes like redness or dimpling, change in size or shape of one or both breasts, discharge from the nipple, and changes in the texture or color of the skin.

Treatment options for Breast Neoplasms may include surgery such as lumpectomy, mastectomy, or breast-conserving surgery, radiation therapy which uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells, chemotherapy using drugs to kill cancer cells, targeted therapy which uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack cancer cells while minimizing harm to normal cells, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, and clinical trials.

It is important to note that not all Breast Neoplasms are cancerous; some are benign (non-cancerous) tumors that do not spread or grow.

**chronic disease**is a condition that lasts for an extended period of time and requires ongoing management and care. Unlike acute diseases, which have a specific beginning and end, chronic diseases are long-term and often persistent, affecting daily life and activities. Examples of chronic diseases include diabetes, heart disease, arthritis, asthma, and cancer.

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

In this article, we will explore the definition and impact of chronic diseases, as well as strategies for managing and living with them. We will also discuss the importance of early detection and prevention, as well as the role of healthcare providers in addressing the needs of individuals with chronic diseases.

What is a Chronic Disease?

A chronic disease is a condition that lasts for an extended period of time, often affecting daily life and activities. Unlike acute diseases, which have a specific beginning and end, chronic diseases are long-term and persistent. Examples of chronic diseases include:

1. Diabetes

2. Heart disease

3. Arthritis

4. Asthma

5. Cancer

6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

7. Chronic kidney disease (CKD)

8. Hypertension

9. Osteoporosis

10. Stroke

Impact of Chronic Diseases

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the WHO. In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

Chronic diseases can also have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, limiting their ability to participate in activities they enjoy and affecting their relationships with family and friends. Moreover, the financial burden of chronic diseases can lead to poverty and reduce economic productivity, thus having a broader societal impact.

Addressing Chronic Diseases

Given the significant burden of chronic diseases, it is essential that we address them effectively. This requires a multi-faceted approach that includes:

1. Lifestyle modifications: Encouraging healthy behaviors such as regular physical activity, a balanced diet, and smoking cessation can help prevent and manage chronic diseases.

2. Early detection and diagnosis: Identifying risk factors and detecting diseases early can help prevent or delay their progression.

3. Medication management: Effective medication management is crucial for controlling symptoms and slowing disease progression.

4. Multi-disciplinary care: Collaboration between healthcare providers, patients, and families is essential for managing chronic diseases.

5. Health promotion and disease prevention: Educating individuals about the risks of chronic diseases and promoting healthy behaviors can help prevent their onset.

6. Addressing social determinants of health: Social determinants such as poverty, education, and employment can have a significant impact on health outcomes. Addressing these factors is essential for reducing health disparities and improving overall health.

7. Investing in healthcare infrastructure: Investing in healthcare infrastructure, technology, and research is necessary to improve disease detection, diagnosis, and treatment.

8. Encouraging policy change: Policy changes can help create supportive environments for healthy behaviors and reduce the burden of chronic diseases.

9. Increasing public awareness: Raising public awareness about the risks and consequences of chronic diseases can help individuals make informed decisions about their health.

10. Providing support for caregivers: Chronic diseases can have a significant impact on family members and caregivers, so providing them with support is essential for improving overall health outcomes.

Conclusion

Chronic diseases are a major public health burden that affect millions of people worldwide. Addressing these diseases requires a multi-faceted approach that includes lifestyle changes, addressing social determinants of health, investing in healthcare infrastructure, encouraging policy change, increasing public awareness, and providing support for caregivers. By taking a comprehensive approach to chronic disease prevention and management, we can improve the health and well-being of individuals and communities worldwide.

**Refractive errors**are defects in the eye that cause light to not focus properly on the retina, resulting in blurred vision. The most common types of refractive errors include myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), astigmatism, and presbyopia (age-related loss of near vision). These errors can be corrected with glasses, contact lenses, or refractive surgery.

Myopia occurs when the eyeball is too long or the cornea is too steep, causing light to focus in front of the retina instead of directly on it. Hyperopia is the opposite, where the eyeball is too short or the cornea is too flat, causing light to focus behind the retina. Astigmatism is caused by an irregularly shaped cornea, which causes light to focus at multiple points instead of one. Presbyopia is a loss of near vision that occurs as people age, making it harder to see close objects clearly.

In addition to these common refractive errors, there are other, less common conditions that can affect the eyes and cause blurred vision, such as amblyopia (lazy eye), strabismus (crossed eyes), and retinal detachment. These conditions can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, injury, or disease.

Refractive errors can have a significant impact on daily life, affecting everything from work and school performance to social interactions and overall quality of life. Fortunately, with the help of corrective lenses or surgery, many people are able to achieve clear vision and lead fulfilling lives.

**Disease progression**refers to the natural course or worsening of a disease over time, often accompanied by changes in symptoms, physical signs, and laboratory test results. It can be a gradual process or may occur suddenly, and is influenced by various factors such as genetics, lifestyle, environment, and medical treatment.

Disease progression can be classified into several types based on the pattern of worsening:

1. Chronic progressive disease: In this type, the disease worsens steadily over time, with a gradual increase in symptoms and decline in function. Examples include rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and Parkinson's disease.

2. Acute progressive disease: This type of disease worsens rapidly over a short period, often followed by periods of stability. Examples include sepsis, acute myocardial infarction (heart attack), and stroke.

3. Cyclical disease: In this type, the disease follows a cycle of worsening and improvement, with periodic exacerbations and remissions. Examples include multiple sclerosis, lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis.

4. Recurrent disease: This type is characterized by episodes of worsening followed by periods of recovery. Examples include migraine headaches, asthma, and appendicitis.

5. Catastrophic disease: In this type, the disease progresses rapidly and unpredictably, with a poor prognosis. Examples include cancer, AIDS, and organ failure.

Disease progression can be influenced by various factors, including:

1. Genetics: Some diseases are inherited and may have a predetermined course of progression.

2. Lifestyle: Factors such as smoking, lack of exercise, and poor diet can contribute to disease progression.

3. Environmental factors: Exposure to toxins, allergens, and other environmental stressors can influence disease progression.

4. Medical treatment: The effectiveness of medical treatment can impact disease progression, either by slowing or halting the disease process or by causing unintended side effects.

5. Co-morbidities: The presence of multiple diseases or conditions can interact and affect each other's progression.

Understanding the type and factors influencing disease progression is essential for developing effective treatment plans and improving patient outcomes.

**Illusions**(plural noun) medical definition:

1. A false or misleading sensory experience, such as seeing a shape or color that is not actually present.

2. A delusion or mistaken belief that is not based on reality or evidence.

3. A symptom that is perceived by the patient but cannot be detected by medical examination or testing.

4. A feeling of being drugged, dizzy, or disoriented, often accompanied by hallucinations or altered perceptions.

5. A temporary and harmless condition caused by a sudden change in bodily functions or sensations, such as a hot flash or a wave of dizziness.

6. A false or mistaken belief about one's own health or medical condition, often resulting from misinterpretation of symptoms or self-diagnosis.

7. A psychological phenomenon in which the patient experiences a feeling of being in a different body or experiencing a different reality, such as feeling like one is in a dream or a parallel universe.

8. A neurological condition characterized by disturbances in sensory perception, such as seeing things that are not there ( hallucinations) or perceiving sensations that are not real.

9. A type of hysteria or conversion disorder in which the patient experiences physical symptoms without any underlying medical cause, such as numbness or paralysis of a limb.

10. A condition in which the patient has a false belief that they have a serious medical condition, often accompanied by excessive anxiety or fear.

ILLUSIONS IN MEDICINE

Illusions can be a significant challenge in medicine, as they can lead to misdiagnosis, mismanagement of symptoms, and unnecessary treatment. Here are some examples of how illusions can manifest in medical settings:

1. Visual illusions: A patient may see something that is not actually there, such as a shadow or a shape, which can be misinterpreted as a sign of a serious medical condition.

2. Auditory illusions: A patient may hear sounds or noises that are not real, such as ringing in the ears (tinnitus) or hearing voices.

3. Tactile illusions: A patient may feel sensations on their skin that are not real, such as itching or crawling sensations.

4. Olfactory illusions: A patient may smell something that is not there, such as a strange odor or a familiar scent that is not actually present.

5. Gustatory illusions: A patient may taste something that is not there, such as a metallic or bitter taste.

6. Proprioceptive illusions: A patient may feel sensations of movement or position changes that are not real, such as feeling like they are spinning or floating.

7. Interoceptive illusions: A patient may experience sensations in their body that are not real, such as feeling like their heart is racing or their breathing is shallow.

8. Cognitive illusions: A patient may have false beliefs about their medical condition or treatment, such as believing they have a serious disease when they do not.

THE NEUROSCIENCE OF ILLUSIONS

Illusions are the result of complex interactions between the brain and the sensory systems. Here are some key factors that contribute to the experience of illusions:

1. Brain processing: The brain processes sensory information and uses past experiences and expectations to interpret what is being perceived. This can lead to misinterpretation and the experience of illusions.

2. Sensory integration: The brain integrates information from multiple senses, such as vision, hearing, and touch, to create a unified perception of reality. Imbalances in sensory integration can contribute to the experience of illusions.

3. Attention: The brain's attention system plays a critical role in determining what is perceived and how it is interpreted. Attention can be directed towards certain stimuli or away from others, leading to the experience of illusions.

4. Memory: Past experiences and memories can influence the interpretation of current sensory information, leading to the experience of illusions.

5. Emotion: Emotional states can also affect the interpretation of sensory information, leading to the experience of illusions. For example, a person in a state of fear may interpret ambiguous sensory information as threatening.

THE TREATMENT OF ILLUSIONS

Treatment for illusions depends on the underlying cause and can vary from case to case. Some possible treatment options include:

1. Sensory therapy: Sensory therapy, such as vision or hearing therapy, may be used to improve sensory processing and reduce the experience of illusions.

2. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT): CBT can help individuals identify and change negative thought patterns and behaviors that contribute to the experience of illusions.

3. Mindfulness training: Mindfulness training can help individuals develop greater awareness of their sensory experiences and reduce the influence of illusions.

4. Medication: In some cases, medication may be prescribed to treat underlying conditions that are contributing to the experience of illusions, such as anxiety or depression.

5. Environmental modifications: Environmental modifications, such as changing the lighting or reducing noise levels, may be made to reduce the stimulus intensity and improve perception.

CONCLUSION

Illusions are a common experience that can have a significant impact on our daily lives. Understanding the causes of illusions and seeking appropriate treatment can help individuals manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life. By working with a healthcare professional, individuals can develop a personalized treatment plan that addresses their specific needs and helps them overcome the challenges of illusions.

**Neoplasms**Medical Definition

Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.

Types of Neoplasms

There are many different types of neoplasms, including:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.

2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.

3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).

5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms

The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.

2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.

3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.

4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.

5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms

The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Unusual lumps or swelling

2. Pain

3. Fatigue

4. Weight loss

5. Change in bowel or bladder habits

6. Unexplained bleeding

7. Coughing up blood

8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough

9. Changes in appetite or digestion

10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.

2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.

4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

Prevention of Neoplasms

While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)

2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle

3. Getting regular exercise

4. Not smoking or using tobacco products

5. Limiting alcohol consumption

6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)

7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)

8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.

It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.

**Neurasthenia**is a term used to describe a condition that was popularized in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, characterized by symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, headaches, and anxiety, which were thought to be related to overstimulation of the nervous system. The term is no longer used in modern medical diagnosis, as it was found to be too vague and not well-defined.

Neurasthenia was first described by American neurologist George Miller Beard in 1869, and was thought to be a distinct clinical entity caused by overstimulation of the nervous system, particularly by urban life and the stresses of modern civilization. The condition was said to affect primarily middle-class Americans who were experiencing rapid social and economic change.

However, the concept of neurasthenia has largely fallen out of favor in modern medicine, as it was found to be too vague and not well-defined. Many of the symptoms that were attributed to neurasthenia are now recognized as being part of a wider range of conditions, such as depression, anxiety disorders, and chronic fatigue syndrome.

In modern times, the term "neurasthenia" is rarely used in medical diagnosis, and is more commonly seen in historical or literary contexts. The condition was often associated with the "American nervousness" of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and was thought to be a product of the stresses of modern life and the rapid changes brought about by industrialization and urbanization.

Overall, while neurasthenia was a popular diagnosis in its time, it is no longer used in modern medical practice due to its lack of clarity and specificity. However, many of the symptoms that were attributed to neurasthenia continue to be recognized as legitimate medical conditions, and are treated with a range of therapeutic approaches.

**Recurrence**is a term used to describe the return or re-occurrence of a condition, symptom, or disease after it has been treated or gone into remission. This can be a common occurrence with certain types of illnesses or conditions, such as cancer, where the cancer cells may still be present in the body after treatment and can grow and cause new tumors.

Recurrence can also refer to the re-emergence of symptoms in a previously treated condition, such as a chronic pain condition that returns after a period of remission.

In medical research, recurrence is often studied to understand the underlying causes of disease progression and to develop new treatments and interventions to prevent or delay its return.

**Acute disease**s are medical conditions that have a sudden onset and a short duration. They are usually self-limiting, meaning they do not persist over time unless left untreated. Acute diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, such as viral or bacterial infections, allergic reactions, or physical injuries.

Examples of acute diseases include:

1. Common cold and flu

2. Pneumonia and bronchitis

3. Appendicitis and other abdominal emergencies

4. Heart attacks and strokes

5. Asthma attacks and allergic reactions

6. Skin infections and cellulitis

7. Urinary tract infections

8. Sinusitis and meningitis

9. Gastroenteritis and food poisoning

10. Sprains, strains, and fractures.

Acute diseases can be treated effectively with antibiotics, medications, or other therapies. However, if left untreated, they can lead to chronic conditions or complications that may require long-term care. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

**Stomach Neoplasms**also known as gastric neoplasms, are abnormal growths or tumors that occur in the stomach. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant stomach tumors are considered to be one of the most common types of gastrointestinal cancer and have a high mortality rate if not treated early.

There are several types of stomach neoplasms, including:

1. Adenocarcinoma: This is the most common type of stomach cancer, accounting for approximately 90% of all cases. It begins in the glandular cells that line the stomach and can spread to other parts of the body.

2. Squamous cell carcinoma: This type of cancer begins in the squamous cells that cover the outer layer of the stomach. It is less common than adenocarcinoma but more likely to be found in the upper part of the stomach.

3. Gastric mixed adenocarcinomasquamous cell carcinoma: This type of cancer is a combination of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

4. Lymphoma: This is a cancer of the immune system that can occur in the stomach. It is less common than other types of stomach cancer but can be more aggressive.

5. Carcinomas of the stomach: These are malignant tumors that arise from the epithelial cells lining the stomach. They can be subdivided into adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and others.

6. Gastric brunner's gland adenoma: This is a rare type of benign tumor that arises from the Brunner's glands in the stomach.

7. Gastric polyps: These are growths that occur on the lining of the stomach and can be either benign or malignant.

The symptoms of stomach neoplasms vary depending on the location, size, and type of tumor. Common symptoms include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and difficulty swallowing. Diagnosis is usually made through a combination of endoscopy, imaging studies (such as CT or PET scans), and biopsy. Treatment depends on the type and stage of the tumor and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these. The prognosis for stomach neoplasms varies depending on the type and stage of the tumor, but early detection and treatment can improve outcomes.

**Pseudophakia**refers to a condition where an individual has an artificial lens implanted in one or both eyes, but the natural lens remains present and intact within the eye. This can occur due to various reasons such as a cataract that is not removed completely during surgery or when a patient undergoes phacoemulsification (a type of cataract surgery) and the surgeon intentionally leaves behind some remaining fragments of the natural lens.

Pseudophakia is considered a rare condition, as most cataract surgeries involve removal of the entire natural lens. However, there are certain situations where leaving behind some residual lens material can be beneficial, such as in cases where the patient has severe astigmatism or presbyopia (age-related loss of near vision).

The presence of pseudophakia can affect the visual outcome and refractive status of the eye, and may require additional surgical intervention to optimize visual acuity. It is important for ophthalmologists to be aware of this condition and consider it when evaluating patients with cataracts or other eye conditions.

**HIV Infections**Medical Definition

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection is a condition in which the body is infected with HIV, a type of retrovirus that attacks the body's immune system. HIV infection can lead to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), a condition in which the immune system is severely damaged and the body is unable to fight off infections and diseases.

There are several ways that HIV can be transmitted, including:

1. Sexual contact with an infected person

2. Sharing of needles or other drug paraphernalia with an infected person

3. Mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding

4. Blood transfusions ( although this is rare in developed countries due to screening processes)

5. Organ transplantation (again, rare)

The symptoms of HIV infection can be mild at first and may not appear until several years after infection. These symptoms can include:

1. Fever

2. Fatigue

3. Swollen glands in the neck, armpits, and groin

4. Rash

5. Muscle aches and joint pain

6. Night sweats

7. Diarrhea

8. Weight loss

If left untreated, HIV infection can progress to AIDS, which is a life-threatening condition that can cause a wide range of symptoms, including:

1. Opportunistic infections (such as pneumocystis pneumonia)

2. Cancer (such as Kaposi's sarcoma)

3. Wasting syndrome

4. Neurological problems (such as dementia and seizures)

HIV infection is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests and physical examination. Treatment typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART), which is a combination of medications that work together to suppress the virus and slow the progression of the disease.

Prevention methods for HIV infection include:

1. Safe sex practices, such as using condoms and dental dams

2. Avoiding sharing needles or other drug-injecting equipment

3. Avoiding mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding

4. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which is a short-term treatment that can prevent infection after potential exposure to the virus

5. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which is a daily medication that can prevent infection in people who are at high risk of being exposed to the virus.

It's important to note that HIV infection is manageable with proper treatment and care, and that people living with HIV can lead long and healthy lives. However, it's important to be aware of the risks and take steps to prevent transmission.

**Postoperative complications**are health problems that occur after surgery, either during the recovery period or weeks or months later. These complications can be related to the surgery itself or to other underlying health issues. Some common postoperative complications include:

1. Infection: Bacterial or viral infections can develop after surgery, potentially leading to sepsis or organ failure.

2. Adhesions: Scar tissue can form during the healing process, which can cause bowel obstruction, chronic pain, or other complications.

3. Wound complications: Incisional hernias, wound dehiscence (separation of the wound edges), and wound infections can occur.

4. Respiratory problems: Pneumonia, respiratory failure, and atelectasis (collapsed lung) can develop after surgery, particularly in older adults or those with pre-existing respiratory conditions.

5. Cardiovascular complications: Myocardial infarction (heart attack), cardiac arrhythmias, and cardiac failure can occur after surgery, especially in high-risk patients.

6. Renal (kidney) problems: Acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease can develop postoperatively, particularly in patients with pre-existing renal impairment.

7. Neurological complications: Stroke, seizures, and neuropraxia (nerve damage) can occur after surgery, especially in patients with pre-existing neurological conditions.

8. Pulmonary embolism: Blood clots can form in the legs or lungs after surgery, potentially causing pulmonary embolism.

9. Anesthesia-related complications: Respiratory and cardiac complications can occur during anesthesia, including respiratory and cardiac arrest.

10. delayed healing: Wound healing may be delayed or impaired after surgery, particularly in patients with pre-existing medical conditions.

It is important for patients to be aware of these potential complications and to discuss any concerns with their surgeon and healthcare team before undergoing surgery.

**Hypertension**(HTN) is a condition where the blood pressure in your arteries is elevated. It is a major risk factor for heart disease, stroke, and other cardiovascular conditions. Hypertension is defined as a systolic blood pressure of 140 mmHg or higher, a diastolic blood pressure of 90 mmHg or higher, or both.

There are two types of hypertension:

1. Primary Hypertension: This type of hypertension has no identifiable cause and is also known as essential hypertension. It accounts for about 90% of all cases of hypertension.

2. Secondary Hypertension: This type of hypertension is caused by an underlying medical condition or medication. It accounts for about 10% of all cases of hypertension.

Some common causes of secondary hypertension include:

* Kidney disease

* Adrenal gland disorders

* Hormonal imbalances

* Certain medications

* Sleep apnea

* Cocaine use

There are also several risk factors for hypertension, including:

* Age (the risk increases with age)

* Family history of hypertension

* Obesity

* Lack of exercise

* High sodium intake

* Low potassium intake

* Stress

Hypertension is often asymptomatic, and it can cause damage to the blood vessels and organs over time. Some potential complications of hypertension include:

* Heart disease (e.g., heart attacks, heart failure)

* Stroke

* Kidney disease (e.g., chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease)

* Vision loss (e.g., retinopathy)

* Peripheral artery disease

Hypertension is typically diagnosed through blood pressure readings taken over a period of time. Treatment for hypertension may include lifestyle changes (e.g., diet, exercise, stress management), medications, or a combination of both. The goal of treatment is to reduce the risk of complications and improve quality of life.

Type 2 diabetes can be managed through a combination of diet, exercise, and medication. In some cases, lifestyle changes may be enough to control blood sugar levels, while in other cases, medication or insulin therapy may be necessary. Regular monitoring of blood sugar levels and follow-up with a healthcare provider are important for managing the condition and preventing complications.

Common symptoms of type 2 diabetes include:

* Increased thirst and urination

* Fatigue

* Blurred vision

* Cuts or bruises that are slow to heal

* Tingling or numbness in the hands and feet

* Recurring skin, gum, or bladder infections

If left untreated, type 2 diabetes can lead to a range of complications, including:

* Heart disease and stroke

* Kidney damage and failure

* Nerve damage and pain

* Eye damage and blindness

* Foot damage and amputation

The exact cause of type 2 diabetes is not known, but it is believed to be linked to a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors, such as:

* Obesity and excess body weight

* Lack of physical activity

* Poor diet and nutrition

* Age and family history

* Certain ethnicities (e.g., African American, Hispanic/Latino, Native American)

* History of gestational diabetes or delivering a baby over 9 lbs.

There is no cure for type 2 diabetes, but it can be managed and controlled through a combination of lifestyle changes and medication. With proper treatment and self-care, people with type 2 diabetes can lead long, healthy lives.

**Adenocarcinoma**is a type of cancer that begins in glandular cells, which are cells that produce fluids or mucus. It is the most common type of cancer found in the digestive tract, breast, and prostate. Adenocarcinomas can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant adenocarcinomas can invade nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system.

Adenocarcinoma is a term used to describe a variety of different types of cancer that arise in glandular tissue, including:

1. Colorectal adenocarcinoma (cancer of the colon or rectum)

2. Breast adenocarcinoma (cancer of the breast)

3. Prostate adenocarcinoma (cancer of the prostate gland)

4. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (cancer of the pancreas)

5. Lung adenocarcinoma (cancer of the lung)

6. Thyroid adenocarcinoma (cancer of the thyroid gland)

7. Skin adenocarcinoma (cancer of the skin)

The symptoms of adenocarcinoma depend on the location of the cancer and can include:

1. Blood in the stool or urine

2. Abdominal pain or discomfort

3. Changes in bowel habits

4. Unusual vaginal bleeding (in the case of endometrial adenocarcinoma)

5. A lump or thickening in the breast or elsewhere

6. Weight loss

7. Fatigue

8. Coughing up blood (in the case of lung adenocarcinoma)

The diagnosis of adenocarcinoma is typically made through a combination of imaging tests, such as CT scans, MRI scans, and PET scans, and a biopsy, which involves removing a sample of tissue from the affected area and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

Treatment options for adenocarcinoma depend on the location of the cancer and can include:

1. Surgery to remove the tumor

2. Chemotherapy, which involves using drugs to kill cancer cells

3. Radiation therapy, which involves using high-energy X-rays or other particles to kill cancer cells

4. Targeted therapy, which involves using drugs that target specific molecules on cancer cells to kill them

5. Immunotherapy, which involves using drugs that stimulate the immune system to fight cancer cells.

The prognosis for adenocarcinoma is generally good if the cancer is detected and treated early, but it can be more challenging to treat if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

**Thinness**can be defined as a state of being underweight or having a low body mass index (BMI). It is often used to describe individuals who are significantly below their ideal weight or have a BMI that falls below a certain threshold.

In medicine, thinness is sometimes used as a diagnostic criterion for certain conditions, such as anorexia nervosa or cancer cachexia. In these cases, thinness can be a sign of a serious underlying condition that requires medical attention.

However, it's important to note that thinness alone is not enough to diagnose any medical condition. Other factors, such as a person's overall health, medical history, and physical examination findings, must also be taken into account when making a diagnosis. Additionally, it's important to recognize that being underweight or having a low BMI does not necessarily mean that someone is unhealthy or has a medical condition. Many people with a healthy weight and body composition can still experience negative health effects from societal pressure to be thin.

Overall, the concept of thinness in medicine is complex and multifaceted, and it's important for healthcare providers to consider all relevant factors when evaluating a patient's weight and overall health.

**Pain**is a complex and subjective experience that can be difficult to define and measure. It is a normal response to tissue damage or inflammation, and it serves as a warning sign that something is wrong. However, the experience of pain can vary widely from person to person, and it can be influenced by a range of factors such as cultural background, age, gender, and individual personality traits.

There are several different types of pain, including:

1. Acute pain: This type of pain is sudden and severe, and it usually lasts for a short period of time. It can be caused by injuries, surgery, or other forms of tissue damage.

2. Chronic pain: This type of pain persists over a long period of time, often lasting more than 3 months. It can be caused by conditions such as arthritis, fibromyalgia, or nerve damage.

3. Neuropathic pain: This type of pain results from damage to the nervous system, and it can be characterized by burning, shooting, or stabbing sensations.

4. Visceral pain: This type of pain originates in the internal organs, and it can be difficult to localize.

5. Psychogenic pain: This type of pain is caused by psychological factors such as stress, anxiety, or depression.

The medical field uses a range of methods to assess and manage pain, including:

1. Pain rating scales: These are numerical scales that patients use to rate the intensity of their pain.

2. Pain diaries: These are records that patients keep to track their pain over time.

3. Clinical interviews: Healthcare providers use these to gather information about the patient's pain experience and other relevant symptoms.

4. Physical examination: This can help healthcare providers identify any underlying causes of pain, such as injuries or inflammation.

5. Imaging studies: These can be used to visualize the body and identify any structural abnormalities that may be contributing to the patient's pain.

6. Medications: There are a wide range of medications available to treat pain, including analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and muscle relaxants.

7. Alternative therapies: These can include acupuncture, massage, and physical therapy.

8. Interventional procedures: These are minimally invasive procedures that can be used to treat pain, such as nerve blocks and spinal cord stimulation.

It is important for healthcare providers to approach pain management with a multi-modal approach, using a combination of these methods to address the physical, emotional, and social aspects of pain. By doing so, they can help improve the patient's quality of life and reduce their suffering.

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**distribution**Noncentral

**chi**...

**chi**-squared

**distribution**Noncentral t-

**distribution**can be obtained from normal

**distribution**and

**chi**-squared

**distribution**A

**chi**- ...

**Chi**-Squared

**Distribution**Johnson, N. L.; Kotz, S.; Balakrishnan, N. (1994). "

**Chi**-

**Square**

**Distributions**including

**Chi**and ...

###### Gini coefficient

**Chi**-

**Square**(Χ²)

**Distributions**, Definition & Examples". Scribbr. Retrieved 30 November 2022. "Weibull

**Distribution**: ... "Income

**distribution**- Inequality: Income

**distribution**- Inequality - Country tables". OECD. 2012. Archived from the original on ... Weisstein, Eric W. "Beta

**Distribution**". mathworld.wolfram.com. Retrieved 30 November 2022. "The Log-Logistic

**Distribution**". www ... Weisstein, Eric W. "Uniform

**Distribution**". mathworld.wolfram.com. Retrieved 30 November 2022. "Exponential

**Distribution**, ...

###### Marcum Q-function

**chi**-

**square**

**distribution**. Computers Math. Applic., 25(5), ...

**chi**_{k}} is a

**chi**

**distribution**with k {\displaystyle k} degrees of freedom, then its cdf is given by F X ( x ) = 1 − Q k / 2 ...

**chi**_{k}^{2}} is a

**chi**-squared

**distribution**with k {\displaystyle k} degrees of freedom, then its cdf is given by F X ( x ) = 1 ...

**chi**_{k}^{2}(\lambda )} is a non-central

**chi**-squared

**distribution**with non-centrality parameter λ {\displaystyle \lambda } and ...

###### Anil Kumar Bhattacharyya

**distribution**of the sum of

**chi**-

**squares**", Sankhya, 7 (1945), 27 - 28. In this paper, an expression of the ... Bhattacharyya, A. (1945). "A Note on the

**Distribution**of the Sum of

**Chi**-

**Squares**". Sankhyā. 7 (1): 27-28. JSTOR 25047828. ...

**distribution**function of sum two dependent

**Chi**-

**square**random variables was given in the form of a convergent series in Laguerre ... Distance between statistical

**distributions**had been addressed in 1936 by Mahalanobis, who proposed the D2 metric, now known as ...

###### István Vincze (mathematician)

**distribution**laws of statistics analogous to Pearson's

**chi**-

**square**". Statistics: A Journal of Theoretical and ... Z. W. Birnbaum; I. Vincze (1973). "Limiting

**Distributions**of Statistics Similar to Student's". Annals of Statistics. 1 (1973): ... Vincze, István (1996). "Cramér-Rao type inequality and a problem of mixture of

**distributions**". Mathematical Institute, Slovak ... empirical

**distribution**, Cramér-Rao inequality, and information theory. Considered by many, as an expert in theoretical and ...

###### Differential item functioning

**chi**-

**square**

**distribution**. In this case the null hypothesis being tested is H0 ... G2 approximately follows a

**chi**

**square**

**distribution**, especially with larger samples. Therefore, it is evaluated by the degrees ... Determination of DIF is made by evaluating the obtained

**chi**-

**square**statistic with 2 degrees of freedom. Additionally, parameter ... In this case, the absence of DIF is determined by the fact that the conditional probability

**distribution**of Y is not dependent ...

###### Inverse-**chi**-squared **distribution**

**chi**-squared

**distribution**(or inverted-

**chi**-

**square**

**distribution**) is the probability

**distribution**of a random ... the inverse-

**chi**-squared

**distribution**(or inverted-

**chi**-

**square**

**distribution**) is a continuous probability

**distribution**of a ... Inverse

**chi**-squared

**distribution**is a special case of type 5 Pearson

**distribution**Scaled-inverse-

**chi**-squared

**distribution**... has a

**chi**-squared

**distribution**. It is also often defined as the

**distribution**of a random variable whose reciprocal divided by ...

###### Minimum **chi**-**square** estimation

**chi**-

**square**

**distribution**if the null hypothesis is true. In minimum

**chi**-

**square**... One could apply Pearson's

**chi**-

**square**test of whether the population

**distribution**is a Poisson

**distribution**with expected value ... The minimum

**chi**-

**square**estimate of the population mean λ is the number that minimizes the

**chi**-

**square**statistic ∑ ( observed − ... That is the minimum

**chi**-

**square**estimate of λ. For that value of λ, the

**chi**-

**square**statistic is about 3.062764. There are 10 ...

###### Gamma **distribution**

**distribution**, Erlang

**distribution**, and

**chi**-

**square**

**distribution**are special cases of the gamma

**distribution**. ... Modified Half-normal

**distribution**- the Gamma

**distribution**is a member of the family of Modified half-normal

**distribution**. The ... The matrix gamma

**distribution**and the Wishart

**distribution**are multivariate generalizations of the gamma

**distribution**(samples ... If α is a positive integer (i.e., the

**distribution**is an Erlang

**distribution**), the cumulative

**distribution**function has the ...

###### Noncentral **chi**-squared **distribution**

**chi**-squared

**distribution**(or noncentral

**chi**-

**square**

**distribution**, noncentral χ 2 {\displaystyle \

**chi**^{2}} ... is

**chi**-

**square**distributed V ∼ χ k 2 {\displaystyle V\sim \

**chi**_{k}^{2}} then V {\displaystyle V} is also non-central

**chi**-

**square**... It remains to plug in the MGF for the non-central

**chi**

**square**

**distributions**into the product and compute the new MGF - this is ... the noncentral

**chi**-squared

**distribution**is seen to be a Poisson-weighted mixture of central

**chi**-squared

**distributions**. Suppose ...

###### Welch's t-test

**distribution**since we have an approximation of the

**chi**-

**square**

**distribution**. This ... Welch's t-test remains robust for skewed

**distributions**and large sample sizes. Reliability decreases for skewed

**distributions**... Samples are from random normal

**distributions**using the R programming language. For all three examples, the population means ... Fagerland, M. W.; Sandvik, L. (2009). "Performance of five two-sample location tests for skewed

**distributions**with unequal ...

###### Patrick J. Curran

**chi**-

**square**

**distribution**in misspecified ...

###### Relationships among probability **distributions**

**distribution**is also a Erlang

**distribution**. The sum of the

**squares**of N standard normal random variables has a

**chi**- ... Cauchy

**distribution**, Logistic

**distribution**, Error

**distribution**, Power

**distribution**, Rayleigh

**distribution**. Example: If Z is a ... Weibull

**distribution**, logistic

**distribution**, error

**distribution**, power-law

**distribution**, Rayleigh

**distribution**. Example: If X ... The sum of N

**chi**-squared (1) random variables has a

**chi**-squared

**distribution**with N degrees of freedom. Other

**distributions**are ...

###### Zero degrees of freedom

**chi**-

**square**

**distribution**with zero degrees of freedom concentrates all probability at zero. All of this leaves open the question ... The

**chi**-squared

**distribution**with n degrees of freedom is the probability

**distribution**of the sum X 1 2 + ⋯ + X n 2 {\ ... The noncentral

**chi**-squared

**distribution**with zero degrees of freedom and with noncentrality parameter μ is the

**distribution**of ... Continuous

**distributions**, Normal

**distribution**, Exponential family

**distributions**, Probability

**distributions**, Statistical ...

###### ANOVA on ranks

**Chi**-

**square**

**distributions**to the 2x2x2 ANOVA ... Treat the mean for each group as a score, and compute the variability (again, the sum of

**squares**) of those three scores. When ... Under the truth of the null hypothesis, the sampling

**distribution**of the F ratio depends on the degrees of freedom for the ... or sum of

**squares**) of scores on some dependent variable will be the same within each group. When divided by the degrees of ...

###### Scaled inverse **chi**-squared **distribution**

**distribution**) Scaled inverse

**chi**

**square**

**distribution**is a special case of type 5 Pearson

**distribution**Gelman A. ... The scaled inverse

**chi**-squared

**distribution**is the

**distribution**for x = 1/s2, where s2 is a sample mean of the

**squares**of ν ... the probability

**distribution**for (1/s2) is a scaled inverse

**chi**-squared

**distribution**; and so the probability

**distribution**for ...

**chi**^{2}(\nu )} Compared to the inverse gamma

**distribution**, the scaled inverse

**chi**-squared

**distribution**describes the same data ...

###### Generalized **chi**-squared **distribution**

**chi**-squared

**distribution**(or generalized

**chi**-

**square**

**distribution**) is the

**distribution**of a quadratic form of a ... has a

**chi**-squared

**distribution**, χ 2 ( 2 k ) {\displaystyle \

**chi**^{2}(2k)} , also known as an Erlang

**distribution**. If σ i 2 {\ ... has a generalized

**chi**-squared

**distribution**of a particular form. The difference from the standard

**chi**-squared

**distribution**is ... inverse cdf and random numbers of the generalized

**chi**-

**square**

**distribution**. (Continuous

**distributions**). ...

###### Proofs related to **chi**-squared **distribution**

**chi**

**square**

**distribution**for k degrees of freedom will then be given by: P ( Q ) d Q = ∫ V ∏ i = 1 k ( N ( x i ) d x i ... There are several methods to derive

**chi**-squared

**distribution**with 2 degrees of freedom. Here is one based on the

**distribution**... The following are proofs of several characteristics related to the

**chi**-squared

**distribution**. Let random variable Y be defined ... And one gets the

**chi**-squared

**distribution**, noting the property of the gamma function: Γ ( 1 / 2 ) = π {\displaystyle \Gamma (1/ ...

###### Early Edu-Ware products

**Chi**-

**square**test, and T-Test. The program was offered in both disk and cassette stand-alone versions, as well as in a compendium ... Calculations performed by the program included mean, variance, standard deviation, Pearson correlation, normal

**distribution**, ...

###### Linkage disequilibrium

**chi**^{2}(p=0.001,\;df=1)=10.8\right]} follows the

**chi**-

**square**

**distribution**with d f = 1 {\displaystyle df=1} . In the data of ...

**chi**^{2}} test calculating χ 2 = ( a d − b c ) 2 N A B C D ( = 336 , for data in Table 3; P < 0.001 ) . {\displaystyle \

**chi**^{2 ... χ 2 ( p = 0.001 , d f = 1 ) = 10.8 ] {\displaystyle \

**chi**^{2}=wy^{2}\;\left[=193>\ ... usually expressed as its

**square**, r 2 {\displaystyle r^{2}} r 2 = D 2 p A ( 1 − p A ) p B ( 1 − p B ) . {\displaystyle r^{2}={\ ...

###### Thomas Royen

**distributions**, in particular multivariate

**chi**-

**squares**and gamma

**distributions**, to improve ... Royen, T. (2014). "A simple proof of the Gaussian correlation conjecture extended to multivariate gamma

**distributions**". arXiv: ... Royen, Thomas (2 July 2015). "Some probability inequalities for multivariate gamma and normal

**distributions**". arXiv:1507.00528 ... how to use the Laplace transform of the multivariate gamma

**distribution**to achieve a relatively simple proof for the Gaussian ...

###### List of English inventions and discoveries

**chi**-

**square**); William Gosset (1876-1937) (Student's t-

**distribution**); Ronald Fisher (1890-1962) (Analysis of variance); Frank ... "Paterson, Rex (1955). Fertilizer

**Distribution**- Problems of Corrosion Prevention on the Farm. The International Fertilizer ...

###### Hypertabastic survival models

**distributions**, was performed using the generalized

**chi**-

**square**test ... Using generalized

**chi**-squared, the

**distribution**of oil field quantities was represented by the Hyperbolastic

**distribution**and ... The Hypertabastic cumulative

**distribution**function or simply the hypertabastic

**distribution**function F ( t ) {\displaystyle F(t ... This

**distribution**can be used to analyze time-to-event data in biomedical and public health areas and normally called survival ...

###### KIMEP University

**khi**-

**square**

**distributions**KIMEP has active partnerships with more ... The 325-

**square**-meter facility includes a basketball court, two fitness rooms and a yoga studio. All the technology is state-of- ...

###### Degrees of freedom (statistics)

**squares**no longer have scaled

**chi**-squared

**distributions**. Comparison of sum-of-

**squares**with degrees-of-freedom is no ... The residual sum-of-

**squares**‖ y − H y ‖ 2 {\displaystyle \,y-Hy\,^{2}} has a generalized

**chi**-squared

**distribution**, and the ... the sums of

**squares**have scaled

**chi**-squared

**distributions**, with the corresponding degrees of freedom. The F-test statistic is ... these sums-of-

**squares**no longer have (scaled, non-central)

**chi**-squared

**distributions**, and dimensionally defined degrees-of- ...

###### Genomic control

**distribution**of the

**chi**-

**square**statistics for a given allele that is suspected to be associated with a given trait can then ... using a set of anonymous genetic markers to estimate the effect of population structure on the

**distribution**of the

**chi**-

**square**... The denominator is derived from the gamma

**distribution**as a robust estimator of λ {\displaystyle \lambda } . Other estimators ... Under the null hypothesis of no population stratification the trend test is asymptotic χ 2 {\displaystyle \

**chi**^{2}} ...

**Chi**-**square**

**distribution**

**chi**-

**square**test, name given to some tests using

**chi**-

**square**

**distribution**

**chi**-

**square**target ... The term

**chi**-

**square**,

**chi**-squared, or χ 2 {\displaystyle \

**chi**^{2}} has various uses in statistics:

**chi**-

**square**

**distribution**, ... a mathematical model used in radar cross-section This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title

**Chi**-

**square**. ...

###### Normally distributed and uncorrelated does not imply independent

**square**root of the median of a

**chi**-squared

**distribution**with 3 degrees of freedom. (Theory of probability

**distributions**, ... The left panel shows the joint

**distribution**of X 1 {\displaystyle X_{1}} and Y 2 {\displaystyle Y_{2}} ; the

**distribution**has ... The right panel shows the joint

**distribution**of Y 1 {\displaystyle Y_{1}} and Y 2 {\displaystyle Y_{2}} ; the

**distribution**has ... This furnishes two examples of bivariate

**distributions**that are uncorrelated and have normal marginal

**distributions**but are not ...

**Chi**-**square** automatic interaction detection

**Chi**-squared

**distribution**Bonferroni correction Latent class model Structural equation modeling Market segment Decision tree ...

**Chi**-

**square**automatic interaction detection (CHAID) is a decision tree technique based on adjusted significance testing ( ... 296-302 Luchman, J.N.; CHAID: Stata module to conduct

**chi**-

**square**automated interaction detection, Available for free download, ... Luchman, J.N.; CHAIDFOREST: Stata module to conduct random forest ensemble classification based on

**chi**-

**square**automated ...

###### Homoscedasticity and heteroscedasticity

**distribution**, or a

**chi**

**square**

**distribution**(depending on how the test statistic ... and then becomes the test statistic for a

**chi**-squared

**distribution**(and uses the same degrees of freedom). Although it is not ... and then becomes the test statistic for a

**chi**-squared

**distribution**with the degrees of freedom equal to the number of ... Homoscedastic

**distributions**are especially useful to derive statistical pattern recognition and machine learning algorithms. ...

###### Imperial examination

**chi**24, "The Book on Music" Norman Yoffee, George L. Cowgill (1988). pp. 182, ... The Guozijian itself was equipped with a library and printing shop to create model printing blocks for

**distribution**. The ... cultural and mythological features related to the examinations Mandarin

**square**Music Bureau Nine-rank system, a predecessor to ...

###### List of cults of personality

**Chi**Minh is frequently glorified in schools by schoolchildren. Opinions, publications and broadcasts that are critical of Ho ... After the fall of his regime, made visible by the toppling of his statue on Firdous

**Square**in Baghdad on April 9, 2003, all ... Plaster images and portraits of him were prepared for public

**distribution**, similar to those of Kim Il-sung and Mao Zedong; ... Choi,

**Chi**-yuk; Jun, Mai (2017-09-18). "Xi Jinping's political thought will be added to Chinese Communist Party constitution, ...

###### Ral Partha Enterprises

**Chis**Fitzpatrick and Geoff Valley by 1995. By 1991 the 20-xxx BattleTech line had grown to include eleven box sets, and ... owners of Zocchi

**Distribution**, a hobby shop supplier. FASA gained sole ownership in the spring of 1999, and Ral Partha began to ... and separate

**square**bases. Chris Fitzpatrick designed a line of elves. Bob Olley produced new dwarves, goblins, trolls and ... marketing and

**distribution**. In 2014 the production and productive capacities were reunited under Ral Partha Enterprises, a ...

###### Arma 3

**Chi**Minh trail. CSLA Iron Curtain was released on June 16, 2021 as the twelfth paid DLC released for Arma 3 ... featuring photorealistic land and water environments that can cover hundreds of

**square**kilometres of ground. Many of the game's ... military tactical shooter video game developed and published by Bohemia Interactive exclusively through the Steam

**distribution**...

###### Xuanzang

**square**walls, streets are winding and narrow, with shops lined along these roads. Wine is sold in ... King Harsha invited Xuanjang to Kumbh Mela in Prayag where he witnessed king Harsha's generous

**distribution**of gifts to the ... Ta-T'ang Hsi-yü

**chi**), which has become one of the primary sources for the study of medieval Central Asia and India. This book ...

###### Nuclear power

**square**miles, and from a wind farm about 310

**square**miles. Not included in this is land ... Fang, Jianchun; Lau,

**Chi**Keung Marco; Lu, Zhou; Wu, Wanshan (1 September 2018). "Estimating Peak uranium production in China - ... The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership was an international effort to create a

**distribution**network in which developing ... The median land area used by US nuclear power stations per 1 GW installed capacity is 1.3

**square**miles. To generate the same ...

###### List of mathematical abbreviations

**Chi**- hyperbolic cosine integral function. Ci - cosine integral function. cis - cos + i sin function. (Also written as expi.) ... Also written as rank.) RMS, rms - root mean

**square**. rng - non-unital ring. rot - rotor of a vector field. (Also written as curl ... cdf - cumulative

**distribution**function. c.f. - cumulative frequency. c.c. - complex conjugate. char - characteristic of a ring ...

###### Anambra State

**Chi**Onwurah , The Guardian". the Guardian. Retrieved 1 September 2022. "Allen Onyema Archives". The Guardian Nigeria News - ... giving the area an estimated average density of 1,500-2,000 persons per

**square**kilometre. Anambra is rich in natural gas, crude ... Canback Global Income

**Distribution**Database)". Canback Dangel. Archived from the original on 16 February 2012. Retrieved 20 ... holds the Nigerian record for the highest selling album Chief Stephen Osita Osadebe P-

**Square**(Peter and Paul Okoye) - identical ...

###### Diamagnetism

**distribution**of charge is spherically symmetric, we can suppose that the

**distribution**of x,y,z coordinates are ... is the mean

**square**distance of the electrons perpendicular to the z axis. The magnetic moment is therefore μ = − Z e 2 B 4 m ⟨ ...

**chi**=-\mu _{0}{\frac {e^{2}}{12\pi ^{2}m\hbar }}{\sqrt {2mE_{\rm {F}}}},} where E F {\displaystyle E_{\rm {F}}} is the Fermi ...

**chi**={\frac {\mu _{0}n\mu }{B}}=-{\frac {\mu _{0}e^{2}Zn}{6m}}\langle r^{2}\rangle .} In atoms, Langevin susceptibility is of ...

###### Diehard tests

**chi**-

**square**test is made on the no.-of-throws cell counts. Each 32-bit integer from the test file provides the value for the ... This test uses n = 224 and m = 29, so that the underlying

**distribution**for j is taken to be Poisson with λ = 227 / 226 = 2. A ... The covariance matrices for the runs-up and runs-down are well known, leading to

**chi**-

**square**tests for quadratic forms in the ... Ranks are found for 40000 such random matrices and a

**chi**-

**square**test is performed on counts for ranks 31, 30, 29 and ≤ 28. The ...

###### 1986 New Year Honours

**Distribution**Director, William Timpson Ltd. Elvira Jean Powell, Personal Secretary to Chief Constable, ... Overseas Award Warrant Officer Class 1

**Chi**-Leung Pau, Royal Hong Kong Regiment (The Volunteers). Royal Air Force Squadron ... Henry Francis Morin Scott, Commodore,

**Square**Rigger Club, TS Royalist, Sea Cadet Corps. James Scott, Professional and ... Ronald Arthur George Noble, lately Head, Valve Test Laboratory, GEC Transmission and

**Distribution**Projects Ltd. Herbert Harvey ...

###### B-Dienst

**distribution**list was considerably bigger than was customary for the US Bulletin

**distribution**. The

**distribution**list: Eight ... As with OKW/

**Chi**cryptanalysts, B-Dienst analysts misunderstood the extent of the size of the Allies' effort to break Enigma M. ... To paraphrase David Kahn The table consisted of a 26x26

**square**of letter pairs with single letters at the end of each column ... Subsection IIcb: Production and

**distribution**of special keys. Subsection IIcc: Production and

**distribution**of naval keys and ...

###### Hong Kong

**Distribution**2016, p. 5 Yau & Zhou 2017. Household Income

**Distribution**2016, p. 80 Jiang et al. 2003. "Hong ... Kwong,

**Chi**Man (9 September 2015). "Hong Kong during World War II: A Transnational Battlefield". University of Nottingham. ... With 7.5 million residents of various nationalities in a 1,104-

**square**-kilometre (426 sq mi) territory, Hong Kong is one of the ... Household Income

**Distribution**2016, p. 1 Household Income

**Distribution**2016, p. 86 Desjardins 2018. ...

###### Baylor University

**Chi**back after 5-year disciplinary leave". Baylorlariat.com. March 3, 2015. Archived from the original on April 22, 2016 ... Baylor University has a total undergraduate enrollment of 13,859, with a gender

**distribution**of 42 percent male students and 58 ... The Immortal Ten memorial was officially dedicated during Homecoming on November 2, 2007, in Traditions

**Square**. That Good Ol' ...

###### Classical capacity

**distribution**p X ( x ) {\displaystyle p_{X}\left(x\ ... Due to concavity of the

**square**root, we can bound this expression from above by 2 [ E X n { 1 M ∑ m Tr { ( I − Π ρ X n ( m ) , ...

**chi**({\mathcal {N}})=\max _{\rho ^{XA}}I(X;B)_{{\mathcal {N}}(\rho )}} where ρ X A {\displaystyle \rho ^{XA}} is a classical- ... is a probability

**distribution**, and each ρ x A {\displaystyle \rho _{x}^{A}} is a density operator that can be input to the ...

###### Fujian

**square**metres (840,000

**square**feet). Although it is known as both a Hindu ... Chuan-chou Fu-

**chi**(Ch.10) Year 1512 Skinner, George William; Baker, Hugh D. R. (1977). The City in late imperial China. ...

**Distribution**& Minority in China". topchinatravel.com. Archived from the original on November 3, 2021. Retrieved August 9, 2021 ... Covering an area of six

**square**miles, the island is swathed in luxuriant green foliage. The coastline is indented with over 12 ...

###### World Trade Center (1973-2001)

**square**feet (1,240,000 m2) of office space, and was so large that it had its own zip code: 10048 ... According to a business writer, it also was the origin of the electronic component

**distribution**business. The idea of ... Alfred Swenson & Pao-

**Chi**Chang (2008). "Building construction: High-rise construction since 1945". Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The memorial features two

**square**reflecting pools in the center marking where the Twin Towers stood. One World Trade Center, ...

###### Human rights in Hong Kong

**distribution**of obscene articles and the

**distribution**of indecent articles without proper warnings to ... "Judicial Responses to the National Security Law: HKSAR v Lai Chee Ying". 51 HKLJ 1. "HKSAR v Lai

**Chi**Ying [2021] HKCFA 3, §§30- ... of the Goddess of Democracy statue in Times

**Square**in the absence of a license in order to commemorate the Tiananmen

**Square**... even if there was no record of

**distribution**. This inaccurate statement of the law led to the objection of Leung Kwok-hung, who ...

###### My Music (radio programme)

**chi**-

**chi**-

**chi**) (Ian) Programme 4 I Don't Know Why (I Just Do) (Frank) Long Lonely Year (Swann) (John) Hard to ... A Nightingale Sang in Berkeley

**Square**(Ian Wallace) Programme 7 Did You Ever See A Dream Walking? (Frank Muir) Tell Me Where Is ... when BBC ended US

**distribution**. Series 1 (3 January - 28 March 1967 - 13 episodes) The programmes were broadcast each Tuesday ...

###### Supersymmetric theory of stochastic dynamics

**chi**}}}_{j}=\partial /\partial \

**chi**^{j}} are bosonic and fermionic momenta, and with

**square**brackets denoting bi-graded ... being the normalized

**distribution**of noise configurations, J = Det δ ( x ˙ ( τ ) − F ( x ( τ ) ) ) δ x ( τ ′ ) {\displaystyle ...

**chi**}}_{j}{\dot {x}}^{j}} and d ¯ = − i χ ¯ j δ j k ( ∂ k U + Θ i B k ) {\textstyle \textstyle {\bar {d}}=-i{\bar {\

**chi**}}_{j}\ ...

**chi**^{i}(\tau )\delta /\delta x^{i}(\tau )+B_{i}(\tau )\delta /\delta {\bar {\

**chi**}}_{i}(\tau ))A(\Phi )} . In the BRST ...

###### Black women filmmakers

**Chi**(2018-2021) Twenties (2020-2021) Queen & Slim (2019) Boomerang (2020) Them (2021) 2021's Candyman opened at the top of ... A trailblazer in telling stories that are socially relevant and providing

**distribution**for stories that feature people of color ... Christmas on the

**Square**(2020) Down in the Delta (1998) The Watermelon Women (1996) Black is Blue (2014) Queen Sugar (2019) ... Beck, Bernard (2020-10-01). "Our Kind of Town: The

**Chi**, Lovecraft Country, and Black Lives That Matter on the Home Screen". ...

###### Brown University

**distribution**is ... The university recognizes thirteen active Greek organizations: six fraternities (Beta Omega

**Chi**, Beta Rho Pi, Delta Tau, Delta ... As commercial corridor frequented by students, Thayer is comparable to Harvard

**Square**or Berkeley's Telegraph Avenue. Wickenden ... The new curriculum eliminated mandatory "general education"

**distribution**requirements, made students "the architects of their ...

###### Political history of the United Kingdom (1979-present)

**Chi**-kwan Mark, "To 'educate' Deng Xiaoping in capitalism: Thatcher's visit to China and the future of Hong Kong in 1982." Cold ... A large London demonstration against the poll tax in Trafalgar

**Square**on 31 March 1990 - the day before it was introduced in ... where marginal changes in vote numbers and

**distribution**have disproportionate effects on the number of seats won. Accordingly, ...

###### Censorship in Hong Kong

**Chi**-ho was fired from the RTHK Radio 2 talk show. A few days later, a veteran ... The journal came under pressure to downgrade the importance of a report on the 1989 Tiananmen

**Square**protests and massacre. The ... By law, censorship is usually practised against the

**distribution**of certain materials, particularly child pornography, obscene ... "Hong Kong's RTHK fires popular pro-democracy radio host Tsang

**Chi**-ho". Hong Kong Free Press HKFP. 18 June 2021. Retrieved 29 ...

###### Plancherel theorem for spherical functions

**chi**_{\lambda }(e^{X})={\sum _{\sigma \ ... The Hilbert space H0 can be identified with L2(K\G/K), the space of K-biinvariant

**square**integrable functions on G. The ... defines a

**distribution**on G/K with support at the origin o. A further estimate for the integral shows that it is in fact given ...

**chi**_{\lambda }(\pi (f))=\int _{G}f(g)\cdot \varphi _{\lambda }(g)\,dg.} for f in Cc(K\G/K), where π(f) denotes the convolution ...

###### Studies of Waldorf education

**distributions**, correlations, regression, t-tests and

**chi**-

**square**tests. The results of Jelinek and Sun's study are ...

###### Fuzhou

**square**kilometres (8.5 sq mi) and now has 10.1

**square**kilometres (3.9 sq mi) built. It is ... On May 23, Japanese ships bombarded Mei-Hua, Huang-

**chi**and Pei-Chiao while Japanese planes continued to harass Chinese forces. ... and

**distribution**. Fuzhou High-tech Development Zone was set up in 1988 and approved by the State Council in March 1991. In 1995 ... It covers an area of 5.6

**square**kilometres (2.2 sq mi), and is in the area between Gushan Channel and Mawei Channel, Jiangbin ...

###### Statistical **Distributions** - **Chi** **Square** 1 **Distribution** - Range

###### cdfchi - Cumulative **distribution** function **chi**-**square** **distribution**

**chi**-

**square**

**distribution**to the incomplete

**distribution**. ... Upper limit of integration of the non-central

**chi**-

**square**

**distribution**. Input range: [0, +infinity). Search range: [0,1E300] ... Degrees of freedom of the

**chi**-

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###### A-**square** - isixsigma.com

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###### Binomial distribution6

- And is read as X is a discrete random variable that follows Binomial distribution with parameters n, p. (analyticsvidhya.com)
- Binomial distribution is a discrete probability distribution of the number of successes in 'n' independent experiments sequence. (analyticsvidhya.com)
- For example, Binary logistic regression has an assumption of the binomial distribution. (isixsigma.com)
- Rather, tests for proportions are based in the binomial distribution. (upenn.edu)
- Where the normal distribution gives you the probability of getting a value within a certain range , the binomial distribution gives you the point probabilities of getting x sucessesful trials out of N trials given a probability p of success. (upenn.edu)
- binom.test() is based on the binomial distribution, and should be used instead when possible, but it can only be used for one-sample type problems (i.e. it can't be used to see if two proportions are significantly different). (upenn.edu)

###### Hypothesis6

- One chapter is about ANOVA, F distribution, and the null hypothesis. (stackexchange.com)
- The null hypothesis (Ho) is that your data is not statistically different from a normal distribution. (isixsigma.com)
- Your alternate or alternative hypothesis (Ha) is that your data is different from a normal distribution. (isixsigma.com)
- The p-value, calculated using A-square, will tell you whether you can reject your null hypothesis or not. (isixsigma.com)
- Rely on the A-square and p-value to tell you how to react to your null hypothesis. (isixsigma.com)
- The AD statistic, also denoted as A-square, provides you the information on what decision to make about your null hypothesis. (isixsigma.com)

###### Cumulative Distribu2

###### Probability Distribu1

- Exploring The Different Types Of Probability Distribution Function! (analyticsvidhya.com)

###### Asymptotic5

- However, it should be noted that these popular Chi-square tests are asymptotic in nature and are useful when the cell frequencies are "not too small. (nih.gov)
- In this article, we explore the accuracy of the Chi-square tests through an extensive simulation study and then propose their bootstrap versions that appear to work better than the asymptotic Chi-square tests. (nih.gov)
- This is an important ingredient to a tractable asymptotic distribution of our estimators. (econometricsociety.org)
- In general, the asymptotic distribution of our estimators is found to be mixed normal due to random norming. (econometricsociety.org)
- However, the asymptotic distribution of our test statistics is still chi‐square. (econometricsociety.org)

###### Test14

- Test that S is drawn from a normal distribution and return an embedded report. (maplesoft.com)
- To test the mutual independence of two qualitative variables (or attributes), it is a common practice to follow the Chi-square tests (Pearson's as well as likelihood ratio test) based on data in the form of a contingency table. (nih.gov)
- We will also explain the benefits of the A-square calculation as the output of the Anderson Darling Normality Test (AD) and offer a few tips for understanding when and how to use A-square. (isixsigma.com)
- It is used to test whether a data sample comes from a specific distribution. (isixsigma.com)
- What you are really confirming with the AD test and A-square is whether the distribution of your data is close enough to normal you can state you fulfilled the normality assumption to use your selected statistical tool for analysis. (isixsigma.com)
- The AD test can be used to test any distribution, not just the normal. (isixsigma.com)
- This kind of test is different in nature from testing whether the distribution of success vs. failures is independent from which group theY are in (a chi-squared test), but the result is about the same. (upenn.edu)
- For this kind of data, just use a chi-squared test (to be discussed). (upenn.edu)
- The Chi-Square test is the most commonly used test for the independence of the distribution of some categorical variable into some groups. (upenn.edu)
- Allele and genotype frequencies between healthy subjects and glaucoma patients were compared by the chi(2) test, and intraocular pressure (IOP), cup/disc ratio (C/D) and visual field indices (MD and PSD) were compared among different APOE, p53, and p21 genotypes in POAG group. (nih.gov)
- 11. A test of homogeneity of distributions when observations are subject to measurement errors. (nih.gov)
- The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. (nih.gov)
- A likelihood */ /* ratio test for a parameter is obtained by referring the difference in */ /* -2 times the log of the real data likelihoods between a model */ /* including an effect and a model omitting that effect to a chi square */ /* distribution with degrees of freedom appropriate for the effect. (nih.gov)
- The likelihood ratio test is an approximation, and renders a chi-square distribution (which is converted to Z-value in the 3dLME output). (nih.gov)

###### Confidence Intervals1

- 99% confidence intervals and is based on the chi-square distribution. (cdc.gov)

###### Parameters1

- From DCDFLIB: Library of Fortran Routines for Cumulative Distribution Functions, Inverses, and Other Parameters (February, 1994) Barry W. Brown, James Lovato and Kathy Russell. (scilab.org)

###### Degrees of free1

- Degrees of freedom of the chi-square distribution. (scilab.org)

###### Observations1

- This confidence interval contains all values for the parameter of the geometric distribution for which the observations are still sufficiently likely. (cdc.gov)

###### Tests3

- Other statistical tests might have an assumption of F or Chi-Square distributions. (isixsigma.com)
- Chi-square tests were used to analyze variation in the distribution of these themes by survey mode. (cdc.gov)
- The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another. (nih.gov)

###### Statistical4

- In statistical terms, a distribution function is a mathematical expression that describes the probability of different possible outcomes for an experiment. (analyticsvidhya.com)
- It is a statistical term that describes the probability distribution of a continuous random variable. (analyticsvidhya.com)
- One distribution in particular, the normal distribution, is an underlying assumption for many of the statistical tools you might use to analyze your data. (isixsigma.com)
- In addition to an underlying assumption of normality for certain statistical tools there are a number of other types of distribution for other tools. (isixsigma.com)

###### Continuous3

- It is another method to describe the distribution of a random variable (either continuous or discrete). (analyticsvidhya.com)
- It is described as a symmetrical continuous distribution defined by the mean and standard deviation. (isixsigma.com)
- When working with categorical data (vs Continuous or Count), the normal distribution is no longer appropriate one for our purposes. (upenn.edu)

###### Variance1

- A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. (nih.gov)

###### Derivation1

- I'm looking for the derivation of the F distribution. (stackexchange.com)

###### Spreadsheet2

- This spreadsheet contains calculators that produce chi square values and p-values from observed frequencies for six common (1x2, 1x3, 2x2, 2x3, 3x2, and 3x3) contingency tables. (missouristate.edu)
- Using analysis capabilities in spreadsheet software and two well-maintained, supported, and frequently updated, popular software packages-Minitab and SAS JMP-the third edition of Applied Reliability is an easy-to-use guide to basic descriptive statistics, reliability concepts, and the properties of lifetime distributions such as the exponential, Weibull, and lognormal. (routledge.com)

###### Determining1

- Determining the distribution of your data is often the first step in analyzing your data. (isixsigma.com)

###### Denote1

- And for instance, if we use X to denote the events, the probability distribution of X would take the value 0.5 for X=heads, and 0.5 for X=tails. (analyticsvidhya.com)

###### Calculate1

- A-square is used to calculate your p-value. (isixsigma.com)

###### Normal distribution2

- The mean, median, and mode of the data are the same for a normal distribution. (isixsigma.com)
- In other words, small values of A-square will indicate your data is statistically the same as a normal distribution. (isixsigma.com)

###### Data4

- Based on the types of data we deal with, we have two types of distribution functions. (analyticsvidhya.com)
- Today, computer software is available to provide you a graphical picture of the data along with the A-square and p values. (isixsigma.com)
- This information will give you confirmation about the distribution of your data. (isixsigma.com)
- 19. Pair copula construction for longitudinal data with zero-inflated power series marginal distributions. (nih.gov)

###### Formula2

- Formula 26.4.19 of Abramowitz and Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions (1966) is used to reduce the chi-square distribution to the incomplete distribution. (scilab.org)
- The 0.1396 was calculated from the A-square formula shown above. (isixsigma.com)

###### Infinity1

- F$ distribution when the second degree of freedom approaches infinity? (stackexchange.com)

###### Relationship1

- Extreme Value Distribution Relationship. (routledge.com)

###### Ratio1

- What is the distribution of this ratio? (stackexchange.com)

###### Important2

- Before deep-diving into the types of distributions, it is important to revise the fundamental concepts like Probability Density Function (PDF), Probability Mass Function (PMF), and Cumulative Density Function (CDF). (analyticsvidhya.com)
- Why is A-square important to understand? (isixsigma.com)

###### Determine1

- Fortunately, you will not have to do the complex hand calculations to determine A-square. (isixsigma.com)

###### Functions1

- In this article, we will be learning different types of Probability distribution functions. (analyticsvidhya.com)

###### Population1

- Build a sample from a Rayleigh distribution and compare with the population mean and population standard deviation. (maplesoft.com)

###### Function2

- What is a distribution function? (analyticsvidhya.com)
- F ( i )(1- F ( i )) i =1 the probability density function of the geometric distribution, F(i) is the cumulative density function corresponding to p(i) and ( ) is the empirical cumulative density function. (cdc.gov)

###### Impact1

- 14. Impact of microbial count distributions on human health risk estimates. (nih.gov)

###### Answer1

- A-square provides the answer to that question. (isixsigma.com)

###### Results2

- Here is an example of a probability plot that provides the results for A-square. (isixsigma.com)
- Stool samples were examined 2-3 weeks and 3 months after treatment and results were tested with chi-squared. (who.int)

###### Areas1

- Noncentral F-distribution is used frequently in communication areas. (stackexchange.com)

###### Count1

- 20. On performance of parametric and distribution-free models for zero-inflated and over-dispersed count responses. (nih.gov)