Cell Respiration: The metabolic process of all living cells (animal and plant) in which oxygen is used to provide a source of energy for the cell.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Rhus: A plant genus of the family Anacardiaceae, order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae. It is a source of gallotannin (TANNIC ACID) and of somewhat edible fruit. Do not confuse with TOXICODENDRON which used to be part of this genus.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Cheyne-Stokes Respiration: An abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by alternating periods of apnea and deep, rapid breathing. The cycle begins with slow, shallow breaths that gradually increase in depth and rate and is then followed by a period of apnea. The period of apnea can last 5 to 30 seconds, then the cycle repeats every 45 seconds to 3 minutes.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Oxidative Phosphorylation: Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Antimycin A: An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Uncoupling Agents: Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Cyanides: Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.Electron Transport Complex IV: A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Oligomycins: A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Succinates: Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Mitochondria, Muscle: Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Mitochondria, Heart: The mitochondria of the myocardium.Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Molybdenum: A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Ultracentrifugation: Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Succinic Acid: A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Potassium Cyanide: A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes, but has been shown to be an especially potent inhibitor of heme enzymes and hemeproteins. It is used in many industrial processes.Respiratory Rate: The number of times an organism breathes with the lungs (RESPIRATION) per unit time, usually per minute.Cytochromes: Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Polarography: An electrochemical technique for measuring the current that flows in solution as a function of an applied voltage. The observed polarographic wave, resulting from the electrochemical response, depends on the way voltage is applied (linear sweep or differential pulse) and the type of electrode used. Usually a mercury drop electrode is used.Shewanella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods. It is a saprophytic, marine organism which is often isolated from spoiling fish.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Carbonyl Cyanide p-Trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone: A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Electron Transport Chain Complex Proteins: A complex of enzymes and PROTON PUMPS located on the inner membrane of the MITOCHONDRIA and in bacterial membranes. The protein complex provides energy in the form of an electrochemical gradient, which may be used by either MITOCHONDRIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES or BACTERIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES.Rotenone: A botanical insecticide that is an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport.Hydrodynamics: The motion of fluids, especially noncompressible liquids, under the influence of internal and external forces.Electron Transport Complex I: A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase complex that catalyzes the conversion of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol. In MITOCHONDRIA the complex also couples its reaction to the transport of PROTONS across the internal mitochondrial membrane. The NADH DEHYDROGENASE component of the complex can be isolated and is listed as EC 1.6.99.3.Malates2-Naphthylamine: A naphthalene derivative with carcinogenic action.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Atractyloside: A glycoside of a kaurene type diterpene that is found in some plants including Atractylis gummifera (ATRACTYLIS); COFFEE; XANTHIUM, and CALLILEPIS. Toxicity is due to inhibition of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDE TRANSLOCASE.Oligohymenophorea: A class of ciliate protozoa. Characteristics include the presence of a well developed oral apparatus and oral cilia being clearly distinct from somatic cilia.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Carbon Cycle: The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.2,4-Dinitrophenol: A toxic dye, chemically related to trinitrophenol (picric acid), used in biochemical studies of oxidative processes where it uncouples oxidative phosphorylation. It is also used as a metabolic stimulant. (Stedman, 26th ed)Tissues: Collections of differentiated CELLS, such as EPITHELIUM; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; MUSCLES; and NERVE TISSUE. Tissues are cooperatively arranged to form organs with specialized functions such as RESPIRATION; DIGESTION; REPRODUCTION; MOVEMENT; and others.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Spondylitis, Ankylosing: A chronic inflammatory condition affecting the axial joints, such as the SACROILIAC JOINT and other intervertebral or costovertebral joints. It occurs predominantly in young males and is characterized by pain and stiffness of joints (ANKYLOSIS) with inflammation at tendon insertions.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Octoxynol: Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Dinitrophenols: Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.Succinate Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.Isoelectric Point: The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.Fluorescence: The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Fumarates: Compounds based on fumaric acid.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose: A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Respiratory Physiological Processes: Biological actions and events that support the functions of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Receptors, Steroid: Proteins found usually in the cytoplasm or nucleus that specifically bind steroid hormones and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. The steroid receptor-steroid hormone complex regulates the transcription of specific genes.Nitrate Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a cytochrome protein that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM.Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial: The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Ubiquinone: A lipid-soluble benzoquinone which is involved in ELECTRON TRANSPORT in mitochondrial preparations. The compound occurs in the majority of aerobic organisms, from bacteria to higher plants and animals.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Carbonyl Cyanide m-Chlorophenyl Hydrazone: A proton ionophore. It is commonly used as an uncoupling agent and inhibitor of photosynthesis because of its effects on mitochondrial and chloroplast membranes.Mitochondrial Swelling: An increase in MITOCHONDRIAL VOLUME due to an influx of fluid; it occurs in hypotonic solutions due to osmotic pressure and in isotonic solutions as a result of altered permeability of the membranes of respiring mitochondria.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Pyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Tetramethylphenylenediamine: Used in the form of the hydrochloride as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.PyruvatesCarrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Citrate (si)-Synthase: Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.7.Triamcinolone Acetonide: An esterified form of TRIAMCINOLONE. It is an anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid used topically in the treatment of various skin disorders. Intralesional, intramuscular, and intra-articular injections are also administered under certain conditions.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Amobarbital: A barbiturate with hypnotic and sedative properties (but not antianxiety). Adverse effects are mainly a consequence of dose-related CNS depression and the risk of dependence with continued use is high. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p565)Citric Acid Cycle: A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.Darkness: The absence of light.NADH Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the oxidation of NADH to NAD. In eukaryotes the enzyme can be found as a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex I. Under experimental conditions the enzyme can use CYTOCHROME C GROUP as the reducing cofactor. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 1.6.2.1.Electron Transport Complex II: A flavoprotein oxidase complex that contains iron-sulfur centers. It catalyzes the oxidation of SUCCINATE to fumarate and couples the reaction to the reduction of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol.Receptors, Estradiol: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estradiol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate DNA transcription.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Wolinella: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the bovine RUMEN, the human gingival sulcus, and dental PULPITIS infections.Nitrate Reductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for the reduction of NITRATES.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Receptors, Glucocorticoid: Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind glucocorticoids and mediate their cellular effects. The glucocorticoid receptor-glucocorticoid complex acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of DNA. Glucocorticoids were named for their actions on blood glucose concentration, but they have equally important effects on protein and fat metabolism. Cortisol is the most important example.Cytochrome c Group: A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Metabolism: The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.MercaptoethanolMembrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Creatine Kinase, Mitochondrial Form: A form of creatine kinase found in the MITOCHONDRIA.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Mitochondrial ADP, ATP Translocases: A class of nucleotide translocases found abundantly in mitochondria that function as integral components of the inner mitochondrial membrane. They facilitate the exchange of ADP and ATP between the cytosol and the mitochondria, thereby linking the subcellular compartments of ATP production to those of ATP utilization.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Nitrite Reductases: A group of enzymes that oxidize diverse nitrogenous substances to yield nitrite. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Sodium Cyanide: A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes and is used as a test reagent for the function of chemoreceptors. It is also used in many industrial processes.Ketoglutaric Acids: A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Potassium Chloride: A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.PhotochemistryNitrites: Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Chemoreceptor Cells: Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Electron Transport Complex III: A multisubunit enzyme complex that contains CYTOCHROME B GROUP; CYTOCHROME C1; and iron-sulfur centers. It catalyzes the oxidation of ubiquinol to UBIQUINONE, and transfers the electrons to CYTOCHROME C. In MITOCHONDRIA the redox reaction is coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Protein Denaturation: Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.Isoelectric Focusing: Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.Respiratory Center: Part of the brain located in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA and PONS. It receives neural, chemical and hormonal signals, and controls the rate and depth of respiratory movements of the DIAPHRAGM and other respiratory muscles.Apnea: A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.Anion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte: A major integral transmembrane protein of the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE. It is the anion exchanger responsible for electroneutral transporting in CHLORIDE IONS in exchange of BICARBONATE IONS allowing CO2 uptake and transport from tissues to lungs by the red blood cells. Genetic mutations that result in a loss of the protein function have been associated with type 4 HEREDITARY SPHEROCYTOSIS.Arrhythmia, Sinus: Irregular HEART RATE caused by abnormal function of the SINOATRIAL NODE. It is characterized by a greater than 10% change between the maximum and the minimum sinus cycle length or 120 milliseconds.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Hydroxyapatites: A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Adenine NucleotidesMitochondrial Membranes: The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Trityl CompoundsGene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Manganese: A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Mitochondrial Diseases: Diseases caused by abnormal function of the MITOCHONDRIA. They may be caused by mutations, acquired or inherited, in mitochondrial DNA or in nuclear genes that code for mitochondrial components. They may also be the result of acquired mitochondria dysfunction due to adverse effects of drugs, infections, or other environmental causes.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Tidal Volume: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Affinity Labels: Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Cytochromes c: Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Phosphatidylcholine-Sterol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme secreted from the liver into the plasma of many mammalian species. It catalyzes the esterification of the hydroxyl group of lipoprotein cholesterol by the transfer of a fatty acid from the C-2 position of lecithin. In familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency disease, the absence of the enzyme results in an excess of unesterified cholesterol in plasma. EC 2.3.1.43.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).

Prognostic value of nocturnal Cheyne-Stokes respiration in chronic heart failure. (1/97)

BACKGROUND: Nocturnal Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) occurs frequently in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), and it may be associated with sympathetic activation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether CSR could affect prognosis in patients with CHF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixty-two CHF patients with left ventricular ejection fraction /=30/h and left atria >/=25 cm2. CONCLUSIONS: The AHI is a powerful independent predictor of poor prognosis in clinically stable patients with CHF. The presence of an AHI >/=30/h adds prognostic information compared with other clinical, echocardiographic, and autonomic data and identifies patients at very high risk for subsequent cardiac death.  (+info)

High prevalence and persistence of sleep apnoea in patients referred for acute left ventricular failure and medically treated over 2 months. (2/97)

AIMS: Cardiac failure patients were studied systematically using polysomnography 1 month after recovering from acute pulmonary oedema, and again after 2 months of optimal medical treatment for cardiac failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: This prospective study of consecutive patients was conducted in a cardiac care unit of a university hospital. V o(2)measurements and left ventricular ejection fraction were recorded. Thirty-four patients, initially recruited with pulmonary oedema, improved after 1 month of medical treatment to NYHA II or III. They were aged less than 75 years and had a left ventricular ejection fraction less than 45% at the time of inclusion. Age was 62 (9) years, body mass index= 27 (5) kg x m(-2)and an ejection fraction= 30 (10)%. Eighteen of the 34 patients (53%) had coronary artery disease. Twenty-eight of the 34 had sleep apnoea syndrome with an apnoea+hypopnoea index >15 x h(-1)of sleep. Thus, the prevalence of sleep apnoea in this population was 82%. Twenty-one of 28 (75%) patients had central sleep apnoea and seven of 28 (25%) had obstructive sleep apnoea. Patients with central sleep apnoea had a lower Pa co(2)than those with obstructive sleep apnoea (33 (5) vs 37 (5) mmHg, P<0.005). Significant correlations were found between apnoea+hypopnoea index and peak exercise oxygen consumption (r= -0.73, P<0.01), and apnoea+hypopnoea index and Pa co(2)(r= -0.42, P = 0.03). When only central sleep apnoea patients were considered, a correlation between apnoea+hypopnoea index and left ventricular ejection fraction was also demonstrated (r= -0.46, P<0.04). After 2 months of optimal medical treatment only two patients (both with central sleep apnoea) showed improvement (apnoea+hypopnoea index <15 x h(-1)). CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated a high prevalence of sleep apnoea, which persisted after 2 months of medical treatment, in patients referred for acute left ventricular failure. Central sleep apnoea can be considered a marker of the severity of congestive heart failure.  (+info)

Second by second patterns in cortical electroencephalograph and systolic blood pressure during Cheyne-Stokes. (3/97)

Little is known about how arousal develops during the ventilatory phase of Cheyne-Stokes breathing. This study employs neural network analysis of electroencephalograms (EEGs) to describe these changes and relate them to changes in systolic blood pressure, which is probably a subcortical marker of arousal. Six patients with Cheyne-Stokes respiration (apnoea/hypopnoea index 32-69 h(-1)) caused by stable chronic heart failure underwent polysomnography including arterial beat-to-beat systolic blood pressure determination. Periods of 15 sequential apnoeas during nonrapid eye movement sleep were identified for each subject. For each apnoea, the EEG was examined second-by-second using neural net analysis from 28 s before to 28 s after apnoea termination (first return of oronasal airflow), and this was compared with the systolic blood pressure pattern. During the apnoeic phase, sleep deepened progressively. Arousal started to develop at or just before apnoea termination and progresses through the breathing phase. The rise and fall in the systolic blood pressure closely followed the rise and fall in electroencephalographic sleep depth. In conclusion, during Cheyne-Stokes breathing, cortical electroencephalographic arousal begins at or just before the resumption of breathing. Cortical electroencephalographic sleep depth changes are closely mirrored by changes in arterial systolic blood pressure, suggesting that the state changes in the cortical and basal brain structures may be synchronous.  (+info)

Oscillatory breathing patterns during wakefulness in patients with chronic heart failure: clinical implications and role of augmented peripheral chemosensitivity. (4/97)

BACKGROUND: Oscillatory breathing patterns characterized by rises and falls in ventilation with apnea (Cheyne-Stokes respiration [CSR]) or without apnea (periodic breathing [PB]) commonly occur during the daytime in chronic heart failure (CHF). We have prospectively characterized patients with cyclical breathing in terms of clinical characteristics, indices of autonomic control, prognosis, and the role of peripheral chemosensitivity. METHODS AND RESULTS: To determine cyclical breathing pattern, power spectral analysis was applied to 30-minute recordings of respiration in 74 stable CHF patients. Analyses of heart rate variability and baroreflex sensitivity were used to assess autonomic balance. Peripheral chemosensitivity was assessed with the transient hypoxia method. We also determined whether the suppression of peripheral chemoreceptor activity (hyperoxia or dihydrocodeine) would influence the respiratory pattern. Cyclical respiration was found in 49 (66%) patients (22 [30%] CSR, 27 [36%] PB) and was associated with more advanced CHF symptoms, impaired autonomic balance, and increased chemosensitivity (0.80 and 0.75 versus 0.34 L. min(-1). %SaO(2)(-1), P<0.001, for CSR and PB versus normal breathing, respectively). Transient hyperoxia abolished oscillatory breathing in 7 of 8 patients. Dihydrocodeine administration decreased chemosensitivity by 42% (P=0.05), which correlated with improvement in respiratory pattern. Cyclical breathing predicted poor 2-year survival (relative risk 9.41, P<0.01, by Cox proportional hazards analysis), independent of peak oxygen consumption (P=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: An oscillatory breathing pattern during the daytime is a marker of impaired autonomic regulation and poor outcome. Augmented activity of peripheral chemoreceptors may be involved in the genesis of this respiratory pattern. Modulation of peripheral chemosensitivity can reduce or abolish abnormal respiratory patterns and may be an option in the management of CHF patients with oscillatory breathing.  (+info)

Effects of continuous positive airway pressure on cardiovascular outcomes in heart failure patients with and without Cheyne-Stokes respiration. (5/97)

BACKGROUND: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) improves cardiac function in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) who also have Cheyne-Stokes respiration and central sleep apnea (CSR-CSA). However, the effects of CPAP in CHF patients without CSR-CSA have not been tested, and the long-term effects of this treatment on clinical cardiovascular outcomes are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a randomized, controlled trial in which 66 patients with CHF (29 with and 37 without CSR-CSA) were randomized to either a group that received CPAP nightly or to a control group. Change in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) from baseline to 3 months and the combined mortality-cardiac transplantation rate over the median 2.2-year follow-up period were compared between the CPAP-treated and control groups. For the entire group of patients, CPAP had no significant effect on LVEF, but it was associated with a 60% relative risk reduction (95% confidence interval, 2% to 64%) in mortality-cardiac transplantation rate in patients who complied with CPAP therapy. Stratified analysis of patients with and without CSR-CSA revealed that those with CSR-CSA experienced both a significant improvement in LVEF at 3 months and a relative risk reduction of 81% (95% confidence interval, 26% to 95%) in the mortality-cardiac transplantation rate of those who used CPAP. CPAP had no significant effect on either of these outcomes in patients without CSR-CSA. CONCLUSIONS: CPAP improves cardiac function in CHF patients with CSR-CSA but not in those without it. Although not definitive, our findings also suggest that CPAP can reduce the combined mortality-cardiac transplantation rate in those CHF patients with CSR-CSA who comply with therapy.  (+info)

Quantitative general theory for periodic breathing in chronic heart failure and its clinical implications. (6/97)

BACKGROUND: In patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), periodic breathing (PB) predicts poor prognosis. Clinical studies have identified numerous risk factors for PB (which also includes Cheyne-Stokes respiration). Computer simulations have shown that oscillations can arise from delayed negative feedback. However, no simple general theory quantitatively explains PB and its mechanisms of treatment using widely-understood clinical concepts. Therefore, we introduce a new approach to the quantitative analysis of the dynamic physiology governing cardiorespiratory stability in CHF. METHODS AND RESULTS: An algebraic formula was derived (presented as a simple 2D plot), enabling prediction from easily acquired clinical data to determine whether respiration will be unstable. Clinical validation was performed in 20 patients with CHF (10 with PB and 10 without) and 10 healthy normal subjects. Measurements, including chemoreflex sensitivity (S) and delay (delta), alveolar volume (V(L)), and end-tidal CO(2) fraction (C), were applied to the stability formula. The breathing pattern was correctly predicted in 28 of the 30 subjects. The principal combined parameter (CS)x(delta/V(L)) was higher in patients with PB (14.2+/-3.0) than in those without PB (3.1+/-0.5; P:=0.0005) or in normal controls (2.4+/-0.5; P:=0.0003). This was because of differences in both chemoreflex sensitivity (1749+/-235 versus 620+/-103 and 526+/-104 L/min per atm CO(2); P:=0.0001 and P:<0.0001, respectively) and chemoreflex delay (0.53+/-0.06 vs 0.40+/-0.06 and 0.30+/-0.04 min; P:=NS and P:=0.02). CONCLUSION: This analytical approach identifies the physiological abnormalities that are important in the genesis of PB and explicitly defines the region of predicted instability. The clinical data identify chemoreflex gain and delay time (rather than hyperventilation or hypocapnia) as causes of PB.  (+info)

Cognitive impairment in heart failure with Cheyne-Stokes respiration. (7/97)

OBJECTIVES: To document the degree of cognitive impairment in stable heart failure, and to determine its relation to the presence of Cheyne-Stokes respiration during sleep. SUBJECTS: 104 heart failure patients and 21 healthy normal volunteers. METHODS: Overnight oximetry was used (previously validated as a screening tool for Cheyne-Stokes respiration in heart failure). Cognitive function was assessed using a battery of neuropsychological tests. Left ventricular function was assessed by echocardiography. RESULTS: Heart failure patients performed worse than the healthy volunteers in tests that measured vigilance. Reaction times were 48% slower (0.89 (0.03) s v 0.60 (0.05) s p < 0.005) and they hit twice as many obstacles on the Steer Clear simulator (75 (6.4) v 33 (4.6); p < 0.005). Cognitive impairment within the heart failure group was unrelated to either the presence of Cheyne-Stokes respiration, the degree of left ventricular dysfunction, or indices of nocturnal oxygenation. CONCLUSIONS: Vigilance was impaired in heart failure but this did not appear to be related to the presence of Cheyne-Stokes respiration during sleep. Impaired vigilance as measured on the Steer Clear test has been associated with an increased risk of motor vehicle accidents. The issue of fitness to drive in heart failure requires further attention.  (+info)

Characterisation of breathing and associated central autonomic dysfunction in the Rett disorder. (8/97)

AIM: To investigate breathing rhythm and brain stem autonomic control in patients with Rett disorder. SETTING: Two university teaching hospitals in the United Kingdom and the Rett Centre, Sweden. PATIENTS: 56 female patients with Rett disorder, aged 2-35 years; 11 controls aged 5-28 years. DESIGN: One hour recordings of breathing movement, blood pressure, ECG R-R interval, heart rate, transcutaneous blood gases, cardiac vagal tone, and cardiac sensitivity to baroreflex measured on-line with synchronous EEG and video. Breathing rhythms were analysed in 47 cases. RESULTS: Respiratory rhythm was normal during sleep and abnormal in the waking state. Forced and apneustic breathing were prominent among 5-10 year olds, and Valsalva breathing in the over 18 year olds, who were also most likely to breathe normally. Inadequate breathing peaked among 10-18 year olds. Inadequate and exaggerated breathing was associated with vacant spells. Resting cardiac vagal tone and cardiac sensitivity to baroreflex were reduced. CONCLUSIONS: Labile respiratory rhythms and poor integrative inhibition in Rett disorder suggest brain immaturity. Linking this to an early monoaminergic defect suggests possible targets for the MECP2 gene in clinical intervention. Exaggerated and inadequate autonomic responses may contribute to sudden death.  (+info)

CSR - Cheyne-Stokes respiration. Looking for abbreviations of CSR? It is Cheyne-Stokes respiration. Cheyne-Stokes respiration listed as CSR
Cheyne-Stokes respiration /ˈtʃeɪnˈstoʊks/ is an abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by progressively deeper, and sometimes faster, breathing followed by a gradual decrease that results in a temporary stop in breathing called an apnea. The pattern repeats, with each cycle usually taking 30 seconds to 2 minutes. It is an oscillation of ventilation between apnea and hyperpnea with a crescendo-diminuendo pattern, and is associated with changing serum partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Cheyne-Stokes respiration and periodic breathing are the two regions on a spectrum of severity of oscillatory tidal volume. The distinction lies in what is observed at the trough of ventilation: Cheyne-Stokes respiration involves apnea (since apnea is a prominent feature in their original description) while periodic breathing involves hypopnea (abnormally small but not absent breaths). These phenomena can occur during wakefulness or during sleep, where they are called the central sleep apnea ...
In HF patients, increased LV filling pressures can lead to pulmonary congestion and activation of pulmonary vagal irritant receptors, provoking hyperventilation and hypocapnia. Central sleep apnea occurs when arterial carbon dioxide partial pressures fall below the apneic threshold. The cycle length of alternating periods of hypocapnia-induced apnea and reflex hyperventilation (i.e., Cheyne-Stokes respiration [1]) is inversely proportional to cardiac output (12)and thus directly related to the severity of HF. A reduced LV function delays the circulation time between the lungs and the chemoreceptors (13)and increases the sensitivity of chemoreceptors, especially to carbon dioxide (14). The degree of carbon dioxide hypersensitivity is a major determinant of Cheyne-Stokes respiration (15). An increase in chemoreflex sensitivity is mirrored by an elevated ventilatory response to exercise in HF patients (16).. Our study is the first to show that CRT improves cardiac function and reduces the severity ...
Background and aims: The effects of central sleep apnea in Cheyne-Stokes respiration on sleep-related symptoms and quality of life are not very well established. We aimed to investigate whether Cheyne-Stokes respiration is related to health-related quality of life. We also studied the impact on daytime sleepiness and nocturnal dyspnea.. Methods: Included were 203 consecutive patients, stabilized following in-hospital treatment for decompensated congestive heart failure. They underwent overnight cardiorespiratory sleep apnea recordings in hospital and answered a set of questions on symptoms and health-related quality of life questionnaires in the form of the Nottingham Health Profile and the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire. After excluding seven patients with predominantly obstructive apneas and 14 with insufficient recordings, 182 patients were included in the final analysis.. Results: One third of the patients had an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of ,30. Falling asleep in front ...
Mehta and Groth raise several important points about our study. Because there was only a single reassessment of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 3 months into the trial, we could not evaluate whether improvements in LVEF were sustained beyond this period. However, we are presently conducting a long-term, multicenter, randomized trial of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) and Cheyne-Stokes respiration with central sleep apnea (CSR-CSA), the Canadian Positive Airway Pressure for Heart Failure (CANPAP) trial, with cardiac transplant-free survival as the primary outcome.R1 Serial measurements of LVEF will be made throughout the 5-year duration of the trial. This will allow us to determine whether early improvements in LVEF are sustained and related to the primary outcome.. Although we did not measure the effects of CPAP on the severity of CSR-CSA in our latest trial, we have done so previously. Naughton et alR2 demonstrated a 65% ...
We reasoned that Cheyne-Stokes respiration during sleep might lead to cognitive dysfunction as a result of either apnoea related cerebral hypoxia or increased sleep fragmentation. This hypothesis was based upon the observations from earlier studies in healthy volunteers and patients with obstructive sleep apnoea. Hypoxia has been shown to impair cognitive function in normal subjects at altitude1and in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.13 Sleep fragmentation has been shown to increase subjective and objective measurements of daytime sleepiness2 14 and cognitive dysfunction2 in normal healthy volunteers.. Obstructive sleep apnoea is associated with cognitive impairment that is reversed by continuous positive airways pressure.15 The origin of this impairment is unclear. Findlay reported that nocturnal hypoxia alone predicted impaired cognitive function.16 Other investigators report that both hypoxia and sleep fragmentation have a role in generating cognitive dysfunction. Bedard and colleagues ...
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Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) is of major prognostic impact and expresses respiratory instability. Other parameters are daytime pCO₂, VE/VCO₂-slope during exercise, exertional oscillatory ventilation
How serious is cheyne-stokes respiration and when is it important to seek medical attention? My device has indicated 1 episode on May 4, 2016 2 episodes on July 5, 2016 [AHI 11.93 CSR 15.06% 10:04:06
Assessment of the dynamic interactions between cardiovascular signals can provide valuable information that improves the understanding of cardiovascular control. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is known to provide information about the autonomic heart rate modulation mechanism. Using the HRV signal, we aimed to obtain parameters for classifying patients with and without chronic heart failure (CHF), and with periodic breathing (PB), non-periodic breathing (nPB), and Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) patterns. An electrocardiogram (ECG) and a respiratory flow signal were recorded in 36 elderly patients: 18 patients with CHF and 18 patients without CHF. According to the clinical criteria, the patients were classified into the follow groups: 19 patients with nPB pattern, 7 with PB pattern, 4 with Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR), and 6 non-classified patients (problems with respiratory signal). From the HRV signal, parameters in the time and frequency domain were calculated. Frequency domain ...
Adaptive servoventiation therapy (ASV) is designed to treat hypocapnic central sleep apnoea (Cheyne-Stokes respiration) in heart failure (HF) . It remains unclear whether this therapy increases stroke volume (SV) and if, this is mediated by a decrease in cardiac afterload due to increased parasympathetic nervous activity (PNA) or by a change in baroreceptor reflex sensitivity.. 12 patients with HF (12 male; 70 ± 9 years; NYHA ≥ II; EF ≤ 45% and Cheyne- Stokes respiration) and 14 healthy volunteers (13 male, 24 ± 4 years, EF ≥ 60%, AHI , 5/h) were ventilated non-invasively for 1 h with ASV (PaceWave™). Hemodynamic effects were analyzed non-invasively and compared to findings 30 min before and after ASV.. Changes in SV on ASV were significantly different between both groups (+5 ± 8% in HF patients vs. -4 ± 9% in volunteers, p=0.01). HF demonstrated a significant increase in markers of PNA (HFnuRRI) during ASV (56 ± 21 % vs. 68 ± 20 % on ASV; p=0.02), whereas volunteers showed a shift ...
The current study demonstrated for the first time that a novel computer algorithm based on a combination of nasal air flow and photoplethysmographic pulse wave signals may be used to accurately detect and differentiate obstructive and central sleep apnea events. In addition, an algorithm based on the pulse oximeter signal alone provided a good quantitative estimate of SDB severity.. OSA, the most common type of SDB, has been associated with cardiovascular, metabolic, and pulmonary comorbidities.20 In the light of a growing need for diagnosis and treatment of SDB patients, unattended home sleep studies using portable monitoring devices have been widely applied in the clinical setting. For instance, ambulatory cardiorespiratory polygraphy have been used for CSA/Cheyne-Stokes respiration detection in heart failure patients.2,21 According to the AASM, a minimum of heart rate, oxygen saturation, and respiratory analysis (e.g., by airflow or peripheral arterial tone) is required for out-of-center ...
CSA is especially relevant to CHF. The prevalence of CSA in CHF patients is dependent on various factors, such as heart failure etiology, gender, age, ejection fraction, and hemodynamic status, and has been estimated at 40% to 60%.2,3 Cheyne-Stokes respiration occurs during CSA and is a distinct pattern of periodic breathing with alternating crescendo-decrescendo sequences of hyperventilation and apnea (ie, complete breathing cessation).. CSA may have an important influence on prognosis, in that its presence is associated with increased mortality in CHF patients.3 This effect appears to be independent of other known risk factors, such as left ventricular ejection fraction or peak oxygen consumption.. Although the association of CSA with CHF has been recognized for decades, it is unclear whether CSA directly affects CHF pathophysiology and can therefore be causally linked to prognosis, or whether it is rather an index of the severity of CHF. Evidence implicating CSA in CHF progression includes ...
High altitude periodic breathing (PB) shares some common pathophysiologic aspects with sleep apnea, Cheyne-Stokes respiration and PB in heart failure patients. Methods that allow quantifying instabilities of respiratory control provide valuable insights in physiologic mechanisms and help to identify therapeutic targets. Under the hypothesis that high altitude PB appears even during physical activity and can be identified in comparison to visual analysis in conditions of low SNR, this study aims to identify PB by characterizing the respiratory pattern through the respiratory volume signal. A number of spectral parameters are extracted from the power spectral density (PSD) of the volume signal, derived from respiratory inductive plethysmography and evaluated through a linear discriminant analysis. A dataset of 34 healthy mountaineers ascending to Mt. Muztagh Ata, China (7,546 m) visually labeled as PB and non periodic breathing (nPB) is analyzed. All climbing periods within all the ascents are ...
We investigated the relationship between sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) while awake as well as mortality. Eighty-nine consecutive outpatients (29 females) with congestive heart failure (CHF; left ventricular ejection fraction, LVEF ,45%) were prospectively evaluated. The presence of SDB and of CSR while awake before sleep onset was investigated by polysomnography. SDB prevalence was 81 and 56%, using apnea-hypopnea index cutoffs ,5 and ,15, respectively. CHF etiologies were similar according to the prevalence of SDB and sleep pattern ...
Cheyne-Stokes respiration, an abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by progressively deeper and sometimes faster breathing, followed by a gradual decrease that results in a temporary stop in breathing called an ...
The pattern of breathing refers to the respiratory rate and rhythm, the depth of breathing or tidal volume, and the relative amount of time spent in inspiration and expiration. Normal values are a rate of 12-14 breaths per minute, tidal volumes of 5 mL/kg, and a ratio of inspiratory to expiratory time of approximately 2:3. Tachypnea is an increased rate of breathing and is commonly associated with a decrease in tidal volume. Respiratory rhythm is normally regular, with a sigh (1.5-2 times normal tidal volume) every 90 breaths or so to prevent collapse of alveoli and atelectasis. Alterations in the rhythm of breathing include rapid, shallow breathing, seen in restrictive lung disease and as a precursor to respiratory failure; Kussmaul breathing, rapid large-volume breathing indicating intense stimulation of the respiratory center, seen in metabolic acidosis; and Cheyne-Stokes respiration, a rhythmic waxing and waning of both rate and tidal volumes that includes regular periods of apnea. This last ...
Symptoms of overdose include respiratory depression (a decrease in respiratory rate and/or tidal volume, Cheyne-Stokes respiration, cyanosis), extreme somnolence progressing to stupor or coma, skeletal muscle flaccidity, dizziness, ringing in the ears, confusion, blurred vision, eye problems, cold and clammy skin, and sometimes bradycardia and hypotension. In severe overdose, apnea, circulatory collapse, cardiac arrest and death may occur. LD50=85.7mg/kg (subcutaneous, in mice ...
CNS and respiratory depression which may progress to Cheyne-Stokes respiration, areflexia, constriction of the pupils to a slight degree (though in severe poisoning they may wshow paralytic dilation), oliguria, tachycardia, hypotension, lowered body temperature, and coma. Typical shock syndrome (apnea, circulatory collapse, respiratory arrest, and death) may occur ...
Three patients with Downs syndrome demonstrated severe sleep-induced ventilatory failure characterized by Cheyne-Stokes respiration with superimposed obstruction of the upper airway. Anatomic otolaryngologic factors were present in two of the three
Publications. Hanby MF, Panerai RB, Robinson TG, Haunton VJ (2017) Is cerebral vasomotor reactivity impaired in Parkinson disease?. Clinical Autonomic Research, 27 (2), pp. 107-111 10.1007/s10286-017-0406-x. Caldas J, Panerai RB, Bor-Seng-Shu E, Almeida J, Ferreira G, Cunha L, Nogueira R, Oliveira M, Jatene F, Robinson T, Hajjar L (2017) Cerebral hemodynamic with intra-aortic balloon pump: business as usual?. Physiological measurement, 10.1088/1361-6579/aa68c4. Nogueira RC, Panerai RB, Teixeira MJ, Robinson TG, Bor-Seng-Shu E (2017) Cerebral Hemodynamic Effects of Cheyne-Stokes Respiration in a Patient with Stroke. Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases : the official journal of National Stroke Association, 10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2017.02.026. Caldas JR, Panerai RB, Haunton VJ, Almeida JP, Ferreira GSR, Camara L, Nogueira RC, Bor-Seng-Shu E, Oliveira ML, Groehs RRV, Ferreira-Santos L, Teixeira MJ, Galas FRBG, Robinson TG, Jatene FB, Hajjar LA (2017) Cerebral blood flow ...
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The cerebral circulation was interrupted for periods of three to eighty-one minutes by ligation of the innominate and left subclavian arteries proximal to the origin of the vertebral, in ninety-three cats. Eleven dogs were used in the earlier experiments.. The eye reflexes disappear very quickly and a period of high blood pressure follows the occlusion immediately; vagus inhibition causes cardiac slowing and a fall in blood pressure, followed by a second rise after the vagus center succumbs to anaemia. Respiration stops temporarily (twenty to sixty seconds) after the beginning of occlusion, and then follows a series of strong gasps of the Cheyne-Stokes type, after which it stops until some time after the restoration of the cerebral circulation. The respiratory and vagus centers lose their power of functioning at approximately the same time. Asphyxial slowing of the heart may occur without the agency of the vagus center. The blood pressure slowly falls to a level which is maintained throughout ...
Jewett waves brachial autonomic plexus expiration lateral aspect bacterial encephalitis chorioallantoic Cheyne-Stokes psychosis dofn extrinsic color inferior articular process lamina suprachoroidea choroidea kinetochore fibers CT scan Aerococcus lateral nasal process ...
Looking for online definition of Cheyne-Stokes psychosis in the Medical Dictionary? Cheyne-Stokes psychosis explanation free. What is Cheyne-Stokes psychosis? Meaning of Cheyne-Stokes psychosis medical term. What does Cheyne-Stokes psychosis mean?
Please note the hotline information at the bottom of this posting. It is a press release issued by RESMED regarding ASV. If you have any questions/concerns about your specific type of machine, please call the hotline. ResMed Provides Update on Phase IV SERVE-HF Study of Adaptive Servo-Ventilation (ASV) Therapy In Central Sleep Apnea and Chronic Heart Failure. Study Did Not Meet Primary Endpoint. Safety Signal of Increased Cardiovascular Mortality Found For ASV Therapy In People With Predominant Central Sleep Apnea and Symptomatic Chronic Heart Failure. Results and Safety Signal Observed Only In This Specific Study Population San Diego, Calif. - May 13, 2015 - ResMed (NYSE: RMD) today announced that SERVE-HF, a multinational, multicenter, randomized controlled Phase IV trial did not meet its primary endpoint. SERVE-HF was designed to assess whether the treatment of moderate to severe predominant central sleep apnea with Adaptive Servo-Ventilation (ASV) therapy could reduce mortality and morbidity ...
John Cheyne was born in Leith in 1777, the son of a general practitioner. Initially apprenticed by his father, he studied for an M.D. at the University of Edinburgh, graduating in 1805. Cheyne worked as an army surgeon, then at the Ordnance Hospital at Leith Fort. In 1809, he moved to practice in Dublin where he became the first Professor of Medicine at Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland in 1813. While there he published his description of a phenomenon of malfunctioning breathing in very sick patients. He noted that the patients breathing would stop entirely for a quarter of a minute then it would start again slowly, increase by degrees until it was heaving quickly then gradually cease again, with a total of approximately 30 breaths per minute. Some of the principle causes of this condition are brain haemorrhaging, advanced renal failure, heart failure and narcotic poisoning, therefore it is often thought of as a sign of imminent death ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Central sleep apnea. T2 - Implications for congestive heart failure. AU - Garcia-Touchard, Arturo. AU - Somers, Virend. AU - Olson, Lyle J.. AU - Caples, Sean M.. PY - 2008/6. Y1 - 2008/6. N2 - Congestive heart failure (HF), an exceedingly common and costly disease, is frequently seen in association with central sleep apnea (CSA), which often manifests as a periodic breathing rhythm referred to as Cheyne-Stokes respiration. CSA has historically been considered to be a marker of heart disease, since improvement in cardiac status is often associated with the attenuation of CSA. However, this mirroring of HF and CSA may suggest bidirectional importance to their relationship. In fact, observational data suggest that CSA, associated with repetitive oxyhemoglobin desaturations and surges in sympathetic neural activity, may be of pathophysiologic significance in HF outcomes. In light of the disappointing results from the first large trial assessing therapy with continuous positive ...
... is a chapter in the book, Pulmonology, containing the following 36 pages: Croup Score, Diehr Rule to Diagnose Pneumonia, Pneumonia Severity Index, Respiratory Rate, Kussmaul Respiration, Pectus Carinatum, Pectus Excavatum, Pulmonary Embolism Pretest Probability, Coin Test, Succussion Splash, Hyperventilation, Tachypnea, Bradypnea, Dyspnea Index, BODE Index, Severe Community Acquired Pneumonia Criteria, Mortality Prediction Tool for Patients with Community Acquired Pneumonia, Pneumonia IRVS Prediction Tool, COPD Population Screener Questionnaire, Respiratory Distress in Children with Pneumonia, Lung Exam, Asthma Exacerbation Severity Evaluation, Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index, Pulmonary Embolism Rule-Out Criteria, Cheyne-Stokes Respiration, Lung Function Questionnaire, COPD Exacerbation Decision Tool, COPD Assessment Test, Asthma-Related Death Risk Factors, Hammans Sign, SOAR Pneumonia Score, Hestia Criteria, Clinical Severity Scoring System Tool, STOP-Bang Questionnaire, Multidrug
TY - JOUR. T1 - Exercise end-tidal CO2 predicts central sleep apnea in patients with heart failure. AU - Cundrle, Ivan. AU - Somers, Virend. AU - Johnson, Bruce David. AU - Scott, Christopher G.. AU - Olson, Lyle J.. PY - 2015/6/1. Y1 - 2015/6/1. N2 - BACKGROUND: Increased CO2 chemosensitivity and augmented exercise ventilation are characteristic of patients with heart failure (HF) with central sleep apnea (CSA). The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that decreased end-tidal CO2 by cardiopulmonary exercise testing predicts CSA in patients with HF. METHODS: Consecutive ambulatory patients with New York Heart Association II to III HF were prospectively evaluated by CO2 chemosensitivity by rebreathe, cardiopulmonary exercise testing, and polysomnography (PSG). Subjects were classified as having either CSA (n = 20) or no sleep apnea (n = 13) by PSG; a central apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 5 was used to define CSA. Subgroups were compared by t test or Mann-Whitney test and data summarized ...
Central sleep apnea is a disorder where your breathing repeatedly pauses during sleep because the brain doesnt send the proper signals to the diaphragm (these are the muscles that control your breathing).. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) today approved a new treatment option for patients with moderate to severe central sleep apnea. Its an implantable device called "The Remedé System" developed by Respicardia Inc.. The device is surgically placed under the skin in the upper chest area. Thin wires are inserted into the blood vessels near the nerve thats responsible for sending signals to the diaphragm to stimulate breathing. The system monitors the patients respiratory signals during sleep, and when breathing is stopped, it stimulates the nerve that stimulates contraction of the diaphragm similar to normal breathing.. The FDAs approval is based on a clinical trial involving 151 patients across Germany, Poland, and the USA. The study assessed the effectiveness of the device in ...
Introduction. In patients with heart failure (HF) and central sleep apnea syndrome (CSAS) different therapeutic options, such as continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), bi-level PAP (BiPAP) and adaptive servoventilation (ASV) are available. All are potentially effective in improving heart function and in reducing apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), while ASV is generally considered to be most effective.. Aim. To assess how HF-patients with CSAS (AHI ≥15) respond to the different treatments in terms of AHI.. Methods. CPAP was given first, and when ineffective or when patients still experienced SAS related complaints, followed by BiPAP and/or ASV. Efficacy was assessed by a sleep study under treatment. Treatment was considered effective when AHI reduced ,15/hour or reduced at least 50% from the baseline AHI to a value ,20/hour.. Results. 14 males (70 y) were assessed. ...
SAN DIEGO - People with treatment-emergent central sleep apnea (CSA) have a significantly greater risk of terminating CPAP therapy, according to a new ResMed-sponsored study presented on May 22 at the 2017 American Thoracic Society International Conference. Researchers found that 3.5% of patients had CSA during the first 90 days of therapy. ResMed says the study highlights the importance of regularly monitoring patients to support adherence to treatment, and diagnosing CSA early to minimize risk of therapy termination. The study builds on another study released earlier this year that showed patients with treatment-emergent CSA who switch treatment from CPAP therapy to adaptive servo-ventilation therapy use their therapy longer and have significantly fewer apneas during sleep. "This study provides the most robust view available on the prevalence of CSA in patients on PAP therapy," said Dr. Carlos Nunez, ResMeds chief medical officer. "The findings in this new research, combined with the research ...
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If you have Central Sleep Apnea (CSA) or know of someone who has it, then this thread may be of help. A brief internet search on the causes of CSA will return things like; drug induced breathing probl
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My father was put into hospice, and all his meds were stopped. He "recovered" and lived another six months. After they "kicked him out" of hospice, he and I spent a lot of quality time together. When the end came, he was ready even though he could no longer speak. The hospice nurse came and looked at all the meds and found that while we still had the liquid morphine, we no longer had the Ativan, so we ordered a stat delivery from the pharmacist.. Giving morphine to a dying person can feel a lot like murder, and listening to the death rattle is more distressing than listening to a crying infant, but I think that the death experience is far worse for the person attending the death than for the one who is dying.. The Ativan was given to my father late in this process, but that was the drug which provided him with joy and relief. Shortly after he received the drug, I believe I witnessed him greeting his mother who had died 40 years ago.. My father then developed what is called a Cheyne-Stokes ...
An apparatus comprises a physiologic sensing circuit and a control circuit. The physiologic sensing circuit is configured to sense an electrical respiration signal representative of respiration of a subject. The control circuit includes a respiration monitor circuit and a therapy circuit. The respiration monitor circuit is configured to extract a respiration parameter from the respiration signal and detect that a value of the respiration parameter is outside of a target value range for the respiration parameter. The therapy circuit is configured to deliver neural stimulation to the carotid sinus of the subject to stimulate respiration and to adjust respiration to maintain the value of the respiration parameter within the target value range.
does anyone have treatments for central apnea? Its really dangerous and damaging if your O2 levels fall to 70%. I think my problem is my sleep is...
By: Kelly Tracer, UCHealth LOVELAND, Colo. (April 4, 2019) - UCHealth is the first health system in the Rocky Mountain region to offer the latest, implantable
Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) disorders include: central sleep apnoea (Cheyne-Stokes respiration), obstructive sleep apnoea and mixed or complex sleep apnoea. Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is the most common of these three disorders and is defined as airway obstruction during sleep, accompanied by at least five episodes of apnoea or hypopnoea per hour. Each episode is often associated with a decrease in arterial oxygen saturation of > 4%.
Presented by M di-T Kali Cyanatum.. Kali Cyanidum. Kali Cyanuretum. Cyanide of Potash. Potassic Cyanide. KCN. Solution. Trituration.. Clinical.─Apoplexy. Asthma. Cancer. Cheyne-Stokes breathing. Ciliary neuralgia. Epilepsy. Headache. Neuralgia. Rheumatism. Speech, lost. Tongue, cancer of.. Characteristics.─The Cyanide of Potash is much used in photography, and being for this reason an accessible poison, numbers of cases of suicide and attempted suicide by its means have occurred. It is from the symptoms observed in such cases that a great part of the pathogenesis is built up; but it has also been proved by Lembke and others. The apoplectic and epileptic symptoms of Hydrocy. ac. were reproduced in the salt, and one very pronounced symptom was slow breathing. Loss of consciousness and vision occurred, and as consciousness and vision returned, vision was double. Strong tetanic convulsions. In one poisoning case the fingers were stretched out and spasmodically contracted. In another case, after ...
sleep apnea that is characterized by a malfunction of the basic neurological controls for breathing rate and the failure to give the signal to inhale, causing the individual to miss one or more cycles of breathing
This disorder occurs when the brain doesnt send the right signals to start the breathing muscles during sleep, which causes the person to temporarily stop breathing.
120 hours revision of 500 Video Lectures Crash Course on Ophthalmology,ENT,Preventive and Social Medicine based on University Previous Exam Question Papers.
AbstractA 61-year-old patient with alcohol use disorder (AUD) was referred for suspicion of sleep apnea syndrome (SAS). He had incurred three road accidents attributed to sleepiness over the previous year, shortly after initiation of high-dose (100 mg b.i.d.) treatment with baclofen, a molecule incr
Wondered how polysomnography is used to diagnose central sleep apnea? Read on to find out. Central sleep apnea is a dangerous medical.... Read More ...
Disclosed is a method of processing image data, including controlling to output multi-level value image data for reproducing a multi-level value image and bi-level value image data for reproducing a bi-level value image with respect to a predetermined area, thereby reproducing the multi-level and bi-level value images which constitute a single image. Also disclosed is an interface system including a multi-level converter for converting multi-level value image data into bi-level value image data and vice versa, a resolution converter operated in synchronism with the multi-level converter to convert the resolution of the multi-level value image data, an area data memory for storing area data corresponding to an instruction input representing a multi-level or bi-level value image area, and an output device for selecting the multi-level value image data from the resolution converter or the multi-level value image data from the multi-level converter on the basis of the area data and for outputting selected
Around 669,000 people in the UK over the age of 45 years suffer from chronic heart failure (CHF), a condition in which the heart is too weak to efficiently pump the blood around the body.
(KudoZ) English to Russian translation of Bi-Level CPAP [системы искусственной вентиляции легких - Medical: Instruments (Medical)].
Snoring can be defined in many words like noisy breathing or gasping. But standing behind these are snoring respirations. What they are and their causes here
Plasmid XNOR-gate-V2.0-ASV from Dr. Drew Endys lab contains the insert XNOR-gate and is published in Science. 2013 May 3;340(6132):599-603. doi: 10.1126/science.1232758. Epub 2013 Mar 28. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
The term central sleep apnea encompasses a heterogeneous group of sleep-related breathing disorders in which respiratory effort is diminished or absent in an intermittent or cyclical fashion during sleep. In most cases, central sleep apnea is associated with obstructive sleep apnea syndromes or is caused by an underlying medical condition, re...
Definition of periodic breathing in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is periodic breathing? Meaning of periodic breathing as a legal term. What does periodic breathing mean in law?
Objectives Review of pathology behind the need for ventilation Central Sleep Apnea Overlap Disease Obesity Hypoventilation Neuromuscular Disorder Describe the use of Servo ventilation for patients with Complex and Central Apnea Describe the use of BiPAP S/T with AVAPS for patients with pulmonary disorders Describe the titration methods for patients requiring NIV
Using the MCPW and an X4M200, the Respiration Detection List is never called. The constant XTS_ID_RESPIRATION_DETECTIONLIST and function...
Get an answer for What is the difference between respiration and photosyntheses? and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
Braylee was born February 2, 2014. Pregnancy was normal, but she decided to make her appearance at 36 weeks. She spent 3 weeks in the NICU due to failure to thrive, low blood sugar, breathing abnormalities and two different CHDs. She had open heart surgery at 2 months old, but that didnt "fix" our sweet girl. She continued to have health issues. After 4 more surgeries and numerous doctor appointments, we finally got some answers. She has CP, central sleep apnea, hydrocephaly, white matter hypoplasia, abnormality to her corpus collapsing, dilated ventricles, ID, SPD, numerous GI issues (she has a tube for feeding, but can drink out of a sippy cup), cardiomyopathy, pulmonary valve stenosis, abnormality of her mitral valve and DDX3X. She is nonverbal, doesnt crawl, stand or walk but she can sit with minimal support. She is the happiest and most laid back toddler I have ever met. She loves water, cuddling and rocking in her chair. She is without a doubt our hero!. ...
Long-term follow-up: CNCP is a long-term disorder, but the RCTs included in the current systematic review had fairly short follow-up periods, e.g., six weeks. Well-designed long-term studies are needed to clarify: a) the proportion of CNCP patients for whom opioids remain effective over months or years, and b) the potential over extended timeframes for developing opioid tolerance; hyperalgesia; loss of efficacy; complications such as hypogonadism, sexual dysfunction, or central sleep apnea; or probability of developing opioid misuse ...
IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION The remedē® System is indicated for moderate to severe Central Sleep Apnea in adult patients. Your doctor will need to evaluate
The purpose of this study is to identify patients who benefit the most from intermittent levosimendan treatment using correlations between quality of life and t
When dogs undergo surgery, veterinarians often must suture a nasal oxygen catheter to the animal, making for an uncomfortable recovery. Four Saginaw Valley State University electrical engineering students are working to ensure that is no longer necessa...
Sleep Apnea is a sleeping disorder that affects millions of people. Sleep Apnea occurs where there are breaks or pauses in breathing while someone is asleep. It can be caused by the soft tissue in the throat collapsing sufficiently to stop air flow, which is Obstructive Sleep Apnea. This is the most common form. It can be caused by problems in the part of the brain responsible for managing breathing, which is called Central Sleep Apnea. Lastly, it can be caused by a combination of the Obstructive and Central Sleep Apnea, which is called Mixed Sleep Apnea. The symptoms of Sleep Apnea are described below.. ...
An apparatus and method for treating sleep apnea includes a control unit in electrical communication with a lead. The control unit is capable of outputting a sleep apnea interruption pulse to stimulate at least one of a phrenic nerve and a diaphragm. Specifically, an implanted medical device (IMD) such as an ICD or a pacemaker paces the heart and a mode switch algorithm changes the pacing output to stimulate at least one of a phrenic nerve and diaphragm when sleep apnea is detected by the control unit. The method includes determining if the patient is experiencing sleep apnea and outputting a sleep apnea interruption pulse to the at least one of a phrenic nerve and a diaphragm. The control unit may be incorporated with the IMD. In another embodiment, the control unit may be in wireless communication with the IMD and positioned outside a patients body.
Increased controller gain occurs if the sensitivity of chemoreceptors is increased.37 Various hormones and drugs can alter the human chemoreceptor sensitivity, including the endogenous catecholamines noradrenaline and adrenaline.38,39 Levels of both hormones are increased in the blood and urine of patients with heart failure, probably as compensation for cardiac pump failure.40 Increased circulating concentrations of these catecholamines might increase the responsiveness of the respiratory controller to carbon dioxide, leading to hyperventilation.41,42 Latent hyperventilation during wakefulness is a common finding in these patients and a relationship between an abnormally increased ventilatory response to carbon dioxide during the day and periodic breathing during sleep has been observed.43 Their Paco2 is typically in the lower normal range or even below, keeping ventilation closer to the threshold of apnoea. Javaheri44 showed that patients with CHF and CSAS had a significantly greater ...
Complex sleep apnea occurs when someone who previously had obstructive sleep apnea develops central sleep apnea due to treatment with CPAP. Learn more.
Everything you need to know about the differences between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), central sleep apnea, and complex sleep apnea.
Apnea" is derived from the Greek word "apnous" which literally translates as "breathless." Therefore, it stands to reason that symptoms may involve breathing difficulties. That being said, symptoms of sleep apnea (sometimes spelled apnoea) are many and varied. This post will discuss the most common symptoms.. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and Central Sleep Apnea (CSA) can often be distinguished by their respective symptoms. However, given that these are two forms of the same sleeping disorder, they also share a number of symptoms. This may present a challenge when diagnosing a patient suffering from sleep apnea.. Since it is possible for a person to suffer from both OSA and CSA, it is not unusual for someone to display symptoms characteristic of both forms of the disorder.. ...
Apnea" comes from the Greek and literally means "without breath", so it is an apt word for the condition where people stop breathing when asleep.. Like so many conditions in medicine, it is not quite cut and dried simple, as there are three types of Sleep Apnea. These are called Obstructive, Central and Mixed, with Obstructive being the most common.. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is caused by an obstruction producing a blockage of the airway, usually caused by the soft tissue in the rear of the throat collapses and closes during sleep.. In Central Sleep Apnea, the airway is not blocked but the brain fails to signal the muscles to breathe. Normally as the oxygen level drops, a reflex in the brain tells the body to breathe, to increase the oxygen saturation. This reflex is normally very powerful. For example, try holding your breath, and you will find that you breathe again involuntarily. You cannot over-ride your brain.. Mixed Apnea, as the name suggests, is a combination of the two. With each ...
The Christ Hospital Health Network is one of three in Ohio participating in a clinical trial to determine whether a pacemaker-like device implanted in the chest can help people who suffer from central sleep apnea.
In this paper, we describe a computer program (RESP-24) specifically devised to assess the prevalence and characteristics of breathing disorders in ambulant chronic heart failure patients during the overall 24 h period. The system works on a single channel respiratory signal (RS) recorded through a Holter-like portable device. In the pre-processing stage RESP-24 removes noise, baseline drift and motion artefacts from the RS using a non-linear filter, enhances respiratory frequency components through high-pass filtering and derives an instantaneous tidal volume (ITV) signal. The core processing is devoted to the identification and classification of the breathing pattern into periodic breathing (PB), normal breathing or non-classifiable breathing using a 60 s segmentation, and to the identification and estimation of apnea and hypopnea events. Sustained episodes of PB are detected by cross analysis of both the spectral content and time behavior of the ITV signal. User-friendly interactive ...
Charlie remains in critical condition today. Thursday morning we were hopeful as he ate well but by the afternoon his seizures had worsened from focal facial seizures to more generalized, full body seizures. He responded initially to Valium which is used as an anti-convulsant, but soon after the seizures returned. We have tried the remaining anti-convulsant medication available with no success. His seizures have been waxing and waning in severity. Overnight and this morning he has been able to get some rest which is promising. In addition to his neurologic signs he is also having difficulty oxygenating his blood due to the severe damage to his lungs. To help with this he is in an oxygen tent and has a direct supply of nasal oxygen via a tube in his nose. We were able to place a feeding tube this morning which will help support his nutrition needs. Other than Thursday morning he has not eaten since the fire. The plan remains the same, aggressive supportive care and time ...
Tenth Grade (Grade 10) Respiration, Digestion, and Excretion questions for your custom printable tests and worksheets. In a hurry? Browse our pre-made printable worksheets library with a variety of activities and quizzes for all K-12 levels.
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Chronic heart failure (HF) is a highly prevalent disease, with a lifetime risk of approximately 20%. Sleep apnea is a common co-morbid condition, occurring in approximately half of patients with chronic HF, and often has predominantly central or mixed obstructive and central characteristics. Although it is associated with increased mortality in patients with HF, sleep apnea is usually asymptomatic and patients are therefore often unwilling to accept standard therapy with positive airway pressure. At the outset of this study, there were three treatment modalities currently recommended by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine for the treatment of predominantly central sleep apnea in HF patients: nocturnal supplemental oxygen (NSO), continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV). Recently, ASV was found to increase mortality in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and central sleep apnea. There are only limited data on the comparative efficacy ...
Chronic heart failure (HF) is a highly prevalent disease, with a lifetime risk of approximately 20%. Sleep apnea is a common co-morbid condition, occurring in approximately half of patients with chronic HF, and often has predominantly central or mixed obstructive and central characteristics. Although it is associated with increased mortality in patients with HF, sleep apnea is usually asymptomatic and patients are therefore often unwilling to accept standard therapy with positive airway pressure. At the outset of this study, there were three treatment modalities currently recommended by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine for the treatment of predominantly central sleep apnea in HF patients: nocturnal supplemental oxygen (NSO), continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV). Recently, ASV was found to increase mortality in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and central sleep apnea. There are only limited data on the comparative efficacy ...
Patients with CSA who subsequently underwent successful heart transplantation were re-evaluated for the presence of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) at a minimum of 6 months after transplantation. A group of patients with severe CHF and no SDB who also underwent successful heart transplantation with repeat overnight polysomnography at a minimum of 6 months after transplantation and were matched for posttransplant medical therapy, served as a control group. All patients were in stable condition and had maintained normal function of the heart allograft. The study was approved by the Alfred Hospital Ethics Committee, and all patients provided written informed consent ...
Sleep Disorders Health Center next page There is no evidence that sleep disorders are a cause of NHLBI Entire Site1; Diseases & Conditions2. information Sleep apnea usually is a chronic (ongoing) condition that disrupts your sleep. Central sleep apnea is a less common type of sleep apnea. Lying on a bed, thinking of the days activities and finally, thanking God for all the days blessings; and now, Nasal decongestants are more likely to be effective in cases of snoring or mild sleep apnea. In some cases, surgery is Health and Beauty plus anything that fills a need. You will love the savings and hard to find products at 5542276323 989964ce35 m How To Stop Snoring 101 b Fleshpiston. Article b Jing Brimland Dog snores due to blockage of the air passage either due to mucous, colds, or certain allergic Of the three types of sleep apnea, obstructive is most common. Sleep Apnea Symptoms Central sleep apnea: think central nervous system and you get the ideayour breathing is in fits and starts One of ...
Sleep Apnea Devices Market size is estimated to reach USD 8.8 billion by 2023; as per a new research report by Global Market Insights, Inc. Strong disorder prevalence, and increasing population with unhealthy lifestyle habits leading to these disorders is set to drive global sleep apnea devices market size.. Growing co-morbid condition prevalence including hypertension, type II diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity should be the major driving force for global sleep apnea devices market growth. Technology evolution, in terms of patient safety and comfort, government initiatives aiming at curbing the healthcare expenditure associated with these disorders will also stimulate industry development.. Browse key industry insights spread across 79 pages with 31 market data tables & 36 figures from the report, "Sleep Apnea Devices Market Size By Therapeutics [Airway Clearance System, Adaptive Servo-Ventilation, Positive Airway Pressure (PAP), Oral Appliance, Oxygen Device], By Diagnostics ...
Opiates depress respiration by slowing down the breathing rate, creating irregularity in the breathing rate or reducing the volume of air taken in. These effects mostly occur through actions on the brainstem, a lower and "older" portion of the brain that controls or influences major organ systems in the body, such cardiovascular (heart rate) and pulmonary (respiratory rate).. Over time, it is common for someone who uses opiates to experience central apneas, the variant of sleep apnea distinct from obstructive sleep apnea where the upper airway collapses. With central sleep apnea, the airway remains open, but the brains signal to breathe is compromised thus leading to the use of the term "central" as in central nervous system (brain) origin. The opiate effects on the brainstem are sufficient to inhibit these brain signal and the result is a central apnea.. Using opiates on a regular basis will affect the brainstem, but if the use is temporary most likely any side-effects would subside after drug ...
Central sleep apnea is when the signal from the brain to breath is not working properly. Obstructive sleep apnea is a collapse of the soft tissue in the throat.
Apnea" is derived from the Greek word "apnous" which literally translates as "breathless." Therefore, it stands to reason that symptoms may involve breathing difficulties. That being said, symptoms of sleep apnea (sometimes spelled apnoea) are many and varied. This post will discuss the most common symptoms.. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and Central Sleep Apnea (CSA) can often be distinguished by their respective symptoms. However, given that these are two forms of the same sleeping disorder, they also share a number of symptoms. This may present a challenge when diagnosing a patient suffering from sleep apnea.. Since it is possible for a person to suffer from both OSA and CSA, it is not unusual for someone to display symptoms characteristic of both forms of the disorder.. ...
Learn about the symptoms, diagnosis & treatment of Central Sleep Apnea (CSA) & how a sleep study can be done to understand your childs sleep disorder.
A new report on sleep disorders in pain patients reveals a not-very-surprising finding: chronic opioid treatment is associated with very high incidences of both obstructive and central sleep apnea. Higher Risk Of Sleep Apnea When Patients Use Opioid-Based Pain Medications Opioid-based pain medications may cause sleep apnea, according to an article in the September…. ...
Although a known life-threatening complication of achondroplasia, the AAP guidelines in the timing, mode of imaging, and interpretation of the test results are poorly delineated. A series of patients were evaluated under a clinical protocol and the sleep study results were carefully analyzed to reveal a unique pattern that will likely help in the determination of the severity of central sleep apnea in this patient population.. Zarate YA, Mena R, Martin LJ, Steele P, Tinkle BT, Hopkin RJ (2009). Experience with hemihyperplasia and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome surveillance protocol. Am J Med Genet 149A:1691-7.. Leslie ND, Tinkle BT, Strauss AW, Shooner K, Zhang K (2009). "Very long chain acylcoenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency" in: GeneReviews at GeneTests: Medical Genetics Information Resource [database online]. Copyright, University of Washington, Seattle, 1997-2010. Available at http://www.genetests.org.. Mattheis PJ, Hickey F, Tinkle BT, Hopkin R (2008). Prenatal diagnosis: beyond decisions ...
This topic has 3 study abstracts on Dietary Modification: Low Calorie Diet indicating that it may have therapeutic value in the treatment of Metabolic Syndrome X, Central Sleep Apnea, and Autoimmune Diseases
Definition of labored respiration in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is labored respiration? Meaning of labored respiration as a legal term. What does labored respiration mean in law?
Bi-level, whole-blood control designed to monitor ESR procedures. Monitor technique as well as environmental and physical factors that adversely affect ESR results. Run like a patient sample-not necessary to void diluent from pre-filled tubes. Universal control assayed for both automated and manual ESR methods ...
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Fourth Grade (Grade 4) Respiration, Digestion, and Excretion questions for your custom printable tests and worksheets. In a hurry? Browse our pre-made printable worksheets library with a variety of activities and quizzes for all K-12 levels.
Cheyne-Stokes respiration". Sleep. 29 (8): 1045-51. PMID 16944673. Learning To Play A Wind Instrument Could Lower Your Risk For ... recurrent interruptions of respiration during sleep are associated with temporary airway obstruction. Following pharyngeal flap ... Food and Drug Administration in 2014 granted pre-market approval for an upper airway stimulation system that senses respiration ... blocking ports of airflow and hindering effective respiration. There have been documented instances of severe airway ...
In pure central sleep apnea or Cheyne-Stokes respiration, the brain's respiratory control centers are imbalanced during sleep. ... Cheyne-Stokes respiration". Sleep. 29 (8): 1045-51. PMID 16944673. Archived from the original on 2011-04-11. Vennelle M, White ... The Inspire Upper Airway Stimulation system senses respiration and applies mild electrical stimulation during inspiration, ...
Cheyne-Stokes respiration, another condition involving oxygen / carbon dioxide imbalance and which can affect healthy ...
Cheyne-Stokes respiration, which is alternating breathing in high frequency and low frequency from brain stem injury. It can be ... Retractions can be supra-sternal, where the accessory muscles of respirations of the neck are contracting to aid inspiration. ... to aid in respiration. These are signs of respiratory distress. The physician then typically inspects the fingers for cyanosis ...
Adults suffering from congestive heart failure are at risk for a form of central apnea called Cheyne-Stokes respiration, which ... Cheyne-Stokes respiration is characterized by periodic breathing featuring recurrent episodes of apnea alternating with ... although these drugs are not universally effective in reducing the severity of Cheyne-Stokes apneas. Congenital central ... CSA is usually due to an instability in the body's feedback mechanisms that control respiration. Central sleep apnea can also ...
He died from "brain disease and Cheyne-Stokes respiration" at his summer residence in Thousand Island Park, and was buried at ...
Abnormal breathing patterns include Kussmaul breathing, Biot's respiration and Cheyne-Stokes respiration. Other breathing ... Medicine portal Agonal respiration Ataxic respiration Bad breath Breath gas analysis Carbon cycle Central sleep apnea Eupnea ... Breathing, or "external respiration", brings air into the lungs where gas exchange takes place in the alveoli through diffusion ... Play media Play media Breathing (or respiration, or ventilation) is the process of moving air into and out of the lungs to ...
Apnea Dyspnea Hyperpnea Tachypnea Hypopnea Bradypnea Orthopnea Platypnea Biot's respiration Cheyne-Stokes respiration Kussmaul ... Respiration rates may increase with fever, illness, or other medical conditions. Inaccuracies in respiratory measurement have ...
... expiratory lung volume is a change in the level of end expiratory lung volume and may be elevated in Cheyne-Stokes respiration ... The electronics convert this change in frequency to a digital respiration waveform where the amplitude of the waveform is ... However, accuracy issues arise when trying to assess accurate respiratory volumes from a single respiration band placed either ... This further limits quantification of many useful respiratory indices and limits utility to only respiration rates and other ...
... a medical condition involving hyperventilating Cheyne-Stokes respiration, the breathing disorder Hypocapnia, a physiological ...
... cervical sympathetic ganglia cervical vertebrae cervicothoracic ganglion cervix chaetae cheek chest Cheyne-Stokes respiration ...
If any of these deviate from normal, this may indicate an underlying problem (such as with Cheyne-Stokes respiration) Chest ... Massive Haemorrhage Airway Respiratory Circulation Head injury/Hypothermia Cardiopulmonary resuscitation Artificial respiration ... such as artificial respiration. Rescuers are often warned against mistaking agonal breathing, which is a series of noisy gasps ... "A comparison of the mouth to mouth and mouth to airway methods of artificial respiration with chest pressure arm lift methods ...
... a visual impairment Cheyne-Stokes respiration, an abnormal respiration pattern Combat stress reaction, a condition also known ...
... cheyne-stokes respiration MeSH C23.888.852.293 --- cough MeSH C23.888.852.371 --- dyspnea MeSH C23.888.852.371.396 --- dyspnea ... adams-stokes syndrome MeSH C23.550.073.425.100 --- bundle-branch block MeSH C23.550.073.425.780 --- sinoatrial block MeSH ...
The Old Red Sandstone of Shetland (1877) Cheyne-Stokes Respiration (1892) Diseases of the Heart and Aorta (1898) Edinburgh: ... Medical Bibliography for 1877 Gibson, G.A. (14 October 2010) [1892]. Cheyn Stoke Respiration. Nabu Press. ISBN 1172128979. ISBN ...
Cheyne-Stokes respiration (786.05) Shortness of breath (786.06) Tachypnea (786.07) Wheezing (786.09) Other respiratory ...
Periodic breathing Cheyne-Stokes respiration (R06.4) Hyperventilation (R06.5) Mouth breathing Snoring (R06.6) Hiccup (R06.7) ...
... and respiratory abnormalities such as Cheyne-Stokes respiration (cyclic waxing and waning of tidal volume), apneustic ... respirations and post-hypercapnic apnea. Focal neurological deficits are less common. Encephalopathies exhibits both neurologic ...
... muscle weakness Myoclonus Decreased reflexes Ataxia Pathological reflexes Tremor Asterixis Cheyne-Stokes respiration Dysarthria ...
... such as Cheyne-Stokes respiration, Kaplan-Meier method), and so on. In English, the en dash is usually used instead of a hyphen ...
In common medical practice, Biot's respiration is often clinically equivalent to Cheyne-Stokes respiration, although the two ... "Biot respiration" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary Biot MC. Contribution a l'etude du phenomene respiratoire de Cheyne-Stokes. ... Biot's respiration is caused by damage to the pons due to strokes or trauma or by pressure on the pons due to uncal or ... Biot's respiration is an abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by groups of quick, shallow inspirations followed by ...
He was one of the people to identify Cheyne-Stokes respiration. He was born in Leith, the son of John Cheyne, a local doctor. ... Pearce, J M S (May 2002). "Cheyne-Stokes respiration". J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry. 72 (5): 595. doi:10.1136/jnnp.72.5.595 ... Sternbach, G L (1985). "John Cheyne and William Stokes: periodic respiration". The Journal of Emergency Medicine. 3 (3): 233-6 ... Cheyne and Stokes?". Nursing times. 91 (14): 40. PMID 7731827. Lyons, J B (March 1995). "John Cheyne's classic monographs". ...
"Cheynes-Stokes Respiration". WebMD LLC. Retrieved 2010-10-05. "Cheyne-Stokes respiration". WrongDiagnosis.com. Health Grades ... Cheyne-Stokes respirations are not the same as Biot's respirations ("cluster breathing"), in which groups of breaths tend to be ... Thus Cheyne-Stokes respiration can be maintained over periods of many minutes or hours with a repetitive pattern of apneas and ... Cheyne-Stokes respiration and periodic breathing are the two regions on a spectrum of severity of oscillatory tidal volume. The ...
... external respiration and internal respiration. *Cheyne-Stokes respiration, an abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by ... Anaerobic respiration, cellular respiration without oxygen. *Maintenance respiration, the amount of cellular respiration ... Aquatic respiration, animals extracting oxygen from water. *Artificial respiration, the act of simulating respiration, which ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Respiration. If an internal link led you here, you may wish ...
... descended from the surgeon and bacteriologist Sir William Cheyne (1852-1932) Cheyne Walk Cheyne-Stokes respiration, a medical ... John Cheyne, Baron Cheyne (c1445-1499), English courtier and hostage after the Treaty of Picquigny (1475) John Cheyne ( ... Cheyne is both a surname and a given name. Notable people with the name include: Surname: John Cheyne (speaker) Speaker of the ... Cheyne) (c1485-1558), Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports Thomas Kelly Cheyne (1841-1915), English divine and Biblical critic Sir ...
Agonal respiration. *Biot's respiration. *Cheyne-Stokes respiration. *Kussmaul breathing. *Ataxic respiration. Other. * ...
"Cheynes-Stokes Respiration". WebMD LLC. Retrieved 2010-10-05. "Cheyne-Stokes respiration". WrongDiagnosis.com. Health Grades ... Cheyne-Stokes respirations are not the same as Biots respirations ("cluster breathing"), in which groups of breaths tend to be ... Thus Cheyne-Stokes respiration can be maintained over periods of many minutes or hours with a repetitive pattern of apneas and ... Cheyne-Stokes respiration and periodic breathing are the two regions on a spectrum of severity of oscillatory tidal volume. The ...
Cheyne-Stokes respiration is usually defined as crescendo-decrescendo periodic respiration with a central apnoea index of ⩾ 10/ ... DIAGNOSIS OF CHEYNE-STOKES RESPIRATION. All subjects underwent overnight oximetry in their own homes using the Ohmeda Biox 3700 ... The effect of Cheyne-Stokes respiration on cognitive function in heart failure has not previously been investigated. We were ... We reasoned that Cheyne-Stokes respiration during sleep might lead to cognitive dysfunction as a result of either apnoea ...
Treatment of congestive heart failure and Cheyne-Stokes respiration during sleep by continuous positive airway pressure. Am J ... Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Patients With Congestive Heart Failure and Cheyne-Stokes Respiration With Central Sleep ... Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Patients With Congestive Heart Failure and Cheyne-Stokes Respiration With Central Sleep ... Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Patients With Congestive Heart Failure and Cheyne-Stokes Respiration With Central Sleep ...
Looking for abbreviations of CSR? It is Cheyne-Stokes respiration. Cheyne-Stokes respiration listed as CSR ... Cheyne-Stokes respiration - How is Cheyne-Stokes respiration abbreviated? https://acronyms.thefreedictionary.com/Cheyne-Stokes+ ... redirected from Cheyne-Stokes respiration). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. ... Finally, in a recent study, we aimed to evaluate acute effects of adaptive servo ventilation (ASV) on Cheyne-Stokes respiration ...
... Midgren, Bengt ... Conclusions: Cheyne-Stokes respiration was not associated with health-related quality of life, daytime sleepiness or nocturnal ... Background and aims: The effects of central sleep apnea in Cheyne-Stokes respiration on sleep-related symptoms and quality of ... We aimed to investigate whether Cheyne-Stokes respiration is related to health-related quality of life. We also studied the ...
... leading to Cheyne-Stokes respiration, and not vice versa.. Elevated Ve/Vco2slopes (19)and Cheyne-Stokes respiration (2)are ... Based on our findings, the improvement of CSA with Cheyne-Stokes respiration could be used as a helpful tool to evaluate the ... 1998) The development of hyperventilation in patients with chronic heart failure and Cheyne-Stokes respiration. Chest 114:1083- ... Of these, 14 showed evidence of CSA and Cheyne-Stokes respiration. All patients presented with heart failure of New York Heart ...
Cheyne-Stoke respiration is believed to be more common during sleep. It is serious and often develops in people who have heart ... This MNT Knowledge Center article looks at an abnormal breathing pattern called Cheyne-Stoke respiration, including its ... Who is at risk of Cheyne-Stokes respiration?. Cheyne-Stokes respiration can occur in people with neurological conditions, or ... Cheyne-Stokes respiration, also known as periodic respiration, is an abnormal pattern of breathing. It consists of cycles of ...
... cyclic breathing marked by a gradual increase in the rapidity of respiration followed by a gradual decrease and total cessation ... Share Cheyne-Stokes respiration. Post the Definition of Cheyne-Stokes respiration to Facebook Share the Definition of Cheyne- ... Resources for Cheyne-Stokes respiration. Time Traveler: Explore other words from the year Cheyne-Stokes respiration first ... Comments on Cheyne-Stokes respiration. What made you want to look up Cheyne-Stokes respiration? Please tell us where you read ...
Cheyne-Stokes respiration syndrome synonyms, Cheyne-Stokes respiration syndrome pronunciation, Cheyne-Stokes respiration ... Cheyne-Stokes respiration syndrome. Translations. English: Cheyne-Stokes respiration syndrome n. síndrome de respiración de ... English dictionary definition of Cheyne-Stokes respiration syndrome. ... Cheyne-Stokes respiration syndrome. Translations. Cheyne-Stokes respiration syndrome n. síndrome de respiración de Cheyne- ...
... and to determine its relation to the presence of Cheyne-Stokes respiration during sleep. SUBJECTS: 104 heart failure patients ... Cheyne-Stokes Respiration / complications*. Cognition Disorders / diagnosis*, etiology*. Echocardiography. Heart Failure / ... METHODS: Overnight oximetry was used (previously validated as a screening tool for Cheyne-Stokes respiration in heart failure ... Vigilance was impaired in heart failure but this did not appear to be related to the presence of Cheyne-Stokes respiration ...
Cheyne-Stokes Respiration. Heart Diseases. Cardiovascular Diseases. Respiration Disorders. Respiratory Tract Diseases. Signs ... Cardiovascular Responses in Congestive Heart Failure With Cheyne- Stokes Respiration. The safety and scientific validity of ... Cardiovascular Response to Peripheral Chemoreceptor Stimulation in Congestive Heart Failure With Cheyne- Stokes Respiration. ... is to investigate the cardiovascular response to peripheral chemoreceptor stimulation in Congestive Heart Failure with Cheyne- ...
Cheyne-Stokes respiration: friend or foe? in his recent opinion in Thorax.1 Central sleep apnoea with Cheyne-Stokes ... Doppler evaluation of changing cardiac dynamics during Cheyne-Stokes Respiration. BMJ 1989;95:525-9. ... Polygraphic recordings showing Central sleep apnoea with Cheyne-Stokes respiration in a heart failure (HF) patient (A) and ... respiration (CSA-CSR) indeed has multiple features more likely to be compensatory than injurious in heart failure (HF). His ...
1. Cheyne-Stokes respiration (n.). abnormal respiration in which periods of shallow and deep breathing alternate ... 6. respiration (n.). the bodily process of inhalation and exhalation; the process of taking in oxygen from inhaled air and ... 2. Stokes-Adams syndrome (n.). recurrent sudden attacks of unconsciousness caused by impaired conduction of the impulse that ... 3. stokes aster (n.). erect perennial of southeastern United States having large heads of usually blue flowers ...
Theophylline Therapy for Near-Fatal Cheyne-Stokes Respiration: A Case Report Theophylline Therapy for Near-Fatal Cheyne-Stokes ... Theophylline Therapy for Near-Fatal Cheyne-Stokes Respiration Don D. Sin, MD, MPH; T. Douglas Bradley, MD ... However, we believe that the use of the term "Cheyne-Stokes respiration" to describe their patients respiratory disorder was ... As the authors note, Cheyne-Stokes respiration is characterized by periodic breathing in which apneas or hypopneas alternate ...
Theophylline Therapy for Near-Fatal Cheyne-Stokes Respiration: A Case Report Theophylline Therapy for Near-Fatal Cheyne-Stokes ... Somers VK, Pesek C. Theophylline Therapy for Near-Fatal Cheyne-Stokes Respiration. Ann Intern Med. 1999;131:714. doi: 10.7326/ ... Theophylline Therapy for Near-Fatal Cheyne-Stokes Respiration Virend K. Somers, MD, PhD; Catherine Pesek, DO ... and Bradley and Geigel and Chediak point out that the respiratory tracings do not represent classic Cheyne-Stokes respiration ( ...
ASV treatment in HF patients with Cheyne-Stokes respirations leads to an increase in SV likely mediated by a decrease in ... 12 patients with HF (12 male; 70 ± 9 years; NYHA ≥ II; EF ≤ 45% and Cheyne- Stokes respiration) and 14 healthy volunteers (13 ... Adaptive servoventiation therapy (ASV) is designed to treat hypocapnic central sleep apnoea (Cheyne-Stokes respiration) in ... therapy on autonomic function and baroreceptor reflex sensitivity in heart failure patients with Cheyne-Stokes respiration ...
INTRODUCTION: Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) and central sleep apnea (CSA) are common in patients with heart failure and/or ... Cerebral hemodynamic effects of Cheyne-Stokes respiration Accepted Version.pdf. Post-review (final submitted author manuscript) ... Cerebral Hemodynamic Effects of Cheyne-Stokes Respiration in a Patient with Stroke. ...
Cheyne Stokes Respirations. Introduction. Cheyne-Stokes respiration is a type of breathing disorder characterized by cyclical ... Cheyne-Stokes respiration is believed to be a result of heart failure. The presence of Cheyne-Stokes respiration in patients ... Cheyne-Stokes respiration is believed to be a result of heart failure. The presence of Cheyne-Stokes respiration in patients ... and increased plasma catecholamines compared to patients without Cheyne-Stokes respiration.. Cheyne-Stokes respiration is a ...
Treatment of Cheyne-Stokes respiration-central sleep apnea in patients with heart failure.. Momomura S., J Cardiol 59(2), 2012 ... Adaptive servoventilation in diastolic heart failure and Cheyne-Stokes respiration. Bitter T, Westerheide N, Faber L, Hering D ... Predictors of oxidative stress in heart failure patients with Cheyne-Stokes respiration.. Krieger AC, Green D, Cruz MT, ... A high prevalence of nocturnal Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) has been documented in patients with heart failure with normal ...
Cheyne-Stokes Respiration (CSR) and CSA associated with CHF: In comparison with the other types of CSA, when associated with ... "Cheyne-Stokes respiration in stroke: relationship to hypocapnia and occult cardiac dysfunction". Am J Respir Crit Care Med. vol ... Cheyne-Stokes Respiration (CSR): CSR is a breathing pattern characterized by cycles of crescendo-decrescendo changes in tidal ... "Increased mortality associated with Cheyne-Stokes respiration in patients with congestive heart failure". Am J Respir Crit Care ...
Cheyne-Stokes respiration answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone ... respiration. Cheyne-Stokes respiration. In: Venes D, ed. Tabers Medical Dictionary. 23rd ed. F.A. Davis Company; 2017. https ... respiration. Cheyne-Stokes Respiration [Internet]. In: Venes D, editors. Tabers Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company; 2017 ... respiration. Accessed January 20, 2020.. Cheyne-Stokes respiration. (2017). In Venes, D. (Ed.), Tabers Medical Dictionary. ...
Cheyne-Stokes respiration is not related to quality of life or sleepiness in heart failure. Forskningsoutput: Tidskriftsbidrag ... Please cite this paper as: Midgren B, Mared L, Franklin KA, Berg S, Erhardt L and Cline C. Cheyne-Stokes respiration is not ... Conclusions: Cheyne-Stokes respiration was not associated with health-related quality of life, daytime sleepiness or nocturnal ... Background and aims: The effects of central sleep apnea in Cheyne-Stokes respiration on sleep-related symptoms and quality of ...
Home , LITFL , Eponymictionary , Cheyne-Stokes respiration. Cheyne-Stokes respiration. by Dr Sam Khor, last update November 7, ... Cheyne-Stokes Respiration] [Reprinted: Cardiac Classics. 1941;1:317-320]. *Stokes W. Fatty degeneration of the heart. In: The ... 1953 - On March 4th 1953, the Soviet press announced that Joseph Stalin was ill and had Cheyne-Stokes respiration. The ... Cheyne J. A case of apoplexy in which the fleshy part of the heart was converted into fat. Dublin Hospital Reports. 1818;2:216- ...
Keywords: Heart failure; Arrhythmias; Cheyne-Stokes respiration; Sleep disordered breathing; Ventricular tachycardias ...
... , English Chinese dictionary, English Chinese translation, with pronunciation, ...
  • Cheyne-Stokes respiration /ˈtʃeɪnˈstoʊks/ is an abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by progressively deeper, and sometimes faster, breathing followed by a gradual decrease that results in a temporary stop in breathing called an apnea. (wikipedia.org)
  • The distinction lies in what is observed at the trough of ventilation: Cheyne-Stokes respiration involves apnea (since apnea is a prominent feature in their original description) while periodic breathing involves hypopnea (abnormally small but not absent breaths). (wikipedia.org)
  • The pathophysiology of Cheyne-Stokes breathing can be summarized as apnea leading to increased CO2 which causes excessive compensatory hyperventilation, in turn causing decreased CO2 which causes apnea, restarting the cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Notable people with the name include: Surname: John Cheyne (speaker) Speaker of the House (14th century) John Cheyne, Baron Cheyne (c1445-1499), English courtier and hostage after the Treaty of Picquigny (1475) John Cheyne (physician) (1777-1836), British physician, surgeon and author George Cheyne (physician) (1671-1743), physician and medical writer Sir Reginald Cheyne, (fl.13thc. (wikipedia.org)
  • 785.50) Shock unspecified (785.51) Cardiogenic shock (785.52) Septic shock (785.6) Enlarged lymph nodes (785.9) Bruit (786) Symptoms involving respiratory system and other chest symptoms (786.0) Dyspnea and respiratory abnormalities (786.03) Apnea (786.04) Cheyne-Stokes respiration (786.05) Shortness of breath (786.06) Tachypnea (786.07) Wheezing (786.09) Other respiratory abnormalities Bradypnea (786.1) Stridor (786.2) Cough (786.3) Hemoptysis (786.4) Abnormal sputum (786.5) Chest pain, unspec. (wikipedia.org)
  • During transition from awake to non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, cortical control of respiration is progressively diminished, and respiration is dependent on metabolic control based on PCO2 levels. (statpearls.com)
  • Jude and Knickerbocker, along with William Kouwenhouen developed the method of external chest compressions, while Safar worked with James Elam to prove the effectiveness of artificial respiration. (wikipedia.org)
  • https://www.royalsoced.org.uk/cms/files/fellows/biographical_index/fells_indexp1.pdf John Cheyne - at Who named it? (wikipedia.org)
  • Historically, the names of en dash and em dash were loosely related to the width of a lower-case n and upper-case M, respectively, in commonly used typefaces. (wikipedia.org)
  • Twenty-eight years after Cheyne's work, Stokes recorded another example of the respiration phenomenon for publication in the 'Dublin Hospital Reports' and quoted Cheyne, although he apparently added no new details. (blogspot.com)