The metabolic process of all living cells (animal and plant) in which oxygen is used to provide a source of energy for the cell.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
A plant genus of the family Anacardiaceae, order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae. It is a source of gallotannin (TANNIC ACID) and of somewhat edible fruit. Do not confuse with TOXICODENDRON which used to be part of this genus.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
An abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by alternating periods of apnea and deep, rapid breathing. The cycle begins with slow, shallow breaths that gradually increase in depth and rate and is then followed by a period of apnea. The period of apnea can last 5 to 30 seconds, then the cycle repeats every 45 seconds to 3 minutes.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The mitochondria of the myocardium.
Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes, but has been shown to be an especially potent inhibitor of heme enzymes and hemeproteins. It is used in many industrial processes.
The number of times an organism breathes with the lungs (RESPIRATION) per unit time, usually per minute.
Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
An electrochemical technique for measuring the current that flows in solution as a function of an applied voltage. The observed polarographic wave, resulting from the electrochemical response, depends on the way voltage is applied (linear sweep or differential pulse) and the type of electrode used. Usually a mercury drop electrode is used.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods. It is a saprophytic, marine organism which is often isolated from spoiling fish.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
A complex of enzymes and PROTON PUMPS located on the inner membrane of the MITOCHONDRIA and in bacterial membranes. The protein complex provides energy in the form of an electrochemical gradient, which may be used by either MITOCHONDRIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES or BACTERIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES.
A botanical insecticide that is an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport.
The motion of fluids, especially noncompressible liquids, under the influence of internal and external forces.
A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase complex that catalyzes the conversion of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol. In MITOCHONDRIA the complex also couples its reaction to the transport of PROTONS across the internal mitochondrial membrane. The NADH DEHYDROGENASE component of the complex can be isolated and is listed as EC 1.6.99.3.
A naphthalene derivative with carcinogenic action.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A glycoside of a kaurene type diterpene that is found in some plants including Atractylis gummifera (ATRACTYLIS); COFFEE; XANTHIUM, and CALLILEPIS. Toxicity is due to inhibition of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDE TRANSLOCASE.
A class of ciliate protozoa. Characteristics include the presence of a well developed oral apparatus and oral cilia being clearly distinct from somatic cilia.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
A toxic dye, chemically related to trinitrophenol (picric acid), used in biochemical studies of oxidative processes where it uncouples oxidative phosphorylation. It is also used as a metabolic stimulant. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Collections of differentiated CELLS, such as EPITHELIUM; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; MUSCLES; and NERVE TISSUE. Tissues are cooperatively arranged to form organs with specialized functions such as RESPIRATION; DIGESTION; REPRODUCTION; MOVEMENT; and others.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
A chronic inflammatory condition affecting the axial joints, such as the SACROILIAC JOINT and other intervertebral or costovertebral joints. It occurs predominantly in young males and is characterized by pain and stiffness of joints (ANKYLOSIS) with inflammation at tendon insertions.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.
A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.
The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.
The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Compounds based on fumaric acid.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Biological actions and events that support the functions of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Proteins found usually in the cytoplasm or nucleus that specifically bind steroid hormones and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. The steroid receptor-steroid hormone complex regulates the transcription of specific genes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a cytochrome protein that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM.
The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A lipid-soluble benzoquinone which is involved in ELECTRON TRANSPORT in mitochondrial preparations. The compound occurs in the majority of aerobic organisms, from bacteria to higher plants and animals.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
A proton ionophore. It is commonly used as an uncoupling agent and inhibitor of photosynthesis because of its effects on mitochondrial and chloroplast membranes.
An increase in MITOCHONDRIAL VOLUME due to an influx of fluid; it occurs in hypotonic solutions due to osmotic pressure and in isotonic solutions as a result of altered permeability of the membranes of respiring mitochondria.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Used in the form of the hydrochloride as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.7.
An esterified form of TRIAMCINOLONE. It is an anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid used topically in the treatment of various skin disorders. Intralesional, intramuscular, and intra-articular injections are also administered under certain conditions.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
A barbiturate with hypnotic and sedative properties (but not antianxiety). Adverse effects are mainly a consequence of dose-related CNS depression and the risk of dependence with continued use is high. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p565)
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
The absence of light.
A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the oxidation of NADH to NAD. In eukaryotes the enzyme can be found as a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex I. Under experimental conditions the enzyme can use CYTOCHROME C GROUP as the reducing cofactor. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 1.6.2.1.
A flavoprotein oxidase complex that contains iron-sulfur centers. It catalyzes the oxidation of SUCCINATE to fumarate and couples the reaction to the reduction of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estradiol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate DNA transcription.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the bovine RUMEN, the human gingival sulcus, and dental PULPITIS infections.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for the reduction of NITRATES.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind glucocorticoids and mediate their cellular effects. The glucocorticoid receptor-glucocorticoid complex acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of DNA. Glucocorticoids were named for their actions on blood glucose concentration, but they have equally important effects on protein and fat metabolism. Cortisol is the most important example.
A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A form of creatine kinase found in the MITOCHONDRIA.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A class of nucleotide translocases found abundantly in mitochondria that function as integral components of the inner mitochondrial membrane. They facilitate the exchange of ADP and ATP between the cytosol and the mitochondria, thereby linking the subcellular compartments of ATP production to those of ATP utilization.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A group of enzymes that oxidize diverse nitrogenous substances to yield nitrite. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes and is used as a test reagent for the function of chemoreceptors. It is also used in many industrial processes.
A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
Relating to the size of solids.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
A multisubunit enzyme complex that contains CYTOCHROME B GROUP; CYTOCHROME C1; and iron-sulfur centers. It catalyzes the oxidation of ubiquinol to UBIQUINONE, and transfers the electrons to CYTOCHROME C. In MITOCHONDRIA the redox reaction is coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
Part of the brain located in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA and PONS. It receives neural, chemical and hormonal signals, and controls the rate and depth of respiratory movements of the DIAPHRAGM and other respiratory muscles.
A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.
A major integral transmembrane protein of the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE. It is the anion exchanger responsible for electroneutral transporting in CHLORIDE IONS in exchange of BICARBONATE IONS allowing CO2 uptake and transport from tissues to lungs by the red blood cells. Genetic mutations that result in a loss of the protein function have been associated with type 4 HEREDITARY SPHEROCYTOSIS.
Irregular HEART RATE caused by abnormal function of the SINOATRIAL NODE. It is characterized by a greater than 10% change between the maximum and the minimum sinus cycle length or 120 milliseconds.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Diseases caused by abnormal function of the MITOCHONDRIA. They may be caused by mutations, acquired or inherited, in mitochondrial DNA or in nuclear genes that code for mitochondrial components. They may also be the result of acquired mitochondria dysfunction due to adverse effects of drugs, infections, or other environmental causes.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
An enzyme secreted from the liver into the plasma of many mammalian species. It catalyzes the esterification of the hydroxyl group of lipoprotein cholesterol by the transfer of a fatty acid from the C-2 position of lecithin. In familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency disease, the absence of the enzyme results in an excess of unesterified cholesterol in plasma. EC 2.3.1.43.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).

Prognostic value of nocturnal Cheyne-Stokes respiration in chronic heart failure. (1/97)

BACKGROUND: Nocturnal Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) occurs frequently in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), and it may be associated with sympathetic activation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether CSR could affect prognosis in patients with CHF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixty-two CHF patients with left ventricular ejection fraction /=30/h and left atria >/=25 cm2. CONCLUSIONS: The AHI is a powerful independent predictor of poor prognosis in clinically stable patients with CHF. The presence of an AHI >/=30/h adds prognostic information compared with other clinical, echocardiographic, and autonomic data and identifies patients at very high risk for subsequent cardiac death.  (+info)

High prevalence and persistence of sleep apnoea in patients referred for acute left ventricular failure and medically treated over 2 months. (2/97)

AIMS: Cardiac failure patients were studied systematically using polysomnography 1 month after recovering from acute pulmonary oedema, and again after 2 months of optimal medical treatment for cardiac failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: This prospective study of consecutive patients was conducted in a cardiac care unit of a university hospital. V o(2)measurements and left ventricular ejection fraction were recorded. Thirty-four patients, initially recruited with pulmonary oedema, improved after 1 month of medical treatment to NYHA II or III. They were aged less than 75 years and had a left ventricular ejection fraction less than 45% at the time of inclusion. Age was 62 (9) years, body mass index= 27 (5) kg x m(-2)and an ejection fraction= 30 (10)%. Eighteen of the 34 patients (53%) had coronary artery disease. Twenty-eight of the 34 had sleep apnoea syndrome with an apnoea+hypopnoea index >15 x h(-1)of sleep. Thus, the prevalence of sleep apnoea in this population was 82%. Twenty-one of 28 (75%) patients had central sleep apnoea and seven of 28 (25%) had obstructive sleep apnoea. Patients with central sleep apnoea had a lower Pa co(2)than those with obstructive sleep apnoea (33 (5) vs 37 (5) mmHg, P<0.005). Significant correlations were found between apnoea+hypopnoea index and peak exercise oxygen consumption (r= -0.73, P<0.01), and apnoea+hypopnoea index and Pa co(2)(r= -0.42, P = 0.03). When only central sleep apnoea patients were considered, a correlation between apnoea+hypopnoea index and left ventricular ejection fraction was also demonstrated (r= -0.46, P<0.04). After 2 months of optimal medical treatment only two patients (both with central sleep apnoea) showed improvement (apnoea+hypopnoea index <15 x h(-1)). CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated a high prevalence of sleep apnoea, which persisted after 2 months of medical treatment, in patients referred for acute left ventricular failure. Central sleep apnoea can be considered a marker of the severity of congestive heart failure.  (+info)

Second by second patterns in cortical electroencephalograph and systolic blood pressure during Cheyne-Stokes. (3/97)

Little is known about how arousal develops during the ventilatory phase of Cheyne-Stokes breathing. This study employs neural network analysis of electroencephalograms (EEGs) to describe these changes and relate them to changes in systolic blood pressure, which is probably a subcortical marker of arousal. Six patients with Cheyne-Stokes respiration (apnoea/hypopnoea index 32-69 h(-1)) caused by stable chronic heart failure underwent polysomnography including arterial beat-to-beat systolic blood pressure determination. Periods of 15 sequential apnoeas during nonrapid eye movement sleep were identified for each subject. For each apnoea, the EEG was examined second-by-second using neural net analysis from 28 s before to 28 s after apnoea termination (first return of oronasal airflow), and this was compared with the systolic blood pressure pattern. During the apnoeic phase, sleep deepened progressively. Arousal started to develop at or just before apnoea termination and progresses through the breathing phase. The rise and fall in the systolic blood pressure closely followed the rise and fall in electroencephalographic sleep depth. In conclusion, during Cheyne-Stokes breathing, cortical electroencephalographic arousal begins at or just before the resumption of breathing. Cortical electroencephalographic sleep depth changes are closely mirrored by changes in arterial systolic blood pressure, suggesting that the state changes in the cortical and basal brain structures may be synchronous.  (+info)

Oscillatory breathing patterns during wakefulness in patients with chronic heart failure: clinical implications and role of augmented peripheral chemosensitivity. (4/97)

BACKGROUND: Oscillatory breathing patterns characterized by rises and falls in ventilation with apnea (Cheyne-Stokes respiration [CSR]) or without apnea (periodic breathing [PB]) commonly occur during the daytime in chronic heart failure (CHF). We have prospectively characterized patients with cyclical breathing in terms of clinical characteristics, indices of autonomic control, prognosis, and the role of peripheral chemosensitivity. METHODS AND RESULTS: To determine cyclical breathing pattern, power spectral analysis was applied to 30-minute recordings of respiration in 74 stable CHF patients. Analyses of heart rate variability and baroreflex sensitivity were used to assess autonomic balance. Peripheral chemosensitivity was assessed with the transient hypoxia method. We also determined whether the suppression of peripheral chemoreceptor activity (hyperoxia or dihydrocodeine) would influence the respiratory pattern. Cyclical respiration was found in 49 (66%) patients (22 [30%] CSR, 27 [36%] PB) and was associated with more advanced CHF symptoms, impaired autonomic balance, and increased chemosensitivity (0.80 and 0.75 versus 0.34 L. min(-1). %SaO(2)(-1), P<0.001, for CSR and PB versus normal breathing, respectively). Transient hyperoxia abolished oscillatory breathing in 7 of 8 patients. Dihydrocodeine administration decreased chemosensitivity by 42% (P=0.05), which correlated with improvement in respiratory pattern. Cyclical breathing predicted poor 2-year survival (relative risk 9.41, P<0.01, by Cox proportional hazards analysis), independent of peak oxygen consumption (P=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: An oscillatory breathing pattern during the daytime is a marker of impaired autonomic regulation and poor outcome. Augmented activity of peripheral chemoreceptors may be involved in the genesis of this respiratory pattern. Modulation of peripheral chemosensitivity can reduce or abolish abnormal respiratory patterns and may be an option in the management of CHF patients with oscillatory breathing.  (+info)

Effects of continuous positive airway pressure on cardiovascular outcomes in heart failure patients with and without Cheyne-Stokes respiration. (5/97)

BACKGROUND: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) improves cardiac function in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) who also have Cheyne-Stokes respiration and central sleep apnea (CSR-CSA). However, the effects of CPAP in CHF patients without CSR-CSA have not been tested, and the long-term effects of this treatment on clinical cardiovascular outcomes are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a randomized, controlled trial in which 66 patients with CHF (29 with and 37 without CSR-CSA) were randomized to either a group that received CPAP nightly or to a control group. Change in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) from baseline to 3 months and the combined mortality-cardiac transplantation rate over the median 2.2-year follow-up period were compared between the CPAP-treated and control groups. For the entire group of patients, CPAP had no significant effect on LVEF, but it was associated with a 60% relative risk reduction (95% confidence interval, 2% to 64%) in mortality-cardiac transplantation rate in patients who complied with CPAP therapy. Stratified analysis of patients with and without CSR-CSA revealed that those with CSR-CSA experienced both a significant improvement in LVEF at 3 months and a relative risk reduction of 81% (95% confidence interval, 26% to 95%) in the mortality-cardiac transplantation rate of those who used CPAP. CPAP had no significant effect on either of these outcomes in patients without CSR-CSA. CONCLUSIONS: CPAP improves cardiac function in CHF patients with CSR-CSA but not in those without it. Although not definitive, our findings also suggest that CPAP can reduce the combined mortality-cardiac transplantation rate in those CHF patients with CSR-CSA who comply with therapy.  (+info)

Quantitative general theory for periodic breathing in chronic heart failure and its clinical implications. (6/97)

BACKGROUND: In patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), periodic breathing (PB) predicts poor prognosis. Clinical studies have identified numerous risk factors for PB (which also includes Cheyne-Stokes respiration). Computer simulations have shown that oscillations can arise from delayed negative feedback. However, no simple general theory quantitatively explains PB and its mechanisms of treatment using widely-understood clinical concepts. Therefore, we introduce a new approach to the quantitative analysis of the dynamic physiology governing cardiorespiratory stability in CHF. METHODS AND RESULTS: An algebraic formula was derived (presented as a simple 2D plot), enabling prediction from easily acquired clinical data to determine whether respiration will be unstable. Clinical validation was performed in 20 patients with CHF (10 with PB and 10 without) and 10 healthy normal subjects. Measurements, including chemoreflex sensitivity (S) and delay (delta), alveolar volume (V(L)), and end-tidal CO(2) fraction (C), were applied to the stability formula. The breathing pattern was correctly predicted in 28 of the 30 subjects. The principal combined parameter (CS)x(delta/V(L)) was higher in patients with PB (14.2+/-3.0) than in those without PB (3.1+/-0.5; P:=0.0005) or in normal controls (2.4+/-0.5; P:=0.0003). This was because of differences in both chemoreflex sensitivity (1749+/-235 versus 620+/-103 and 526+/-104 L/min per atm CO(2); P:=0.0001 and P:<0.0001, respectively) and chemoreflex delay (0.53+/-0.06 vs 0.40+/-0.06 and 0.30+/-0.04 min; P:=NS and P:=0.02). CONCLUSION: This analytical approach identifies the physiological abnormalities that are important in the genesis of PB and explicitly defines the region of predicted instability. The clinical data identify chemoreflex gain and delay time (rather than hyperventilation or hypocapnia) as causes of PB.  (+info)

Cognitive impairment in heart failure with Cheyne-Stokes respiration. (7/97)

OBJECTIVES: To document the degree of cognitive impairment in stable heart failure, and to determine its relation to the presence of Cheyne-Stokes respiration during sleep. SUBJECTS: 104 heart failure patients and 21 healthy normal volunteers. METHODS: Overnight oximetry was used (previously validated as a screening tool for Cheyne-Stokes respiration in heart failure). Cognitive function was assessed using a battery of neuropsychological tests. Left ventricular function was assessed by echocardiography. RESULTS: Heart failure patients performed worse than the healthy volunteers in tests that measured vigilance. Reaction times were 48% slower (0.89 (0.03) s v 0.60 (0.05) s p < 0.005) and they hit twice as many obstacles on the Steer Clear simulator (75 (6.4) v 33 (4.6); p < 0.005). Cognitive impairment within the heart failure group was unrelated to either the presence of Cheyne-Stokes respiration, the degree of left ventricular dysfunction, or indices of nocturnal oxygenation. CONCLUSIONS: Vigilance was impaired in heart failure but this did not appear to be related to the presence of Cheyne-Stokes respiration during sleep. Impaired vigilance as measured on the Steer Clear test has been associated with an increased risk of motor vehicle accidents. The issue of fitness to drive in heart failure requires further attention.  (+info)

Characterisation of breathing and associated central autonomic dysfunction in the Rett disorder. (8/97)

AIM: To investigate breathing rhythm and brain stem autonomic control in patients with Rett disorder. SETTING: Two university teaching hospitals in the United Kingdom and the Rett Centre, Sweden. PATIENTS: 56 female patients with Rett disorder, aged 2-35 years; 11 controls aged 5-28 years. DESIGN: One hour recordings of breathing movement, blood pressure, ECG R-R interval, heart rate, transcutaneous blood gases, cardiac vagal tone, and cardiac sensitivity to baroreflex measured on-line with synchronous EEG and video. Breathing rhythms were analysed in 47 cases. RESULTS: Respiratory rhythm was normal during sleep and abnormal in the waking state. Forced and apneustic breathing were prominent among 5-10 year olds, and Valsalva breathing in the over 18 year olds, who were also most likely to breathe normally. Inadequate breathing peaked among 10-18 year olds. Inadequate and exaggerated breathing was associated with vacant spells. Resting cardiac vagal tone and cardiac sensitivity to baroreflex were reduced. CONCLUSIONS: Labile respiratory rhythms and poor integrative inhibition in Rett disorder suggest brain immaturity. Linking this to an early monoaminergic defect suggests possible targets for the MECP2 gene in clinical intervention. Exaggerated and inadequate autonomic responses may contribute to sudden death.  (+info)

The term "Cheyne-Stokes" was first used to describe this type of respiration by British physician William Cheyne in 1832, and later popularized by John Stokes in 1854. It is also known as "stop-and-go breathing" or "alternating apnea."

Cheyne-Stokes respiration is thought to be caused by changes in the autonomic nervous system that regulate breathing, which can be influenced by various factors such as heart failure, anemia, and medications. The exact mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a complex interplay between cardiac output, venous return, and respiratory muscle function.

The clinical significance of Cheyne-Stokes respiration lies in its potential impact on patient outcomes. It can lead to hypoxia (lack of oxygen) and acidosis (excessive acidity), which can worsen cardiorespiratory symptoms and increase the risk of complications such as heart failure exacerbation, respiratory failure, and death.

Diagnosis of Cheyne-Stokes respiration typically involves monitoring of arterial blood gases, electrocardiography (ECG), and chest radiography. Treatment strategies may include addressing underlying conditions such as heart failure or COPD, adjusting medications, and providing respiratory support as needed.

In summary, Cheyne-Stokes respiration is an abnormal breathing pattern characterized by repetitive cycles of shallow and deep breaths, with periods of apnea and hyperpnea. It is commonly seen in patients with cardiorespiratory conditions and can have significant clinical implications.

Spondylitis, ankylosing can affect any part of the spine, but it most commonly affects the lower back (lumbar spine) and the neck (cervical spine). The condition can also affect other joints, such as the hips, shoulders, and feet.

The exact cause of spondylitis, ankylosing is not known, but it is believed to be an autoimmune disorder, meaning that the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in the joints. Genetics may also play a role in the development of the condition.

Symptoms of spondylitis, ankylosing can include:

* Back pain and stiffness
* Pain and swelling in the joints
* Limited mobility and flexibility
* Redness and warmth in the affected area
* Fatigue

If you suspect that you or someone you know may have spondylitis, ankylosing, it is important to seek medical attention for proper diagnosis and treatment. A healthcare professional can perform a physical examination and order imaging tests, such as X-rays or MRIs, to confirm the diagnosis and rule out other conditions.

Treatment for spondylitis, ankylosing typically involves a combination of medications and physical therapy. Medications may include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Physical therapy can help improve mobility and flexibility, as well as strengthen the muscles supporting the affected joints.

In severe cases of spondylitis, ankylosing, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged joints. In some cases, the condition may progress to the point where the joints become fused and immobile, a condition known as ankylosis.

While there is no cure for spondylitis, ankylosing, early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. With proper care and support, individuals with spondylitis, ankylosing can lead active and fulfilling lives.

There are different types of anoxia, including:

1. Cerebral anoxia: This occurs when the brain does not receive enough oxygen, leading to cognitive impairment, confusion, and loss of consciousness.
2. Pulmonary anoxia: This occurs when the lungs do not receive enough oxygen, leading to shortness of breath, coughing, and chest pain.
3. Cardiac anoxia: This occurs when the heart does not receive enough oxygen, leading to cardiac arrest and potentially death.
4. Global anoxia: This is a complete lack of oxygen to the entire body, leading to widespread tissue damage and death.

Treatment for anoxia depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide oxygen therapy, pain management, and other supportive care. In severe cases, anoxia can lead to long-term disability or death.

Prevention of anoxia is important, and this includes managing underlying medical conditions such as heart disease, diabetes, and respiratory problems. It also involves avoiding activities that can lead to oxygen deprivation, such as scuba diving or high-altitude climbing, without proper training and equipment.

In summary, anoxia is a serious medical condition that occurs when there is a lack of oxygen in the body or specific tissues or organs. It can cause cell death and tissue damage, leading to serious health complications and even death if left untreated. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent long-term disability or death.

There are several types of apnea that can occur during sleep, including:

1. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA): This is the most common type of apnea and occurs when the airway is physically blocked by the tongue or other soft tissue in the throat, causing breathing to stop for short periods.
2. Central sleep apnea (CSA): This type of apnea occurs when the brain fails to send the proper signals to the muscles that control breathing, resulting in a pause in breathing.
3. Mixed sleep apnea (MSA): This type of apnea is a combination of OSA and CSA, where both central and obstructive factors contribute to the pauses in breathing.
4. Hypopneic apnea: This type of apnea is characterized by a decrease in breathing, but not a complete stop.
5. Hypercapnic apnea: This type of apnea is caused by an excessive buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood, which can lead to pauses in breathing.

The symptoms of apnea can vary depending on the type and severity of the condition, but may include:

* Pauses in breathing during sleep
* Waking up with a dry mouth or sore throat
* Morning headaches
* Difficulty concentrating or feeling tired during the day
* High blood pressure
* Heart disease

Treatment options for apnea depend on the underlying cause, but may include:

* Lifestyle changes, such as losing weight, avoiding alcohol and sedatives before bedtime, and sleeping on your side
* Oral appliances or devices that advance the position of the lower jaw and tongue
* Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, which involves wearing a mask during sleep to deliver a constant flow of air pressure into the airways
* Bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) therapy, which involves two levels of air pressure: one for inhalation and another for exhalation
* Surgery to remove excess tissue in the throat or correct physical abnormalities that are contributing to the apnea.

When the sinus node is not functioning properly, it can lead to an arrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat. This can cause a variety of symptoms, including palpitations, shortness of breath, fatigue, and dizziness. In some cases, sinus arrhythmia can be caused by underlying medical conditions such as coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, or cardiomyopathy.

There are several types of sinus arrhythmia, including:

* Sinus tachycardia: a rapid heart rate due to an overactive sinus node. This can be caused by stress, anxiety, or physical exertion.
* Sinus bradycardia: a slow heart rate due to a decreased activity in the sinus node. This can be caused by certain medications, age, or underlying medical conditions.
* Sinus arrest: a complete cessation of sinus node activity, leading to a stop in the heartbeat. This is a rare condition and can be caused by a variety of factors, including electrolyte imbalances or certain medications.

Treatment for sinus arrhythmia depends on the underlying cause and the severity of symptoms. In some cases, no treatment may be necessary, while in other cases, medication or procedures such as cardioversion or catheter ablation may be required. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as untreated sinus arrhythmia can lead to more serious complications such as stroke or heart failure.

Mitochondrial diseases can affect anyone, regardless of age or gender, and they can be caused by mutations in either the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or the nuclear DNA (nDNA). These mutations can be inherited from one's parents or acquired during embryonic development.

Some of the most common symptoms of mitochondrial diseases include:

1. Muscle weakness and wasting
2. Seizures
3. Cognitive impairment
4. Vision loss
5. Hearing loss
6. Heart problems
7. Neurological disorders
8. Gastrointestinal issues
9. Liver and kidney dysfunction

Some examples of mitochondrial diseases include:

1. MELAS syndrome (Mitochondrial Myopathy, Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Stroke-like episodes)
2. Kearns-Sayre syndrome (a rare progressive disorder that affects the nervous system and other organs)
3. Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO), which is characterized by weakness of the extraocular muscles and vision loss
4. Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome, which can cause a wide range of symptoms including seizures, developmental delays, and muscle weakness.
5. Mitochondrial myopathy, encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS)
6. Leigh syndrome, which is a rare genetic disorder that affects the brain and spinal cord.
7. LHON (Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy), which is a rare form of vision loss that can lead to blindness in one or both eyes.
8. Mitochondrial DNA mutation, which can cause a wide range of symptoms including seizures, developmental delays, and muscle weakness.
9. Mitochondrial myopathy, encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS)
10. Kearns-Sayre syndrome, which is a rare progressive disorder that affects the nervous system and other organs.

It's important to note that this is not an exhaustive list and there are many more mitochondrial diseases and disorders that can affect individuals. Additionally, while these diseases are rare, they can have a significant impact on the quality of life of those affected and their families.

Central sleep apnea (CSA) is a type of sleep apnea that occurs when the brain fails to send the proper signals to the muscles that control breathing during sleep. This results in pauses in breathing, which can last for seconds or even minutes and can occur multiple times throughout the night.

CSA is different from obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), which occurs when the airway is physically blocked by a physical obstruction such as excess tissue in the throat. Instead, CSA is caused by a problem in the brain's respiratory control center, which can be due to various factors such as heart failure, stroke, or a brain tumor.

Symptoms of central sleep apnea may include:

* Pauses in breathing during sleep
* Waking up with a dry mouth or sore throat
* Morning headaches
* Fatigue and daytime sleepiness

Treatment for CSA usually involves addressing the underlying cause, such as treating heart failure or stroke. In some cases, therapies such as continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV) may be recommended to help regulate breathing during sleep.

It's important to note that CSA is a less common type of sleep apnea compared to OSA, and it's often misdiagnosed or overlooked. If you suspect you or your partner may have central sleep apnea, it's essential to consult with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

The signs and symptoms of CE can vary depending on the location of the tumor, but they may include:

* Lumps or swelling in the neck, underarm, or groin area
* Fever
* Fatigue
* Weight loss
* Night sweats
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Pain in the affected area

CE is caused by a genetic mutation that leads to uncontrolled cell growth and division. The exact cause of the mutation is not fully understood, but it is believed to be linked to exposure to certain viruses or chemicals.

Diagnosis of CE typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as CT scans or PET scans, and biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment options for CE depend on the stage and location of the tumor, but may include:

* Chemotherapy to kill cancer cells
* Radiation therapy to shrink the tumor
* Surgery to remove the tumor
* Immunotherapy to boost the immune system's ability to fight the cancer

Overall, CE is a rare and aggressive form of cancer that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment to improve outcomes.

Hypercapnia is a medical condition where there is an excessive amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the bloodstream. This can occur due to various reasons such as:

1. Respiratory failure: When the lungs are unable to remove enough CO2 from the body, leading to an accumulation of CO2 in the bloodstream.
2. Lung disease: Certain lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or pneumonia can cause hypercapnia by reducing the ability of the lungs to exchange gases.
3. Medication use: Certain medications, such as anesthetics and sedatives, can slow down breathing and lead to hypercapnia.

The symptoms of hypercapnia can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:

1. Headaches
2. Dizziness
3. Confusion
4. Shortness of breath
5. Fatigue
6. Sleep disturbances

If left untreated, hypercapnia can lead to more severe complications such as:

1. Respiratory acidosis: When the body produces too much acid, leading to a drop in blood pH.
2. Cardiac arrhythmias: Abnormal heart rhythms can occur due to the increased CO2 levels in the bloodstream.
3. Seizures: In severe cases of hypercapnia, seizures can occur due to the changes in brain chemistry caused by the excessive CO2.

Treatment for hypercapnia typically involves addressing the underlying cause and managing symptoms through respiratory support and other therapies as needed. This may include:

1. Oxygen therapy: Administering oxygen through a mask or nasal tubes to help increase oxygen levels in the bloodstream and reduce CO2 levels.
2. Ventilation assistance: Using a machine to assist with breathing, such as a ventilator, to help remove excess CO2 from the lungs.
3. Carbon dioxide removal: Using a device to remove CO2 from the bloodstream, such as a dialysis machine.
4. Medication management: Adjusting medications that may be contributing to hypercapnia, such as anesthetics or sedatives.
5. Respiratory therapy: Providing breathing exercises and other techniques to help improve lung function and reduce symptoms.

It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you or someone else may have hypercapnia, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.

Some common examples of respiration disorders include:

1. Asthma: A chronic condition that causes inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.
2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): A progressive lung disease that makes it difficult to breathe, caused by exposure to pollutants such as cigarette smoke.
3. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can cause fever, chills, and difficulty breathing.
4. Bronchitis: Inflammation of the airways that can cause coughing and difficulty breathing.
5. Emphysema: A condition where the air sacs in the lungs are damaged, making it difficult to breathe.
6. Sleep apnea: A sleep disorder that causes a person to stop breathing for short periods during sleep, leading to fatigue and other symptoms.
7. Cystic fibrosis: A genetic disorder that affects the respiratory system and digestive system, causing thick mucus buildup and difficulty breathing.
8. Pulmonary fibrosis: A condition where the lungs become scarred and stiff, making it difficult to breathe.
9. Tuberculosis (TB): A bacterial infection that primarily affects the lungs and can cause coughing, fever, and difficulty breathing.
10. Lung cancer: A type of cancer that originates in the lungs and can cause symptoms such as coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.

These are just a few examples of respiration disorders, and there are many other conditions that can affect the respiratory system and cause breathing difficulties. If you are experiencing any symptoms of respiration disorders, it is important to seek medical attention to receive an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

1. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA): This is the most common type of sleep apnea, caused by a physical blockage in the throat, such as excess tissue or a large tongue.
2. Central Sleep Apnea (CSA): This type of sleep apnea is caused by a problem in the brain's breathing control center.
3. Mixed Sleep Apnea: This type of sleep apnea is a combination of OSA and CSA.

The symptoms of sleep apnea syndromes can include:

* Loud snoring
* Pauses in breathing during sleep
* Waking up with a dry mouth or sore throat
* Morning headaches
* Difficulty concentrating or feeling tired during the day

If left untreated, sleep apnea syndromes can lead to serious health problems, such as:

* High blood pressure
* Heart disease
* Stroke
* Diabetes
* Depression

Treatment options for sleep apnea syndromes include:

* Lifestyle changes, such as losing weight or quitting smoking
* Oral appliances, such as a mouthpiece to help keep the airway open
* Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, which involves wearing a mask over the nose and/or mouth while sleeping to deliver a constant flow of air
* Bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) therapy, which is similar to CPAP but delivers two different levels of air pressure
* Surgery, such as a tonsillectomy or a procedure to remove excess tissue in the throat.

It's important to seek medical attention if you suspect you have sleep apnea syndromes, as treatment can help improve your quality of life and reduce the risk of serious health problems.

There are several potential causes of hyperventilation, including anxiety, panic attacks, and certain medical conditions such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Treatment for hyperventilation typically involves slowing down the breathing rate and restoring the body's natural balance of oxygen and carbon dioxide levels.

Some common signs and symptoms of hyperventilation include:

* Rapid breathing
* Deep breathing
* Dizziness or lightheadedness
* Chest pain or tightness
* Shortness of breath
* Confusion or disorientation
* Nausea or vomiting

If you suspect that someone is experiencing hyperventilation, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. Treatment may involve the following:

1. Oxygen therapy: Providing extra oxygen to help restore normal oxygen levels in the body.
2. Breathing exercises: Teaching the individual deep, slow breathing exercises to help regulate their breathing pattern.
3. Relaxation techniques: Encouraging the individual to relax and reduce stress, which can help slow down their breathing rate.
4. Medications: In severe cases, medications such as sedatives or anti-anxiety drugs may be prescribed to help calm the individual and regulate their breathing.
5. Ventilation support: In severe cases of hyperventilation, mechanical ventilation may be necessary to support the individual's breathing.

It is important to seek medical attention if you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of hyperventilation, as it can lead to more serious complications such as respiratory failure or cardiac arrest if left untreated.

Example sentence: "The patient was diagnosed with lactic acidosis secondary to uncontrolled diabetes and was admitted to the intensive care unit for proper management."

There are two main types of heart failure:

1. Left-sided heart failure: This occurs when the left ventricle, which is the main pumping chamber of the heart, becomes weakened and is unable to pump blood effectively. This can lead to congestion in the lungs and other organs.
2. Right-sided heart failure: This occurs when the right ventricle, which pumps blood to the lungs, becomes weakened and is unable to pump blood effectively. This can lead to congestion in the body's tissues and organs.

Symptoms of heart failure may include:

* Shortness of breath
* Fatigue
* Swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet
* Swelling in the abdomen
* Weight gain
* Coughing up pink, frothy fluid
* Rapid or irregular heartbeat
* Dizziness or lightheadedness

Treatment for heart failure typically involves a combination of medications and lifestyle changes. Medications may include diuretics to remove excess fluid from the body, ACE inhibitors or beta blockers to reduce blood pressure and improve blood flow, and aldosterone antagonists to reduce the amount of fluid in the body. Lifestyle changes may include a healthy diet, regular exercise, and stress reduction techniques. In severe cases, heart failure may require hospitalization or implantation of a device such as an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) or a left ventricular assist device (LVAD).

It is important to note that heart failure is a chronic condition, and it requires ongoing management and monitoring to prevent complications and improve quality of life. With proper treatment and lifestyle changes, many people with heart failure are able to manage their symptoms and lead active lives.

1. Ischemic stroke: This is the most common type of stroke, accounting for about 87% of all strokes. It occurs when a blood vessel in the brain becomes blocked, reducing blood flow to the brain.
2. Hemorrhagic stroke: This type of stroke occurs when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures, causing bleeding in the brain. High blood pressure, aneurysms, and blood vessel malformations can all cause hemorrhagic strokes.
3. Transient ischemic attack (TIA): Also known as a "mini-stroke," a TIA is a temporary interruption of blood flow to the brain that lasts for a short period of time, usually less than 24 hours. TIAs are often a warning sign for a future stroke and should be taken seriously.

Stroke can cause a wide range of symptoms depending on the location and severity of the damage to the brain. Some common symptoms include:

* Weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg
* Difficulty speaking or understanding speech
* Sudden vision loss or double vision
* Dizziness, loss of balance, or sudden falls
* Severe headache
* Confusion, disorientation, or difficulty with memory

Stroke is a leading cause of long-term disability and can have a significant impact on the quality of life for survivors. However, with prompt medical treatment and rehabilitation, many people are able to recover some or all of their lost functions and lead active lives.

The medical community has made significant progress in understanding stroke and developing effective treatments. Some of the most important advances include:

* Development of clot-busting drugs and mechanical thrombectomy devices to treat ischemic strokes
* Improved imaging techniques, such as CT and MRI scans, to diagnose stroke and determine its cause
* Advances in surgical techniques for hemorrhagic stroke
* Development of new medications to prevent blood clots and reduce the risk of stroke

Despite these advances, stroke remains a significant public health problem. According to the American Heart Association, stroke is the fifth leading cause of death in the United States and the leading cause of long-term disability. In 2017, there were over 795,000 strokes in the United States alone.

There are several risk factors for stroke that can be controlled or modified. These include:

* High blood pressure
* Diabetes mellitus
* High cholesterol levels
* Smoking
* Obesity
* Lack of physical activity
* Poor diet

In addition to these modifiable risk factors, there are also several non-modifiable risk factors for stroke, such as age (stroke risk increases with age), family history of stroke, and previous stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA).

The medical community has made significant progress in understanding the causes and risk factors for stroke, as well as developing effective treatments and prevention strategies. However, more research is needed to improve outcomes for stroke survivors and reduce the overall burden of this disease.

There are several possible causes of hypoventilation, including:

1. Respiratory muscle weakness or paralysis: This can be due to a variety of conditions, such as muscular dystrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), or spinal cord injury.
2. Chronic respiratory failure: This can be caused by conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), interstitial lung disease, or pulmonary fibrosis.
3. Sleep apnea: Hypoventilation can occur during sleep due to the loss of muscle tone in the diaphragm and other respiratory muscles.
4. Anesthesia-induced hypoventilation: Some anesthetics can suppress the respiratory drive, leading to hypoventilation.
5. Drug overdose or intoxication: Certain drugs, such as opioids and benzodiazepines, can depress the central nervous system and lead to hypoventilation.
6. Trauma: Hypoventilation can occur in patients with severe injuries to the chest or abdomen that impair breathing.
7. Sepsis: Severe infections can cause hypoventilation by suppressing the respiratory drive.
8. Metabolic disorders: Certain metabolic disorders, such as diabetic ketoacidosis, can lead to hypoventilation.

Treatment of hypoventilation depends on the underlying cause and may include oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation, and addressing any underlying conditions or complications. In some cases, hypoventilation may be a sign of a more severe condition that requires prompt medical attention to prevent further complications and improve outcomes.

The term "decerebrate" comes from the Latin word "cerebrum," which means brain. In this context, the term refers to a state where the brain is significantly damaged or absent, leading to a loss of consciousness and other cognitive functions.

Some common symptoms of the decerebrate state include:

* Loss of consciousness
* Flaccid paralysis (loss of muscle tone)
* Dilated pupils
* Lack of responsiveness to stimuli
* Poor or absent reflexes
* Inability to speak or communicate

The decerebrate state can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

* Severe head injury
* Stroke or cerebral vasculature disorders
* Brain tumors or cysts
* Infections such as meningitis or encephalitis
* Traumatic brain injury

Treatment for the decerebrate state is typically focused on addressing the underlying cause of the condition. This may involve medications to control seizures, antibiotics for infections, or surgery to relieve pressure on the brain. In some cases, the decerebrate state may be a permanent condition, and individuals may require long-term care and support.

Respiratory paralysis can manifest in different ways depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. Some common symptoms include:

1. Difficulty breathing: Patients may experience shortness of breath, wheezing, or a feeling of suffocation.
2. Weakened cough reflex: The muscles used for coughing may be weakened or paralyzed, making it difficult to clear secretions from the lungs.
3. Fatigue: Breathing can be tiring and may leave the patient feeling exhausted.
4. Sleep disturbances: Respiratory paralysis can disrupt sleep patterns and cause insomnia or other sleep disorders.
5. Chest pain: Pain in the chest or ribcage can be a symptom of respiratory paralysis, particularly if it is caused by muscle weakness or atrophy.

Diagnosis of respiratory paralysis typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as electroencephalogram (EEG), electromyography (EMG), or nerve conduction studies (NCS). Treatment options vary depending on the underlying cause but may include:

1. Medications: Drugs such as bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and anticholinergics can be used to manage symptoms and improve lung function.
2. Respiratory therapy: Techniques such as chest physical therapy, respiratory exercises, and non-invasive ventilation can help improve lung function and reduce fatigue.
3. Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to correct anatomical abnormalities or repair damaged nerves.
4. Assistive devices: Patients with severe respiratory paralysis may require the use of assistive devices such as oxygen therapy, ventilators, or wheelchairs to help improve their quality of life.
5. Rehabilitation: Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech therapy can all be helpful in improving function and reducing disability.
6. Lifestyle modifications: Patients with respiratory paralysis may need to make lifestyle changes such as avoiding smoke, dust, and other irritants, getting regular exercise, and managing stress to help improve their condition.

Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.

There are several ways to measure body weight, including:

1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.

It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.

There are several types of respiratory insufficiency, including:

1. Hypoxemic respiratory failure: This occurs when the lungs do not take in enough oxygen, resulting in low levels of oxygen in the bloodstream.
2. Hypercapnic respiratory failure: This occurs when the lungs are unable to remove enough carbon dioxide from the bloodstream, leading to high levels of carbon dioxide in the bloodstream.
3. Mixed respiratory failure: This occurs when both hypoxemic and hypercapnic respiratory failure occur simultaneously.

Treatment for respiratory insufficiency depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation, and other supportive care measures. In severe cases, lung transplantation may be necessary. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms of respiratory insufficiency are present, as early intervention can improve outcomes and prevent complications.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

"Cheynes-Stokes Respiration". WebMD LLC. Retrieved 2010-10-05. "Cheyne-Stokes respiration". WrongDiagnosis.com. Health Grades ... Cheyne-Stokes respirations are not the same as Biot's respirations ("cluster breathing"), in which groups of breaths tend to be ... Thus Cheyne-Stokes respiration can be maintained over periods of many minutes or hours with a repetitive pattern of apneas and ... Cheyne-Stokes respiration and periodic breathing are the two regions on a spectrum of severity of oscillatory tidal volume. The ...
He was one of the people to identify Cheyne-Stokes respiration. He was born in Leith, the son of Dr John Cheyne, a surgeon. The ... Pearce, J M S (May 2002). "Cheyne-Stokes respiration". J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry. 72 (5): 595. doi:10.1136/jnnp.72.5.595 ... Sternbach, G L (1985). "John Cheyne and William Stokes: periodic respiration". The Journal of Emergency Medicine. 3 (3): 233-6 ... Cheyne and Stokes?". Nursing Times. 91 (14): 40. PMID 7731827. Lyons, J B (March 1995). "John Cheyne's classic monographs". ...
In pure central sleep apnea or Cheyne-Stokes respiration, the brain's respiratory control centers are imbalanced during sleep. ... Yumino D, Bradley TD (February 2008). "Central sleep apnea and Cheyne-Stokes respiration". Proceedings of the American Thoracic ... Cheyne-Stokes Respiration". Sleep. 29 (8): 1045-1051. doi:10.1093/sleep/29.8.1045. PMID 16944673. Vennelle M, White S, Riha RL ... The Inspire Upper Airway Stimulation system senses respiration and applies mild electrical stimulation during inspiration, ...
In common medical practice, Biot's respiration is often mistaken for Cheyne-Stokes respiration, part of which may have been ... "A Peculiar Type of Dyspnea: Kussmaul, Cheyne-Stokes, and Biot Respirations" (PDF). Historia Medicinae. 3 (1). (in French) Biot ... Contribution a l'étude du phénomène respiratoire de Cheyne-Stokes. Lyon Med. 1876;23:517-528, 561-567. Wijdicks EF (May 2007 ... Biot's respiration is caused by damage to the medulla oblongata and pons due to trauma, stroke, opioid use, and increased ...
Cheyne-Stokes respiration". Sleep. 29 (8): 1045-1051. doi:10.1093/sleep/29.8.1045. PMID 16944673. Caba, Justin (16 April 2015 ... The second and third criteria are about respiration - waking with breath holding, gasping, or choking; snoring, breathing ... Randomized controlled studies of the efficacy of UPPP are published, showing effect on nocturnal respiration and excessive ... thoraco-abdominal paradoxical respiration during the event. If none of them are present during the event, then it is ...
Abnormal breathing patterns include Kussmaul breathing, Biot's respiration and Cheyne-Stokes respiration. Other breathing ... Portal: Medicine Agonal respiration - Abnormal pattern of breathing (not related to death rattle) Ataxic respiration Bad breath ... Breathing, or "external respiration", brings air into the lungs where gas exchange takes place in the alveoli through diffusion ... All aerobic creatures need oxygen for cellular respiration, which extracts energy from the reaction of oxygen with molecules ...
She was extremely confused and was suffering from tachycardia and Cheyne-Stokes respiration. The medical staff injected her ...
Cheyne-Stokes respiration is a breathing pattern consisting of alternating periods of rapid and slow breathing, which may ... Cheyne-Stokes respiration may be observed in newborn babies, but this is occasionally physiological (normal). Chest retractions ... Rudrappa, Mohan; Bollu, Pradeep C. (2019), "Cheyne Stokes Respirations", StatPearls, StatPearls Publishing, PMID 28846350, ... aid in respiration. These are signs of respiratory distress. The physician then typically inspects the fingers for cyanosis and ...
Adults with congestive heart failure are at risk for a form of central apnea called Cheyne-Stokes respiration, which manifests ... Cheyne-Stokes respiration is characterized by periodic breathing featuring recurrent episodes of apnea alternating with ... Cheyne-Stokes respiration, High-altitude periodic breathing, CSA due to a medical condition without CSB, Central sleep apnea ... CSA with Cheyne-Stokes breathing is characterized by at least one of the criteria of Primary CSA or the presence of atrial ...
Cheyne-Stokes respiration - Abnormal breathing pattern, another condition involving oxygen / carbon dioxide imbalance and which ...
This may lead to the development of Cheyne Stokes respiration after a few weeks or even days after delivery, which may be fatal ...
He was confined to bed for a month, with death for a time seeming close as he began suffering from Cheyne-Stokes respiration. ...
... where Smith started Cheyne-Stokes respiration. According to Varcoe, her last words were, "Hello, John". Although the oldest of ...
He died from "brain disease and Cheyne-Stokes respiration" at his summer residence in Thousand Island Park, and was buried at ...
... expiratory lung volume is a change in the level of end expiratory lung volume and may be elevated in Cheyne-Stokes respiration ... The electronics convert this change in frequency to a digital respiration waveform where the amplitude of the waveform is ... However, accuracy issues arise when trying to assess accurate respiratory volumes from a single respiration band placed either ... This further limits quantification of many useful respiratory indices and limits utility to only respiration rates and other ...
... a medical condition involving hyperventilating Cheyne-Stokes respiration, the breathing disorder Hypocapnia, a physiological ...
... cervical sympathetic ganglia cervical vertebrae cervicothoracic ganglion cervix chaetae cheek chest Cheyne-Stokes respiration ...
If any of these deviate from normal, this may indicate an underlying problem (such as with Cheyne-Stokes respiration) Chest ... such as artificial respiration. Rescuers are often warned against mistaking agonal breathing, which is a series of noisy gasps ... "A comparison of the mouth to mouth and mouth to airway methods of artificial respiration with chest pressure arm lift methods ... Cardiopulmonary resuscitation Artificial respiration Recovery position First aid Wright, Pearce (2003-08-13). "Obituary: Peter ...
... may refer to: Central serous retinopathy, a visual impairment Cheyne-Stokes respiration, an abnormal respiration pattern ...
... cheyne-stokes respiration MeSH C23.888.852.293 - cough MeSH C23.888.852.371 - dyspnea MeSH C23.888.852.371.396 - dyspnea, ... adams-stokes syndrome MeSH C23.550.073.425.100 - bundle-branch block MeSH C23.550.073.425.780 - sinoatrial block MeSH C23.550. ...
... identified Cheyne-Stokes respiration, with William Stokes Colin Chisholm (1755-1825), surgeon, medical writer and Fellow of the ... pioneer of First aid John Cheyne (1777-1836), physician, and medical writer; ...
... also experienced central sleep apnea with Cheyne Stokes respiration (CSA-CSR). Atrial fibrillation, the male gender, an age ... Another potential underlying cause of PND is central sleep apnea (CSA) with Cheyne-Stokes Breathing (CSB), for which the ... Shahidul (ed.), "Central Sleep Apnea with Cheyne-Stokes Breathing in Heart Failure - From Research to Clinical Practice and ...
The Old Red Sandstone of Shetland (1877) Cheyne-Stokes Respiration (1892) Diseases of the Heart and Aorta (1898) Edinburgh: ... Medical Bibliography for 1877 Gibson, G.A. (14 October 2010) [1892]. Cheyn Stoke Respiration. Nabu Press. ISBN 978-1172128976. ...
... system and other chest symptoms 786.0 Dyspnea and respiratory abnormalities 786.03 Apnea 786.04 Cheyne-Stokes respiration ...
... and respiratory abnormalities such as Cheyne-Stokes respiration (cyclic waxing and waning of tidal volume), apneustic ... respirations and post-hypercapnic apnea. Focal neurological deficits are less common. Wernicke encephalopathy can co-occur with ...
... which allows the continuation of various vital functions Cheyne-Stokes respiration Three fundamental principles are at the base ...
... muscle weakness Myoclonus Decreased reflexes Ataxia Pathological reflexes Tremor Asterixis Cheyne-Stokes respiration Dysarthria ...
"Cheyne-Stokes respiration", "Kaplan-Meier method"), and so on. In English, the en dash is usually used instead of a hyphen in ...
Apnea Biot's respiration Bradypnea Cheyne-Stokes respiration Dyspnea Hyperpnea Hypopnea Kussmaul breathing Orthopnea Platypnea ... Respiration rates may increase with fever, illness, or other medical conditions. Inaccuracies in respiratory measurement have ...
... external respiration and internal respiration Cheyne-Stokes respiration, an abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by ... Look up respiration or respire in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Respiration may refer to: Cellular respiration, the process ... cellular respiration without oxygen Maintenance respiration, the amount of cellular respiration required for an organism to ... animals extracting oxygen from water Artificial respiration, the act of simulating respiration, which provides for the overall ...
with John Scott Haldane: Douglas CG, Haldane JS (1909). "The causes of periodic or Cheyne-Stokes breathing". The Journal of ... From 1908 to 1914, Douglas did research with John Scott Haldane on human respiration. In 1910 Nathan Zuntz organised a high- ... After 1920 the work of Douglas and his research students dealt mainly with the effects of exercise on respiration, metabolism, ...
Diarrhea Urination Miosis Bradycardia Bronchospasm Emesis Lacrimation Loss of muscle strength Salivation/sweating Cheyne-Stokes ... respiration (used to assess newborn babies) ASHICE - age, sex, history, injuries/illness, condition, ETA/extra information FAST ... Thirst Vomitting Sweating Pulse weak Anxious Respirations shallow/rapid Cool Cyanotic Unconscious BP low Eyes blank RN CHAMPS ( ...
... descended from the surgeon and bacteriologist Sir William Cheyne (1852-1932) Cheyne Walk Cheyne-Stokes respiration, a medical ... Bob Cheyne Rob Cheyne John Cheyne (speaker) Speaker of the House of Commons (14th century) John Cheyne, Baron Cheyne (c. 1445- ... William Cheyne (footballer) (1912-1988), also known as Andy Cheyne, Scottish footballer (Rangers) Given name: Cheyne Coates, ... Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports Thomas Kelly Cheyne (1841-1915), English divine and Biblical critic Sir William Cheyne, 1st ...
Cheyne-Stokes Respirations By Danielle Pacheco April 14, 2022 Load More Articles ...
M. Christ, Y. Sharkova, H. Fenske et al., "Brain natriuretic peptide for prediction of Cheyne-Stokes respiration in heart ... a novel treatment for Cheyne-Stokes respiration in heart failure," American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, ... "First experience of using new adaptive servo-ventilation device for Cheyne-Stokes respiration with central sleep apnea among ... "Efficacy of adaptive servoventilation in patients with congestive heart failure and Cheyne-Stokes respiration," Chinese Medical ...
Cheyne-Stokes respiration, convulsions; low blood pressure, cardiac irreg; sweating ...
Background: The coexistence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and central sleep apnea (CSA) and Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) ...
A condition called Cheyne-Stokes respiration can affect people with severe heart failure and can be associated with central ... Sleep apnea - central; Obesity - central sleep apnea; Cheyne-Stokes - central sleep apnea; Heart failure - central sleep apnea ...
Elderly patients often have altered breathing patterns, such as periodic breathing (PB) and Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR), ... Cheyne-Stokes respiration, apnea, cardiac systems, chronic heart failure, classification problems, discriminant band, diseases ...
These respirations are called*. * ataxic respirations.. * Cheyne-Stokes respirations.. * apneic respirations.. * agonal ... external respiration) and at the cellular level (internal respiration). External respiration occurs in the*. * bronchioles.. ... Airway, Ventilation, and Respiration. Study Center. > Diagnostic Tests. > Airway, Ventilation, and Respiration ... Her airway is clear and respirations are shallow. The pulse oximeter reads 90%. Your first action should be to*. * suction the ...
Treatment of Cheyne-Stokes respiration reduces arrhythmic events in chronic heart failure.. Bitter T, Gutleben KJ, Nölker G, ... Cheyne-Stokes respiration in heart failure: cycle length is dependent on left ventricular ejection fraction.. Wedewardt J, ... Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) is of major prognostic impact and expresses ... Case report of a heart failure patient with nocturnal Cheyne-Stokes respiration.. Fox H, Bitter T, Horstkotte D, Oldenburg O., ...
cheyne-stokes respiration. An abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by apnea followed by increasingly deep, rapid ... An emergency procedure for life support consisting of manual, external heart massage and artificial respiration. ...
Cheyne-Stokes respiration.. Heart.-Faintness, with sensation of stoppage of heart. Throbbing throughout the body. Rapid, weak, ...
Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) is predominantly detected in patients with HF. However, the effect of CSR and malnutrition on ... Prognostic Value of Cheyne-Stokes Respiration and Nutritional Status in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure. ... Insuficiência Cardíaca , Desnutrição , Masculino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Respiração de Cheyne-Stokes/ ...
use RESPIRATION to search CHEYNE-STOKES RESPIRATION 1966-76. History Note:. 91(66); was see under RESPIRATION DISORDERS 1977-90 ... Cheyne-Stokes Respiration - Preferred Concept UI. M0004037. Scope note. An abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by ... Cheyne-Stokes Respiration Entry term(s). Cheyne Stokes Respiration Respiration, Cheyne-Stokes ... Respiration de Cheyne Stokes Entry term(s):. Cheyne Stokes Respiration. Respiration, Cheyne-Stokes. ...
... and Cheyne-Stokes respiration). The models developed in this paper can be regarded as the controlled system (plant) and provide ...
Example 2; Stability of the chemoreflex and Cheyne-Stokes periodic respiration (151-156) ... Stability: Example 3: Brief recall about HR and AP variabilities: HF respiration-related waves and LF Mayer waves - Kitneys ... Example 2: Identification of RR-SAP-respiration interactions (slides, paper MBEC, 1994) ...
13co Phrenic Nerve Stimulation in Patients with Cheyne-Stokes Respiration and Congestive Heart Failure ... pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/06/20/phrenic-nerve-stimulation-in-patients-with-cheyne-stokes-respiration-and-congestive- ...
Biots respiration. Cheyne-Stokes respiration. Kussmaul breathing. Hiccup. Mouth breathing/Snoring. Breath-holding. ...
Cushings triad, which consists of widening pulse pressure, decreasing pulse, and abnormal (often Cheyne-Stokes) respirations, ...
... such as Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR), central sleep apnea (CSA) and associated obstructive events. Featuring the most ... In ASVAuto mode, this bilevel machine not only responds within the breath, adjusting Pressure Support to stabilize respiration ... predicts and synchronizes with the patients respiratory pattern to help rapidly stabilize respiration. ...
... and respiratory abnormalities such as Cheyne-Stokes respiration (cyclic waxing and waning of tidal volume), apneustic ... respirations and post-hypercapnic apnea. Focal neurological deficits are less common.[3] ...
Cheyne-Stokes respiration?CSR: Correct sedimentation rate?CSS: Central sterile supply?CSS: ?cSSSI: Complicated skin and skin ... h. : Every hour?QRS: Wave in ECG?QT: Wave in ECG?R: Rectal?R: Respiration?R factors: Resistance factors?R.L.: Ringer\s Lactate ... and respiration?TPV: Tipranavir?TR: Tricuspid regurgitation?tr.: tincture?TRAM flap: Trans-rectus abdominis muscle flap?TRAP: ...
Cheyne-Stokes respiration, Hyperventilation, Mouth breathing, Hiccup, Bradypnea, Hypoventilation) - Chest pain - Asphyxia - ...
Cheyne-Stokes Respiration. *Cough. *Dyspnea. *Epistaxis. *Hemoptysis. *Hoarseness. *Hypercapnia. *Hyperoxia. *Hyperventilation ...
Cheyne-Stokes respiration. *Chin strap. *Chinstrap. *Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). *Chronotherapy ...
Biots respiration. Cheyne-Stokes respiration. Kussmaul breathing. Hiccup. Mouth breathing/Snoring. Breath-holding. ...
Cheyne stoke respiration * S&p tsx global mining index * Rur to usd rate ...
Cheyne-Stokes Respiration [C23.888.852.227] * Cough [C23.888.852.293] * Dyspnea [C23.888.852.371] * Hemoptysis [C23.888.852.430 ... A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.. Terms. Apnea Preferred Term Term UI T003194. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ... A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.. NLM Classification #. WF 143. Date Established. 1966/01/01. Date of Entry. ...
Findley LJ, Zwillich C, Ancoli-Israel S, Kripke K, Tisi G, Moser KM: Cheyne-Stokes breathing during sleep in patients with left ... Some sleep disturbances may result from diabetes through the deleterious effects of diabetes on central control of respiration ... Periodic breathing (28) was noted if 10 consecutive min of a characteristic Cheyne Stokes breathing pattern was observed in ... At least two mechanisms may link autonomic neuropathy with a periodic (Cheyne Stokes) breathing pattern. This breathing pattern ...
Abnormal neurogenic breathing pattern (eg, Cheyne-Stokes), apneusis. Major criteria include the following:. * Altered mentation ... Kussmaul breathing or deep sighing respiration - A mark of acidosis. * Ketone odor - Patient may have a smell of ketones on his ...
  • A condition called Cheyne-Stokes respiration can affect people with severe heart failure and can be associated with central sleep apnea. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The coexistence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and central sleep apnea (CSA) and Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) is common in patients with heart failure (HF). (nih.gov)
  • The AirCurve 10 ASV bilevel machine offers truly personalized therapy for central breathing disorders, such as Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR), central sleep apnea (CSA) and associated obstructive events. (medicalsupplydepotandrepairs.com)
  • El ciclo comienza con respiraciones lentas y superficiales que aumentan gradualmente en profundidad y ritmo, seguidas por un periodo de apnea. (bvsalud.org)
  • [2] Other neurological signs may include involuntary grasping and sucking motions, nystagmus (rapid, involuntary eye movement), jactitation (restlessness while in bed), [ citation needed ] and respiratory abnormalities such as Cheyne-Stokes respiration (cyclic waxing and waning of tidal volume), apneustic respirations and post-hypercapnic apnea . (wikipedia.org)
  • refer to different syndromes related to breathing disorders during sleep such as: Central Apnea Syndromes, Cheyne-Stokes Respiration, Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome, Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome, and Alveolar Hypoventilation Syndrome. (hippokratia.gr)
  • Elderly patients often have altered breathing patterns, such as periodic breathing (PB) and Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR), which may coincide with chronic heart failure. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) is of major prognostic impact and expresses respiratory instability. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Her airway is open and she does not have a palpable pulse, however you note gasping respirations at a rate of 6 per minute. (emtreview.com)
  • It can act multiple arterial pulse examination, spontaneous respiration, common clinical puncture training and auxiliary examination and vividly simulate all the related pre-hospital and hospital body signs, treatment measures and auxiliary examination of emergency patients. (honglian8.com)
  • Cushing's triad, which consists of widening pulse pressure, decreasing pulse, and abnormal (often Cheyne-Stokes) respirations, is usually a significant indication of increased intracranial pressure. (ditchdocem.com)
  • A long-term purpose of this work is to study nonlinear phenomena seen in the cardio-respiratory system (for example, synchronization between ventilation rate and heart rate, and Cheyne-Stokes respiration). (cellml.org)
  • The clinically-published ASV algorithm constantly learns, responds, predicts and synchronizes with the patient's respiratory pattern to help rapidly stabilize respiration. (medicalsupplydepotandrepairs.com)
  • In ASVAuto mode, this bilevel machine not only responds within the breath, adjusting Pressure Support to stabilize respiration, it also automatically adjusts the expiratory pressure in order to provide the minimum pressure required to maintain upper airway patency. (medicalsupplydepotandrepairs.com)
  • A * long-term purpose of this work is to study nonlinear phenomena * seen in the cardio-respiratory system (for example, synchronization * between ventilation rate and heart rate, and Cheyne-Stokes respiration). (nih.gov)