A preparation of chicle, sometimes mixed with other plastic substances, sweetened and flavored. It is masticated usually for pleasure as a candy substitute but it sometimes acts as a vehicle for the administration of medication.
Polysaccharide gums from PLANTS.
Powdered exudate from various Acacia species, especially A. senegal (Leguminosae). It forms mucilage or syrup in water. Gum arabic is used as a suspending agent, excipient, and emulsifier in foods and pharmaceuticals.
Polysaccharide gum from Sterculia urens (STERCULIA). It is used as a suspending or stabilizing agent in foods, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals; a bulk-forming laxative; a surgical lubricant and adhesive; and in the treatment of skin ulcers.
Polysaccharides composed of repeating galactose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.
Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
A branch of medicine which deals with sexually transmitted disease.
The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.
A plant family of the order Malvales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida of tropical trees.
A plant genus in the ANACARDIACEAE family known for the Pistachio nuts and for gum Mastic.
Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.
Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.
A plant genus of the family BURSERACEAE used medicinally since ancient times. It is a source of salai guggal (the gum resin), boswellic acid (ursane type TRITERPENES), and FRANKINCENSE.
A plant genus of the family COMBRETACEAE. Members contain arjunin, an ellagitannin (TANNINS).
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-mannose residues in beta-D-mannosides. The enzyme plays a role in the lysosomal degradation of the N-glycosylprotein glycans. Defects in the lysosomal form of the enzyme in humans result in a buildup of mannoside intermediate metabolites and the disease BETA-MANNOSIDOSIS.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A plant genus of the family APIACEAE. It contains pungent oils and resins. It is used to flavor curries, as a carminative, and as cat and dog repellent. The occasionally used common name of 'giant fennel' should not be confused with true fennel (FOENICULUM).
Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates consisting of long, often branched chains of repeating monosaccharide units joined together by glycosidic bonds, which serve as energy storage molecules (e.g., glycogen), structural components (e.g., cellulose), and molecular recognition sites in various biological systems.
Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.
Dried, ripe seeds of PLANTAGO PSYLLIUM; PLANTAGO INDICA; and PLANTAGO OVATA. Plantain seeds swell in water and are used as demulcents and bulk laxatives.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. The gums and tanning agents obtained from Acacia are called GUM ARABIC. The common name of catechu is more often used for Areca catechu (ARECA).
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria characterized by an outer membrane that contains glycosphingolipids but lacks lipopolysaccharide. They have the ability to degrade a broad range of substituted aromatic compounds.

Prospective study on the effect of smoking and nicotine substitution on leucocyte blood counts and relation between blood leucocytes and lung function. (1/126)

BACKGROUND: The influence of smoking and of nicotine substitution on the counts of total blood leucocytes and leucocyte subsets and the relations between the counts and lung function was investigated. METHODS: The study was a combined cross sectional and prospective study of 298 smokers and 136 non-smokers. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was measured in all participants at baseline and six months after quitting smoking in 160 ex-smokers (quitters) and 138 persons with smoking relapse. Blood samples were obtained from all participants at baseline and from 160 quitters and 30 continuing smokers two, six, 12, and 26 weeks after smoking cessation and from 92 quitters one year after the cessation of smoking. RESULTS: Blood leucocyte counts and leucocyte subsets were all higher in smokers than in non-smokers. In cigarette smokers total leucocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte blood counts showed a dose dependent relationship with the daily cigarette consumption and pack years consumption. In smokers the neutrophil blood count was independently associated negatively with FEV1 residuals. After quitting smoking total leucocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte blood counts decreased during the first 26 weeks and after one year lymphocyte blood counts were higher than in non-smokers. In quitters substituted with nicotine chewing gum (2 mg) the accumulated number of pieces of chewing gum used in the 12 weeks had an inverse relationship with the decrease in the total lymphocyte blood count at 12 weeks after smoking cessation. CONCLUSIONS: Leucocyte blood counts are raised in smokers and decrease after smoking cessation. Neutrophil blood counts had an inverse relationship with lung function and nicotine may increase lymphocyte blood counts in smokers.  (+info)

Open randomised trial of intermittent very low energy diet together with nicotine gum for stopping smoking in women who gained weight in previous attempts to quit. (2/126)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether attempts to prevent weight gain will increase success rates for stopping smoking. DESIGN: 16 week, open, randomised study with 1 year follow up. SETTING: Obesity unit. SUBJECTS: 287 female smokers who had quit smoking before but started again because of weight concerns. INTERVENTION: Combination of a standard smoking cessation programme with nicotine gum and a behavioural weight control programme including a very low energy diet. A control group was treated with the identical programme but without the diet. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Sustained cessation of smoking. RESULTS: After 16 weeks, 68/137 (50%) women had stopped smoking in the diet group versus 53/150 (35%) in the control group (P=0.01). Among these women, weight fell by mean 2.1 (95% confidence interval 2.9 to 1.3) kg in the diet group but increased by 1.6 (0.9 to 2.3) kg in the control group (P<0.001). After 1 year the success rates in the diet and control groups were 38/137 (28%) and 24/150 (16%) respectively (P<0.05), but there was no statistical difference in weight gain. CONCLUSIONS: Combining the smoking cessation programme with an intervention to control weight helped women to stop smoking and control weight.  (+info)

Effects of a return chewing gum/packaging material mixture on in situ disappearance and on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, and ruminal characteristics of growing steers. (3/126)

In situ and in vivo digestibility experiments were conducted to determine the acceptability, digestibility, and safety of a return chewing gum/packaging (G/P) material mixture when fed to steers. In the in situ experiment, both ruminal and intestinal disappearances were measured. Two ruminally and duodenally cannulated steers, which were given free access to alfalfa hay (AH), were used in this study. Duplicate Dacron bags containing the G/P were incubated in the rumen for 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h. After ruminal incubation, the 12-, 24-, and 48-h bags were placed in the duodenum and collected in the feces to determine intestinal disappearance. In situ ruminal DM disappearance was greater than 70% for all substrates tested at 0 h, indicating high solubility of the substrates in water, and began to reach a plateau after 12 h of incubation. Intestinal in situ disappearance was not different (P>.25) from zero. In the digestion trial, four ruminally cannulated steers (337+/-21.3 kg BW; mean +/- SD) were used in a 4x4 Latin square design with the following treatments: 0) 50% corn (C), 50% AH; 10) 45% C, 45% AH, 10% G/P; 20) 40% C, 40% AH, 20% G/P; 30) 35% C, 35% AH, 30% G/P. Steers fed G/P-containing diets had greater (P<.01) DMI than the control steers. Increasing the G/P resulted in a linear (P<.05) increase in DMI. Apparent DM digestibility tended to be higher (P<.10) for the G/P-containing diets than for the control. A quadratic effect (P<.05) on digestible DMI was observed, with greater (P<.01) digestible DMI values for G/P-containing diets (4.8 vs. 5.8 kg/d). Digestible organic matter and total nonstructural carbohydrate intakes followed trends similar to those of DM. Apparent aluminum digestibility of G/P-containing diets was not different (P>.13) from zero. The level of G/P in the diet had no effect (P>.2) on total VFA concentration or ruminal pH. There was a linear decrease (P<.01) in the molar percentage of isobutyrate and isovalerate in addition to a linear increase (P<.01) in butyrate and valerate with increasing levels of G/P. There was a quadratic effect (P<.01) on molar proportions of acetate and propionate and on the acetate:propionate ratio. Results of both experiments suggest that G/P may be fed to safely replace up to 30% of corn-alfalfa hay diets for growing steers with advantages in improving DMI and digestibility.  (+info)

Chewing gum--facts and fiction: a review of gum-chewing and oral health. (4/126)

The world market for chewing gum is estimated to be 560,000 tons per year, representing approximately US $5 billion. Some 374 billion pieces of chewing gum are sold worldwide every year, representing 187 billion hours of gum-chewing if each piece of gum is chewed for 30 minutes. Chewing gum can thus be expected to have an influence on oral health. The labeling of sugar-substituted chewing gum as "safe for teeth" or "tooth-friendly" has been proven beneficial to the informed consumer. Such claims are allowed for products having been shown in vivo not to depress plaque pH below 5.7, neither during nor for 30 minutes after the consumption. However, various chewing gum manufacturers have recently begun to make distinct health promotion claims, suggesting, e.g., reparative action or substitution for mechanical hygiene. The aim of this critical review--covering the effects of the physical properties of chewing gum and those of different ingredients both of conventional and of functional chewing gum--is to provide a set of guidelines for the interpretation of such claims and to assist oral health care professionals in counseling patients.  (+info)

Small taxes on soft drinks and snack foods to promote health. (5/126)

Health officials often wish to sponsor nutrition and other health promotion programs but are hampered by lack of funding. One source of funding is suggested by the fact that 18 states and 1 major city levy special taxes on soft drinks, candy, chewing gum, or snack foods. The tax rates may be too small to affect sales, but in some jurisdictions, the revenues generated are substantial. Nationally, about $1 billion is raised annually from these taxes. The authors propose that state and local governments levy taxes on foods of low nutritional value and use the revenues to fund health promotion programs.  (+info)

Adsorption of oral bacteria to porous type calcium carbonate. (6/126)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the adsorption of [3H]-thymidine labeled oral microorganisms to porous type calcium carbonate (PCC) beads in a buffer containing human parotid saliva and to PCC combined chewing gum sheets. Adsorption rates of Streptococcus sobrinus B13 and 6715, Streptococcus mutans MT8148R and Actinomyces naeslundii T14V with PCC were significantly higher than those with calcium carbonate (CC) beads (p < 0.01). Adsorption rates of S. sobrinus, S. mutans and A. naeslundii with PCC combined chewing gum were significantly higher than those with CC combined chewing gum (p < 0.01). The present results suggested that the chewing gum containing PCC may be able to exclude oral bacteria, including cariogenic and periodontopathic bacteria, for prevention of dental caries and periodontal disease.  (+info)

The impact of behavioral technology on dental caries. (7/126)

Models of self-regulation of patient adherence to specific health promotion recommendations by professionals are available and have been shown effective in changing behavior. However, it is a fundamental misspecification of the caries prevention problem to look to techniques that affect the regulation of individual behavior to directly impact dental caries. Behavioral techniques are used to enhance the probability an individual will initiate, increase, or maintain the use of established caries reduction/control strategies or cease or decrease behaviors that increase caries. Behavioral techniques can also be used to affect parental behavior in a cascade of effects that can eventually lead to healthier children. Studies are needed where behaviorally oriented caries prevention actions are thought of as manipulating self-regulatory behavior and the focus of action is either on the individual or on another, such as a parent. A third category of studies should center on provider competency. Studies are recommended in each of these areas.  (+info)

The effect of non-cariogenic sweeteners on the prevention of dental caries: a review of the evidence. (8/126)

The role of sugar substitutes such as xylitol and sorbitol in the prevention of dental caries has been investigated in several clinical studies. The purpose of this report is to review the current published evidence regarding the relationship between sugar substitutes and dental caries. A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE and EMBASE and included studies published from 1966 to 2001. Studies that included human subjects and were published in English were included in this review. A total of fourteen clinical studies were reviewed that evaluated the effect of sorbitol or xylitol or the combination of both sugar substitutes on the incidence of dental caries. Most of the reports were of studies conducted with children outside of the United States. These studies demonstrated a consistent decrease in dental caries, ranging from 30 to 60 percent, among subjects using sugar substitutes as compared to subjects in a control group. These caries rate reductions were observed in subjects using xylitol or sorbitol as the sugar substitute in chewing gum or toothpaste. The highest caries reductions were observed in subjects using xylitol. These findings suggest that the replacement of sucrose with sorbitol and xylitol may significantly decrease the incidence of dental caries.  (+info)

Chewing gum is not a medical term, but rather a common consumer product. It is a type of soft, cohesive substance designed to be chewed without being swallowed. The basic ingredients of chewing gum include a gum base, sweeteners, flavorings, and softeners. The gum base gives it its chewy texture, while sweeteners provide the taste. Flavorings are added to give the gum its particular taste, such as mint, fruit, or bubblegum. Softeners are added to keep the gum from hardening over time.

While chewing gum is not a medical treatment or therapy, it does have some potential health benefits and drawbacks. Chewing sugar-free gum, for example, has been shown to increase saliva production, which can help neutralize acid in the mouth and reduce the risk of tooth decay. However, excessive gum chewing can lead to jaw pain or headaches in some individuals. It is also important to choose sugar-free gum, as sugary gum can contribute to tooth decay.

I believe there might be some confusion in your question as "plant gums" is not a standard medical term. However, if you are referring to "gum" in the context of botany, it relates to the supportive tissues found in plants, similar to how gums support teeth in humans. In this case, I can provide a brief overview of what plant gums are from an organic chemistry and botanical perspective:

Plant gums are complex polysaccharides (long chains of sugar molecules) that serve various functions within plants. They are often produced as a response to injury or stress, helping to seal off wounds and protect the plant. Some common examples include:

1. Gum arabic: Exuded from Acacia senegal trees, it is primarily composed of arabinogalactan proteins and has applications in food, pharmaceutical, and industrial industries due to its emulsifying, thickening, and stabilizing properties.
2. Guar gum: Derived from the seeds of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba, it is a galactomannan that swells in water, making it useful as a thickener, stabilizer, and binder in food, textile, paper, and pharmaceutical industries.
3. Locust bean gum: Extracted from the seeds of Ceratonia siliqua (carob tree), it is another galactomannan with similar uses to guar gum.

If you meant something different by "plant gums," please provide clarification, and I will do my best to offer a suitable response.

Gum arabic, also known as acacia gum, is a natural gum made from the sap of two species of acacia tree: Senegalia senegal and Vachellia seyal. It's primarily composed of complex polysaccharides and has been used in various medical and non-medical applications for centuries.

In a medical context, gum arabic is often used as an excipient or a component of the delivery system for medications. Its properties as a binder, emulsifier, and stabilizer make it useful in the production of tablets, capsules, and other pharmaceutical forms. It can also be found in some oral medications, throat lozenges, and cough syrups due to its soothing effects on mucous membranes.

However, it's important to note that gum arabic itself is not a medication or therapeutic agent, but rather a component that aids in the administration or delivery of medical substances.

Karaya gum is not a medical term, but a substance that is used in some medical and pharmaceutical applications. It's a natural gum exuded from the tree Senegalia catechu, also known as Sterculia urens.

Medically, karaya gum is sometimes used as an excipient or a bulking agent in oral medications, and as a component of wound dressings due to its ability to absorb water and form a gel. It has been reported to have some potential benefits in wound healing, including promoting granulation tissue formation and reducing inflammation. However, more research is needed to fully understand its mechanisms and effectiveness in these applications.

It's important to note that the use of karaya gum in medical products should be carefully evaluated and monitored, as it can cause allergic reactions or other adverse effects in some individuals.

Galactans are a type of complex carbohydrates known as oligosaccharides that are composed of galactose molecules. They can be found in certain plants, including beans, lentils, and some fruits and vegetables. In the human body, galactans are not digestible and can reach the colon intact, where they may serve as a substrate for fermentation by gut bacteria. This can lead to the production of short-chain fatty acids, which have been shown to have various health benefits. However, in some individuals with irritable bowel syndrome or other functional gastrointestinal disorders, consumption of galactans may cause digestive symptoms such as bloating, gas, and diarrhea.

Mannans are a type of complex carbohydrate, specifically a heteropolysaccharide, that are found in the cell walls of certain plants, algae, and fungi. They consist of chains of mannose sugars linked together, often with other sugar molecules such as glucose or galactose.

Mannans have various biological functions, including serving as a source of energy for microorganisms that can break them down. In some cases, mannans can also play a role in the immune response and are used as a component of vaccines to stimulate an immune response.

In the context of medicine, mannans may be relevant in certain conditions such as gut dysbiosis or allergic reactions to foods containing mannans. Additionally, some research has explored the potential use of mannans as a delivery vehicle for drugs or other therapeutic agents.

In a medical context, "resins, plant" refer to the sticky, often aromatic substances produced by certain plants. These resins are typically composed of a mixture of volatile oils, terpenes, and rosin acids. They may be present in various parts of the plant, including leaves, stems, and roots, and are often found in specialized structures such as glands or ducts.

Plant resins have been used for centuries in traditional medicine and other applications. Some resins have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, or analgesic properties and have been used to treat a variety of ailments, including skin conditions, respiratory infections, and pain.

Examples of plant resins with medicinal uses include:

* Frankincense (Boswellia spp.) resin has been used in traditional medicine to treat inflammation, arthritis, and asthma.
* Myrrh (Commiphora spp.) resin has been used as an antiseptic, astringent, and anti-inflammatory agent.
* Pine resin has been used topically for its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties.

It's important to note that while some plant resins have demonstrated medicinal benefits, they should be used with caution and under the guidance of a healthcare professional. Some resins can have adverse effects or interact with medications, and it's essential to ensure their safe and effective use.

Venereology is a branch of medicine that deals with the study, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or venereal diseases. The term "venereal" comes from Venus, the Roman goddess of love, due to the association of these diseases with sexual activity.

A medical professional who specializes in venereology is called a venereologist. They are trained to diagnose and manage various types of STIs, including chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, herpes, HIV/AIDS, and genital warts, among others.

Venereologists work in various settings, such as hospitals, clinics, and public health departments. They often collaborate with other healthcare professionals, including primary care physicians, nurses, and counselors, to provide comprehensive care for patients with STIs. Additionally, venereologists play a crucial role in promoting sexual health education and advocating for policies that help prevent the spread of STIs.

Dietary fiber, also known as roughage, is the indigestible portion of plant foods that makes up the structural framework of the plants we eat. It is composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, gums, lignins, and waxes. Dietary fiber can be classified into two categories: soluble and insoluble.

Soluble fiber dissolves in water to form a gel-like material in the gut, which can help slow down digestion, increase feelings of fullness, and lower cholesterol levels. Soluble fiber is found in foods such as oats, barley, fruits, vegetables, legumes, and nuts.

Insoluble fiber does not dissolve in water and passes through the gut intact, helping to add bulk to stools and promote regular bowel movements. Insoluble fiber is found in foods such as whole grains, bran, seeds, and the skins of fruits and vegetables.

Dietary fiber has numerous health benefits, including promoting healthy digestion, preventing constipation, reducing the risk of heart disease, controlling blood sugar levels, and aiding in weight management. The recommended daily intake of dietary fiber is 25-38 grams per day for adults, depending on age and gender.

Bombacaceae is a family of flowering plants that includes trees, shrubs, and herbs. It was previously recognized as a distinct family, but recent classifications have merged it into the Malvaceae family. Plants in this group are characterized by their large, showy flowers and often contain a great deal of mucilage. Some well-known members of this group include the baobab tree, the kapok tree, and the silk-cotton tree.

"Pistacia" is a botanical term, not a medical one. It refers to a genus of plants in the Anacardiaceae family, which includes several species of trees and shrubs. The most well-known species is probably Pistacia vera, which produces the seeds known as pistachios.

While "Pistacia" itself is not a medical term, some of its species do have medicinal uses. For example, the resin from Pistacia lentiscus, also known as mastic, has been used in traditional medicine for various purposes, such as treating gastrointestinal disorders and skin conditions. However, it's important to note that the scientific evidence supporting these uses is generally limited, and more research is needed before any firm conclusions can be drawn.

Excipients are inactive substances that serve as vehicles or mediums for the active ingredients in medications. They make up the bulk of a pharmaceutical formulation and help to stabilize, preserve, and enhance the delivery of the active drug compound. Common examples of excipients include binders, fillers, coatings, disintegrants, flavors, sweeteners, and colors. While excipients are generally considered safe and inert, they can sometimes cause allergic reactions or other adverse effects in certain individuals.

In the context of medical terminology, tablets refer to pharmaceutical dosage forms that contain various active ingredients. They are often manufactured in a solid, compressed form and can be administered orally. Tablets may come in different shapes, sizes, colors, and flavors, depending on their intended use and the manufacturer's specifications.

Some tablets are designed to disintegrate or dissolve quickly in the mouth, making them easier to swallow, while others are formulated to release their active ingredients slowly over time, allowing for extended drug delivery. These types of tablets are known as sustained-release or controlled-release tablets.

Tablets may contain a single active ingredient or a combination of several ingredients, depending on the intended therapeutic effect. They are typically manufactured using a variety of excipients, such as binders, fillers, and disintegrants, which help to hold the tablet together and ensure that it breaks down properly when ingested.

Overall, tablets are a convenient and widely used dosage form for administering medications, offering patients an easy-to-use and often palatable option for receiving their prescribed treatments.

Bacterial polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates that consist of long chains of sugar molecules (monosaccharides) linked together by glycosidic bonds. They are produced and used by bacteria for various purposes such as:

1. Structural components: Bacterial polysaccharides, such as peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity of bacterial cells. Peptidoglycan is a major component of the bacterial cell wall, while LPS forms the outer layer of the outer membrane in gram-negative bacteria.
2. Nutrient storage: Some bacteria synthesize and store polysaccharides as an energy reserve, similar to how plants store starch. These polysaccharides can be broken down and utilized by the bacterium when needed.
3. Virulence factors: Bacterial polysaccharides can also function as virulence factors, contributing to the pathogenesis of bacterial infections. For example, certain bacteria produce capsular polysaccharides (CPS) that surround and protect the bacterial cells from host immune defenses, allowing them to evade phagocytosis and persist within the host.
4. Adhesins: Some polysaccharides act as adhesins, facilitating the attachment of bacteria to surfaces or host cells. This is important for biofilm formation, which helps bacteria resist environmental stresses and antibiotic treatments.
5. Antigenic properties: Bacterial polysaccharides can be highly antigenic, eliciting an immune response in the host. The antigenicity of these molecules can vary between different bacterial species or even strains within a species, making them useful as targets for vaccines and diagnostic tests.

In summary, bacterial polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates that serve various functions in bacteria, including structural support, nutrient storage, virulence factor production, adhesion, and antigenicity.

Nicotine is defined as a highly addictive psychoactive alkaloid and stimulant found in the nightshade family of plants, primarily in tobacco leaves. It is the primary component responsible for the addiction to cigarettes and other forms of tobacco. Nicotine can also be produced synthetically.

When nicotine enters the body, it activates the release of several neurotransmitters such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin, leading to feelings of pleasure, stimulation, and relaxation. However, with regular use, tolerance develops, requiring higher doses to achieve the same effects, which can contribute to the development of nicotine dependence.

Nicotine has both short-term and long-term health effects. Short-term effects include increased heart rate and blood pressure, increased alertness and concentration, and arousal. Long-term use can lead to addiction, lung disease, cardiovascular disease, and reproductive problems. It is important to note that nicotine itself is not the primary cause of many tobacco-related diseases, but rather the result of other harmful chemicals found in tobacco smoke.

Pectins are complex polysaccharides that are commonly found in the cell walls of plants. In the context of food and nutrition, pectins are often referred to as dietary fiber. They have a variety of important functions within the body, including promoting digestive health by adding bulk to stools and helping to regulate bowel movements.

Pectins are also used in the medical field as a demulcent, which is a substance that forms a soothing film over mucous membranes. This can be helpful in treating conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

In addition to their use in medicine, pectins are widely used in the food industry as a gelling agent, thickener, and stabilizer. They are commonly found in jams, jellies, and other preserved fruits, as well as in baked goods and confectionery products.

Boswellia, also known as Indian frankincense, is a type of tree that produces a resin that has been used in traditional medicine for centuries. The scientific name for the resin is Boswellia serrata. It contains compounds called boswellic acids, which have anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Some research suggests that Boswellia may be helpful in treating osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and asthma. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential health benefits and to determine the proper dosage and safety of Boswellia supplements. As with any treatment, it's important to consult a healthcare professional before starting to use Boswellia.

"Terminalia" is a term that refers to a genus of flowering plants, rather than having a specific medical definition. The Terminalia genus includes approximately 300 species of trees and shrubs that are native to tropical regions around the world. Some species of Terminalia have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes, such as treating digestive issues, skin conditions, and infections. However, it's important to note that while some studies suggest that certain Terminalia species may have medicinal properties, more research is needed before they can be recommended as standard treatments. Therefore, it's always best to consult with a healthcare provider before using any herbal remedies or supplements.

Beta-Mannosidase is an enzyme that breaks down complex carbohydrates known as glycoproteins. It does this by catalyzing the hydrolysis of beta-mannosidic linkages, which are specific types of chemical bonds that connect mannose sugars within glycoproteins.

This enzyme plays an important role in the normal functioning of the body, particularly in the breakdown and recycling of glycoproteins. A deficiency in beta-mannosidase activity can lead to a rare genetic disorder known as beta-Mannosidosis, which is characterized by the accumulation of mannose-rich oligosaccharides in various tissues and organs, leading to progressive neurological deterioration and other symptoms.

Viscosity is a physical property of a fluid that describes its resistance to flow. In medical terms, viscosity is often discussed in relation to bodily fluids such as blood or synovial fluid (found in joints). The unit of measurement for viscosity is the poise, although it is more commonly expressed in millipascals-second (mPa.s) in SI units. Highly viscous fluids flow more slowly than less viscous fluids. Changes in the viscosity of bodily fluids can have significant implications for health and disease; for example, increased blood viscosity has been associated with cardiovascular diseases, while decreased synovial fluid viscosity can contribute to joint pain and inflammation in conditions like osteoarthritis.

"Ferula" is a term that has different meanings and uses in various scientific contexts, but it is not commonly used as a medical term. In botany, "Ferula" is the name of a genus of plants that includes the giant fennel, which can grow to be quite large.

However, you may be thinking of the term "ferrule," which is sometimes used in a medical context. A ferrule is a small piece of metal or plastic that is used to reinforce or protect the end of a device or tool. In medicine, ferrules are sometimes used on the ends of walking canes or crutches to provide extra support and prevent wear and tear.

It's possible that there may be other contexts in which the term "ferula" is used in a medical sense, but it is not a widely used or well-known term in this field.

Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates consisting of long chains of monosaccharide units (simple sugars) bonded together by glycosidic linkages. They can be classified based on the type of monosaccharides and the nature of the bonds that connect them.

Polysaccharides have various functions in living organisms. For example, starch and glycogen serve as energy storage molecules in plants and animals, respectively. Cellulose provides structural support in plants, while chitin is a key component of fungal cell walls and arthropod exoskeletons.

Some polysaccharides also have important roles in the human body, such as being part of the extracellular matrix (e.g., hyaluronic acid) or acting as blood group antigens (e.g., ABO blood group substances).

I couldn't find a medical definition specifically for "delayed-action preparations." However, in the context of pharmacology, it may refer to medications or treatments that have a delayed onset of action. These are designed to release the active drug slowly over an extended period, which can help to maintain a consistent level of the medication in the body and reduce the frequency of dosing.

Examples of delayed-action preparations include:

1. Extended-release (ER) or controlled-release (CR) formulations: These are designed to release the drug slowly over several hours, reducing the need for frequent dosing. Examples include extended-release tablets and capsules.
2. Transdermal patches: These deliver medication through the skin and can provide a steady rate of drug delivery over several days. Examples include nicotine patches for smoking cessation or fentanyl patches for pain management.
3. Injectable depots: These are long-acting injectable formulations that slowly release the drug into the body over weeks to months. An example is the use of long-acting antipsychotic injections for the treatment of schizophrenia.
4. Implantable devices: These are small, biocompatible devices placed under the skin or within a body cavity that release a steady dose of medication over an extended period. Examples include hormonal implants for birth control or drug-eluting stents used in cardiovascular procedures.

Delayed-action preparations can improve patient compliance and quality of life by reducing dosing frequency, minimizing side effects, and maintaining consistent therapeutic levels.

Psyllium is a type of fiber derived from the seeds of the Plantago ovata plant. It's often used as a bulk-forming laxative to help promote regularity and relieve constipation. When psyllium comes into contact with water, it swells and forms a gel-like substance that helps move waste through the digestive tract. In addition to its laxative effects, psyllium has also been shown to help lower cholesterol levels and control blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. It's available in various forms such as powder, capsules, and wafers, and can be found in many over-the-counter supplements and medications.

"Acacia" is a scientific name for a genus of shrubs and trees that belong to the pea family, Fabaceae. It includes over 1,350 species found primarily in Australia and Africa, but also in Asia, America, and Europe. Some acacia species are known for their hardwood, others for their phyllodes (flattened leaf stalks) or compound leaves, and yet others for their flowers, which are typically small and yellow or cream-colored.

It is important to note that "Acacia" is not a medical term or concept, but rather a botanical one. While some acacia species have medicinal uses, the name itself does not have a specific medical definition.

Pharmaceutical chemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals with the design, synthesis, and development of chemical entities used as medications. It involves the study of drugs' physical, chemical, and biological properties, as well as their interactions with living organisms. This field also encompasses understanding the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of drugs in the body, which are critical factors in drug design and development. Pharmaceutical chemists often work closely with biologists, medical professionals, and engineers to develop new medications and improve existing ones.

Methylcellulose is a semisynthetic, inert, viscous, and tasteless white powder that is soluble in cold water but not in hot water. It is derived from cellulose through the process of methylation. In medical contexts, it is commonly used as a bulk-forming laxative to treat constipation, as well as a lubricant in ophthalmic solutions and a suspending agent in pharmaceuticals.

When mixed with water, methylcellulose forms a gel-like substance that can increase stool volume and promote bowel movements. It is generally considered safe for most individuals, but like any medication or supplement, it should be used under the guidance of a healthcare provider.

Sphingomonas is a genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that are widely distributed in the environment. They are known for their ability to degrade various organic compounds and are often found in water, soil, and air samples. The cells of Sphingomonas species are typically straight or slightly curved rods, and they do not form spores.

One distinctive feature of Sphingomonas species is the presence of a unique lipid called sphingolipid in their cell membranes. This lipid contains a long-chain base called sphingosine, which is not found in the cell membranes of other gram-negative bacteria. The genus Sphingomonas includes several species that have been associated with human infections, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. These infections can include bacteremia, pneumonia, and urinary tract infections. However, Sphingomonas species are generally considered to be of low virulence and are not typically regarded as major pathogens.

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The strict minimalism of parallelepiped is subverted by the uniform coating with many bars of chewing-gum completely cover it, ... The sensual act of chewing, the voluptuous warmth of rebelling saliva, the artificial and secretly aseptic fragrance which ...
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