Plastic tubes used for drainage of air or fluid from the pleural space. Their surgical insertion is called tube thoracostomy.
Surgical procedure involving the creation of an opening (stoma) into the chest cavity for drainage; used in the treatment of PLEURAL EFFUSION; PNEUMOTHORAX; HEMOTHORAX; and EMPYEMA.
An accumulation of air or gas in the PLEURAL CAVITY, which may occur spontaneously or as a result of trauma or a pathological process. The gas may also be introduced deliberately during PNEUMOTHORAX, ARTIFICIAL.
Suppurative inflammation of the pleural space.
The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.
Hemorrhage within the pleural cavity.
Pressure, burning, or numbness in the chest.
Presence of fluid in the pleural cavity resulting from excessive transudation or exudation from the pleural surfaces. It is a sign of disease and not a diagnosis in itself.
The production of adhesions between the parietal and visceral pleura. The procedure is used in the treatment of bronchopleural fistulas, malignant pleural effusions, and pneumothorax and often involves instillation of chemicals or other agents into the pleural space causing, in effect, a pleuritis that seals the air leak. (From Fishman, Pulmonary Diseases, 2d ed, p2233 & Dorland, 27th ed)
Endoscopic surgery of the pleural cavity performed with visualization via video transmission.
General or unspecified injuries to the chest area.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the pleural cavity.
The presence of chyle in the thoracic cavity. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Paired but separate cavity within the THORACIC CAVITY. It consists of the space between the parietal and visceral PLEURA and normally contains a capillary layer of serous fluid that lubricates the pleural surfaces.
X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.
Removal of an implanted therapeutic or prosthetic device.
The excision of lung tissue including partial or total lung lobectomy.
The removal of secretions, gas or fluid from hollow or tubular organs or cavities by means of a tube and a device that acts on negative pressure.
Introduction of a tube into a hollow organ to restore or maintain patency if obstructed. It is differentiated from CATHETERIZATION in that the insertion of a catheter is usually performed for the introducing or withdrawing of fluids from the body.
Presence of fluid in the PLEURAL CAVITY as a complication of malignant disease. Malignant pleural effusions often contain actual malignant cells.
Surgical incision into the chest wall.
A procedure in which fluid is withdrawn from a body cavity or organ via a trocar and cannula, needle, or other hollow instrument.
Presence of pus in a hollow organ or body cavity.
Absence of air in the entire or part of a lung, such as an incompletely inflated neonate lung or a collapsed adult lung. Pulmonary atelectasis can be caused by airway obstruction, lung compression, fibrotic contraction, or other factors.
Surgery performed on the thoracic organs, most commonly the lungs and the heart.
A growth from a pollen grain down into the flower style which allows two sperm to pass, one to the ovum within the ovule, and the other to the central cell of the ovule to produce endosperm of SEEDS.
Finely powdered native hydrous magnesium silicate. It is used as a dusting powder, either alone or with starch or boric acid, for medicinal and toilet preparations. It is also an excipient and filler for pills, tablets, and for dusting tablet molds. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
'Pleural diseases' is a broad term referring to various medical conditions that affect the pleura, the thin, double-layered membrane surrounding the lungs, including inflammation (pleurisy), effusions (excess fluid buildup), thickening, or tumors, which may cause chest pain, coughing, and breathing difficulties.
Endoscopes for examining the pleural cavity.
The thin serous membrane enveloping the lungs (LUNG) and lining the THORACIC CAVITY. Pleura consist of two layers, the inner visceral pleura lying next to the pulmonary parenchyma and the outer parietal pleura. Between the two layers is the PLEURAL CAVITY which contains a thin film of liquid.
The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Rib fractures are breaks or cracks in the rib bones, which can occur at any location along the rib's length, often caused by direct trauma or severe coughing, and may result in pain, difficulty breathing, and increased risk of complications such as pneumonia.
Congenital malformations of the central nervous system and adjacent structures related to defective neural tube closure during the first trimester of pregnancy generally occurring between days 18-29 of gestation. Ectodermal and mesodermal malformations (mainly involving the skull and vertebrae) may occur as a result of defects of neural tube closure. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp31-41)
The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The outer margins of the thorax containing SKIN, deep FASCIA; THORACIC VERTEBRAE; RIBS; STERNUM; and MUSCLES.
The administration of therapeutic agents drop by drop, as eye drops, ear drops, or nose drops. It is also administered into a body space or cavity through a catheter. It differs from THERAPEUTIC IRRIGATION in that the irrigate is removed within minutes, but the instillate is left in place.
A tube of ectodermal tissue in an embryo that will give rise to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, including the SPINAL CORD and the BRAIN. Lumen within the neural tube is called neural canal which gives rise to the central canal of the spinal cord and the ventricles of the brain. For malformation of the neural tube, see NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
An abnormal passage or communication between a bronchus and another part of the body.
A pyrrolizine carboxylic acid derivative structurally related to INDOMETHACIN. It is an NSAID and is used principally for its analgesic activity. (From Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Loss of blood during a surgical procedure.
Hemorrhage following any surgical procedure. It may be immediate or delayed and is not restricted to the surgical wound.
The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
X-ray screening of large groups of persons for diseases of the lung and heart by means of radiography of the chest.
A narrow passageway that connects the upper part of the throat to the TYMPANIC CAVITY.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A complication of multiple rib fractures, rib and sternum fractures, or thoracic surgery. A portion of the chest wall becomes isolated from the thoracic cage and exhibits paradoxical respiration.
Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.

A regional survey of chest drains: evidence-based practice? (1/208)

Although the use of chest drains is common in medicine, there appear to be wide variations in practice. A survey was therefore conducted to establish the current status of chest drain management in the Northwest region. A questionnaire targeted consultants practising in the specialties of chest medicine, general surgery, accident & emergency and cardiothoracic surgery. The questionnaire consisted of five sections encompassing aspects of the insertion, day-to-day care and removal of chest drains. With an overall response rate of 75.3% (110/146), important variations in every major aspect of the practice of chest drains were found between the specialties and to a large extent within each specialty. We have made a number of recommendations which aim to encourage good practice and reduce unnecessary complications, including the adoption of standardised protocols for inserting and managing chest drains.  (+info)

Management of spontaneous pneumothorax-a Welsh survey. (2/208)

The authors sought to determine to what degree current practice by hospital physicians and accident and emergency (A&E) departments in Wales conformed to the British Thoracic Society's guidelines for the management of spontaneous pneumothorax. Questionnaires were posted to all consultants involved in emergency medical admissions in Wales (149 consultant physicians and 23 A&E consultants) of whom 101 (59%) replied. Only 45% used the classification, "small, moderate, or complete" to describe the size of pneumothorax. Just 44% would do as recommended by the British Thoracic Society and discharge an asymptomatic patient with a primary pneumothorax and 34% would discharge a patient with a primary pneumothorax after successful aspiration. Only 20% were prepared to try aspiration initially for a secondary pneumothorax with a complete lung collapse. Thirty four per cent would follow the recommendation to remove a chest drain without prior clamping of the tube 24 hours after bubbling had stopped. In the event of a persistent air leak 69% would refer patients or seek a specialist opinion. Physicians with an interest in respiratory medicine tolerated persistent air leaks for significantly longer than did non-respiratory physicians (median of 7 v 5 days, p=0.001). The survey indicates that fewer than expected consultant physicians and A&E consultants in Wales manage spontaneous pneumothoraces in the way recommended by the guidelines. Physicians with an interest in respiratory medicine tended to comply with these guidelines more than general physicians with interests other than respiratory medicine or A&E consultants but the trend was not significant at the 5% level. It is felt that the guidelines should be disseminated more widely, ensuring that emergency admissions units and A&E departments have copies on display or easily accessible, and that they could be expanded to cover other aspects such as timing for surgery.  (+info)

Comparison of the effectiveness of some pleural sclerosing agents used for control of effusions in malignant pleural mesothelioma: a review of 117 cases. (3/208)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Management of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) has been an important clinical issue regardless of the treatment modality employed. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of oxytetracycline (OT), Corynebacterium parvum (CP), and nitrogen mustard (NM) in the management of pleural effusion associated with MPM. METHODS: One hundred and seventeen patients who had stage-2 MPM or over according to the Butchart staging system and unilateral or bilateral pleural effusion took part in the study. The patients received either OT (35 mg/kg), CP (7 mg), or NM (0.4 mg/kg) through a chest tube for pleurodesis. The association between several clinical parameters and patient survival was also investigated. RESULTS: OT was applied to 59, CP to 29 and NM to 29 cases. A statistical analysis of the results obtained by these agents have demonstrated that OT (30 days, 81%; 90 days, 76.2%) and CP (30 days, 86.2%; 90 days, 79.3%) led to a significantly higher rate of successful pleurodesis as compared to NM (30 days, 48.2%; 90 days, 41.3%; p <0.05). Although the procedure was generally well tolerated by the patients, the NM-treated group experienced significantly more nausea-vomiting (46.1%) and hypotension (35.8%) compared to patients who received OT (nausea-vomiting and hypotension 4.3%; p < 0.001) and CP (nausea-vomiting and hypotension 5.1%; p < 0.001). Furthermore, we found that thrombocytosis, chest pain and weight loss were significantly associated with poor prognosis, whereas epithelial type had a positive effect on survival. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that OT and CP may be used as effective sclerosing agents for pleurodesis in the control of pleural effusions associated with MPM, without major side effects.  (+info)

Spontaneous pneumothorax: pragmatic management and long-term outcome. (4/208)

We prospectively considered 65 patients admitted for a spontaneous pneumothorax (SP) to describe the pragmatic management of SP, the first recurrence-free interval after medical therapeutic procedure and to specify the first recurrence risk factors over a 7-year period in these patients treated medically. The treatment options were observation alone (9%), needle aspiration (6%), small calibre chest tube (Pleurocatheter) drainage (28%) or thoracic tube drainage (49%), and pleurodesis with video-assisted thoracic surgery procedure (8%). Duration of the drainage and length of hospital stay were shorter in the Pleurocatheter group than in the thoracic tube group (P < 0.01). Among the 47 patients (72%) with a first SP and treated medically, nine patients (19%) had a first homolateral recurrence (FHR) during a mean follow-up of 84+/-13 months. Recurrence-free intervals ranged from 1 to 24 months (mean +/- SD: 9.3+/-8.4 months). FHR cases were more frequent in the Pleurocatheter group (P < 0 04). Analysis of potential risk factors showed that the patient's height and a previous homolateral SP episode are independent recurrence risk factors.  (+info)

A review of "chest tubes" during donor care and after transplantation. (5/208)

Thoracostomy tubes, also called chest tubes, are commonly present after transplantation or during donor care. The function of the thoracostomy tube is to provide a conduit for transporting fluid, gas, or blood from the pleural cavity to an attached drainage unit. Malfunction of the tube or parts of the unit assembly may lead to serious consequences and jeopardize transplant recipient recovery or donor organs. This review discusses the components of the thoracostomy tube and drainage unit assembly, normal operation, routine evaluation, and common problems that the organ procurement or transplantation coordinator may need to anticipate or treat.  (+info)

Talcage by medical thoracoscopy for primary spontaneous pneumothorax is more cost-effective than drainage: a randomised study. (6/208)

Simple thoracoscopic talcage (TT) is a safe and effective treatment of primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP). However, its efficacy has not previously been estimated in comparison with standard conservative therapy (pleural drainage (PD)). In this prospective randomised comparison of two well-established procedures of treating PSP requiring at least a chest tube, cost-effectiveness, safety and pain control was evaluated in 108 patients with PSP (61 TT and 47 PD). Patients in both groups had comparable clinical characteristics. Drainage and hospitalisation duration were similar in TT and PD patients. There were no complications in either group. The immediate success rate was different: after prolonged drainage (>7 days), 10 out of 47 PD patients, but only 1 out of 61 TT patients required a TT as a second procedure. Total costs of hospitalisation including any treatment procedure were not significantly different between TT and PD patients. Pain, measured daily by visual analogue scales, was statistically higher during the first 3 days in TT patients but not in those patients receiving opiates. One month after leaving hospital, there was no significant difference in residual pain or full working ability: 20 out of 58 (34%) versus 10 out of 47 (21%) and 36 out of 61 (59%) versus 26 out of 39 (67%) in TT versus PD groups, respectively. After 5 yrs of follow-up, there had been only three out of 59 (5%) recurrences of pneumothorax after TT, but 16 out of 47 (34%) after conservative treatment by PD. Cost calculation favoured TT pleurodesis especially with regard to recurrences. In conclusion, thoracoscopic talc pleurodesis under local anaesthesia is superior to conservative treatment by chest tube drainage in cases of primary spontaneous pneumothorax that fail simple aspiration, provided there is efficient control of pain by opioids.  (+info)

AIDS-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia with disappearance of cystic lesions after treatment. (7/208)

A 21-year-old hemophiliac with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was admitted to our hospital because of bilateral pneumothoraces associated with Pneumocysis carinii pneumonia (PCP). He underwent chest tube drainages and intravenous pentamidine therapy, resulting in clinical improvement. Two months after treatment for PCP, cystic lesions that had existed before treatment disappeared on chest computed tomography. We concluded that Pneumocystis carinii infection might be associated with lung destruction and cyst formation, and that inflammatory exudates in the small bronchioles might act as a ball-valve with subsequent spontaneous pneumothoraces.  (+info)

Towards evidence based emergency medicine: best BETs from Manchester Royal Infirmary. Antibiotics in patients with isolated chest trauma requiring chest drains. (8/208)

A short cut review was carried out to establish whether the administration of antibiotics reduces the incidence of intrathoracic infection in patients who have had a chest drain inserted after trauma. Altogether 321 papers were found using the reported search, of which two presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results, and study weaknesses of these best papers are tabulated. A clinical bottom line is stated.  (+info)

Chest tubes are medical devices that are inserted into the chest cavity to drain fluid, air, or blood. They are typically used to treat conditions such as pneumothorax (collapsed lung), hemothorax (blood in the chest cavity), pleural effusion (excess fluid in the chest cavity), and chylothorax (milky fluid in the chest cavity).

Chest tubes are usually inserted between the ribs and directed into the chest cavity, allowing for drainage of the affected area. The tubes are connected to a collection system that creates negative pressure, which helps to remove the air or fluid from the chest cavity.

The size and number of chest tubes used may vary depending on the severity and location of the condition being treated. Chest tubes are typically removed once the underlying condition has been resolved and the drainage has decreased to a minimal amount.

Thoracostomy is a surgical procedure that involves the creation of an opening into the chest cavity to relieve excessive pressure, drain fluid or air accumulation, or provide access for surgery. It is commonly performed to treat conditions such as pneumothorax (collapsed lung), hemothorax (blood in the chest cavity), pleural effusion (excess fluid in the pleural space), and empyema (pus in the pleural space).

During a thoracostomy, a healthcare professional makes an incision on the chest wall and inserts a tube called a thoracostomy tube or chest tube. The tube is connected to a drainage system that helps remove the air, fluid, or blood from the chest cavity. This procedure can be performed as an emergency treatment or as a planned surgical intervention.

The medical definition of thoracostomy includes the following key components:

1. A surgical procedure
2. Involving the creation of an opening
3. Into the chest cavity (thorax)
4. To relieve pressure, drain fluids or air, or provide access for surgery
5. Often performed with the insertion of a thoracostomy tube or chest tube
6. Used to treat various conditions related to the pleural space and lungs

Pneumothorax is a medical condition that refers to the presence of air in the pleural space, which is the potential space between the lungs and the chest wall. This collection of air can result in a partial or complete collapse of the lung. The symptoms of pneumothorax may include sudden chest pain, shortness of breath, cough, and rapid heartbeat.

The two main types of pneumothorax are spontaneous pneumothorax, which occurs without any apparent cause or underlying lung disease, and secondary pneumothorax, which is caused by an underlying lung condition such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, or lung cancer.

Treatment for pneumothorax may include observation, oxygen therapy, needle aspiration, or chest tube insertion to remove the excess air from the pleural space and allow the lung to re-expand. In severe cases, surgery may be required to prevent recurrence.

Empyema is a collection of pus in a body cavity. Pleural empyema refers to the presence of pus in the pleural space, which is the thin fluid-filled space that surrounds the lungs. This condition usually develops as a complication of pneumonia or lung infection, and it can cause symptoms such as chest pain, cough, fever, and difficulty breathing. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to treat the underlying infection, as well as drainage of the pus from the pleural space through procedures such as thoracentesis or chest tube placement. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the infected pleura and prevent recurrence.

Drainage, in medical terms, refers to the removal of excess fluid or accumulated collections of fluids from various body parts or spaces. This is typically accomplished through the use of medical devices such as catheters, tubes, or drains. The purpose of drainage can be to prevent the buildup of fluids that may cause discomfort, infection, or other complications, or to treat existing collections of fluid such as abscesses, hematomas, or pleural effusions. Drainage may also be used as a diagnostic tool to analyze the type and composition of the fluid being removed.

Hemothorax is a medical condition characterized by the presence of blood in the pleural space, which is the area between the lungs and the chest wall. This accumulation of blood can occur due to various reasons such as trauma, rupture of a blood vessel, or complications from lung or heart surgery.

The buildup of blood in the pleural space can cause the affected lung to collapse, leading to symptoms such as shortness of breath, chest pain, and cough. In severe cases, hemothorax can be life-threatening if not promptly diagnosed and treated. Treatment options may include chest tube drainage, blood transfusion, or surgery, depending on the severity and underlying cause of the condition.

Chest pain is a discomfort or pain that you feel in the chest area. The pain can be sharp, dull, burning, crushing, heaviness, or tightness. It may be accompanied by other symptoms such as shortness of breath, sweating, nausea, dizziness, or pain that radiates to the arm, neck, jaw, or back.

Chest pain can have many possible causes, including heart-related conditions such as angina or a heart attack, lung conditions such as pneumonia or pleurisy, gastrointestinal problems such as acid reflux or gastritis, musculoskeletal issues such as costochondritis or muscle strain, and anxiety or panic attacks.

It is important to seek immediate medical attention if you experience chest pain that is severe, persistent, or accompanied by other concerning symptoms, as it may be a sign of a serious medical condition. A healthcare professional can evaluate your symptoms, perform tests, and provide appropriate treatment.

Pleural effusion is a medical condition characterized by the abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural space, which is the thin, fluid-filled space that surrounds the lungs and lines the inside of the chest wall. This space typically contains a small amount of fluid to allow for smooth movement of the lungs during breathing. However, when an excessive amount of fluid accumulates, it can cause symptoms such as shortness of breath, coughing, and chest pain.

Pleural effusions can be caused by various underlying medical conditions, including pneumonia, heart failure, cancer, pulmonary embolism, and autoimmune disorders. The fluid that accumulates in the pleural space can be transudative or exudative, depending on the cause of the effusion. Transudative effusions are caused by increased pressure in the blood vessels or decreased protein levels in the blood, while exudative effusions are caused by inflammation, infection, or cancer.

Diagnosis of pleural effusion typically involves a physical examination, chest X-ray, and analysis of the fluid in the pleural space. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the effusion and may include medications, drainage of the fluid, or surgery.

Pleurodesis is a medical procedure that involves the intentional inflammation and subsequent fusion of the pleural surfaces, which are the thin layers of tissue that separate the lungs from the chest wall. This procedure is typically performed to prevent the recurrence of pneumothorax (a collapsed lung) or pleural effusions (abnormal fluid accumulation in the pleural space).

During the pleurodesis procedure, an irritant such as talc, doxycycline, or silver nitrate is introduced into the pleural space. This causes an inflammatory response, leading to the formation of adhesions between the visceral and parietal pleura. These adhesions obliterate the potential space between the pleural layers, preventing the accumulation of air or fluid within that space.

There are two primary approaches to performing pleurodesis: thoracoscopic (using a video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery or VATS) and chemical (instilling a sclerosing agent through a chest tube). Both methods aim to achieve the same goal of creating adhesions between the pleural layers.

It is essential to note that, while pleurodesis can be an effective treatment for preventing recurrent pneumothorax or pleural effusions, it is not without risks and potential complications. These may include pain, fever, infection, empyema (pus in the pleural space), or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Patients should discuss these risks with their healthcare provider before undergoing the procedure.

Thoracic surgery, video-assisted (VATS) is a minimally invasive surgical technique used to diagnose and treat various conditions related to the chest cavity, including the lungs, pleura, mediastinum, esophagus, and diaphragm. In VATS, a thoracoscope, a type of endoscope with a camera and light source, is inserted through small incisions in the chest wall to provide visualization of the internal structures. The surgeon then uses specialized instruments to perform the necessary surgical procedures, such as biopsies, lung resections, or esophageal repairs. Compared to traditional open thoracic surgery, VATS typically results in less postoperative pain, shorter hospital stays, and quicker recoveries for patients.

Thoracic injuries refer to damages or traumas that occur in the thorax, which is the part of the body that contains the chest cavity. The thorax houses vital organs such as the heart, lungs, esophagus, trachea, and major blood vessels. Thoracic injuries can range from blunt trauma, caused by impacts or compressions, to penetrating trauma, resulting from stabbing or gunshot wounds. These injuries may cause various complications, including but not limited to:

1. Hemothorax - bleeding into the chest cavity
2. Pneumothorax - collapsed lung due to air accumulation in the chest cavity
3. Tension pneumothorax - a life-threatening condition where trapped air puts pressure on the heart and lungs, impairing their function
4. Cardiac tamponade - compression of the heart caused by blood or fluid accumulation in the pericardial sac
5. Rib fractures, which can lead to complications like punctured lungs or internal bleeding
6. Tracheobronchial injuries, causing air leaks and difficulty breathing
7. Great vessel injuries, potentially leading to massive hemorrhage and hemodynamic instability

Immediate medical attention is required for thoracic injuries, as they can quickly become life-threatening due to the vital organs involved. Treatment may include surgery, chest tubes, medications, or supportive care, depending on the severity and type of injury.

Thoracoscopy is a surgical procedure in which a thoracoscope, a type of endoscope, is inserted through a small incision between the ribs to examine the lungs and pleural space (the space surrounding the lungs). It allows the surgeon to directly view the chest cavity, take biopsies, and perform various operations. This procedure is often used in the diagnosis and treatment of pleural effusions, lung cancer, and other chest conditions.

Chylothorax is a medical condition characterized by the accumulation of lymphatic fluid called chyle in the pleural space, which is the space between the lungs and the chest wall. Chyle is a milky-white fluid that contains nutrients, electrolytes, and immune cells, and it is normally transported through the thoracic duct to the bloodstream.

Chylothorax can occur due to various reasons, such as trauma, surgery, tumors, or congenital abnormalities that disrupt the normal flow of chyle. As a result, chyle leaks into the pleural space, causing symptoms such as cough, chest pain, difficulty breathing, and fever.

The diagnosis of chylothorax is usually made through imaging studies such as chest X-ray or CT scan, and confirmed by analyzing the fluid for the presence of chylomicrons, which are lipid particles found in chyle. The treatment options for chylothorax include dietary modifications, such as a low-fat diet with medium-chain triglycerides, chest tube drainage, and surgical interventions such as thoracic duct ligation or pleurodesis.

The pleural cavity is the potential space between the visceral and parietal pleura, which are the two membranes that surround the lungs. The visceral pleura covers the outside of the lungs, while the parietal pleura lines the inside of the chest wall. Under normal conditions, these two layers are in contact with each other, and the space between them is virtually nonexistent. However, when air, fluid or inflammation accumulates within this space, it results in the formation of a pleural effusion, which can cause discomfort and difficulty breathing.

Thoracic radiography is a type of diagnostic imaging that involves using X-rays to produce images of the chest, including the lungs, heart, bronchi, great vessels, and the bones of the spine and chest wall. It is a commonly used tool in the diagnosis and management of various respiratory, cardiovascular, and thoracic disorders such as pneumonia, lung cancer, heart failure, and rib fractures.

During the procedure, the patient is positioned between an X-ray machine and a cassette containing a film or digital detector. The X-ray beam is directed at the chest, and the resulting image is captured on the film or detector. The images produced can help identify any abnormalities in the structure or function of the organs within the chest.

Thoracic radiography may be performed as a routine screening test for certain conditions, such as lung cancer, or it may be ordered when a patient presents with symptoms suggestive of a respiratory or cardiovascular disorder. It is a safe and non-invasive procedure that can provide valuable information to help guide clinical decision making and improve patient outcomes.

"Device Removal" in a medical context generally refers to the surgical or nonsurgical removal of a medical device that has been previously implanted in a patient's body. The purpose of removing the device may vary, depending on the individual case. Some common reasons for device removal include infection, malfunction, rejection, or when the device is no longer needed.

Examples of medical devices that may require removal include pacemakers, implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs), artificial joints, orthopedic hardware, breast implants, cochlear implants, and intrauterine devices (IUDs). The procedure for device removal will depend on the type of device, its location in the body, and the reason for its removal.

It is important to note that device removal carries certain risks, such as bleeding, infection, damage to surrounding tissues, or complications related to anesthesia. Therefore, the decision to remove a medical device should be made carefully, considering both the potential benefits and risks of the procedure.

A pneumonectomy is a surgical procedure in which an entire lung is removed. This type of surgery is typically performed as a treatment for certain types of lung cancer, although it may also be used to treat other conditions such as severe damage or infection in the lung that does not respond to other treatments. The surgery requires general anesthesia and can be quite complex, with potential risks including bleeding, infection, pneumonia, and air leaks. Recovery from a pneumonectomy can take several weeks, and patients may require ongoing rehabilitation to regain strength and mobility.

In medical terms, suction refers to the process of creating and maintaining a partial vacuum in order to remove fluids or gases from a body cavity or wound. This is typically accomplished using specialized medical equipment such as a suction machine, which uses a pump to create the vacuum, and a variety of different suction tips or catheters that can be inserted into the area being treated.

Suction is used in a wide range of medical procedures and treatments, including wound care, surgical procedures, respiratory therapy, and diagnostic tests. It can help to remove excess fluids such as blood or pus from a wound, clear secretions from the airways during mechanical ventilation, or provide a means of visualizing internal structures during endoscopic procedures.

It is important to use proper technique when performing suctioning, as excessive or improperly applied suction can cause tissue damage or bleeding. Medical professionals are trained in the safe and effective use of suction equipment and techniques to minimize risks and ensure optimal patient outcomes.

Intubation is a medical procedure in which a flexible plastic tube called an endotracheal tube (ETT) is inserted into the patient's windpipe (trachea) through the mouth or nose. This procedure is performed to maintain an open airway and ensure adequate ventilation and oxygenation of the lungs during surgery, critical illness, or trauma.

The ETT is connected to a breathing circuit and a ventilator, which delivers breaths and removes carbon dioxide from the lungs. Intubation allows healthcare professionals to manage the patient's airway, control their breathing, and administer anesthesia during surgical procedures. It is typically performed by trained medical personnel such as anesthesiologists, emergency medicine physicians, or critical care specialists.

There are two main types of intubation: oral and nasal. Oral intubation involves inserting the ETT through the patient's mouth, while nasal intubation involves passing the tube through the nostril and into the trachea. The choice of technique depends on various factors, including the patient's medical condition, anatomy, and the reason for intubation.

Malignant pleural effusion is a medical condition characterized by the abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural space (the area between the lungs and the chest wall) due to the spread of malignant (cancerous) cells from a primary tumor located elsewhere in the body. This type of effusion is typically associated with advanced-stage cancer, and it can cause symptoms such as shortness of breath, coughing, and chest pain. The presence of malignant pleural effusion often indicates a poor prognosis, and treatment is generally focused on palliating symptoms and improving quality of life.

Thoracotomy is a surgical procedure that involves making an incision on the chest wall to gain access to the thoracic cavity, which contains the lungs, heart, esophagus, trachea, and other vital organs. The incision can be made on the side (lateral thoracotomy), back (posterolateral thoracotomy), or front (median sternotomy) of the chest wall, depending on the specific surgical indication.

Thoracotomy is performed for various indications, including lung biopsy, lung resection, esophagectomy, heart surgery, and mediastinal mass removal. The procedure allows the surgeon to directly visualize and access the organs within the thoracic cavity, perform necessary procedures, and control bleeding if needed.

After the procedure, the incision is typically closed with sutures or staples, and a chest tube may be placed to drain any accumulated fluid or air from the pleural space around the lungs. The patient will require postoperative care and monitoring in a hospital setting until their condition stabilizes.

Paracentesis is a medical procedure in which a thin needle or catheter is inserted through the abdominal wall to remove excess fluid from the peritoneal cavity. This procedure is also known as abdominal tap or paracentesis aspiration. The fluid removed, called ascites, can be analyzed for infection, malignant cells, or other signs of disease. Paracentesis may be performed to relieve symptoms caused by the buildup of excess fluid in the abdomen, such as pain, difficulty breathing, or loss of appetite. It is commonly used to diagnose and manage conditions such as liver cirrhosis, cancer, heart failure, and kidney failure.

Empyema is a medical condition characterized by the accumulation of pus in a body cavity, most commonly in the pleural space surrounding the lungs. It is usually caused by a bacterial infection that spreads from the lung tissue to the pleural space. The buildup of pus can cause chest pain, cough, fever, and difficulty breathing. Empyema can be a complication of pneumonia or other respiratory infections, and it may require treatment with antibiotics, drainage of the pus, and sometimes surgery.

Pulmonary atelectasis is a medical condition characterized by the collapse or closure of the alveoli (tiny air sacs) in the lungs, leading to reduced or absent gas exchange in the affected area. This results in decreased lung volume and can cause hypoxemia (low oxygen levels in the blood). Atelectasis can be caused by various factors such as obstruction of the airways, surfactant deficiency, pneumothorax, or compression from outside the lung. It can also occur after surgical procedures, particularly when the patient is lying in one position for a long time. Symptoms may include shortness of breath, cough, and chest discomfort, but sometimes it may not cause any symptoms, especially if only a small area of the lung is affected. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include bronchodilators, chest physiotherapy, or even surgery in severe cases.

Thoracic surgical procedures refer to the operations that are performed on the thorax, which is the part of the body that lies between the neck and the abdomen and includes the chest cage, lungs, heart, great blood vessels, esophagus, diaphragm, and other organs in the chest cavity. These surgical procedures can be either open or minimally invasive (using small incisions and specialized instruments) and are performed to diagnose, treat, or manage various medical conditions affecting the thoracic organs, such as:

1. Lung cancer: Thoracic surgeons perform lung resections (lobectomy, segmentectomy, wedge resection) to remove cancerous lung tissue. They may also perform mediastinal lymph node dissection to assess the spread of the disease.
2. Esophageal surgery: Surgeries like esophagectomy are performed to treat esophageal cancer or other conditions affecting the esophagus, such as severe GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease).
3. Chest wall surgery: This includes procedures to repair or replace damaged ribs, sternum, or chest wall muscles and treat conditions like pectus excavatum or tumors in the chest wall.
4. Heart surgery: Thoracic surgeons collaborate with cardiac surgeons to perform surgeries on the heart, such as coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), valve repair/replacement, and procedures for treating aneurysms or dissections of the aorta.
5. Diaphragm surgery: Procedures like diaphragm plication are performed to treat paralysis or weakness of the diaphragm that can lead to respiratory insufficiency.
6. Mediastinal surgery: This involves operating on the mediastinum, the area between the lungs, to remove tumors, cysts, or other abnormal growths.
7. Pleural surgery: Procedures like pleurodesis or decortication are performed to manage conditions affecting the pleura (the membrane surrounding the lungs), such as pleural effusions, pneumothorax, or empyema.
8. Lung surgery: Thoracic surgeons perform procedures on the lungs, including lobectomy, segmentectomy, or pneumonectomy to treat lung cancer, benign tumors, or other lung diseases.
9. Tracheal surgery: This includes procedures to repair or reconstruct damaged trachea or remove tumors and growths in the airway.
10. Esophageal surgery: Collaborating with general surgeons, thoracic surgeons perform esophagectomy and other procedures to treat esophageal cancer, benign tumors, or other conditions affecting the esophagus.

A pollen tube is a slender, tubular structure that grows out from the germinated grain of pollen and transports the male gametes (sperm cells) to the female reproductive organ in seed plants. This process is known as double fertilization, which occurs in angiosperms (flowering plants).

The pollen tube elongates through the stigma and style of the pistil, following a path towards the ovule. Once it reaches the ovule, the generative cell within the pollen tube divides to form two sperm cells. One sperm fertilizes the egg cell, forming a zygote, while the other sperm fuses with the central cell of the embryo sac, leading to the formation of endosperm - a nutritive tissue for the developing embryo.

In summary, a pollen tube is a crucial component in the reproductive process of seed plants, facilitating the transfer of male gametes to female gametes and ultimately resulting in fertilization and seed development.

Talc is a mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4 or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2. It is widely used in various industries including pharmaceuticals and cosmetics due to its softness, lubricity, and ability to absorb moisture. In medical contexts, talc is often found in powdered products used for personal hygiene or as a drying agent in medical dressings. However, it should be noted that the use of talcum powder in the genital area has been linked to an increased risk of ovarian cancer, although the overall evidence remains controversial.

Pleural diseases refer to conditions that affect the pleura, which is the thin, double-layered membrane that surrounds the lungs and lines the inside of the chest wall. The space between these two layers contains a small amount of fluid that helps the lungs move smoothly during breathing. Pleural diseases can cause inflammation, infection, or abnormal collections of fluid in the pleural space, leading to symptoms such as chest pain, cough, and difficulty breathing.

Some common examples of pleural diseases include:

1. Pleurisy: Inflammation of the pleura that causes sharp chest pain, often worsened by breathing or coughing.
2. Pleural effusion: An abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural space, which can be caused by various underlying conditions such as heart failure, pneumonia, cancer, or autoimmune disorders.
3. Empyema: A collection of pus in the pleural space, usually resulting from a bacterial infection.
4. Pleural thickening: Scarring and hardening of the pleura, which can restrict lung function and cause breathlessness.
5. Mesothelioma: A rare form of cancer that affects the pleura, often caused by exposure to asbestos.
6. Pneumothorax: A collection of air in the pleural space, which can result from trauma or a rupture of the lung tissue.

Proper diagnosis and treatment of pleural diseases require a thorough evaluation by a healthcare professional, often involving imaging tests such as chest X-rays or CT scans, as well as fluid analysis or biopsy if necessary.

A thoracoscope is not a medical condition, but a medical device used in the field of thoracic surgery. It is a type of endoscope that allows surgeons to view the inside of the chest cavity (thorax) through small incisions. The thoracoscope has a light source and a camera at its tip, which transmits images to a video monitor. This enables the surgeon to inspect the lungs, pleura, mediastinum, and diaphragm, take biopsies, and perform various surgical procedures, such as pleurodesis or lung resection, minimizing invasiveness and promoting faster recovery compared to traditional open thoracotomy.

The pleura is the medical term for the double-layered serous membrane that surrounds the lungs and lines the inside of the chest cavity. The two layers of the pleura are called the parietal pleura, which lines the chest cavity, and the visceral pleura, which covers the surface of the lungs.

The space between these two layers is called the pleural cavity, which contains a small amount of lubricating fluid that allows the lungs to move smoothly within the chest during breathing. The main function of the pleura is to protect the lungs and facilitate their movement during respiration.

Postoperative care refers to the comprehensive medical treatment and nursing attention provided to a patient following a surgical procedure. The goal of postoperative care is to facilitate the patient's recovery, prevent complications, manage pain, ensure proper healing of the incision site, and maintain overall health and well-being until the patient can resume their normal activities.

This type of care includes monitoring vital signs, managing pain through medication or other techniques, ensuring adequate hydration and nutrition, helping the patient with breathing exercises to prevent lung complications, encouraging mobility to prevent blood clots, monitoring for signs of infection or other complications, administering prescribed medications, providing wound care, and educating the patient about postoperative care instructions.

The duration of postoperative care can vary depending on the type and complexity of the surgical procedure, as well as the individual patient's needs and overall health status. It may be provided in a hospital setting, an outpatient surgery center, or in the patient's home, depending on the level of care required.

Rib fractures are breaks or cracks in the bones that make up the rib cage, which is the protective structure around the lungs and heart. Rib fractures can result from direct trauma to the chest, such as from a fall, motor vehicle accident, or physical assault. They can also occur from indirect forces, such as during coughing fits in people with weakened bones (osteoporosis).

Rib fractures are painful and can make breathing difficult, particularly when taking deep breaths or coughing. In some cases, rib fractures may lead to complications like punctured lungs (pneumothorax) or collapsed lungs (atelectasis), especially if multiple ribs are broken in several places.

It is essential to seek medical attention for suspected rib fractures, as proper diagnosis and management can help prevent further complications and promote healing. Treatment typically involves pain management, breathing exercises, and, in some cases, immobilization or surgery.

Neural Tube Defects (NTDs) are a group of birth defects that affect the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They occur when the neural tube, which forms the early brain and spinal cord of the embryo, does not close properly during fetal development. This can result in various conditions such as:

1. Anencephaly: a severe defect where most of the brain and skull are missing. Infants with anencephaly are usually stillborn or die shortly after birth.
2. Spina bifida: a condition where the spine does not close properly, leaving a portion of the spinal cord and nerves exposed. This can result in various neurological problems, including paralysis, bladder and bowel dysfunction, and hydrocephalus (fluid buildup in the brain).
3. Encephalocele: a condition where the skull does not close properly, allowing the brain to protrude through an opening in the skull. This can result in various neurological problems, including developmental delays, vision and hearing impairments, and seizures.

NTDs are thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, such as folic acid deficiency, obesity, diabetes, and exposure to certain medications during pregnancy. Folic acid supplementation before and during early pregnancy has been shown to reduce the risk of NTDs.

"Length of Stay" (LOS) is a term commonly used in healthcare to refer to the amount of time a patient spends receiving care in a hospital, clinic, or other healthcare facility. It is typically measured in hours, days, or weeks and can be used as a metric for various purposes such as resource planning, quality assessment, and reimbursement. The length of stay can vary depending on the type of illness or injury, the severity of the condition, the patient's response to treatment, and other factors. It is an important consideration in healthcare management and can have significant implications for both patients and providers.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

Intubation, intratracheal is a medical procedure in which a flexible plastic or rubber tube called an endotracheal tube (ETT) is inserted through the mouth or nose, passing through the vocal cords and into the trachea (windpipe). This procedure is performed to establish and maintain a patent airway, allowing for the delivery of oxygen and the removal of carbon dioxide during mechanical ventilation in various clinical scenarios, such as:

1. Respiratory failure or arrest
2. Procedural sedation
3. Surgery under general anesthesia
4. Neuromuscular disorders
5. Ingestion of toxic substances
6. Head and neck trauma
7. Critical illness or injury affecting the airway

The process of intubation is typically performed by trained medical professionals, such as anesthesiologists, emergency medicine physicians, or critical care specialists, using direct laryngoscopy or video laryngoscopy to visualize the vocal cords and guide the ETT into the correct position. Once placed, the ETT is secured to prevent dislodgement, and the patient's respiratory status is continuously monitored to ensure proper ventilation and oxygenation.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

The thoracic wall refers to the anatomical structure that surrounds and protects the chest cavity or thorax, which contains the lungs, heart, and other vital organs. It is composed of several components:

1. Skeletal framework: This includes the 12 pairs of ribs, the sternum (breastbone) in the front, and the thoracic vertebrae in the back. The upper seven pairs of ribs are directly attached to the sternum in the front through costal cartilages. The lower five pairs of ribs are not directly connected to the sternum but are joined to the ribs above them.
2. Muscles: The thoracic wall contains several muscles, including the intercostal muscles (located between the ribs), the scalene muscles (at the side and back of the neck), and the serratus anterior muscle (on the sides of the chest). These muscles help in breathing by expanding and contracting the ribcage.
3. Soft tissues: The thoracic wall also contains various soft tissues, such as fascia, nerves, blood vessels, and fat. These structures support the functioning of the thoracic organs and contribute to the overall stability and protection of the chest cavity.

The primary function of the thoracic wall is to protect the vital organs within the chest cavity while allowing for adequate movement during respiration. Additionally, it provides a stable base for the attachment of various muscles involved in upper limb movement and posture.

Instillation, in the context of drug administration, refers to the process of introducing a medication or therapeutic agent into a body cavity or onto a mucous membrane surface using gentle, steady pressure. This is typically done with the help of a device such as an eyedropper, pipette, or catheter. The goal is to ensure that the drug is distributed evenly over the surface or absorbed through the mucous membrane for localized or systemic effects. Instillation can be used for various routes of administration including ocular (eye), nasal, auricular (ear), vaginal, and intra-articular (joint space) among others. The choice of instillation as a route of administration depends on the drug's properties, the desired therapeutic effect, and the patient's overall health status.

The Neural Tube is a structure that forms during the development of an embryo and eventually becomes the brain, spinal cord, and other parts of the nervous system. It is a narrow channel that runs along the back of the embryo, forming from the ectoderm (one of the three germ layers) and closing around the 23rd or 26th day after conception. Defects in the closure of the neural tube can lead to conditions such as spina bifida and anencephaly.

Lung diseases refer to a broad category of disorders that affect the lungs and other structures within the respiratory system. These diseases can impair lung function, leading to symptoms such as coughing, shortness of breath, chest pain, and wheezing. They can be categorized into several types based on the underlying cause and nature of the disease process. Some common examples include:

1. Obstructive lung diseases: These are characterized by narrowing or blockage of the airways, making it difficult to breathe out. Examples include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, bronchiectasis, and cystic fibrosis.
2. Restrictive lung diseases: These involve stiffening or scarring of the lungs, which reduces their ability to expand and take in air. Examples include idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis, and asbestosis.
3. Infectious lung diseases: These are caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites that infect the lungs. Examples include pneumonia, tuberculosis, and influenza.
4. Vascular lung diseases: These affect the blood vessels in the lungs, impairing oxygen exchange. Examples include pulmonary embolism, pulmonary hypertension, and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH).
5. Neoplastic lung diseases: These involve abnormal growth of cells within the lungs, leading to cancer. Examples include small cell lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, and mesothelioma.
6. Other lung diseases: These include interstitial lung diseases, pleural effusions, and rare disorders such as pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM).

It is important to note that this list is not exhaustive, and there are many other conditions that can affect the lungs. Proper diagnosis and treatment of lung diseases require consultation with a healthcare professional, such as a pulmonologist or respiratory therapist.

Equipment design, in the medical context, refers to the process of creating and developing medical equipment and devices, such as surgical instruments, diagnostic machines, or assistive technologies. This process involves several stages, including:

1. Identifying user needs and requirements
2. Concept development and brainstorming
3. Prototyping and testing
4. Design for manufacturing and assembly
5. Safety and regulatory compliance
6. Verification and validation
7. Training and support

The goal of equipment design is to create safe, effective, and efficient medical devices that meet the needs of healthcare providers and patients while complying with relevant regulations and standards. The design process typically involves a multidisciplinary team of engineers, clinicians, designers, and researchers who work together to develop innovative solutions that improve patient care and outcomes.

The Fallopian tubes, also known as uterine tubes or oviducts, are a pair of slender tubular structures in the female reproductive system. They play a crucial role in human reproduction by providing a passageway for the egg (ovum) from the ovary to the uterus (womb).

Each Fallopian tube is typically around 7.6 to 10 centimeters long and consists of four parts: the interstitial part, the isthmus, the ampulla, and the infundibulum. The fimbriated end of the infundibulum, which resembles a fringe or frill, surrounds and captures the released egg from the ovary during ovulation.

Fertilization usually occurs in the ampulla when sperm meets the egg after sexual intercourse. Once fertilized, the zygote (fertilized egg) travels through the Fallopian tube toward the uterus for implantation and further development. The cilia lining the inner surface of the Fallopian tubes help propel the egg and the zygote along their journey.

In some cases, abnormalities or blockages in the Fallopian tubes can lead to infertility or ectopic pregnancies, which are pregnancies that develop outside the uterus, typically within the Fallopian tube itself.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

A bronchial fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between the bronchial tree (the airways in the lungs) and the surrounding tissues, such as the pleural space (the space between the lungs and the chest wall), blood vessels, or other organs. This condition can result from various causes, including lung injury, infection, surgery, or certain diseases such as cancer or tuberculosis.

Bronchial fistulas can lead to symptoms like coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest pain. They may also cause air leaks, pneumothorax (collapsed lung), or chronic infections. Treatment for bronchial fistulas depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition but often involves surgical repair or closure of the abnormal connection.

Ketorolac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is used to treat moderate to severe pain. It works by reducing the levels of prostaglandins, chemicals in the body that cause inflammation and trigger pain signals in the brain. By blocking the production of prostaglandins, ketorolac helps to reduce pain, swelling, and fever.

Ketorolac is available in several forms, including tablets, injection solutions, and suppositories. It is typically used for short-term pain relief, as it can increase the risk of serious side effects such as stomach ulcers, bleeding, and kidney problems with long-term use.

Like other NSAIDs, ketorolac may also increase the risk of heart attack and stroke, especially in people who already have cardiovascular disease or risk factors for it. It should be used with caution and only under the supervision of a healthcare provider.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Surgical blood loss is the amount of blood that is lost during a surgical procedure. It can occur through various routes such as incisions, punctures or during the removal of organs or tissues. The amount of blood loss can vary widely depending on the type and complexity of the surgery being performed.

Surgical blood loss can be classified into three categories:

1. Insensible losses: These are small amounts of blood that are lost through the skin, respiratory tract, or gastrointestinal tract during surgery. They are not usually significant enough to cause any clinical effects.
2. Visible losses: These are larger amounts of blood that can be seen and measured directly during surgery. They may require transfusion or other interventions to prevent hypovolemia (low blood volume) and its complications.
3. Hidden losses: These are internal bleeding that cannot be easily seen or measured during surgery. They can occur in the abdominal cavity, retroperitoneal space, or other areas of the body. They may require further exploration or imaging studies to diagnose and manage.

Surgical blood loss can lead to several complications such as hypovolemia, anemia, coagulopathy (disorders of blood clotting), and organ dysfunction. Therefore, it is essential to monitor and manage surgical blood loss effectively to ensure optimal patient outcomes.

Postoperative hemorrhage is a medical term that refers to bleeding that occurs after a surgical procedure. This condition can range from minor oozing to severe, life-threatening bleeding. Postoperative hemorrhage can occur soon after surgery or even several days later, as the surgical site begins to heal.

The causes of postoperative hemorrhage can vary, but some common factors include:

1. Inadequate hemostasis during surgery: This means that all bleeding was not properly controlled during the procedure, leading to bleeding after surgery.
2. Blood vessel injury: During surgery, blood vessels may be accidentally cut or damaged, causing bleeding after the procedure.
3. Coagulopathy: This is a condition in which the body has difficulty forming blood clots, increasing the risk of postoperative hemorrhage.
4. Use of anticoagulant medications: Medications that prevent blood clots can increase the risk of bleeding after surgery.
5. Infection: An infection at the surgical site can cause inflammation and bleeding.

Symptoms of postoperative hemorrhage may include swelling, pain, warmth, or discoloration around the surgical site, as well as signs of shock such as rapid heartbeat, low blood pressure, and confusion. Treatment for postoperative hemorrhage depends on the severity of the bleeding and may include medications to control bleeding, transfusions of blood products, or additional surgery to stop the bleeding.

The thorax is the central part of the human body, located between the neck and the abdomen. In medical terms, it refers to the portion of the body that contains the heart, lungs, and associated structures within a protective cage made up of the sternum (breastbone), ribs, and thoracic vertebrae. The thorax is enclosed by muscles and protected by the ribcage, which helps to maintain its structural integrity and protect the vital organs contained within it.

The thorax plays a crucial role in respiration, as it allows for the expansion and contraction of the lungs during breathing. This movement is facilitated by the flexible nature of the ribcage, which expands and contracts with each breath, allowing air to enter and exit the lungs. Additionally, the thorax serves as a conduit for major blood vessels, such as the aorta and vena cava, which carry blood to and from the heart and the rest of the body.

Understanding the anatomy and function of the thorax is essential for medical professionals, as many conditions and diseases can affect this region of the body. These may include respiratory disorders such as pneumonia or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiovascular conditions like heart attacks or aortic aneurysms, and musculoskeletal issues involving the ribs, spine, or surrounding muscles.

A "mass chest X-ray" is a term used to describe a radiological screening procedure where a large number of individuals undergo chest X-rays, usually as part of a public health campaign or community screening event. The goal is to identify any early signs of lung diseases such as tuberculosis, lung cancer, or other pulmonary abnormalities. It's important to note that while mass screenings can help detect diseases at an earlier stage, they also raise concerns about radiation exposure and the potential for overdiagnosis. Therefore, such procedures are typically carried out under strict medical guidelines and regulations.

The Eustachian tube, also known as the auditory tube or pharyngotympanic tube, is a narrow canal that connects the middle ear cavity to the back of the nasopharynx (the upper part of the throat behind the nose). Its function is to maintain equal air pressure on both sides of the eardrum and to drain any fluid accumulation from the middle ear. The Eustachian tube is lined with mucous membrane and contains tiny hair-like structures called cilia that help to move mucus and fluid out of the middle ear. It opens and closes to regulate air pressure and drainage, which typically occurs during swallowing or yawning.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Flail chest is a serious injury to the thorax characterized by a segment of the chest wall that moves paradoxically in relation to the rest of the chest wall during respiration. This occurs due to multiple rib fractures at two or more places, resulting in a free-floating section of the chest wall that is not connected to the sternum or spine.

During inspiration, when the chest normally expands, the flail segment moves inward, and during expiration, it moves outward, which can lead to significant impairment of ventilation and oxygenation. Flail chest can result from high-impact trauma such as motor vehicle accidents or falls, and it is often associated with underlying lung contusions or other injuries. It requires immediate medical attention and may necessitate mechanical ventilation and surgical stabilization of the rib cage to prevent complications such as pneumonia and respiratory failure.

Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is a medical procedure that temporarily takes over the functions of the heart and lungs during major heart surgery. It allows the surgeon to operate on a still, bloodless heart.

During CPB, the patient's blood is circulated outside the body with the help of a heart-lung machine. The machine pumps the blood through a oxygenator, where it is oxygenated and then returned to the body. This bypasses the heart and lungs, hence the name "cardiopulmonary bypass."

CPB involves several components, including a pump, oxygenator, heat exchanger, and tubing. The patient's blood is drained from the heart through cannulas (tubes) and passed through the oxygenator, where it is oxygenated and carbon dioxide is removed. The oxygenated blood is then warmed to body temperature in a heat exchanger before being pumped back into the body.

While on CPB, the patient's heart is stopped with the help of cardioplegia solution, which is infused directly into the coronary arteries. This helps to protect the heart muscle during surgery. The surgeon can then operate on a still and bloodless heart, allowing for more precise surgical repair.

After the surgery is complete, the patient is gradually weaned off CPB, and the heart is restarted with the help of electrical stimulation or medication. The patient's condition is closely monitored during this time to ensure that their heart and lungs are functioning properly.

While CPB has revolutionized heart surgery and allowed for more complex procedures to be performed, it is not without risks. These include bleeding, infection, stroke, kidney damage, and inflammation. However, with advances in technology and technique, the risks associated with CPB have been significantly reduced over time.

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Components of a tube thoracostomy include a chest tube, an apparatus to connect the tube to a syringe or to a continuous ... Chest Tube Placement. Chest tube placement should not be attempted in an animal with severe respiratory distress. Generally, ... The choice of which side to place the chest tube is made by evaluating the radiographs. Occasionally, bilateral chest tubes may ... but chest tubes are occasionally required. However, chest tube placement and continuous drainage of air in animals with ...
We looked briefly at why drug studies came into being; now lets look at how a drug is developed, from test tube to your ... The first phase of study is preclinical, and is the testing that occurs in computer modeling, test tubes (in vitro) or in ...
... with the early incidental removal of a prior left Blake chest tube that had been initially... ... Is the chest tube insertion (32551) billable in this circumstance, or would it be considered bundled in the global days for the ... My thoughts are the chest tube is being place into the lung and this isnt related to the CABG as they are different organ ... STS states that the post-op insertion/removal of chest tubes is included in the surgical package. ...
Chest Tube Insertion - Explore from the MSD Manuals - Medical Consumer Version. ... The tube is connected to suction. A chest x-ray Chest X-Rays Chest imaging studies include X-rays Computed tomography (CT) CT ... Chest tube insertion (also called tube thoracostomy) is a procedure in which a tube is inserted into the space between the lung ... Chest tube insertion is done with the person awake, although sometimes a sedative is given. The doctor anesthetizes the area ...
A new instrument to assess physician skill at chest tube insertion: the TUBE-iCOMPT ... A new instrument to assess physician skill at chest tube insertion: the TUBE-iCOMPT ... A new instrument to assess physician skill at chest tube insertion: the TUBE-iCOMPT ...
Effect of an indwelling pleural catheter vs chest tube and talc pleurodesis for relieving dyspnea in patients with malignant ... Objective: To determine whether indwelling pleural catheters (IPCs) are more effective than chest tube and talc slurry ... The talc group were admitted for chest tube insertion and talc for slurry pleurodesis. ...
Pages that link to "Chest Tube Mangement". From Appropedia. ← Chest Tube Mangement ...
Chest tube. Scale. Nom. Method. Additional Names. Short Name. Chest tube Inventory #. Basic Attributes. Class. IO.TUBE. Type. ... Chest tube Institution inventory number Active Fully-Specified Name. Component. Institution inventory number. Property. ID. ... Tube, unspecified. LOINC Terminology Service (API) using HL7® FHIR® Get Info. Requests to this service require a free LOINC ... LOINC Code 10257-4 Chest tube Institution inventory number ...
... via chest tube/catheter, agent for fibrinolysis (eg, fibrinolytic agent for break up of multiloculated effusion); initial day ⬤ ... How is installation of tPA into a chest tube coded? Answer: Report this with the following codes: CPT Code Description ⬤32561 ... Instillation(s), via chest tube/catheter, agent for fibrinolysis (eg, fibrinolytic agent for break up of multiloculated ...
The Word document featuring this procedure checklist is provided here. Feel free to download the document, translate it and adapt it to your own resuscitation room should you wish to introduce in-situ procedure training locally ...
ET tubes which are inserted too far may enter one or other of the main bronchi risking occlusion of the contralateral lung. ... Correct positioning of endotracheal tubes as seen on chest X-ray. ... The ET tube is within the right main bronchus. *The tube and its cuff occlude the orifice of the left main bronchus which is ... ET tube misplaced at carina. *This ET tube tip is incorrectly located at the level of the carina and nearly enters the right ...
Chest tubes in detail, their chambers, and nursing care. Tension pneumothorax. ... Chest tubes. A chest tube is a surgical drain that is inserted through the chest wall and into the pleural cavity. It helps to ... Chest tube nursing care best practices. For a patient who has a chest tube, follow these nursing care best practices:. *Obtain ... Lets now talk more about chest tubes. So as I mentioned, the chest tube is going to help drain the blood, the air, or the ...
Background A thoracostomy tube is a hollow plastic tube or catheter that is used to drain air, fluid, pus, or blood from the ... Chest Tube. Background. A thoracostomy tube is a hollow plastic tube or catheter that is used to drain air, fluid, pus, or ... or thoracic surgeons can insert a chest tube. Most chest tube insertions are completed at bedside. The patients arm should be ... There are two methods to place chest tubes: the dissecting method places larger-bore (20-French or larger) tubes and the ...
Chest Tube Insertion E. J. Mayeaux, Jr, MD, DABFP, FAAFP and Sean Troxclair, MD ...
The Life/Form Chest Tube Manikin is perfect for teaching the concepts and mechanics of closed water-seal drainage systems like ... The manikin has two sites for chest tube maintenance, replaceable surgical chest tube sites, pneumothorax chest pads, and an ... five replaceable surgical chest tube sites, five replaceable pneumothorax chest pads, and hard carry case. (Chest tubes or ... One piece of training equipment clinicians should look at is the Life/Form Chest Tube Manikin. The Life/Form Chest Tube Manikin ...
... or tube thoracostomy is a procedure in which a flexible tube is inserted between the ribs into the ... A finger should be inserted into the chest tube tract to maintain patency prior to and during chest tube placement. ... Chest drainage system. * Definition: a system that connects to a chest tube to drain the pleural space or mediastinum, acting ... Subcutaneous tube placement: Remove the tube and sterilely insert a new tube at a different site. ...
On April 27th, members of the Anesthesia UNCsim team held a "Chest Decompression: Tubes, Needles, and Emergencies" workshop ... Participants learned to place chest tubes, perform needle decompression, and learned how to trouble shoot thoracic surgical ...
The randomized trial will help determine the value of e-learning with the serious gaming app Touch Surgery (TM) for chest drain ... The study protocol is presented for a randomized trial to evaluate e-learning with app-based serious gaming for chest drain ... Primary endpoint is operative performance of chest drain insertion in a porcine cadaveric model according to OSATS. ... for chest drain insertion, whereas the control group uses serious gaming for an unrelated procedure. ...
chest tube answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android ... "Chest Tube." Tabers Medical Dictionary, 24th ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2021. Nursing Central, ... nursingcentral/view/Tabers-Dictionary/750269/all/chest_tube. Chest tube. In: Venes DD, ed. Tabers Medical Dictionary. F.A. ... Chest Tube [Internet]. In: Venes DD, editors. Tabers Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company; 2021. [cited 2023 September 25]. ...
Viewed posteriorly the right kidney has its upper edge opposite the 11th dorsal spine and the lower edge of the 11th rib. Its lower edge is ...
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Chest tube placement. Chest tube placement may be necessary in the management of pneumothorax. ... Michael R Bye, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Chest ... Barry J Evans, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Chest ... American College of Chest Physicians, American Thoracic Society, and Massachusetts Medical Society ...
Workshop - Chest tube insertion (1). NCHER Simulation Lab - Level 1. 185 Cooper St. ... 29jun5:15 pm7:00 pmWorkshop - Chest tube insertion (1) ... Chest tube insertion (1). *Home *Workshop - Chest tube ...
Watch a video of a live Surgical insertion of a chest tube procedure in addition to hundreds more peer-reviewed surgical video ... Chest tube insertion: The chest tube is grabbed with a forceps and gently slid it into the chest cavity. The tube is placed ... Connect the chest tube to the system: The chest tube is connected to a closed system and is it controlled that oscillation ... Chest tube insertion is a common procedure and a basic core skill in an acute hospital setting. Indications for chest tube ...
How To: Insert a regular chest tube for trauma. Pigtail catheters vs regular chest tubes. Tips for regular chest tubes ... chest tubevideo. Thorax, Tips, Video How To: Insert A Small Percutaneous Chest Tube. Video November 16, 2015. TheTraumaPro ... chest tube. Technique What To Do When The Chest Tube Is Not In The Right Place. November 18, 2016. TheTraumaPro Leave a comment ... Tag Archives: chest tube Procedures, Thorax EAST 2017 #7: Pigtail vs Chest Tube - Does Size Matter?. January 5, 2017. ...
Chest Drainage Chest Drainage Heart Chest Drainage Lung Thopaz+ Digital Chest Drainage and Monitoring System Insights ... Optimized chest drainage management for safe, early tube removal. *Over 100,000 patients have already benefited from safer care ... In selecting a chest tube drainage system, many hospitals prioritize systems that provide reliable, uninterrupted drainage of ... Chest tube drainage systems are typically used in operating rooms, ICUs, and the emergency department. ...
Wrapped chest / BraPattern Type: SolidObscene Picture: NoModel Number: Tube TopMaterial: SilkColor Style: Natural Color ... Decrease quantity for Casual Tops Tube Chest Wrap \ Increase quantity for Casual Tops Tube Chest Wrap \ ... Casual Tops Tube Chest Wrap \. Casual Tops Tube Chest Wrap \ Regular price $13.99 USD ...

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