A species of the Chenopodium genus which is the source of edible seed called quinoa. It contains makisterone A and other STEROIDS, some having ECDYSTEROID activity on insects.
A plant genus in the CHENOPODIACEAE family.
A plant species in the CHENOPODIUM genus known for edible greens.
A plant species of the genus Chenopodium known for toxicity to intestinal worms and other simple organisms.
The goosefoot plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. It includes beets and chard (BETA VULGARIS), as well as SPINACH, and salt tolerant plants.
A species of the Beta genus. Cultivars are used as a source of beets (root) or chard (leaves).
Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. Satellite RNAs exhibit four characteristic traits: (1) they require helper viruses to replicate; (2) they are unnecessary for the replication of helper viruses; (3) they are encapsidated in the coat protein of the helper virus; (4) they have no extensive sequence homology to the helper virus. Thus they differ from SATELLITE VIRUSES which encode their own coat protein, and from the genomic RNA; (=RNA, VIRAL); of satellite viruses. (From Maramorosch, Viroids and Satellites, 1991, p143)
An order of the ANGIOSPERMS, subclass Rosidae. Its members include some of the most known ornamental and edible plants of temperate zones including roses, apples, cherries, and peaches.
A genus of polyhedral plant viruses of the family COMOVIRIDAE causing ringspots and spotting on leaves or sometimes symptomless infection. Transmission occurs by seeds, soil nematodes, or experimentally by mechanical inoculation. Tobacco ringspot virus is the type species.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
A genus of tripartite plant viruses in the family BROMOVIRIDAE. Transmission is by beetles. Brome mosaic virus is the type species.
A genus of plant viruses in the family FLEXIVIRIDAE, that cause mosaic and ringspot symptoms. Transmission occurs mechanically. Potato virus X is the type species.
Viral proteins that facilitate the movement of viruses between plant cells by means of PLASMODESMATA, channels that traverse the plant cell walls.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Diseases of plants.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
A family of flowering plants in the order Caryophyllales, with about 60 genera and more than 800 species of plants, with a few shrubs, trees, and vines. The leaves usually have nonindented edges.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain bidensyneosides (polyacetylene glucosides).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)

Characterization and complete nucleotide sequence of Strawberry mottle virus: a tentative member of a new family of bipartite plant picorna-like viruses. (1/44)

An isolate of Strawberry mottle virus (SMoV) was transferred from Fragaria vesca to Nicotiana occidentalis and Chenopodium quinoa by mechanical inoculation. Electron micrographs of infected tissues showed the presence of isometric particles of approximately 28 nm in diameter. SMoV-associated tubular structures were also conspicuous, particularly in the plasmodesmata of C. quinoa. DsRNA extraction of SMoV-infected N. occidentalis yielded two bands of 6.3 and 7.8 kbp which were cloned and sequenced. Gaps in the sequence, including the 5' and 3' ends, were filled using RT-PCR and RACE. The genome of SMoV was found to consist of RNA1 and RNA2 of 7036 and 5619 nt, respectively, excluding a poly(A) tail. Each RNA encodes one polyprotein and has a 3' non-coding region of approximately 1150 nt. The polyprotein of RNA1 contains regions with identities to helicase, viral genome-linked protein, protease and polymerase (RdRp), and shares its closest similarity with RNA1 of the tentative nepovirus Satsuma dwarf virus (SDV). The polyprotein of RNA2 displayed some similarity to the large coat protein domain of SDV and related viruses. Phylogenetic analysis of the RdRp region showed that SMoV falls into a separate group containing SDV, Apple latent spherical virus, Naval orange infectious mottling virus and Rice tungro spherical virus. Given the size of RNA2 and the presence of a long 3' non-coding region, SMoV is more typical of a nepovirus, although atypically for a nepovirus it is aphid transmissible. We propose that SMoV is a tentative member of an SDV-like lineage of picorna-like viruses.  (+info)

Solution structures of potato virus X and narcissus mosaic virus from Raman optical activity. (2/44)

Potato virus X (PVX) and narcissus mosaic virus (NMV) were studied using vibrational Raman optical activity (ROA) in order to obtain new information on the structures of their coat protein subunits. The ROA spectra of the two intact virions are very similar to each other and similar to that of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) studied previously, being dominated by signals characteristic of proteins with helix bundle folds. In particular, PVX and NMV show strong positive ROA bands at approximately 1340 cm(-1) assigned to hydrated alpha-helix and perhaps originating in surface exposed helical residues, together with less strong positive ROA intensity in the range approximately 1297-1312 cm(-1) assigned to alpha-helix in a more hydrophobic environment and perhaps originating in residues at helix-helix interfaces. The positive approximately 1340 cm(-1) ROA band of TMV is less intense than those of PVX and NMV, suggesting that TMV contains less hydrated alpha-helix. Small differences in other spectral regions reflect differences in some loop, turn and side-chain compositions and conformations among the three viruses. A pattern recognition program based on principal component analysis of ROA spectra indicates that the coat protein subunit folds of PVX and NMV may be very similar to each other and similar to that of TMV. These results suggest that PVX and NMV may have coat protein subunit structures based on folds similar to the TMV helix bundle and hence that the helical architecture of the PVX and NMV particles may be similar to that of TMV but with different structural parameters.  (+info)

Heterologous movement protein strongly modifies the infection phenotype of cucumber mosaic virus. (3/44)

A hybrid virus (CMVcymMP) constructed by replacing the movement protein (MP) of cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV) with that of cymbidium ringspot tombusvirus (CymRSV) was viable and could efficiently spread both cell to cell and long distance in host plants. The hybrid virus was able to move cell to cell in the absence of functional CP, whereas CP-deficient CMV was restricted to single inoculated cells. In several Chenopodium and Nicotiana species, the symptom phenotype of the hybrid virus infection was clearly determined by the foreign MP gene. In Nicotiana debneyi and Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi, the hybrid virus could move systemically, contrary to CymRSV.  (+info)

The p23 protein of hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus is indispensable for host-specific replication. (4/44)

Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) possesses a novel open reading frame (ORF) which encodes a putative 23-kDa protein (p23). We report here the in vivo detection of p23 and demonstrate its essential role in viral replication. The expression of p23 could be detected in protein extracts from transfected kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) protoplasts and in HCRSV-infected leaves. Further, direct immunoblotting of infected kenaf leaves also showed the presence of p23, and transient expression in onion and kenaf cells demonstrated that the protein is distributed throughout the cell. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that mutations introduced into the ORF of p23 abolished viral replication in kenaf protoplasts and plants but not in Chenopodium quinoa L. The loss of function of the p23 mutant M23/S33-1 could be complemented in trans upon the induced expression of p23 from an infiltrated construct bearing the ORF (pCam23). Altogether, these results demonstrate that p23 is a bona fide HCRSV protein that is expressed in vivo and suggest that p23 is indispensable for the host-specific replication of HCRSV. In addition, we show that p23 does not bind nucleic acids in vitro and does not act as a suppressor of posttranscriptional gene silencing in transgenic tobacco carrying a green fluorescent protein.  (+info)

Covariation in the capsid protein of hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus induced by serial passaging in a host that restricts movement leads to avirulence in its systemic host. (5/44)

Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) from naturally infected Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. loses virulence in its experimental systemic host Hibiscus cannabinus L. (kenaf) after serial passages in a local lesion host Chenopodium quinoa. Here we report the genetic changes responsible for the loss of virulence at the molecular level. A remarkable covariation of eight site-specific amino acids was found in the HCRSV capsid protein (CP) after serial passages in C. quinoa: Val(49)-->Ile, Ile(95)-->Val, Lys(270)-->Arg, Gly(272)-->Asp, Tyr(274)-->His, Ala(311)-->Asp, Asp(334)-->Ala, and Ala(335)-->Thr. Covariation of at least three of the eight amino acids, Val(49), Ile(95), and Lys(270), caused the virus to become avirulent in kenaf. Interestingly, the nature of the covariation was consistent and reproducible at each serial passage. These data indicate that the nonsynonymous substitutions of amino acids in the HCRSV CP after serial passages in C. quinoa are not likely to be random events but may be due to host-associated positive selection or accelerated genetic drift. The observed interdependence among the three amino acids leading to avirulence in kenaf may have implications for structural or functional relationships in this virus-host interaction.  (+info)

A transcriptionally active subgenomic promoter supports homologous crossovers in a plus-strand RNA virus. (6/44)

Genetic RNA recombination plays an important role in viral evolution, but its molecular mechanism is not well understood. In this work we describe homologous RNA recombination activity that is supported by a subgenomic promoter (sgp) region in the RNA3 segment of brome mosaic bromovirus (BMV), a tripartite plus-strand RNA virus. The crossover frequencies were determined by coinoculations with pairs of BMV RNA3 variants that carried a duplicated sgp region flanked by marker restriction sites. A region composed of the sgp core, a poly(A) tract, and an upstream enhancer supported homologous exchanges in 25% of the analyzed RNA3 progeny. However, mutations in the sgp core stopped both the transcription of the sgp RNA and homologous recombination. These data provide evidence for an association of RNA recombination with transcription.  (+info)

Structural and mutational analyses of cis-acting sequences in the 5'-untranslated region of satellite RNA of bamboo mosaic potexvirus. (7/44)

The satellite RNA of Bamboo mosaic virus (satBaMV) contains on open reading frame for a 20-kDa protein that is flanked by a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 159 nucleotides (nt) and a 3'-UTR of 129 nt. A secondary structure was predicted for the 5'-UTR of satBaMV RNA, which folds into a large stem-loop (LSL) and a small stem-loop. Enzymatic probing confirmed the existence of LSL (nt 8-138) in the 5'-UTR. The essential cis-acting sequences in the 5'-UTR required for satBaMV RNA replication were determined by deletion and substitution mutagenesis. Their replication efficiencies were analyzed in Nicotiana benthamiana protoplasts and Chenopodium quinoa plants coinoculated with helper BaMV RNA. All deletion mutants abolished the replication of satBaMV RNA, whereas mutations introduced in most of the loop regions and stems showed either no replication or a decreased replication efficiency. Mutations that affected the positive-strand satBaMV RNA accumulation also affected the accumulation of negative-strand RNA; however, the accumulation of genomic and subgenomic RNAs of BaMV were not affected. Moreover, covariation analyses of natural satBaMV variants provide substantial evidence that the secondary structure in the 5'-UTR of satBaMV is necessary for efficient replication.  (+info)

Arg-16 and Arg-21 in the N-terminal region of the triple-gene-block protein 1 of Bamboo mosaic virus are essential for virus movement. (8/44)

The protein encoded by the first gene of the triple gene block (TGBp1) of potexviruses is required for movement of the viruses. It has been reported that single Arg-->Ala substitutions at position 11, 16 or 21 of TGBp1 of Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV) eliminate its RNA-binding activity, while substitutions at position 16 or 21 only affect its NTPase activity (Liou et al., Virology 277, 336-344, 2000). However, it remains unclear whether these Arg-->Ala substitutions also affect the movement of BaMV in plants. To address this question, six mutants of BaMV, each containing either a single- or a double-alanine substitution at Arg-11, Arg-16 and Arg-21 of TGBp1, were constructed and used to infect Chenopodium quinoa and Nicotiana benthamiana. We found that all of the BaMV mutants were able to replicate in protoplasts of N. benthamiana. However, only the mutant with an Arg-11-->Ala substitution in TGBp1 remained capable of movement from cell to cell in plants. Mutants with Arg-16, Arg-21 or both Arg-16 and Arg-21 of TGBp1 replaced with alanine were defective in virus movement. This defect was suppressed when a wild-type TGBp1 allele was co-introduced into the cells using a novel satellite replicon. The ability to trans-complement the movement defect by the wild-type TGBp1 strongly suggests that the Arg-->Ala substitution at position 16 or 21 of TGBp1, which diminishes the RNA-binding and NTPase activities of TGBp1, also eliminates the capability of BaMV to move from cell to cell in host plants.  (+info)

Chenopodium quinoa is commonly known as "quinoa." It is not a true grass or cereal grain, but rather a pseudocereal that is closely related to beets and spinach. Quinoa is native to the Andean region of South America and has been cultivated and consumed for thousands of years by indigenous peoples in this region.

Quinoa is a highly nutritious food that is rich in protein, fiber, vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. It contains all nine essential amino acids, making it a complete protein source. Quinoa is also gluten-free, which makes it a popular alternative to wheat and other grains for people with celiac disease or gluten intolerance.

The seeds of the quinoa plant are typically cooked and consumed as a grain, and they have a mild, nutty flavor and a fluffy texture when cooked. Quinoa can be used in a variety of dishes, including salads, pilafs, stir-fries, and breakfast cereals. It is also commonly used as a stuffing for vegetables or meat dishes.

Quinoa has gained popularity in recent years due to its numerous health benefits and versatility in cooking. It is now widely available in grocery stores and health food stores around the world.

Chenopodium is a genus of plants in the amaranth family (Amaranthaceae). It includes several species that are commonly known as goosefoots or lamb's quarters. These plants are native to various parts of the world and can be found growing wild in many regions. Some species of Chenopodium are cultivated as crops, particularly for their leaves and seeds which are used as vegetables and grains.

The term "Chenopodium" is not typically used in medical contexts, but some species of this genus have been used in traditional medicine. For example, Chenopodium ambrosioides (also known as wormseed) has been used to treat intestinal parasites and other ailments. However, it is important to note that the use of herbal remedies can carry risks, and they should not be used as a substitute for medical treatment without consulting a healthcare professional.

Chenopodium album, also known as Lamb's Quarters or Goosefoot, is an annual plant that belongs to the family Chenopodiaceae. It is native to Europe and Asia but has been introduced and naturalized in many parts of the world, including North America. The plant can grow up to 1.5 meters tall and has alternate, simple leaves that are usually green but can sometimes be tinged with red or purple.

The flowers of Chenopodium album are small and inconspicuous, arranged in dense spikes at the tips of the branches. The fruit is a tiny, round, black seed that is enclosed in a thin, papery covering.

Chenopodium album is often considered a weed because it can grow rapidly and aggressively in disturbed soils, such as those found in gardens, agricultural fields, and waste areas. However, the plant is also edible and has been used as a leaf vegetable and grain crop in some cultures. It is high in nutrients, including protein, vitamins A and C, and minerals like calcium and iron.

In addition to its use as a food source, Chenopodium album has also been used in traditional medicine to treat various ailments, such as skin conditions, respiratory problems, and digestive issues. However, it is important to note that the plant can contain potentially toxic compounds, including oxalic acid and nitrates, so it should be consumed in moderation and with caution.

Chenopodium ambrosioides, also known as wormseed or Mexican tea, is a species of plant in the goosefoot family (Chenopodiaceae). It is native to North and Central America, but has been introduced and naturalized in many other parts of the world. The leaves and seeds of the plant are used in traditional medicine for their alleged antiparasitic, carminative, and analgesic properties. However, it should be noted that the use of this plant as a medicine can be associated with serious side effects, including seizures and kidney damage, and it should only be used under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional.

Chenopodiaceae is a family of flowering plants, also known as goosefoot family. It includes a number of genera and species that are commonly found in various parts of the world, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. The plants in this family are characterized by their fleshy leaves and stems, and tiny flowers that lack petals.

Some well-known genera in Chenopodiaceae include Chenopodium (goosefoot), Atriplex (saltbush), and Beta (beet). Many of the plants in this family have economic importance as food crops, ornamental plants, and sources of medicinal compounds. For example, beets, spinach, and chard are all members of Chenopodiaceae that are commonly consumed as vegetables.

It's worth noting that recent taxonomic revisions have led to some changes in the classification of this family, with many of its genera now being placed in other families such as Amaranthaceae. However, the name Chenopodiaceae is still widely used and recognized in the scientific literature.

'Beta vulgaris' is the scientific name for a group of plants that includes several common vegetables such as beets, chard, and sugar beets. This species is native to coastal regions of Europe, North Africa, and Asia.

Beets, also known as table beets or garden beets, are grown for their edible roots, which can be red, yellow, or striped. They have a sweet, earthy flavor and are often eaten raw, pickled, or cooked. Beet greens, the leaves of the plant, are also edible and have a mild flavor similar to spinach.

Chard, also known as Swiss chard, is grown for its large, colorful leaves that can be green, red, yellow, or white. The leaves and stems are both edible and have a slightly bitter taste. Chard is often used in salads, soups, and stir-fries.

Sugar beets are grown for their roots, which contain high levels of sucrose. They are used to produce granulated sugar, molasses, and other sweeteners. Sugar beets are not typically eaten as a vegetable, but the leaves can be consumed in the same way as chard.

In summary, 'Beta vulgaris' is a versatile species of plant that includes several popular vegetables, including beets, chard, and sugar beets.

A satellite RNA is a type of non-coding RNA that does not encode proteins but instead plays a role in the regulation of gene expression. It is so named because it can exist as a separate, smaller molecule that "satellites" around a larger RNA molecule called the helper RNA. Satellite RNAs are often associated with viruses and can affect their replication and packaging. They can also be found in some eukaryotic cells, where they may play a role in regulating the expression of certain genes or in the development of diseases such as cancer.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Rosales" is not a medical term. It is a botanical term used in the classification of plants. Rosales is an order of flowering plants that includes roses, as well as many other plants such as apples, cherries, almonds, and strawberries. The plants in this group are characterized by having flowers with multiple stamens and styles. I hope this clarifies any confusion. If you have any medical terms you would like defined, please let me know!

Nepovirus is a genus of viruses in the family Secoviridae, order Picornavirales. They are non-enveloped, icosahedral viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome. Nepoviruses infect a wide range of plants and are transmitted by nematodes or through seed transmission. The name "Nepovirus" is derived from "ne"matode "po"ssessing virus.

These viruses cause various symptoms in plants, including stunting, mosaic patterns on leaves, ringspots, and necrotic spots. Some Nepoviruses can also reduce crop yields significantly. Important species of Nepovirus include Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV), Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV), and Tomato black ring virus (TBRV).

A plant virus is not defined in medical terms, as viruses are typically considered within the context of living organisms and plants are not classified as such. However, I can provide a general virology definition for you:

Plant viruses are small infectious agents that consist of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) enclosed in a protein coat. They infect various plant species, causing a wide range of symptoms and diseases, which can result in significant economic losses in agriculture and horticulture. Plant viruses lack the ability to replicate outside a host cell, and they rely on the host's metabolic machinery for their reproduction. They can be transmitted through various means, such as insect vectors, seeds, or mechanical contact.

Bromovirus is a genus of viruses in the family Bromoviridae, order Picornavirales. These viruses have single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genomes and are transmitted by insects, primarily aphids. They infect a wide range of plants, causing various symptoms such as mosaic patterns on leaves, stunting, and reduced yield. The genus Bromovirus includes several important plant pathogens, including Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Broad bean mottle virus (BBMV), and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV).

Potexvirus is a genus of viruses in the family Alphaflexiviridae. These are positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses that infect a wide range of plants, causing various diseases such as mosaic, necrosis, and stunting. The name "Potexvirus" is derived from the type species potato virus X (PVX). The virions are flexuous rods, non-enveloped, and about 12-13 nm in diameter and 470-580 nm in length. The genome is approximately 6.4 kb in size and encodes five open reading frames (ORFs). The first ORF encodes the replicase protein, while the other four ORFs encode the triple gene block proteins involved in viral movement, a coat protein, and a small cysteine-rich protein of unknown function. Potexviruses are transmitted by mechanical contact or contaminated tools and seeds.

Plant viral movement proteins (MPs) are specialized proteins encoded by plant viruses that play a crucial role in the infection process. These proteins are responsible for the cell-to-cell movement of the virus, allowing it to spread throughout the infected plant. MPs facilitate the transport of viral genetic material from infected cells to neighboring uninfected cells, often through plasmodesmata, which are specialized channels that connect the cytoplasm of adjacent plant cells.

Movement proteins can increase the size exclusion limit (SEL) of plasmodesmata, creating a larger pore through which viral RNA or DNA can pass. They also form complexes with viral nucleic acids and other MPs to create movement protein-viral RNA/DNA complexes that are transported between cells. The precise mechanisms by which MPs function vary among different virus families, but their role in facilitating the spread of plant viruses is well established.

It's important to note that understanding the structure and function of plant viral movement proteins can provide valuable insights into plant-virus interactions and contribute to the development of novel strategies for controlling plant virus diseases.

I apologize for any confusion, but "plants" is not a term that has a medical definition. The term "plants" refers to a large and diverse group of organisms that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, which is the process of converting sunlight into chemical energy. Plants are typically characterized by having cells with cell walls containing cellulose, chloroplasts containing the pigment chlorophyll, and the ability to synthesize their own food through photosynthesis.

In a medical or biological context, you might be thinking of "plant-based" or "phytomedicine," which refer to the use of plants or plant extracts as a form of medicine or treatment. Phytomedicines have been used for thousands of years in many traditional systems of medicine, and some plant-derived compounds have been found to have therapeutic benefits in modern medicine as well. However, "plants" itself does not have a medical definition.

A plant disease is a disorder that affects the normal growth and development of plants, caused by pathogenic organisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or nematodes, as well as environmental factors like nutrient deficiencies, extreme temperatures, or physical damage. These diseases can cause various symptoms, including discoloration, wilting, stunted growth, necrosis, and reduced yield or productivity, which can have significant economic and ecological impacts.

A viral RNA (ribonucleic acid) is the genetic material found in certain types of viruses, as opposed to viruses that contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). These viruses are known as RNA viruses. The RNA can be single-stranded or double-stranded and can exist as several different forms, such as positive-sense, negative-sense, or ambisense RNA. Upon infecting a host cell, the viral RNA uses the host's cellular machinery to translate the genetic information into proteins, leading to the production of new virus particles and the continuation of the viral life cycle. Examples of human diseases caused by RNA viruses include influenza, COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), hepatitis C, and polio.

A capsid is the protein shell that encloses and protects the genetic material of a virus. It is composed of multiple copies of one or more proteins that are arranged in a specific structure, which can vary in shape and symmetry depending on the type of virus. The capsid plays a crucial role in the viral life cycle, including protecting the viral genome from host cell defenses, mediating attachment to and entry into host cells, and assisting with the assembly of new virus particles during replication.

Tobacco is not a medical term, but it refers to the leaves of the plant Nicotiana tabacum that are dried and fermented before being used in a variety of ways. Medically speaking, tobacco is often referred to in the context of its health effects. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), "tobacco" can also refer to any product prepared from the leaf of the tobacco plant for smoking, sucking, chewing or snuffing.

Tobacco use is a major risk factor for a number of diseases, including cancer, heart disease, stroke, lung disease, and various other medical conditions. The smoke produced by burning tobacco contains thousands of chemicals, many of which are toxic and can cause serious health problems. Nicotine, one of the primary active constituents in tobacco, is highly addictive and can lead to dependence.

Amaranthaceae is a family of flowering plants also known as the amaranth family. It includes a wide variety of plants, such as amaranths, beets, spinach, and tumbleweeds. These plants are characterized by their small to minute flowers that are usually arranged in dense spikes or clusters. The leaves can be simple or compound, and the plant can take various forms, including herbs, shrubs, and trees. Some members of this family contain betalains, which are red, yellow, or purple pigments found in the stems, roots, and flowers of certain plants. These pigments have antioxidant properties and are used as food colorings. Many species in Amaranthaceae are important crops for human consumption, providing sources of carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Viral proteins are the proteins that are encoded by the viral genome and are essential for the viral life cycle. These proteins can be structural or non-structural and play various roles in the virus's replication, infection, and assembly process. Structural proteins make up the physical structure of the virus, including the capsid (the protein shell that surrounds the viral genome) and any envelope proteins (that may be present on enveloped viruses). Non-structural proteins are involved in the replication of the viral genome and modulation of the host cell environment to favor viral replication. Overall, a thorough understanding of viral proteins is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

In medical terms, "seeds" are often referred to as a small amount of a substance, such as a radioactive material or drug, that is inserted into a tissue or placed inside a capsule for the purpose of treating a medical condition. This can include procedures like brachytherapy, where seeds containing radioactive materials are used in the treatment of cancer to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Similarly, in some forms of drug delivery, seeds containing medication can be used to gradually release the drug into the body over an extended period of time.

It's important to note that "seeds" have different meanings and applications depending on the medical context. In other cases, "seeds" may simply refer to small particles or structures found in the body, such as those present in the eye's retina.

"Bidens" is a genus of flowering plants in the family Asteraceae, also known as the daisy or composite family. The name "Bidens" comes from the Latin words "bi," meaning two, and "dens," meaning teeth, referring to the characteristic pair of pointed bracts at the base of each flower. These plants are often called "beggar's ticks" or "stickseeds" because the small, barbed seeds cling to fur, feathers, and clothing, aiding in their dispersal.

There is no medical definition for "Bidens" as it does not refer to any medical condition, disease, or treatment. It is purely a taxonomic term used in botany to classify a group of plants with similar characteristics.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

I believe there may be a slight misunderstanding in your question. "Plant leaves" are not a medical term, but rather a general biological term referring to a specific organ found in plants.

Leaves are organs that are typically flat and broad, and they are the primary site of photosynthesis in most plants. They are usually green due to the presence of chlorophyll, which is essential for capturing sunlight and converting it into chemical energy through photosynthesis.

While leaves do not have a direct medical definition, understanding their structure and function can be important in various medical fields, such as pharmacognosy (the study of medicinal plants) or environmental health. For example, certain plant leaves may contain bioactive compounds that have therapeutic potential, while others may produce allergens or toxins that can impact human health.

areria, Phaseolus sp., Chenopodium quinoa var. quinoa, C. quinoa cf. var. melanospermum, Amaranthus sp.; Pozancón 1: Solanum cf ... Culitivated plants included: Maize (Zea mays), Madi (Madia chilensis), Quinoa (Chenopodium quinua), Sunflower (Helianthus sp. ... Ipomea/Manihot.; Casa del Sol 8: Zea mays.; El Alto 3: Polylepis autralis, Maytenus boaria.; Quebrada del Real 1: Chenopodium ... Lithraea molloides.; C.Pun.39: Prosopis sp., Chenopodium/Amaranthus sp., Zea mays, P. vulgaris, P. lunatis, Cucurbita sp.; Río ...
... (Chenopodium quinoa; /ˈkiːn.wɑː, kiˈnoʊ.ə/, from Quechua kinwa or kinuwa) is a flowering plant in the amaranth family. ... Quinoa size in millimeters Developing black quinoa seed Quinoa seeds Quinoa plant before flowering Quinoa flower Threshing ... The Incas nicknamed quinoa chisiya mama, which in Quechua means "mother of all grains". Chenopodium quinoa is a dicotyledonous ... There are non-cultivated quinoa plants (Chenopodium quinoa var. melanospermum) that grow in the area it is cultivated; these ...
Chenopodium quinoa, quinoa. Phenolics are a chemical compound characterized by the presence of aromatic ring structure bearing ...
Quinoa Chenopodium quinoa 19. Spelt Triticum spelta 20. Teff Eragrostis tef 21. Wild rice Zizania Compared to vegetables, these ...
Greentop, and Chenopodium quinoa. P. vulgaris develops chlorotic rings 4-5 days post inoculation on the primary leaf site, ... Chenopodium quinoa, Cucumis sativus, Glycine max, Gomphrena globosa, Nicotiana clevelandii, Nicotiana glutinosa, Nicotiana ... C. quinoa displays severe tip necrosis 10-12 days post inoculation without systemic infection. Indexing of the disease occurs ... The virus has been transmitted to numerous diagnostically susceptible host species including Beta vulgaris, Chenopodium ...
February 2017). "The genome of Chenopodium quinoa". Nature. 542 (7641): 307-312. Bibcode:2017Natur.542..307J. doi:10.1038/ ...
Corn/Maize (Zea†) Quinoa (Chenopodium) Several (though not all) species of amaranth (Amaranthus) Some species of wild rice ( ... "USDA GRIN Taxonomy: Chenopodium quinoa". Retrieved 2 January 2017. "USDA GRIN Taxonomy: Amaranthus cruentus". Retrieved 8 ...
Risi, J. C.; Galwey, N. W. (1989-04-01). "The pattern of genetic diversity in the Andean grain crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa ... such as Chenopodium quinoa or Chenopodium ambrosioides. This may be due to a recent Western bias against weedy plants, as well ... Wilson, H.; Manhart, J. (1993). "Crop/weed gene flow: Chenopodium quinoa Willd. and C. berlandieri Moq". Theoretical and ... C. berlandieri was a domesticated pseudocereal crop, similar to the closely related quinoa C. quinoa. It continues to be ...
... as well as a Nature paper on the genome of Chenopodium quinoa and research on insecticides, showing low doses of insecticides ... "The genome of Chenopodium quinoa". Nature. 542 (7641): 307-312. Bibcode:2017Natur.542..307J. doi:10.1038/nature21370. hdl:10754 ...
... is a vegetable oil extracted from germ of the Chenopodium quinoa, an Andean cereal and has been cultivated since at ... Quinoa oil has also been used in eczema treatments. Quinoa oil is produced from the cold pressing of the quinoa seed. The yield ... Although, quinoa oil contains more essential fatty acids than corn oil. Quinoa yields an average of 5.8% oil by weight, ... Ogungbenle, H. N. (2003). "Nutritional evaluation and functional properties of quinoa (Chenopodium". International Journal of ...
... and Chenopodium quinoa, or quinoa, due to their ability to survive in the high altitudes of the Andes. Quinoa has grown popular ... "The Worldwide Potential for Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)." Food Reviews International 19.1-2 (2003): 167-177. Popenoe, ... Quinoa, a staple plant of the Incas, was used in various ways. The leaves were often used for stews and soups. Quinoa was also ... Species of the Chenopodium family in the Inca cuisine were Chenopodium pallidicaule, also known as cañihua, ...
This species is known to attack quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa). funet.fi v t e (Articles with short description, Short description ...
This species is known to attack quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa). Meyrick, Edward (1917). "Descriptions of South American Micro- ...
Other susceptible hosts used for diagnosis include Chenopodium quinoa Willd., sunflower (Helianthus annus), and Momordica ...
Ruales, J; Nair, BM (1992). "Nutritional quality of the protein in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd) seeds". Plant Foods for ... "Quinoa, cooked - Protein Quality". Retrieved 2022-11-24. Ruales, J; de Grijalva, Y; Lopez-Jaramillo, P; Nair, BM (2002). "The ... "Food Composition Databases Show Foods -- Food Composition Databases Show Foods -- Full Report (All Nutrients): 20035, Quinoa, ... nutritional quality of an infant food from quinoa and its effect on the plasma level of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in ...
"Nutritional quality of the protein in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd) seeds." Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 1992 Jan;42(1):1-11.[1 ... 84 Quinoa: 83 Rice: 83 Defatted soy flour: 81 Fish: 76 Beef: 92 Immature bean: 65 Full-fat soy flour: 64 Soybean curd (tofu): ...
N. benthamiana, N. rustica, N. tabacum), Chenopodium quinoa, and Datura stramonium. The virus has been shown to primarily ...
Could deficit irrigation be a sustainable practice for quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) in the Southern Bolivian Altiplano? ... Introducing deficit irrigation to stabilize yields of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. '). Eur. J. Agron. 28, 427-436. Spreer ... Chenopodium quinoa Willd. ) in response to drought stress. Field Crop. Res. 108, 150-156. Hsiao, T.C., (1973). Plant Responses ... Geerts, S., Raes, D., Garcia, M., Mendoza, J., Huanca, R., (2008). Indicators to quantify the flexible phenology of quinoa ( ...
... belongs to the same genus as quinoa or Chenopodium album. Many species of this genus have a long history ... "Heritabilities of morphological and quality traits and interrelationships with yield in quinoa ( Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) ... The commercial cultivation of Chenopodium giganteum is nearly inexistent. But because of its stable and high yield Chenopodium ... Chenopodium giganteum, also known as tree spinach, is an annual, upright many-branched shrub with a stem diameter of up to 5 cm ...
... grasses and herbs such as Chenopodium petiolare and grain quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa). Growth and yield of these plants are ...
Amaranthaceae), Quina (Chenopodium quinoa - Chenopodiaceae) Important source of human food - next to the cereals. The term ...
They were agrarian people who grew corn (Zea mays), beans, squash, and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa). Towards the 15th century, ...
Like quinoa, another plant in the genus Chenopodium, huauzontle contains saponins, albeit in lesser quantities. While saponins ... Chenopodium nuttalliae is a species of edible plant native to Mexico. It is known by the common names huauzontle (literally " ... "Chenopodium berlandieri - ficha informativa". www.conabio.gob.mx. Retrieved 2022-10-10. Redwood City Seed Company Catalog of ... It is related to other commonly-consumed plants such as quinoa, amaranth, and epazote, as well as the common American weeds ...
Vacher, J. J. (1998). "Responses of two main Andean crops, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) and papa amarga (Solanum ... Only hearty crops like tubers and grains such as quinoa can grow in this area, and even then they are not extremely successful ...
Chenopodium amaranticolor, Chenopodium capitatum, Chenopodium quinoa, Gomphrena globosa, Tetragonia tetragonioides. Families ... AV-1 does cause local necrotic lesions in mechanically inoculated Chenopodium quinoa leaves and systemic mottle in Nicotiana ... Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa, Tetragonia tetragonioides. The virus can be best detected in leaves, stems, roots, and ... rapa Capsicum frutescens Celosia cristata Chenopodium murale Cucumis sativus Cucurbita pepo Datura stramonium Daucus carota ...
Methanolic extract of S. ulvoidea has been shown to inhibit Potato virus X (PXV) on lesions of Chenopodium quinoa. Postels, A ...
It is also one of three primary triterpenoids extracted from the Chenopodium quinoa plant categorized by the EPA as a ... Saponins of Chenopodium quinoa. Zhou, D; Jin, H; Lin, HB; Yang, XM; Cheng, YF; Deng, FJ; Xu, JP (2010). "Antidepressant effect ...
The indigenous Andean food crops, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), kiwicha (Amaranthus caudatus) and cañihua have high nutritional ... similar in character and uses to the closely related quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa). Cañihua is native to the Andean region, with ... "Nutrition facts and functional potential of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd.), an ancient Andean grain: A review". Journal of ... Andean Grains and Legumes Chenopodium pallidicaule on Plants for a Future database Canihua (Chenopodium pallidicaule) at Crops ...
The seeds of Amaranthus, lamb's quarters (Chenopodium berlandieri), quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) and kañiwa (Chenopodium ...
Food species comprise Spinach (Spinacia oleracea), Good King Henry (Blitum bonus-henricus), several Chenopodium species (Quinoa ... Chenopodium bonus-henricus) Blitum virgatum - leafy goosefoot (Syn. Chenopodium foliosum) Tribus Atripliceae C. A. Mey. (Syn. ... Chenopodium glaucum L.) Oxybasis rubra (L.) S. Fuentes, Uotila & Borsch - Red Goosefoot (Syn. Chenopodium rubrum L.) ... Chenopodium murale L.) Chenopodiastrum simplex (Torrey) S.Fuentes, Uotila & Borsch - Maple-leaf goosefoot (Syn.: Chenopodium ...
Active ingredient: Extract of Chenopodium Quinoa containing quinoa saponins at 49.65%. Proposed classification/Use: Plant ... Saponins of Chenopodium quinoa (097094) Federal Register Notices. Related Information. * Regulating Biopesticides ... EPA File Symbol 81853-R), containing Saponins of Chenopodium quinoa, with saponins at 49.65%. This product was not previously ...
Chenopodium quinoa,br,Common name(s): Quinoa, Quinua,br,Conserved by: Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias ( ... Taxonomy: Chenopodium quinoa. Common name(s): Quinoa, Quinua. Conserved by: Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias ...
Farmer field school dealing with crop husbandry and quality production of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), a native grain of the ...
Our open-pollinated French Vanilla Quinoa seeds are guaranteed to be free from any GMO contamination and of the highest quality ... Our open-pollinated French Vanilla Quinoa seeds are guaranteed to be free from any GMO contamination and of the highest quality ...
and 36,000 plants/fed.) on Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) cv. Shibaya Field over two consecutive winter seasons of 2018/ ... Quinoa seed yield, biological yield, straw yield, weight of 1000-seed, harvest index, total nitrogen percentage in seeds, crude ... One of these crops is Quinoa which is characterized by high nutritional value with multiple food uses. However, it will compete ... It can be concluded from this study that the quinoa crop responds to the increase in nitrogen fertilization and increases ...
Chenopodium quinoa Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is a species of eudicot in the family Chenopodiaceae. ... apocytochrome b [Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa)]. Chromosome MT, NC_041093.1 (41229..42410, complement). E2298_mgp28. ... maturase R [Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa)]. Chromosome MT, NC_041093.1 (278047..280014). E2298_mgp03. ... cytochrome c maturation C [Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa)]. Chromosome MT, NC_041093.1 (173942..174661, complement). E2298_mgp13. ...
areria, Phaseolus sp., Chenopodium quinoa var. quinoa, C. quinoa cf. var. melanospermum, Amaranthus sp.; Pozancón 1: Solanum cf ... Culitivated plants included: Maize (Zea mays), Madi (Madia chilensis), Quinoa (Chenopodium quinua), Sunflower (Helianthus sp. ... Ipomea/Manihot.; Casa del Sol 8: Zea mays.; El Alto 3: Polylepis autralis, Maytenus boaria.; Quebrada del Real 1: Chenopodium ... Lithraea molloides.; C.Pun.39: Prosopis sp., Chenopodium/Amaranthus sp., Zea mays, P. vulgaris, P. lunatis, Cucurbita sp.; Río ...
Physiological, anatomical and biochemical salt-stress response comparison of two quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) varieties. ...
In the present study, a set of eight full-length Chenopodium quinoa MSR (CqMSR) complementary DNAs was isolated. And their ... To the best of our knowledge, no information on function and substrates of CqMSRA5.1 has been reported in quinoa. In the ... Quinoa glutamine synthetase 2 (GSH2) a potential interaction substrate of CqMSRA5.1, was obtained by screening STRING database ... However, the function of the MSR gene family in quinoa remains unknown. ...
Chenopodium quinoa,/i,) Consumption Improve Blood Glucose, Body Weight and Does Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) Consumption Improve ... Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) has a structure similar to whole grains and contains phytochemicals and dietary fiber. Hence, it is ... The present analysis revealed the beneficial effects of quinoa on the blood glucose level. Further studies on quinoa are needed ... In comparison between quinoa seed supplementation and placebo, our findings showed that quinoa seed supplementation did not ...
Ultrastructure of quinoa fruit (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). E. Varriano-Marston, A. DeFrancisco pp. 165-174. *Ultrastructural ...
González, J.A.; Gallardo, M.; Hilal, M.B.; Rosa, M.D.; Prado, F.E. Physiological responses of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd ... 34] also found that plants under drought and waterlogging decreased biomass production in quinoa plants. Ding et al. [12] ...
2016). Innovations in health value and functional food development of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). https://www.ncbi.nlm. ... Quinoa. Quinoa features a high protein content and contains. many essential amino acids. The amino acid profile of quinoa milk ... 2015). Low glycemic index and increased protein content in a novel quinoa milk. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/ ...
Another species to focus on to is quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa). This species cannot be considered as a new crop, as it was ... Nutrition facts and functional potential of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), an ancient Andean grain: a review. J. Sci. Food ... International Year of Quinoa. Despite its great potential value, as quinoa has not been subjected to extensive modern breeding ... Considering all its proprieties, quinoa has been defined by FAO as an ancient crop to contribute to world food security (FAO ...
Li L, Lietz G, Bal W, Watson A, Morfey B, Seal C. Effects of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Consumption on markers of CVD ... Impact of daily consumption of whole-grain quinoa-enriched bread on gut microbiome in males. Nutrients 2022, 14(22), 4888. ...
The Selling of Quinoa as Story and Substance - Author: John Drew, Aaron Dickinson Sachs, Cecilia Sueiro, John R. Stepp ... This chapter examines the increase in global demand for quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) and considers the impact of such ... Drew, J., Dickinson Sachs, A., Sueiro, C. and Stepp, J.R. (2017), "Ancient Grains and New Markets: The Selling of Quinoa as ... Ancient Grains and New Markets: The Selling of Quinoa as Story and Substance. John Drew ...
Key-words:Functional Ecology - Global Change - Mediterranean Basin - Andes -Quercus - Chenopodium quinoa - NIRS ... Mots-clés:Ecologie fonctionnelle- Changements planetaires - Méditerranée - Andes - Quercus - Chenopodium quinoa - Spectroscopie ...
... quinoa Chenopodium quinoa mixture) and annual cultivation to encourage annual arable plants. Plants (April and June) and ...
Natural Vegetable Fatty Acid Base, MSM (Methylsulfonalmethane), Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa) Extract, Milk Protein, ...
Ionic and osmotic relations in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) plants grown at various salinity level. Hariadi, Y., Marandon ...
Ionic and osmotic relations in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) plants grown at various salinity level. Hariadi, Y., Marandon ...
The Resistance of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) to Adverse Abiotic Factors. Food Reviews International 19: 99-109. ... Indicators to quantify the flexible phenology of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) in response to drought stress. Field Crops ... Could deficit irrigation be a sustainable practice for quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) in the Southern Bolivian Altiplano. ... Introducing deficit irrigation to stablize yields of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa). European Journal of Agronomy 28: 427-436. ...
For example, Chenopodium quinoa Wild. has been used to investigate the genotype-dependent variability in salinity responses ... Similarities and differences between the responses to osmotic and ionic stress in quinoa from a water use perspective. Agric ...
Chenopodium Quinoa Seed Extract, Ethylhexylglycerin, Squalane, Avena Sativa (Oat) Kernel Extract, Theobroma Cacao (Cocoa) ...
The Red Amaranth is a cousin of Quinoa, Epazol, Swiss Chard, Beetroot, Orach, Spinach, Glasswort, and also several other ... Seed Amaranth grown as a cereal for its seed resembling that of Quinoa ...
Uğural, A. Effects of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) on nutritional status, psychomotor behavior and intestinal ... Kinoanın (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd.) Maternal Obezite Oluşturulan Sıçanların Yavrularında Beslenme Durumu, Psikomotor Davranış ...
Uğural, A. Effects of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) on nutritional status, psychomotor behavior and intestinal ... Kinoanın (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd.) Maternal Obezite Oluşturulan Sıçanların Yavrularında Beslenme Durumu, Psikomotor Davranış ...
A lightweight water-based vegan foundation enriched with quinoa to help heal inflammation and increase elasticity whilst ... Water/aqua, glycerin, chenopodium quinoa (quinoa) seed extract, ribes nigrum (blackcurrant) fruit extract, sodium hyaluronate, ... Ere Perez Quinoa Water Foundation is a water-based foundation enriched with the powerful properties of quinoa and blackcurrant ... Ere Perez Quinoa Water Foundation is a water-based foundation enriched with the powerful properties of quinoa and blackcurrant ...

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