A bile acid, usually conjugated with either glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption and is reabsorbed by the small intestine. It is used as cholagogue, a choleretic laxative, and to prevent or dissolve gallstones.
The 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholanic acid family of bile acids in man, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. They act as detergents to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, are reabsorbed by the small intestine, and are used as cholagogues and choleretics.
Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
A bile acid formed from chenodeoxycholate by bacterial action, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as cholagogue and choleretic.
An epimer of chenodeoxycholic acid. It is a mammalian bile acid found first in the bear and is apparently either a precursor or a product of chenodeoxycholate. Its administration changes the composition of bile and may dissolve gallstones. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.
A bile acid formed by bacterial action from cholate. It is usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. Deoxycholic acid acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, is reabsorbed itself, and is used as a choleretic and detergent.
A major primary bile acid produced in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It facilitates fat absorption and cholesterol excretion.
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).
An autosomal recessive lipid storage disorder due to mutation of the gene CYP27A1 encoding a CHOLESTANETRIOL 26-MONOOXYGENASE. It is characterized by large deposits of CHOLESTEROL and CHOLESTANOL in various tissues resulting in xanthomatous swelling of tendons, early CATARACT, and progressive neurological symptoms.
Cholestanes substituted in any position with one or more hydroxy groups. They are found in feces and bile. In contrast to bile acids and salts, they are not reabsorbed.
The glycine conjugate of CHOLIC ACID. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed.
A condition marked by the development of widespread xanthomas, yellow tumor-like structures filled with lipid deposits. Xanthomas can be found in a variety of tissues including the SKIN; TENDONS; joints of KNEES and ELBOWS. Xanthomatosis is associated with disturbance of LIPID METABOLISM and formation of FOAM CELLS.
Gastrointestinal agents that stimulate the flow of bile into the duodenum (cholagogues) or stimulate the production of bile by the liver (choleretic).
CHOLESTENES with one or more double bonds and substituted by any number of keto groups.
Derivatives of the saturated steroid cholestane with methyl groups at C-18 and C-19 and an iso-octyl side chain at C-17.
A liver microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 12-alpha-hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of sterols in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP8B1gene, converts 7-alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one to 7-alpha-12-alpha-dihydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one and is required in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS from cholesterol.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Unsaturated derivatives of cholane with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a branched five-carbon chain at C-17. They must have at least one double bond in the ring system.
Enzymes of the oxidoreductase class that catalyze the dehydrogenation of hydroxysteroids. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.-.
A bile salt formed in the liver from chenodeoxycholate and glycine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is a cholagogue and choleretic.
Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.
Recycling through liver by excretion in bile, reabsorption from intestines (INTESTINAL REABSORPTION) into portal circulation, passage back into liver, and re-excretion in bile.
A cholesterol derivative found in human feces, gallstones, eggs, and other biological matter.
A membrane-bound cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 7-alpha-hydroxylation of CHOLESTEROL in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP7, converts cholesterol to 7-alpha-hydroxycholesterol which is the first and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS.
A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of chenodeoxycholate with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as detergent to solubilize fats in the small intestine and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.
A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.
The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.
Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).
A semisynthetic bile acid made from cholic acid. It is used as a cholagogue, hydrocholeretic, diuretic, and as a diagnostic aid.
An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Radiography of the gallbladder after ingestion of a contrast medium.
A strongly basic anion exchange resin whose main constituent is polystyrene trimethylbenzylammonium Cl(-) anion.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
Drugs used for their effects on the gastrointestinal system, as to control gastric acidity, regulate gastrointestinal motility and water flow, and improve digestion.
A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Cholesterol which is substituted by a hydroxy group in any position.
A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.
Surgical removal of the GALLBLADDER.
Abnormal passage in any organ of the biliary tract or between biliary organs and other organs.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.
An antibacterial agent that has been used in veterinary practice for treating swine dysentery and enteritis and for promoting growth. However, its use has been prohibited in the UK following reports of carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p125)
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that contains Hol l 1 and Hol l 5 allergens.
Errors in the metabolism of LIPIDS resulting from inborn genetic MUTATIONS that are heritable.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.
Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.
Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.

Sulphated and unsulphated bile acids in serum, bile, and urine of patients with cholestasis. (1/469)

Samples of serum, bile, and urine were collected simultaneously from patients with cholestasis of varying aetiology and from patients with cirrhosis; their bile acid composition was determined by gas/liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. In cholestasis, the patterns in all three body fluids differed consistently and strikingly. In serum, cholic acid was the major bile acid and most bile acids (greater than 93%) were unsulphated, whereas, in urine, chenodeoxycholic was the major bile acid, and the majority of bile acids (greater than 60%) were sulphated. Secondary bile acids were virtually absent in bile, serum, and urine. The total amount of bile acids excreted for 24 hours correlated highly with the concentration of serum bile acids; in patients with complete obstruction, urinary excretion averaged 71-6 mg/24 h. In cirrhotic patients, serum bile acids were less raised, and chenodeoxycholic acid was the predominant acid. In healthy controls, serum bile acids were consistently richer in chenodeoxycholic acid than biliary bile acids, and no bile acids were present in urine. No unusual monohydroxy bile acids were present in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis, but, in several patients, there was a considerable amount of hyocholic acid present in the urinary bile acids. The analyses of individual bile acids in serum and urine did not appear to provide helpful information in the differential diagnosis of cholestasis. Thus, in cholestasis, conjugation of chenodeoxycholic acid with sulphate becomes a major biochemical pathway, urine becomes a major route of bile acid excretion, and abnormal bile acids are formed.  (+info)

Administration of an unconjugated bile acid increases duodenal tumors in a murine model of familial adenomatous polyposis. (2/469)

Intestinal carcinogenesis involves the successive accumulation of multiple genetic defects until cellular transformation to an invasive phenotype occurs. This process is modulated by many epigenetic factors. Unconjugated bile acids are tumor promoters whose presence in intestinal tissues is regulated by dietary factors. We studied the role of the unconjugated bile acid, chenodeoxycholate, in an animal model of familial adenomatous polyposis. Mice susceptible to intestinal tumors as a result of a germline mutation in Apc (Min/+ mice) were given a 10 week dietary treatment with 0.5% chenodeoxycholate. Following this, the mice were examined to determine tumor number, enterocyte proliferation, apoptosis and beta-catenin expression. Intestinal tissue prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels were also assessed. Administration of chenodeoxycholate in the diet increased duodenal tumor number in Min/+ mice. Promotion of duodenal tumor formation was accompanied by increased beta-catenin expression in duodenal cells, as well as increased PGE2 in duodenal tissue. These data suggest that unconjugated bile acids contribute to periampullary tumor formation in the setting of an Apc mutation.  (+info)

PhoP-PhoQ-regulated loci are required for enhanced bile resistance in Salmonella spp. (3/469)

As enteric pathogens, Salmonella spp. are resistant to the actions of bile. Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella typhi strains were examined to better define the bile resistance phenotype. The MICs of bile for wild-type S. typhimurium and S. typhi were 18 and 12%, respectively, and pretreatment of log-phase S. typhimurium with 15% bile dramatically increased bile resistance. Mutant strains of S. typhimurium and S. typhi lacking the virulence regulator PhoP-PhoQ were killed at significantly lower bile concentrations than wild-type strains, while strains with constitutively active PhoP were able to survive prolonged incubation with bile at concentrations of >60%. PhoP-PhoQ was shown to mediate resistance specifically to the bile components deoxycholate and conjugated forms of chenodeoxycholate, and the protective effect was not generalized to other membrane-active agents. Growth of both S. typhimurium and S. typhi in bile and in deoxycholate resulted in the induction or repression of a number of proteins, many of which appeared identical to PhoP-PhoQ-activated or -repressed products. The PhoP-PhoQ regulon was not induced by bile, nor did any of the 21 PhoP-activated or -repressed genes tested play a role in bile resistance. However, of the PhoP-activated or -repressed genes tested, two (prgC and prgH) were transcriptionally repressed by bile in the medium independent of PhoP-PhoQ. These data suggest that salmonellae can sense and respond to bile to increase resistance and that this response likely includes proteins that are members of the PhoP regulon. These bile- and PhoP-PhoQ-regulated products may play an important role in the survival of Salmonella spp. in the intestine or gallbladder.  (+info)

The effect of bile salts and calcium on isolated rat liver mitochondria. (4/469)

Intact mitochondria were incubated with and without calcium in solutions of chenodeoxycholate, ursodeoxycholate, or their conjugates. Glutamate dehydrogenase, protein and phospholipid release were measured. Alterations in membrane and organelle structure were investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Chenodeoxycholate enhanced enzyme liberation, solubilized protein and phospholipid, and increased protein spin label mobility and the polarity of the hydrophobic membrane interior, whereas ursodeoxycholate and its conjugates did not damage mitochondria. Preincubation with ursodeoxycholate or its conjugate tauroursodeoxycholate for 20 min partially prevented damage by chenodeoxycholate. Extended preincubation even with 1 mM ursodeoxycholate could no longer prevent structural damage. Calcium (from 0.01 mM upward) augmented the damaging effect of chenodeoxycholate (0.15-0.5 mM). The combined action of 0.01 mM calcium and 0.15 mM chenodeoxycholate was reversed by ursodeoxycholate only, not by its conjugates tauroursodeoxycholate and glycoursodeoxycholate. In conclusion, ursodeoxycholate partially prevents chenodeoxycholate-induced glutamate dehydrogenase release from liver cell mitochondria by membrane stabilization. This holds for shorter times and at concentrations below 0.5 mM only, indicating that the different constitution of protein-rich mitochondrial membranes does not allow optimal stabilization such as has been seen in phospholipid- and cholesterol-rich hepatocyte cell membranes, investigated previously.  (+info)

Curcumin inhibits cyclooxygenase-2 transcription in bile acid- and phorbol ester-treated human gastrointestinal epithelial cells. (5/469)

We investigated whether curcumin, a chemopreventive agent, inhibited chenodeoxycholate (CD)- or phorbol ester (PMA)-mediated induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in several gastrointestinal cell lines (SK-GT-4, SCC450, IEC-18 and HCA-7). Treatment with curcumin suppressed CD- and PMA-mediated induction of COX-2 protein and synthesis of prostaglandin E2. Curcumin also suppressed the induction of COX-2 mRNA by CD and PMA. Nuclear run-offs revealed increased rates of COX-2 transcription after treatment with CD or PMA and these effects were inhibited by curcumin. Treatment with CD or PMA increased binding of AP-1 to DNA. This effect was also blocked by curcumin. In addition to the above effects on gene expression, we found that curcumin directly inhibited the activity of COX-2. These data provide new insights into the anticancer properties of curcumin.  (+info)

Antilithiasic effect of beta-cyclodextrin in LPN hamster: comparison with cholestyramine. (6/469)

Beta-Cyclodextrin (BCD), a cyclic oligosaccharide that binds cholesterol and bile acids in vitro, has been previously shown to be an effective plasma cholesterol lowering agent in hamsters and domestic pigs. This study examined the effects of BCD as compared with cholestyramine on cholesterol and bile acid metabolism in the LPN hamster model model for cholesterol gallstones. The incidence of cholesterol gallstones was 65% in LPN hamsters fed the lithogenic diet, but decreased linearly with increasing amounts of BCD in the diet to be nil at a dose of 10% BCD. In gallbladder bile, cholesterol, phospholipid and chenodeoxycholate concentrations, hydrophobic and lithogenic indices were all significantly decreased by 10% BCD. Increases in bile acid synthesis (+110%), sterol 27-hydroxylase activity (+106%), and biliary cholate secretion (+140%) were also observed, whereas the biliary secretion of chenodeoxycholate decreased (-43%). The fecal output of chenodeoxycholate and cholate (plus derivatives) was increased by +147 and +64%, respectively, suggesting that BCD reduced the chenodeoxycholate intestinal absorption preferentially. Dietary cholestyramine decreased biliary bile acid concentration and secretion, but dramatically increased the fecal excretion of chenodeoxycholate and cholate plus their derivatives (+328 and +1940%, respectively). In contrast to BCD, the resin increased the lithogenic index in bile, induced black gallstones in 34% of hamsters, and stimulated markedly the activities of HMG-CoA reductase (+670%), sterol 27-hydroxylase (+310%), and cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (+390%). Thus, beta-cyclodextrin (BCD) prevented cholesterol gallstone formation by decreasing specifically the reabsorption of chenodeoxycholate, stimulating its biosynthesis and favoring its fecal elimination. BCD had a milder effect on lipid metabolism than cholestyramine and does not predispose animals to black gallstones as cholestyramine does in this animal model.  (+info)

Identification of a nuclear receptor for bile acids. (7/469)

Bile acids are essential for the solubilization and transport of dietary lipids and are the major products of cholesterol catabolism. Results presented here show that bile acids are physiological ligands for the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), an orphan nuclear receptor. When bound to bile acids, FXR repressed transcription of the gene encoding cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase, which is the rate-limiting enzyme in bile acid synthesis, and activated the gene encoding intestinal bile acid-binding protein, which is a candidate bile acid transporter. These results demonstrate a mechanism by which bile acids transcriptionally regulate their biosynthesis and enterohepatic transport.  (+info)

Bile acids: natural ligands for an orphan nuclear receptor. (8/469)

Bile acids regulate the transcription of genes that control cholesterol homeostasis through molecular mechanisms that are poorly understood. Physiological concentrations of free and conjugated chenodeoxycholic acid, lithocholic acid, and deoxycholic acid activated the farnesoid X receptor (FXR; NR1H4), an orphan nuclear receptor. As ligands, these bile acids and their conjugates modulated interaction of FXR with a peptide derived from steroid receptor coactivator 1. These results provide evidence for a nuclear bile acid signaling pathway that may regulate cholesterol homeostasis.  (+info)

1. In order to study the effects of chenodeoxycholic acid on serum and biliary lipids in hyperlipoproteinaemia, chenodeoxycholic acid was administered to seven type IIa, eight type IIb and eight type IV patients in a daily dose of 750 mg (1·9 mmol) for 3 months.. 2. The serum concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides were determined at 4-week intervals: cholesterol remained unchanged whereas triglycerides decreased 15-20%.. 3. In 17 patients, biliary lipids were studied. The proportion of chenodeoxycholic acid in the bile increased to about 70%; lithocholic acid and ursodeoxycholic acid increased significantly.. 4. Bile saturation with cholesterol decreased and correlated negatively with the proportion of chenodeoxycholic acid in biliary bile acids but positively with serum triglycerides.. 5. It is concluded that chenodeoxycholic acid treatment in hyperlipoproteinaemia is associated with a parallel fall in serum triglycerides and biliary cholesterol and thus may prove to be a useful ...
Bile acid synthesis, determined by conversion of [4-14C]cholesterol into bile acids in rat and human hepatocytes and by measurement of mass production of bile acids in rat hepatocytes, was dose-dependently decreased by cyclosporin A, with 52% (rat) and 45% (human) inhibition of 10 microM. The decreased bile acid production in rat hepatocytes was due only to a fall in the synthesis of beta-muricholic and chenodeoxycholic acids (-64% at 10 microM-cyclosporin A), with no change in the formation of cholic acid. In isolated rat liver mitochondria, 26-hydroxylation of cholesterol was potently inhibited by the drug (concn. giving half-maximal inhibition = 4 microM). These results suggest that cyclosporin A blocks the alternative pathway in bile acid synthesis, which leads preferentially to the formation of chenodeoxycholic acid. ...
Bile acid in the stomach plays a key role in the digestion of food in the small intestine. Two chief bile acids produced in the body include chenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid. These acids assist in the creation of micelles, which aids in breaking down dietary fat, and is integral for the digestion of fat in the small intestine. Bile acid is a fluid secreted by the hepatocytes that flows into the canaliculi. From the canaliculi, it reaches the bile ducts, and is then transferred to the gall bladder where it is concentrated with time and the addition of other bodily fluids. Bile acids are derived from the cholesterol inside of the hepatocytem, and are made up of hydrophilic or polar faces and lipid or hydrophobic faces. Cholesterol gets converted into chenodeoxycholic and cholic acids, which are two forms of bile acid. These are combined with amino acids and released into the canaliculi. This combined nature of bile acids enables them to perform two of the most important functions in the ...
PROTOCOL OUTLINE: Patients receive oral cholic acid and oral chenodeoxycholic acid on day 1. On day 4, patients receive oral cholic and ursodeoxycholic acids. Patients are assessed at 3 and 6 months for liver function response, neurologic status, and nutritional status.. Patients receive treatment until disease progression or unacceptable toxic effects are observed.. Completion date provided represents the completion date of the grant per OOPD records ...
For a long time, bilirubin (BR) has been considered a waste molecule with potential toxic effects especially on the central nervous system. Later, it was found that BR exhibited cytoprotective effects and mildly elevated BR levels showed antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, however, exact mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory actions of BR have not been fully understood yet. The main aim of this study was to assess the protective effects of BR using experimental in vivo and in vitro models in relation to inflammation and oxidative stress. Partial goal was to establish validated analytical method for determination of BR and lumirubin. Gunn and heterozygous rats were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 6 mg/kg, IP) or vehicle (saline). After 12 hours, blood and organs were collected for analyses of inflammatory and hepatic injury markers. Primary rat hepatocytes were treated with BR and TNF-α, HepG2 and SH-SY5Y cell lines were treated with BR and chenodeoxycholic acid. ...
Kit Component:- KN302990G1, Cdca3 gRNA vector 1 in pCas-Guide vector- KN302990G2, Cdca3 gRNA vector 2 in pCas-Guide vector- KN302990D, donor vector…
1. The duodenal bile acid composition was analysed in 24 control subjects and 107 patients with various types of hyperlipoproteinaemia. A highly significant negative correlation was observed between the proportions of deoxycholic acid and cholic acid as well as between deoxycholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid. Patients with gall-bladder disease had an increased proportion of deoxycholic acid in their bile.. 2. Eight control subjects were studied before and during the ingestion of 1·9 mmol (0·75 g) of deoxycholic acid daily. In these subjects a rise in the proportion of deoxycholic acid was also accompanied by a fall in the proportion of both cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid in duodenal bile.. 3. The biliary lipid composition and cholesterol saturation was determined before and during the administration of 1·9 mmol (0·75 g) of chenodeoxycholic acid (n = 12) or deoxycholic acid (n = 8) daily for 3-4 weeks. The cholesterol saturation was decreased during the chenodeoxycholic acid ...
Cholelithiasis (gallstones) is a major medical and economic problem in the USA (Schoenfield, 1977; Schoenfield et al., 1981). It has been estimated to have a prevalence of 15 million women and five...
Xing, X., Burgermeister, E., Geisler, F., Einwächter, H., Fan, L., Hiber, M., Rauser, S., Walch, A., Röcken, C., Ebeling, M., Wright, M. B., Schmid, R. M. and Ebert, M. P.A. (2009), Hematopoietically expressed homeobox is a target gene of farnesoid X receptor in chenodeoxycholic acid-induced liver hypertrophy. Hepatology, 49: 979-988. doi: 10.1002/hep.22712 ...
FXR is expressed at high levels in the liver and intestine. Chenodeoxycholic acid and other bile acids are natural ligands for FXR. Similar to other nuclear receptors, when activated, FXR translocates to the cell nucleus, forms a dimer (in this case a heterodimer with RXR) and binds to hormone response elements on DNA, which up- or down-regulates the expression of certain genes.[6] One of the primary functions of FXR activation is the suppression of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme in bile acid synthesis from cholesterol. FXR does not directly bind to the CYP7A1 promoter. Rather, FXR induces expression of small heterodimer partner (SHP), which then functions to inhibit transcription of the CYP7A1 gene. In this way, a negative feedback pathway is established in which synthesis of bile acids is inhibited when cellular levels are already high. FXR has also been found to be important in regulation of hepatic triglyceride levels.[7] Studies have also shown the FXR to ...
Description: An epimer of chenodeoxycholic acid. It is a mammalian bile acid found first in the bear and is apparently either a precursor or a product of chenodeoxycholate. Its administration changes the composition of bile and may dissolve gallstones. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic ...
Before the biochemical basis of SLO syndrome was understood, it was well recognised that a significant proportion of infants with SLO syndrome had a major feeding problem associated with marked failure to thrive and irritability. Some of these infants showed an improvement in weight gain when the calorie density of their feeds was increased; others showed remarkable catch up weight gain after nasogastric or gastrostomy feeds were begun. When fed adequately, these infants were less irritable. The fact that such improvements can be achieved by correcting malnutrition must be borne in mind when assessing the results obtained with other dietary manipulations.. In 1994, Irons et al described the effects of supplementation with cholesterol (20-40 mg/kg/day), ursodeoxycholic acid (15 mg/kg/day), and chenodeoxycholic acid (7 mg/kg/day) in a 14 month old girl with SLO syndrome.31 There was a clear increase in the plasma cholesterol, but no fall in the plasma concentration of 7-dehydrocholesterol. Ullrich ...
Worldwide, metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes have reached epidemic proportions. A major regulator of metabolic processes that gained interest in recent years is the bile acid receptor TGR5 (Takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5). This G protein-coupled membrane receptor can be found predominantly in the intestine, where it is mainly responsible for the secretion of the incretins glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY). The aim of this study was (i) to identify plant extracts with TGR5-activating potential, (ii) to narrow down their activity to the responsible constituents, and (iii) to assess whether the intestinal microbiota produces transformed metabolites with a different activity profile. Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) served as positive control for both, the applied cell-based luciferase reporter gene assay for TGR5 activity and the biotransformation assay using mouse fecal slurry. The suitability of the workflow was demonstrated by the biotransformation of ...
Worldwide, metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes have reached epidemic proportions. A major regulator of metabolic processes that gained interest in recent years is the bile acid receptor TGR5 (Takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5). This G protein-coupled membrane receptor can be found predominantly in the intestine, where it is mainly responsible for the secretion of the incretins glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY). The aim of this study was (i) to identify plant extracts with TGR5-activating potential, (ii) to narrow down their activity to the responsible constituents, and (iii) to assess whether the intestinal microbiota produces transformed metabolites with a different activity profile. Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) served as positive control for both, the applied cell-based luciferase reporter gene assay for TGR5 activity and the biotransformation assay using mouse fecal slurry. The suitability of the workflow was demonstrated by the biotransformation of ...
Kuhn T., Stepien M., Lopez-Nogueroles M., Damms-Machado A., Sookthai D., Johnson T., Roca M., Husing A., Maldonado S., Cross AJ., Murphy N., Freisling H., Rinaldi S., Scalbert A., Fedirko V., Severi G., Boutron-Ruault M-C., Mancini FR., Sowah SA., Boeing H., Jakszyn P., Sanchez MJ., Merino S., Colorado-Yohar S., Barricarte A., Khaw KT., Schmidt JA., Perez-Cornago A., Trichopoulou A., Karakatsani A., Thriskos P., Palli D., Agnoli C., Tumino R., Sacerdote C., Panico S., Bueno-de-Mesquita B., van Gils CH., Heath AK., Gunter MJ., Riboli E., Lahoz AI., Jenab M., Kaaks R ...
Photo. Dmitry Ivlev, one of the authors of the study, holds a petri dish with the fibrin thrombosis from the experiment. Image courtesy of the researchers In the paper published in PLOS ONE, a new approach based on ultrasonic registration of blood coagulation in its early stages has been developed. Continuous ultrasonic monitoring of the bloods aggregate state was performed using the in vitro blood flow model. An injection of a fibrinolytic drug was performed automatically on the basis of ultrasonic data. The authors have shown that the ultrasonic monitoring technique allows detecting the stage of coagulation at which timely pharmacological intervention leads to a fast and complete dissolution of the fibrin clots being formed in blood flow. According to the head of the research group, professor Georgy Guria of MIPTs living systems physics department, who also heads a laboratory at NRCH, due to the progress in the field of compact ultrasonic sensors, our work opens new prospects for creation ...
Rabbit polyclonal Borealin/CDCA8 antibody validated for WB and tested in Human, Mouse and Rat. With 1 independent review. Immunogen corresponding to synthetic…
Bile acid diarrhoea (BAD) is an under-recognised but common condition of chronic watery diarrhoea. BAD may be secondary to ileal disease affecting the reabsorption and the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids (bile acid malabsorption) or can be an idiopathic, primary BAD (PBAD). In work published in 2009, we described a new mechanism to explain this syndrome of primary BAD.. Blood levels of the hormone fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) are reduced in primary and secondary BAD, producing impaired feedback inhibition of bile acid synthesis, leading to excess faecal bile acids, which then produce diarrhoea by stimulating colonic secretion. FGF19 is synthesised in the ileum and we have shown transcription is markedly induced by farnesoid X receptor(FXR) agonists such as chenodeoxycholic acid, an abundant natural bile acid. More potent FXR agonists are logical diagnostic and therapeutic agents for this condition, and obeticholic acid (OCA), which is 100x more potent than chenodeoxycholic acid, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Isolation and chemical synthesis of a major, novel biliary bile acid in the common wombat (Vombatus ursinus). T2 - 15α-hydroxylithocholic acid. AU - Kakiyama, Genta. AU - Tamegai, Hideyuki. AU - Iida, Takashi. AU - Mitamura, Kuniko. AU - Ikegawa, Shigeo. AU - Goto, Takaaki. AU - Mano, Nariyasu. AU - Goto, Junichi. AU - Holz, Peter. AU - Hagey, Lee R.. AU - Hofmann, Alan F.. PY - 2007/12. Y1 - 2007/12. N2 - The major bile acids present in the gallbladder bile of the common Australian wombat (Vombatus ursinus) were isolated by preparative HPLC and identified by NMR as the taurine N-acylamidates of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and 15α-hydroxylithocholic acid (3α,15α-dihydroxy-5β- cholan-24-oic acid). Taurine-conjugated CDCA constituted 78% of biliary bile acids, and (taurine-conjugated) 15α-hydroxylithocholic acid constituted 11%. Proof of structure of the latter compound was obtained by its synthesis from CDCA via a Δ14 intermediate. The synthesis of its C-15 epimer, ...
Involved in bile acid metabolism. In liver hepatocytes catalyzes the second step in the conjugation of C24 bile acids (choloneates) to glycine and taurine before excretion into bile canaliculi. The major components of bile are cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid. In a first step the bile acids are converted to an acyl-CoA thioester, either in peroxisomes (primary bile acids deriving from the cholesterol pathway), or cytoplasmic at the endoplasmic reticulum (secondary bile acids). May catalyze the conjugation of primary or secondary bile acids, or both. The conjugation increases the detergent properties of bile acids in the intestine, which facilitates lipid and fat-soluble vitamin absorption. In turn, bile acids are deconjugated by bacteria in the intestine and are recycled back to the liver for reconjugation (secondary bile acids). May also act as an acyl-CoA thioesterase that regulates intracellular levels of free fatty acids. In vitro, catalyzes the hydrolysis of long- and very long-chain ...
Involved in bile acid metabolism. In liver hepatocytes catalyzes the second step in the conjugation of C24 bile acids (choloneates) to glycine and taurine before excretion into bile canaliculi. The major components of bile are cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid. In a first step the bile acids are converted to an acyl-CoA thioester, either in peroxisomes (primary bile acids deriving from the cholesterol pathway), or cytoplasmic at the endoplasmic reticulum (secondary bile acids). May catalyze the conjugation of primary or secondary bile acids, or both. The conjugation increases the detergent properties of bile acids in the intestine, which facilitates lipid and fat-soluble vitamin absorption. In turn, bile acids are deconjugated by bacteria in the intestine and are recycled back to the liver for reconjugation (secondary bile acids). May also act as an acyl-CoA thioesterase that regulates intracellular levels of free fatty acids. In vitro, catalyzes the hydrolysis of long- and very long-chain ...
Dihydroxy bile acids, such as chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), are well known to promote colonic fluid and electrolyte secretion, thereby causing diarrhoea associated with bile acid malabsorption. However, CDCA is rapidly metabolised by colonic bacteria to ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), the effects of which on epithelial transport are poorly characterised. Here, we investigated the role of UDCA in the regulation of colonic epithelial secretion. Cl(-) secretion was measured across voltage-clamped monolayers of T84 cells and muscle-stripped sections of mouse or human colon. Cell surface biotinylation was used to assess abundance/surface expression of transport proteins. Acute (15 min) treatment of T84 cells with bilateral UDCA attenuated Cl(-) secretory responses to the Ca(2+) and cAMP-dependent secretagogues carbachol (CCh) and forskolin (FSK) to 14.0 ± 3.8 and 40.2 ± 7.4% of controls, respectively (n = 18, P , 0.001). Investigation of the molecular targets involved revealed that UDCA acts by ...
Cholic acid, also known as 3α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid is a primary bile acid that is insoluble in water (soluble in alcohol and acetic acid), it is a white crystalline substance.Salts of cholic acid are called cholates.Cholic acid, along with chenodeoxycholic acid, is one of the two major bile acids produced by the liver, where it is synthesized from cholesterol.. Get Price ...
An epimer of Chenodeoxycholic Acid. It is a mammalian Bile acid found first in the Bear and is apparently either a precursor or a product of chenodeoxycholate. Its administration changes the composition of Bile and may dissolve Gallstones. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Rate of gallstone dissolution with monooctanoin compared to gallstone composition. AU - Sharp, K. W.. AU - Gadacz, T. R.. PY - 1981/1/1. Y1 - 1981/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0019480062&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0019480062&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0019480062. VL - 80. JO - Gastroenterology. JF - Gastroenterology. SN - 0016-5085. IS - 5 II. ER - ...
1433 Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Secondary bile acids (BA), in particular deoxycholic acid (DCA), promote colorectal adenomas (CRA) and CRC. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), the 7Β-epimer of chenodeoxycholic acid, has been shown to inhibit colorectal carcinogenesis in animal models and in individuals at increased risk of CRC. The precise mechanisms by which UDCA prevents CRC are unknown, but one potential mechanism is that UDCA alters the bile acid profile and reduces exposure of the colorectum to harmful effects of secondary BAs. We previously published results of a phase III trial of UDCA on CRA recurrence in 1285 subjects. The major findings were a non-significant 12% reduction in adenoma recurrence and a significant 39% reduction (p=0.03) in recurrence of adenomas with high-grade dysplasia (HGD). As part of this study we collected 72-hr fecal and plasma samples for BA analysis at baseline and 3 years of intervention on a subset of ...
Obeticholic acid (abbreviated to OCA, trade name Ocaliva), is a semi-synthetic bile acid analogue which has the chemical structure 6α-ethyl-chenodeoxycholic acid. It is used as a drug to treat primary biliary cholangitis, and is undergoing development for several other liver diseases and related disorders. Intercept Pharmaceuticals Inc. hold the worldwide rights to develop OCA outside Japan and China, where it is licensed to Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma. The natural bile acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, was identified in 1999 as the most active physiological ligand for the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), which is involved in many physiological and pathological processes. A series of alkylated bile acid analogues were designed, studied and patented by Roberto Pellicciari and colleagues at the University of Perugia, with 6α-ethyl-chenodeoxycholic acid emerging as the most highly potent FXR agonist. FXR-dependent processes in liver and intestine were proposed as therapeutic targets in human diseases. ...
The diethanolamine salt of the mono (α,p-dimethylbenzyl) ester of d-camphoric acid (Gallogen) augmented diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and hyperlipemia in the rat, while depressing liver cholesterol and total lipid concentrations. Diethanolamine had virtually identical effects. Gallogen, given orally to rats with biliary fistulas had a slight hydrocholeretic effect, but did not influence biliary excretion of cholesterol, cholic acid, or chenodeoxycholic acid.. ...
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Illustration of a Lithocholic Acid molecular model. Recent research has shown that lithocholic acid (LCA), which is naturally produced in the liver during digestion, can kill several types of cancer cells, including those found in some brain tumours and breast cancer. Key: black=carbon, white=hydrogen, red=oxygen. - Stock Image C022/4469
Global Cholic Acid Market Report gives latest insights that includes market sales, share and growth in key regions for their top manufacturers with forecast research for the Cholic Acid Industry.
Complete information for CDCA8 gene (Protein Coding), Cell Division Cycle Associated 8, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pharmacological activation of the bile acid nuclear farnesoid X receptor is feasible in patients with quiescent Crohns colitis. AU - van Schaik, F. D.. AU - Gadaleta, R. M.. AU - Schaap, F.G.. AU - van Mil, S. W.. AU - Siersema, P.D.. AU - Oldenburg, B.. AU - van Erpecum, K.J.. PY - 2012/11/26. Y1 - 2012/11/26. N2 - BACKGROUND: The bile acid-activated nuclear receptor Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) is critical in maintaining intestinal barrier integrity and preventing bacterial overgrowth. Patients with Crohns colitis (CC) exhibit reduced ileal FXR target gene expression. FXR agonists have been shown to ameliorate inflammation in murine colitis models. We here explore the feasibility of pharmacological FXR activation in CC. METHODS: Nine patients with quiescent CC and 12 disease controls were treated with the FXR ligand chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA; 15 mg/kg/day) for 8 days. Ileal FXR activation was assessed in the fasting state during 6 hrs after the first CDCA dose and on day 8, ...
Faecal bile acid excretion and intestinal transit time were studied in 18 children with inflammatory bowel disease in clinical remission and with normal stools: 16 with ulcerative colitis, two with Crohns colitis, mean age 14 years (range 10-17 years). Five healthy children, mean age 12.4 years (range 10-17 years), were studied as control subjects. Most patients were taking sulphasalazine, but none were taking steroids. Transit time was determined by carmine and did not differ between groups. Faeces were collected for 72 hours, and faecal water was prepared by centrifugation of faeces at 15,000 x g for two hours. Bile acids in total faeces and faecal water were studied using capillary gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Faecal excretion of total bile acids, unconjugated bile acids, and glycine and taurine conjugates were significantly increased in patients as was faecal water excretion of total bile acids, particularly the taurine conjugates and cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids. Total ...
Dec 22, 2005. SAN DIEGO, CA - Dec 22, 2005 - Diazyme Laboratories, a company that applies its proprietary enzyme technologies to develop low cost and high quality diagnostic products for clinical and research uses, announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted Diazyme 510(K) clearance to market its Enzymatic Total Bile Acids (TBA) Assay Kit for the quantitative determination of total bile acids in human blood samples.. Total bile acids is a well known bio-marker for diagnosis of liver diseases. Serum total bile acids are elevated in patients with acute hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, liver sclerosis, and liver cancer. Total bile acids levels are found to be the most sensitive indicator for monitoring the effectiveness of interferon treatment of chronic hepatitis C patients. Moreover, total bile acids tests are also widely used to screen pregnant women for the condition of obstetric cholestasis, a disease that is caused by elevated total bile acids in the bloodstream ...
To determine the optimum bile acid regimen for rapid gall stone dissolution, 48 gall stone patients were divided into four groups of 12 according to stone diameter and were randomly allocated to receive one of four treatment regimens: bedtime or mealtime chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA, 12 mg/kg/day) and bedtime or mealtime ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA, 12 mg/kg/day). An additional 10 patients treated with a combination of CDCA plus UDCA (each 6 mg/kg/day) at bedtime were matched with the 10 patients on bedtime CDCA and the 10 on bedtime UDCA. The gall stone dissolution rates at six and 12 months were determined by standardised oral cholecystography and expressed as the percentage reduction in the gall stone volume after treatment. The gall stone dissolution rate at six months was higher for UDCA than CDCA treatment (median 78% v 48%, p less than 0.01), and for bedtime than mealtime administration (69% v 39%, p less than 0.02). Both differences were greater for stones less than 8 mm diameter. The ...
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Oral administration of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and cholesterol causes bile salt malabsorption; the former by competition for and the latter by down-regulation of ileal bile acid transporters. Because ileectomy in rats induces enterohepatic cycling of bilirubin, the hypothesis that dietary steroids might have the same effect was tested. METHODS: Male inbred C57L/J mice and Sprague-Dawley rats were fed low doses of UDCA, chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), or cholesterol added to laboratory chow with simultaneous chow-fed controls. After 1 week (mice) or 2 weeks (rats), indices of bile salt malabsorption and enterohepatic cycling of bilirubin were measured, including bilirubin secretion rates into bile, serum and intestinal bilirubin and bile salt levels, and urobilinogen levels in cecum, large intestine, and feces. RESULTS: Dietary UDCA and cholesterol, but not CDCA, significantly increased bilirubin secretion rates into bile. In UDCA-fed mice, gallbladder biles contained
Cholesterol gallstones are among the most common gastrointestinal disorders in Western societies. Individuals with gallstones may experience various gastrointestinal symptoms and are also at risk of developing acute or chronic cholecystitis. Cholecystectomy is the most frequently recommended conventional treatment for symptomatic gallstones. Bile acids (ursodeoxycholic acid or chenodeoxycholic acid) are also used in some cases to dissolve radiolucent stones, but these drugs can cause gastrointestinal side effects and there is a high rate of stone recurrence after treatment is discontinued. Lithotripsy is used in some cases in conjunction with ursodeoxycholic acid for patients who have a single symptomatic non-calcified gallstone. There is evidence that dietary factors influence the risk of developing cholesterol gallstones. Dietary factors that may increase risk include cholesterol, saturated fat, trans fatty acids, refined sugar, and possibly legumes. Obesity is also a risk factor for ...
Anhui Chem-Bright Bioengineering Co.,Ltd is a modernized enterprise specialized in research & development, manufacturing and selling of Active Pharmaceutical Intermediates and feed additive.. Our main products are cholesterol, bilirubin,cholic acid, hyodeoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, pig bile powder, ox bile powder,sodium cholate,Deoxycholic acid,Sodium Deoxycholate,Dehydrocholic acid,Sodium Dehydrocholate,Chondronitin Sulfate.. Our factory covers an area of over 36,000 square meter, included standard workshop, warehouse, research center, laboratory, office building, and other devices, with a total investment of more than CNY 75 million.We had established 10-thousand-grade Purification Room, and introduced advanced equipments both for research and production from home and abroad. Our production management is strictly conducted by the requirement of GMP of China,ISO9001-2008, and all of our products could meet the requirements of international standards.In 2013, products including ...
Abstract Recent studies indicate an important role for nuclear receptors in regulating lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, fibrosis and inflammation. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. FXR is highly expressed in the liver, intestine, adrenal gland and kidney. The primary bile acids are the highest affinity endogenous ligands for FXR. The effects of FXR agonists in diabetic kidney disease, the main cause of end stage renal disease, however have not been determined. To identify the effect of FXR activation in modulation of diabetic nephropathy, we have treated 1) C57BL/6J mice on low fat diet or high fat diet with FXR agonists (GW4064 or cholic acid) for one week; 2) C57BLKS/J-db/db mice and their lean mates with GW4064 for one week; and 3) C57BL/6J-db/db mice and their lean mates with cholic acid for 12 weeks. We found that FXR agonists modulate renal SREBP-1 expression and lipid metabolism, as well as renal expression of profibrotic growth factors, ...
The results of the preliminary test showed that less than 50% of the test item has been hydrolysed in 2.4 hours at, and that less than 10% of the test item has been hydrolysed after five days for the three pH values, the full test was not performed. Therefore, according to guideline dispositions, the full test was not performed and it can be concluded that the abiotic degradation hydrolysis of ursodeoxycholic acid is lower than 10% after 5 days atfor the pH values 4, 7 and 9. If released into the environment, ursodeoxycholic acid is not expected to hydrolyze. ...
This page contains information about Glucuronides of Ursodeoxycholic Acid 3-O-β-D-glucuronide. Purchase Ursodeoxycholic Acid 3-O-β-D-glucuronide online
The particle size distrubution of ursodeoxycholic acid has been analyzed according to method MT 187 and OECD guideline No. 110. The average percentile size for 10%, 50% and 90% of the sample were 1.31 µm, 14.4 µm and 57.3 µm, respectively. In the same study it can be concluded that 86.7% of the test item presents a particle size lower than 50μm and 4.9% of test item was found above 75μm. ...
/PRNewswire/ -- ReportsnReports adds present scenario (with the base year being 2017) and the growth prospects of global Ursodeoxycholic Acid market for...
The primary bile acids (BAs) are synthetized from colesterol in the liver, conjugated to glycine or taurine to increase their solubility, secreted into bile, concentrated in the gallbladder during fasting, and expelled in the intestine in response to dietary fat, as well as bio-transformed in the colon to the secondary BAs by the gut microbiota, reabsorbed in the ileum and colon back to the liver, and minimally lost in the feces. BAs in the intestine not only regulate the digestion and absorption of cholesterol, triglycerides, and fat-soluble vitamins, but also play a key role as signaling molecules in modulating epithelial cell proliferation, gene expression, and lipid and glucose metabolism by activating farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 (GPBAR-1, also known as TGR5) in the liver, intestine, muscle and brown adipose tissue ...
Creative-Proteomics offer cas 83-44-3 DEOXYCHOLIC ACID (2,2,4,4-D4, 98%). We are specialized in manufacturing Stabel Isotope Labeled Analytical Standard products.
To find out which is the best solution for dark circles under your eyes, consult with an ophthalmologist. Remember that surgery alone will not be the complete solution for the complete dissolution of dark circles. If you continue with an unhealthy lifestyle, the dark circles under your eyes may reappear again. It is also important to stick to a strict skin care regimen. Always wear sunscreen, especially when you are going out under the sun. Wearing sunglasses can be very helpful, too, to add extra protection for your thin under eye skin ...
Using deoxycholic acid as starting materials, a series of 12a-aza-C-homo-12-one 7-deoxycholic acid derivatives were synthesized The antiproliferative activity of the synthesized compounds against some carcinoma cell lines was investigated. The results showed that some 12-oxy-12a-aza-C-homo-7-deoxycholic acid derivatives displayed distinct cytotoxicity to HeLa (human cervical carcinoma) and Tu 686 (laryngocarcinoma) tumor ...
Bile acids are water-soluble and, when ionized, amphipathic end products of cholesterol metabolism formed in the liver.? In their molecular form, they are weak acids, however, after the biosynthesis process, the bile acid molecules are conjugated with glycine and taurine, converting them into strong amino acids before being excreted from the hepatocyte.. The fundamental role of bile acids is to aid in the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins in the small intestine. ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Halka Buryova, Karel Chalupsky, Olga Zbodakova, Ivan Kanchev, Marketa Jirouskova, Martin Gregor, Radislav Sedlacek].
Crystalline lithocholic (3α-hydroxycholanic) acid was isolated from a pooled sample of feces from healthy men for the first time. This acid, which occurs in small amounts in human bile, was obtained by alcohol extraction, followed by solvent partition and chromatography. Under these conditions most of the acid was recovered in the form of its methyl ester. ...
Creative-Proteomics offer cas 81-25-4 CHOLIC ACID (2,2,4,4-D4, 98%). We are specialized in manufacturing Stabel Isotope Labeled Analytical Standard products.
Intracytoplasmic detection of cytokines by flow cytometry has turned into a effective tool in the characterization of cytokine-producing cells. the bloodstream sample is attracted. In mind of isotype-matched antibodies and nonstimulated cells as harmful controls INCB018424 rather than the purified antibody-blocking control, higher levels of interleukin-2- strikingly, gamma interferon, interleukin-6-, and interleukin-8-positive cells had been found. To get a significant interpretation of data these distinctions need to be considered. Further research should measure the specific specificity of the controls. Intracytoplasmic recognition of cytokines by movement cytometry provides revolutionized the region of cell biology before couple of years (7, 9, 10). It represents a robust analytical technique where individual cells could be concurrently analyzed for many parameters, including cell granularity and size, aswell as the coexpressed degrees of surface area and intracellular markers described by ...
Recombinant human CDCA8 protein, fused to His-tag at N-terminus, was expressed in E.coli and purified by using conventional chromatography techniques (19-280aa).
... first using chenodeoxycholic acid. He published fundamental work on the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids and how ... Thistle JL, Hofmann AF (September 1973). "Efficacy and specificity of chenodeoxycholic acid therapy for dissolving gallstones ... His early studies on the role of bile acids in the formation of micelles, the structure of the mixed micelle, and bile acid ... "Dissolution of cholesterol gallstones by chenodeoxycholic acid". N. Engl. J. Med. 286 (1): 1-8. doi:10.1056/NEJM197201062860101 ...
Hepatocytes metabolize cholesterol to cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid. These lipid-soluble bile acids are conjugated ( ... Finally, the conjugated bile acids which remained un-ionized conjugated bile acids are passively absorbed. Venous blood from ... Due to the pH of the small intestine, most of the bile acids are ionized and mostly occur as their sodium salts which are then ... The presence of biliary acids in the intestines helps in absorption of fats and other substances. Bilirubin is conjugated with ...
... and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) have been used in treatment to dissolve gallstones. Medical therapy with oral bile acids has ... Thistle JL, Hofmann AF (September 1973). "Efficacy and specificity of chenodeoxycholic acid therapy for dissolving gallstones ... Bile acid malabsorption may also be a risk. Cholesterol gallstones develop when bile contains too much cholesterol and not ... Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) appears to prevent formation of gallstones during weight loss. A high fat diet during weight loss ...
Chenodeoxycholic acid and other bile acids are natural ligands for FXR. Similar to other nuclear receptors, when activated, FXR ... Agonists Cafestol Chenodeoxycholic acid Obeticholic acid Fexaramine GW 4064 Tropifexor Antagonists Guggulsterone GRCh38: ... "Farnesoid X receptor regulates bile acid-amino acid conjugation". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (30): 27703-11. doi: ... The bile acid receptor (BAR), also known as farnesoid X receptor (FXR) or NR1H4 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member ...
The standard treatment is chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) replacement therapy. Serum cholesterol levels are also followed. If ...
Chenodeoxycholic Acid) for Dissolution of Gallstones: The National Cooperative Gallstone Study". Annals of Internal Medicine. ...
The product, a combination of bezafibrate with chenodeoxycholic acid, was invented in 2001. Hepaconda is being developed as a ' ... Giaconda had initially envisaged using ursodeoxycholic acid as the bile acid in Hepaconda, but in 2006 the company shifted its ... attention to the use of chenodeoxycholic acid, having decided that its patent protection extended to all bile acid / fibrate ... combinations other than bezafibrate plus ursodoxycholic acid. Heliconda, a product for the treatment of drug-resistant ...
The European Medicines Agency approved chenodeoxycholic acid for the treatment of cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis. Leadiant, ... for chenodeoxycholic acid which is used to treat about 60 children with cerebrotendineous xanthomatosis in the Netherlands. The ...
Chenodeoxycholic acid and ursodiol with ursodiol more commonly used due to their side-effect profile. It will take ...
2006). "Transport of fluorescent chenodeoxycholic acid via the human organic anion transporters OATP1B1 and OATP1B3" (PDF). J. ... 2006). "OATP8/1B3-mediated cotransport of bile acids and glutathione: an export pathway for organic anions from hepatocytes?". ... 2002). "Human organic anion transporting polypeptide 8 promoter is transactivated by the farnesoid X receptor/bile acid ... "Human organic anion transporter 1B1 and 1B3 function as bidirectional carriers and do not mediate GSH-bile acid cotransport". ...
The Australian biotech company Giaconda combines bezafibrate with chenodeoxycholic acid in an anti-hepatitis C drug combination ...
Cholic acid Chenodeoxycholic acid Glycocholic acid Taurocholic acid Deoxycholic acid Lithocholic acid Medicine portal Animals ... such as chenodeoxycholic acid and ursodeoxycholic acid. On an empty stomach - after repeated vomiting, for example - a person's ... As an alkali, it also has the function of neutralizing excess stomach acid before it enters the duodenum, the first section of ... A triglyceride is broken down into two fatty acids and a monoglyceride, which are absorbed by the villi on the intestine walls ...
... bile acid diarrhea. The company's lead product is obeticholic acid, OCA, also known as 6-ethyl-chenodeoxycholic acid or INT-747 ... In March 2014, the company released the results of the POISE study of Obeticholic acid in PBC, which showed the drug met the ... On June 29, 2020, the company released a statement announcing that FDA had rejected its lead product obeticholic acid, OCA, ... "The Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) Ligand Obeticholic Acid in NASH Treatment Trial(FLINT)". Archived from the original on 2014-01- ...
"Formation of ursodeoxycholic acid from chenodeoxycholic acid by a 7 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-elaborating Eubacterium ...
7α-diol and then to chenodeoxycholic acid, the other major primary bile acid in humans. Serum 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one ... The increase in serum 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one concentrations reflects the loss of bile acids secondary to bile acid ... 12α-dihydroxycholest-4-en-3-one and then to cholic acid, the major primary bile acid in humans. Alternatively, it can be ... Elevated values are found in patients with bile acid malabsorption and may be useful in the diagnosis of this condition as high ...
... which is less frequent than with chenodeoxycholic acid therapy. Bacterial conversion of UDCA to chenodeoxycholic acid may be ... "Effect of ursodeoxycholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid on cholesterol and bile acid metabolism". Gastroenterology. 91 (4): ... While some bile acids are known to be colon tumor promoters (e.g. deoxycholic acid), others such as ursodeoxycholic acid are ... Mroz MS, Lajczak NK, Goggins BJ, Keely S, Keely SJ (March 2018). "The bile acids, deoxycholic acid and ursodeoxycholic acid, ...
Bacteria metabolize chenodeoxycholic acid into the secondary bile acid lithocholic acid, and they metabolize cholic acid into ... The two primary bile acids secreted by the liver are cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid. ... There are additional secondary bile acids, such as ursodeoxycholic acid. Deoxycholic acid is soluble in alcohol and acetic acid ... 12α-dihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid, is a bile acid. Deoxycholic acid is one of the secondary bile acids, which are metabolic ...
... cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid, both of which are secreted in the bile. In the intestine these bile acids affect the ... The elephant, manatee and naked mole rat have inactive copies of this gene and lack cholic acid in their bile. Relaxed ... "Entrez Gene: CYP8B1". Sharma, V; Hiller, M (1 December 2018). "Loss of Enzymes in the Bile Acid Synthesis Pathway Explains ... Ellis EC (2006). "Suppression of bile acid synthesis by thyroid hormone in primary human hepatocytes". World J. Gastroenterol. ...
Chenix chenodeoxycholic acid (INN) Cheracol Cheratussin DAC CHG Scrub Chibroxin (Merck) chiniofon (INN) ChiRhoStim (ChiRhoClin ...
... shown to be stimulated approximately 300-fold by physiological concentrations of bile acids including chenodeoxycholic acid, ... Increases in bile acid synthesis, serum and fecal total bile acids, and specific bile acid transporters were found. FGF19 is ... glycochenodeoxycholic acid and obeticholic acid in explants of ileal mucosa. FGF19 regulates new bile acid synthesis, acting ... In primary bile acid diarrhea, absorption of bile acids is usually normal, but defective FGF19 production can produce excessive ...
Chenodeoxycholic acid, a bile acid Deoxycholic acid, a bile acid Hyodeoxycholic acid, a bile acid Ursodiol, a bile acid This ...
A05AA01 Chenodeoxycholic acid A05AA02 Ursodeoxycholic acid A05AA03 Cholic acid A05AA04 Obeticholic acid A05AB01 Nicotinyl ... A05BA04 Citiolone A05BA05 Epomediol A05BA06 Ornithine oxoglutarate A05BA07 Tidiacic arginine A05BA08 Glycyrrhizic acid ( ...
Foundation accused the company of abusing its dominant market position when it increased the price of chenodeoxycholic acid ...
... unlike cholic acid, which has a 12-hydroxyl, and chenodeoxycholic acid which has neither a 6- or 12-hydroxyl. It also differs ... Hyocholic acid or 3α,6α,7α-trihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid is a bile acid found as one of the main forms in pig, and at low ... Hyocholic acid differs from the primary bile acids found in humans by having a third hydroxyl group in the α-conformation at ... Epimerization of the 7-hydroxyl to the β-position is found in ω-muricholic acid (also known as β-hyocholic acid). The enzyme ...
Muricholic acids differ from the primary bile acids found in humans, cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid, by having a ... This produces α-muricholic acid from chenodeoxycholic acid, and β-muricholic acid from ursodeoxycholic acid. Tauromuricholic ... α-muricholic acid β-muricholic acid γ-muricholic acid (hyocholic acid) ω-muricholic acid Russell DW (2003). "The enzymes, ... The three major bile acids in germ-free mice are cholic acid, α-muricholic, and β-muricholic acids. In conventional mice with a ...
... bile acids Cholic acid Glycocholic acid Taurocholic acid Deoxycholic acid Chenodeoxycholic acid Glycochenodeoxycholic acid ... Cholic acid is converted into deoxycholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid into lithocholic acid. All four of these bile acids ... Bile acid synthesis occurs in liver cells, which synthesize primary bile acids (cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid in humans ... derivatives of cholic acid) and taurochenodeoxycholic acid and glycochenodeoxycholic acid (derivatives of chenodeoxycholic acid ...
... ursodeoxycholic acid, and chenodeoxycholic acid. However, UDCA and TUDCA were first synthetically developed in 1954 in Japan. ... Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is an ambiphilic bile acid. It is the taurine conjugate form of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). ... Taurolithocholic acid Taurochenodeoxycholic acid, an epimer Boatright, Jeffrey H.; Nickerson, John M.; Moring, Anisha G.; ... Woo SJ, Kim JH, Yu HG (2010). "Ursodeoxycholic acid and tauroursodeoxycholic acid suppress choroidal neovascularization in a ...
... by conjugation of chenodeoxycholic acid with taurine. It is secreted into bile and then into intestine. It is usually ionized ... Taurochenodeoxycholic acid is a bile acid formed in the liver of most species, including humans, ... Tauroursodeoxycholic acid, an epimer v t e. ...
... is a bile salt formed in the liver from chenodeoxycholic acid and glycine, usually found as the ... Nucleic Acids Res. 39 (Database issue): D1035-41. doi:10.1093/nar/gkq1126. PMC 3013709. PMID 21059682. Wishart DS; Knox C; Guo ... Nucleic Acids Research. 36 (Database issue): D901-6. doi:10.1093/nar/gkm958. PMC 2238889. PMID 18048412. v t e. ...
Cholic acid is converted into deoxycholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid into lithocholic acid. All four of these bile acids ... Bile acid synthesis occurs in liver cells, which synthesize primary bile acids (cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid in humans ... derivatives of cholic acid) and taurochenodeoxycholic acid and glycochenodeoxycholic acid (derivatives of chenodeoxycholic acid ... Obeticholic acid, 6α-ethyl-chenodeoxycholic acid, is a semi-synthetic bile acid with greater activity as FXR agonist which is ...
... which is a eucaryotic receptor for bacterial surface structures such as lipoteichoic acid. ...
Handling and spraying of chlorophenoxy acid herbicides may also cause quite high exposures, as clearly demonstrated by the ... Synthesis side products of several chemicals, especially PCBs, chlorophenols, chlorophenoxy acid herbicides and hexachlorophene ... chlorophenoxy acid herbicides, and solvents. Therefore, proof of dioxins as causative factors has been difficult.[19] The ... chlorophenoxy acid herbicides, and other chlorinated organic chemicals. This caused very high exposures to workers in poorly ...
Treatment with sulfuric acid converts indigo into a blue-green derivative called indigo carmine (sulfonated indigo). It became ... Indoxyl-2-carboxylic acid is generated. This material readily decarboxylates to give indoxyl, which oxidizes in air to form ... The precursor to indigo is indican, a colorless, water-soluble derivative of the amino acid tryptophan. Indican readily ... and concentrated sulfuric acid. The chemical formula of indigo is C16H10N2O2. ...
An example of electrophilic aromatic substitution is the nitration of salicylic acid:[7] ...
... such as chenodeoxycholic acid and ursodeoxycholic acid.[citation needed]. On an empty stomach - after repeated vomiting, for ... "Secretion of Bile and the Role of Bile Acids In Digestion". www.vivo.colostate.edu. Retrieved 2017-03-31.. ... "Secretion of Bile and the Role of Bile Acids In Digestion". www.vivo.colostate.edu. Retrieved 2016-06-05.. ... The composition of hepatic bile is 97% water, 0.7%[1] bile salts, 0.2% bilirubin, 0.51% fats (cholesterol, fatty acids, and ...
Chenodeoxycholic acid. *Cilofexor. *Fexaramine. *GW-4064. *Nidufexor. *Obeticholic acid. *Tropifexor. *Antagonists: ...
... and cholic acid are the two primary bile acids in humans. Chenodeoxycholic acid has two hydroxyl groups ... Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA; also known as chenodesoxycholic acid, chenocholic acid and 3α,7α-dihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid) ... Salts of this carboxylic acid are called chenodeoxycholates. Chenodeoxycholic acid is one of the main bile acids. It was first ... Some other mammals have muricholic acid or deoxycholic acid rather than chenodeoxycholic acid. It occurs as a white crystalline ...
... is a bile acid (CHEBI:3098) chenodeoxycholic acid (CHEBI:16755) is a C24-steroid (CHEBI: ... chenodeoxycholic acid (CHEBI:16755) is a dihydroxy-5β-cholanic acid (CHEBI:23775) chenodeoxycholic acid (CHEBI:16755) is ... chenodeoxycholic acid (CHEBI:16755). obeticholic acid (CHEBI:43602) has functional parent chenodeoxycholic acid (CHEBI:16755). ... chenodeoxycholic acid (CHEBI:16755) has role human metabolite (CHEBI:77746) chenodeoxycholic acid (CHEBI:16755) has role mouse ...
Chenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid are the two primary bile acids in humans. Chenodeoxycholic acid has two hydroxyl groups ... Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA; also known as chenodesoxycholic acid, chenocholic acid and 3α,7α-dihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid) ... Salts of this carboxylic acid are called chenodeoxycholates. Chenodeoxycholic acid is one of the main bile acids. It was first ... Some other mammals have muricholic acid or deoxycholic acid rather than chenodeoxycholic acid. It occurs as a white crystalline ...
Editorial: More about chenodeoxycholic acid.. Br Med J 1973; 4 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.4.5893.629 (Published 15 ...
Advice and warnings for the use of Chenodeoxycholic acid (Chenodal) during pregnancy. FDA Pregnancy Category X - Not for use in ... Chenodeoxycholic acid Pregnancy and Breastfeeding Warnings. Chenodeoxycholic acid is also known as: Chenodal ... Chenodeoxycholic acid Breastfeeding Warnings. A decision should be made to discontinue breastfeeding or discontinue the drug, ... Chenodal (chenodeoxycholic acid)." Manchester Pharmaceutical, Fort Collins, CO. *EMEA. European Medicines Agency "EPARs. ...
Learn about the potential side effects of chenodeoxycholic acid. Includes common and rare side effects information for ... Applies to chenodeoxycholic acid: oral tablet. Along with its needed effects, chenodeoxycholic acid may cause some unwanted ... Applies to chenodeoxycholic acid: oral tablet. Gastrointestinal. Frequency not reported: Constipation/mild intermittent ... Check with your doctor immediately if any of the following side effects occur while taking chenodeoxycholic acid:. Incidence ...
CHENODEOXYCHOLIC ACID - PHARMACOLOGY AND USE IN GALLSTONES. InPharma volume 15, pages19-20(1975)Cite this article ... CHENODEOXYCHOLIC ACID - PHARMACOLOGY AND USE IN GALLSTONES. Inpharma Wkly. 15, 19-20 (1975). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03288109 ...
Chenodiol is made from bile acid, a substance that occurs naturally in the body. Chenodiol is used to dissolve gallstones in ... antacids that contain aluminum (such as Acid Gone, Aldroxicon, Alternagel, Di-Gel, Gaviscon, Gelusil, Maalox, Maldroxal, ... Chenodiol is made from bile acid, a substance that occurs naturally in the body. ...
... is an epimer of ursodeoxycholic acid (DB01586). Chenodeoxycholic acid is a bile acid naturally found in the body. It works by ... It can also reduce the amount of other bile acids that can be harmful to liver cells when levels are elevated. ... Chenodeoxycholic acid (or Chenodiol) is an epimer of ursodeoxycholic acid (DB01586). Chenodeoxycholic acid is a bile acid ... Receptor for bile acids such as chenodeoxycholic acid, lithocholic acid and deoxycholic acid. Represses the transcription of ...
Chenodeoxycholic acid, (3«alpha»,5«beta»,7«alpha»)-, 3TMS. *Formula: C33H64O4Si3 ... Chenodeoxycholic acid, bis(trimethylsilyl) ether, trimethylsilyl ester; Trimethylsilyl (3«alpha»,5«beta»,7«alpha»)-3,7-bis[( ... cholan-24-oic acid, TMS; 3«alpha»,7«beta»-dihydroxy-5«beta»-cholan-24-oic acid, TMS ... Other names: Cholan-24-oic acid, 3,7-bis[(trimethylsilyl)oxy]-, trimethylsilyl ester, (3«alpha»,5«beta»,7«alpha»)-; ...
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Hematopoietically expressed homeobox is a target gene of farnesoid X receptor in chenodeoxycholic acid-induced liver ... Hematopoietically expressed homeobox is a target gene of farnesoid X receptor in chenodeoxycholic acid-induced liver ...
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chenodeoxycholic acid answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, ... chenodeoxycholic acid is a topic covered in the Tabers Medical Dictionary. To view the entire topic, please sign in or ... "Chenodeoxycholic Acid." Tabers Medical Dictionary, 23rd ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2017. Tabers Online, www.tabers.com/ ... tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/730193/all/chenodeoxycholic_acid. Chenodeoxycholic acid. In: Venes D, ed. Tabers Medical ...
In rodents, BAT can be activated by bile acids, which activate type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase (D2) in BAT via the G-coupled ... The Bile Acid Chenodeoxycholic Acid Increases Human Brown Adipose Tissue Activity Cell Metab. 2015 Sep 1;22(3):418-26. doi: ... Here we examined the effects of oral supplementation of the bile acid chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) on human BAT activity. ... In rodents, BAT can be activated by bile acids, which activate type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase (D2) in BAT via the G-coupled ...
Tint, G. S., Salen, G., and Shefer, S.: Effect of ursodeoxycholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid on cholesterol and bile acid ... Ursodeoxycholic acid versus chenodeoxycholic acid. Comparison of their effects on bile acid and bile lipid composition in ... Fedorowski, T., Salen, G., Tint, G. S., and Mosbach, E.: Transformation of chenodeoxycholic acid and ursodeoxycholic acid by ... Maxwell R.A., Eckhardt S.B. (1990) Chenodeoxycholic Acid and Ursodeoxycholic Acid. In: Drug Discovery. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ ...
Chenodeoxycholic acid. Description. Chenodeoxycholic acid is a bile acid. Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in ... Hillaire S, Ballet F, Franco D, Setchell KD, Poupon R: Effects of ursodeoxycholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid on human ... Competes with BAAT (Bile acid CoA: amino acid N-acyltransferase) for bile acid-CoA substrate (such as chenodeoxycholoyl-CoA). ... Showing metabocard for Chenodeoxycholic acid (HMDB0000518). Jump To Section: IdentificationTaxonomyOntologyPhysical properties ...
Chenodeoxycholic acid glycine conjugate is an acyl glycine and a bile acid-glycine conugate. It is a secondary bile acid ... The major components of bile are cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid. In a first step the bile acids are converted to an acyl ... Thereby detoxify xenobiotics, such as benzoic acid or salicylic acid, and endogenous organic acids, such as isovaleric acid. ... In hepatocytes, both primary and secondary bile acids undergo amino acid conjugation at the C-24 carboxylic acid on the side ...
bile acid, bile cholesterol, cholic acid, deoxycholic acid, lithocholic acid, lithogenicity, serum cholesterol, serum ... The proportion of chenodeoxycholic acid in the bile increased to about 70%; lithocholic acid and ursodeoxycholic acid increased ... The Formation of Deoxycholic Acid and Chenodeoxycholic Acid in Man Clin Sci Mol Med (February,1974) ... Effect of Chenodeoxycholic Acid on Serum and Biliary Lipids in Patients with Hyperlipoproteinaemia B. Angelin; B. Angelin ...
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Hyeoxycholic acid (HDCA) has the function of lowering blood fat, antispasmodic, expectorant and so on, which is an important ... Yourlocation: Home > News > Hyodeoxycholic acid generally contains chenodeoxycholic acid Hyeoxycholic acid (HDCA) has the ... there are a considerable amount of other bile acids such as chenodeoxycholic acid.. The purity of HDCA was determined by ... HDCA is mainly extracted from porcine bile, and its extraction process is divided into saponification (hyodeoxycholic acid is ...
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  • CDCA and other bile acids form micelles, which facilitate lipid digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unabsorbed CDCA can be metabolised by bacteria in the colon to form the secondary bile acid, lithocholic acid or the epimer, ursodeoxycholic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • CDCA is the most potent natural bile acid at stimulating the nuclear bile acid receptor, farnesoid X receptor (FXR). (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we examined the effects of oral supplementation of the bile acid chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) on human BAT activity. (nih.gov)
  • In a five year study, 55 patients with radiolucent gall stones were treated with the combination of 7.5 mg chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and 5.0 mg ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA)/kg/day--that is, half the monotherapeutic doses. (bmj.com)
  • Contact us for CDCA Chenodeoxycholic Acid MSDS -Material Safety Data Sheet and CAS 474-25-9 COA-Certificate of Analysis, Product Data Sheet - in PDF Document. (mainchem.com)
  • We gave low-dose, long-term chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) treatment to 5 of the patients, who had 3β-hydroxy-Δ 5 -C 27 -steroid dehydrogenase/isomerase (3β-HSD) deficiency (n=3) or Δ 4 -3-oxosteroid 5β-reductase (5β-reductase) deficiency (n=2). (researchsquare.com)
  • Conclusions: We concluded that low-dose CDCA treatment is effective in 3β-HSD deficiency and 5β-reductase deficiency, as cholic acid has been in other countries. (researchsquare.com)
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of magnesium trihydrate of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) on gallstone dissolution and to investigate improvements in gallstone-related symptoms. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusions: Magnesium trihydrate of UDCA and CDCA is a well-tolerated bile acid that showed similar efficacy for gallstone dissolution and improvement of gallstone-related symptoms as that shown in previous studies. (elsevier.com)
  • It has been reported that the synthetic chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) derivatives showed apoptosis -inducing activity on various cancer cells in vitro . (bvsalud.org)
  • The hepatic BA synthesizing pathways lead to formation of the primary chenodeoxycholic (CDCA) and cholic (CA) acids which are, in part, conjugated with taurine and glycine to form amidated acids [1]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • A significant proportion of CDCA and CA can be deconjugated and converted in the respective secondary lithocholic (LCA) and deoxycholic (DCA) acids by resident bacteria from the large intestine [1]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Back in the liver, LCA and CDCA sustain additional biotransformation into 6[alpha]-hydroxylated hyodeoxycholic (HDCA) and hyocholic acids (HCA), respectively [1]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • It is treated with chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) replacement therapy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The liver synthesizes primary BAs, namely cholic acid (CA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) from cholesterol. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In rodents, CDCA is further hydroxylated to alpha-muricholic acid (αMCA), and then epimerized to beta-muricholic acid (βMCA). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ursodeoxycholic acid Hyodeoxycholic acid Russell DW (2003). (wikipedia.org)
  • Chenodeoxycholic acid (or Chenodiol) is an epimer of ursodeoxycholic acid (DB01586). (drugbank.ca)
  • Bachrach, W. H. and Hof mann, A. F.: Ursodeoxycholic acid in the treatment of cholesterol cholelithiasis Part I. (springer.com)
  • lithocholic acid and ursodeoxycholic acid increased significantly. (portlandpress.com)
  • Combination therapy with oral ursodeoxycholic and chenodeoxycholic acids: pretreatment computed tomography of the gall bladder improves gall stone dissolution efficacy. (bmj.com)
  • Another patient with the latter diagnosis whose bile acid analyses had mitigating features was maintained on ursodeoxycholic acid according to parental preferences and now remains healthy after discontinuation of treatment. (researchsquare.com)
  • This assay uses LC/MS-MS to quantify the free acid, glycine-conjugate and taurine-conjugate forms of cholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, deoxycholic acid, and ursodeoxycholic acid. (labcorp.com)
  • A fraction of chenodeoxycholic acid is also transformed into the tertiary bile acid, ursodeoxycholic acid. (labcorp.com)
  • Ursodeoxycholic acid ( UDCA ), also known as ursodiol , is a secondary bile acid , produced in humans and most other species from metabolism by intestinal bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence is accumulating that ursodeoxycholic acid is ineffective and unsafe in neonatal hepatitis and neonatal cholestasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, hyocholic acid almost failed to inhibit, whereas ursodeoxycholic acid was a weak inhibitor. (tudelft.nl)
  • Some other mammals have muricholic acid or deoxycholic acid rather than chenodeoxycholic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chenodiol suppresses hepatic synthesis of both cholesterol and cholic acid, gradually replacing the latter and its metabolite, deoxycholic acid in an expanded bile acid pool. (drugbank.ca)
  • The primary bile acids are converted by intestinal bacteria to the secondary bile acids, deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid. (labcorp.com)
  • [5] The salts of their 7-alpha-dehydroxylated derivatives, deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid , are also found, with derivatives of cholic, chenodeoxycholic and deoxycholic acids accounting for over 90% of human biliary bile acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their glycine and taurine groups are removed to give the secondary bile acids , deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cholic acid is converted into deoxycholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid into lithocholic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The endogenous bile acid metabolite 1 β -hydroxy-deoxycholic acid (1 β -OH-DCA) excreted in human urine may be used as a sensitive CYP3A biomarker in drug development reflecting in vivo CYP3A activity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The major hydroxylated metabolite of deoxycholic acid (DCA) in human liver microsomal incubations was identified as 1 β -OH-DCA by comparison with the synthesized reference analyzed by UPLC-HRMS. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Glycochenodeoxycholic and glycohyodeoxycholic acids, which are the major bile acids in pig bile, their unconjugated forms and also deoxycholic and cholic acid pronouncedly inhibited activity of the enzyme. (tudelft.nl)
  • At steady-state, an amount of chenodiol near the daily dose escapes to the colon and is converted by bacterial action to lithocholic acid. (drugbank.ca)
  • Chenodiol is made from bile acid, a substance that occurs naturally in the body. (cardiosmart.org)
  • During chenodiol therapy there is only a minor increase in biliary lithocholate, while fecal bile acids are increased three- to fourfold. (drugbank.ca)
  • Be the first to review Chenodiol (Chenodeoxycholic Acid)(Oral) and share your experience with other Everyday Health users. (everydayhealth.com)
  • A double-masked study was conducted to determine the efficacy and safety of randomly allocated chenodiol (chenodeoxycholic acid, 750 mg/d or 350 mg/d) or placebo administered for 2 years to 916 patients for dissolution of radiolucent gallstones. (annals.org)
  • Chenodeoxycholic acid (chenodiol) is a primary bile acid, synthesized in the liver and present in high concentrations in bile that is used therapeutically to dissolve cholesterol gallstones. (mainchem.com)
  • Medical therapy with oral bile acids has been used in patients who have small cholesterol stones, and for patients with larger cholesterol gallstones who are unable or reluctant to have surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is why chenodeoxycholic acid, and not cholic acid, can be used to treat gallstones (because decreasing bile acid synthesis would supersaturate the stones even more). (wikipedia.org)
  • Chenodeoxycholic acid treatment of gallstones. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the first part of the review, we discuss the main gut microorganisms, particularly bacteria, and microbial pathways associated with the metabolism of dietary carbohydrates (to short chain fatty acids and gases), proteins, plant polyphenols, bile acids, and vitamins. (springer.com)
  • It was found that altered bile acid, amino acid, and energy metabolism might be at least partly responsible for OA-induced hepatotoxicity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Bile acid metabolism, as the most important pathway, was verified by using UHPLC-TSQ-MS, indicating that conjugated bile acids were the main contributors to OA-induced liver toxicity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Synthesis of bile acids is a major route of cholesterol metabolism in most species other than humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s) not only have a major impact on the metabolism of drugs and nutrients, but they also regulate the homeostasis of many endogenous compounds, such as cholesterol and bile acids (BAs). (aspetjournals.org)
  • These disorders generally lead to severe human liver disease, underscoring the essential role of bile acids in metabolism. (bmj.com)
  • Bile acids (BAs) are known to regulate blood levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose and energy homeostasis, and gut flora play an important role in BA metabolism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Guo, Changjiang 2018-06-05 00:00:00 Background: Bile acids play a pivotal role in cholesterol metabolism via the enterohepatic circulation. (deepdyve.com)
  • Nisshin Oillio (Tokyo, Japan) donated the MCTs Bile acids play a pivotal role in cholesterol metabolism (C8:0 and C10:0) and LCTs (long-chain triglycerides, soy via the enterohepatic circulation. (deepdyve.com)
  • These phenotypic differences were partially attributed to differences in gene expression, transcriptional factor activity (ie, peroxisome proliferator activator receptor-α, farnesoid X receptor (FXR), liver X receptors and STAT3) and bile acid profiles involved in glucose, lipid metabolism and inflammation. (bmj.com)
  • It occurs as a white crystalline substance insoluble in water but soluble in alcohol and acetic acid, with melting point at 165-167 °C.[citation needed] Chenodeoxycholic acid is synthesized in the liver from cholesterol via several enzymatic steps. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can also reduce the amount of other bile acids that can be harmful to liver cells when levels are elevated. (drugbank.ca)
  • Bile acids are physiological detergents that facilitate excretion, absorption, and transport of fats and sterols in the intestine and liver. (hmdb.ca)
  • Bile acids recirculate through the liver, bile ducts, small intestine and portal vein to form an enterohepatic circuit. (hmdb.ca)
  • Weak acids (formed in the body from cholesterol) that are secreted by the liver and act as detergents aiding in the digestion of fats. (gi.org)
  • The primary objectives of this study are to evaluate the effect of Obeticholic Acid treatment compared to placebo on 1) histological improvement and 2) liver-related clinical outcomes in patients with non-cirrhotic nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with liver fibrosis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The proportion of Obeticholic Acid treated patients relative to placebo achieving NASH resolution with no worsening of liver fibrosis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • These compounds are taken up by the liver and excreted into bile, although their plasma clearance and biliary excretion are reduced compared with that of unsulfated bile acids. (elsevier.com)
  • In the present study, single‐pass transport kinetics of chenodeoxycholic acid 3‐α‐sulfate, chenodeoxycholic acid 7‐α‐sulfate and unsulfated chenodeoxycholic acid were quantified in isolated perfused rat liver. (elsevier.com)
  • The diminished transport into liver resulting from sulfation could lead to enhanced elimination of bile acids by the kidney. (elsevier.com)
  • Bile acids are formed in the liver from cholesterol, stored and concentrated in the gallbladder, and excreted into the intestines in response to food. (labcorp.com)
  • The liver synthesizes cholesterol into two primary bile acids, cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid. (labcorp.com)
  • Both primary and secondary acids are reabsorbed and return to the liver via the portal circulation. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Diverse bile acids are synthesized in the liver . (wikipedia.org)
  • Primary bile acids are those synthesized by the liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bile acid synthesis occurs in liver cells , which synthesize primary bile acids ( cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid in humans) via cytochrome P450 -mediated oxidation of cholesterol in a multi-step process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prior to secreting any of the bile acids (primary or secondary, see below), liver cells conjugate them with either glycine or taurine , to form a total of 8 possible conjugated bile acids . (wikipedia.org)
  • About 95% of bile acids are reabsorbed by active transport in the ileum and recycled back to the liver for further secretion into the biliary system and gallbladder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cholic acid, along with chenodeoxycholic acid, is one of the two major bile acids produced by the liver, where it is synthesized from cholesterol. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effect of glucagon-induced adenosine 3' ,5' -monophosphate concentrations on bile acid synthesis in isolated rat liver cells. (nih.gov)
  • Primary bile acids are produced by the liver and stored in the gall bladder . (wikipedia.org)
  • Bile acids and bile salts have essential functions in the liver and in the small intestine. (bmj.com)
  • Each day, approximately 500 mg of bile acids are synthesised from cholesterol in the adult human liver. (bmj.com)
  • It has been demonstrated in clinical trials that chenodeoxycholic acid, when used as a single compound, reduced Hepatitis C infection (HCV) and improved liver function in patients who have failed existing therapy. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • In addition, we investigated the gut microbiota composition, bile acid profile and both liver and plasma metabolome. (bmj.com)
  • belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dihydroxy bile acids, alcohols and derivatives. (hmdb.ca)
  • Dihydroxy bile acids, alcohols and derivatives are compounds containing or derived from a bile acid or alcohol, and which bears exactly two carboxylic acid groups. (hmdb.ca)
  • This category contains pictures of bile acids and their derivatives. (wikimedia.org)
  • Influx of the 7‐α‐ and 3‐α‐sulfated derivatives was 57% and 20% that of chenodeoxycholic acid, respectively. (elsevier.com)
  • In humans, taurocholic acid and glycocholic acid (derivatives of cholic acid ) and taurochenodeoxycholic acid and glycochenodeoxycholic acid (derivatives of chenodeoxycholic acid ) are the major bile salts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Derivatives are made from cholyl-CoA, which exchanges its CoA with either glycine, or taurine, yielding glycocholic and taurocholic acid, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purity of HDCA was determined by recrystallization from acetic acid and water as well as ethanol and water. (nwsbio.com)
  • Browse our list of acids and bases including the commonly used acetic acid , hydrochloric acid , and sodium hydroxide to learn more. (mpbio.com)
  • Cholic acid, also known as 3α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid is a primary bile acid that is insoluble in water (soluble in alcohol and acetic acid), it is a white crystalline substance. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. In order to study the effects of chenodeoxycholic acid on serum and biliary lipids in hyperlipoproteinaemia, chenodeoxycholic acid was administered to seven type IIa, eight type IIb and eight type IV patients in a daily dose of 750 mg (1·9 mmol) for 3 months. (portlandpress.com)
  • 4. Bile saturation with cholesterol decreased and correlated negatively with the proportion of chenodeoxycholic acid in biliary bile acids but positively with serum triglycerides. (portlandpress.com)
  • 5. It is concluded that chenodeoxycholic acid treatment in hyperlipoproteinaemia is associated with a parallel fall in serum triglycerides and biliary cholesterol and thus may prove to be a useful adjunct in hypolipidaemic treatment. (portlandpress.com)
  • The main objectives of the study were to assess the effects of Obeticholic Acid (OCA) on serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin, together as a composite endpoint and on safety in participants with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Diurnal serum levels of primary conjugated bile acids. (elsevier.com)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Diurnal serum levels of primary conjugated bile acids. (elsevier.com)
  • The decreased level of cholic acid (CA) in both serum and livers of H-Cpr-null mice is likely due to diminished enzyme activity of Cyp8b1 that is essential for CA biosynthesis. (aspetjournals.org)
  • MCT lowered serum cholesterol levels at least partially via reduction of bile acid absorption in the small intestine by inhibition of I-BABP expression. (deepdyve.com)
  • Diarrhea was the most frequent adverse event seen in trial of UDCA in gallstone dissolution, occurring in 2 to 9%, which is less frequent than with chenodeoxycholic acid therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacterial conversion of UDCA to chenodeoxycholic acid may be the mechanism for this side effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2017. https://www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/730193/all/chenodeoxycholic_acid. (tabers.com)
  • Background: We encountered 7 Japanese patients with bile acid synthesis disorders (BASD) over 21 years between 1996 and 2017. (researchsquare.com)
  • Conjugating bile acids with amino acids lowers the pKa of the bile-acid/amino-acid conjugate to between 1 and 4. (wikipedia.org)
  • These two major bile acids are roughly equal in concentration in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study investigated the effects of medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs)/medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) on the reduction of bile acid absorption in the small intestine and the mechanisms of action in vivo and partially verified in vitro. (deepdyve.com)
  • Chenodeoxycholic acid glycine conjugate is an acyl glycine and a bile acid-glycine conugate. (hmdb.ca)
  • The glycine conjugate of CHOLIC ACID. (curehunter.com)
  • It is a secondary bile acid produced by the action of enzymes existing in the microbial flora of the colonic environment. (hmdb.ca)
  • 9. The method of claim 1, wherein said lipid profile comprises at least one lipid metabolite from the primary bile acid and/or secondary bile acid class. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Secondary bile acids result from bacterial actions in the colon . (wikipedia.org)
  • in addition to HDCA, there are a considerable amount of other bile acids such as chenodeoxycholic acid . (nwsbio.com)
  • The UGT1 and UGT2 enzymes use UDP-glucuronic acid, and UGT3 enzymes use UDP- N -acetylglucosamine, UDP-glucose, and UDP-xylose to conjugate xenobiotics, including drugs and endobiotics such as metabolic byproducts, hormones, and signaling molecules. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The unique detergent properties of bile acids are essential for the digestion and intestinal absorption of hydrophobic nutrients. (hmdb.ca)
  • 1 In addition, bile acids are required for cholesterol absorption, fat-soluble vitamin absorption, and to provide resistance to overgrowth of intestinal bacteria. (labcorp.com)
  • For example, in the intestine, cholestasis causes an upregulation of the ileal intestinal bile acid binding protein (I-BABP) transporter resulting in an increased absorption of conjugated BAs by enterocytes [10]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • [9] Bile acid-containing micelles aid lipases to digest lipids and bring them near the intestinal brush border membrane, which results in fat absorption. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pKa of the unconjugated bile acids are between 5 and 6.5, [4] and the pH of the duodenum ranges between 3 and 5, so when unconjugated bile acids are in the duodenum, they are almost always protonated (HA form), which makes them relatively insoluble in water. (wikipedia.org)
  • These are compounds with a structure characterized by the presence of a glycine linked to a bile acid skeleton. (hmdb.ca)
  • Bile acids comprise about 80% of the organic compounds in bile (others are phospholipids and cholesterol ). (wikipedia.org)
  • The compounds are intermediates in the synthesis of synthetic bile acids which are useful in the treatment of conditio. (sumobrain.com)
  • All four of these bile acids recycled, in a process known as enterohepatic circulation . (wikipedia.org)
  • Bile acids also have hormonal actions throughout the body, particularly through the farnesoid X receptor and GPBAR1 (also known as TGR5). (wikipedia.org)
  • Salts of this carboxylic acid are called chenodeoxycholates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The impurities in HDCA and hyodeoxycholic acid were isolated by column chromatography. (nwsbio.com)
  • Mass production of bile acids was strongly inhibited by addition of taurocholic acid (50 and 100 μmol/L) to the culture medium. (tudelft.nl)
  • Suppression of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase activity after incubation of the hepatocytes with taurocholic acid was concentration- and time-dependent. (tudelft.nl)
  • Decline of enzyme activity caused by 100 μmol/L taurocholic acid followed first-order kinetics with a half-life of 10 hr. (tudelft.nl)
  • Taurocholic acid had no direct effect on cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase activity in homogenates of hepatocytes as assessed by addition of the bile acid to the assay mixture. (tudelft.nl)
  • Intracellular accumulation of 37°C of 50 μM [14C]taurocholic acid by hepatocytes of pig and rat, cultured for 24 hours, and by human hepatocytes, cultured for 12 hours, reached equilibrium after an incubation time of 1 to 2 hours. (tudelft.nl)
  • At extracellular concentrations of 100 to 500 μM, hepatocytes of these three species concentrated taurocholic acid intracellularly to between 13 and 17 nmol per mg cell protein, corresponding to an intracellular concentration which was 10-70 times higher than the added extracellular concentration. (tudelft.nl)
  • Addition of taurocholic acid, the predominant bile acid in rat bile, to the culture medium of rat hepatocytes resulted in a 72% inhibition of sterol 27-hydroxylase activity. (tudelft.nl)
  • The effect was exerted at the level of sterol 27-hydroxylase mRNA, showing a time- and dose-dependent decline with a maximal suppression (-75%) at 50 μM taurocholic acid after 24 h of culture. (tudelft.nl)
  • Chenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid are the two primary bile acids in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • These findings identify bile acids as a target to activate BAT in humans. (nih.gov)
  • In view of the substantial contribution of the 'alternative' or '27-hydroxylase' route to total bile acid synthesis, as demonstrated in cultured rat hepatocytes and in vivo in humans, we here evaluate the effects of various bile acids commonly found in bile of rats on the regulation of sterol 27-hydroxylase in cultured rat hepatocytes. (tudelft.nl)
  • The decreased bile acid production in rat hepatocytes was due only to a fall in the synthesis of beta-muricholic and chenodeoxycholic acids (-64% at 10 microM-cyclosporin A), with no change in the formation of cholic acid. (biochemj.org)
  • We then used surface plasmon resonance analysis to show that RamR binds directly to the primary bile acids cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid. (eurekalert.org)
  • Other species may synthesize different bile acids as their predominant primary bile acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is indicated for the treatment of inborn errors in primary bile-acid synthesis due to 3β-hydroxy-Δ5-C27-steroid oxidoreductase deficiency or Δ4-3-oxosteroid-5β-reductase deficiency in infants, children and adolescents aged one month to 18 years and adults. (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] Bile acids are conjugated with taurine or glycine residues to give anions called bile salts . (wikipedia.org)
  • Approximately 600 mg of bile salts are synthesized daily to replace bile acids lost in the feces, although, as described below, much larger amounts are secreted, reabsorbed in the gut and recycled. (wikipedia.org)
  • These conjugated bile acids are often referred to as bile salts . (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, the concentration of bile acids/salts in the small intestine is high enough to form micelles and solubilize lipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Salts of cholic acid are called cholates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Familial intrahepatic cholestasis syndromes can be caused by a deficiency either in bile acid synthesis or in the transport of bile salts into bile. (bmj.com)
  • Bile 'salts' are actually bile ' acids . (healthcentral.com)
  • Because of their detergent properties, bile acids are inherently cytotoxic, and hence it is important that intracellular levels of bile acids are tightly regulated. (bmj.com)
  • Inherited conditions that prevent the synthesis of bile acids or their excretion cause cholestasis, or impaired bile flow. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions Our study identifies a new link between innate immunity and hepatic synthesis of bile acids and bioactive lipids. (bmj.com)
  • Bile acid synthesis, determined by conversion of [4-14C]cholesterol into bile acids in rat and human hepatocytes and by measurement of mass production of bile acids in rat hepatocytes, was dose-dependently decreased by cyclosporin A, with 52% (rat) and 45% (human) inhibition of 10 microM. (biochemj.org)
  • We previously showed that conversion of exogenous [14C] cholesterol into bile acids was suppressed by addition of bile acids to the culture medium. (tudelft.nl)
  • Chenodal (chenodeoxycholic acid). (drugs.com)
  • The total bile acids in the two kinds of bile powder were 10.03% and 25.51%, respectively, and the total bile acid content was 23.33% and 16.45% respectively. (nwsbio.com)
  • Adjunct to bile-acid treatment for gall-stone dissolution: low-dose chenodeoxycholic acid combined with a terpene preparation. (bmj.com)
  • Ellis W R , Bell G D , Middleton B , White D A . Adjunct to bile-acid treatment for gall-stone dissolution: low-dose chenodeoxycholic acid combined with a terpene preparation. (bmj.com)
  • It is concluded that bile acids, in physiological concentrations (i.e., as observed in portal blood), inhibit bile acid synthesis in cultured pig hepatocytes by suppression of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase activity through a direct effect on the hepatocyte. (tudelft.nl)
  • In previous work we have demonstrated suppression of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase by bile acids at the level of mRNA and transcription, resulting in a similar decline in bile acid synthesis in cultured rat hepatocytes. (tudelft.nl)
  • There was no difference in bile flow or biliary excretion rate, regardless of which bile acid sulfate was tested. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusions: MCT slowed the body weight increase and promoted the excretion of bile acids. (deepdyve.com)
  • As it was already known that RamR represses the expression of the gene RamA, which is linked to the export of substances from bacterial cells (Figure 1), they compared RamA expression in the two sets of bacteria upon exposure to different types of bile acid. (eurekalert.org)
  • This results in the conjugated bile acids being ionized at the usual pH in the intestine, and staying in the gastrointestinal tract until reaching the ileum to be reabsorbed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human adults secrete between 12-18 g of bile acids into the intestine each day, mostly after meals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bile acid diarrhea most often occurs in a diseased small intestine, at the point of the terminal ileum, or after surgical resection of the terminal ileum. (healthcentral.com)
  • UGT8 is expressed at significant levels in kidney and gastrointestinal tract (intestine, colon) where conjugation of bile acids is likely to be metabolically significant. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The expression of key proteins involved in bile flow is tightly regulated by transcription factors of the nuclear hormone receptor family, which function as sensors of bile acids and cholesterol. (bmj.com)
  • This is largely accomplished by transcriptional regulation of genes encoding proteins involved in bile acid synthesis and transport. (bmj.com)
  • Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in the bile of mammals. (hmdb.ca)