Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Freund's Adjuvant: An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Radiotherapy, Adjuvant: Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Neoadjuvant Therapy: Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic: Agents that aid or increase the action of the principle drug (DRUG SYNERGISM) or that affect the absorption, mechanism of action, metabolism, or excretion of the primary drug (PHARMACOKINETICS) in such a way as to enhance its effects.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Methotrexate: An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Etoposide: A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Paclitaxel: A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.Carboplatin: An organoplatinum compound that possesses antineoplastic activity.Vinblastine: Antitumor alkaloid isolated from Vinca rosea. (Merck, 11th ed.)Taxoids: A group of diterpenoid CYCLODECANES named for the taxanes that were discovered in the TAXUS tree. The action on MICROTUBULES has made some of them useful as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic: Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Induction Chemotherapy: Initial drug treatment designed to bring about REMISSION INDUCTION. It is typically a short-term and high-dose drug treatment that is followed by CONSOLIDATION CHEMOTHERAPY and then MAINTENANCE CHEMOTHERAPY.Anthracyclines: Organic compounds that have a tetrahydronaphthacenedione ring structure attached by a glycosidic linkage to the amino sugar daunosamine.Organoplatinum Compounds: Organic compounds which contain platinum as an integral part of the molecule.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.DeoxycytidineIfosfamide: Positional isomer of CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE which is active as an alkylating agent and an immunosuppressive agent.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Bleomycin: A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating: A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Tamoxifen: One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Salvage Therapy: A therapeutic approach, involving chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery, after initial regimens have failed to lead to improvement in a patient's condition. Salvage therapy is most often used for neoplastic diseases.Chemotherapy, Cancer, Regional Perfusion: Neoplasm drug therapy involving an extracorporeal circuit with temporary exclusion of the tumor-bearing area from the general circulation during which high concentrations of the drug are perfused to the isolated part.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Testicular Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal: Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)Cytarabine: A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472)Radiotherapy: The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Neutropenia: A decrease in the number of NEUTROPHILS found in the blood.Aluminum Hydroxide: A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Dacarbazine: An antineoplastic agent. It has significant activity against melanomas. (from Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p564)Vomiting: The forcible expulsion of the contents of the STOMACH through the MOUTH.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Nausea: An unpleasant sensation in the stomach usually accompanied by the urge to vomit. Common causes are early pregnancy, sea and motion sickness, emotional stress, intense pain, food poisoning, and various enteroviruses.Transplantation, Autologous: Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Antibiotics, Antineoplastic: Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin: Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.Lomustine: An alkylating agent of value against both hematologic malignancies and solid tumors.Tegafur: Congener of FLUOROURACIL with comparable antineoplastic action. It has been suggested especially for the treatment of breast neoplasms.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Hodgkin Disease: A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue. In the classical variant, giant usually multinucleate Hodgkin's and REED-STERNBERG CELLS are present; in the nodular lymphocyte predominant variant, lymphocytic and histiocytic cells are seen.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Mitomycin: An antineoplastic antibiotic produced by Streptomyces caespitosus. It is one of the bi- or tri-functional ALKYLATING AGENTS causing cross-linking of DNA and inhibition of DNA synthesis.Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal: Neoplasms composed of primordial GERM CELLS of embryonic GONADS or of elements of the germ layers of the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the gonads or present in an embryo or FETUS.Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor: A glycoprotein of MW 25 kDa containing internal disulfide bonds. It induces the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neutrophilic granulocyte precursor cells and functionally activates mature blood neutrophils. Among the family of colony-stimulating factors, G-CSF is the most potent inducer of terminal differentiation to granulocytes and macrophages of leukemic myeloid cell lines.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Carmustine: A cell-cycle phase nonspecific alkylating antineoplastic agent. It is used in the treatment of brain tumors and various other malignant neoplasms. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p462) This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Osteosarcoma: A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Camptothecin: An alkaloid isolated from the stem wood of the Chinese tree, Camptotheca acuminata. This compound selectively inhibits the nuclear enzyme DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE I. Several semisynthetic analogs of camptothecin have demonstrated antitumor activity.Radiotherapy Dosage: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.Platinum Compounds: Inorganic compounds which contain platinum as the central atom.Mice, Inbred BALB CMastectomy: Surgical procedure to remove one or both breasts.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Thiotepa: A very toxic alkylating antineoplastic agent also used as an insect sterilant. It causes skin, gastrointestinal, CNS, and bone marrow damage. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), thiotepa may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck Index, 11th ed).Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Infusions, Intra-Arterial: Regional infusion of drugs via an arterial catheter. Often a pump is used to impel the drug through the catheter. Used in therapy of cancer, upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, infection, and peripheral vascular disease.Melphalan: An alkylating nitrogen mustard that is used as an antineoplastic in the form of the levo isomer - MELPHALAN, the racemic mixture - MERPHALAN, and the dextro isomer - MEDPHALAN; toxic to bone marrow, but little vesicant action; potential carcinogen.LeukopeniaReceptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Drug Therapy: The use of DRUGS to treat a DISEASE or its symptoms. One example is the use of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to treat CANCER.Sarcoma: A connective tissue neoplasm formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells; it is usually highly malignant.Peritoneal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PERITONEUM.Palliative Care: Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)Antiemetics: Drugs used to prevent NAUSEA or VOMITING.Levamisole: An antihelminthic drug that has been tried experimentally in rheumatic disorders where it apparently restores the immune response by increasing macrophage chemotaxis and T-lymphocyte function. Paradoxically, this immune enhancement appears to be beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis where dermatitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia, and nausea and vomiting have been reported as side effects. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p435-6)Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Mitoxantrone: An anthracenedione-derived antineoplastic agent.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic: Works about comparative studies to verify the effectiveness of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques determined in phase II studies. During these trials, patients are monitored closely by physicians to identify any adverse reactions from long-term use. These studies are performed on groups of patients large enough to identify clinically significant responses and usually last about three years. This concept includes phase III studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.Germinoma: A malignant neoplasm of the germinal tissue of the GONADS; MEDIASTINUM; or pineal region. Germinomas are uniform in appearance, consisting of large, round cells with vesicular nuclei and clear or finely granular eosinophilic-staining cytoplasm. (Stedman, 265th ed; from DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, pp1642-3)Bridged Compounds: Cyclic hydrocarbons that contain multiple rings and share one or more atoms.Actuarial Analysis: The application of probability and statistical methods to calculate the risk of occurrence of any event, such as onset of illness, recurrent disease, hospitalization, disability, or death. It may include calculation of the anticipated money costs of such events and of the premiums necessary to provide for payment of such costs.Medical Oncology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.Rectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Daunorubicin: A very toxic anthracycline aminoglycoside antineoplastic isolated from Streptomyces peucetius and others, used in treatment of LEUKEMIA and other NEOPLASMS.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Oxonic Acid: Antagonist of urate oxidase.Hyperthermia, Induced: Abnormally high temperature intentionally induced in living things regionally or whole body. It is most often induced by radiation (heat waves, infra-red), ultrasound, or drugs.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Vindesine: Vinblastine derivative with antineoplastic activity against CANCER. Major side effects are myelosuppression and neurotoxicity. Vindesine is used extensively in chemotherapy protocols (ANTINEOPLASTIC COMBINED CHEMOTHERAPY PROTOCOLS).Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma: A neoplasm characterized by abnormalities of the lymphoid cell precursors leading to excessive lymphoblasts in the marrow and other organs. It is the most common cancer in children and accounts for the vast majority of all childhood leukemias.Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute: Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Neoplasms, Second Primary: Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.Neoplasm, Residual: Remnant of a tumor or cancer after primary, potentially curative therapy. (Dr. Daniel Masys, written communication)Thrombocytopenia: A subnormal level of BLOOD PLATELETS.Seminoma: A radiosensitive, malignant neoplasm of the testis, thought to be derived from primordial germ cells of the sexually undifferentiated embryonic gonad. There are three variants: classical (typical), the most common type; anaplastic; and spermatocytic. The classical seminoma is composed of fairly well differentiated sheets or cords of uniform polygonal or round cells (seminoma cells), each cell having abundant clear cytoplasm, distinct cell membranes, a centrally placed round nucleus, and one or more nucleoli. In the female, a grossly and histologically identical neoplasm, known as dysgerminoma, occurs. (Dorland, 27th ed)Lymph Node Excision: Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p966)Chemoradiotherapy: Treatment that combines chemotherapy with radiotherapy.Cranial Irradiation: The exposure of the head to roentgen rays or other forms of radioactivity for therapeutic or preventive purposes.Platinum: Platinum. A heavy, soft, whitish metal, resembling tin, atomic number 78, atomic weight 195.09, symbol Pt. (From Dorland, 28th ed) It is used in manufacturing equipment for laboratory and industrial use. It occurs as a black powder (platinum black) and as a spongy substance (spongy platinum) and may have been known in Pliny's time as "alutiae".Receptors, Progesterone: Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Retroperitoneal NeoplasmsRisk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Maintenance Chemotherapy: Treatment designed to help prevent a relapse of a disease following the successful primary treatments (INDUCTION CHEMOTHERAPY and CONSOLIDATION CHEMOTHERAPY) with a long-term low-dose drug therapy.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Antineoplastic Protocols: Clinical protocols used to inhibit the growth or spread of NEOPLASMS.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Arthritis, Experimental: ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Soft Tissue Neoplasms: Neoplasms of whatever cell type or origin, occurring in the extraskeletal connective tissue framework of the body including the organs of locomotion and their various component structures, such as nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics, etc.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Aromatase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit AROMATASE in order to reduce production of estrogenic steroid hormones.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Prednisolone: A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.Mice, Inbred C57BLAntibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Mastectomy, Segmental: Removal of only enough breast tissue to ensure that the margins of the resected surgical specimen are free of tumor.Mediastinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MEDIASTINUM.Gastrectomy: Excision of the whole (total gastrectomy) or part (subtotal gastrectomy, partial gastrectomy, gastric resection) of the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)Mesna: A sulfhydryl compound used to prevent urothelial toxicity by inactivating metabolites from ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, such as IFOSFAMIDE or CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE.Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse: Malignant lymphoma composed of large B lymphoid cells whose nuclear size can exceed normal macrophage nuclei, or more than twice the size of a normal lymphocyte. The pattern is predominantly diffuse. Most of these lymphomas represent the malignant counterpart of B-lymphocytes at midstage in the process of differentiation.Floxuridine: An antineoplastic antimetabolite that is metabolized to fluorouracil when administered by rapid injection; when administered by slow, continuous, intra-arterial infusion, it is converted to floxuridine monophosphate. It has been used to treat hepatic metastases of gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas and for palliation in malignant neoplasms of the liver and gastrointestinal tract.Cystectomy: Used for excision of the urinary bladder.Central Nervous System Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the brain, spinal cord, or meninges.Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic: Works about studies that are usually controlled to assess the effectiveness and dosage (if appropriate) of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques. These studies are performed on several hundred volunteers, including a limited number of patients with the target disease or disorder, and last about two years. This concept includes phase II studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Hematologic Diseases: Disorders of the blood and blood forming tissues.Stomatitis: INFLAMMATION of the soft tissues of the MOUTH, such as MUCOSA; PALATE; GINGIVA; and LIP.Premenopause: The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.Nimustine: Antineoplastic agent especially effective against malignant brain tumors. The resistance which brain tumor cells acquire to the initial effectiveness of this drug can be partially overcome by the simultaneous use of membrane-modifying agents such as reserpine, calcium antagonists such as nicardipine or verapamil, or the calmodulin inhibitor, trifluoperazine. The drug has also been used in combination with other antineoplastic agents or with radiotherapy for the treatment of various neoplasms.Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Mitomycins: A group of methylazirinopyrroloindolediones obtained from certain Streptomyces strains. They are very toxic antibiotics used as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS in some solid tumors. PORFIROMYCIN and MITOMYCIN are the most useful members of the group.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.SqualeneDysgerminoma: A malignant ovarian neoplasm, thought to be derived from primordial germ cells of the sexually undifferentiated embryonic gonad. It is the counterpart of the classical seminoma of the testis, to which it is both grossly and histologically identical. Dysgerminomas comprise 16% of all germ cell tumors but are rare before the age of 10, although nearly 50% occur before the age of 20. They are generally considered of low-grade malignancy but may spread if the tumor extends through its capsule and involves lymph nodes or blood vessels. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1646)Dose Fractionation: Administration of the total dose of radiation (RADIATION DOSAGE) in parts, at timed intervals.Glioblastoma: A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Immunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.

Serum sErbB1 and epidermal growth factor levels as tumor biomarkers in women with stage III or IV epithelial ovarian cancer. (1/4884)

Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has a high mortality rate, which is due primarily to the fact that early clinical symptoms are vague and nonspecific; hence, this disease often goes undetected and untreated until in its advanced stages. Sensitive and reliable methods for detecting earlier stages of EOC are, therefore, urgently needed. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a ligand for EGF receptor (ErbB1); this receptor is the product of the c-erbB1 proto-oncogene. ErbB1 overexpression is common in human ovarian carcinoma-derived cell lines and tumors, in which overexpression is thought to play a critical role in tumor etiology and progression. Furthermore, ErbB1 overexpression is associated with disease recurrence and decreased patient survival. Recently, we have developed an acridinium-linked immunosorbent assay that detects a approximately 110-kDa soluble analogue of ErbB1, ie., sErbB1, in serum samples from healthy men and women (A. T. Baron, et al., J. Immunol. Methods, 219: 23-43, 1998). Here, we demonstrate that serum p110 sErbB1 levels are significantly lower in EOC patients with stage III or IV disease prior to (P < 0.0001) and shortly after (P < 0.0001) cytoreductive staging laparotomy than in healthy women of similar ages, whereas EGF levels are significantly higher than those of age-matched healthy women only in serum samples collected shortly after tumor debulking surgery (P < 0.0001). We observe that the preoperative serum sErbB1 concentration range of advanced stage EOC patients barely overlaps with the serum sErbB1 concentration range of healthy women. In addition, we show that serum sErbB1 and EGF levels changed temporally for some EOC patients who were surgically debulked of tumor and who provided a second serum sample during the course of combination chemotherapy. Finally, we observe a significant positive association between sErbB1 and EGF levels only in serum samples of EOC patients collected prior to cytoreductive surgery (correlation coefficient = 0.61968; P = 0.0027). These data suggest that epithelial ovarian tumors concomitantly affect serum sErbB1 and EGF levels. In conclusion, these data indicate that serum sErbB1 and EGF (postoperative only) levels are significantly different between EOC patients and healthy women and that altered and/or changing serum sErbB1 and EGF levels may provide important diagnostic and/or prognostic information useful for the management of patients with EOC.  (+info)

Multimodality therapy for locally advanced and limited stage IV breast cancer: the impact of effective non-cross-resistance late-consolidation chemotherapy. (2/4884)

To determine the effectiveness of non-cross-resistant late-consolidation chemotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) and stage IV breast cancer, we review our experience with two regimens. Between 1985 and 1991, we enrolled 56 patients with LABC, who were treated with a doxorubicin-based adjuvant regimen, followed by a late-consolidation non-cross-resistant regimen containing methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin, and cyclophosphamide. Between 1985 and 1996, a total of 45 patients with limited stage IV breast cancer underwent surgical excision of all evaluable disease, making them metastatic (stage IV) with no evaluable disease. Surgery was followed by a doxorubicin-containing regimen and then a late-consolidation non-cross-resistant regimen, which was either methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, cisplatinum, and cyclophosphamide or 5-fluorouracil, mitomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin. Twenty-four patients with limited bone metastases that were unresectable were treated with a doxorubicin-containing regimen, radiation therapy to all sites of disease, and then one of the two late non-cross-resistant regimens. With a median follow-up of 84 months, 78% of patients with LABC are alive, and 68% are free of disease. After a median follow-up of 44 months, 53% of patients with stage IV with no evaluable disease are alive and free of disease. The use of non-cross-resistant late-consolidation chemotherapy is an effective strategy in the treatment of patients with LABC and selected patients with limited stage IV breast cancer.  (+info)

Necrosis correlates with high vascular density and focal macrophage infiltration in invasive carcinoma of the breast. (3/4884)

Necrosis is a common feature of invasive carcinoma of the breast and is caused by chronic ischaemia leading to infarction. Although necrosis was previously assumed to be due to a generally poor blood supply in the tumour, in this study we show that it is present in tumours with focal areas of high vascular density situated away from the actual sites of necrosis. This may account, in part, for the previous observation that necrosis is linked to poor prognosis in this disease. Highly angiogenic tumours often display blood vessel shunting from one tumour area to another, which further exacerbates ischaemia and the formation of tumour necrosis. We have recently demonstrated that high focal microphage infiltration into breast tumours is significantly associated with increased tumour angiogenesis and poor prognosis and that the macrophages accumulate in poorly vascularized, hypoxic areas within breast tumours. In order to investigate the interactions of macrophages with chronic ischaemia (as reflected by the presence of necrosis) and angiogenesis in breast tumours, we quantified the levels of these three biological parameters in a series of 109 consecutive invasive breast carcinomas. We found that the degree of tumour necrosis was correlated with both microphage infiltration (Mann-Whitney U, P-value = 0.0009; chi-square, P-value = 0.01) and angiogenesis (Mann-Whitney U P-value = 0.0008, chi square P-value = 0.03). It was also observed that necrosis was a feature of tumours possessing an aggressive phenotype, i.e. high tumour grade (chi-square, P-value < 0.001), larger size (Mann-Whitney U, P-value = 0.003) and low oestrogen receptor status (Mann-Whitney U, P-value = 0.008; chi-square, P-value < 0.008). We suggest, therefore, that aggressive tumours rapidly outgrow their vascular supply in certain areas, leading to areas of prolonged hypoxia within the tumour and, subsequently, to necrosis. This, in turn, may attract macrophages into the tumour, which then contribute to the angiogenic process, giving rise to an association between high levels of angiogenesis and extensive necrosis.  (+info)

Metastasis stage, adjuvant treatment, and residual tumor are prognostic factors for medulloblastoma in children: conclusions from the Children's Cancer Group 921 randomized phase III study. (4/4884)

PURPOSE: From 1986 to 1992, "eight-drugs-in-one-day" (8-in-1) chemotherapy both before and after radiation therapy (XRT) (54 Gy tumor/36 Gy neuraxis) was compared with vincristine, lomustine (CCNU), and prednisone (VCP) after XRT in children with untreated, high-stage medulloblastoma (MB). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two hundred three eligible patients with an institutional diagnosis of MB were stratified by local invasion and metastatic stage (Chang T/M) and randomized to therapy. Median time at risk from study entry was 7.0 years. RESULTS: Survival and progression-free survival (PFS) +/- SE at 7 years were 55%+/-5% and 54%+/-5%, respectively. VCP was superior to 8-in-1 chemotherapy, with 5-year PFS rates of 63%+/-5% versus 45%+/-5%, respectively (P = .006). Upon central neuropathology review, 188 patients were confirmed as having MB and were the subjects for analyses of prognostic factors. Children aged 1.5 to younger than 3 years had inferior 5-year estimates of PFS, compared with children 3 years old or older (P = .0014; 32%+/-10% v 58%+/-4%, respectively). For MB patients 3 years of age or older, the prognostic effect of tumor spread (MO v M1 v M2+) on PFS was powerful (P = .0006); 5-year PFS rates were 70%+/-5%, 57%+/-10%, and 40%+/-8%, respectively. PFS distributions at 5 years for patients with M0 tumors with less than 1.5 cm2 of residual tumor, versus > or = 1.5 cm2 of residual tumor by scan, were significantly different (P = .023; 78%+/-6% v 54%+/-11%, respectively). CONCLUSION: VCP plus XRT is a superior adjuvant combination compared with 8-in-1 chemotherapy plus XRT. For patients with M0 tumors, residual tumor bulk (not extent of resection) is a predictor for PFS. Patients with M0 tumors, > or = 3 years with < or = 1.5 cm2 residual tumor, had a 78%+/-6% 5-year PFS rate. Children younger than 3 years old who received a reduced XRT dosage had the lowest survival rate.  (+info)

Pamidronate reduces skeletal morbidity in women with advanced breast cancer and lytic bone lesions: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Protocol 18 Aredia Breast Cancer Study Group. (5/4884)

PURPOSE: To assess whether pamidronate can reduce the frequency of skeletal morbidity in women with lytic bone metastases from breast cancer treated with hormone therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Three hundred seventy-two women with breast cancer who had at least one lytic bone lesion and who were receiving hormonal therapy were randomized to receive 90 mg of pamidronate or placebo as a 2-hour intravenous infusion given in double-blind fashion every 4 weeks for 24 cycles. Patients were evaluated for skeletal complications: pathologic fractures, spinal cord compression, irradiation of or surgery on bone, or hypercalcemia. The skeletal morbidity rate (the ratio of the number of skeletal complications to the time on trial) was the primary efficacy variable. Bone pain, use of analgesics, quality of life, performance status, bone tumor response, and biochemical parameters were also evaluated. RESULTS: One hundred eighty-two patients who received pamidronate and 189 who received placebo were assessable. The skeletal morbidity rate was significantly reduced at 12, 18, and 24 cycles in patients treated with 90 mg of pamidronate (P = .028, .023, and .008, respectively). At 24 cycles, the proportion of patients having had any skeletal complication was 56% in the pamidronate group and 67% in the placebo group (P = .027). The time to the first skeletal complication was longer for patients receiving pamidronate than for those given placebo (P = .049). There was no statistical difference in survival or in objective bone response rate. Pamidronate was well tolerated. CONCLUSION: Treatment with 90 mg of pamidronate as a 2-hour intravenous infusion every 4 weeks in addition to hormonal therapy significantly reduces skeletal morbidity from osteolytic metastases.  (+info)

Combined irinotecan and oxaliplatin plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in patients with advanced fluoropyrimidine/leucovorin-pretreated colorectal cancer. (6/4884)

PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerance of combined irinotecan and oxaliplatin in patients with advanced colorectal cancer pretreated with leucovorin-modulated fluoropyrimidines. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-six patients with metastatic colorectal cancer, who progressed while receiving or within 6 months after discontinuing palliative chemotherapy with fluoropyrimidines/leucovorin, were enrolled onto this study. Treatment consisted of oxaliplatin 85 mg/m2 on days 1 + 15 and irinotecan 80 mg/m2 on days 1 + 8 + 15 every 4 weeks. Depending on the absolute neutrophil counts (ANC) on the day of scheduled chemotherapeutic drug administration, a 5-day course of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) 5 microg/kg/d was given. RESULTS: The overall response rate was 42% for all 36 assessable patients (95% confidence interval, 26% to 59%), including two complete remissions (6%). Thirteen additional patients (36%) had stable disease, and only eight (22%) progressed. The median time to treatment failure was 7.5 months (range, 1 to 13.5+ months). After a median follow-up time of 14 months, 19 patients (53%) are still alive. Hematologic toxicity was commonly observed, although according to the ANC-adapted use of G-CSF (in 31 patients during 81 of 174 courses), it was generally mild: grade 3 and 4 granulocytopenia occurred in only five and two cases, respectively. The most frequent nonhematologic adverse reactions were nausea/emesis and diarrhea, which were rated severe in 17% and 19%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that the combination of irinotecan and oxaliplatin with or without G-CSF has substantial antitumor activity in patients with progressive fluoropyrimidine/leucovorin-pretreated colorectal cancer. Overall toxicity was modest, with gastrointestinal symptoms constituting the dose-limiting side effects. Further evaluation of this regimen seems warranted.  (+info)

Multi-institutional melanoma lymphatic mapping experience: the prognostic value of sentinel lymph node status in 612 stage I or II melanoma patients. (7/4884)

PURPOSE: To compare the effect of pathologic sentinel lymph node (SLN) status with that of other known prognostic factors on recurrence and survival in patients with stage I or II cutaneous melanoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed the records of 612 patients with primary cutaneous melanoma who underwent lymphatic mapping and SLN biopsy between January 1991 and May 1995 to determine the effects of tumor thickness, ulceration, Clark level, location, sex, and SLN pathologic status on disease-free and disease-specific survival. RESULTS: In the 580 patients in whom lymphatic mapping and SLN biopsy were successful, the SLN was positive by conventional histology in 85 patients (15%) but negative in 495 patients (85%). SLN status was the most significant prognostic factor with respect to disease-free and disease-specific survival by univariate and multiple covariate analyses. Although tumor thickness and ulceration influenced survival in SLN-negative patients, they provided no additional prognostic information in SLN-positive patients. CONCLUSION: Lymphatic mapping and SLN biopsy is highly accurate in staging nodal basins at risk for regional metastases in primary melanoma patients and identifies those who may benefit from earlier lymphadenectomy. Furthermore, pathologic status of the SLN in these patients with clinically negative nodes is the most important prognostic factor for recurrence. The information from SLN biopsy is particularly helpful in establishing stratification criteria for future adjuvant trials.  (+info)

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for operable breast carcinoma larger than 3 cm: a unicentre randomized trial with a 124-month median follow-up. Institut Bergonie Bordeaux Groupe Sein (IBBGS). (8/4884)

BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy improves overall survival and renders possible breast-conserving treatment in locally advanced breast cancer. It was necessary for this method to be evaluated in operable breast tumors too large to be treated immediately by conserving surgery. Initial results of this randomized trial were published in Annals of Oncology (1991). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Women with T2 > 3 cm or T3 N0-1 M0 breast tumors were treated by either initial mastectomy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy, or neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by adjusted locoregional treatment. Chemotherapy was the same in the two arms. The prognostic and predictive factors of response to chemotherapy were analyzed. RESULTS: Conserving treatments were performed in 63% at the end of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and this rate had decreased to 45% at the median follow-up of 124 months. Survivals are identical in the two treatment groups. Initial clinical tumor size < 40 mm, IHC-ER < 10% and Mib1 > 40% are predictive of tumor response to chemotherapy by uni- and multivariate analyses. For outcome prediction, c-erb-B2 > 0% is the independent prognostic factor for overall and metastasis-free survivals. CONCLUSION: Breast-conserving therapy can be performed in more than half of all cases without alteration of survival, despite a non-negligible rate of local recurrences.  (+info)

*Coenzyme M

Mesna - a cancer chemotherapy adjuvant with the same structure Balch WE, Wolfe RS (1979). "Specificity and biological ...

*Cholangiocarcinoma

Adjuvant chemotherapy appears to be ineffective in patients with completely resected tumors. The role of combined ... If the tumor can be removed surgically, patients may receive adjuvant chemotherapy or radiation therapy after the operation to ... then adjuvant therapy with radiation and possibly chemotherapy is generally recommended based on the available data. The ... "Is postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy useful for gallbladder carcinoma? A phase III multicenter prospective randomized ...

*Breast cancer classification

Trastuzumab plus adjuvant chemotherapy for operable HER2+ breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2005; 353:1673-1684 and supplementary ... Albain, K. S.; Paik, S.; Van't Veer, L. (2009). "Prediction of adjuvant chemotherapy benefit in endocrine responsive, early ... The choice of established chemotherapy medications, if chemotherapy is needed, may also be affected by DNA assays that predict ... Adjuvant! is based on US cohorts and presents colored bar charts that display information that may assist in decisions ...

*Triple-negative breast cancer

Standard treatment is surgery with adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. As a variation, neoadjuvant chemotherapy is very ... This makes it particularly complicated to find the optimal chemotherapy. Adding a taxane to the chemotherapy appears to improve ... In addition to chemotherapy, an additive called Didox can be added to aid in the reduction of drug resistance and further ... This allows for a higher rate of breast-conserving surgeries and by evaluating the response to the chemotherapy gives important ...

*Santosh G. Honavar

Does adjuvant chemotherapy prevent metastasis in high-risk retinoblastoma? (Abst) Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual ... he developed various therapeutic and management protocols which included high-dose and periocular chemotherapy, adjuvant ... Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the management of sebaceous gland carcinoma of the eyelid with regional lymph node metastasis. ... Postenucleation adjuvant therapy in high-risk retinoblastoma. Arch Ophthalmol. 2002;120(7):923-31. 153. Demirci H, Shields CL, ...

*Solitary fibrous tumor

Adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy in malignant SFT remains controversial. Hemangiopericytoma Myopericytoma Solitary ...

*Sandra M. Swain

"Trastuzumab plus adjuvant chemotherapy for operable HER2-positive breast cancer". The New England Journal of Medicine. 353 (16 ... adjuvant treatment of breast cancer, the treatments of metastatic HER2+ breast cancer, cardiotoxicity, as well as health care ... the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP), and the National Accreditation Program for Breast Centers. ...

*Eric Winer

Adjuvant chemotherapy in older women with early-stage breast cancer. New England Journal of Medicine. 2009;360:2055-2065. Sikov ... Adjuvant Paclitaxel and Trastuzumab for Node-Negative, HER2-Positive Breast Cancer. New England Journal of Medicine. 2015;372: ... Estrogen-Receptor Status and Outcomes of Modern Chemotherapy for Patients with Node-Positive Breast Cancer. JAMA. 2006;295:1658 ... assessing the use of aspirin as adjuvant therapy for node-positive breast cancer patients. Winer has authored over 250 ...

*Chemotherapy

Adjuvant chemotherapy is given after a local treatment (radiotherapy or surgery). It can be used when there is little evidence ... Intensification chemotherapy is identical to consolidation chemotherapy but a different drug than the induction chemotherapy is ... Maintenance chemotherapy is a repeated low-dose treatment to prolong remission. Salvage chemotherapy or palliative chemotherapy ... Chemotherapy may be given with a curative intent or it may aim to prolong life or to palliate symptoms. Induction chemotherapy ...

*Health care system in Japan

Sakuramoto (1 November 2007). "Adjuvant chemotherapy for gastric cancer with S-1, an oral fluoropyrimidine". NEJM. 357: 1810-20 ... in Japan for most cancers while overall survival tend to be longer in the US due to the more aggressive use of chemotherapy in ... cancer is better in Japan than the US in both patients treated with surgery alone and surgery followed by chemotherapy. Japan ...

*Uterine clear-cell carcinoma

Stanojevic Z, Djordjevic B, Todorovska I, Lilic V, Zivadinovic R, Dunjic O (2008). "Risk factors and adjuvant chemotherapy in ... If the tumor has spread surgery is cytoreductive followed by radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy. The five years survival was ...

*Gynecologic cancer disparities in the United States

For later stages, adjuvant chemotherapy has been shown to improve patient survival. Lymphadenectomy and lymph node chemotherapy ... Variability in chemotherapy delivery for elderly women with advanced stage ovarian cancer and its impact on survival. Br J ... Primary chemotherapy and maintenance therapy in epithelial ovarian cancer, MEMO, 1 (2008), pp. 99-102. R. Angioli, F. Plotti, I ... Trends in surgery and chemotherapy for women diagnosed with ovarian cancer in the United States, J Clin Oncol, 21 (18) (2003), ...

*Craniopharyngioma

... s are usually successfully managed with a combination of adjuvant chemotherapy and neurosurgery. Recent ... surgery with adjuvant chemo radiotherapy. The chemotherapy drugs Paclitaxel and Carboplatin have shown a clinical (but not ...

*Endodermal sinus tumor

Motegi M, Takakura S, Takano H, Tanaka T, Ochiai K (February 2007). "Adjuvant chemotherapy in a pregnant woman with endodermal ... Before modern chemotherapy, this type of neoplasm was highly lethal, but the prognosis has significantly improved since. When ... Most treatments involve some combination of surgery and chemotherapy. Treatment with cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin has ... endodermal sinus tumors are treated promptly with surgery and chemotherapy, fatal outcomes are exceedingly rare. Germ cell ...

*Cyclin B

... it is rare for oncologists to recommend adjuvant chemotherapy in these cases. However, in a small subset of patient this type ... hormone receptor positive breast cancer were likely to benefit from adjuvant therapy. In general women with this cancer have a ...

*Rose Kushner

In the 1980s she campaigned against aggressive use of chemotherapy. In a 1984 article "Is Aggressive Adjuvant Chemotherapy the ... Kushner, Rose (1984), Is Aggressive Adjuvant Chemotherapy the Halsted Radical of the '80s?, CA Cancer J Clin 1984; 34:345-351. ... 224-240 Kushner, Rose (1984), Is Aggressive Adjuvant Chemotherapy the Halsted Radical of the '80s?, CA Cancer J Clin 1984; 34: ... and calling chemotherapy "therapeutic overkill." Barron Lerner has suggested that the vehemence of her attack on chemotherapy ...

*Fertility preservation

"Fertility preservation in women with breast cancer undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy: a systematic review". Fertility and ... Chemotherapy and radiation treatments for cancer and other serious illnesses can affect reproductive health. The regimens that ... Chemotherapies with high risk include procarbazine and alkylating drugs such as cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, busulfan, ... The use of GnRH agonists for ovarian protection during chemotherapy is suggested to benefit the ability to ovulate, but ...

*Neoadjuvant therapy

Adjuvant chemotherapy Adjuvant and Neoadjuvant Therapy for Breast Cancer (as defined by the US National Institutes of Health ( ... chemotherapy, immunotherapy or hormone therapy) or radiation therapy is commonly used in cancers that are locally advanced - ... "Pathologic Downstaging is a Surrogate Marker for Efficacy and Increased Survival Following Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy and Radical ...

*Tegafur/uracil

Akasu T, Moriya Y, Ohashi Y, Yoshida S, Shirao K, Kodaira S (April 2006). "Adjuvant chemotherapy with uracil-tegafur for ... April 2004). "A randomized trial of adjuvant chemotherapy with uracil-tegafur for adenocarcinoma of the lung". N. Engl. J. Med ... Ueda H, Tanaka H, Kida Y, Fukuchi H, Ichinose M (May 2008). "Adjuvant chemotherapy with tegafur/uracil administration after ... Nakayama T, Noguchi S (2010). "Therapeutic usefulness of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy with Tegafur-Uracil (UFT) in ...

*Golph3

"GOLPH3 predicts survival of colorectal cancer patients treated with 5-fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy". J. Transl. Med ...

*Pancreatoblastoma

... adjuvant chemotherapy should be given, even in stage I disease. In patients with inoperable disease, chemotherapy alone should ...

*CDKN1B

Similarly low levels of p27 correlated with poor results from adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients. P27 has been ... and cyclin E expression and breast cancer survival after treatment with adjuvant chemotherapy". J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 98 (23): ... The authors proposed clinicians could use patient specific levels of p27 to determine who would benefit from adjuvant therapy. ... For example, patients with non-small cell lung cancer who were treated with platinum based chemotherapy showed reduced survival ...

*ERCC1

... -positive NSCLC tumors do not benefit from adjuvant platinum chemotherapy. However, ERCC1-negative NSCLC tumors, ... "DNA repair by ERCC1 in non-small-cell lung cancer and cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy". The New England Journal of ... derive substantial benefit from adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy. High ERCC1 is thus a negative predictive marker, ... Olaussen KA, Mountzios G, Soria JC (Jul 2007). "ERCC1 as a risk stratifier in platinum-based chemotherapy for nonsmall-cell ...

*Alessandro Liberati

Himel HN, Liberati A, Gelber RD, Chalmers TC (1986). "Adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer: A pooled estimate based on ...

*Decoy receptor 3

2002). "DCR3 locus is a predictive marker for 5-fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy in colorectal cancer". Int. J. Cancer ...

*Cervical cancer

"Adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy for early stage cervical cancer". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 11: ... may be treated with radiation therapy and cisplatin-based chemotherapy, hysterectomy (which then usually requires adjuvant ... In addition, chemotherapy can be used to treat cervical cancer, and has been found to be more effective than radiation alone. ... On June 15, 2006, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the use of a combination of two chemotherapy drugs, hycamtin and ...
In our study, ERCC1 expression provided both prognostic and predictive information in patients with completely resected bladder cancer. Among patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder treated with cystectomy, high tumoral expression of ERCC1 correlated with longer survival in patients without adjuvant chemotherapy and was associated with shorter survival in those with adjuvant chemotherapy. A statistically significant interaction between ERCC1 expression and adjuvant chemotherapy indicated potential benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with ERCC1-negative tumors.. To date, the role of adjuvant chemotherapy for bladder cancer has been controversial, with no Level 1 evidence supporting adjuvant chemotherapy. In fact, the available data have not demonstrated a clear benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy. Despite mounting evidence favoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy [1-3], physicians are reluctant to adopt its practice as evidenced by only 1.2% of patients with stage III bladder ...
Giuliani, F; Marco, A D.; Casazza, A M.; and Savi, G, "Combination chemotherapy and surgical adjuvant chemotherapy on ms-2 sarcoma and lung metastases in mice." (1979). Subject Strain Bibliography 1979. 165 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy use among veterans with colon cancer. T2 - Insights from a California study. AU - Hynes, Denise M.. AU - Tarlov, Elizabeth. AU - Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon. AU - Perrin, Ruth. AU - Zhang, Qiuying. AU - Weichle, Thomas. AU - Ferreira, M. Rosario. AU - Lee, Todd. AU - Benson, Al B.. AU - Bhoopalam, Nirmala. AU - Bennett, Charles L.. PY - 2010/5/20. Y1 - 2010/5/20. N2 - Purpose: US veterans have been shown to be a vulnerable population with high cancer rates, and cancer care quality in Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals is the focus of a congressionally mandated review. We examined rates of surgery and chemotherapy use among veterans with colon cancer at VA and non-VA facilities in California to gain insight into factors associated with quality of cancer care. Methods: A retrospective cohort of incident colon cancer patients from the California Cancer Registry, who were ≥ 66 years old and eligible to use VA and Medicare between 1999 and 2001, were observed ...
The study is designed to investigate the effect of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy in prevention of tumor recurrence and metastasis for hepatocellul
A new study conducted by ASCO in collaboration with the American Cancer Society (ACS) and the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) and published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology1 found that patients who have to travel farther to appointments are less likely to receive adjuvant chemotherapy, regardless of whether or not they are insured.. Evidence-based treatment guidelines recommend the use of adjuvant chemotherapy in many cancer patients within 90 days after surgery. But studies show that in many cases, patients do not receive it.. To explore the role geographic access to care plays, researchers compared patients travel distance, insurance status, and an areas density of oncologists to the likelihood patients received adjuvant chemotherapy within 90 days of surgery for colon cancer. The data used in the study captured about 70% of newly diagnosed cancer cases in the United States.. Of 34,694 patients in the study cohort, three-quarters (75.7%) received adjuvant chemotherapy ...
Operation is the only curative treatment for gastric cancer patients. However, the rate of recurrence is high up to 60%. The 5 years overall survival of patient at stage IIIb or more advanced stage is still poor and approximately 8-28%. Adjuvant chemotherapy is critical for improving efficacy further. Unfortunately, the optimal adjuvant regimen is not identified yet. The standard adjuvant treatments of American and European patients are not accepted widely in Asia area because of different operation procedure and patients tolerability. Results of two critical trials indicated that S-1 alone as Japanese standard adjuvant chemotherapy could not improve the survival of stage IIIb advanced stage gastric cancer patients while the Korean standard regimen XELOX could. This implied that the more intensive chemotherapy must be used for the patients with higher risk of relapse. The proportion of the stage IIIb-IIIc Chinese gastric cancer patients is much larger than that of Japan and Korean. However, no ...
With very few exceptions, initial therapy for colon cancer is adequate surgical resection. Subsequent surgical and pathologic staging will dictate the need for adjuvant therapy. Currently, Stage I colon cancer patients enjoy a high cure rate after surgery alone (,80%), and there is no evidence that these patients will benefit from any adjuvant therapy. Large randomized clinical trials have been more interested in Stage II and Stage III colon cancer patients whose cure rate can be as low as 30% after surgery alone. Early chemotherapy trials for colon cancer used the chemotherapeutic agents available at the time. Eventually, fluorinated pyrimidines (5-Fluorouracil or 5-FU) were shown to have activity against metastatic colorectal cancer. This finding led to several trials evaluating 5-FU as adjuvant therapy for high risk patients after surgery (Stage II and III colon cancer). In 1988, Buyse and colleagues(4) published a meta-analysis of all randomized controlled trials of adjuvant therapy with ...
Barrett-Lee, P., Ellis, P., Bliss, J., TACT (Taxotere as Adjuvant Chemotherapy Trial) Management Group (includes John Yarnold) (2002) Duration of adjuvant chemotherapy; Anthracyclines, taxanes and novel agents - More or less. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY, 14 (4). pp. 263-266. ISSN 0732-183X ...
BACKGROUND: Although the benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy has been established clearly in patients with Stage III colon carcinoma, the degree to which elderly patients with colon carcinoma can tolerate such therapy generally has remained unknown. METHODS: The authors reviewed all patients in their Tumor Registry with Stage II and Stage III adenocarcinoma of the colon who underwent potentially curative resection for their disease at the Geisinger Medical Center between January 1990 and September 2000. One hundred twenty patients underwent complete resection of their colon carcinoma and received 5-fluorouracil-based (5-FU) adjuvant chemotherapy. RESULTS: The 5-year disease free survival rate for patients age | or =65 years (Group A) was 70% compared with 56% for patients age | 65 years (Group B) (P = 0.085). The 5-year overall survival rate for patients in Group B was 77% compared with 62% for the patients in Group A (P = 0.143). In a Cox regression model, age was not a predictor of disease free
Among the total 1,036 breast cancer cases, 190 (18.3%) were cases of TNBC. NCCN guidelines and the St. Gallen consensus conference recommend adjuvant chemotherapy for TNBC [26], although a specific regimen for such adjuvant treatment has yet to be presented. In the 190 TNBC cases of the present study, patients undergoing surgery plus adjuvant therapy had a more favorable prognosis than those receiving surgery alone, only among those with Stage II disease, suggesting that adjuvant therapy is indeed useful for TNBC patients as the NCCN recommends, and is most relevant at Stage II. In the adjuvant therapy group, both univariate and multivariate analysis showed no significant difference in prognosis between the anthracyclin-based regimen and 5FU-based regimen, although patients with the former regimen showed a trend-level improvement in prognosis over those with the latter. Larger studies might be necessary to clarify the prognoses of anthracyclin-based regimen and 5FU-based regimen.. Since reliable ...
Chemotherapy (+/- Radiation). Within 10 weeks after surgery, patients receive at least 3 courses of an adjuvant chemotherapy regimen as determined by the investigator. Patients may receive radiotherapy within 6 months after surgery and after the completion of chemotherapy OR integrated with chemotherapy.. chemotherapy: Given within 10 weeks after surgery.. ...
Objectives: The 21-Gene Recurrence Score (RS) assay helps guide adjuvant chemotherapy use for patients with breast cancer, and is predicted to reduce overall chemotherapy use. Little is known about recent patterns of testing in the Medicare program and the impact of testing on chemotherapy use as a function of patient age. Materials and Methods: We conducted a national claims-based study of Medicare beneficiaries age ≥66 years. We assessed trends in assay use (using multivariable regression), adjuvant chemotherapy use, and associated expenditures, for all patients and for two age strata: age 66-74 years and 75-94 years. Geographic variations in assay adoption and regional-level correlation between assay and chemotherapy use were measured. Results: We identified 132,222 women who underwent breast surgery from 2008-2011. Assay use increased from 9.0% to 17.2% from 2008-2011 (p|.001), but chemotherapy use remained stable at 12.5% (p=.49). In younger patients, assay use increased from 14.3% to 23.7% (p|
Background: The potential benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with Stage IA triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) has not been defined. In general, patients with T1a and T1b lesions have not been included in adjuvant chemotherapy trials and the inclusion of T1c tumors has been limited. In this study using National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) we investigated the actual use of adjuvant chemotherapy in Stage IA TNBC patients relative to tumor size (T1a, T1b, T1c) and report their survival outcomes.. Patients and Methods: Using NCDB we evaluated a cohort of 13,065 women with TNBC diagnosed between 2010-2012 who had American Joint Committee on Cancer Stage IA (node-negative with pathological T1a, T1b or T1c) tumors. Overall survival (OS) was the primary outcome variable. Based on the tumor size, patients were stratified on receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy or not. Patients were also stratified according to receipt of adjuvant radiation, radiation with boost, or none. Other adjusted variables ...
A prospective validation study of a 21-gene expression assay showed that treatment with endocrine therapy alone in women with hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer who had a low recurrence risk score resulted in low risk of recurrence. All patients included in the study were eligible for adjuvant chemotherapy on the basis of current guidelines, as reported in The New England Journal of Medicine by Joseph A. Sparano, MD, of Montefiore Medical Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, and colleagues.1. Study Details. Between April 2006 and October 2010, the trial enrolled 10,253 women with hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative, axillary node-negative breast cancer with tumors of 1.1 to 5.0 cm in the greatest dimension (or 0.6-1.0 cm in the greatest dimension and intermediate or high tumor grade) who met established guidelines for receiving adjuvant chemotherapy.. A 21-gene reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay was performed on ...
Background: Adjuvant therapy for resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma was given a category 1 NCCN recommendation in 2000, yet many patients do not receive chemotherapy after definitive surgery. Whether sociodemographic disparities exist for receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy is poorly understood. Methods: The National Cancer Database was used to identify patients diagnosed with nonmetastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma who underwent definitive surgery from 2004 through 2015. Multivariable logistic regression defined the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and associated 95% CI of receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy. Among patients receiving chemotherapy, multivariable logistic regression assessed the odds of treatment with multiagent chemotherapy. Results: Among 18,463 patients, 11,288 (61.1%) received any adjuvant chemotherapy. Sociodemographic factors inversely associated with receipt of any adjuvant chemotherapy included uninsured status (aOR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.50-0.74), Medicaid insurance (aOR, 0.66; 95% CI, ...
The expression of p-glycoprotein (p-gp) was evaluated in pre- and post-chemotherapy states after the administration of adriamycin-based chemotherapy in 24 gastric cancer patients. Among them, group A was composed of twelve patients who relapsed after surgery plus adjuvant chemotherapy and group B wa...
Timing and patterns of recurrences and deaths from prostate cancer following adjuvant pelvic radiotherapy for pathologic stage T3/4 adenocarcinoma of the prostate.
... ,Patients: 5.10 underwent total resection and left breast sentinel, pathology showed 3 infiltrating ductal carcinoma, tumor diameter 1.5cm, n
Although there has been some progress in chemotherapy for metastatic gastric cancer, no standard regimen of adjuvant chemotherapy is available, and many
Based on the results of 3 adjuvant trials (MOSAIC,20 NSABP-C-07,21 and XELOXA22), oxaliplatin-based combinational chemotherapy is considered the standard of care for patients with stage III colon cancer, offering a 4% overall survival (OS) benefit over 5FU/LV at 6 years. However, the additional benefit of oxaliplatin in older patients appears to be attenuated. Subset analyses of MOSAIC and NSABP C-07 trials showed no significant benefit in OS with the addition of oxaliplatin in patients age 70 or older (MOSAIC mortality hazard ratio [HR] = 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.73-1.65; for NSABP-C-07, HR = 1.32; 95% CI, 1.03-1.70).20,21 In contrast, a subgroup analysis of XELOXA, a study that evaluated the use of oral capecitabine in combination with oxaliplatin versus bolus 5FU/LV, the benefits of disease-free survival (DFS) were maintained regardless of age, but no significant OS benefit was shown.22 In an analysis using the ACCENT23 database of 2575 patients age ≥70 years using ...
Similarly claims that chemotherapy have produced increased percentage 5-year survival for other cancers, such as cancer of the large bowel1, could be attributed to poor methodology because none of these cancers exhibited a divergence between incidence and mortality rate curves over time5.. Ulrich Abel reviewed the evidence for the efficacy of chemotherapy for invasive epithelial cancer6, the types of cancer for which chemotherapy is most commonly used. He concluded that there was some evidence from randomised trials that chemotherapy increased survival only for small-cell lung cancer. Yet even here the gain in survival was measured in weeks or months.. Adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer It is widely claimed that adjuvant chemotherapy extends survival with late-stage breast cancer. For example, in a letter in the Sydney Morning Herald of 22 November 1996 Professor Allan Langlands claimed that the results of a meta-analysis of more than 100 trials of adjuvant systemic therapy in many ...
Sometimes a treatment may be started at a lower dose or the dose needs to be changed during treatment. There may also be times when your treatment is delayed. This can happen if your doctor thinks you are likely to have severe side effects, if you get severe side effects, if your blood counts are affected and causing delays in treatment, or if you are finding it hard to cope with the treatment. This is called a dose reduction, dose change or treatment delay. Your doctor will explain if you need any changes or delays to your treatment and the reason why. ...
BACKGROUND: We compared docetaxel plus doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (TAC) with fluorouracil plus doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (FAC) as adjuvant chemotherapy for operable node-positive breast cancer. METHODS: We randomly assigned 1491 women with axillary node-positive breast cancer to six cycles of treatment with either TAC or FAC as adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery. The primary end point was disease-free survival. RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 55 months, the estimated rates of disease-free survival at five years were 75 percent among the 745 patients randomly assigned to receive TAC and 68 percent among the 746 randomly assigned to receive FAC, representing a 28 percent reduction in the risk of relapse (P=0 ...
Abraham, Jean E., Hiller, Louise, Dorling, Leila, Vallier, Anne-Laure, Dunn, Janet A., Bowden, Sarah, Ingle, Susan, Jones, Linda, Hardy, Richard, Twelves, Christopher, Poole, Christopher J., Pharoah, Paul D. P., Caldas, Carlos and Earl, Helena M.. (2015) A nested cohort study of 6,248 early breast cancer patients treated in neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy trials investigating the prognostic value of chemotherapy-related toxicities. BMC Medicine, 13 (1). 306. ISSN 1741-7015 ...
ROCHESTER, Minnesota-Fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy after surgery can be given safely to selected elderly patients with stage II/III colon cancer, and these patients derive the same benefits from the treatment as do their younger counterparts, according to results of a pooled analysis of seven clinical trials. 1
TY - JOUR. T1 - Estimating regimen-specific costs of chemotherapy for breast cancer. T2 - Observational cohort study. AU - Giordano, Sharon H.. AU - Niu, Jiangong. AU - Chavez-MacGregor, Mariana. AU - Zhao, Hui. AU - Zorzi, Daria. AU - Shih, Ya Chen Tina. AU - Smith, Benjamin D.. AU - Shen, Chan. PY - 2016/11/15. Y1 - 2016/11/15. N2 - BACKGROUND: One goal for high-quality patient care is communicating treatment costs to patients, yet cost information can be elusive. This is especially relevant for breast cancer care, for which numerous guideline-concordant adjuvant chemotherapy regimens exist. The objective of the current study was to generate cost estimates for such regimens from payers and patients perspectives in a large, insured US population. METHODS: Adult women who had incident breast cancer diagnosed between 2008 and 2012 (from the MarketScan database), had no secondary malignancy within 1 year of diagnosis, and received chemotherapy within 3 months of diagnosis were included (n = ...
Chemotherapy involves using anti-cancer (cytotoxic) drugs to kill the cancer cells. Chemotherapy is usually used after surgery to destroy any cancer cells that have not been removed. This is called adjuvant chemotherapy. In some cases, you may have chemotherapy before surgery, which is generally used to shrink a large tumour. This is called neo-adjuvant chemotherapy.. Several different drugs are used for chemotherapy and often three are given at once. The choice of drugs and the combination depends on the type of breast cancer and how much it has spread.. Chemotherapy is usually given as an outpatient treatment, which means you will not have to stay in hospital overnight. The drugs are usually given through a drip straight into the blood through a vein. In some cases, you may be given tablets that you can take at home. You may receive chemotherapy sessions once every two to three weeks, over a period of four to eight months, to give your body a rest in between treatments.. The main side effects ...
Chemotherapy involves using anti-cancer (cytotoxic) drugs to kill the cancer cells. Chemotherapy is usually used after surgery to destroy any cancer cells that have not been removed. This is called adjuvant chemotherapy. In some cases, you may have chemotherapy before surgery, which is generally used to shrink a large tumour. This is called neo-adjuvant chemotherapy.. Several different drugs are used for chemotherapy and often three are given at once. The choice of drugs and the combination depends on the type of breast cancer and how much it has spread.. Chemotherapy is usually given as an outpatient treatment, which means you will not have to stay in hospital overnight. The drugs are usually given through a drip straight into the blood through a vein. In some cases, you may be given tablets that you can take at home. You may receive chemotherapy sessions once every two to three weeks, over a period of four to eight months, to give your body a rest in between treatments.. The main side effects ...
目的:分析胃癌根治术后辅助治疗的疗效和副作用。方法:2005年1月至2012年9月在本院接受综合治疗的患者,男性94例,女性62例,平均年龄58.2岁(23~84岁,中位58岁)。所有病例均为手术病理证实为胃癌,按AJCC分期第7版标准,IA期7例,IB期7例,IIA期6例,IIB期19例,IIIA25例,IIIB期34例,IIIC期44例,IV期12例,不详2例。156例均采用根治性切除。12例术后未行任何化疗,142例术后接受各种方案的化疗,其中64例采用多西紫杉醇 + 铂类 + 氟尿嘧啶类(DCF)或表阿霉素 + 铂类 + 氟尿嘧啶类(ECF)三药方案,66例采用铂类 + 氟尿嘧啶类两药方案,9例采用口服替吉奥或卡培他滨单药化疗,1例仅采用铂类 + 氟尿嘧啶类腹腔灌注,2例化疗方案不详。有28例接受术后放疗。结果:中位随访36.5月。3年总生存率为53.5%,3年局部控制率为82.0%,3年无远处转移率53.8%。单因素分析显示T分期(T1-3或T4)
This study assessed the efficacy of adjuvant capecitabine in patients with liver cancer also receiving routine supportive care. The primary measure of interest
Even if the cancer is advanced and it is not possible to remove it, some surgical techniques may still have a place to ease symptoms. For example, a blockage may be eased by using laser surgery, by inserting a rigid stent (tube), or by stretching the oesophagus (dilatation), which allows food and drink to pass through the blockage to the stomach.. Chemotherapy. Chemotherapy is a treatment of cancer by using anti-cancer medicines which kill cancer cells, or stop them from multiplying. Following surgery you may be given a course of chemotherapy. This aims to kill any cancer cells which may have spread away from the primary tumour. When chemotherapy is used after surgery it is called adjuvant chemotherapy. In some cases chemotherapy is given before surgery, to shrink a large tumour so that surgery is more likely to be successful. This is called neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Radiotherapy. Radiotherapy is a treatment which uses high-energy beams of radiation which are focused on cancerous tissue. This ...
1)To determine whether the addition of erlotinib to gemcitabine adjuvant chemotherapy improves survival as compared to gemcitabine alone following R0 or R1 resection of head of pacreas adenocarcionoma (including adenocarcinoma of the head, neck, and uncinate process ...
Adjuvant therapy begins after surgical removal of the tumour. You will decide with your oncologist on adjuvant treatment such as chemotherapy or radiation.
Cancer Therapy Advisor provides obsteticians and gynecologists with the latest information to correctly diagnose obgyn conditions, recommend procedures and guides. Visit often for updates and new information.
What is primary chemotherapy, me-adjuvant chemotherapy, and adjuvant chemotherapy? Primary chemotherapy refers to chemotherapy administered as the prim
A trial to determine the value of trastuzumab plus standard adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with low levels of HER2 protein has shown no significant efficacy, confounding investigators who launched the trial based on opposing results from 2 earlier studies.
The BCIRG 001 study was a pivotal trial showing the benefit of incorporating a taxane into adjuvant breast cancer polychemotherapy (10). However, the substitution of docetaxel for fluorouracil increased toxicities, and not all patients remained disease free. Consequently, it was our objective to determine which patients are most likely to benefit from adjuvant therapy with docetaxel. The identification of such molecular predictive factors is, however, complex because most markers correlated with outcome most frequently are prognostic rather than predictive (i.e., related to prognosis only in the setting of treatment with a specific intervention; refs. 11, 21), and the mechanistic determinants of docetaxel response are poorly understood. Evaluation within the context of a randomized trial, such as BCIRG 001, is required to distinguish between the prognostic and the predictive value of a given biomarker.. In this immunohistochemical study, Ki-67 protein was found to be independently associated ...
Adjuvant therapy in the past 10 years has gone from experimental to clinical practice for women who are premenopausal. For the postmenopausal and the elderly patient the treatment for some is still...
Big improvements in overall survival were achieved by combining radiation with adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with pancreas cancer in a dtudy reported to the conference in Orlando. Charles Hsu told Peter Goodwin ...
Anthracycline-based chemotherapies are effective and are widely used as the main postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with early-stage breast cancer (1-3). However, those treatments are accompanied by a high incidence of nausea and vomiting (4,5), severely compromising the patients QOL. The use of 5HT3 receptor antagonists has become commonplace in recent years, enabling a certain level of control of these symptoms. However, fatigue and decreased physical QOL remain challenging issues in breast cancer patients receiving postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy, and methods for alleviating these symptoms are needed (9). In our earlier single-group open study, in which LEM was coadministered to breast cancer patients who were treated with the FEC75 regimen, the QOL-ACD (24) was used to evaluate the effect of LEM on the patients QOL. The results indicated that coadministration of LEM was effective in improving the patients physical scale in response to the FEC75 regimen. LEM is a BRM ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Completion of therapy by medicare patients with stage III colon cancer. AU - Dobie, Sharon A.. AU - Baldwin, Laura Mae. AU - Dominitz, Jason A.. AU - Matthews, Barbara. AU - Billingsley, Kevin. AU - Barlow, William. PY - 2006/5/3. Y1 - 2006/5/3. N2 - Background: Certain factors, such as race or age, are known to be associated with variation in initiation of adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer, but little is known about what factors are associated with completion of adjuvant therapy. To determine whether predictors of initiation also predict completion, we analyzed Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program data linked to Medicare claims. We investigated mortality as a means to testing the validity of the completion measure that we created. Methods: We studied 3193 stage III colon cancer patients whose diagnosis was recorded in 1992-1996 SEER program data linked to 1991-1998 Medicare claims and who initiated adjuvant chemotherapy after colon cancer ...
The multiinstitutional osteosarcoma study (MIOS), a randomized trial of adjuvant therapy for osteosarcoma with a concurrent control group, registered 113 patients from June 1982 to August 1984. Preliminary analysis of the study indicated a significant event-free survival advantage favoring immediate adjuvant chemotherapy, (P less than .001). For patients treated with surgery alone or with surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy, the lungs were involved in more than 80% of the relapses. Patients relapsing after surgery alone tended to relapse earlier (P less than .01), had more pulmonary nodules (P less than .01), and had more frequent bilateral pulmonary involvement (P less than .01) than those treated with immediate postsurgical adjuvant chemotherapy. However, patients relapsing after treatment with surgery alone experienced a significantly longer interval to further disease progression (P less than .01) and improved survival after relapse (P = .01) when compared with patients who relapsed after ...
The standard of care for resected stage II - IIIA non-small-cell lung cancer includes adjuvant chemotherapy based on the results of randomized trials using cisplatin regimens. A recent meta-analysis (Lung Adjuvant Cisplatin Evaluation) showed no surv
PURPOSE: To assess the effect of more extensive radiotherapy and of adjuvant combination chemotherapy on long-term outcome of early-stage Hodgkins disease. METHODS: In a collaborative worldwide systematic overview, individual patient data were centrally reviewed on 1,974 patients in eight randomized trials of more versus less extensive radiotherapy and on 1,688 patients in 13 trials of radiotherapy plus chemotherapy versus radiotherapy alone. Crude mortality data on 226 patients in two other trials of chemotherapy were also reviewed. RESULTS: More extensive radiotherapy reduced the risk of treatment failure (resistant or recurrent disease) at 10 years by more than one third (31.3% v 43.4% failures; P | .00001), but there was no apparent improvement in overall 10-year survival (77.1 % v 77.0% alive). The addition of chemotherapy to radiotherapy halved the 10-year risk of failure (15.8% v 32.7%; P | .00001), with a small, nonsignificant improvement in survival (79.4% v 76.5% alive). This involved a
In this prospective study, we showed that MMR status in colorectal cancer may predict adjuvant chemotherapy response. Thus while in general, patients with stage II or III disease who received 5-FU based adjuvant chemotherapy had a better overall survival and disease free survival, this benefit was found only in patients with MMR competent tumours. Patients with MMR deficient tumours did not have a better survival or disease free survival when they received 5-FU adjuvant chemotherapy. The results remained unchanged when we stratified according to TNM stage. Conversely, when we analysed the efficacy of treatment received according to MMR status, we found that patients with MMR deficient tumours who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy had a slightly better survival and disease free survival than patients with MMR competent tumours, even though the analysis failed to reach statistical significance.. Several studies have evaluated the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy according to MMR status of ...
All information about the latest scientific publications of the Clínica Universidad de Navarra. GSTP1 and MTHFR polymorphisms are related with toxicity in breast cancer adjuvant anthracycline-based treatment
Among patients with Stage II or Stage III colon cancer, the Oncotype DX colon cancer test provides information about risk of cancer recurrence and may help guide treatment decisions. These results were presented at the 2012 Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology.. Gene expression profiling explores the patterns of genes that are active in tumor cells. Studies suggest that gene expression may provide important information about prognosis or likely response to treatment in several types of cancer. For example, among women with early-stage, estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, the Oncotype DX breast cancer test has been shown to predict the likelihood of cancer recurrence and the likelihood of benefit from chemotherapy. As a result, the test has been added to medical guidelines for early-stage breast cancer.. A similar test became available for colon cancer patients in 2010. The test was originally developed for use in patients with Stage II colon cancer, but has now also ...
Of 3658 patients included, 1813 (49.6%) had lymph nodes removed. Relative survival of patients with lymph node dissection (including those with lymph node metastases) was significantly better than that of patients without, also after correcting for stage, tumour grade, histology and age (89% and 82%, respectively; relative excess risk [RER], 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.52-0.78). There was a positive correlation between the number of removed lymph nodes and overall survival (after excluding patients with lymph node metastases). Of patients with stage I-IIA EOC who had ≥10 lymph nodes removed, there was no difference in relative survival between those who received chemotherapy and those who did not (RER, 0.51; 95% CI: 0.15-1.64). This was also true for a subgroup of patients with high-risk features (stage IC and IIA and/or tumour grade 3 and/or clear cell histology [RER, 0.90; 95% CI: 0.46-1.99 ...
The International Duration Evaluation of Adjuvant chemotherapy (IDEA) collaboration found evidence to support the noninferiority of 3 versus 6 months oxaliplatin-based adjuvant therapy for capecitabine plus oxaliplatin for patients with stage III colon cancer.
Introduction: Endometrial cancer patients with high grade tumours, deep myometrial invasion or advanced stage disease have a poor prognosis. Randomised studies have demonstrated the prevention of loco-regional relapses with radiotherapy (RT) with no effect on overall survival (OS). The possible additive effect of chemotherapy (CT) remains unclear. Two randomised clinical trials (NSGO-EC-9501/EORTC-55991 and MaNGO ILIADE-III) were undertaken to clarify if sequential combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy improves progression-free survival (PFS) in high-risk endometrial cancer. The two studies were pooled. Methods: Patients (n = 540; 534 evaluable) with operated endometrial cancer International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (FIGO) stage I-III with no residual tumour andprognostic factors implying high-risk were randomly allocated to adjuvant radiotherapy with or without sequential chemotherapy. Results: In the NSGO/EORTC study, the combined modality treatment was associated with ...
In this pharmacogenetic study, there were significant associations between a common genetic polymorphism in GSTP1 and acute hematologic toxicity but no associations with DFS. Selected polymorphisms in 3 other key genes involved in CP metabolism (CYP2B6 , CYP3A4 , and GSTA1 ) were not associated with hematologic toxicity or DFS following adjuvant therapy. Because CSFs for neutropenia prophylaxis are now commonly used in patients receiving breast cancer adjuvant chemotherapy, our findings of significant associations between the GSTP1 polymorphism and hematologic toxicity suggest that a subgroup of women may be at low risk. Thus, CSF support may not be necessary when considering the cost and potential side effects from growth factors, including bone pain and decreased bone mineral density. However, further confirmation in other data sets using archived specimens, or in a prospective trial, from patients who received CP without CSF support is required before such a strategy would be ...
Management of oesophageal cancer is associated with poor outcomes and it has become apparent that surgery alone is not sufficient to effect genuine long term survival. In the UK, it is standard practice to treat oesophageal adenocarcinoma with neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (no radiation) and surgery. One problem with this approach is the issue of those patients who do not respond. The aim of this study was to investigate biomarkers which might predict response to chemotherapy. Methods A retrospective audit was carried out on post-operative outcome after oesophagectomy from 2000 to 2006 and results compared with those from previous similar audits. Patients who received neo-adjuvant chemotherapy were identified and pre-treatment oesophageal biopsies were obtained. Immunohistochemistry was used to analyse expression ofthymidylate synthase, excision cross-complementation group 1, vascular endothelial growth factor, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 and carbonic anhydrase IX. Expression was compared with ...
Colorectal adenocarcinoma is a major cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality in Belgium and in other western countries. Prevention implies a modification of alimentation and maybe a chronic uptake of acetylsalicylic acid. Treatment of colorectal cancers is based on surgery and the prognosis is determined by the locoregional or metastatic tumor spread. Complete resection of any Astler Coller stage C colorectal malignant tumor has to be followed by a 5-fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy. In these protocols, 5-fluorouracil is administered together with folinic acid or levamisole. The administration of an adjuvant chemotherapy could also be considered for stage BII diseases. As rectal cancers are characterized by high local relapse rates, their treatment should associate radiotherapy, given either post-surgery or preferentially pre-surgery, with resection and chemotherapy. Appropriate treatment of colorectal cancers thus requires a concerted multidisciplinary approach.
Aim: Some retrospective studies have shown a lack of benefit of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with mismatch repair (MMR) deficient colorectal cancer. Our aim was to assess if this molecular marker can predict benefit from 5-FU adjuvant chemotherapy. A second objective was to determine if MMR status influences short term survival.. Methods: We included 754 patients with a median follow up of 728.5 days (range 1-1097). A total of 260 patients with stage II or III tumours received 5-FU adjuvant chemotherapy, according to standard clinical criteria and irrespective of their MMR status. A tumour was considered MMR deficient when either BAT-26 showed instability or there was loss of MLH1 or MSH2 protein expression.. Results: At the end of the follow up period, 206 patients died and 120 presented with tumour recurrence. Sixty six (8.8%) patients had MMR deficient tumours. There were no significant differences in overall survival (MMR competent 72.1%; MMR deficient 78.8%; p = ...
Adjuvant therapy, also known as adjunct therapy, add-on therapy, and adjuvant care, is therapy that is given in addition to the primary or initial therapy to maximize its effectiveness. The surgeries and complex treatment regimens used in cancer therapy have led the term to be used mainly to describe adjuvant cancer treatments. An example of such adjuvant therapy is the additional treatment usually given after surgery where all detectable disease has been removed, but where there remains a statistical risk of relapse due to the presence of undetected disease. If known disease is left behind following surgery, then further treatment is not technically adjuvant. An adjuvant agent modifies the effect of another agent, so adjuvant therapy modifies other therapy. Neoadjuvant therapy, in contrast to adjuvant therapy, is given before the main treatment. For example, systemic therapy for breast cancer that is given before removal of a breast is considered neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The most common reason ...
PURPOSE: Oncotype DX, a gene expression assay widely employed to aid decision making on adjuvant chemotherapy use in patients with primary oestrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer, produces a recurrence score (RS) related to distant disease recurrence (DR) risk (RS%). In node-negative patients, RS can be integrated with clinicopathological parameters to derive RS-pathology-clinical (RSPC) that improves prognostic accuracy. METHODS: Data were collected on patients having clinically indicated tests with an intermediate clinical risk of distant recurrence, and for whom the decision to prescribe chemotherapy remained unclear. Correlation between RS% and RSPC scores was examined. An agreement table was constructed using risk-categorised data. Association between RS%-derived categorical risk assignments and treatment recommendation was evaluated. RESULTS: Data on 171 tests (168 patients) were available. Median DR risk by RS% was 11% (range 3-34%), by RSPC it was 15% (range 4-63%). Correlation ...
Patients with mental disorders were less likely to be aware of their own breast cancer; the lesions were often found by other people such as family, care staff, and medical staff. Breast cancer patients with mental disorders had significantly more advanced T factors and overall stage at the time of surgery than their counterparts without mental illness, more patients underwent total mastectomy, and fewer patients underwent postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation. Biological markers such as estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression were not significantly different between groups. Disease-free survival and overall survival were not significantly different between groups.. CONCLUSION ...
Adjuvant nivolumab is superior to standard of care ipilimumab in patients with surgically resected stage III/IV melanoma who are at high risk of relapse, according to late-breaking results from the CheckMate 238 trial presented ...
Detailed description of various breast cancer treatments is given. An operation to remove the cancer but not the breast itself, includes the various surgical methods. A complete description breast cancer chemotherapy treatment also given.
Another rationale for neoadjuvant systemic therapy is that this allows for the immediate treatment of micrometastases; however, this has not been associated with an increase in survival in most trials to date (Figs. 85-1B and 85-1C). In contrast, a major advantage is that tumor response to chemotherapy is a strong predictor of outcome. Thus neoadjuvant systemic therapy can be used as an in vivo assay of systemic therapy efficacy. This, in theory, can allow for testing of new therapy regimens in the neoadjuvant setting, allowing for shorter and smaller trials to be conducted using chemotherapy response as the primary end point. In addition, the neoadjuvant setting allows the opportunity to identify biomarkers that can predict response as well as identify pharmacodynamic markers of response, that is to say, markers that can change within the primary tumor with the administration of chemotherapy, which can be an early molecular signal of therapy activity. Although the standard of care at this point ...
Chemotherapy is a systemic method of cancer treatment, in contrast with local therapies such as surgery and radiation therapy. The drugs used in chemotherapy are able to reach most parts of the body. Therefore, chemotherapy is likely to be recommended for cancer that has already spread to other areas of the body, for tumors that occur at more than one site, or for tumors that cannot be removed surgically. It is also used when a patient has recurrent disease after initial treatment with surgery or radiation therapy.. Chemotherapy is less mutilating than surgery and helps conserve organ or limb function since anti-cancer drugs are used to act on cancer cells without direct removal of a body part.. For some cancers, chemotherapy alone can destroy all the cancer cells and cure the cancer (primary treatment). As an adjuvant treatment, chemotherapy is given prior to, or after other methods, to increase the effectiveness of cancer treatment. Most often, adjuvant chemotherapy is given after other ...
Inclusion Criteria:. Histologically confirmed solid tumor malignancy for which platinum-based chemotherapy on a 21-day cycle or 14 day cycle is being recommended. Stage I of the trial: newly diagnosed disease for which neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy is planned in the curative setting, or metastatic disease. Stage II of the trial: evaluable disease by Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) criteria must be present for all subjects in the randomized component of the trial- if surgery or radiation is planned, the target lesions may not be so treated until after the assessment of the effect of chemotherapy. Stage I: subjects may have already received no more than 2 cycle of their platinum-based chemotherapy but should not have received other prior chemotherapy regimens with the exception of patients with metastatic disease who received neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy and that chemotherapy was completed , 6 months prior to enrollment. Stage II: subjects must have received no ...
Introduction. Gene amplification of HER2 occurs in approximately 15% to 25% of breast cancers, resulting in overexpression of HER2 on the cell surface. Before the advent of trastuzumab (Herceptin; H), HER2 amplification was associated with a more aggressive disease course and poorer overall survival.1,2 Prognosis for patients with HER2-positive disease, defined by strong overexpression (3+) of HER2 by immunohistochemistry, or by a HER2 to chromosome 17 copy number ratio of ,2 by fluorescence in situ hybridization, dramatically improved with the advent of HER2-targeted therapy.3 Trastuzumab was approved by the FDA in 1998 in combination with chemotherapy for metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer based on an improvement in overall survival (OS) compared with, chemotherapy alone, and approved in 2006 for use in the adjuvant setting after joint analysis of interim results of National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) B31 and North Central Cancer Treatment Group (NCCTG) 9831 ...
Jay, welcome to our forum; however it would be nicer to meet you under a different set of circumstances. Is your father being treated at a top notch cancer facility by a top notch doctor for colon cancer? This is so very important. Are they going to two prong or three prong the chemo? This means utilizing two or three different types of chemo on a low dosage level. Different chemos work better for certain cancer cells and it is wise to be getting more than one chemo so that no time is wasted on treatment. How old is your father? Has he had surgery? Believe me HOPE is very important to have; so maintain the hope and let me know how things are going. Warmly, lillian We invite you to take a look at our Album. www.angelfire.com/sc/molangels/index.html ( Very informational, good tips, Molers pictures, art work and much more.... ----- Original Message ----- From: ,[email protected], To: ,[email protected], Sent: Monday, December 25, 2000 9:54 PM Subject: Re: [MOL] chemotherapy for Stage III colon ...
mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:""""""""}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output ...
More than 20% of patients with resected stage II colon cancer and 50% of patients with resected stage III colon cancer will develop recurrence. To identify markers for recurrence and to find potentially new targets for treatment, mutations were profiled in tumors from NSABP clinical trial C‐07. TypePLEX chemistry and the Mass Array system from Sequenom (SanDiego CA) were used to profile 238 common, hot‐spot, cancer mutations in 19 genes in 239 colon cancer samples utilizing the OncoCarta panel. Mutations were detected in 7 different genes (ABL1, AKT1, BRAF, KRAS, MET, NRAS and PIK3CA) at 26 different nucleotide positions. Twenty‐four assays which detected mutations in more than 1% of the samples were reconfigured into a new multiplexed panel, termed here as ColoCarta, and used to repeat the profiling of 24 mutant samples. These profiles were identical to those found with OncoCarta, demonstrating reproducibility. The method was also sensitive, requiring as little as 1ng of input DNA. In ...
Background: There is an ongoing debate about the value of (neo-)adjuvant chemotherapy in high- and intermediate-grade osteosarcoma of the head and neck. Methods: All records of patients older than 16 years diagnosed with osteosarcoma of the head and neck in the Netherlands between 1993 and 2013 were reviewed. Results: We ... read more identified a total of 77 patients with an osteosarcoma of the head and neck; the 5-year overall survival (OS) was 55%. In 50 patients with surgically resected high- or intermediate-grade osteosarcoma of the head and neck younger than 75 years, univariate and multivariable analysis, adjusting for age and resection margins, showed that patients who had not received chemotherapy had a significantly higher risk of local recurrence (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.78 and 3.66, respectively). Conclusion: In patients younger than 75 years of age with surgically resected high- and intermediate-grade osteosarcoma of the head and neck, treatment with (neo-)adjuvant chemotherapy ...
From July 2003 to April 2011, 302 pts were randomized and 299 (152 CMF, 147 wD) were evaluable. Median age was 71. Hypertension (62%), arthropathy (34%) osteoporosis (17%) and controlled diabetes (16%) were the most frequent comorbidities. At baseline: pT1 44%, pN0 37%, G3 64%, ER+ 75%, HER2+ 19%. After 5.5 years median follow-up, with a plateau of DFS after 108 events (50 with CMF and 58 with wD), the Independent Data Monitoring Committee recommended to anticipate final analysis. HR of DFS for wD vs CMF was 1.20 (95% CI: 0.82-1.75, p = 0.35); HR of death was 1.23 (95% CI: 0.73-2.07, p = 0.42); outcome is similar at multivariable analysis, also including ADL, IADL and Charlson scores. QoL was significantly worse with wD for emesis, appetite loss, diarrhoea, body image, future perspective, side effects and hair loss items. Hematologic toxicity, mucositis and nausea were significantly worse with CMF, while allergy, fatigue, hair loss, onicopathy, dysgeusia, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, neuropathy, ...
There is no consensus of opinion about postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy after radical surgery for advanced gastric cancer. Dr Sun and colleagues performed a meta-analysis of the published results of relevant randomized clinical trials.. The team searched electronic databases from 1998 to 2007, and 12 randomized clinical trials were selected. These included a total of 3809 patients. The hazard ratio for overall survival was calculated.. The researchers found that the pooled hazard ratio for overall survival was 0.8 in favor of chemotherapy. ...
Hendrik-Tobias Arkenau, MD, PhD of the Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Nashvile, TN, talks about one of the highlights from the gastrointestinal cancer session the ASCO 2017 meeting. The study, called the BILCAP study (ISRCTN72785446), looked at the whether patients with gallbladder colloidal carcinoma need to receive adjuvant chemotherapy or just supportive care, after their tumor is resected. This large phase III randomized study compared supportive care against capecitabine. This was the first large study to show that adjuvant chemotherapy leads to a better overall survival, with capecitabine resulting in a 15 months better overall survival compared to supportive care. Recorded at the American Society of Oncology (ASCO) 2017 Annual Meeting held in Chicago, IL
Roche (SIX: RO, ROG; OTCQX: RHHBY), the Breast International Group (BIG), Breast European Adjuvant Study Team (BrEAST) and Frontier Science Foundation (FS) today announced positive results from the phase III APHINITY study. The study met its primary endpoint and showed that adjuvant (after surgery) treatment with the combination of Perjeta® (pertuzumab), Herceptin® (trastuzumab) and chemotherapy (the Perjeta-based regimen) achieved a statistically significant reduction in the risk of recurrence of invasive disease or death (invasive disease-free survival; iDFS) in people with HER2-positive early breast cancer (eBC) compared to Herceptin and chemotherapy alone. The safety profile of the Perjeta-based regimen was consistent with that seen in previous studies1, and no new safety signals were identified. Full results from the APHINITY trial will be presented at an upcoming medical meeting in 2017.. "These results from the positive APHINITY study represent an important addition to the body of data ...
These features are known to independently affect outcomes in patients with cancer; in fact, the study did show that response to treatment varied by subtype, noted Dr. Tabernero.. Follow-up of the patients at 10 years revealed that subtype C had the worst outcome of the three and did not benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. Subtype A had a good prognosis regardless of whether chemotherapy was given. Subtype B had a significantly better outcome with chemotherapy, versus no chemotherapy.. "In subtype B the effect of chemotherapy is pronounced. To the contrary, type C patients who got adjuvant chemotherapy did not benefit from it," reported Dr. Tabernero.. "We have developed a diagnostic single-sample predictor that allows the classification of colorectal cancer tumors of different intrinsic molecular subtypes. These subtypes are potentially clinically relevant, as they differ in their underlying biology and clinical outcomes and consequently require different treatment strategies," he ...
In the population of 129 patients, the only significant correlation between age and clinical-pathological features is between advanced age (,80yr) and tumor location in the right colon (53.7%, p=0.04).. Risk of relapse is related both to depth of tumor invasion (42.9% in stage T4, 6.3% in stage T1, p=0.01) and advanced age (19.5% in ,80yr, 4% in ,65yr).. Overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS) are significantly lower in patients aged over 80 than the other two classes. This significance is maintained by stratifying the 129 patients in the two age classes (,70, ,70).. In the multivariate analysis age , 80yr is significantly correlated with an increased risk of relapse.. Evaluating the control group no significant correlation between relapse and clinical-pathological features was detected.. In the multivariate analysis in stage II population, advanced age doesnt play any significant prognostic role in the risk of recurrence, while a reduction in DFS is related to depth of tumor ...
The prospect of cutting breast cancer mortality in half throughout the world is held out by Richard Peto of the Early Breast Cancer Trialists Collaborative Group (EBCTCG). He talks with Peter Goodwin following the groups most recent publication in The Lancet ...
Chemotherapy is the use of anticancer drugs to treat cancer cells. Chemotherapy has been used for many years and is one of the most common treatments for cancer. In most cases, chemotherapy works by interfering with the cancer cells ability to grow or reproduce. Different groups of drugs work in different ways to fight cancer cells. Chemotherapy may be used alone for some types of cancer or in combination with other treatments, such as radiation or surgery. Often, a combination of chemotherapy drugs is used to fight a specific cancer. Certain chemotherapy drugs may be given in a specific order depending on the type of cancer its being used to treat.. While chemotherapy can be quite effective in treating certain cancers, chemotherapy drugs reach all parts of the body, not just the cancer cells. Because of this, there may be many side effects during treatment. Being able to anticipate these side effects can help you and your child prepare and, in some cases, prevent these symptoms from ...
Disseminated tumor cells as selection marker and monitoring tool for secondary adjuvant treatment in early breast cancer. Descriptive results from an intervention study. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Does neoadjuvant chemotherapy affect morbidity, mortality, reoperations, or readmissions in patients undergoing lumpectomy or mastectomy for breast cancer?
The oncologist will also determine how long and how often you will have chemotherapy treatments. Chemotherapy can be given intravenously (in the vein or IV) or by pill, and usually a combination of drugs is used. Chemotherapy treatments are often given in cycles; a treatment for a period of time, followed by a recovery period, then another treatment. Chemotherapy may be given in a variety of settings including your home, a hospital outpatient facility, a doctors office or clinic, or in a hospital.. Chemotherapy can be given before surgery to shrink the tumor and sometimes make breast conserving surgery possible rather than a mastectomy. Many times it is given after surgery and may be given every three weeks or every two weeks in a "dose dense" fashion.. ...
Depending on the features of the colon cancer, 40-50% of patients are cured without evidence of cancer recurrence following treatment with surgery alone.
The program was tested in 242 adult cancer survivors with a primary malignancy (not associated with the central nervous system) who had been treated with at least 3 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy in the previous 6- to 60-month period. A complaint of persistent cognitive symptoms was a prerequisite for trial participation. While adjuvant endocrine treatments were permitted for patients with breast cancer, radiotherapy and targeted therapies had to be completed at least 3 months before participating in the study. Prior malignancy, diagnosis of an unstable psychiatric condition, and existing major cognitive disorder were grounds for exclusion ...
A recent journal from the National Cancer Institute shows patients with resected stage III colon cancer who consumed a high-insulinogenic diet were at increased risk of recurrence and mortality. These findings support the importance of dietary management following resection of colon cancer.
Background We have previously reported that TOP2A RNA expression was prognostic in patients with operable estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer treated with anthracycline containing adjuvant chemotherapy plus endocrine therapy in trial E2197, and provided complementary prognostic information in those who had a mid-range Recurrence Score (RS) (Sparano et al. Clin Cancer Res 2009; 15; 7693). The purpose of this analysis was to provide additional evidence regarding this observation.. Methods: We evaluated TOP2A RNA expression in 4 independent data sets individually and in a pooled analysis including all data. We also used an algorithm to simulate the Oncotype DX Recurrence Score (SimRS). The analysis included 752 patients with early stage breast cancer that was ER-positive, HER2−negative defined by gene expression. Results are expressed as the hazard ratio (HR) for estimates of the effect of a one standard deviation increase in the value of the log gene expression (x + 1SD vs. x) as a ...
1 Answer - Posted in: breast cancer - adjuvant, letrozole, withdrawal - Answer: Id hate to see you have to stop your medication. Have you tried the ...
RAND Europe conducted a study on the societal impact of early breast cancer. This study was divided into three interconnected phases. The first phase was a mapping review on the published literature on the impacts of treatment of early breast cancer.
Not all women with early-stage breast cancer need chemotherapy, a new study says. Whether they do need it can be determined by a genetic test. Read on for...
04/2018 Doc. MUDr. Petra Tesařová, CSc. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is able to convert unresectable breast tumors to resectable tumors and to provide more conservative surgery in some mastectomy candidates. Chemotherapy agents, including taxanes, which are recommended in the adjuvant setting, are…
The major aim of giving adjuvant therapy to cancer patients is to increase the chance of overall survival of such patient. Since the rationale behind adjuvant therapy is elimination of future risk, the accepted rule is that the patients were already cured via primary surgical treatment. Thus, such therapies given after an oncological surgery for different types of cancers such as that of lung, breast, colon, prostate, and various forms of gynecological cancers. Adjuvant therapy is often given after oncology surgery the treatment procedure of illnesses such as colon cancer, pancreatic cancer, gynecological cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, and prostate cancer. However, some forms of cancer such as renal carcinoma and some types of brain cancer have failed to benefit from such a therapy ...
Breast cancer is one of the most frequent malignancies among women in the U.S. and is the leading cause of death worldwide between the ages of 40 and 55 years (1, 2). This disease is controlled by surgery and radiotherapy, and is commonly supported by adjuvant chemotherapies or hormonotherapies (3). It is well established that the ovarian hormones, estrogen and progesterone, are essential for the growth and maintenance of the mammary ductal tissue (4). During postlactational regression of breasts, extensive apoptosis of ductal cells is required, whereas myoepithelial cells and basal lamina persist, and are reused during the resumption of extensive cell proliferation (5, 6). Likewise, breast tumor cells are also heavily dependent on estrogen and progesterone hormones for their maintenance and growth (4). Fortunately, very effective antagonists for these hormones exist, such as tamoxifen, which is widely used for the treatment of these tumor types usually subsequent to surgical resection (7). ...
Disease, Treatment, Cancer, Colorectal Cancer, Ppd, Biomarkers, Lymph, Lymph Node, Metastasis, Proteome, Adjuvant Chemotherapy, Chemotherapy, Liver, Liver Disease, Maintenance, Metastases, Methods, Patients, Portal Vein, Role
The prospect of exploiting mathematical and computational models to gain insight into the influence of scheduling on cancer chemotherapeutic effectiveness is increasingly being considered. However, the question of whether such models are robust to the inclusion of additional tumour biology is relatively unexplored. In this paper, we consider a common strategy for improving protocol scheduling that has foundations in mathematical modelling, namely the concept of dose densification, whereby rest phases between drug administrations are reduced. To maintain a manageable scope in our studies, we focus on a single cell cycle phase-specific agent with uncomplicated pharmacokinetics, as motivated by 5-Fluorouracil-based adjuvant treatments of liver micrometastases. In particular, we explore predictions of the effectiveness of dose densification and other escalations of the protocol scheduling when the influence of toxicity constraints, cell cycle phase specificity and the evolution of drug resistance ...
49yr old man with pT4 Sq cell cancer, post adjuvant chemotherapy for local RT detected to have cerebellar lesion , radically treated, ? role of adjuvant RT to the primary tumour bed ...
adjuvant concentrate catologs and adjuvant concentrate manufacturers - 587 adjuvant concentrate Manufacturers, Exporters & suppliers from China
Chemotherapy may be able to cure breast cancer. If a cure isnt possible, chemotherapy may help keep the cancer from growing or spreading. Or it may help ease symptoms caused by cancer and improve your quality of life.
Endurance training to reduce the relapse-rate after an adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with localised colorectal cancer Start: 2010 Design
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prognostic and predictive gene signature for adjuvant chemotherapy in resected non-small-cell lung cancer. AU - Zhu, Chang Qi. AU - Ding, Keyue. AU - Strumpf, Dan. AU - Weir, Barbara A.. AU - Meyerson, Matthew. AU - Pennell, Nathan. AU - Thomas, Roman K.. AU - Naoki, Katsuhiko. AU - Ladd-Acosta, Christine. AU - Liu, Ni. AU - Pintilie, Melania. AU - Der, Sandy. AU - Seymour, Lesley. AU - Jurisica, Igor. AU - Shepherd, Frances A.. AU - Tsao, Ming Sound. PY - 2010/10/10. Y1 - 2010/10/10. N2 - Purpose: The JBR.10 trial demonstrated benefit from adjuvant cisplatin/vinorelbine (ACT) in early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We hypothesized that expression profiling may identify stage-independent subgroups who might benefit from ACT. Patients and Methods: Gene expression profiling was conducted on mRNA from 133 frozen JBR.10 tumor samples (62 observation [OBS], 71 ACT). The minimum gene set that was selected for the greatest separation of good and poor prognosis patient ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Multicycle dose-intensive chemotherapy for women with high-risk primary breast cancer. T2 - Results of International Breast Cancer Study Group trial 15-95. AU - Basser, Russell L.. AU - ONeil, Anne. AU - Martinelli, Giovanni. AU - Green, Michael D.. AU - Peccatori, Fedro. AU - Cinieri, Severio. AU - Caotes, Alan S.. AU - Gelber, Richard D.. AU - Aebi, Stefan. AU - Castiglione-Gertsch, Monica. AU - Viale, Guiseppe. AU - Price, Karen N.. AU - Goldhirsch, Aron. PY - 2006/1/20. Y1 - 2006/1/20. N2 - Purpose: To compare adjuvant dose-intensive epirubicin and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy administered with filgrastim and progenitor cell support (DI-EC) with standard-dose anthracycline-based chemotherapy (SD-CT) for patients with early-stage breast cancer and a high risk of relapse, defined as stage II disease with 10 or more positive axillary nodes; or an estrogen receptor-negative or stage III tumor with five or more positive axillary nodes. Patients and Methods: Three hundred ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Survival of HER2-positive primary breast cancer patients treated by neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus trastuzumab. T2 - A multicenter retrospective observational study (JBCRG-C03 study). AU - Takada, M.. AU - Ishiguro, H.. AU - Nagai, S.. AU - Ohtani, S.. AU - Kawabata, H.. AU - Yanagita, Y.. AU - Hozumi, Y.. AU - Shimizu, C.. AU - Takao, S.. AU - Sato, N.. AU - Kosaka, Y.. AU - Sagara, Y.. AU - Iwata, H.. AU - Ohno, S.. AU - Kuroi, K.. AU - Masuda, N.. AU - Yamashiro, H.. AU - Sugimoto, M.. AU - Kondo, M.. AU - Naito, Yasuhiro. AU - Sasano, H.. AU - Inamoto, T.. AU - Morita, S.. AU - Toi, M.. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - We investigated the disease-free survival (DFS) of HER2-positive primary breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus trastuzumab, as well as predictive factors for DFS and pathologic response. Data from 829 female patients treated between 2001 and 2010 were collected from 38 institutions in Japan. Predictive factors were evaluated using ...
After neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 24 patients with planned mastectomy underwent breast-conserving surgery and 48 continued with mastectomy. On the other hand, five patients with planned breast-conserving surgery underwent mastectomy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy as a result of disease progression or patients preference (Table 4). Among the 24 patients with successful conversion from mastectomy to breast-conserving surgery, 21 had tumour size of ,5 cm and 18 had stage II disease. Pre-chemotherapy disease staging (P=0.001) and tumour size (P=0.005) were important factors that determined successful conversion to breast-conserving treatment in univariate analysis (Table 5). The breast-conserving surgery to mastectomy ratio in patients with stage II disease was 32:14 patients, ie 2.3 to 1. On the contrary, 13 patients with stage III disease underwent breast-conserving surgery and 38 underwent mastectomy, ie a ratio of 1:3 for stage III disease. Among those who underwent breast-conserving surgery, 93% ...
Herceptin® (trastuzumab) monoclonal antibody cancer therapy information for healthcare professionals, for the treatment of HER2+ adjuvant breast cancer, metastatic breast cancer treatment and metastatic gastric and gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cancer treatment. INDICATIONS: Adjuvant Breast Cancer Herceptin is indicated for adjuvant treatment of HER2-overexpressing node-positive or node-negative (ER/PR-negative or with one high-risk feature*) breast cancer: As part of a treatment regimen containing doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide and either paclitaxel or docetaxel With docetaxel and carboplatin As a single agent following multi-modality anthracycline-based therapy Select patients for therapy based on an FDA-approved companion diagnostic for Herceptin *High-risk is defined as ER/PR-positive with one of the following features: tumor size >2 cm, age <35 years, or tumor grade 2 or 3. Metastatic Breast Cancer Herceptin is indicated: In combination with paclitaxel for the first line treatment of HER2
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adjuvant endocrine therapy in postmenopausal breast cancer. AU - Ingle, James N.. PY - 2003/1/1. Y1 - 2003/1/1. N2 - Adjuvant endocrine therapy with tamoxifen has a clearly established benefit in postmenopausal women with resected early breast cancer that expresses the estrogen receptor and/or progesterone receptor. Whereas there is a vast and long experience with tamoxifen, the major focus of clinical trials over the past 6 years has involved the study of the third-generation aromatase inhibitors. Recently published data from the Arimidex, Tamoxifen, Alone or in Combination (ATAC) trial, which involved only postmenopausal women and is the largest adjuvant trial ever conducted, has demonstrated superior efficacy for anastrozole over tamoxifen alone or in combination with anastrozole. These data have engendered a great deal of discussion as to whether they provide a sufficient basis for changing the standard of practice in terms of choice of agent. Currently, a case can be made ...
BACKGROUND Tamoxifen is frequently used for the treatment of hormone receptor positive breast cancer (BC). Mainly CYP2D6 is responsible for the transformation to therapeutically active metabolites, but CYP2C19, CYP2C9 and CYP2B6 also are involved. We investigated the impact of polymorphisms within the genes encoding these CYP enzymes on the relapse-free time (RFT) in patients with BC. METHODS Ninety-nine patients with hormone receptor positive BC, who had undergone adjuvant tamoxifen therapy, were genotyped for seventeen common variants within the genes encoding CYP2D6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2B6 using TaqMan and PCR-RFLP technology. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were performed to elucidate the impact of genetic variants on RFT. Furthermore, CYP2D6 metabolic activity was determined in a subset of 50 patients by assessing dextromethorphan/dextrorphan urinary excretion ratios. CYP2D6 activity was compared to the CYP2D6 allelic combinations to evaluate the predictive value of the CYP2D6 ...
A significant amount of data has accumulated suggesting an important role for translational dysregulation in many cancer lineages, including breast cancer. It remained unclear, however, which of these alterations are the most significant determinants of cancer progression and poor patient outcomes. We sought to determine the association of translational regulators with clinical-pathologic factors and survival outcomes in hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. We found that high eEF2, S6, pS6 S240/244, p4E-BP1 T70, and low pdcd4 were significantly associated with node positivity. High p4E-BP1 T36/47, p4E-BP1 S65, p4E-BP1 T70 as well as total 4E-BP1 were associated with worse RFS. High p4E-BP1 T70 and pS6 S235/236, and low pdcd4, were associated with worse OS. In the multivariable analysis, in addition to positive nodes, high p4E-BP1 S65 remained a significant predictor of lower RFS. High pS6 S235/236, eEF2K and low pdcd4 were associated with lower OS. These results confirm that translational ...

Treatment of Pleural Mesothelioma, Pleural Mesothelioma, Pleural Mesothelioma Definition, Causes, Risk Factors, Symptoms,...Treatment of Pleural Mesothelioma, Pleural Mesothelioma, Pleural Mesothelioma Definition, Causes, Risk Factors, Symptoms,...

Chemotherapy can be used before surgery (neoadjuvant chemotherapy) or after surgery (adjuvant chemotherapy) to reduce the signs ... People with peritoneal mesothelioma may receive adjuvant chemotherapy drugs that have been heated (hyperthermic chemotherapy). ... Chemotherapy. Chemotherapy uses chemicals to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy drugs travel throughout your body and kill rapidly ... This allows doctors to administer higher doses of chemotherapy drugs. Intraperitoneal chemotherapy may also be used to reduce ...
more infohttp://www.knowyourdisease.com/treatment-of-pleural-mesothelioma.html

Adjuvant chemotherapy | pathology | Britannica.comAdjuvant chemotherapy | pathology | Britannica.com

Chemotherapy: Adjuvant chemotherapy is the use of drugs to eradicate or suppress residual disease after surgery or irradiation ... Adjuvant chemotherapy reduces the rate of recurrence of… ... In therapeutics: Chemotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is the use ... Other articles where Adjuvant chemotherapy is discussed: therapeutics: ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/adjuvant-chemotherapy

Rationale for adjuvant chemotherapy.  - PubMed - NCBIRationale for adjuvant chemotherapy. - PubMed - NCBI

Rationale for adjuvant chemotherapy.. Schabel FM Jr.. PMID:. 141322. DOI:. 10.1002/1097-0142(197706)39:6,2875::aid- ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/141322?dopt=Abstract

Neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy in pancreatic cancer | SpringerLinkNeoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy in pancreatic cancer | SpringerLink

Pancreatic cancer Neoadjuvant chemotherapy Adjuvant chemotherapy Evidence-based medicine Transcriptomics Precision medicine ... Adjuvant combined radiation and chemotherapy following curative resection. Arch Surg 120(8):899-903CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Adjuvant chemotherapy with gemcitabine and capecitabine in unselected patients can double 5-year overall survival to around 30 ... The aim of this article was to summarize existing evidence on neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy in PDAC with a focus on ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00423-018-1724-8

Adjuvant chemotherapy improves survival in early-stage ovarian cancerAdjuvant chemotherapy improves survival in early-stage ovarian cancer

... information on adjuvant chemotherapy but do not address which patients can be spared unnecessary adjuvant chemotherapy. He ... either adjuvant chemotherapy immediately after surgery for early-stage ovarian cancer or no immediate adjuvant chemotherapy. ( ... observed benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy primarily in nonoptimally staged patients suggests a benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy ... optimal staging was not associated with any survival benefit in patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy. Adjuvant ...
more infohttp://www.innovations-report.com/html/reports/medicine-health/report-15734.html

Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Stage II Colon Cancer | Cancer.NetAdjuvant Chemotherapy for Stage II Colon Cancer | Cancer.Net

... developed evidence-based recommendations for adjuvant chemotherapy for stage II colon cancer. This guide for patients is based ... Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Stage II Colon Cancer. August 16, 2004. To help doctors give their patients the best possible care, ... Adjuvant chemotherapy for stage II colon cancer may lower the risk of the cancer coming back, but is also associated with ... Adjuvant therapy is additional treatment given after surgery to reduce the risk that the cancer will come back. Chemotherapy is ...
more infohttps://www.cancer.net/research-and-advocacy/asco-care-and-treatment-recommendations-patients/adjuvant-chemotherapy-stage-ii-colon-cancer

Psychoneuroimmunology-Based Stress Management during Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Early Breast CancerPsychoneuroimmunology-Based Stress Management during Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Early Breast Cancer

J. A. Broeckel, P. B. Jacobsen, L. Balducci, J. Horton, and G. H. Lyman, "Quality of life after adjuvant chemotherapy for ... Psychoneuroimmunology-Based Stress Management during Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Early Breast Cancer. Jo Lynne W. Robins,1 Nancy ... In a randomized trial of women with early stage breast cancer undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy, two stress management ... in comparison to a usual care control group among women receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for stages I-IIIA breast cancer. We ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2013/372908/

Adjuvant Chemotherapy | Breast Cancer Care | Mercy HealthAdjuvant Chemotherapy | Breast Cancer Care | Mercy Health

What is adjuvant chemotherapy? Learn about this cancer treatment, including who may be a candidate and what to expect from the ... Adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used for breast cancer when:. *Cells have migrated ... What is adjuvant chemotherapy?. Adjuvant chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that combines different healing therapies to ... What types of cancer is adjuvant chemotherapy used for?. Adjuvant chemotherapy is mainly used for cancers in the following body ...
more infohttps://www.mercy.com/health-care-services/cancer-care-oncology/specialties/breast-cancer-treatment/treatments/adjuvant-chemotherapy

Psychiatric morbidity and physical toxicity associated with adjuvant chemotherapy after mastectomy. | The BMJPsychiatric morbidity and physical toxicity associated with adjuvant chemotherapy after mastectomy. | The BMJ

Psychiatric morbidity and physical toxicity associated with adjuvant chemotherapy after mastectomy. Br Med J 1980; 281 :1179 ... Psychiatric morbidity and physical toxicity associated with adjuvant chemotherapy after mastectomy.. Br Med J 1980; 281 doi: ...
more infohttp://www.bmj.com/content/281/6249/1179

Prognostic nutritional index before adjuvant chemotherapy predicts che | TCRMPrognostic nutritional index before adjuvant chemotherapy predicts che | TCRM

We conducted a retrospective review of data from 106 patients who had received adjuvant chemotherapy. The adjuvant chemotherapy ... The PNI before adjuvant chemotherapy influenced the treatment compliance with the planned chemotherapy in the OT group, but not ... it is important to identify risk factors for the continuation of adjuvant chemotherapy. In this study, we analyzed chemotherapy ... The RFS of patients with a PNI ,50 before adjuvant chemotherapy was significantly poorer than that of the patients with a PNI ≥ ...
more infohttps://www.dovepress.com/prognostic-nutritional-index-before-adjuvant-chemotherapy-predicts-che-peer-reviewed-article-TCRM

SOX as Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Resectable Gastric Cancer - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govSOX as Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Resectable Gastric Cancer - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

SOX as Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Resectable Gastric Cancer. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Phase I/II Study of Oral S-1 Plus f Oxaliplatin as an Adjuvant Chemotherapy After Curative Resection of Stage II-IV(M0) Gastric ... chemotherapy complete rate [ Time Frame: 6 months ]. percentage of patients who completed eight cycles of chemotherapy ... The purpose of this study is to assess the safety and efficacy of S-1 plus oxaliplatin combination chemotherapy based on the ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01542294

Cancer Treatment: Drugs During Adjuvant Chemotherapy May Not Work | Science 2.0Cancer Treatment: Drugs During Adjuvant Chemotherapy May Not Work | Science 2.0

... known as adjuvant chemotherapy, may not be benefiting from these drugs. ... "Adjuvant chemotherapy is a well established, but ineffective treatment in ER+ breast cancer patients aged 40 years or less . ... Article: Efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy according to hormone receptor status in young breast cancer patients, Jos A. van ... known as adjuvant chemotherapy, may not be benefiting from these drugs. This is especially true if their tumors respond to ...
more infohttps://www.science20.com/news_account/cancer_treatment_drugs_during_adjuvant_chemotherapy_may_not_work

Medline ®
		
			
			
				Abstract for Reference
			
		
		109 of Adjuvant chemotherapy for resected stage II colon cancerMedline ® Abstract for Reference 109 of 'Adjuvant chemotherapy for resected stage II colon cancer'

... phenotype to predict benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy of colon cancer by 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin (FL) alone or with ... CONCLUSION: Our observations indicate that MSI status and p53 expression may influence the impact of oxaliplatin on adjuvant ... A Cox proportional hazards model was specifically designed to evaluate the interaction between chemotherapy and these genetic ... while the interaction of MSI with chemotherapy could not be determined in the absence of relapse in the MSI group treated with ...
more infohttp://www.uptodate.com/contents/adjuvant-chemotherapy-for-resected-stage-ii-colon-cancer/abstract/109

Medline ®
		
			
			
				Abstract for Reference
			
		
		18 of Adjuvant chemotherapy for resected stage II colon cancerMedline ® Abstract for Reference 18 of 'Adjuvant chemotherapy for resected stage II colon cancer'

PURPOSE: Fluorouracil plus leucovorin (FU + LV) adjuvant chemotherapy reduced the risk of recurrence and death across all time ... Analysis From Modern-Era Adjuvant Studies in the Adjuvant Colon Cancer End Points (ACCENT) Database. ... PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 12,233 patients enrolled to the randomized trials C-07, C-08, N0147, MOSAIC (Adjuvant ... CONCLUSIONS: These analyses support the addition of oxaliplatin to fluoropyrimidine-based adjuvant therapy in patients with ...
more infohttp://www.uptodate.com/contents/adjuvant-chemotherapy-for-resected-stage-ii-colon-cancer/abstract/18

Efficacy of concurrent chemoradiotherapy plus adjuvant chemotherapy on advanced cervical cancer.Efficacy of concurrent chemoradiotherapy plus adjuvant chemotherapy on advanced cervical cancer.

Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / adverse effects, therapeutic use. Diarrhea / chemically induced, etiology. Dose ... Ten days after radiation therapy, TP regimen was administered as adjuvant chemotherapy.. RESULTS: For the experimental and ... CONCLUSION: Concurrent chemoradiotherapy plus adjuvant chemotherapy for advanced cervical cancer can improve short-term and ... This study aimed to explore the efficacy of concurrent chemoradiotherapy plus adjuvant chemotherapy on and the treatment ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Efficacy-concurrent-chemoradiotherapy-plus-adjuvant/20979696.html

Adjuvant Chemotherapy In Elderly With Colon Cancer Stage III - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govAdjuvant Chemotherapy In Elderly With Colon Cancer Stage III - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Adjuvant Chemotherapy In Elderly With Colon Cancer Stage III (ACE). The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Tolerance of adjuvant chemotherapy in elderly patients, measured as functional decline or independency, by ADL and IADL ... Adjuvant Chemotherapy In Elderly With Colon Cancer Stage III - Geriatric Assessment and Prognostic Gene Signatures. ... This is a phase 2, randomized study where the aim of the study is to investigate the tolerance of adjuvant chemotherapy, ...
more infohttps://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02978612?term=colon+cancer+AND+Capecitabine+AND+colon+cancer&rank=8

UTUC Recurrence Risk Lowered With Adjuvant Chemotherapy - Renal and Urology NewsUTUC Recurrence Risk Lowered With Adjuvant Chemotherapy - Renal and Urology News

Adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) improves recurrence-free survival in patients with locally advanced upper tract urothelial carcinoma ... Adjuvant chemotherapy given to patients following underwent radical surgery for locally advanced upper tract urothelial ... Impact of adjuvant chemotherapy on oncologic outcmoes following radical nephroureterectomy for patients with pT3anyM0 upper ...
more infohttps://www.renalandurologynews.com/home/news/urology/upper-tract-urothelial-carcinoma/utuc-recurrence-risk-lowered-with-adjuvant-chemotherapy/

Adjuvant Chemotherapy Improves Survival in Pancreatic Cancer - The ASCO PostAdjuvant Chemotherapy Improves Survival in Pancreatic Cancer - The ASCO Post

Adjuvant Chemotherapy Improves Survival in Pancreatic Cancer. By Caroline Helwick. June 10, 2016. Advertisement ... An adjuvant chemotherapy regimen improved overall survival in early-stage pancreatic cancer patients, in the large phase III ... In response to questions about choosing neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy now, Dr. Neoptolemos stated that the benefit of ... For resected pancreatic cancer patients, adjuvant chemotherapy with gemcitabine plus capecitabine improved median overall ...
more infohttps://ascopost.com/issues/june-10-2016/adjuvant-chemotherapy-improves-survival-in-pancreatic-cancer/

Elderly Colon Cancer Patients Benefit From Adjuvant Chemotherapy | Cancer Network | The Oncology JournalElderly Colon Cancer Patients Benefit From Adjuvant Chemotherapy | Cancer Network | The Oncology Journal

... based chemotherapy after surgery can be given safely to selected elderly patients with stage II/III colon cancer, and these ... adjuvant chemo-therapy. Data from the National Cancer Institutes. Surveillance Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER) ... regimens after surgery with no adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with stage. II/III colon cancer. Five studies used 5-FU plus ... Reasons for withholding adjuvant chemotherapy from elderly patients may. include coexisting conditions, fear of toxicity, ...
more infohttp://www.cancernetwork.com/articles/elderly-colon-cancer-patients-benefit-adjuvant-chemotherapy

A Feasibility Study of Oral Adjuvant Chemotherapy With S-1 - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govA Feasibility Study of Oral Adjuvant Chemotherapy With S-1 - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

A Feasibility Study of Oral Adjuvant Chemotherapy With S-1. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... The investigators confirm the feasibility of 1-year administration of oral fluoropyrimidine S-1 as an adjuvant chemotherapy for ... A Feasibility Study of Adjuvant Chemotherapy With Oral Fluoropyrimidine S-1 for Non-small Cell Lung Cancer. ... Chemotherapy comprised eight courses (4-week administration, 2-week withdrawal; total 1 year) of S-1 at 80-120 mg/body/day ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01459185

Obesity as an adverse prognostic factor for patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer.  - PubMed - NCBIObesity as an adverse prognostic factor for patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. - PubMed - NCBI

Obesity as an adverse prognostic factor for patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer.. Bastarrachea J1, ... To determine whether obesity is an independent prognostic factor among women receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for lymph node- ... an indicator of poor prognosis for patients with primary breast cancer even after the administration of adjuvant chemotherapy. ... with stages II and III primary breast cancer who were treated using three consecutive postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8250452?dopt=Abstract

Efficacy Study of Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Chinese Primary Breast Cancer PatientsEfficacy Study of Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Chinese Primary Breast Cancer Patients

FEC100 Followed by Docetaxel and EC90 Followed by Paclitaxel as Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Chinese Primary Breast Cancer ... FEC100 Followed by Docetaxel and EC90 Followed by Paclitaxel as Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Chinese Primary Breast Cancer ... 6. Any chemotherapy, hormonal therapy or radiotherapy before surgery;. 7. Previous cancer (excepted cutaneous baso-cellular ...
more infohttp://www.knowcancer.com/cancer-trials/NCT01314833/

NRF2 Pathway Activation and Adjuvant Chemotherapy Benefit in Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma. | Sigma-AldrichNRF2 Pathway Activation and Adjuvant Chemotherapy Benefit in Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma. | Sigma-Aldrich

NRF2 Pathway Activation and Adjuvant Chemotherapy Benefit in Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma.. [David W Cescon, Desmond She, ... However, improved survival with adjuvant chemotherapy in the JBR.10-randomized trial appears limited to patients with the WT ... the clinical relevance of these findings and assessed whether NRF2 activation predicts benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy in ... A gene expression signature of NRF2 pathway activation is associated with benefit from adjuvant cisplatin/vinorelbine in SCC. ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/25739673

Survival Benefit with Immediate Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Invasive Bladder CancerSurvival Benefit with Immediate Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Invasive Bladder Cancer

... June 23, 2014. No Comments ... These patients may also receive adjuvant chemotherapy-additional treatment administered after cystectomy. The goal is to ... To determine if immediate adjuvant chemotherapy could improve survival over deferred treatment in patients with invasive ... Ongoing research is evaluating the benefits of beginning adjuvant chemotherapy immediately following cystectomy or waiting ...
more infohttp://news.cancerconnect.com/survival-benefit-with-immediate-adjuvant-chemotherapy-in-invasive-bladder-cancer/

Appropriate duration of postoperative oral adjuvant chemotherapy with HCFU for colorectal cancer]. | Sigma-AldrichAppropriate duration of postoperative oral adjuvant chemotherapy with HCFU for colorectal cancer]. | Sigma-Aldrich

Cancer & chemotherapy 2004-1-31 [Appropriate duration of postoperative oral adjuvant chemotherapy with HCFU for colorectal ... We conducted a joint study of different duration of drug administration for oral adjuvant chemotherapy using camphor (HCFU) ... It appears that oral adjuvant chemotherapy with HCFU is more effective when administered for 2 years than for 6 months. ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/14750322
  • yet utilization is not as high as it should be, due to multiple concerns - specifically, delay to RC, complications from chemotherapy, concern for renal function deterioration, etc. (urotoday.com)
  • however, definitive data are lacking on the effectiveness of adjuvant therapy, and there is no information available about which patients may benefit the most. (innovations-report.com)
  • Selecting only high-risk patients for additional treatment can narrow the use of chemotherapy, and this approach should be used until such time as a randomized trial can demonstrate that good prognosis, early-stage patients benefit from such therapy," he writes. (innovations-report.com)
  • Adjuvant therapy is additional treatment given after surgery to reduce the risk that the cancer will come back. (cancer.net)
  • Depending on the type of cancer, what stage the cancer is in and your overall health, your doctor may recommend chemotherapy in combination with radiation, surgery, hormone therapy, immunotherapy or targeted therapy. (mercy.com)
  • For patients who will receive adjuvant therapy, I think this does represent the new standard of care," she commented. (ascopost.com)
  • On the other hand, there is no strong data to support adjuvant therapy (AC), as of yet - though, there are indicators to suggest it may be effective. (urotoday.com)
  • People with cholangiocarcinoma are generally managed - though not cured - with chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and other palliative care measures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment of cervical cancer may consist of some combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tolerance of adjuvant chemotherapy in elderly patients, measured as functional decline or independency, by ADL and IADL questionnaires. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Reasons for withholding adjuvant chemotherapy from elderly patients may include coexisting conditions, fear of toxicity, declining functional and mental status, and lack of social support, Dr. Sargent said, but "most people older than 75 are independent, and their life expectancy without cancer is 10 to 12 years. (cancernetwork.com)
  • The semisynthetic taxoid docetaxel (Taxotere) is probably the most active single agent in breast cancer, and results in advanced disease supported the development of trials including both paclitaxel and docetaxel, in combination or in sequence with anthracyclines, in the adjuvant setting [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Therefore, further investigation of more effective treatments is urgently needed.Several trials have been reported about adjuvant S1-combined chemotherapy for stage III gastric cancer. (ovid.com)