The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Movement of tethered, spherical LEUKOCYTES along the endothelial surface of the microvasculature. The tethering and rolling involves interaction with SELECTINS and other adhesion molecules in both the ENDOTHELIUM and leukocyte. The rolling leukocyte then becomes activated by CHEMOKINES, flattens out, and firmly adheres to the endothelial surface in preparation for transmigration through the interendothelial cell junction. (From Abbas, Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 3rd ed)
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A formylated tripeptide originally isolated from bacterial filtrates that is positively chemotactic to polymorphonuclear leucocytes, and causes them to release lysosomal enzymes and become metabolically activated.
A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.
Assays that measure the rate of migration of LEUKOCYTES. They may involve a variety of techniques such as measuring the movement of leukocytes through substrates such as AGAROSE gels or the rate of exit of cells from a glass capillary.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of proteins, including elastin. It cleaves preferentially bonds at the carboxyl side of Ala and Val, with greater specificity for Ala. EC 3.4.21.37.
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A proteinase inhibitor found in various BODILY SECRETIONS that coat mucosal surfaces such as SEMINAL PLASMA; CERVICAL MUCUS; and bronchial secretions. It plays a role in protecting epithelial tissues from LEUKOCYTE-derived serine proteases such as NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE.
Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
The minute vessels that collect blood from the capillary plexuses and join together to form veins.
Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
The minor fragment formed when C5 convertase cleaves C5 into C5a and COMPLEMENT C5B. C5a is a 74-amino-acid glycopeptide with a carboxy-terminal ARGININE that is crucial for its spasmogenic activity. Of all the complement-derived anaphylatoxins, C5a is the most potent in mediating immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE), smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION; HISTAMINE RELEASE; and migration of LEUKOCYTES to site of INFLAMMATION.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.
The transfer of leukocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates the adhesion of neutrophils and monocytes to activated platelets and endothelial cells.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that was originally identified by its ability to bind N-formyl peptides such as N-FORMYLMETHIONINE LEUCYL-PHENYLALANINE. Since N-formyl peptides are found in MITOCHONDRIA and BACTERIA, this class of receptors is believed to play a role in mediating cellular responses to cellular damage and bacterial invasion. However, non-formylated peptide ligands have also been found for this receptor class.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
The major metabolite in neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It stimulates polymorphonuclear cell function (degranulation, formation of oxygen-centered free radicals, arachidonic acid release, and metabolism). (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)
The process in which the neutrophil is stimulated by diverse substances, resulting in degranulation and/or generation of reactive oxygen products, and culminating in the destruction of invading pathogens. The stimulatory substances, including opsonized particles, immune complexes, and chemotactic factors, bind to specific cell-surface receptors on the neutrophil.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Rare, autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of the beta 2 integrin receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION) comprising the CD11/CD18 family of glycoproteins. The syndrome is characterized by abnormal adhesion-dependent functions, especially defective tissue emigration of neutrophils, leading to recurrent infection.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that serves as a homing receptor for lymphocytes to lymph node high endothelial venules.
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Test for cell-mediated antitumor immunity and related serum blocking factors based on the finding that leukocytes from cancer patients, but not from controls, when mixed in vitro with antigenic extracts of tumors of the same histological type, undergo a diminution in their normal adherence to glass surfaces. Sera from tumor-bearing patients block the LAI reaction of their own leukocytes or those of other patients with the same type of tumor.
An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.
Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
Family of proteins associated with the capacity of LEUKOCYTES to adhere to each other and to certain substrata, e.g., the C3bi component of complement. Members of this family are the LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; (LFA-1), the MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; (Mac-1), and the INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2 or p150,95 leukocyte adhesion protein. They all share a common beta-subunit which is the CD18 antigen. All three of the above antigens are absent in inherited LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME, which is characterized by recurrent bacterial infections, impaired pus formation, and wound healing as well as abnormalities in a wide spectrum of adherence-dependent functions of granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphoid cells.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates neutrophil, monocyte, and memory T-cell adhesion to cytokine-activated endothelial cells. E-selectin recognizes sialylated carbohydrate groups related to the Lewis X or Lewis A family.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
Effective in the initiation of protein synthesis. The initiating methionine residue enters the ribosome as N-formylmethionyl tRNA. This process occurs in Escherichia coli and other bacteria as well as in the mitochondria of eucaryotic cells.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.
Cell surface proteins that bind amino acids and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors are the most common receptors for fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the vertebrate central nervous system, and GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and glycine receptors are the most common receptors for fast inhibition.
Transmembrane proteins consisting of a lectin-like domain, an epidermal growth factor-like domain, and a variable number of domains that are homologous to complement regulatory proteins. They are important cell adhesion molecules which help LEUKOCYTES attach to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
C5 plays a central role in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C5 is cleaved by C5 CONVERTASE into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. The smaller fragment C5a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of inflammatory process. The major fragment C5b binds to the membrane initiating the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components, C5-C9, into the MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Cytokine-induced cell adhesion molecule present on activated endothelial cells, tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, bone marrow fibroblasts, myoblasts, and myotubes. It is important for the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, p154)
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
Cell surface proteins that bind LIPOXINS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.
A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
A protease of broad specificity, obtained from dried pancreas. Molecular weight is approximately 25,000. The enzyme breaks down elastin, the specific protein of elastic fibers, and digests other proteins such as fibrin, hemoglobin, and albumin. EC 3.4.21.36.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
A phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase subclass that includes enzymes formed through the association of a p110gamma catalytic subunit and one of the three regulatory subunits of 84, 87, and 101 kDa in size. This subclass of enzymes is a downstream target of G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A large increase in oxygen uptake by neutrophils and most types of tissue macrophages through activation of an NADPH-cytochrome b-dependent oxidase that reduces oxygen to a superoxide. Individuals with an inherited defect in which the oxidase that reduces oxygen to superoxide is decreased or absent (GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC) often die as a result of recurrent bacterial infections.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.
INFLAMMATION of the PERITONEUM lining the ABDOMINAL CAVITY as the result of infectious, autoimmune, or chemical processes. Primary peritonitis is due to infection of the PERITONEAL CAVITY via hematogenous or lymphatic spread and without intra-abdominal source. Secondary peritonitis arises from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY itself through RUPTURE or ABSCESS of intra-abdominal organs.
A class of cell surface leukotriene receptors with a preference for leukotriene B4. Leukotriene B4 receptor activation influences chemotaxis, chemokinesis, adherence, enzyme release, oxidative bursts, and degranulation in polymorphonuclear leukocytes. There are at least two subtypes of these receptors. Some actions are mediated through the inositol phosphate and diacylglycerol second messenger systems.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.
Disordered formation of various types of leukocytes or an abnormal accumulation or deficiency of these cells.
A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.
An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
A G-protein-coupled receptor that signals an increase in intracellular calcium in response to the potent ANAPHYLATOXIN peptide COMPLEMENT C5A.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Peptides and proteins found in BODILY SECRETIONS and BODY FLUIDS that are PROTEASE INHIBITORS. They play a role in INFLAMMATION, tissue repair and innate immunity (IMMUNITY, INNATE) by inhibiting endogenous proteinases such as those produced by LEUKOCYTES and exogenous proteases such as those produced by invading microorganisms.
Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.
Cell adhesion molecule expressed on activated leukocytes, fibroblasts, and neurons. It is a ligand for CD6. ALCAM-CD6 interactions may play a role in the binding of T and B cells to activated leukocytes.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A technique to study CELL MIGRATION in the INFLAMMATION process or during immune reactions. After an area on the skin is abraded, the movement of cells in the area is followed via microscopic observation of the exudate through a coverslip or tissue culture chamber placed over the area.
The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A serine protease found in the azurophil granules of NEUTROPHILS. It has an enzyme specificity similar to that of chymotrypsin C.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 1.11.1.7.
Methods utilizing the principles of MICROFLUIDICS for sample handling, reagent mixing, and separation and detection of specific components in fluids.
A transient increase in the number of leukocytes in a body fluid.
Organic esters of thioglycolic acid (HS-CH2COOH).
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A species of motile, free-living, gram-negative bacteria that occur in the soil. They are aerobic or microaerophilic and are sometimes capable of nitrogen fixation.
A phospholipid derivative formed by PLATELETS; BASOPHILS; NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES. It is a potent platelet aggregating agent and inducer of systemic anaphylactic symptoms, including HYPOTENSION; THROMBOCYTOPENIA; NEUTROPENIA; and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A genus of flexible, spiral rods found in hydrogen sulfide-containing mud, sewage, and polluted water. None of the species properly referred to in this genus are pathogenic.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.
An antiseptic with mild fungistatic, bacteriostatic, anthelmintic, and amebicidal action. It is also used as a reagent and metal chelator, as a carrier for radio-indium for diagnostic purposes, and its halogenated derivatives are used in addition as topical anti-infective agents and oral antiamebics.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.
A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
Colorless to yellow dye that is reducible to blue or black formazan crystals by certain cells; formerly used to distinguish between nonbacterial and bacterial diseases, the latter causing neutrophils to reduce the dye; used to confirm diagnosis of chronic granulomatous disease.
The process of losing secretory granules (SECRETORY VESICLES). This occurs, for example, in mast cells, basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils, and platelets when secretory products are released from the granules by EXOCYTOSIS.
Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.
A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.
A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.
A derivative of complement C5a, generated when the carboxy-terminal ARGININE is removed by CARBOXYPEPTIDASE B present in normal human serum. C5a des-Arg shows complete loss of spasmogenic activity though it retains some chemotactic ability (CHEMOATTRACTANTS).
The study of fluid channels and chambers of tiny dimensions of tens to hundreds of micrometers and volumes of nanoliters or picoliters. This is of interest in biological MICROCIRCULATION and used in MICROCHEMISTRY and INVESTIGATIVE TECHNIQUES.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.
Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
Phosphatidylinositols in which one or more alcohol group of the inositol has been substituted with a phosphate group.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by alleles on locus B of the HLA complex. The HLA-G antigens are considered non-classical class I antigens due to their distinct tissue distribution which differs from HLA-A; HLA-B; and HLA-C antigens. Note that several isoforms of HLA-G antigens result from alternative splicing of messenger RNAs produced from the HLA-G*01 allele.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.
The loss of some TELOMERE sequence during DNA REPLICATION of the first several base pairs of a linear DNA molecule; or from DNA DAMAGE. Cells have various mechanisms to restore length (TELOMERE HOMEOSTASIS.) Telomere shortening is involved in the progression of CELL AGING.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDIC ACIDS that lack one of its fatty acyl chains due to its hydrolytic removal.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Trihydroxy derivatives of eicosanoic acids. They are primarily derived from arachidonic acid, however eicosapentaenoic acid derivatives also exist. Many of them are naturally occurring mediators of immune regulation.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.

Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, generates two bioactive products during the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein: use of a novel inhibitor. (1/4263)

A novel and potent azetidinone inhibitor of the lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), i.e. platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, is described for the first time. This inhibitor, SB-222657 (Ki=40+/-3 nM, kobs/[I]=6. 6x10(5) M-1.s-1), is inactive against paraoxonase, is a poor inhibitor of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase and has been used to investigate the role of Lp-PLA2 in the oxidative modification of lipoproteins. Although pretreatment with SB-222657 did not affect the kinetics of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation by Cu2+ or an azo free-radical generator as determined by assay of lipid hydroperoxides (LOOHs), conjugated dienes and thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances, in both cases it inhibited the elevation in lysophosphatidylcholine content. Moreover, the significantly increased monocyte chemoattractant activity found in a non-esterified fatty acid fraction from LDL oxidized by Cu2+ was also prevented by pretreatment with SB-222657, with an IC50 value of 5.0+/-0.4 nM. The less potent diastereoisomer of SB-222657, SB-223777 (Ki=6.3+/-0.5 microM, kobs/[I]=1.6x10(4) M-1.s-1), was found to be significantly less active in both assays. Thus, in addition to generating lysophosphatidylcholine, a known biologically active lipid, these results demonstrate that Lp-PLA2 is capable of generating oxidized non-esterified fatty acid moieties that are also bioactive. These findings are consistent with our proposal that Lp-PLA2 has a predominantly pro-inflammatory role in atherogenesis. Finally, similar studies have demonstrated that a different situation exists during the oxidation of high-density lipoprotein, with enzyme(s) other than Lp-PLA2 apparently being responsible for generating lysophosphatidylcholine.  (+info)

Non-serum-dependent chemotactic factors produced by Candida albicans stimulate chemotaxis by binding to the formyl peptide receptor on neutrophils and to an unknown receptor on macrophages. (2/4263)

Serum-free culture filtrates of six Candida species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were found to contain chemoattractants for human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and a mouse macrophage-like cell line, J774. The chemotactic factors differed for the PMN and J774 cells, however, in terms of heat stability, kinetics of liberation by the yeast cells, and divalent cation requirements for production. The chemoattractant in Candida albicans culture filtrates appeared to act through the formyl peptide receptor (FPR) of PMNs, since it was found to induce chemotaxis of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells that were expressing the human FPR but did not induce chemotaxis of wild-type CHO cells. The C. albicans culture filtrates also induced migration of PMNs across confluent monolayers of a human gastrointestinal epithelial cell line, T84; migration occurred in the basolateral-to-apical direction but not the reverse direction, unless the epithelial tight junctions were disrupted. J774 cells did not migrate toward the formylated peptide (fMet-Leu-Phe; fMLF), and chemotaxis toward the C. albicans culture filtrate was not inhibited by an FPR antagonist (t-butoxycarbonyl-Met-Leu-Phe), suggesting that a different receptor mediated J774 cell chemotaxis. In conclusion, we have identified a receptor by which a non-serum-dependent chemotactic factor (NSCF) produced by C. albicans induced chemotaxis of PMNs. Additionally, we have shown that NSCF was active across epithelial monolayers. These findings suggest that NSCFs produced by C. albicans and other yeast species may influence host-pathogen interactions at the gastrointestinal tract mucosal surface by inducing phagocytic-cell infiltration.  (+info)

Interleukin-8: A pathogenetic role in antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated glomerulonephritis. (3/4263)

BACKGROUND: In neutrophil trafficking, the role of interleukin-8 (IL-8) is location dependent. Tissue IL-8 directs transmigration, whereas intravascular IL-8 frustrates this process. The bystander damage of glomerular endothelium by antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-activated neutrophils is believed to be an early event in the pathogenesis of ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis. We have studied the role of IL-8 in this process. METHODS: Intraglomerular expression of IL-8 in patients with ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis was studied by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry and location of neutrophils by serial section immunohistochemistry. In vitro, we analyzed ANCA-stimulated neutrophil IL-8 production by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the IL-8 attributable effect of ANCA-stimulated neutrophil supernatant by chemotactic and transendothelial assays. RESULTS: There was intraglomerular expression of IL-8 at segmental, crescentic, and parietal epithelial sites. IL-8 protein expression colocalized to intraglomerular neutrophils; many localized within glomerular capillary loops, suggesting failed trafficking to tissue IL-8. ANCAs differentially stimulated time- and dose-dependent neutrophil IL-8 production, and ANCA-stimulated neutrophil supernatant demonstrated potent IL-8-dependent chemotactic activity and inhibited transendothelial migration of normal human neutrophils toward an IL-8 gradient. CONCLUSION: Despite heavy tissue expression of IL-8 in ANCA-associated GN, the production of IL-8 by ANCA-stimulated neutrophils within the intravascular compartment may frustrate neutrophil transmigration, encourage intravascular stasis, and contribute to bystander damage of glomerular endothelial cells.  (+info)

Structural determinants of the eosinophil: chemotactic activity of the acidic tetrapeptides of eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis. (4/4263)

The acidic tetrapeptides of ECF-A, Ala/Val-Gly-Ser-Glu, exhibit peak in vitro chemotactic activity for human eosinophils at concentrations of 3 X 10(-8) M to 10(-6) M, and rapidly deactivate eosinophils to homologous and other stimuli at concentrations as low as 10(-10) M. The analogue Leu-Gly-Ser-Glu reaches peak activity at 10(-8)M-10(-7)M, while Phe-Gly-Ser-Glu requires 10(-4)M to elicit a peak response. Although inversion of the order of glycine and serine does not alter the eosinophil chemotactic activity of the tetrapeptides, deletion of glycine increases by 10-fold the concentration required for peak chemotactic activity, indicating the critical nature of the spacing between NH2- and COOH-terminal residues. The substituent COOH-terminal tripeptide, which is only marginally chemotactic, irreversibly suppresses eosinophil chemotactic responsiveness at a concentration 10,000-fold higher than concentrations necessary for deactivation by the intact tetrapeptide. The high concentration of tripeptide required for this cell directed effect, which is assumed to be analogous to deactivation, is attributed to the absence of the NH2-terminal residue which would facilitate effective interaction with the eosinophil. A substituent NH2-terminal tripeptide and amides of the NH2-terminal amino acids, which are devoid of chemotactic and deactivating activities, reversibly inhibit the tetrapeptide stimulus in a dose-response fashion. The additional finding that the NH2-terminal tripeptide protects the eosinophil from deactivation by the intact tetrapeptide confirms that the competitive interaction is stimulus specific.  (+info)

Bile duct epithelial cells exposed to alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate produce a factor that causes neutrophil-dependent hepatocellular injury in vitro. (5/4263)

The acute hepatotoxicity induced by alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) in rats is manifested as neutrophil-dependent necrosis of bile duct epithelial cells (BDECs) and hepatic parenchymal cells. This hepatotoxicity mirrors that of drug-induced cholangiolitic hepatitis in humans. Since BDECs are primary targets of ANIT-induced toxicity, we hypothesized that after exposure to ANIT, BDECs produce a factor(s) that causes neutrophil chemotaxis and neutrophil-dependent hepatocellular injury. To test this hypothesis BDECs were isolated from male Sprague Dawley rats and incubated with ANIT (6.25, 12.5, 25, or 50 microM) or vehicle for 24 h. The conditioned medium (CM) was collected and placed in the bottom chamber of a two-chambered chemotaxis system, while isolated neutrophils were placed in the top chamber. Chemotaxis was indicated by neutrophil migration through a membrane to the bottom chamber. CM from BDECs exposed to each concentration of ANIT was chemotactic, whereas CM from vehicle-treated BDECs was not. ANIT alone caused a modest degree of chemotaxis at 50 microM. The conditioned media were added to isolated hepatocytes or to hepatocyte-neutrophil cocultures and incubated for 24 h. Hepatocyte toxicity was indicated by alanine aminotransferase release into the culture medium. CM from vehicle-treated BDECs did not cause hepatocyte killing in either hepatocyte-neutrophil cocultures or hepatocyte cultures. In contrast, the addition of CM from ANIT-treated BDECs (CM-BDEC-A) to hepatocyte-neutrophil cocultures resulted in hepatocyte killing. The same CM was not cytotoxic to hepatocyte cultures devoid of neutrophils. The hepatocyte killing could not be explained by residual ANIT in the CM, which was below the limit of detection (< or = 0.5 microM). The addition of antiproteases afforded protection against neutrophil-dependent hepatocellular injury induced by CM-BDEC-A. These results indicate that ANIT causes BDECs to release a factor(s) that attracts neutrophils and stimulates them to injure hepatocytes in vitro.  (+info)

Selective eosinophil transendothelial migration triggered by eotaxin via modulation of Mac-1/ICAM-1 and VLA-4/VCAM-1 interactions. (6/4263)

We have recently cloned eotaxin, a highly efficacious eosinophilic chemokine involved in the development of lung eosinophilia during allergic inflammatory reactions. To understand more precisely how eotaxin facilitates the specific migration of eosinophils, we have studied which adhesion receptors are essential for eotaxin action both in vivo and in vitro. Experiments using mice genetically deficient in adhesion receptors demonstrated that molecules previously reported to be involved in both leukocyte tethering/rolling (P-selectin and E-selectin) and in sticking/ transmigration (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) are required for eotaxin action in vivo. To further elucidate the mechanism(s) involved in this process, we have used an in vitro transendothelial chemotaxis model. mAb neutralization studies performed in this system suggest that the integrins Mac-1 (CD11b/18), VLA-4 (alpha4beta1) and LFA-1 (CD11a/18) are involved in the transendothelial chemotaxis of eosinophils to eotaxin. Accordingly, the expression of these integrins on eosinophils is elevated by direct action of this chemokine in a concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, our results suggest that eotaxin-induced eosinophil transendothelial migration in vivo and in vitro relies on Mac-1/ICAM-1 and VLA-4NCAM-1 interactions, the latter ones becoming more relevant at later time points of the eotaxin-induced recruitment process.  (+info)

Selective recruitment of CCR4-bearing Th2 cells toward antigen-presenting cells by the CC chemokines thymus and activation-regulated chemokine and macrophage-derived chemokine. (7/4263)

Helper T cells are classified into Th1 and Th2 subsets based on their profiles of cytokine production. Th1 cells are involved in cell-mediated immunity, whereas Th2 cells induce humoral responses. Selective recruitment of these two subsets depends on specific adhesion molecules and specific chemoattractants. Here, we demonstrate that the T cell-directed CC chemokine thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) was abundantly produced by monocytes treated with granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or IL-3, especially in the presence of IL-4 and by dendritic cells derived from monocytes cultured with GM-CSF + IL-4. The receptor for TARC and another macrophage/dendritic cell-derived CC chemokine macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) is CCR4, a G protein-coupled receptor. CCR4 was found to be expressed on approximately 20% of adult peripheral blood effector/memory CD4+ T cells. T cells attracted by TARC and MDC generated cell lines predominantly producing Th2-type cytokines, IL-4 and IL-5. Fractionated CCR4+ cells but not CCR4- cells also selectively gave rise to Th2-type cell lines. When naive CD4+ T cells from adult peripheral blood were polarized in vitro, Th2-type cells selectively expressed CCR4 and vigorously migrated toward TARC and MDC. Taken together, CCR4 is selectively expressed on Th2-type T cells and antigen-presenting cells may recruit Th2 cells expressing CCR4 by producing TARC and MDC in Th2-dominant conditions.  (+info)

Effect of leukocytes on corneal cellular proliferation and wound healing. (8/4263)

PURPOSE: To establish whether fucoidin, by blocking the adhesion of leukocytes on the limbal vascular endothelium, prevents extravasation of the cells from the blood stream into the limbal stroma and the wounded area after corneal injury. Successful leukocyte blocking enabled investigation of the influence of leukocytes on corneal cellular proliferation after corneal wounding. METHODS: Thirty-two New Zealand White rabbits were used. Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and a standardized alkali corneal wound were used as models in two sets of experiments. In half of the injured rabbits fucoidin was used to prevent leukocytes from leaving the local vessels. The efficiency of the blocking technique was evaluated by counting the number of leukocytes in the limbal and wounded corneal areas. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was used as a marker for proliferative activity. RESULTS: The infiltration of leukocytes into the limbus and the cornea after PRK and alkali injuries can be blocked by fucoidin. The healing rate of corneal epithelium after alkali burn was retarded in the absence of leukocytes. PCNA expression was enhanced in the presence of leukocytes. Fucoidin per se had no influence on corneal cell proliferation and wound healing. CONCLUSIONS: Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) can be prevented from entering the cornea in vivo by fucoidin after PRK and after alkali burn. The corneal epithelial healing rate is delayed in the absence of PMNs in vivo, and PCNA expression increases in the presence of leukocytes.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Prolactin suppression of leukocyte chemotaxis in vitro. AU - Harris, R. D.. AU - Kay, N. E.. AU - Seljeskog, E. L.. AU - Murray, K. J.. AU - Douglas, S. D.. PY - 1979/1/1. Y1 - 1979/1/1. N2 - Leukocyte chemotaxis in vitro was studied for cells from patients with pituitary adenomas. Leukocytes obtained preoperatively from two of three patients with elevated serum prolactin levels demonstrated chemotaxic alterations described in other malignant disease. Statistically significant suppression of chemotaxis occurred in the leukocytes of four of 12 specimens from normal donors at concentrations of 1000 ng/ml, and in four of eight specimens at 2000 ng/ml of prolactin in preincubation media. Thus prolactin concentration may influence the motility of leukocytes. The variable neoplastic behavior of morphologically similar pituitary adenomas may, in part, reflect a neurohormonally altered host response to the presence of these lesions.. AB - Leukocyte chemotaxis in vitro was studied for ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Psoriasis and leukocyte chemotaxis. AU - Tagami, H.. AU - Iwatsuki, K.. AU - Takematsu, H.. PY - 1987/1/1. Y1 - 1987/1/1. N2 - Transepidermal migration of leukocytes, with resultant formation of microscopic or macroscopic sterile subcorneal pustules is a phenomenon characteristically noted in psoriasis and related sterile pustular dermatoses. It is natural to assume the presence of potent neutrophil chemotactic substances in the subcorneal portion of the lesional epidermis, because this location is the target of the in vivo leukocyte chemotaxis. In fact, crude psoriasis scale extracts show remarkably high neutrophil chemotactic and activating properties as compared with those of other non-psoriatic inflammatory dermatoses. We isolated a psoriatic leukotactic factor (PLF) having a molecular mass of around 12 kD, distinct from those common to other inflammatory changes involving the skin or those released by bacteria. Further analysis of PLF identified C5 cleavage fragments, ...
Methods Quiescent cultured RASMCs were pretreated with E2 or vehicle for 24 hours before tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α was added. After 6 hours of treatment, total RNA was extracted from cells using TRIzol reagent, and SYBR green real-time RT-PCR was used to detect expression of CINC-2 mRNA. Conditioned media was collected and concentrated to measure CINC-2 protein level by ELISA. To assess neutrophil chemotactic activity of conditioned media, in vitro chemotaxis assays were performed using differentiated HL-60 cells in a 96-well modified Boyden chamber appropriate for the evaluation of leukocyte chemotaxis. The nonselective ER antagonist ICI-182780 was given to cells 2 hours prior to E2 incubation to study the mechanism of E2 effect. ...
The sequential and regulated recruitment of leukocytes into tissues by chemoattractants is essential for effective clearance of pathogens and healing. The Rho GTPases Cdc42, Rac, and Rho are important for establishing and maintaining migratory polarity. Most chemoattractants for phagocytes signal either through seven transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) or tyrosine kinase receptors. Y721 is the most important for chemotaxis because it recruits phospholipase-C-γ (PL C-γ) and the p85 subunit of class 1A PI3Ks, both of which are implicated in the initiation of chemotaxis. Several intracellular signaling complexes contribute to the polarization of phagocytes in response to chemoattractants, and they probably act together to allow optimal chemotaxis. Cdc42 is implicated in multiple types of cell polarity, including axon specification, yeast mating, and epithelial polarity. There are several PLC isoforms, of which PLCβ2 and PLCβ3 are activated by GPCR signaling in neutrophils, whereas PLCβ
Lymphocyte chemotaxis in inflammation. VIII. Demonstration of lymphocyte chemotactic lymphokines in PPD-induced delayed hypersensitivity skin reaction site in t
Chemotaxis is the primary mechanism by which cell movements are directed within multicellular organisms, and it is a major component of embryonic development, wound healing, and immune responses. Chemotaxis involves a complex cascade of events--formation of signaling complexes, receptor polarization, adhesion molecule activation, and cytoskeletal reorganization. Previous assay methods were limited in several ways that reduced users abilities to obtain quantitative data or to control conditions precisely. We describe a unique chemotactic assay that can incorporate multiple chemotactic gradients in different spatial and temporal combinations. In addition, this assay is easily adapted for live-cell imaging and fluorescent microscopy. With its relative simplicity, flexibility, and precision, this method is a key tool for the study of cellular chemotactic responses and the signaling processes underlying them. ...
The Notch signaling pathway is a well-conserved signaling pathway. As known so far Notch signaling is engaged in physiological processes in pulmonary hypertension (PAH). As shown recently, a significant increase of perivascular numbers of macrophages (CD68(+)) and monocytes (CD14(+)) can be observed in PAH. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of the Notch signaling pathway in the migration of human monocytes.. Human monocytes were isolated from venous blood, taken from healthy donors. For the chemotactic assays modified 48-well microchemotaxis chambers were used. Cells migrated through a 5 µm pore sized cellulose membrane filter for 45 min in a humidified atmosphere against a gradient of the substances tested (fMLP, Jagged-1, DLL-4). Migration depth of the cells was quantified microscopically by measuring the distance [µm] from the surface of the filters to the leading front of the cells.. The Notch ligands DLL-4 and Jagged-1 significantly stimulated direct and indirect migration ...
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To gain further insight into the effects of calcium influx on neutrophil chemotaxis, we depleted the calcium in the under-agarose chemotaxis models using a calcium-free solution and EGTA. We observed that the inhibitory effects of LPS on neutrophil chemotaxis were impaired in the presence of calcium-depleted medium (Fig. 3C). Moreover, using a calcium ionophore ionomycin to stimulate neutrophils, a sustained calcium influx was observed and chemoattractant-induced neutrophil chemotaxis was dramatically inhibited (SI Appendix, Fig. S7A). The sustained calcium influx appeared to be required for initiating stop signal of neutrophil chemotaxis. Previous reports displayed that intracellular calcium was necessary for neutrophil migration (19). Therefore, we further clarified the effects of calcium on neutrophil migration. Different chemoattractant-induced calcium mobilization patterns were found to be inconsistent (20, 21). We noted that different from stimulation of IL-8, a rapid increase in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Three forms of monocyte-derived neutrophil chemotactic factor (MDNCF) distinguished by different lengths of the amino-terminal sequence. AU - Teizo, Yoshimura. AU - Robinson, Elizabeth A.. AU - Appella, Ettore. AU - Matsushima, Kouji. AU - Showalter, Stephen D.. AU - Skeel, Alison. AU - Leonard, Edward J.. PY - 1989/1. Y1 - 1989/1. N2 - Human monocyte-derived neutrophil chemotactic factor (MDNCF) was purified from culture supernatant of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes on a column of Sepharose-bound murine monoclonal anti-MDNCF. About 65% of the culture fluid chemotactic activity was bound to the column. The unbound 35% probably represents chemotactic activity of other cytokines in the culture fluid. More than 85% of the bound activity was eluted by pH 2.5 glycine buffer. When this material was applied to an HPLC-CM column, gradient elution produced four well-separated A280 peaks, each of which had chemotactic activity. N-terminal amino ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antihistamine effect of supplemental ascorbic acid and neutrophil chemotaxis. AU - Johnston, Carol. AU - Martin, L. J.. AU - Cai, X.. PY - 1992/1/1. Y1 - 1992/1/1. N2 - Renewed interest in the antihistamine action of ascorbic acid has emerged with the recently recognized immunosuppressive role of histamine. We examined the antihistamine effect of acute and chronic vitamin C (VC) administration and its effect on neutrophil chemotaxis in healthy men and women. In the chronic study, 10 subjects ingested a placebo during weeks 1, 2, 5 and 6, and 2 g/day of VC during weeks 3 and 4. Fasting blood samples were collected after the initial 2-week period (baseline) and at the end of weeks 4 and 6. Plasma ascorbate rose significantly following VC administration compared to baseline and withdrawal values. Neutrophil chemotaxis rose 19% (NS) and VC administration, and fell 30% after VC withdrawal, but these changes were not correlated to plasma ascorbate levels (r = 0.01). Chemotaxis was ...
JS Parmar, D Bilton, ER Chilvers, DA Lomas; The Selective Chemotactic Effect of α1-Antitrypsin Polymers for Human Peripheral Blood Neutrophils. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 July 2002; 103 (s47): 56P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs103056P. Download citation file:. ...
Dendritic cells are believed to be crititcal in both initiating and modulating immune responses (32). Central to their role as immune sentinels is their ability to capture, process, and transport Ag to secondary lymphoid tissues where they serve as potent APCs capable of stimulating T cells in T cell areas. Trafficking of both T cells and dendritic cells to lymphoid organs followed by precise microenvironmental localization is necessary for efficient immune surveillance and is thought to be directed by chemokines (12). 6Ckine, a recently discovered CC chemokine (13, 14, 15), has been shown to be expressed by HEV in lymph nodes (16, 17), is capable of rapidly triggering integrin binding to vascular ligands (18), and is a potent chemoattractant for T lymphocytes (14, 15, 16, 17, 19), making it a leading candidate for mediating T cell homing. 6Ckine is also expressed by endothelial cells in lymphatic venules (17), the major route of dendritic cell entry into lymph nodes (33), suggesting that it may ...
The chemokinetic inhibitory factor (CIF) is a recently described B-cell derived lymphokine that mediates a chemokinetic inhibitory effect on human polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) migration. In the present report the interaction of CIF with the neutrophil plasma membrane was studied. Normal human peripheral blood neutrophils and purified neutrophil plasma membranes selectively removed biologic activity from CIF-containing concentrates obtained during the purification procedure from conditioned medium. Removal was obtained at both 4 degrees C and 37 degrees C. Furthermore, HL-60 cells treated with dimethyl sulfoxide removed CIF activity (granulocyte-like cells) but HL-60 cells treated with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (macrophage-like cells) did not. Purified human blood monocytes, cells from the macrophage-like U-937 cell line and cells from the basophilic leukemia cell line KU-812 did not remove CIF. These studies suggest that neutrophils express specific binding sites for ...
Human granulocytes were stimulated by means of a micropipette, with an orifice of about 0.2 micrometer in diameter, which contained fMet-Leu-Phe at a concentration of 10(−5) M. The cells were reorientated by extending lamellipodia towards the source of the attractant, often within less than 10 s. Any part of the granulocyte, from the front to the tip of the tail, could be stimulated to produce new lamellipodia. Usually, but not always, this response occurred at the side of the cell nearest to the micropipette. Cells stimulated from behind responded in one of the following ways: (1) Cells that maintained their polarity extended new lamellipodia at one side of the leading front and reorientated by moving in a U-turn towards the micropipette. Occasionally, the leading front was split because one part of the front tried to make a left-hand and the other a right-hand turn. (2) Formation of lamellipodia at the leading front was arrested and new lamellipodia were formed at the tail instead, ...
Harbord, M W N, Marks, D J B, Forbes, A, Bloom, S L, Day, R M and Segal, A W (2006) Impaired neutrophil chemotaxis in Crohns disease relates to reduced production of chemokines and can be augmented by granulocyte-colony stimulating factor. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 24 (4). pp. 651-660. ISSN 0269-2813 Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy ...
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In article ,9411040146.AA25636 at eliris.med.yale.edu,, lolis at ELIRIS.MED.YALE.EDU (elias lolis) wrote: , Does anyone have any strong opinions on what the most effective apparatus is , for doing neutrophil chemotaxis assays? The Boyden-chamber seems to be , heavily used but there appear to be other systems that do the job. Specifically, , does anyone know the relative advantages/disadvantages of using the 48-well , microchamber from Neuroprobe or any of the products sold by Costar. I am , a protein biochemist who will shortly set up to do these chemotaxis assays , (Ive never done them before) and any help or references would be appreciated. , , Elias Dear Elias, The Costar transwells are small, relatively cheap, disposable items. It is possible to culture cells on the filters and observe penetration through the monolayer. They are simple to set up but use a lot of solutions and require you to cut out each filter from the frame by hand, which is quite a pain. I dont know if Costar has ...
PLD2 plays a key part in cell membrane lipid reorganization and as a key cell signaling protein in leukocyte chemotaxis and phagocytosis. or the leading edge of a leukocyte lamellipodium. This brand-new idea shall help our knowledge of leukocyte essential features, such as for example cell adhesion and migration, and exactly how their deregulation influences […]. ...
To date, we have not tested the fixation of cells in gel inside the observation area of µ-Slide Chemotaxis. From tube formation assays, we generally know that fixation, permeabilization, blocking, and staining of cells on Matrigel™ is possible. Therefore, it should also be possible to do immunostainings in the 3D chemotaxis assay. In this case, we recommend removing the liquid from one reservoir and successively filling the second reservoir with the different solutions. We can assume that the incubation time should be increased by a factor of 4, in order to give the solutions sufficient time to diffuse into the observation area. The filling of liquids should be carefully done, in order not to push out the gel from the observation area.. ...
Abstract: In recent years, it has been drawn a lot of attention to the question of whether logistic kinetics is sufficient to enforce the global existence of classical solutions or to prevent finite-time blow-up in various chemotaxis models. However, for several important chemotaxis models, only in the space two dimensional setting, it has been shown that logistic kinetics is sufficient to enforce the global existence of classical solutions (see [8] and [28]). The current paper is to give a confirmed answer to the above question for the following parabolic-elliptic chemotaxis system with singular sensitivity and logistic source in any space dimensional setting, \begin{equation} \begin{cases} u_t=\Delta u-\chi\nabla\cdot (\frac{u}{v} \nabla v)+u(a(x,t)-b(x,t) u),\quad x\in \Omega\cr 0=\Delta v-\mu v+\nu u,\quad x\in \Omega \quad \cr \frac{\partial u}{\partial n}=\frac{\partial v}{\partial n}=0,\quad x\in\partial\Omega, \end{cases} \end{equation} where $\Omega \subset \mathbb{R}^n$ is a bounded ...
Proposed path for GC chemotaxis induced by netrin binding with DCC receptors.Solid arrows indicate the prevalent direction of chemical reactions, the dashed arr
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Neutrophils play a critical role in host defense against invading pathogens. Chemotaxis, the directed migration of cells, allows neutrophil to seek out the sites of inflammation and infection. Neutrophil chemotaxis as well as other type of cell migration are considered as cycles composed of highly orchestrated steps. Recently the underlying signaling mechanisms of neutrophil chemotaxis are better understood with the studies in knockout mice and neutrophil-like cell lines: a number of signaling molecules in neutrophil chemotaxis have been identified, and a feedback loop-based model of frontness and backness pathways has been proposed to explain the establishment of neutrophil polarity and chemotaxis. However, the signaling mechanisms that control actin cytoskeleton reorganization and interaction between the cells and the substratum on which cells migrate are still not fully understood. In my first research project, we have identified a signaling pathway, mediated by non-receptor tyrosine ...
In addition to the steepness of the gradient, the context in which a cell perceives a chemoattractant gradient can have a profound effect on their response to the chemotactic stimulus. For example, both our group (Heit et al., 2005) and others (Ferguson et al., 2007) have demonstrated that neutrophil chemotaxis to fMLP is profoundly impacted by the makeup of the substratum upon which the cell is crawling. For example, ligands for LFA-1, MAC-1 and VLA-4 need to be present to get a full chemotactic response to fMLP (Heit et al., 2005). Moreover, Ferguson et al. have demonstrated profound differences in the chemotaxis of neutrophils to fMLP on glass verses protein substrata (Ferguson et al., 2007). These profound differences in the behavior of neutrophils, based on the substratum they are crawling upon, demonstrate that careful selection of the substratum is an important factor when selecting or designing chemotactic assays, especially in mammalian systems. In this regard, we have used a ...
Chemokinesis is chemically prompted kinesis, a motile response of unicellular prokaryotic or eukaryotic organisms to chemicals that cause the cell to make some kind of change in their migratory/swimming behaviour. Changes involve an increase or decrease of speed, alterations of amplitude or frequency of motile character, or direction of migration. However, in contrast to chemotaxis, chemokinesis has a random, non-vectorial moiety, in general. Due to the random character, techniques dedicated to evaluate chemokinesis are partly different from methods used in chemotaxis research. One of the most valuable ways to measure chemokinesis is computer-assisted (see, e.g., Image J) checker-board analysis, which provides data about migration of identical cells, whereas, in Protozoa (e.g., Tetrahymena), techniques based on measurement of opalescence were also developed. Becker EL (1977). Stimulated neutrophil locomotion: chemokinesis and chemotaxis. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 101 (10): 509-13. PMID 199132. ...
El Annan J, Goyal S, Zhang Q, Freeman GJ, Sharpe AH, Dana R. Regulation of T-cell chemotaxis by programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in dry eye-associated corneal inflammation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51 (7) :3418-23.
The heterogeneity of the H460 large cell lung cancer cell line was investigated by selecting for chemokinetic cells from a CON population that demonstrated both chemokinesis and chemotaxis. Using Boyden chambers, cells that migrated under chemokinetic conditions were collected and their numbers expanded. Time-lapsed microscopy under isotropic conditions showed that KINE cells moved faster and changed directions more frequently than CON confirming their chemokinetic character. KINE cells which lacked stable focal adhesion were also less adhesive to culture plates compared to CON cells which had focal adhesions at the leading edge shown by phospho-Paxillin-tyr118 antibody labeling. Weak substrate adhesion in KINE cells may account for motile characteristics of rapid and random movement [16-19]. Furthermore, the selection for increased chemokinesis did not compromise the ability of KINE cells to chemotax. KINE cells were also significantly more invasive compared to CON.. These results underscore ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENT OF LEUKOCYTE RANDOM MOTILITY AND CHEMOTAXIS PARAMETERS AND THEIR DEPENDENCE UPON CHEMOATTRACTANT CONCENTRATION.. AU - Tranquillo, Robert. AU - Lauffenburger, Douglas. AU - Zigmond, Sally. PY - 1983/1/1. Y1 - 1983/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0020499896&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0020499896&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Conference article. AN - SCOPUS:0020499896. SP - 125. EP - 126. JO - Advances in Bioengineering, BED. JF - Advances in Bioengineering, BED. SN - 0360-9960. ER - ...
Lamb, DJ, Modjtahedi, H, Plant, NJ and Ferns, GAA (2004) EGF mediates monocyte chemotaxis and macrophage proliferation and EGF receptor is expressed in atherosclerotic plaques ...
Chemotaxis assays are an invaluable tool for studying the biological activity of inflammatory mediators such as CC chemokines, which have been implicated in a wide range of chronic inflammatory diseases. Conventional chemotaxis systems such as the modified Boyden chamber are limited in terms of the data captured given that the assays are analysed at a single time-point. We report the optimisation and validation of a label-free, real-time cell migration assay based on electrical cell impedance to measure chemotaxis of different primary murine macrophage populations in response to a range of CC chemokines and other chemoattractant signalling molecules. We clearly demonstrate key differences in the migratory behavior of different murine macrophage populations and show that this dynamic system measures true macrophage chemotaxis rather than chemokinesis or fugetaxis. We highlight an absolute requirement for Gαi signaling and actin cytoskeletal rearrangement as demonstrated by Pertussis toxin and
An all-on-chip method enables rapid neutrophil chemotaxis assay directly from a few microliters of blood for both cell migration research and clinical sample test.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chemokines in ischemia and reperfusion. AU - Frangogiannis, Nikolaos G.. PY - 2007/5. Y1 - 2007/5. N2 - Chemokine signaling plays an important role in the post-ischemic inflammatory response. Overlapping pathways involving reactive oxygen intermediates, Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation, the complement cascade and the nuclear factor (NF)-κB system induce both CXC and CC chemokines in ischemic tissues. Reperfusion accentuates chemokine expression promoting an intense inflammatory reaction. ELR-containing CXC chemokines regulate neutrophil infiltration in the ischemic area, whereas CXCR3 ligands may mediate recruitment of ThI cells. CC chemokines, on the other hand, induce mononuclear cell infiltration and macrophage activation. Evidence suggests that chemokine signaling mediates actions beyond leukocyte chemotaxis and activation, regulating angiogenesis and fibrous tissue deposition. Effective repair of ischemic tissue is dependent on a well-orchestrated cellular response and ...
A team of researchers from the University of Manitoba in collaboration with local clinical scientists in Winnipeg, Canada, have developed a new method for rapid neutrophil chemotaxis test directly from a small drop of whole ...
The outcomes of this study are especially favorable considering the study population, which included older patients (68% over the age of 60 years) and a high proportion of matched unrelated donors (50%) and HLA-mismatched donors (16%); the anticipated incidence of acute GVHD in similar patients is typically more than 50%.31-33 The patients in our study also had major coexisting illnesses, with an intermediate or high comorbidity index26 in almost half the patients. At our institution, by day 180 among patients receiving tacrolimus and methotrexate for prophylaxis after reduced-intensity conditioned HSCT, the rates of acute GVHD are 38.5% for grade II to IV disease and 21.9% for grade III or IV disease. During the same time period in our study, the use of a combination of maraviroc, tacrolimus, and methotrexate resulted in cumulative incidence rates of 23.6% for grade II to IV disease and 5.9% for grade III or IV disease. Results of this study also compare favorably with other studies of ...
Cell polarity is crucial for directed migration. Here we show that phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI(3)K) mediates neutrophil migration in vivo by differentially regulating cell protrusion and polarity. The dynamics of PI(3)K products PI(3,4,5)P(3)-PI(3,4)P(2) during neutrophil migration were visualized …
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is the endogenous ligand for the sphingosine-1-phophate receptors (S1P1-5) and triggers a number of cellular responses through their stimulation. S1P and its interaction with the S1P receptors play a significant role in a variety of biological processes including vascular stabilization, heart development, lymphocyte homing, and cancer angiogenesis. Agonism of S1P1, especially, has been shown to play an important role in lymphocyte trafficking from the thymus and secondary lymphoid organs, inducing immunosuppression, which has been established as a novel mechanism of treatment for immune diseases and vascular diseases. Sphingosine-1 -phosphate (SlP) has been demonstrated to induce many cellular effects, including those that result in platelet aggregation, cell proliferation, cell morphology, tumor cell invasion, endothelial cell and leukocyte chemotaxis, endothelial cell in vitro angiogenesis, and lymphocyte trafficking. SlP receptors are therefore good targets for a ...
The chemokine CCL2, which is best known for its chemotactic functions, is expressed not only by immune cells, but also by several types of malignant and stromal cells. CCL2 has been shown to exert both pro- and anti-tumor effects. However, recent results demonstrate a main role for CCL2 in tumor progression and metastasis, suggesting that this chemokine may constitute a therapeutic target for anticancer drugs. Mammary carcinoma models, including models of implantable, transgenic, and chemically-induced tumors, were employed in the setting of Ccl2 or Ccr2 knockout mice or CCL2 neutralization with a monoclonal antibody to further investigate the role of the CCL2/CCR2 signaling axis in tumor progression and metastatic spread. In our implantable tumor models, an anti-CCL2 monoclonal antibody inhibited the growth of primary malignant lesions in a biphasic manner and reduced the number of metastases. However, in Ccl2-/- or Ccr2-/- mice developing implanted or transgenic tumors, the number of pulmonary ...
Shop Leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Blocking of monocyte migration induced by supernatant of RA SCL stimulated with TNF-α. Monocyte migration induced by supernatants of RA SCLs (RA6/1 and RA8/3)
Primobolan side effects is a selective agonist of beta2-adrenergic receptors. At therapeutic doses it acts on beta2-adrenergic receptors of smooth muscles of the bronchi, providing pronounced bronchodilator effect, prevents and relieves bronchospasm, increases lung capacity. It prevents the release of histamine, slow reacting substances from mast cells and neutrophil chemotactic factors. It is a small …. Read more ...
Primobolan side effects is a selective agonist of beta2-adrenergic receptors. At therapeutic doses it acts on beta2-adrenergic receptors of smooth muscles of the bronchi, providing pronounced bronchodilator effect, prevents and relieves bronchospasm, increases lung capacity. It prevents the release of histamine, slow reacting substances from mast cells and neutrophil chemotactic factors. It is a small …. Read more ...
Used to investigate chemotaxis of fast or slow migrating adherent cells and non-adherent cells in gel matrices Chemotaxis measurement in real-time Stable gra...
E. Coli (and many other bacteria) rely heavily upon chemotaxis in order to find areas of food and keep out of areas of harmful substances. One of the im...
LC] D. Lauffenburger and P. Calcano, Competition between two microbial populations in a non-mixed environment: Effect of cell random motility, Biotech. and Bioengrg. 25, 2103-2125 (1983 ...
Human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) modulates the function of mature neutrophils by priming for enhanced chemotaxis and oxidative metabolism in response to N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (f-Met-Leu-Phe). Our studies establish a relationship between f-Met-Leu-Phe receptor number and affinity and neutrophil chemotaxis and oxidative metabolism. A brief (5- to 15-min) exposure to physiologic concentrations of GM-CSF (10 pM to 100 pM) enhances f-Met-Leu-Phe-induced neutrophil chemotaxis by 85%, correlating with a rapid threefold increase (46,000/cell to 150,000/cell) in high-affinity neutrophil f-Met-Leu-Phe receptors. More prolonged incubation (1 to 2 hr) of neutrophils with GM-CSF is accompanied by a change to low-affinity f-Met-Leu-Phe receptors (Kd = 29 nM to Kd = 99 nM) concomitant with priming for enhanced neutrophil oxidative metabolism. Moreover, enhanced chemotactic responses to f-Met-Leu-Phe are no longer evident after more prolonged incubation of ...
The presence of neutrophils in the synovial joint of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is thought to be due to the activity of chemotactic factors released by activated cells in the joint. We have shown in this report, for the first time, the abundance of one such factor, interleukin 8 (IL 8), in the synovial fluid of patients both with RA and other non-RA joint diseases, and the spontaneous production of IL 8 mRNA by RA synovial cells in culture. There was no correlation between the levels of chemotactic activity and IL 8 protein, suggesting that other factors with similar neutrophil chemotactic activity are also present in the synovial fluid exudate. In support of this concept neither the level of chemotactic activity nor IL 8 protein levels correlated with neutrophil or leukocyte infiltration, indicating that the mechanism of migration into the inflammatory environment of the joint is complex. Such migration is likely to be due to a number of chemotactic signals in addition to IL 8, which may
By the use of chambers containing two compartments with an interposed micropore filter, chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) in vitro was studied employing various agents that fixed serum complement (C). Antigen-antibody complexes, zymosan, and aggregated human gamma globulin, in the presence of fresh rabbit, guinea pig, or mouse serum resulted in the migration of PMNs through the micropore filter. Pepsin-degraded rabbit antibody or unaltered duck serum containing antibody did not exhibit such activity after addition of antigen. Heating of the serum before treatment or the presence of EDTA prevented the generation of the chemotactic factor. The chemotactic factor could not be generated in whole serum from rabbits genetically deficient in C. However, the defect in this rabbit serum could be corrected by addition of rabbit or human C6. Serum of B10.D2 mice deficient in hemolytic C also yielded poor chemotactic activity. Interaction of the first four reacting components of guinea ...
By the use of chambers containing two compartments with an interposed micropore filter, chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) in vitro was studied employing various agents that fixed serum complement (C). Antigen-antibody complexes, zymosan, and aggregated human gamma globulin, in the presence of fresh rabbit, guinea pig, or mouse serum resulted in the migration of PMNs through the micropore filter. Pepsin-degraded rabbit antibody or unaltered duck serum containing antibody did not exhibit such activity after addition of antigen. Heating of the serum before treatment or the presence of EDTA prevented the generation of the chemotactic factor. The chemotactic factor could not be generated in whole serum from rabbits genetically deficient in C. However, the defect in this rabbit serum could be corrected by addition of rabbit or human C6. Serum of B10·D2 mice deficient in hemolytic C also yielded poor chemotactic activity.. Interaction of the first four reacting components of ...
Bromelain, a mixture of proteases derived from pineapple stem, has been reported to have therapeutic benefits in a variety of inflammatory diseases, including murine inflammatory bowel disease. The purpose of this work was to understand potential mechanisms for this anti-inflammatory activity. Exposure to bromelain in vitro has been shown to remove a number of cell surface molecules that are vital to leukocyte trafficking, including CD128a/CXCR1 and CD128b/CXCR2 that serve as receptors for the neutrophil chemoattractant IL-8 and its murine homologues. We hypothesized that specific proteolytic removal of CD128 molecules by bromelain would inhibit neutrophil migration to IL-8 and thus decrease acute responses to inflammatory stimuli. Using an in vitro chemotaxis assay, we demonstrated a 40% reduction in migration of bromelain- vs. sham-treated human neutrophils in response to rhIL-8. Migration to the bacterial peptide analog fMLP was unaffected, indicating that bromelain does not induce a global ...
C1q, the first component of the classical pathway of the complement system, interacts with various cell types and triggers a variety of cell-specific cellular responses, such as oxidative burst, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, etc. Different biological responses are attributed to the interaction of C1q with more than one putative cell-surface C1q receptor/C1q-binding protein. Previously, it has been shown that C1q-mediated oxidative burst by neutrophils is not linked to G-protein-coupled fMet-Leu-Phe-mediated response. In the present study, we have investigated neutrophil migration brought about by C1q and tried to identify the signal-transduction pathways involved in the chemotactic response. We found that C1q stimulated neutrophil migration in a dose-dependent manner, primarily by enhancing chemotaxis (directed movement) rather than chemokinesis (random movement). This C1q-induced chemotaxis could be abolished by an inhibitor of G-proteins (pertussis toxin) and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 kinase (wortmannin and ...
Advances in the management of renal failure necessitate a new look at the uremic patient. Infection is the leading cause of death in acute renal failure and the second most common cause of death in chronic uremia. The uremic patient must be regarded as an altered host more susceptible to infection. Some contributing factors are alterations of the skin and mucous membrane barriers, as well as lymphocyte and leukocyte dysfunction. Lymphocytes produce less interferon and also, when stimulated by phytohemagglutinin, show decreased metabolic activity in uremic serums. Leukocyte Chemotaxis is decreased. Other factors await more scientific investigation. Another important source ...
Neutrophil directional migration in response to chemical gradients, also known as chemotaxis, is one of the key phenomena in the immune responses against bacterial infection. To better study neutrophils chemotaxis, several in vitro assays have been developed that replicate chemotactic gradients arou Microfluidics and point-of-care testing
Chemotaxis (from chemo- + taxis) is the movement of an organism in response to a chemical stimulus. Somatic cells, bacteria, and other single-cell or multicellular organisms direct their movements according to certain chemicals in their environment. This is important for bacteria to find food (e.g., glucose) by swimming toward the highest concentration of food molecules, or to flee from poisons (e.g., phenol). In multicellular organisms, chemotaxis is critical to early development (e.g., movement of sperm towards the egg during fertilization) and subsequent phases of development (e.g., migration of neurons or lymphocytes) as well as in normal function. In addition, it has been recognized that mechanisms that allow chemotaxis in animals can be subverted during cancer metastasis. Positive chemotaxis occurs if the movement is toward a higher concentration of the chemical in question; negative chemotaxis if the movement is in the opposite direction. Chemically prompted kinesis (randomly directed or ...
BioAssay record AID 297157 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of CXCL8-induced cell migration in human PMN cells at 0.01 uM by chemotaxis assay.
In contrast to other isolation techniques, neutrophils enriched by spontaneous sedimentation were found to be intact both in terms of their function and relative numbers within the
Immune and inflammatory responses require leukocytes to migrate within and through the vasculature, a process that is facilitated by their capacity to switch to a polarized morphology with an asymmetric distribution of receptors. We report that neutrophil polarization within activated venules served to organize a protruding domain that engaged activated platelets present in the bloodstream. The selectin ligand PSGL-1 transduced signals emanating from these interactions, resulting in the redistribution of receptors that drive neutrophil migration. Consequently, neutrophils unable to polarize or to transduce signals through PSGL-1 displayed aberrant crawling, and blockade of this domain protected mice against thromboinflammatory injury. These results reveal that recruited neutrophils scan for activated platelets, and they suggest that the neutrophils bipolarity allows the integration of signals present at both the endothelium and the circulation before inflammation proceeds.
emphasis and notes added]. Chicken soup has long been regarded as a remedy for symptomatic upper respiratory tract infections. As it is likely that the clinical similarity of the diverse infectious processes that can result in colds is due to a shared inflammatory response, an effect of chicken soup in mitigating inflammation could account for its attested benefits. To evaluate this, a traditional chicken soup was tested for its ability to inhibit neutrophil [white blood cells that kills germs and also cause the inflammation or cold symptoms when they overdo it] migration using the standard Boyden blindwell chemotaxis [movement of a cell in reaction to a chemical] chamber assay [test] with zymosan-activated serum and fMet-Leu-Phe as chemoattractants [the stuff to make the cells move]. Chicken soup significantly inhibited neutrophil migration and did so in a concentration-dependent manner. [the more soup, the more it stopped the cells from migrating] The activity was present in a ...
Chemokinesis definition: the random movement of cells, such as leucocytes , stimulated by substances in their... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples
BioAssay record AID 147686 submitted by ChEMBL: Compound was evaluated for the inhibition of LTB4 receptor -induced chemotaxis of isolated human neutrophils; IA means inactive.
Shop Endothelial cell-specific chemotaxis regulator ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Endothelial cell-specific chemotaxis regulator Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
He Y, Kapoor A, Cook S, Liu S, Xiang Y, Rao CV, Kenis PJA, Wang F. 2011. The non-receptor tyrosine kinase Lyn controls neutrophil adhesion by recruiting the CrkL-C3G complex and activating Rap1 at the leading edge. J Cell Sci. 124(Pt 13):2153-64. ...
Human neutrophils (white blood cells) are attracted to a chemotactic agent in this time-lapse video. This is one of many videos available for the classroom or broadcast.
We consider a model for two species interacting through chemotaxis in such a way that each species produces a signal which directs the respective motion of the other. Specifically, we shall be concerned with nonnegative solutions of the Neumann problem, posed in bounded domains $\Omega\subset \mathbb{R}^n$ with smooth boundary, for the system $$\begin{cases} u_t= \Delta u - \chi \nabla \cdot (u\nabla v), & x\in \Omega, \, t|0, \\ 0=\Delta v-v+w, & x\in \Omega, \, t|0, \qquad (\star)\\ w_t= \Delta w - \xi \nabla \cdot (w\nabla z), & x\in \Omega, \, t|0, \\ 0=\Delta z-z+u, & x\in \Omega, \, t|0, \end{cases}$$ |br| with parameters $\chi \in \{\pm 1\}$ and $\xi\in \{\pm 1\}$, thus allowing the interaction of either attraction-repulsion, or attraction-attraction, or repulsion-repulsion type. |br| It is shown that |br| $\bullet$ in the attraction-repulsion case $\chi=1$ and $\xi=-1$, if $n\le 3$ then for
Hardcore continuum re-constructionist Etch continues his junglist-referencing production sensibilities with a blistering four-track outing on Space + Time Records. A side Chemotaxis is the jazzy tip - licks of rhodes chords cascade against immaculately produced breaks, conjuring a nice contrast between the warmth of
The migration assay (also known as the Boyden Chamber Assay) is a commonly used test to study the migratory response of endothelial cells.
NK cells specific a amount of mobile-surface molecules accountable for responding to chemotactic stimuli, binding to the endothelium and TEM . NK mobile steps
Note: It is important not to disrupt the HUVEC monolayer. It is recommended to gently remove about half of the growth medium then add 60 µL D-BPS for both washes. At the final wash step, remove as much of the medium/D-PBS as possible without disrupting the monolayer. ...
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سال انتشار: ۱۳۸۲ محل انتشار: یازدهمین کنفرانس مهندسی پزشکی ایران تعداد صفحات: ۴ نویسنده(ها): Nasrollah Rezaei-Ghaleh - PhD student, Institute of Biochemistry
The mechanism of leukocyte locomotion. In: Gallin JL, Quie PG, eds. Leukocyte Chemotaxis. New York: Raven Press, 1978:143-57. ... The motor of ameboid leukocytes. Biochem Soc Symp. 1980; 45:51-63. 39. Becker EL, Stossel TP. Chemotaxis. Fed Proc. 1980; 39: ... The motor of leukocytes. Fed Proc. 1984; 43:2760-2763. 56. Stossel TP. Contribution of actin to the cytoplasmic matrix. J. Cell ... The motor of leukocytes and platelets. In: The Molecular Biology of the Arterial Wall. G. Schettler, ed., Springer Verlag. 1987 ...
Leukocyte chemotaxis: Methodology, physiology, clinical implications. New York.: Raven Press.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors ... fMLF led to the first discovery of a leukocyte receptor for a chemotactic factor, defined three different types of fMLF ... In 1887, Élie Metchnikoff observed that leukocytes isolated from the blood of various animals were attracted towards certain ... I. Cite uses generic title (help) Harris H (Jul 1954). "Role of chemotaxis in inflammation". Physiological Reviews. 34 (3): 529 ...
Further, Slit2 participates in inhibiting leukocyte chemotaxis. In rats, Slit1 was found in the neurons of adult and fetal ...
He developed the first reliable in vitro technology to quantify leukocyte chemotaxis. His work led to the standard methodology ... Snyderman, R.; Goetzl, E. J. (1981-08-21). "Molecular and cellular mechanisms of leukocyte chemotaxis". Science. 213 (4510): ... Snyderman's research focused on defining the mechanisms by which leukocytes accumulate at sites of inflammation. ... Snyderman, Ralph; Phillips, Jean; Mergenhagen, Stephan E. (1970-06-01). "Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Chemotactic Activity in ...
2010). Methods for Quantitation of Leukocyte Chemotaxis and Fugetaxis. T-Cell Trafficking. F. M. Marelli-Berg and S. Nourshargh ... 2001). "The neuronal repellent Slit inhibits leukocyte chemotaxis induced by chemotactic factors". Nature. 410 (6831): 948-952 ... Leukocytes can exhibit active chemorepulsion away from a factor that is normally considered to stimulate chemoattraction ... Other innate leukocytes include natural killer cells, mast cells, eosinophils, basophils, macrophages, and dendritic cells. ...
Turner SR, Campbell JA, Lynn WS (June 1975). "Polymorphonulcear leukocyte chemotaxis toward oxidized lipid components of cell ... Leukocyte-type 12-lipoxygenase in these animal species shares 73-86% amino acid identity with human ALOX15 but only 57-66% ... In 1975, the first biological activity was attached to this metabolite in studies showing that it simulated the chemotaxis of ... Studies on rodents lacking or made deficient in the leukocyte-type 12-lipoxygenase, Alox12 (which is most closely related to ...
... activation mediates leukocyte chemotaxis toward TAAR1 agonists. TAAR1 agonists (specifically, trace amines) have also ... Leukocytes ...Pancreatic islet β cells ... Primary Tonsillar B Cells ... Circulating leukocytes of healthy subjects ( ... Babusyte A, Kotthoff M, Fiedler J, Krautwurst D (March 2013). "Biogenic amines activate blood leukocytes via trace amine- ... Response measured: cAMP accumulation ... Activation of leukocytes Species: Human Tissue: PMN, T and B cells Response measured: ...
2001). "The neuronal repellent Slit inhibits leukocyte chemotaxis induced by chemotactic factors". Nature. 410 (6831): 948-52. ... Wong K; Park HT; Wu JY; Rao Y (2003). "Slit proteins: molecular guidance cues for cells ranging from neurons to leukocytes". ...
These bacteria are not mediators of osteoclast activity but do cause leukocyte chemotaxis. Leukocytes differentiate into ...
"The effect of verapamil and other calcium antagonists on chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes". Biochemical Pharmacology ...
This reduces leukocyte adhesion and infiltration into tissues, while also limiting damage to underlying tissue. APC supports ... endothelial barrier function and reduces chemotaxis. APC inhibits the release of inflammatory-response mediators in leukocytes ... APC has anti-inflammatory effects on endothelial cells and leukocytes. APC affects endothelial cells by inhibiting inflammatory ... and it is these cells and leukocytes (white blood cells) that APC affects. Because of the crucial role that protein C plays as ...
The first studies of leukocyte killing in the presence of specific antiserum were performed by Joseph Denys and Joseph Leclef, ... I. Cite uses generic title (help) Harris H (July 1954). "Role of chemotaxis in inflammation". Physiological Reviews. 34 (3): ... In 1887, he observed that leukocytes isolated from the blood of various animals were attracted towards certain bacteria. ... Ward PA, Lepow IH, Newman LJ (April 1968). "Bacterial factors chemotactic for polymorphonuclear leukocytes". The American ...
Sialyl-Lewisx is important in leukocyte tethering and rolling. Leukocytes move through the blood stream and then tether ... Sialyl-Lewisx mediates phagocytosis and chemotaxis, found on neutrophils; expressed in patients with Hodgkin disease, some B- ... Sialyl-Lewisx is a necessary partner for the three selectins that bind the leukocyte and endothelial cells. When sialyl-Lewisx ... Sialyl Lewis x is being researched for detection and treatment of immune disorders because of its presence on leukocytes. ...
Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 67 (6): 869-75. doi:10.1002/jlb.67.6.869. PMID 10857861. S2CID 28719955. This article ... "Serum-induced monocyte differentiation and monocyte chemotaxis are regulated by the p38 MAP kinase signal transduction pathway ...
The effect of these gene knockouts appeared due to faulty leukocyte function and other causes leading to a breakdown in the ... and exhibit chemotaxis in response to H. pylori-derived peptide Hp(2-20)". Journal of Immunology. 172 (12): 7734-43. doi: ... "Evaluation of human leukocyte N-formylpeptide receptor (FPR1) SNPs in aggressive periodontitis patients". Genes and Immunity. 4 ... Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 67 (6): 869-75. doi:10.1002/jlb.67.6.869. PMID 10857861. S2CID 28719955. This article ...
ISBN 978-0-88-167160-5 Gallin, J. I. and Quie, P. G. "Leukocyte Chemotaxis: Methods, Physiology and Clinical Implications." New ... Human Services Secretary's Award for Distinguished Service 2002 Society for Leukocyte Biology Marie T. Bonazinga Lifetime ... microtubule and microfilament orientation and function during chemotaxis". Journal of Cell Biology. 75 (3): 666-693. doi: ...
70, 203-209 (1979). "Measurement of leukocyte motility and chemotaxis parameters using a quantitative analysis of the under- ... "Effects of cell motility and chemotaxis on microbial population growth" (with D. Lauffenburger and K. Keller). Biophys. J. 40, ...
Like leukocytes, D. discoideum have chemotaxis. Hence, D. discoideum is a suitable model system to see the influence of host ... As this is occurring, amoebae undergo chemotaxis towards the giant cell surface. The zygote giant cell ingests the surrounding ...
Chemotaxis towards an injured cell". Antibiot. Chemother. 19: 369-81. doi:10.1159/000395442. PMID 4463832. Hu CL, Barnes FS ( ... see interactions of leukocytes with corpse of dead cells). Composition of the substances inducing necrotaxis is rather complex ... Necrotaxis embodies a special type of chemotaxis when the chemoattractant molecules are released from necrotic or apoptotic ... Debru C. (1993). "A particular form of chemotaxis: necrotaxis. An historical view". Blood Cells. 19 (1): 5-19. PMID 8400312. ...
Ligands that activate DP2 stimulate the in vitro chemotaxis (i.e. directed migration) of leukocytes active in mediating ... PGD2, acting through DP2, stimulates the in vitro chemotaxis of CD8+ cells, although the contribution of this to the in vivo ... DP2 was found to stimulate the directed movement or chemotaxis of human T-helper type 2 cells (see T helper cell#Th1/Th2 Model ... "Prostaglandin D2 selectively induces chemotaxis in T helper type 2 cells, eosinophils, and basophils via seven-transmembrane ...
The protein is also known to interact with the protein KAI1 (CD82) a surface glycoprotein of leukocytes and may have a role in ... The formation of this heterodimer impairs chemotaxis and calcium flux through CCR5, whereas internalization of CCR5 in response ... It mediates chemokine transcytosis, which leads to apical retention of intact chemokines and more leukocyte migration. Binding ...
Lipocortin-1 both suppresses phospholipase A2, thereby blocking eicosanoid production, and inhibits various leukocyte ... inflammatory events (epithelial adhesion, emigration, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, respiratory burst, etc.). In other words, ... secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor 1 (SLPI), and Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase (MAPK phosphatase) increased ...
... both suppresses phospholipase A2, thereby blocking eicosanoid production, and inhibits various leukocyte ... inflammatory events (epithelial adhesion, emigration, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, respiratory burst, etc.). In other words, ...
... superoxide anion production and chemotaxis both human and rat PMN leukocytes and monocytes. Tyr-Lys-Pro exert considerable ... Leukokininase can be found on the outer membrane of phagocytic cells: blood neutrophil leukocytes of human and dog, rabbit ... Stimulation of phagocytosis is obtained with polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) cells from human, dog, rabbit and cow as well as ...
Gillitzer R (August 2001). "Inflammation in human skin: a model to study chemokine-mediated leukocyte migration in vivo". The ... The CXCL9 is one of the chemokine which plays role to induce chemotaxis, promote differentiation and multiplication of ... leukocytes, and cause tissue extravasation. The CXCL9/CXCR3 receptor regulates immune cell migration, differentiation, and ...
... or leukocyte) integrins. αMβ2 is expressed on the surface of many leukocytes involved in the innate immune system, including ... chemotaxis and cellular activation. It is involved in the complement system due to its capacity to bind inactivated complement ... Todd RF, Petty HR (May 1997). "Beta 2 (CD11/CD18) integrins can serve as signaling partners for other leukocyte receptors". The ... Stewart M, Thiel M, Hogg N (October 1995). "Leukocyte integrins". Current Opinion in Cell Biology. 7 (5): 690-6. doi:10.1016/ ...
Some leukocytes (white blood cells) act like independent, single-celled organisms and are the second arm of the innate immune ... During the acute phase of inflammation, neutrophils migrate toward the site of inflammation in a process called chemotaxis, and ... Granulocytes are leukocytes that have granules in their cytoplasm. In this category are neutrophils, mast cells, basophils, and ... The cells of the adaptive immune system are special types of leukocytes, called lymphocytes. B cells and T cells are the major ...
"Abnormalities of leukocyte chemotaxis in human disease.". Ann N Y Acad Sci. 256: 386-401. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/ ... வேதியீர்ப்பு (Chemotaxis) என்பது ஒரு உயிரினம் வேதிப்பொருள் ஒன்றின் தூண்டலுக்கேற்ப நகர்வதைக் (இடம்பெயர்தலை) குறிக்கின்றது. உடல் ... 1970). "Chemotaxis of leucocytes and inflammation.". Ser Haematol. 3 (1): 131-62. ...
It is also involved in changes to vascular permeability, the oxidative burst, chemotaxis of leukocytes, as well as augmentation ... Benveniste J, Henson PM, Cochrane CG (Dec 1972). "Leukocyte-dependent histamine release from rabbit platelets. The role of IgE ... is a potent phospholipid activator and mediator of many leukocyte functions, platelet aggregation and degranulation, ...
... used also for drug testing in the cellular chemotaxis assay and for novel targeted drug delivery systems based on leukocyte- ... "Dynamic Investigation of Leukocyte-Endothelial Cell Adhesion Interaction under Fluid Shear Stress in Vitro". Acta Biochimica et ... Many researchers used parallel-plate flow chambers to investigate the dynamic adhesion between leukocytes (white blood cells) ... In particular, some studies have been carried out to study leukocyte receptor-ligand interactions. Interactions between cell ...
... neutropenia/myelodysplasia P14 deficiency Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 2 Leukocyte ... assays of chemotaxis, bactericidal activity. Due to the rarity of many primary immunodeficiencies, many of the above tests are ...
... , also known as pink eye, is inflammation of the outermost layer of the white part of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelid.[3] It makes the eye appear pink or reddish.[1] Pain, burning, scratchiness, or itchiness may occur.[1] The affected eye may have increased tears or be "stuck shut" in the morning.[1] Swelling of the white part of the eye may also occur.[1] Itching is more common in cases due to allergies.[2] Conjunctivitis can affect one or both eyes.[1] The most common infectious causes are viral followed by bacterial.[2] The viral infection may occur along with other symptoms of a common cold.[1] Both viral and bacterial cases are easily spread between people.[1] Allergies to pollen or animal hair are also a common cause.[2] Diagnosis is often based on signs and symptoms.[1] Occasionally, a sample of the discharge is sent for culture.[1] Prevention is partly by handwashing.[1] Treatment depends on the underlying cause.[1] In the majority of viral cases, there is no ...
Modern: Acute-phase reaction/Fever - Vasodilation - Increased vascular permeability - Exudate - Leukocyte extravasation - ... Chemotaxis. Tipe husus. Saraf. Encephalitis - Myelitis - Meningitis - Neuritis - eye (Dacryoadenitis, Scleritis, Keratitis, ...
Progress in leukocyte biology. 6. Alan R. Liss, Inc. ISBN 978-0-8451-4105-2. .. ... In addition, mast cells also release chemokines which result in the positive chemotaxis of other immune cells of both the ... Gaboury JP, Johnston B, Niu XF, Kubes P (January 1995). "Mechanisms underlying acute mast cell-induced leukocyte rolling and ... that are expressed on the membranes of leukocytes including dendritic cells, macrophages, natural killer cells, cells of the ...
... of the total CSF leukocyte (white blood cell) count.[36] The chemical analysis of the CSF typically resembles the findings in " ... Experimental assays in animal models are needed to validate a chemically induced chemotaxis by use of anticholinergic drugs to ... but a chemically induced chemotaxis has been implicated recently. Acetylcholine has been previously reported to enhance ...
CCR9 supports the migration of leukocytes into the intestine, CCR10 to the skin and CXCR5 supports the migration of B-cell to ... Their name is derived from their ability to induce directed chemotaxis in nearby responsive cells; they are chemotactic cyto ... The main function of chemokines is to manage the migration of leukocytes (homing) in the respective anatomical locations in ... In addition to being known for mediating chemotaxis, chemokines are all approximately 8-10 kilodaltons in mass and have four ...
dendritic cell chemotaxis. • signal transduction. • chemokine-mediated signaling pathway. • interleukin-8-mediated signaling ... antibodies detect different distribution patterns of IL-8 receptor A and IL-8 receptor B on human peripheral blood leukocytes ... "α-1 Antitrypsin regulates human neutrophil chemotaxis induced by soluble immune complexes and IL-8". J. Clin. Invest. 120 (12 ...
... is an inflammation of the bronchi (large and medium-sized airways) in the lungs.[1] Symptoms include coughing up mucus, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest discomfort.[1] Bronchitis is divided into two types: acute and chronic.[1] Acute bronchitis is also known as a chest cold.[1] Acute bronchitis usually has a cough that lasts around three weeks.[4] In more than 90% of cases the cause is a viral infection.[4] These viruses may be spread through the air when people cough or by direct contact.[1] Risk factors include exposure to tobacco smoke, dust, and other air pollution.[1] A small number of cases are due to high levels of air pollution or bacteria such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae or Bordetella pertussis.[4][5] Treatment of acute bronchitis typically involves rest, paracetamol (acetaminophen), and NSAIDs to help with the fever.[6][7] Chronic bronchitis is defined as a productive cough that lasts for three months or more per year for at least two years.[8] Most people with chronic ...
Kakinuma, Takashi; Hwang, Sam T. (2006-04-01). "Chemokines, chemokine receptors, and cancer metastasis". Journal of Leukocyte ... including the onset of a process known as chemotaxis that traffics the cell to a desired location within the organism. ... Inflammatory chemokines are expressed upon leukocyte activation, whereas homeostatic chemokines show continual expression.[3] ... This role of chemokine is strikingly similar to their normal function of localizing leukocytes to an inflammatory site.[4] ...
cell chemotaxis. • G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling. • ... leukocyte migration. • ERBB2 signaling pathway. • phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate biosynthetic process. • axon guidance. • ...
monocyte chemotaxis. • protein phosphorylation. • inflammatory response. • leukocyte cell-cell adhesion. • adenylate cyclase- ...
Premature activation of leukocytes and inhibition of phagocytosis and chemotaxis by alpha-hemolysin, if they occur in vivo, ... Many hemolysins are pore-forming toxins (PFT), which are able to cause the lysis of erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets by ... Another interesting point is that pretreatment of leukocytes with doses of alpha-hemolysin at which nearly 80% of the cells ... "Effect of Escherichia coli alpha-hemolysin on human peripheral leukocyte function in vitro". Infect. Immun. 37 (3): 966-74. ...
Stimulation of blood leukocytes[edit]. 13-HODE (and 9-HODE) are moderately strong stimulators of the directed migration (i.e. ... chemotaxis) of cow and human neutrophils in vitro[48] whereas 13(R)-HODE (and 9(R)-HODE, and 9(S)-HODE) are weak stimulators of ... of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 260 (7): 4508-15. PMID 3920219.. .mw-parser-output ... to a far greater extent than any other type of leukocyte.[64] The mechanism responsible for 13-HODE's impact on airway ...
chemotaxis. • cell chemotaxis. • chemokine-mediated signaling pathway. • leukocyte migration involved in inflammatory response ... dendritic cell chemotaxis. • cellular defense response. • humoral immune response. • immune response. • positive regulation of ... dendritic cell chemotaxis. • signal transduction. • calcium-mediated signaling. • ...
In humans MHC is also called human leukocyte antigen (HLA). Though cytotoxic-crossmatch assay can predict rejection mediated by ... chemotaxis). ...
leukocyte migration. • cell adhesion mediated by integrin. • platelet activation. • apoptotic cell clearance. • regulation of ... negative chemotaxis. • positive regulation of endothelial cell proliferation. • tube development. • heterotypic cell-cell ...
chemotaxis/degranulation:. *Leukocyte adhesion deficiency *LAD1. *LAD2. *Chédiak-Higashi syndrome. *Neutrophil-specific granule ... leukocyte precursor cells). CHS can be diagnosed prenatally by examining a sample of hair from a fetal scalp biopsy or testing ... abnormalities in nuclear structure of leukocytes, anemia, and hepatomegaly. Döhle bodies (remnants of endoplasmic reticulum) in ... leukocytes from a fetal blood sample.[8]. Under light microscopy the hairs present evenly distributed, regular melanin granules ...
chemotaxis/degranulation:. *Leukocyte adhesion deficiency *LAD1. *LAD2. *Chédiak-Higashi syndrome. *Neutrophil-specific granule ...
During leukocyte extravasation, white blood cells move in response to cytokines from within the blood, into the diseased or ... infected tissues, usually in the same direction as a chemical gradient[1], in a process called chemotaxis. The presence of ...
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Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 93 (4): 521-8. doi:10.1189/jlb.0712328. PMID 23345392.. ... β-arrestin signaling mediated by the chemokine receptor CXCR3 was necessary for full efficacy chemotaxis of activated T cells.[ ... "Cannabinoid Receptor 2 (CB 2 ) Signals via G-alpha-s and Induces IL-6 and IL-10 Cytokine Secretion in Human Primary Leukocytes ... "Biased agonists of the chemokine receptor CXCR3 differentially control chemotaxis and inflammation". Science Signaling. 11 ...
... is inflammation of the brain.[5] Severity is variable.[1] Symptoms may include headache, fever, confusion, a stiff neck, and vomiting.[1] Complications may include seizures, hallucinations, trouble speaking, memory problems, and problems with hearing.[1] Causes of encephalitis include viruses such as herpes simplex virus and rabies as well as bacteria, fungi, or parasites.[1][2] Other causes include autoimmune diseases and certain medications.[2] In many cases the cause remains unknown.[2] Risk factors include a weak immune system.[2] Diagnosis is typically based on symptoms and supported by blood tests, medical imaging, and analysis of cerebrospinal fluid.[2] Certain types are preventable with vaccines.[5] Treatment may include antiviral medications (such as acyclovir), anticonvulsants, and corticosteroids.[1] Treatment generally takes place in hospital.[1] Some people require artificial respiration.[1] Once the immediate problem is under control, rehabilitation may be required.[2] ...
Sagittal magnetic resonance images of ankle region: psoriatic arthritis. (a) Short tau inversion recovery (STIR) image, showing high signal intensity at the Achilles tendon insertion (enthesitis, thick arrow) and in the synovium of the ankle joint (synovitis, long thin arrow). Bone marrow oedema is seen at the tendon insertion (short thin arrow). (b, c) T1 weighted images of a different section of the same patient, before (panel b) and after (panel c) intravenous contrast injection, confirm inflammation (large arrow) at the enthesis and reveal bone erosion at tendon insertion (short thin arrows ...
Chemotaxis[edit]. Neutrophils undergo a process called chemotaxis via amoeboid movement, which allows them to migrate toward ... Ignatov DY (2012). Functional heterogeneity of human neutrophils and their role in peripheral blood leukocyte quantity ... In leukocytes responding to a chemoattractant, the cellular polarity is regulated by activities of small Rho guanosine ... 2006). "Neisseria gonorrhoeae delays the onset of apoptosis in polymorphonuclear leukocytes". Cell Microbiol. 8 (11): 1780-90. ...
Other leukocytes to enter the area include helper T cells, which secrete cytokines to cause more T cells to divide and to ... Granulocyte, macrophage, fibroblast and smooth muscle cell chemotaxis. *Granulocyte, macrophage and fibroblast activation ... Increased porosity of blood vessels also facilitates the entry of inflammatory cells like leukocytes into the wound site from ... extensive injury to skin also promotes the early trafficking of a unique subclass of leukocytes (circulating fibrocytes) to the ...
Ligands that activate DP2 stimulate the in vitro chemotaxis (i.e. directed migration) of leukocytes active in mediating ... chemotaxis. • positive regulation of G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway. • immune response. • neuropeptide ... DP2 was found to stimulate the directed movement or chemotaxis of human T-helper type 2 cells (see T helper cell#Th1/Th2 Model ... stimulates the in vitro chemotaxis of CD8+ cells, although the contribution of this to the in vivo function of DP2 has not been ...
VLA-4 is found on leukocytes and endothelial cells, and facilitates chemotaxis; it also binds VCAM-1 ... Leukocyte adhesion deficiency[edit]. Main article: Leukocyte adhesion deficiency. Leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) is a ... Leukocyte extravasation, less commonly called diapedesis, is the movement of leukocytes out of the circulatory system and ... Transmigration of the leukocyte occurs as PECAM proteins, found on the leukocyte and endothelial cell surfaces, interact and ...
negative regulation of leukocyte chemotaxis. • T cell differentiation. • positive regulation of Rho protein signal transduction ...
Glucocorticoids also stimulate the lipocortin-1 escaping to the extracellular space, where it binds to the leukocyte membrane ... receptors and inhibits various inflammatory events: epithelial adhesion, emigration, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, respiratory ...
... chemotaxis leukocyte include Non-invasive Imaging of the Innate Immune Response in a Zebrafish Larval Model of Streptococcus ... Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an ...
Depressed Mononuclear Leukocyte Chemotaxis in Thermally Injured Patients. Leonard C. Altman, Clifton T. Furukawa, Seymour J. ... Depressed Mononuclear Leukocyte Chemotaxis in Thermally Injured Patients. Leonard C. Altman, Clifton T. Furukawa, Seymour J. ... Depressed Mononuclear Leukocyte Chemotaxis in Thermally Injured Patients Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... Depressed Mononuclear Leukocyte Chemotaxis in Thermally Injured Patients. Leonard C. Altman, Clifton T. Furukawa and Seymour J ...
J MacDermot, P Kefalas, M Yadollahi-Farsani, BA Saxty; ADP-Ribosyltransferase-1 and Leucocyte Chemotaxis. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 ... C1q-mediated chemotaxis by human neutrophils: involvement of gClqR and G-protein signalling mechanisms Biochem J (February,1998 ... A Pak- and Pix-dependent branch of the SDF-1α signalling pathway mediates T cell chemotaxis across restrictive barriers Biochem ... of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 is not required for glycosaminoglycan-dependent transendothelial chemotaxis Biochem J ( ...
THE ROLE OF SERUM COMPLEMENT IN CHEMOTAXIS OF LEUKOCYTES IN VITRO. Peter A. Ward, Charles G. Cochrane, Hans J. Müller-Eberhard ... THE ROLE OF SERUM COMPLEMENT IN CHEMOTAXIS OF LEUKOCYTES IN VITRO. Peter A. Ward, Charles G. Cochrane, Hans J. Müller-Eberhard ... chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) in vitro was studied employing various agents that fixed serum complement (C ...
Leukocyte Chemotaxis and Migration: Can We Follow the Cells? You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, ... Leukocyte Chemotaxis and Migration: Can We Follow the Cells?. Anesthesiology 9 2010, Vol.113, 512-513. doi:10.1097/ALN. ... Although the molecular mechanisms of leukocyte chemotaxis during inflammation have been investigated with great detail,1 the ... Michel Carles, Jean-Francois Pittet; Leukocyte Chemotaxis and Migration: Can We Follow the Cells?. Anesthesiology 2010;113(3): ...
Chemotaxis of leukocytes in response to synthetic MIP-3α. (a) T cells; (b) monocytes; (c) neutrophils. The response to MIP-3α ... Figure 3: Chemotaxis of leukocytes in response to synthetic MIP-3α. (a) T cells; (b) monocytes; (c) neutrophils. The response ... Figure 3: Chemotaxis of leukocytes in response to synthetic MIP-3α. (a) T cells; (b) monocytes; (c) neutrophils. The response ... Mentions: Synthetic MIP-3α was tested at concentrations of 10−6 to 10−10 M in chemotaxis assays to characterize the leukocyte ...
LEUKOCYTE LOCOMOTION AND CHEMOTAXIS : NEW METHODS FOR EVALUATION, AND DEMONSTRATION OF A CELL-DERIVED CHEMOTACTIC FACTOR Sally ... Sally H. Zigmond, James G. Hirsch; LEUKOCYTE LOCOMOTION AND CHEMOTAXIS : NEW METHODS FOR EVALUATION, AND DEMONSTRATION OF A C ... Polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) locomotion and chemotaxis have been evaluated by direct microscopic observation of individual ... In both systems the results indicate that under certain conditions leukocytes, and in particular PMNs, release into the medium ...
... and adhesion essential for chemotaxis. Our current understanding of chemotaxis indicates that several signaling pathways act in ... Y721 is the most important for chemotaxis because it recruits phospholipase-C-γ (PL C-γ) and the p85 subunit of class 1A PI3Ks ... The design and testing of inhibitors of signal transduction molecules involved in migration and chemotaxis will be an important ... and they probably act together to allow optimal chemotaxis. Cdc42 is implicated in multiple types of cell polarity, including ...
title = "Prolactin suppression of leukocyte chemotaxis in vitro",. abstract = "Leukocyte chemotaxis in vitro was studied for ... Leukocyte chemotaxis in vitro was studied for cells from patients with pituitary adenomas. Leukocytes obtained preoperatively ... N2 - Leukocyte chemotaxis in vitro was studied for cells from patients with pituitary adenomas. Leukocytes obtained ... AB - Leukocyte chemotaxis in vitro was studied for cells from patients with pituitary adenomas. Leukocytes obtained ...
Multistep Navigation and the Combinatorial Control of Leukocyte Chemotaxis Ellen F. Foxman Ellen F. Foxman ... Combinatorial regulation of chemotaxis. Leukocyte homing during step-by-step navigation is determined by the combination and ... Combinatorial regulation of chemotaxis. Leukocyte homing during step-by-step navigation is determined by the combination and ... Chemotaxis under agarose: a new and simple method for measuring migration of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes ...
Leukocyte Chemotaxis: Methods, Physiology and Clinical Implications. EDITED BY JOHN I. GALLIN AND PAUL G. QUIE, New York, Raven ... Leukocyte Chemotaxis: Methods, Physiology and Clinical Implications. EDITED BY JOHN I. GALLIN AND PAUL G. QUIE, New York, Raven ... Leukocyte Chemotaxis: Methods, Physiology and Clinical Implications. EDITED BY JOHN I. GALLIN AND PAUL G. QUIE, New York, Raven ... CHARLES W. GRAHAM; Leukocyte Chemotaxis: Methods, Physiology and Clinical Implications. EDITED BY JOHN I. GALLIN AND PAUL G. ...
Leukocyte" by people in this website by year, and whether "Chemotaxis, Leukocyte" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Chemotaxis, Leukocyte" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Chemotaxis, Leukocyte" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Chemotaxis, Leukocyte". ...
title = "Psoriasis and leukocyte chemotaxis",. abstract = "Transepidermal migration of leukocytes, with resultant formation of ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Psoriasis and leukocyte chemotaxis. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * ... Psoriasis and leukocyte chemotaxis. / Tagami, H.; Iwatsuki, K.; Takematsu, H.. In: Journal of Investigative Dermatology, Vol. ... Tagami H, Iwatsuki K, Takematsu H. Psoriasis and leukocyte chemotaxis. Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 1987 Jan 1;88(3 ...
Mixed leukocyte reaction. A total of 105 responding T cells from an unrelated individual (allogeneic MLR) were cultured in 96- ... TGF-β1 up-regulates the chemotaxis of iDCs. To examine the effect of TGF-β1 on the chemotaxis of iDCs in response to CC and CXC ... Assay for chemotaxis. The in vitro migration of iDCs or mDCs was assessed in a 24-well Transwell cell culture chamber (Costar ... 7⇑). These findings suggest that TGF-β1 may also enhance the chemotaxis to RANTES, MIP-3α, and SDF-1α via up-regulation of the ...
EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENT OF LEUKOCYTE RANDOM MOTILITY AND CHEMOTAXIS PARAMETERS AND THEIR DEPENDENCE UPON CHEMOATTRACTANT ... EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENT OF LEUKOCYTE RANDOM MOTILITY AND CHEMOTAXIS PARAMETERS AND THEIR DEPENDENCE UPON CHEMOATTRACTANT ... EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENT OF LEUKOCYTE RANDOM MOTILITY AND CHEMOTAXIS PARAMETERS AND THEIR DEPENDENCE UPON CHEMOATTRACTANT ... Tranquillo R, Lauffenburger D, Zigmond S. EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENT OF LEUKOCYTE RANDOM MOTILITY AND CHEMOTAXIS PARAMETERS AND ...
Cite this item: Jalilzadeh, A. (2015). Effect of chemokine superdiffusion on leucocyte chemotaxis (Thesis, Doctor of Philosophy ... Chemotaxis is the major cytotaxic mechanism that leads the movement of phagocytes in the tissue towards the harmful agents. ... Keywords: Chemotaxis; Mathematical Modelling; Immune Response; Modelling Acute Inflammation; Anomalous Diffusion; Fractional ... This thesis examines the consequences of anomalous diffusion of chemokines on the chemotaxis of phagocytes in the event of ...
Find out information about leukocyte chemotaxis. see taxis taxis , movement of animals either toward or away from a stimulus, ... such as light , heat , chemicals , gravity , and touch . The turning movements... Explanation of leukocyte chemotaxis ... chemotaxis. (redirected from leukocyte chemotaxis). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical. chemotaxis:. see taxistaxis ... Leukocyte chemotaxis , Article about leukocyte chemotaxis by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/ ...
Effect of Aspirin on Leukocyte Chemotaxis in 3DLA Units. Chemotaxis on the HCMSMC side of the 3DLA units was found in only 10% ... Three-dimensional human coronary in vitro models of leukocyte attack (3DLA models) focus on leukocyte adhesion and chemotaxis ... In 3DLA units, the effect of aspirin (5 mmol/L) on TNF-α-stimulated leukocyte adhesion, chemotaxis, ICAM-1 expression, and the ... on the chemotaxis of leukocytes from the HCAEC side to the HCMSMC side of the 3DLA units is depicted in Figure 5⇓. ...
Title: Chemotaxis signal relay in controlling leukocyte trafficking in inflammation and cancer Guest Speaker: Dr. Ji-Ming Wang ... Chemotaxis signal relay in controlling leukocyte trafficking in inflammation and cancer. Published date 2014-11-14 Provided by ... Leukocyte accumulation at the sites of inflammation and immune responses is the key event in host defense against pathogenic ... Ji Ming Wangs laboratory studies the role of chemoattractant GPCRs in disease and discovered several "chemotaxis signal relay ...
Effects of dapsone on passive Arthus reaction and chemotaxis and phagocytosis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. In: Archives of ... Effects of dapsone on passive Arthus reaction and chemotaxis and phagocytosis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. / Ruzicka, ... title = "Effects of dapsone on passive Arthus reaction and chemotaxis and phagocytosis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes", ... Effects of dapsone on passive Arthus reaction and chemotaxis and phagocytosis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. ...
... Academic Article ... chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) in vitro was studied employing various agents that fixed serum complement (C ...
The data shown above demonstrate that BLTR is essential for leukocyte chemotaxis. However, chemotaxis is a slow process lasting ... This mouse reveals that BLTR alone is responsible for LTB4-mediated leukocyte calcium flux, chemotaxis, and firm adhesion to ... 1995) in Physiology and Pathophysiology of Leukocyte Adhesion, Modulation of leukocyte rolling in vivo, eds D.N. Granger, ... Recent studies suggest that chemoattractant-induced chemotaxis and arrest are distinct leukocyte functions, suggesting that ...
... polypeptide and a human leukocyte adhesion inhibitor-1 (LAI-1) polypeptide (previously termed chemokine α1(CKα1 or ckα-1), as ... For the chemotaxis assays, labeled cells were resuspended as 4-8 106 /ml and 25 μl (1-2 105 cells) added to the top of a ... Based on co-culture experiments with leukocytes, it appears that LAI-1 can actually decrease P1 integrin levels on leukocytes ... The ability of LAI-1 to block leukocyte adhesion to HUVEC monolayers appears to be directed towards the leukocytes since LAI- ...
After 6 h of incubation, the leukocyte chemotaxis level (quantitated as the number of leukocytes inside the glass chamber) was ... Leukocyte chemotaxis of fresh hamster serum is higher than that of mouse and is due to complement. To explore if complement is ... chemotaxis of leukocytes. Virulent trophozoites of E. histolytica (5 × 104) were resuspended in 60 µl of fresh or heat- ... Chemotaxis of mice peritoneal leukocytes by hamster and mouse fresh sera plus. amoebae. Figure 3 ...
leukocyte chemotaxis IBA Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor. more info. PubMed ...
leukocyte chemotaxis IBA Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor. more info. PubMed ... Role of CXCL5 in leukocyte recruitment to the lungs during secondhand smoke exposure. Balamayooran G, et al. Am J Respir Cell ... Chemokines, which recruit and activate leukocytes, are classified by function (inflammatory or homeostatic) or by structure. ... Chemokine signaling pathway, conserved biosystemInflammatory immune response requires the recruitment of leukocytes to the site ...
Comparison of leukocyte chemotaxis across monolayers of resting and activated HMEC-1. The number of migrant THP-1 cells on the ... Transendothelial leukocyte chemotaxis. A series of experiments was performed to assess the potential of RANTES to induce ... and for stabilisation of the concentration gradients necessary for leukocyte chemotaxis (Adams and Lloyd, 1997; Ali et al., ... Chemotaxis assay. HMEC-1 monolayers were propagated on 24-well format transwell membranes (3μ m pore; Falcon plastic) by ...
chemotaxis. leukocytes. keratinocytes. in chronic dermatitis (psoriasis, atopic dermatitis). Cys-LT. (LTC4. LTD4. LTE4). -. ...
Chemotaxis, Leukocyte * Cytokines / pharmacology * Epithelial Cells / chemistry* * Epithelial Cells / metabolism * Humans * ... Chemotaxis assays were used to test functionality of the secreted protein. Human bronchial epithelial cells secreted relatively ...
Chemotaxis, Leukocyte * Disease Models, Animal * Endothelial Cells / immunology * Fibroblasts / immunology * Fibroblasts / ...
  • In further studies of various N-formylated oligopeptides, fMLF proved the most potent in stimulating rabbit neutrophil chemotaxis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Illustration of the all-on-chip method for neutrophil chemotaxis analysis using the microfluidic device. (phys.org)
  • A team of researchers from the University of Manitoba in collaboration with local clinical scientists in Winnipeg, Canada, have developed a new method for rapid neutrophil chemotaxis test directly from a small drop of whole blood using a microfluidic system. (phys.org)
  • In this direction, the present method provides easy-to-use microfluidic devices for efficient on-chip magnetic negative neutrophil isolation from a small drop of whole blood using reagents from a new commercial kit followed by neutrophil chemotaxis assay all on the same device. (phys.org)
  • The method was successfully validated by testing neutrophil chemotaxis to both purified chemoattractant (i.e. fMLP) and clinical samples (sputum from patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease). (phys.org)
  • The traditional cell preparation method significantly limits the efficiency of neutrophil chemotaxis experiment and makes it difficult to run the test in clinical settings. (phys.org)
  • An all-on-chip method for testing neutrophil chemotaxis induced by fMLP and COPD patient's sputum, TECHNOLOGY (2016). (phys.org)
  • Further, a Ca 2+ -requiring plasma membrane phospholipase A 2 (12) can release arachidonic acid, whose metabolites are likely involved in the modulation of neutrophil chemotaxis and secretion (13,14). (springer.com)
  • 1976. Calcium influx requirement for human neutrophil chemotaxis. (springer.com)
  • Knockout of the ATP receptor (P2X1) in neutrophil-like differentiated HL-60 cells recovered neutrophil chemotaxis. (pnas.org)
  • Increased intracellular calcium stopped neutrophil chemotaxis by activating MLC through the MLCK-dependent pathway. (pnas.org)
  • These data identify a previously unknown function of LPS-induced autocrine ATP signaling in inhibiting neutrophil chemotaxis by enhancing MLC phosphorylation, which provides important evidence that stoppage of neutrophil chemotaxis at infectious foci plays a key role for the defense against invading pathogens. (pnas.org)
  • Although the neutrophil recruitment cascade during inflammation has been well described, the molecular players that halt neutrophil chemotaxis remain unclear. (pnas.org)
  • Treatment with an antagonist of the ATP receptor (P2X1) in primary human neutrophils or knockout of the P2X1 receptor in neutrophil-like differentiated HL-60 (dHL-60) cells recovered neutrophil chemotaxis. (pnas.org)
  • One example of these conflicting data is neutrophil chemotaxis towards the bacterial peptide formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP). (biologists.org)
  • Although the principal stimulus that triggers the phenomenon of massive PMNL migration from the vasculature to the epidermis is unknown, several new pathways involved directly and indirectly with neutrophil chemotaxis have been the topic of recent investigations. (medscape.com)
  • As controls for the chemotaxis we used 100 nM each of MCP-1 for T cells and monocytes and IL-8 for neutrophils (closed circles). (nih.gov)
  • Although the molecular mechanisms of leukocyte chemotaxis during inflammation have been investigated with great detail, 1 the measurement of the migration of immune cells into organs or body cavities still rely on the lavage of these cavities to obtain immune cells, or on the sampling of tissues for quantification of markers of immune cell activity, such as the myeloperoxidase produced by neutrophils. (asahq.org)
  • To understand leukocyte navigation in such settings, we have explored the migratory behavior of neutrophils in model scenarios where they are presented with two chemoattractant sources in various configurations. (rupress.org)
  • Leukotriene B 4 (LTB 4 ) is a potent chemoattractant active on multiple leukocytes, including neutrophils, macrophages, and eosinophils, and is implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of inflammatory processes. (rupress.org)
  • Given these clues and knowledge that bacteria transcribe (see Transcription (genetics)) proteins starting with N-formylmethionine whereas eukaryotic cells mostly initiate protein synthesis with non-formylated methionine, Schiffmann, Corcoran, and Wahl theorized and then showed that N-formyl-methionine and a series N-formyl-methionyl dipeptides and tripeptides stimulated the chemotaxis of neutrophils isolated from rabbit peritoneal exudates as well as of macrophages isolated from guinea pig peritoneal exudates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The migration of leukocytes such as neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes into inflamed lesions is one of the critical events of inflammation. (tokushima-u.ac.jp)
  • 1979. Localization of submembraneous cations to the leading end of human neutrophils during chemotaxis. (springer.com)
  • Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes in humans and the first blood cells to arrive at infectious sites as part of the innate cellular immune response. (pnas.org)
  • N -Formyl-Met-Leu-Phe induced chemotaxis in phosphoinositide 3-kinase γ (PI3K)γ -/- neutrophils, and promotes adhesion, polymerization of F-actin, Fcγ receptor-mediated phagocytosis and intracellular Ca 2+ release. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • N -Formyl-Met-Leu-Phe is a chemotactin peptide, which functions on polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), neutrophils etc. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Long-term chemotaxis assays using a pan-PI3K inhibitor, a PI3Kδ-specific inhibitor or PI3Kγ-knockout neutrophils, demonstrated no role for PI3K in mediating chemotaxis to fMLP, regardless of the steepness of the fMLP gradient. (biologists.org)
  • By the use of chambers containing two compartments with an interposed micropore filter, chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN's) in vitro was studied employing various agents that fixed serum complement (C'). Antigen-antibody complexes, zymosan, and aggregated human gamma globulin, in the presence of fresh rabbit, guinea pig, or mouse serum resulted in the migration of PMN's through the micropore filter. (rupress.org)
  • Leukocyte Chemotaxis and Migration:Can We Follow the Cells? (asahq.org)
  • 3 In contrast, in vivo studies of the migration of leukocytes into inflamed body cavities have been difficult because of the lack of tools to measure leukocyte trafficking. (asahq.org)
  • First, using fluorescence-mediated tomography, these investigators were able to follow the migration of leukocytes in two important body cavities: the peritoneum and the distal airspaces. (asahq.org)
  • Rho and Rac refine each other's activity during cell polarization and migration, balancing actin polymerization, cell contraction, and adhesion essential for chemotaxis. (asmscience.org)
  • The design and testing of inhibitors of signal transduction molecules involved in migration and chemotaxis will be an important goal for the future. (asmscience.org)
  • Rho GTPase signaling in migration and chemotaxis. (asmscience.org)
  • We propose a multistep model of chemoattractant-directed migration, which requires that leukocytes display multiple chemoattractant receptors for successful homing and provides for combinatorial determination of microenvironmental localization. (rupress.org)
  • Transepidermal migration of leukocytes, with resultant formation of microscopic or macroscopic sterile subcorneal pustules is a phenomenon characteristically noted in psoriasis and related sterile pustular dermatoses. (elsevier.com)
  • Although the traditional function of neutrophil-derived antimicrobial proteases is to ingest and kill bacteria, some neutrophil serine proteases have been shown to induce leukocyte migration and activation. (tokushima-u.ac.jp)
  • Furthermore, the integrated standalone microfluidic gradient generator and cell-docking structure improve the control of cell migration experiment, which enables easier and more accurate chemotaxis analysis. (phys.org)
  • Emerging topics in the regulation of leukocyte transendothelial migration. (harvard.edu)
  • Chemokines function in inflammatory and immunological responses, inducing leukocyte migration and activation. (genecards.org)
  • They coordinate leukocyte migration during immunity and inflammation and are also involved in the pathogenesis of several human diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • By definition leukocyte chemoattraction is the hallmark function of chemokines, however chemokines also induce cellular responses that are unrelated to leukocyte migration such as cell differentiation and activation ( 1 ), apoptosis ( 2 ), development ( 3 ), angiogenesis ( 4 ), or tumor growth and metastasis ( 5 , 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Experiments were performed to determine if an extract of S. stercoralis would trigger eosinophil chemotaxis, and to then compare the chemotactic migration response, including second messenger signals and receptors, to those mechanisms triggered by host chemoattractants. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The effects of C. difficile toxins on the migration and trafficking of other leukocyte subsets, such as T lymphocytes, are not clear and may have potential implications for adaptive immunity. (mdpi.com)
  • Our study demonstrated the primary role of TcdA (compared to TcdB) in altering T cell migration and chemotaxis, suggesting possible implications for C. difficile toxin mediated adaptive immune responses in CDAD. (mdpi.com)
  • 6. The method according to claim 4, wherein the inflammatory responses comprise directed leukocyte migration. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Chemokines are extensively involved in inflammatory/immunological responses due to their unique ability to recruit selective leukocyte subsets ( 18 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Chemokines have been implicated in regulation of normal leukocyte recirculation and homing, and also in certain physiological and pathogenic processes, including hemopoiesis, angiogenesis, allergy, autoimmune diseases, and viral infectious diseases ( 18 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • This thesis examines the consequences of anomalous diffusion of chemokines on the chemotaxis of phagocytes in the event of acute inflammatory responses. (otago.ac.nz)
  • Chemokines, which recruit and activate leukocytes, are classified by function (inflammatory or homeostatic) or by structure. (nih.gov)
  • Chemokines are an important class of chemoattractant cytokines produced locally in tissues that provide the directional cues for the movement of blood-derived leukocytes in development, homeostasis, and inflammation. (bloodjournal.org)
  • After the initial PMN influx, the next stage of inflammation is directed in part by CC chemokines consisting of CCL2/monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, CCL7/MCP-3, CCL8/MCP-2, and CCL13/MCP-4, which target multiple leukocyte subsets (monocytes, T lymphocytes, basophils, and eosinophils). (bloodjournal.org)
  • Further study demonstrated that this kind of effect was CXC chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4) specific, since andrograpanin could not enhance other chemokines, such as RANTES, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), etc. induced cell chemotaxis. (utmb.edu)
  • During rolling, leukocytes get into intimate contact with the endothelial surface, which allows endothelial bound chemokines (i.e. (hindawi.com)
  • Circulating leukocytes are localised towards the site of injury or infection due to the presence of chemokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the same time, chemokines released by macrophages activate the rolling leukocytes and cause surface integrin molecules to switch from the default low-affinity state to a high-affinity state. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokines are a family of structurally related glycoproteins with potent leukocyte activation and/or chemotactic activity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Chemokines are derived from heterogeneous sources and direct leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Both aspects, cell adhesion and chemotaxis, are regulated by members of the family of chemotactic cytokines (chemokines) comprising structurally related and secreted proteins of 67-127 amino acids in length. (bmj.com)
  • Chemokines target all types of leucocyte, including haematopoietic precursors, mature leucocytes of the innate immune system as well as naive, memory, and effector lymphocytes. (bmj.com)
  • The combinatorial diversity in responsiveness to chemokines ensures proper tissue distribution of distinct leucocyte subsets under normal and inflammatory/pathological conditions. (bmj.com)
  • Chemokines have been shown to be selective chemo-attractants for leukocyte sub-populations in vitro and to elicit a selective accumulation of immune cells in vivo . (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition to chemotaxis, chemokines mediate leukocyte degranulation ( 1 ) and adhesion receptor upregulation ( 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Chemokines have an important role in the pathogenesis of RA by recruiting leukocytes and by controlling other important processes, such as release of mediators of inflammation, cell proliferation, and angiogenesis. (frontiersin.org)
  • It is noteworthy that the intensity of the inflammatory cell response in their model of thioglycollate peritonitis was largely underestimated by lavaging the peritoneum, a classic technique that is used to evaluate the number of leukocytes that accumulated in that cavity. (asahq.org)
  • Our study aims at understanding the influences of chemokine gradient field variations on phagocyte chemotaxis and hence on the acute inflammatory response. (otago.ac.nz)
  • The infiltration of inflammatory leukocytes, accumulation of cholesterol-laden macrophages, proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMC), deposition of extracellular matrix, and thrombosis are crucial events that occur in early atherosclerosis and restenosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • BLTR function in leukocyte chemoattraction has been demonstrated in vivo by the ability of synthetic BLTR antagonists to reduce leukocyte recruitment in murine models of inflammatory diseases ( 8 )( 9 )( 10 ). (rupress.org)
  • These oligopeptides are known to be, or mimic the actions of, the N-formyl oligopeptides that are (a) released by tissue bacteria, (b) attract and activate circulating blood leukocytes by binding to specific G protein coupled receptors on these cells, and (c) thereby direct the inflammatory response to sites of bacterial invasion. (wikipedia.org)
  • fMLF led to the first discovery of a leukocyte receptor for a chemotactic factor, defined three different types of fMLF receptors that have complementary and/or opposing effects on inflammatory responses as well as many other activities, and helped define the stimulus-response coupling mechanisms by which diverse chemotactic factors and their G protein coupled receptors induce cellular function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acute inflammation is the host response to tissue injury or infection that is characterized by the production of inflammatory mediators, culminating in the initial but transient recruitment of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) that is followed by a prolonged macrophage accumulation. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Thus, protease-induced leukocyte chemotaxis and activation may play an important role in immunologic events of inflammatory and allergic diseases. (tokushima-u.ac.jp)
  • We investigated leukocyte recruitment after intravenous injection of glucose in different inflammatory models using intravital microscopy. (hindawi.com)
  • In general, leukocytes are involved in the defense of an organism and protect it from disease by promoting or inhibiting inflammatory responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • It acts as an inflammatory agent and activates polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) without the formation of 5-hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE) and leukotriene B 4 (LTB 4 ). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Breakdown in the control of leucocyte mobilisation contributes to chronic inflammatory diseases and, hence, interference with chemokine function is a promising approach for the development of novel anti-inflammatory medication. (bmj.com)
  • Zinc has been shown to inhibit the inflammatory polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemotaxis in acne patients. (nih.gov)
  • Through the activity of macrophage-specific matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12), we found that macrophages dampen the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced influx of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs)-thus providing a new mechanism for the termination of PMN recruitment in acute inflammation. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 1975. Exocytosis in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes induced by A23187 and calcium. (springer.com)
  • We show that coronary artery ligation in Gdf15 -deficient mice led to enhanced recruitment of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) into the infarcted myocardium and an increased incidence of cardiac rupture. (nature.com)
  • Stimulates chemotaxis, aggregation, and degranulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • determination of the involvement of MAPK-activating protein kinase-2 (MAPKAPK-2) and/or p38, in the signaling pathway of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) stimulated by N-Formyl-Met-Leu-Phe. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Differential counts of cells in nonmastitic goat milk samples during late lactation revealed that approximately 80% of the cells were polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). (asm.org)
  • Somatic cells" is a term which refers to the leukocytes, specifically lymphocytes, macrophages, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), in addition to the small percentage of epithelial cells that is present in milk ( 31 ). (asm.org)
  • In the present study, we used a 3D human coronary in vitro model of LA (3DLA model) to examine the effect of high-dose aspirin on the adhesion and chemotaxis of leukocytes and the reactive proliferative response of SMCs. (ahajournals.org)
  • Three-dimensional human coronary in vitro models of leukocyte attack (3DLA models) focus on leukocyte adhesion and chemotaxis and the triggered proliferative response of cocultured SMCs. (ahajournals.org)
  • In part II of the study, the 3DLA model was used to investigate the effect of high-dose aspirin (5 mmol/L) on the adhesion and chemotaxis of monocytes and CD4 + lymphocytes and on the reactive proliferation of HCMSMCs. (ahajournals.org)
  • This mouse reveals that BLTR alone is responsible for LTB 4 -mediated leukocyte calcium flux, chemotaxis, and firm adhesion to endothelium in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • There are disclosed therapeutic compositions and methods using isolated nucleic acid molecules encoding a human chemokine beta-11 (Ck beta-11) polypeptide and a human leukocyte adhesion inhibitor-1 (LAI-1) polypeptide (previously termed chemokine α1(CKα1 or ckα-1), as well as Ck beta-11 and/or LAI-1. (google.com)
  • There are disclosed therapeutic compositions and methods using isolated nucleic acid molecules encoding a human chemokine beta-11 (Ck beta-11) polypeptide and a human leukocyte adhesion inhibitor-1 (LAI-1) polypeptide (previously termed chemokine α1(CKα1 or ckα-1), as well as Ck beta-11 and/or LAI-1 polypeptides themselves, as are vectors, host cells and recombinant methods for producing the same. (google.com)
  • Notably, during tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α -induced inflammation leukocyte recruitment was not further enhanced by glucose administration, whereas glucose injection profoundly augmented leukocyte adhesion and transmigration into inflamed tissue in the trauma model, indicating that proinflammatory properties of glucose are stimulus dependent. (hindawi.com)
  • The lacking effect of glucose on β 2 integrin expression and on leukocyte adhesion in dynamic flow chamber experiments argues against leukocyte-driven underlying mechanisms and favours an endothelial pathway since endothelial ICAM1 expression was significantly upregulated in response to glucose. (hindawi.com)
  • Leukocyte recruitment into inflamed tissue follows a well-defined cascade of events beginning with the capture of free flowing leukocytes to the vessel wall followed by leukocyte rolling along and adhesion to the inflamed endothelial layer [ 9 , 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Homozygous disruption of this allele confers impaired leukocyte function (chemotaxis, recruitment, firm adhesion). (jax.org)
  • 2000. BLTR mediates leukotriene B(4)-induced chemotaxis and adhesion and plays a dominant role in eosinophil accumulation in a murine model of peritonitis [see comments] J Exp Med 192(3):439-46. (jax.org)
  • Synthetic MIP-3α was tested at concentrations of 10−6 to 10−10 M in chemotaxis assays to characterize the leukocyte populations that responded to this chemokine (Fig. 3). (nih.gov)
  • but these assays require postmortem analyses of leukocyte tissue distribution. (asahq.org)
  • Chemotaxis assays were used to test functionality of the secreted protein. (nih.gov)
  • This unit describes a number of chemotaxis assays that can be used to identify chemoattractants individually and in large‐scale screenings, to distinguish chemotaxis from chemokinesis, and to analyze cellular behavioral and biochemical responses. (currentprotocols.com)
  • Using short- and long-term in vitro assays, as well as an in vivo chemotaxis assay, we investigated the importance of PI3K in response to the prototypic chemoattractant fMLP. (biologists.org)
  • Polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) locomotion and chemotaxis have been evaluated by direct microscopic observation of individual cells in thin slide-cover slip preparations, and also by observations on populations of cells migrating into a Millipore filter. (rupress.org)
  • Leucocyte locomotion and chemotaxis. (springer.com)
  • 11 However, in contrast to the mechanical injury of the endothelium applied in the transfilter coculture technique, 11 only an indirect injury is performed by leukocyte attack (LA) with human monocytes or human CD4 + lymphocytes in the 3DLA model. (ahajournals.org)
  • Dr. Ji Ming Wang's laboratory studies the role of chemoattractant GPCRs in disease and discovered several "chemotaxis signal relay" models for leukocyte trafficking in different pathological conditions. (affittacamere-fucecchio.com)
  • Furthermore, despite the apparent functional redundancy with other chemoattractant-receptor pairs in vitro, LTB 4 and BLTR play an important role in the recruitment and/or retention of leukocytes, particularly eosinophils, to the inflamed peritoneum in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • Furthermore, despite functional redundancy with other chemoattractant-receptor pairs in vitro, LTB 4 and BLTR play important roles in the recruitment and/or retention of leukocytes, particularly eosinophils, in a murine model of peritonitis. (rupress.org)
  • 10 CXCR3-B has been shown to inhibit endothelial cell growth in a B. pertussis toxin-insensitive manner, but it failed to mediate chemotaxis, indicating a role that is distinct from the prototype chemoattractant function. (bmj.com)
  • To determine if BLTR is the sole receptor mediating LTB 4 -induced leukocyte activation and to determine the role of LTB 4 and BLTR in regulating leukocyte function in inflammation in vivo, we generated a BLTR-deficient mouse by targeted gene disruption. (rupress.org)
  • Although chemoattractants constitute a diverse array of molecules, including lipids, proteins, and peptides, they all appear to signal leukocytes through a subgroup of the G protein-coupled, seven transmembrane-spanning family of receptors. (rupress.org)
  • This system of ~50 cytokines and ~20 receptors plays a particularly prominent role in development, homeostasis and activation of leukocytes in the mammalian immune system. (keystonesymposia.org)
  • Therefore, chemoattractants derived from parasites and host species stimulate similar receptors and second messenger signals to induce eosinophil chemotaxis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Chemotaxis typically requires the stimulation of 7 transmembrane pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive G protein-coupled chemokine receptors (GPCR) [ 19 , 20 , 21 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Their receptors couple to the inhibitory heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G i proteins) and elicit a wide range of responses in leukocytes ( 1-3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • It has been found that, although both toxins decrease T cell motility, only TcdA but not TcdB decreases T cell chemotaxis. (mdpi.com)
  • The sequential and regulated recruitment of leukocytes into tissues by chemoattractants is essential for effective clearance of pathogens and healing. (asmscience.org)
  • Leukotriene B 4 (LTB 4 ) primarily mediates leukocyte recruitment and activation. (rupress.org)
  • LTB 4 -mediated leukocyte recruitment is thought to play a protective role in host defense against various pathogens. (rupress.org)
  • Whereas BLTR appears to mediate the proinflammatory leukocyte recruitment induced by LTB 4 , PPARα activation appears to have antiinflammatory effects, as suggested by the observation of prolonged inflammation in PPARα-deficient mice when challenged with LTB 4 or its precursor, arachidonic acid ( 11 ). (rupress.org)
  • Role of CXCL5 in leukocyte recruitment to the lungs during secondhand smoke exposure. (nih.gov)
  • Despite tremendous research on proinflammatory conditions related to hyperglycemia direct effects of glucose on leukocyte recruitment during inflammation are poorly studied [ 6 - 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This process forms part of the innate immune response , involving the recruitment of non-specific leukocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been demonstrated that leukocyte recruitment is halted whenever any of these steps is suppressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Foxp3+-inducible regulatory T cells suppress endothelial activation and leukocyte recruitment. (harvard.edu)
  • Chemotactic cytokines have been shown to modulate leukocyte infiltration in a variety of diseases ( 4 , 12 , 46 ). (asm.org)
  • In general, HU308 administration showed some benefit after LPS administration by reducing the number of adherent leukocytes in both V1 and V3 venules, adding some support to other studies using [CB.sub.2] agonist administration which show a reduction in leukocyte chemotaxis , endothelial interaction and transmigration, and release of proinflammatory mediators in experimental models of endotoxemia [26-29]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Transmigration of the leukocyte occurs as PECAM proteins, found on the leukocyte and endothelial cell surfaces, interact and effectively pull the cell through the endothelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • p120-Catenin regulates leukocyte transmigration through an effect on VE-cadherin phosphorylation. (harvard.edu)
  • Coordinated redistribution of leukocyte LFA-1 and endothelial cell ICAM-1 accompany neutrophil transmigration. (nature.com)
  • Here, we document the expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on the surface of human peripheral blood monocytes but not on other blood leukocyte populations. (pnas.org)
  • Our findings suggest that TGF-β1 reversibly regulates chemotaxis of DCs via regulation of chemokine receptor expression. (jimmunol.org)
  • CXCR2 as the main chemokine receptor on neutrophil leukocytes) on the leukocyte surface. (hindawi.com)
  • CCL18 has been described to mediate various functions such as chemotaxis mediated by G-protein coupling, intracellular calcium mobilization, and actin polymerization, however its classical, signaling chemokine receptor(s), presumably a 7TM GPCR, remains elusive. (frontiersin.org)
  • For example, intravital microscopy techniques have been used to study the interactions between leukocytes and the vascular endothelium. (asahq.org)
  • LFA1 and MAC1) which leads to firm leukocyte arrest on the endothelium. (hindawi.com)
  • Once through the endothelium, the leukocyte must penetrate the basement membrane . (wikipedia.org)
  • Intravital microscopy in vivo in Gdf15 -deficient mice showed that Gdf-15 is required to prevent excessive chemokine-activated leukocyte arrest on the endothelium. (nature.com)
  • 1979. Inhibition of phagocytic metabolic changes of leukocytes by an intracellular calcium antagonist 8-(N,N-diethylamino)-octyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate. (springer.com)
  • The results show that inhibition of either PI3-kinase or PLA2 inhibits chemotaxis in shallow cAMP gradients, whereas both enzymes must be inhibited to prevent chemotaxis in steep cAMP gradients, suggesting that PI3-kinase and PLA2 are two redundant mediators of chemotaxis. (rupress.org)
  • however, additional inhibition of PLA2 completely blocks chemotaxis, whereas inhibition of PI3-kinase has no effect, suggesting that all chemotaxis in plc -null cells is mediated by PLA2. (rupress.org)
  • The results show that inhibition of PI3K and PLA2 strongly reduces chemotaxis. (rupress.org)
  • CXCR4 is constitutively expressed in a wide variety of tissues and cell types, including various subtypes of leukocytes, hematopoietic progenitor cells, and nonhematopoietic cells, such as endothelial and epithelial cells ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • leukocytes and epithelial cells) in milk is used as an indicator of udder health status. (asm.org)
  • Eosinophils undergo both chemotaxis and chemokinesis to soluble parasite extract in transwell plates. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In an effort to identify novel CXCR4 antagonists, we screened a small library of compounds derived from marine organisms and found bryostatin-5, which potently inhibits chemotaxis induced by SDF-1 in Jurkat cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Leukocytes from individuals with warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections, and myelokathexis (WHIM) syndrome, a rare immunodeficiency, and bearing a wild-type CXCR4 ORF (WHIM WT ) display impaired CXCR4 internalization and desensitization upon exposure to CXCL12. (jci.org)
  • Furthermore, CCR3, CXCR4 or CXCR2 antagonists significantly inhibited eosinophil chemotaxis to the parasite extract. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Leukocyte chemotaxis in vitro was studied for cells from patients with pituitary adenomas. (elsevier.com)
  • The substances that induce chemotaxis vary from organism to organism. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Treating the extract with proteinase K or chitinase significantly inhibited its ability to induce chemotaxis, thereby demonstrating that the chemoattractants were both protein and chitin. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • What are the signaling pathways that mediate chemotaxis in pi3k -null cells? (rupress.org)
  • This suggest that PI3-kinase-mediated chemotaxis is regulated by PLC, probably through controlling PIP 2 levels and phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) activity, whereas chemotaxis mediated by PLA2 appears to be controlled by intracellular Ca 2+ . (rupress.org)
  • Some studies have suggested that this might be the case for chemoattractants such as IL8, whereas chemotaxis to other stimuli, such as the bacterial peptide N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP), might occur normally in the absence of PI3K activity. (biologists.org)
  • These studies demonstrate that BLTR is the key receptor that mediates LTB 4 -induced leukocyte activation and establishes a model to decipher the functional roles of BLTR and LTB 4 in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • 4 These PMN chemoattractants contain a conserved Glu-Leu-Arg (ELR) motif proximal to the CXC sequence, which is critical in cognate receptor binding and activation, 5 as well as PMN chemotaxis. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Cells with deletion of the IP 3 receptor have the opposite phenotype: chemotaxis is completely dependent on PI3-kinase and insensitive to PLA2 inhibitors. (rupress.org)
  • Micromolar glutamate stimulated neuronal chemotaxis that was mimicked by μ m NMDA but not by other ionotropic glutamate receptor agonists (AMPA, kainate, quisqualate). (jneurosci.org)
  • Stimulation of mature DCs with TGF-β1 also enhanced TNF-α-induced down-regulation of the expressions of CCR-1, CCR-3, CCR-5, CCR-6, and CXCR-4, and chemotaxis to their respective ligands, while this stimulation suppressed TNF-α-induced expression of CCR-7 and chemotactic migratory ability to MIP-3β. (jimmunol.org)
  • This may enhance leukocyte extravasation at sites of inflammation. (biologists.org)
  • Leukocyte extravasation , less commonly called diapedesis , is the movement of leukocytes out of the circulatory system and towards the site of tissue damage or infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leukocyte extravasation occurs mainly in post-capillary venules , where haemodynamic shear forces are minimised. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leukocyte accumulation at the sites of inflammation and immune responses is the key event in host defense against pathogenic insults. (affittacamere-fucecchio.com)
  • It is natural to assume the presence of potent neutrophil chemotactic substances in the subcorneal portion of the lesional epidermis, because this location is the target of the in vivo leukocyte chemotaxis. (elsevier.com)
  • N-Formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLF, fMLP or N-formyl-met-leu-phe) is an N-formylated tripeptide and sometimes simply referred to as chemotactic peptide is a potent polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) chemotactic factor and is also a macrophage activator. (wikipedia.org)
  • To identify antagonists of this signaling pathway, we screened a small library of compounds derived from marine organisms (Supplementary Fig. S1 A ) and found a class of macrolactones, bryostatins, with potent inhibitory activity against SDF-1-induced chemotaxis in a human acute T-cell leukemia cell line (Jurkat). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Potent inducer of leucocyte chemotaxis and macrophage activator. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Chemotaxis toward different cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) concentrations was tested in Dictyostelium discoideum cell lines with deletion of specific genes together with drugs to inhibit one or all combinations of the second-messenger systems PI3-kinase, phospholipase C (PLC), phospholipase A2 (PLA2), and cytosolic Ca 2+ . (rupress.org)
  • Chemotaxis is the major cytotaxic mechanism that leads the movement of phagocytes in the tissue towards the harmful agents. (otago.ac.nz)
  • In addition, integrin-dependent signaling events induce cytoskeletal rearrangements and cell polarization, modifications necessary in helping to prepare the attached leukocyte to spread and crawl in search for its wayout of the vasculature into tissue [ 10 - 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Several intracellular signaling complexes contribute to the polarization of phagocytes in response to chemoattractants, and they probably act together to allow optimal chemotaxis. (asmscience.org)
  • PI3K activity, resulting in the accumulation of PIP 3 along the leading edge of a chemotaxing cell, has been proposed to be an indispensable signaling event that is required for cells to undergo chemotaxis to endogenous and exogenous chemoattractants. (biologists.org)
  • Although PI3K has been demonstrated to be a central pathway in the chemotaxis of some cell types, it is not clear whether PI3K is a universal pathway for chemotaxis, or a pathway only used by some cell types and/or some chemoattractants. (biologists.org)
  • the movement of cells (zoospores, spermatozoids, leukocytes) and freely moving plants and protozoans in response to chemical stimuli. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In response to a variety of extracellular stimuli, actin filament assembly at the leading edge of motile cells causes protrusion during cell crawling and chemotaxis, nerve growth and cell. (qiagen.com)
  • This process is believed to be a major mechanism of gradient amplification in migrating cells and has been proposed to be indispensable for chemotaxis to all stimuli. (biologists.org)
  • Studied calcium flux in leukocyte chemotaxis. (kenyon.edu)
  • The binding of PSGL-1 on the leukocyte to P-selectin on the endothelial cell allows for the leukocyte to roll along the endothelial surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5. The method according to claim 1, wherein the endogenous immune response stimulated by the at least one endogenous factor and the exogenous immune response stimulated by the at least one exogenous factor are leukocyte responses. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Analysis of the data as a function of time revealed that patients who died generally had depressed chemotaxis immediately postburn and that their cells showed no functional improvement with time. (jimmunol.org)
  • Female sexual cells of the aquatic fungus Allomyces release the isoprenoid syrenin, a stimulus of chemotaxis of male sexual cells toward female cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Background -Leukocyte attack (LA) and the triggered reactive proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are key events for the development of early atherosclerosis and restenosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Furthermore, the integrated cell-docking feature permits cell pre-alignment in the device before chemotaxis experiment, and therefore it can provide instant chemotaxis test result at the end of the experiment based on the final positions of the cells," says Professor Francis Lin in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Manitoba and Principal Investigator of this study. (phys.org)
  • In the current study, we showed one of its components, andrograpanin, could enhance chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) induced chemotaxis in Jurkat and THP-1 cells. (utmb.edu)
  • White blood cells (leukocytes) perform most of their functions in tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the carbohydrate ligand for P-selectin, P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), is expressed by different types of leukocytes (white blood cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • The cytoskeletons of the leukocytes are reorganised in such a way that the leukocytes are spread out over the endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this form, leukocytes extend pseudopodia and pass through gaps between endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inducible overexpression of zebrafish microRNA-722 suppresses chemotaxis of human neutrophil like cells. (harvard.edu)
  • Figure 6: Blockade of leukocyte integrins or deficiency of β 2 integrins in myeloid cells rescues the mortality of Gdf15 -KO mice after myocardial infarction. (nature.com)
  • and may be useful for studying leukocyte function in inflammation, as well as the role of the LTB4-BLT1 pathway linking early immune system activation and multiple classes of acquired immune effector cells. (jax.org)
  • Here, we first determine the chemotaxis response of Dictyostelium cells to static folic acid gradients and show that they can significantly exceed this sensitivity, responding to gradients as shallow as 0.2% across the cell body. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Like velcro, carbohydrate ligands on the circulating leukocytes bind to selectin molecules on the inner wall of the vessel, with marginal affinity . (wikipedia.org)
  • Our current understanding of chemotaxis indicates that several signaling pathways act in concert to induce cell polarization, including Cdc42, Par proteins, PAK/PIX, and PI3Ks. (asmscience.org)
  • Further research is required for clearer understanding of the series of events resulting in the leukocyte chemotaxis, as well as for the elucidation of the background immunoregulatory mechanisms. (elsevier.com)
  • In both systems the results indicate that under certain conditions leukocytes, and in particular PMNs, release into the medium a factor stimulating locomotion and exerting chemotactic action on PMNs in the vicinity. (rupress.org)
  • Leukocyte Chemotaxis:Methods, Physiology and Clinical Implications. (asahq.org)
  • Likewise, blocking PI3K, tyrosine kinase, p38 and p44/42 inhibited eosinophil chemotaxis to parasite extract. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Herein, we systematically analyze the role of PI3K in mediating chemotaxis to fMLP, both in vitro and in vivo. (biologists.org)
  • Since normal mononuclear leukocytes (MNL) function is essential in host defense, the chemotactic response of MNL from 25 thermally injured patients was evaluated in vitro . (jimmunol.org)
  • Monolayers of cytokine-stimulated HMEC-1 also supported an enhanced leukocyte chemotactic response towards RANTES. (biologists.org)
  • Fourth, this study also suggests that the potential use of optical imaging to follow leukocytes trafficking in humans as fluorescence reflectance imaging techniques can easily be miniaturized. (asahq.org)
  • Vasospastic deregulation is ensuing in activation of circulating leukocytes. (molvis.org)