Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Leukocyte Rolling: Movement of tethered, spherical LEUKOCYTES along the endothelial surface of the microvasculature. The tethering and rolling involves interaction with SELECTINS and other adhesion molecules in both the ENDOTHELIUM and leukocyte. The rolling leukocyte then becomes activated by CHEMOKINES, flattens out, and firmly adheres to the endothelial surface in preparation for transmigration through the interendothelial cell junction. (From Abbas, Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 3rd ed)Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Chemotactic Factors: Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.N-Formylmethionine Leucyl-Phenylalanine: A formylated tripeptide originally isolated from bacterial filtrates that is positively chemotactic to polymorphonuclear leucocytes, and causes them to release lysosomal enzymes and become metabolically activated.Dictyostelium: A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.Cell Migration Assays, Leukocyte: Assays that measure the rate of migration of LEUKOCYTES. They may involve a variety of techniques such as measuring the movement of leukocytes through substrates such as AGAROSE gels or the rate of exit of cells from a glass capillary.Leukocyte Elastase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of proteins, including elastin. It cleaves preferentially bonds at the carboxyl side of Ala and Val, with greater specificity for Ala. EC 3.4.21.37.Cell Migration Inhibition: Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Secretory Leukocyte Peptidase Inhibitor: A proteinase inhibitor found in various BODILY SECRETIONS that coat mucosal surfaces such as SEMINAL PLASMA; CERVICAL MUCUS; and bronchial secretions. It plays a role in protecting epithelial tissues from LEUKOCYTE-derived serine proteases such as NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE.Chemokines, CXC: Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Venules: The minute vessels that collect blood from the capillary plexuses and join together to form veins.Receptors, Chemokine: Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Complement C5a: The minor fragment formed when C5 convertase cleaves C5 into C5a and COMPLEMENT C5B. C5a is a 74-amino-acid glycopeptide with a carboxy-terminal ARGININE that is crucial for its spasmogenic activity. Of all the complement-derived anaphylatoxins, C5a is the most potent in mediating immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE), smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION; HISTAMINE RELEASE; and migration of LEUKOCYTES to site of INFLAMMATION.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Chemokine CXCL12: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.Leukocyte Transfusion: The transfer of leukocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.Receptors, Interleukin-8B: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.P-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates the adhesion of neutrophils and monocytes to activated platelets and endothelial cells.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Receptors, Formyl Peptide: A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that was originally identified by its ability to bind N-formyl peptides such as N-FORMYLMETHIONINE LEUCYL-PHENYLALANINE. Since N-formyl peptides are found in MITOCHONDRIA and BACTERIA, this class of receptors is believed to play a role in mediating cellular responses to cellular damage and bacterial invasion. However, non-formylated peptide ligands have also been found for this receptor class.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Mice, Inbred C57BLMacrophage-1 Antigen: An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1: A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.Receptors, Interleukin-8A: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Leukotriene B4: The major metabolite in neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It stimulates polymorphonuclear cell function (degranulation, formation of oxygen-centered free radicals, arachidonic acid release, and metabolism). (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)Neutrophil Activation: The process in which the neutrophil is stimulated by diverse substances, resulting in degranulation and/or generation of reactive oxygen products, and culminating in the destruction of invading pathogens. The stimulatory substances, including opsonized particles, immune complexes, and chemotactic factors, bind to specific cell-surface receptors on the neutrophil.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Leukocyte-Adhesion Deficiency Syndrome: Rare, autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of the beta 2 integrin receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION) comprising the CD11/CD18 family of glycoproteins. The syndrome is characterized by abnormal adhesion-dependent functions, especially defective tissue emigration of neutrophils, leading to recurrent infection.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Chemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.L-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that serves as a homing receptor for lymphocytes to lymph node high endothelial venules.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Leukocyte Adherence Inhibition Test: Test for cell-mediated antitumor immunity and related serum blocking factors based on the finding that leukocytes from cancer patients, but not from controls, when mixed in vitro with antigenic extracts of tumors of the same histological type, undergo a diminution in their normal adherence to glass surfaces. Sera from tumor-bearing patients block the LAI reaction of their own leukocytes or those of other patients with the same type of tumor.Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1: An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.Chemokines, CC: Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.Receptors, CXCR4: CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Receptors, Leukocyte-Adhesion: Family of proteins associated with the capacity of LEUKOCYTES to adhere to each other and to certain substrata, e.g., the C3bi component of complement. Members of this family are the LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; (LFA-1), the MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; (Mac-1), and the INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2 or p150,95 leukocyte adhesion protein. They all share a common beta-subunit which is the CD18 antigen. All three of the above antigens are absent in inherited LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME, which is characterized by recurrent bacterial infections, impaired pus formation, and wound healing as well as abnormalities in a wide spectrum of adherence-dependent functions of granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphoid cells.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Neutrophil Infiltration: The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.E-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates neutrophil, monocyte, and memory T-cell adhesion to cytokine-activated endothelial cells. E-selectin recognizes sialylated carbohydrate groups related to the Lewis X or Lewis A family.Receptors, CCR2: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Microscopy, Video: Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.Pseudopodia: A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.Chemoreceptor Cells: Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.N-Formylmethionine: Effective in the initiation of protein synthesis. The initiating methionine residue enters the ribosome as N-formylmethionyl tRNA. This process occurs in Escherichia coli and other bacteria as well as in the mitochondria of eucaryotic cells.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Chemokine CCL5: A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.Receptors, Amino Acid: Cell surface proteins that bind amino acids and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors are the most common receptors for fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the vertebrate central nervous system, and GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and glycine receptors are the most common receptors for fast inhibition.Selectins: Transmembrane proteins consisting of a lectin-like domain, an epidermal growth factor-like domain, and a variable number of domains that are homologous to complement regulatory proteins. They are important cell adhesion molecules which help LEUKOCYTES attach to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Complement C5: C5 plays a central role in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C5 is cleaved by C5 CONVERTASE into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. The smaller fragment C5a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of inflammatory process. The major fragment C5b binds to the membrane initiating the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components, C5-C9, into the MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Chemokine CXCL1: A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1: Cytokine-induced cell adhesion molecule present on activated endothelial cells, tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, bone marrow fibroblasts, myoblasts, and myotubes. It is important for the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, p154)Chemokine CCL19: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Cell Aggregation: The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Chemokine CCL7: A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.Receptors, Lipoxin: Cell surface proteins that bind LIPOXINS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Granulocytes: Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.ZymosanMethylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins: Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Receptors, CXCR3: CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Chemokine CX3CL1: A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.rac GTP-Binding Proteins: A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Pancreatic Elastase: A protease of broad specificity, obtained from dried pancreas. Molecular weight is approximately 25,000. The enzyme breaks down elastin, the specific protein of elastic fibers, and digests other proteins such as fibrin, hemoglobin, and albumin. EC 3.4.21.36.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Class Ib Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase: A phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase subclass that includes enzymes formed through the association of a p110gamma catalytic subunit and one of the three regulatory subunits of 84, 87, and 101 kDa in size. This subclass of enzymes is a downstream target of G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Monocyte Chemoattractant Proteins: Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Respiratory Burst: A large increase in oxygen uptake by neutrophils and most types of tissue macrophages through activation of an NADPH-cytochrome b-dependent oxidase that reduces oxygen to a superoxide. Individuals with an inherited defect in which the oxidase that reduces oxygen to superoxide is decreased or absent (GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC) often die as a result of recurrent bacterial infections.Chemokine CCL4: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Receptors, CCR1: CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.Peritonitis: INFLAMMATION of the PERITONEUM lining the ABDOMINAL CAVITY as the result of infectious, autoimmune, or chemical processes. Primary peritonitis is due to infection of the PERITONEAL CAVITY via hematogenous or lymphatic spread and without intra-abdominal source. Secondary peritonitis arises from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY itself through RUPTURE or ABSCESS of intra-abdominal organs.Receptors, Leukotriene B4: A class of cell surface leukotriene receptors with a preference for leukotriene B4. Leukotriene B4 receptor activation influences chemotaxis, chemokinesis, adherence, enzyme release, oxidative bursts, and degranulation in polymorphonuclear leukocytes. There are at least two subtypes of these receptors. Some actions are mediated through the inositol phosphate and diacylglycerol second messenger systems.Chemokine CCL21: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.Leukocyte Disorders: Disordered formation of various types of leukocytes or an abnormal accumulation or deficiency of these cells.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Integrin alpha4: An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Superoxides: Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Receptor, Anaphylatoxin C5a: A G-protein-coupled receptor that signals an increase in intracellular calcium in response to the potent ANAPHYLATOXIN peptide COMPLEMENT C5A.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Proteinase Inhibitory Proteins, Secretory: Peptides and proteins found in BODILY SECRETIONS and BODY FLUIDS that are PROTEASE INHIBITORS. They play a role in INFLAMMATION, tissue repair and innate immunity (IMMUNITY, INNATE) by inhibiting endogenous proteinases such as those produced by LEUKOCYTES and exogenous proteases such as those produced by invading microorganisms.Chemokines, CX3C: Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.Activated-Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule: Cell adhesion molecule expressed on activated leukocytes, fibroblasts, and neurons. It is a ligand for CD6. ALCAM-CD6 interactions may play a role in the binding of T and B cells to activated leukocytes.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Mice, Inbred BALB CPertussis Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Skin Window Technique: A technique to study CELL MIGRATION in the INFLAMMATION process or during immune reactions. After an area on the skin is abraded, the movement of cells in the area is followed via microscopic observation of the exudate through a coverslip or tissue culture chamber placed over the area.Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled: The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Chemokine CCL3: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Receptors, CCR3: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Receptors, CCR7: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Cathepsin G: A serine protease found in the azurophil granules of NEUTROPHILS. It has an enzyme specificity similar to that of chymotrypsin C.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Peroxidase: A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 1.11.1.7.Microfluidic Analytical Techniques: Methods utilizing the principles of MICROFLUIDICS for sample handling, reagent mixing, and separation and detection of specific components in fluids.Leukocytosis: A transient increase in the number of leukocytes in a body fluid.Thioglycolates: Organic esters of thioglycolic acid (HS-CH2COOH).Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Azospirillum brasilense: A species of motile, free-living, gram-negative bacteria that occur in the soil. They are aerobic or microaerophilic and are sometimes capable of nitrogen fixation.Platelet Activating Factor: A phospholipid derivative formed by PLATELETS; BASOPHILS; NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES. It is a potent platelet aggregating agent and inducer of systemic anaphylactic symptoms, including HYPOTENSION; THROMBOCYTOPENIA; NEUTROPENIA; and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Spirochaeta: A genus of flexible, spiral rods found in hydrogen sulfide-containing mud, sewage, and polluted water. None of the species properly referred to in this genus are pathogenic.Receptors, CCR5: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.Oxyquinoline: An antiseptic with mild fungistatic, bacteriostatic, anthelmintic, and amebicidal action. It is also used as a reagent and metal chelator, as a carrier for radio-indium for diagnostic purposes, and its halogenated derivatives are used in addition as topical anti-infective agents and oral antiamebics.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Histocompatibility Testing: Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Umbilical Veins: Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.Chemokine CXCL2: A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Chemokine CCL11: A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Nitroblue Tetrazolium: Colorless to yellow dye that is reducible to blue or black formazan crystals by certain cells; formerly used to distinguish between nonbacterial and bacterial diseases, the latter causing neutrophils to reduce the dye; used to confirm diagnosis of chronic granulomatous disease.Cell Degranulation: The process of losing secretory granules (SECRETORY VESICLES). This occurs, for example, in mast cells, basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils, and platelets when secretory products are released from the granules by EXOCYTOSIS.Integrin alpha4beta1: Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Complement C5a, des-Arginine: A derivative of complement C5a, generated when the carboxy-terminal ARGININE is removed by CARBOXYPEPTIDASE B present in normal human serum. C5a des-Arg shows complete loss of spasmogenic activity though it retains some chemotactic ability (CHEMOATTRACTANTS).Microfluidics: The study of fluid channels and chambers of tiny dimensions of tens to hundreds of micrometers and volumes of nanoliters or picoliters. This is of interest in biological MICROCIRCULATION and used in MICROCHEMISTRY and INVESTIGATIVE TECHNIQUES.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Capillary Permeability: The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Platelet-Derived Growth Factor: Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.Cell Surface Extensions: Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Chemotactic Factors, Eosinophil: Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.Chemokine CXCL10: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Cell SeparationPhosphatidylinositol Phosphates: Phosphatidylinositols in which one or more alcohol group of the inositol has been substituted with a phosphate group.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.HLA-G Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by alleles on locus B of the HLA complex. The HLA-G antigens are considered non-classical class I antigens due to their distinct tissue distribution which differs from HLA-A; HLA-B; and HLA-C antigens. Note that several isoforms of HLA-G antigens result from alternative splicing of messenger RNAs produced from the HLA-G*01 allele.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Blood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.Telomere Shortening: The loss of some TELOMERE sequence during DNA REPLICATION of the first several base pairs of a linear DNA molecule; or from DNA DAMAGE. Cells have various mechanisms to restore length (TELOMERE HOMEOSTASIS.) Telomere shortening is involved in the progression of CELL AGING.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Lysophospholipids: Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDIC ACIDS that lack one of its fatty acyl chains due to its hydrolytic removal.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Lipoxins: Trihydroxy derivatives of eicosanoic acids. They are primarily derived from arachidonic acid, however eicosapentaenoic acid derivatives also exist. Many of them are naturally occurring mediators of immune regulation.

Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, generates two bioactive products during the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein: use of a novel inhibitor. (1/4263)

A novel and potent azetidinone inhibitor of the lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), i.e. platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, is described for the first time. This inhibitor, SB-222657 (Ki=40+/-3 nM, kobs/[I]=6. 6x10(5) M-1.s-1), is inactive against paraoxonase, is a poor inhibitor of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase and has been used to investigate the role of Lp-PLA2 in the oxidative modification of lipoproteins. Although pretreatment with SB-222657 did not affect the kinetics of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation by Cu2+ or an azo free-radical generator as determined by assay of lipid hydroperoxides (LOOHs), conjugated dienes and thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances, in both cases it inhibited the elevation in lysophosphatidylcholine content. Moreover, the significantly increased monocyte chemoattractant activity found in a non-esterified fatty acid fraction from LDL oxidized by Cu2+ was also prevented by pretreatment with SB-222657, with an IC50 value of 5.0+/-0.4 nM. The less potent diastereoisomer of SB-222657, SB-223777 (Ki=6.3+/-0.5 microM, kobs/[I]=1.6x10(4) M-1.s-1), was found to be significantly less active in both assays. Thus, in addition to generating lysophosphatidylcholine, a known biologically active lipid, these results demonstrate that Lp-PLA2 is capable of generating oxidized non-esterified fatty acid moieties that are also bioactive. These findings are consistent with our proposal that Lp-PLA2 has a predominantly pro-inflammatory role in atherogenesis. Finally, similar studies have demonstrated that a different situation exists during the oxidation of high-density lipoprotein, with enzyme(s) other than Lp-PLA2 apparently being responsible for generating lysophosphatidylcholine.  (+info)

Non-serum-dependent chemotactic factors produced by Candida albicans stimulate chemotaxis by binding to the formyl peptide receptor on neutrophils and to an unknown receptor on macrophages. (2/4263)

Serum-free culture filtrates of six Candida species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were found to contain chemoattractants for human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and a mouse macrophage-like cell line, J774. The chemotactic factors differed for the PMN and J774 cells, however, in terms of heat stability, kinetics of liberation by the yeast cells, and divalent cation requirements for production. The chemoattractant in Candida albicans culture filtrates appeared to act through the formyl peptide receptor (FPR) of PMNs, since it was found to induce chemotaxis of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells that were expressing the human FPR but did not induce chemotaxis of wild-type CHO cells. The C. albicans culture filtrates also induced migration of PMNs across confluent monolayers of a human gastrointestinal epithelial cell line, T84; migration occurred in the basolateral-to-apical direction but not the reverse direction, unless the epithelial tight junctions were disrupted. J774 cells did not migrate toward the formylated peptide (fMet-Leu-Phe; fMLF), and chemotaxis toward the C. albicans culture filtrate was not inhibited by an FPR antagonist (t-butoxycarbonyl-Met-Leu-Phe), suggesting that a different receptor mediated J774 cell chemotaxis. In conclusion, we have identified a receptor by which a non-serum-dependent chemotactic factor (NSCF) produced by C. albicans induced chemotaxis of PMNs. Additionally, we have shown that NSCF was active across epithelial monolayers. These findings suggest that NSCFs produced by C. albicans and other yeast species may influence host-pathogen interactions at the gastrointestinal tract mucosal surface by inducing phagocytic-cell infiltration.  (+info)

Interleukin-8: A pathogenetic role in antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated glomerulonephritis. (3/4263)

BACKGROUND: In neutrophil trafficking, the role of interleukin-8 (IL-8) is location dependent. Tissue IL-8 directs transmigration, whereas intravascular IL-8 frustrates this process. The bystander damage of glomerular endothelium by antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-activated neutrophils is believed to be an early event in the pathogenesis of ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis. We have studied the role of IL-8 in this process. METHODS: Intraglomerular expression of IL-8 in patients with ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis was studied by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry and location of neutrophils by serial section immunohistochemistry. In vitro, we analyzed ANCA-stimulated neutrophil IL-8 production by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the IL-8 attributable effect of ANCA-stimulated neutrophil supernatant by chemotactic and transendothelial assays. RESULTS: There was intraglomerular expression of IL-8 at segmental, crescentic, and parietal epithelial sites. IL-8 protein expression colocalized to intraglomerular neutrophils; many localized within glomerular capillary loops, suggesting failed trafficking to tissue IL-8. ANCAs differentially stimulated time- and dose-dependent neutrophil IL-8 production, and ANCA-stimulated neutrophil supernatant demonstrated potent IL-8-dependent chemotactic activity and inhibited transendothelial migration of normal human neutrophils toward an IL-8 gradient. CONCLUSION: Despite heavy tissue expression of IL-8 in ANCA-associated GN, the production of IL-8 by ANCA-stimulated neutrophils within the intravascular compartment may frustrate neutrophil transmigration, encourage intravascular stasis, and contribute to bystander damage of glomerular endothelial cells.  (+info)

Structural determinants of the eosinophil: chemotactic activity of the acidic tetrapeptides of eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis. (4/4263)

The acidic tetrapeptides of ECF-A, Ala/Val-Gly-Ser-Glu, exhibit peak in vitro chemotactic activity for human eosinophils at concentrations of 3 X 10(-8) M to 10(-6) M, and rapidly deactivate eosinophils to homologous and other stimuli at concentrations as low as 10(-10) M. The analogue Leu-Gly-Ser-Glu reaches peak activity at 10(-8)M-10(-7)M, while Phe-Gly-Ser-Glu requires 10(-4)M to elicit a peak response. Although inversion of the order of glycine and serine does not alter the eosinophil chemotactic activity of the tetrapeptides, deletion of glycine increases by 10-fold the concentration required for peak chemotactic activity, indicating the critical nature of the spacing between NH2- and COOH-terminal residues. The substituent COOH-terminal tripeptide, which is only marginally chemotactic, irreversibly suppresses eosinophil chemotactic responsiveness at a concentration 10,000-fold higher than concentrations necessary for deactivation by the intact tetrapeptide. The high concentration of tripeptide required for this cell directed effect, which is assumed to be analogous to deactivation, is attributed to the absence of the NH2-terminal residue which would facilitate effective interaction with the eosinophil. A substituent NH2-terminal tripeptide and amides of the NH2-terminal amino acids, which are devoid of chemotactic and deactivating activities, reversibly inhibit the tetrapeptide stimulus in a dose-response fashion. The additional finding that the NH2-terminal tripeptide protects the eosinophil from deactivation by the intact tetrapeptide confirms that the competitive interaction is stimulus specific.  (+info)

Bile duct epithelial cells exposed to alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate produce a factor that causes neutrophil-dependent hepatocellular injury in vitro. (5/4263)

The acute hepatotoxicity induced by alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) in rats is manifested as neutrophil-dependent necrosis of bile duct epithelial cells (BDECs) and hepatic parenchymal cells. This hepatotoxicity mirrors that of drug-induced cholangiolitic hepatitis in humans. Since BDECs are primary targets of ANIT-induced toxicity, we hypothesized that after exposure to ANIT, BDECs produce a factor(s) that causes neutrophil chemotaxis and neutrophil-dependent hepatocellular injury. To test this hypothesis BDECs were isolated from male Sprague Dawley rats and incubated with ANIT (6.25, 12.5, 25, or 50 microM) or vehicle for 24 h. The conditioned medium (CM) was collected and placed in the bottom chamber of a two-chambered chemotaxis system, while isolated neutrophils were placed in the top chamber. Chemotaxis was indicated by neutrophil migration through a membrane to the bottom chamber. CM from BDECs exposed to each concentration of ANIT was chemotactic, whereas CM from vehicle-treated BDECs was not. ANIT alone caused a modest degree of chemotaxis at 50 microM. The conditioned media were added to isolated hepatocytes or to hepatocyte-neutrophil cocultures and incubated for 24 h. Hepatocyte toxicity was indicated by alanine aminotransferase release into the culture medium. CM from vehicle-treated BDECs did not cause hepatocyte killing in either hepatocyte-neutrophil cocultures or hepatocyte cultures. In contrast, the addition of CM from ANIT-treated BDECs (CM-BDEC-A) to hepatocyte-neutrophil cocultures resulted in hepatocyte killing. The same CM was not cytotoxic to hepatocyte cultures devoid of neutrophils. The hepatocyte killing could not be explained by residual ANIT in the CM, which was below the limit of detection (< or = 0.5 microM). The addition of antiproteases afforded protection against neutrophil-dependent hepatocellular injury induced by CM-BDEC-A. These results indicate that ANIT causes BDECs to release a factor(s) that attracts neutrophils and stimulates them to injure hepatocytes in vitro.  (+info)

Selective eosinophil transendothelial migration triggered by eotaxin via modulation of Mac-1/ICAM-1 and VLA-4/VCAM-1 interactions. (6/4263)

We have recently cloned eotaxin, a highly efficacious eosinophilic chemokine involved in the development of lung eosinophilia during allergic inflammatory reactions. To understand more precisely how eotaxin facilitates the specific migration of eosinophils, we have studied which adhesion receptors are essential for eotaxin action both in vivo and in vitro. Experiments using mice genetically deficient in adhesion receptors demonstrated that molecules previously reported to be involved in both leukocyte tethering/rolling (P-selectin and E-selectin) and in sticking/ transmigration (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) are required for eotaxin action in vivo. To further elucidate the mechanism(s) involved in this process, we have used an in vitro transendothelial chemotaxis model. mAb neutralization studies performed in this system suggest that the integrins Mac-1 (CD11b/18), VLA-4 (alpha4beta1) and LFA-1 (CD11a/18) are involved in the transendothelial chemotaxis of eosinophils to eotaxin. Accordingly, the expression of these integrins on eosinophils is elevated by direct action of this chemokine in a concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, our results suggest that eotaxin-induced eosinophil transendothelial migration in vivo and in vitro relies on Mac-1/ICAM-1 and VLA-4NCAM-1 interactions, the latter ones becoming more relevant at later time points of the eotaxin-induced recruitment process.  (+info)

Selective recruitment of CCR4-bearing Th2 cells toward antigen-presenting cells by the CC chemokines thymus and activation-regulated chemokine and macrophage-derived chemokine. (7/4263)

Helper T cells are classified into Th1 and Th2 subsets based on their profiles of cytokine production. Th1 cells are involved in cell-mediated immunity, whereas Th2 cells induce humoral responses. Selective recruitment of these two subsets depends on specific adhesion molecules and specific chemoattractants. Here, we demonstrate that the T cell-directed CC chemokine thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) was abundantly produced by monocytes treated with granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or IL-3, especially in the presence of IL-4 and by dendritic cells derived from monocytes cultured with GM-CSF + IL-4. The receptor for TARC and another macrophage/dendritic cell-derived CC chemokine macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) is CCR4, a G protein-coupled receptor. CCR4 was found to be expressed on approximately 20% of adult peripheral blood effector/memory CD4+ T cells. T cells attracted by TARC and MDC generated cell lines predominantly producing Th2-type cytokines, IL-4 and IL-5. Fractionated CCR4+ cells but not CCR4- cells also selectively gave rise to Th2-type cell lines. When naive CD4+ T cells from adult peripheral blood were polarized in vitro, Th2-type cells selectively expressed CCR4 and vigorously migrated toward TARC and MDC. Taken together, CCR4 is selectively expressed on Th2-type T cells and antigen-presenting cells may recruit Th2 cells expressing CCR4 by producing TARC and MDC in Th2-dominant conditions.  (+info)

Effect of leukocytes on corneal cellular proliferation and wound healing. (8/4263)

PURPOSE: To establish whether fucoidin, by blocking the adhesion of leukocytes on the limbal vascular endothelium, prevents extravasation of the cells from the blood stream into the limbal stroma and the wounded area after corneal injury. Successful leukocyte blocking enabled investigation of the influence of leukocytes on corneal cellular proliferation after corneal wounding. METHODS: Thirty-two New Zealand White rabbits were used. Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and a standardized alkali corneal wound were used as models in two sets of experiments. In half of the injured rabbits fucoidin was used to prevent leukocytes from leaving the local vessels. The efficiency of the blocking technique was evaluated by counting the number of leukocytes in the limbal and wounded corneal areas. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was used as a marker for proliferative activity. RESULTS: The infiltration of leukocytes into the limbus and the cornea after PRK and alkali injuries can be blocked by fucoidin. The healing rate of corneal epithelium after alkali burn was retarded in the absence of leukocytes. PCNA expression was enhanced in the presence of leukocytes. Fucoidin per se had no influence on corneal cell proliferation and wound healing. CONCLUSIONS: Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) can be prevented from entering the cornea in vivo by fucoidin after PRK and after alkali burn. The corneal epithelial healing rate is delayed in the absence of PMNs in vivo, and PCNA expression increases in the presence of leukocytes.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Prolactin suppression of leukocyte chemotaxis in vitro. AU - Harris, R. D.. AU - Kay, N. E.. AU - Seljeskog, E. L.. AU - Murray, K. J.. AU - Douglas, S. D.. PY - 1979/1/1. Y1 - 1979/1/1. N2 - Leukocyte chemotaxis in vitro was studied for cells from patients with pituitary adenomas. Leukocytes obtained preoperatively from two of three patients with elevated serum prolactin levels demonstrated chemotaxic alterations described in other malignant disease. Statistically significant suppression of chemotaxis occurred in the leukocytes of four of 12 specimens from normal donors at concentrations of 1000 ng/ml, and in four of eight specimens at 2000 ng/ml of prolactin in preincubation media. Thus prolactin concentration may influence the motility of leukocytes. The variable neoplastic behavior of morphologically similar pituitary adenomas may, in part, reflect a neurohormonally altered host response to the presence of these lesions.. AB - Leukocyte chemotaxis in vitro was studied for ...
Methods Quiescent cultured RASMCs were pretreated with E2 or vehicle for 24 hours before tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α was added. After 6 hours of treatment, total RNA was extracted from cells using TRIzol reagent, and SYBR green real-time RT-PCR was used to detect expression of CINC-2 mRNA. Conditioned media was collected and concentrated to measure CINC-2 protein level by ELISA. To assess neutrophil chemotactic activity of conditioned media, in vitro chemotaxis assays were performed using differentiated HL-60 cells in a 96-well modified Boyden chamber appropriate for the evaluation of leukocyte chemotaxis. The nonselective ER antagonist ICI-182780 was given to cells 2 hours prior to E2 incubation to study the mechanism of E2 effect. ...
The sequential and regulated recruitment of leukocytes into tissues by chemoattractants is essential for effective clearance of pathogens and healing. The Rho GTPases Cdc42, Rac, and Rho are important for establishing and maintaining migratory polarity. Most chemoattractants for phagocytes signal either through seven transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) or tyrosine kinase receptors. Y721 is the most important for chemotaxis because it recruits phospholipase-C-γ (PL C-γ) and the p85 subunit of class 1A PI3Ks, both of which are implicated in the initiation of chemotaxis. Several intracellular signaling complexes contribute to the polarization of phagocytes in response to chemoattractants, and they probably act together to allow optimal chemotaxis. Cdc42 is implicated in multiple types of cell polarity, including axon specification, yeast mating, and epithelial polarity. There are several PLC isoforms, of which PLCβ2 and PLCβ3 are activated by GPCR signaling in neutrophils, whereas PLCβ
Lymphocyte chemotaxis in inflammation. VIII. Demonstration of lymphocyte chemotactic lymphokines in PPD-induced delayed hypersensitivity skin reaction site in t
Chemotaxis is the primary mechanism by which cell movements are directed within multicellular organisms, and it is a major component of embryonic development, wound healing, and immune responses. Chemotaxis involves a complex cascade of events--formation of signaling complexes, receptor polarization, adhesion molecule activation, and cytoskeletal reorganization. Previous assay methods were limited in several ways that reduced users abilities to obtain quantitative data or to control conditions precisely. We describe a unique chemotactic assay that can incorporate multiple chemotactic gradients in different spatial and temporal combinations. In addition, this assay is easily adapted for live-cell imaging and fluorescent microscopy. With its relative simplicity, flexibility, and precision, this method is a key tool for the study of cellular chemotactic responses and the signaling processes underlying them. ...
The Notch signaling pathway is a well-conserved signaling pathway. As known so far Notch signaling is engaged in physiological processes in pulmonary hypertension (PAH). As shown recently, a significant increase of perivascular numbers of macrophages (CD68(+)) and monocytes (CD14(+)) can be observed in PAH. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of the Notch signaling pathway in the migration of human monocytes.. Human monocytes were isolated from venous blood, taken from healthy donors. For the chemotactic assays modified 48-well microchemotaxis chambers were used. Cells migrated through a 5 µm pore sized cellulose membrane filter for 45 min in a humidified atmosphere against a gradient of the substances tested (fMLP, Jagged-1, DLL-4). Migration depth of the cells was quantified microscopically by measuring the distance [µm] from the surface of the filters to the leading front of the cells.. The Notch ligands DLL-4 and Jagged-1 significantly stimulated direct and indirect migration ...
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To gain further insight into the effects of calcium influx on neutrophil chemotaxis, we depleted the calcium in the under-agarose chemotaxis models using a calcium-free solution and EGTA. We observed that the inhibitory effects of LPS on neutrophil chemotaxis were impaired in the presence of calcium-depleted medium (Fig. 3C). Moreover, using a calcium ionophore ionomycin to stimulate neutrophils, a sustained calcium influx was observed and chemoattractant-induced neutrophil chemotaxis was dramatically inhibited (SI Appendix, Fig. S7A). The sustained calcium influx appeared to be required for initiating stop signal of neutrophil chemotaxis. Previous reports displayed that intracellular calcium was necessary for neutrophil migration (19). Therefore, we further clarified the effects of calcium on neutrophil migration. Different chemoattractant-induced calcium mobilization patterns were found to be inconsistent (20, 21). We noted that different from stimulation of IL-8, a rapid increase in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Three forms of monocyte-derived neutrophil chemotactic factor (MDNCF) distinguished by different lengths of the amino-terminal sequence. AU - Teizo, Yoshimura. AU - Robinson, Elizabeth A.. AU - Appella, Ettore. AU - Matsushima, Kouji. AU - Showalter, Stephen D.. AU - Skeel, Alison. AU - Leonard, Edward J.. PY - 1989/1. Y1 - 1989/1. N2 - Human monocyte-derived neutrophil chemotactic factor (MDNCF) was purified from culture supernatant of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes on a column of Sepharose-bound murine monoclonal anti-MDNCF. About 65% of the culture fluid chemotactic activity was bound to the column. The unbound 35% probably represents chemotactic activity of other cytokines in the culture fluid. More than 85% of the bound activity was eluted by pH 2.5 glycine buffer. When this material was applied to an HPLC-CM column, gradient elution produced four well-separated A280 peaks, each of which had chemotactic activity. N-terminal amino ...
JS Parmar, D Bilton, ER Chilvers, DA Lomas; The Selective Chemotactic Effect of α1-Antitrypsin Polymers for Human Peripheral Blood Neutrophils. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 July 2002; 103 (s47): 56P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs103056P. Download citation file:. ...
Dendritic cells are believed to be crititcal in both initiating and modulating immune responses (32). Central to their role as immune sentinels is their ability to capture, process, and transport Ag to secondary lymphoid tissues where they serve as potent APCs capable of stimulating T cells in T cell areas. Trafficking of both T cells and dendritic cells to lymphoid organs followed by precise microenvironmental localization is necessary for efficient immune surveillance and is thought to be directed by chemokines (12). 6Ckine, a recently discovered CC chemokine (13, 14, 15), has been shown to be expressed by HEV in lymph nodes (16, 17), is capable of rapidly triggering integrin binding to vascular ligands (18), and is a potent chemoattractant for T lymphocytes (14, 15, 16, 17, 19), making it a leading candidate for mediating T cell homing. 6Ckine is also expressed by endothelial cells in lymphatic venules (17), the major route of dendritic cell entry into lymph nodes (33), suggesting that it may ...
The chemokinetic inhibitory factor (CIF) is a recently described B-cell derived lymphokine that mediates a chemokinetic inhibitory effect on human polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) migration. In the present report the interaction of CIF with the neutrophil plasma membrane was studied. Normal human peripheral blood neutrophils and purified neutrophil plasma membranes selectively removed biologic activity from CIF-containing concentrates obtained during the purification procedure from conditioned medium. Removal was obtained at both 4 degrees C and 37 degrees C. Furthermore, HL-60 cells treated with dimethyl sulfoxide removed CIF activity (granulocyte-like cells) but HL-60 cells treated with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (macrophage-like cells) did not. Purified human blood monocytes, cells from the macrophage-like U-937 cell line and cells from the basophilic leukemia cell line KU-812 did not remove CIF. These studies suggest that neutrophils express specific binding sites for ...
Human granulocytes were stimulated by means of a micropipette, with an orifice of about 0.2 micrometer in diameter, which contained fMet-Leu-Phe at a concentration of 10(−5) M. The cells were reorientated by extending lamellipodia towards the source of the attractant, often within less than 10 s. Any part of the granulocyte, from the front to the tip of the tail, could be stimulated to produce new lamellipodia. Usually, but not always, this response occurred at the side of the cell nearest to the micropipette. Cells stimulated from behind responded in one of the following ways: (1) Cells that maintained their polarity extended new lamellipodia at one side of the leading front and reorientated by moving in a U-turn towards the micropipette. Occasionally, the leading front was split because one part of the front tried to make a left-hand and the other a right-hand turn. (2) Formation of lamellipodia at the leading front was arrested and new lamellipodia were formed at the tail instead, ...
Harbord, M W N, Marks, D J B, Forbes, A, Bloom, S L, Day, R M and Segal, A W (2006) Impaired neutrophil chemotaxis in Crohns disease relates to reduced production of chemokines and can be augmented by granulocyte-colony stimulating factor. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 24 (4). pp. 651-660. ISSN 0269-2813 Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy ...
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In article ,9411040146.AA25636 at eliris.med.yale.edu,, lolis at ELIRIS.MED.YALE.EDU (elias lolis) wrote: , Does anyone have any strong opinions on what the most effective apparatus is , for doing neutrophil chemotaxis assays? The Boyden-chamber seems to be , heavily used but there appear to be other systems that do the job. Specifically, , does anyone know the relative advantages/disadvantages of using the 48-well , microchamber from Neuroprobe or any of the products sold by Costar. I am , a protein biochemist who will shortly set up to do these chemotaxis assays , (Ive never done them before) and any help or references would be appreciated. , , Elias Dear Elias, The Costar transwells are small, relatively cheap, disposable items. It is possible to culture cells on the filters and observe penetration through the monolayer. They are simple to set up but use a lot of solutions and require you to cut out each filter from the frame by hand, which is quite a pain. I dont know if Costar has ...
To date, we have not tested the fixation of cells in gel inside the observation area of µ-Slide Chemotaxis. From tube formation assays, we generally know that fixation, permeabilization, blocking, and staining of cells on Matrigel™ is possible. Therefore, it should also be possible to do immunostainings in the 3D chemotaxis assay. In this case, we recommend removing the liquid from one reservoir and successively filling the second reservoir with the different solutions. We can assume that the incubation time should be increased by a factor of 4, in order to give the solutions sufficient time to diffuse into the observation area. The filling of liquids should be carefully done, in order not to push out the gel from the observation area.. ...
Proposed path for GC chemotaxis induced by netrin binding with DCC receptors.Solid arrows indicate the prevalent direction of chemical reactions, the dashed arr
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Neutrophils play a critical role in host defense against invading pathogens. Chemotaxis, the directed migration of cells, allows neutrophil to seek out the sites of inflammation and infection. Neutrophil chemotaxis as well as other type of cell migration are considered as cycles composed of highly orchestrated steps. Recently the underlying signaling mechanisms of neutrophil chemotaxis are better understood with the studies in knockout mice and neutrophil-like cell lines: a number of signaling molecules in neutrophil chemotaxis have been identified, and a feedback loop-based model of "frontness" and "backness" pathways has been proposed to explain the establishment of neutrophil polarity and chemotaxis. However, the signaling mechanisms that control actin cytoskeleton reorganization and interaction between the cells and the substratum on which cells migrate are still not fully understood. In my first research project, we have identified a signaling pathway, mediated by non-receptor tyrosine ...
In addition to the steepness of the gradient, the context in which a cell perceives a chemoattractant gradient can have a profound effect on their response to the chemotactic stimulus. For example, both our group (Heit et al., 2005) and others (Ferguson et al., 2007) have demonstrated that neutrophil chemotaxis to fMLP is profoundly impacted by the makeup of the substratum upon which the cell is crawling. For example, ligands for LFA-1, MAC-1 and VLA-4 need to be present to get a full chemotactic response to fMLP (Heit et al., 2005). Moreover, Ferguson et al. have demonstrated profound differences in the chemotaxis of neutrophils to fMLP on glass verses protein substrata (Ferguson et al., 2007). These profound differences in the behavior of neutrophils, based on the substratum they are crawling upon, demonstrate that careful selection of the substratum is an important factor when selecting or designing chemotactic assays, especially in mammalian systems. In this regard, we have used a ...
Chemokinesis is chemically prompted kinesis, a motile response of unicellular prokaryotic or eukaryotic organisms to chemicals that cause the cell to make some kind of change in their migratory/swimming behaviour. Changes involve an increase or decrease of speed, alterations of amplitude or frequency of motile character, or direction of migration. However, in contrast to chemotaxis, chemokinesis has a random, non-vectorial moiety, in general. Due to the random character, techniques dedicated to evaluate chemokinesis are partly different from methods used in chemotaxis research. One of the most valuable ways to measure chemokinesis is computer-assisted (see, e.g., Image J) checker-board analysis, which provides data about migration of identical cells, whereas, in Protozoa (e.g., Tetrahymena), techniques based on measurement of opalescence were also developed. Becker EL (1977). "Stimulated neutrophil locomotion: chemokinesis and chemotaxis". Arch Pathol Lab Med. 101 (10): 509-13. PMID 199132. ...
El Annan J, Goyal S, Zhang Q, Freeman GJ, Sharpe AH, Dana R. Regulation of T-cell chemotaxis by programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in dry eye-associated corneal inflammation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51 (7) :3418-23.
The heterogeneity of the H460 large cell lung cancer cell line was investigated by selecting for chemokinetic cells from a CON population that demonstrated both chemokinesis and chemotaxis. Using Boyden chambers, cells that migrated under chemokinetic conditions were collected and their numbers expanded. Time-lapsed microscopy under isotropic conditions showed that KINE cells moved faster and changed directions more frequently than CON confirming their chemokinetic character. KINE cells which lacked stable focal adhesion were also less adhesive to culture plates compared to CON cells which had focal adhesions at the leading edge shown by phospho-Paxillin-tyr118 antibody labeling. Weak substrate adhesion in KINE cells may account for motile characteristics of rapid and random movement [16-19]. Furthermore, the selection for increased chemokinesis did not compromise the ability of KINE cells to chemotax. KINE cells were also significantly more invasive compared to CON.. These results underscore ...
Lamb, DJ, Modjtahedi, H, Plant, NJ and Ferns, GAA (2004) EGF mediates monocyte chemotaxis and macrophage proliferation and EGF receptor is expressed in atherosclerotic plaques ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chemokines in ischemia and reperfusion. AU - Frangogiannis, Nikolaos G.. PY - 2007/5. Y1 - 2007/5. N2 - Chemokine signaling plays an important role in the post-ischemic inflammatory response. Overlapping pathways involving reactive oxygen intermediates, Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation, the complement cascade and the nuclear factor (NF)-κB system induce both CXC and CC chemokines in ischemic tissues. Reperfusion accentuates chemokine expression promoting an intense inflammatory reaction. ELR-containing CXC chemokines regulate neutrophil infiltration in the ischemic area, whereas CXCR3 ligands may mediate recruitment of ThI cells. CC chemokines, on the other hand, induce mononuclear cell infiltration and macrophage activation. Evidence suggests that chemokine signaling mediates actions beyond leukocyte chemotaxis and activation, regulating angiogenesis and fibrous tissue deposition. Effective repair of ischemic tissue is dependent on a well-orchestrated cellular response and ...
A team of researchers from the University of Manitoba in collaboration with local clinical scientists in Winnipeg, Canada, have developed a new method for rapid neutrophil chemotaxis test directly from a small drop of whole ...
The outcomes of this study are especially favorable considering the study population, which included older patients (68% over the age of 60 years) and a high proportion of matched unrelated donors (50%) and HLA-mismatched donors (16%); the anticipated incidence of acute GVHD in similar patients is typically more than 50%.31-33 The patients in our study also had major coexisting illnesses, with an intermediate or high comorbidity index26 in almost half the patients. At our institution, by day 180 among patients receiving tacrolimus and methotrexate for prophylaxis after reduced-intensity conditioned HSCT, the rates of acute GVHD are 38.5% for grade II to IV disease and 21.9% for grade III or IV disease. During the same time period in our study, the use of a combination of maraviroc, tacrolimus, and methotrexate resulted in cumulative incidence rates of 23.6% for grade II to IV disease and 5.9% for grade III or IV disease. Results of this study also compare favorably with other studies of ...
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is the endogenous ligand for the sphingosine-1-phophate receptors (S1P1-5) and triggers a number of cellular responses through their stimulation. S1P and its interaction with the S1P receptors play a significant role in a variety of biological processes including vascular stabilization, heart development, lymphocyte homing, and cancer angiogenesis. Agonism of S1P1, especially, has been shown to play an important role in lymphocyte trafficking from the thymus and secondary lymphoid organs, inducing immunosuppression, which has been established as a novel mechanism of treatment for immune diseases and vascular diseases. Sphingosine-1 -phosphate (SlP) has been demonstrated to induce many cellular effects, including those that result in platelet aggregation, cell proliferation, cell morphology, tumor cell invasion, endothelial cell and leukocyte chemotaxis, endothelial cell in vitro angiogenesis, and lymphocyte trafficking. SlP receptors are therefore good targets for a ...
Shop Leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Blocking of monocyte migration induced by supernatant of RA SCL stimulated with TNF-α. Monocyte migration induced by supernatants of RA SCLs (RA6/1 and RA8/3)
Primobolan side effects is a selective agonist of beta2-adrenergic receptors. At therapeutic doses it acts on beta2-adrenergic receptors of smooth muscles of the bronchi, providing pronounced bronchodilator effect, prevents and relieves bronchospasm, increases lung capacity. It prevents the release of histamine, slow reacting substances from mast cells and neutrophil chemotactic factors. It is a small …. Read more ...
Primobolan side effects is a selective agonist of beta2-adrenergic receptors. At therapeutic doses it acts on beta2-adrenergic receptors of smooth muscles of the bronchi, providing pronounced bronchodilator effect, prevents and relieves bronchospasm, increases lung capacity. It prevents the release of histamine, slow reacting substances from mast cells and neutrophil chemotactic factors. It is a small …. Read more ...
Used to investigate chemotaxis of fast or slow migrating adherent cells and non-adherent cells in gel matrices Chemotaxis measurement in real-time Stable gra...
E. Coli (and many other bacteria) rely heavily upon chemotaxis in order to find areas of food and keep out of areas of harmful substances. One of the im...
LC] D. Lauffenburger and P. Calcano, Competition between two microbial populations in a non-mixed environment: Effect of cell random motility, Biotech. and Bioengrg. 25, 2103-2125 (1983 ...
Human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) modulates the function of mature neutrophils by priming for enhanced chemotaxis and oxidative metabolism in response to N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (f-Met-Leu-Phe). Our studies establish a relationship between f-Met-Leu-Phe receptor number and affinity and neutrophil chemotaxis and oxidative metabolism. A brief (5- to 15-min) exposure to physiologic concentrations of GM-CSF (10 pM to 100 pM) enhances f-Met-Leu-Phe-induced neutrophil chemotaxis by 85%, correlating with a rapid threefold increase (46,000/cell to 150,000/cell) in high-affinity neutrophil f-Met-Leu-Phe receptors. More prolonged incubation (1 to 2 hr) of neutrophils with GM-CSF is accompanied by a change to low-affinity f-Met-Leu-Phe receptors (Kd = 29 nM to Kd = 99 nM) concomitant with priming for enhanced neutrophil oxidative metabolism. Moreover, enhanced chemotactic responses to f-Met-Leu-Phe are no longer evident after more prolonged incubation of ...
The presence of neutrophils in the synovial joint of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is thought to be due to the activity of chemotactic factors released by activated cells in the joint. We have shown in this report, for the first time, the abundance of one such factor, interleukin 8 (IL 8), in the synovial fluid of patients both with RA and other non-RA joint diseases, and the spontaneous production of IL 8 mRNA by RA synovial cells in culture. There was no correlation between the levels of chemotactic activity and IL 8 protein, suggesting that other factors with similar neutrophil chemotactic activity are also present in the synovial fluid exudate. In support of this concept neither the level of chemotactic activity nor IL 8 protein levels correlated with neutrophil or leukocyte infiltration, indicating that the mechanism of migration into the inflammatory environment of the joint is complex. Such migration is likely to be due to a number of chemotactic signals in addition to IL 8, which may
By the use of chambers containing two compartments with an interposed micropore filter, chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) in vitro was studied employing various agents that fixed serum complement (C). Antigen-antibody complexes, zymosan, and aggregated human gamma globulin, in the presence of fresh rabbit, guinea pig, or mouse serum resulted in the migration of PMNs through the micropore filter. Pepsin-degraded rabbit antibody or unaltered duck serum containing antibody did not exhibit such activity after addition of antigen. Heating of the serum before treatment or the presence of EDTA prevented the generation of the chemotactic factor. The chemotactic factor could not be generated in whole serum from rabbits genetically deficient in C. However, the defect in this rabbit serum could be corrected by addition of rabbit or human C6. Serum of B10.D2 mice deficient in hemolytic C also yielded poor chemotactic activity. Interaction of the first four reacting components of guinea ...
By the use of chambers containing two compartments with an interposed micropore filter, chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) in vitro was studied employing various agents that fixed serum complement (C). Antigen-antibody complexes, zymosan, and aggregated human gamma globulin, in the presence of fresh rabbit, guinea pig, or mouse serum resulted in the migration of PMNs through the micropore filter. Pepsin-degraded rabbit antibody or unaltered duck serum containing antibody did not exhibit such activity after addition of antigen. Heating of the serum before treatment or the presence of EDTA prevented the generation of the chemotactic factor. The chemotactic factor could not be generated in whole serum from rabbits genetically deficient in C. However, the defect in this rabbit serum could be corrected by addition of rabbit or human C6. Serum of B10·D2 mice deficient in hemolytic C also yielded poor chemotactic activity.. Interaction of the first four reacting components of ...
Bromelain, a mixture of proteases derived from pineapple stem, has been reported to have therapeutic benefits in a variety of inflammatory diseases, including murine inflammatory bowel disease. The purpose of this work was to understand potential mechanisms for this anti-inflammatory activity. Exposure to bromelain in vitro has been shown to remove a number of cell surface molecules that are vital to leukocyte trafficking, including CD128a/CXCR1 and CD128b/CXCR2 that serve as receptors for the neutrophil chemoattractant IL-8 and its murine homologues. We hypothesized that specific proteolytic removal of CD128 molecules by bromelain would inhibit neutrophil migration to IL-8 and thus decrease acute responses to inflammatory stimuli. Using an in vitro chemotaxis assay, we demonstrated a 40% reduction in migration of bromelain- vs. sham-treated human neutrophils in response to rhIL-8. Migration to the bacterial peptide analog fMLP was unaffected, indicating that bromelain does not induce a global ...
C1q, the first component of the classical pathway of the complement system, interacts with various cell types and triggers a variety of cell-specific cellular responses, such as oxidative burst, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, etc. Different biological responses are attributed to the interaction of C1q with more than one putative cell-surface C1q receptor/C1q-binding protein. Previously, it has been shown that C1q-mediated oxidative burst by neutrophils is not linked to G-protein-coupled fMet-Leu-Phe-mediated response. In the present study, we have investigated neutrophil migration brought about by C1q and tried to identify the signal-transduction pathways involved in the chemotactic response. We found that C1q stimulated neutrophil migration in a dose-dependent manner, primarily by enhancing chemotaxis (directed movement) rather than chemokinesis (random movement). This C1q-induced chemotaxis could be abolished by an inhibitor of G-proteins (pertussis toxin) and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 kinase (wortmannin and ...
Advances in the management of renal failure necessitate a new look at the uremic patient. Infection is the leading cause of death in acute renal failure and the second most common cause of death in chronic uremia. The uremic patient must be regarded as an altered host more susceptible to infection. Some contributing factors are alterations of the skin and mucous membrane barriers, as well as lymphocyte and leukocyte dysfunction. Lymphocytes produce less interferon and also, when stimulated by phytohemagglutinin, show decreased metabolic activity in uremic serums. Leukocyte Chemotaxis is decreased. Other factors await more scientific investigation. Another important source ...
Chemotaxis (from chemo- + taxis) is the movement of an organism in response to a chemical stimulus. Somatic cells, bacteria, and other single-cell or multicellular organisms direct their movements according to certain chemicals in their environment. This is important for bacteria to find food (e.g., glucose) by swimming toward the highest concentration of food molecules, or to flee from poisons (e.g., phenol). In multicellular organisms, chemotaxis is critical to early development (e.g., movement of sperm towards the egg during fertilization) and subsequent phases of development (e.g., migration of neurons or lymphocytes) as well as in normal function. In addition, it has been recognized that mechanisms that allow chemotaxis in animals can be subverted during cancer metastasis. Positive chemotaxis occurs if the movement is toward a higher concentration of the chemical in question; negative chemotaxis if the movement is in the opposite direction. Chemically prompted kinesis (randomly directed or ...
BioAssay record AID 297157 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of CXCL8-induced cell migration in human PMN cells at 0.01 uM by chemotaxis assay.
In contrast to other isolation techniques, neutrophils enriched by spontaneous sedimentation were found to be intact both in terms of their function and relative numbers within the
Immune and inflammatory responses require leukocytes to migrate within and through the vasculature, a process that is facilitated by their capacity to switch to a polarized morphology with an asymmetric distribution of receptors. We report that neutrophil polarization within activated venules served to organize a protruding domain that engaged activated platelets present in the bloodstream. The selectin ligand PSGL-1 transduced signals emanating from these interactions, resulting in the redistribution of receptors that drive neutrophil migration. Consequently, neutrophils unable to polarize or to transduce signals through PSGL-1 displayed aberrant crawling, and blockade of this domain protected mice against thromboinflammatory injury. These results reveal that recruited neutrophils scan for activated platelets, and they suggest that the neutrophils bipolarity allows the integration of signals present at both the endothelium and the circulation before inflammation proceeds.
emphasis and notes added]. Chicken soup has long been regarded as a remedy for symptomatic upper respiratory tract infections. As it is likely that the clinical similarity of the diverse infectious processes that can result in colds is due to a shared inflammatory response, an effect of chicken soup in mitigating inflammation could account for its attested benefits. To evaluate this, a traditional chicken soup was tested for its ability to inhibit neutrophil [white blood cells that kills germs and also cause the inflammation or "cold" symptoms when they overdo it] migration using the standard Boyden blindwell chemotaxis [movement of a cell in reaction to a chemical] chamber assay [test] with zymosan-activated serum and fMet-Leu-Phe as chemoattractants [the stuff to make the cells move]. Chicken soup significantly inhibited neutrophil migration and did so in a concentration-dependent manner. [the more soup, the more it stopped the cells from migrating] The activity was present in a ...
Chemokinesis definition: the random movement of cells, such as leucocytes , stimulated by substances in their... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples
BioAssay record AID 147686 submitted by ChEMBL: Compound was evaluated for the inhibition of LTB4 receptor -induced chemotaxis of isolated human neutrophils; IA means inactive.
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He Y, Kapoor A, Cook S, Liu S, Xiang Y, Rao CV, Kenis PJA, Wang F. 2011. The non-receptor tyrosine kinase Lyn controls neutrophil adhesion by recruiting the CrkL-C3G complex and activating Rap1 at the leading edge. J Cell Sci. 124(Pt 13):2153-64. ...
Human neutrophils (white blood cells) are attracted to a chemotactic agent in this time-lapse video. This is one of many videos available for the classroom or broadcast.
Hardcore continuum re-constructionist Etch continues his junglist-referencing production sensibilities with a blistering four-track outing on Space + Time Records. A side Chemotaxis is the jazzy tip - licks of rhodes chords cascade against immaculately produced breaks, conjuring a nice contrast between the warmth of
The migration assay (also known as the Boyden Chamber Assay) is a commonly used test to study the migratory response of endothelial cells.
NK cells specific a amount of mobile-surface molecules accountable for responding to chemotactic stimuli, binding to the endothelium and TEM . NK mobile steps
Note: It is important not to disrupt the HUVEC monolayer. It is recommended to gently remove about half of the growth medium then add 60 µL D-BPS for both washes. At the final wash step, remove as much of the medium/D-PBS as possible without disrupting the monolayer. ...
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سال انتشار: ۱۳۸۲ محل انتشار: یازدهمین کنفرانس مهندسی پزشکی ایران تعداد صفحات: ۴ نویسنده(ها): Nasrollah Rezaei-Ghaleh - PhD student, Institute of Biochemistry
Looking for eosinophil chemotactic factor? Find out information about eosinophil chemotactic factor. A peptide released from mast cell granules that stimulates chemotaxis of eosinophils; may be responsible for accumulation of eosinophils at sites of... Explanation of eosinophil chemotactic factor
Four subjects with clinical histories of milk-induced asthma were studied (three allergic to cows milk; one to soya milk). In each instance, skin prick tests, RAST (IgE and IgG4), the basophil histamine release, and serum precipitins, using appropri
TY - JOUR. T1 - Rac2 concentrations in umbilical cord neutrophils. AU - Meade, Virginia M.. AU - Barese, Cecilia N.. AU - Kim, Chaekyun. AU - Njinimbam, Charles G.. AU - Marchal, Christophe C.. AU - Ingram, David A.. AU - Clapp, D. Wade. AU - Dinauer, Mary C.. AU - Yoder, Mervin C.. PY - 2006/9/1. Y1 - 2006/9/1. N2 - Background: Human newborn infants display a variety of immunodeficiencies of immaturity, including diminished neutrophil adhesion, chemotaxis, and migration. Rac2, a guanosine triphosphate-binding protein, is an essential regulator of human neutrophil migration and chemotaxis. Since human subjects and mice deficient in Rac2 display deficiencies in neutrophil functions similar to newborn infants, we postulated that newborn neutrophils may be deficient in Rac2. Objectives: The aim of the study was to measure Rac1 and Rac2 concentrations in neutrophils from umbilical cord blood. Methods: Neutrophils from cord and adult blood were isolated, total cell lysates extracted, and Rac protein ...
Angiopoietins are a family of growth factors that are ligands for the tyrosine kinase receptor, Tie2. Angiopoietin 1 (Ang-1) is agonistic for Tie2, plays a key role in blood vessel maturation and stability and has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties. However, Tie2 expression has been demonstrated on human neutrophils and the observation that neutrophils migrate in response to Ang-1 in vitro has confounded research into its exact role in inflammation as well as its potential use as a therapeutic agent. We used a mouse model of peritoneal neutrophilic inflammation to determine if Ang-1 could stimulate neutrophil migration in vivo. Tie2 expression was demonstrated on mouse neutrophils. In addition, recombinant human Ang-1 induced significant chemotaxis of isolated mouse neutrophils in a Tie2- and CD18-dependent manner. Subsequently, co-immunoprecipitation of Ang-1 and CD18 demonstrated their interaction. Intraperitoneal injection of an engineered angiopoietin-1, MAT.Ang-1, induced ...
Im doing a project for my cell class (sorry if this is in the wrong forum--I couldnt find a homework forum) about the eosinophil chemotactic factor. I was wondering if someone could point me in the right direction for a few answers. My professor seemed to think everything could be found online and I dont doubt him, Im just getting conflicting answers. Heres what I have so far ...
Define macrophage chemotactic factor (MCF). macrophage chemotactic factor (MCF) synonyms, macrophage chemotactic factor (MCF) pronunciation, macrophage chemotactic factor (MCF) translation, English dictionary definition of macrophage chemotactic factor (MCF). n. Any of various large, phagocytic white blood cells that develop from monocytes, are found in the spleen, liver, and other tissues, and have a variety of...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chemokine production and adhesion molecule expression by neural cells exposed to IL-1, TNFα and interferon. AU - Chuluyan, H. Eduardo. AU - Lang, Bianca J.. AU - Yoshimura, Teizo. AU - Kenney, John S.. AU - Issekutz, Andrew C.. PY - 1998/10/16. Y1 - 1998/10/16. N2 - We investigated the effect of TNFα, IL-1α and IFNγ on two neuroblastoma (NB) cell lines (SK-N-SH and SK-N-MC). These lines responded differentially to IL-1α, TNFα and IFNγ for MCP-1 and IL-8 production and expression of the ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 adhesion molecules. None of the cytokines induced MCP-1 or 1L-8 on SK-N-MC cells. Both chemokines were produced in response to IL-1α by SK-N-SH cells, while TNFα induced mainly MCP-1 production. Addition of IFNγ decreased IL-8, but not MCP-1 production. These responses correlated with monocyte and neutrophil chemotactic activity in NB culture supernatants. This activity was neutralized by antibodies to IL-8 and MCP-1. The expression of ICAM-1 on SK-N-MC was up-regulated ...
Sensory adaptation by the chemotaxis system of Escherichia coli requires adjustments of the extent of methyl esterification of the chemotaxis receptor proteins. One mechanism utilized by E. coli to make such adjustments is to control the activity of CheB, the enzyme responsible for removing receptor methyl ester groups. Previous work has established the existence of a multicomponent signal transduction pathway that enables the chemotaxis receptor proteins to control the methylesterase activity in response to chemotactic stimuli. We isolated and characterized CheB mutants that do not respond normally to this control mechanism. In intact cells these CheB variants could not be activated in response to negative chemotaxis stimuli. Further characterization indicated that these CheB variants could not be phosphorylated by the chemotaxis protein kinase CheA. Disruption of the mechanism responsible for regulating methylesterase activity was also observed in cells carrying chromosomal deletions of either cheA or
The investigations reported herein demonstrate that A2MG incorporated into microparticles activated distinct host protective responses in murine sepsis, when compared to sA2MG, leading to enhanced bacterial containment and clearance ultimately resulting in improved survival. Microparticle‐A2MG was also found to regulate human leukocyte responses, where it promoted neutrophil recruitment to endothelial cells. In addition, A2MG preserved neutrophil chemotactic responses in the presence of endotoxin and stimulated bacterial phagocytosis and ROS production via its receptor, LRP1. These findings support the hypothesis that A2MG incorporation into microparticles may potentiate the protective actions of A2MG in sepsis by activating distinct pro‐resolving and tissue protective pathways.. A2MG is an evolutionarily conserved tetrameric glycoprotein (Qin et al, 2010), expressed by a number of cell types in its native form and is one of the major circulating anti‐proteinases in vertebrates (Rehman et ...
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In this talk, I will first discuss several chemotaxis models includingthe classical Keller-Segel model.Chemotaxis is the phenomenon in which cells, bacteria, and other single-cell or multicellular organisms direct their movements according to certain chemicals (chemoattractants) in their environment. The mathematical models of chemotaxis are usually described by highly nonlinear time dependent systems of PDEs. Therefore, accurate and efficient numerical methods are very important for the validation and analysis of these systems. Furthermore, a common property of all existing chemotaxis systems is their ability to model a concentration phenomenon that mathematically results in solutions rapidly growing in small neighborhoods of concentration points/curves. The solutions may blow up or may exhibit a very singular, spiky behavior. In either case, capturing such solutions numerically is a challenging problem. In our work we propose a family of stable (even at times near blow up) and highly accurate ...
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Methods: Participants were 40 (n = 20 females) university students (mean age, 25.9 ± 4.56 years). Blood samples to determine neutrophil function by flow cytometry were taken at the end of resting baseline, during an acute stress task, and during recovery. The stress task was a 10-minute time-pressured mental arithmetic challenge with social evaluation ...
Chemokines play the key role in initiating immune responses by regulating the attraction and homing of immune cells to the lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues. CXCL14 is a chemokine that in tumors may act as chemoattractant for monocytes and dendritic cells (DC), which may modulate antitumor immune responses in certain cancers. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of loss of CXCL14 in prostate cancer cells. Cell treatment with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine resulted in the recovery of CXCL14 mRNA and protein expression. Hypermethylated CpG island sequences encompassing the CXCL14 gene promoter were identified. The restoration of CXCL14 by 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment had functional impact, based on the DC chemoattractant activity of conditioned medium from drug-treated cells. Conversely, CXCL14 removal from conditioned media by affinity chromatography abolished its chemotactic properties, confirming that functionally active CXCL14 was generated in prostate cancer cells by ...
Neutrophil invasion of inflamed tissue is a complex process involving an initial mild adhesive interaction with the venular endothelium, termed rolling, which allows neutrophils to remain in close apposition to the endothelial cells and to sample the environment for local signals of an ongoing inflammatory process.1 2 3 If the appropriate signals (stimuli) are present, the neutrophils become activated, and a strong adhesive interaction takes place. This results in neutrophil arrest and eventual emigration toward the chemotactic stimulus in the interstitium. Although there is a general consensus on the mechanisms (adhesion molecule activation/expression) involved in neutrophil-endothelial cell adhesive interactions,1 2 3 the mechanisms by which neutrophils penetrate the endothelial cell lining to gain access to the interstitium remain controversial. The barriers to neutrophil movement to the site of chemotactic (or inflammatory) stimuli in the interstitium are (1) the endothelial cells lining the ...
Cell migration is an essential component of most biological processes, including: immune responses, blood vessel formation, tumor metastasis, and wound healing [1]. Effective in vitro models of directed cell migration, or chemotaxis, are necessary for both basic research and drug discovery [2]. This application note describes a new methodology for studying chemotactic cell migration using the IncuCyte® ZOOM Live-Cell Imaging system. This novel approach enables real-time visualization and automated analysis of chemotactic migration in a 96-well format within a tissue culture incubator.. By incorporating a made-for-purpose, optically clear membrane into a transmembrane geometry, the IncuCyte® chemotaxis assay facilitates the label-free visualization and quantitation of directed cell migration. The design of the IncuCyte® ClearView 96-Well Cell Migration Plate ensures a stable gradient over 72 hours and requires only 1,000-5,000 cells per well. In contrast to traditional Boydenchamber ...
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The interactions of tumorigenic cells with the extracellular matrix play a critical role in the establishment of metastases. Thrombospondin (TSP) is prominent at sites of tissue injury and promotes the attachment, spreading, and motility of several cell types. We have investigated the relationship between human carcinoma cell metastatic potential and TSP-mediated cell motility by comparing highly metastatic 11B carcinoma cells with a nonmetastatic counterpart, 22B carcinoma cells. 11B cells demonstrated motility in response to soluble TSP with a maximal effect observed at 1 µm TSP. Checkerboard analysis indicated that motility was directional with a significant chemokinetic component. Monoclonal antibody C6.7, specific for the distal COOH terminus of TSP, inhibited chemotaxis by 60%. Studies with TSP fragments demonstrated that the Mr 140,000 COOH-terminal domain (140K) supported chemotaxis to the same extent as intact TSP. The NH2-terminal heparin-binding domain was ineffective in stimulating ...
Neutrophil - Innate Immune response. Neutrophil. Know mediators that prime and stimulate the neutrophil function Know mediators secreted by the neutrophil Understand the role of anti-proteinases in neutrophil function Know immunomodulators of neutrophils function. Neutrophil. Neutrophil...
Inflammatory cytokines induce synthesis and secretion of gro protein and a neutrophil chemotactic factor but not beta 2-microglobulin in human synovial cells an
From NCBI Gene:. This gene encodes an intracellular F-actin binding protein. The protein is expressed in lymphocytes, neutrophils, macrophages, and endothelium and may regulate neutrophil motility, adhesion to fibrinogen matrix proteins, and transendothelial migration. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]. From UniProt: ...
Emeson, E E., "Bcg and c. Parvum enhance selective recruitment of specifically reactive t-lymphocytes. Abstr." (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 2521 ...
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An apparatus and method of use for assaying cellular motility in response to a concentration gradient of a chemotactic agent. Generally, the apparatus includes a chamber having a region for receiving
Dirofilaria immitis neutrophil chemotactic factor: aa sequence given in first source; isolated from the adult worm; GenBank D11438
Results Free mitochondrial DNA and formylated peptides were elevated in ARDS patients. Mitochondrial formylated peptides induced FPR1-dependent neutrophil chemotaxis through PI3K- and MAPK-mediated control of the β2-integrin heterodimer Mac1. In sterile acid-induced injury FPR1 inhibition resulted in reduced neutrophil migration, pulmonary haemorrhage, protein leak and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Furthermore, acid-induced reduction in alveolar macrophage number was inhibited while interstitial macrophages displayed an alternatively activated phenotype. FPR1 was also found to be expressed on mouse type 1 alveolar epithelial cells suggesting further possible mechanisms through which FPR1-mediated alveolar leak occurs. Importantly, delivery of FPR1 antagonists 12 h after injury also reduced acute lung inflammation demonstrating potential therapeutic relevance. In non-sterile E. coli-mediated lung injury partial antagonism of FPR1 resulted in reduced alveolar neutrophil numbers and ...
Background: There is a lack of information about peripheral blood eosinophil activity during allergen-induced late-phase airway inflammation in asthma. The aim of this study was to evaluate eosinophil chemotaxis, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), degranulation, and apoptosis during allergen-induced late-phase airway inflammation in asthma patients.. Methods: 30 patients with asthma (AA), 25 with rhinitis (AR) and 20 healthy subjects (HS) were examined. Peripheral blood was collected 24 h before and 7 h as well as 24 h after the bronchial allergen challenge. Peripheral blood eosinophil chemotaxis, production of ROS and apoptosis were estimated flow cytometrically and degranulation was analyzed by the levels of neurotoxin in serum.. Results: Eosinophil chemotaxis (A), production of ROS (B), degranulation (C) and apoptosis (D) are presented in Figure 1 and Figure 2.. Conclusions: During allergen-induced late-phase airway inflammation, eosinophils from patients with AA demonstrated ...
Regulated recruitment and clearance of neutrophils (PMN) is the hallmark of competent host defense and resolution of inflammation. We now report that IFN-gamma controls PMN infiltration and modulates IL-6 signaling through its soluble receptor (sIL-6R) to promote their apoptosis and clearance. Induction of peritoneal inflammation in IFN-gamma-deficient (IFN-gamma-/-) mice emphasized that the initial rate of PMN recruitment was impaired. This defect in PMN recruitment was also associated with the suppressed intraperitoneal expression of IL-1beta and IL-6. Reconstitution of IFN-gamma signaling restored the rate of PMN infiltration and IL-6 levels and was accompanied by normalization of PMN-activating CXC chemokine expression. To test whether local IL-6 signaling modulated PMN recruitment, inflammation was induced in IFN-gamma-/- and IL-6-/- mice and cytokine signaling adapted by intraperitoneal sIL-6R-IL-6 fusion protein (HYPER-IL-6) or IFN-gamma. Although HYPER-IL-6 attenuated PMN influx in ...
Chemotaxis, or directed cell migration, is important in many biological processes such as embryonic development, wound healing, and the direction of immune cells to sites of inflammation or infection. When not regulated properly, chemotaxis is implicated in disease states including inflammatory diseases and cancer metastasis. During eukaryotic chemotaxis, cells are able to sense a chemical gradient through receptors on the cell membrane that trigger complicated intracellular signaling networks, ultimately resulting in changes in the actin cytoskeleton leading to cell migration. The proteins involved in these signaling networks require tight spatiotemporal regulation, and the mechanisms underlying this regulation are not well understood. The work of this dissertation aims to better elucidate the pathways that regulate chemotaxis and enable cells to respond and adapt to changes in the chemoattractant gradient. To this end, we utilized the model organism Dictyostelium discoideum, and focused on ...
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An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by recurrent pyogenic infections, defective neutrophil chemotaxis and bactericidal activity, and lack of neutrophil secondary granule proteins. Neutrophils of affected individuals lack lactoferrin and show abnormal nuclear segmentation, bilobed nuclei, low alkaline phosphatase, and increased number of neutrophil mitochondria and ribosomes ...
TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor) is an endogenous pyrogen, able to induce fever, sepsis, cachexia, inflammation and it is implicated in many auto-immune diseases and is linked to cancer progression.. IL-8 (inteleukin-8) causes neutrophils and granulocyte to migrate toward the site of infection. IL-8 is also known to be a potent promoter of angiogenesis.. MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic protine-1; CCL2) regulates migration and infiltration of monocytes/macrophages. It is implicated in pathogeneses of diseases such as atherosclerosis and neuroinflammatory diseases. Its also highly elevated in breast cancer cells.. RANTES (regulated and normal T cell expressed and secreted) plays an important role in allergic inflammatory processes, carcinogenesis, and are markedly elevated in primary tumor and metastatic lesions from patients with breast or cervical cancer. GROα (CXCL1) has neutrophil chemoattractant activity. It is involved in angiogenesis, inflammation, wound healing and tumorigenesis. ...
The ability of cancer cells to migrate through a complex three-dimensional (3D) environment is a hallmark event of cancer metastasis. Therefore, an in vitro migration assay to evaluate cancer cell migration in a 3D setting is valuable to examine cancer progression. Here, we describe such a simple migration assay in a 3D collagen-fibronectin gel for observing cell morphology and comparing the migration abilities of cancer cells. We describe below how to prepare the collagen-fibronectin gel castings, how to set up time-lapse recording, how to draw single-cell trajectories from movies and extract key parameters that characterize cell motility, such as cell speed, directionality, mean square displacement, and directional persistence. In our set-up, cells are sandwiched in a single plane between two collagen-fibronectin gels. This trick facilitates the analysis of cell tracks, which are for the most part 2D, at least in the beginning, but in a 3D environment. This protocol has been previously published in
LSP1 Full-Length MS Protein Standard (NP_002330), Labeled with [U- 13C6, 15N4]-L-Arginine and [U- 13C6, 15N2]-L-Lysine, was produced in human 293 cells (HEK293) with fully chemically defined cell culture medium to obtain incorporation efficiency at Creative-Proteomics. This gene encodes an intracellular F-actin binding protein. The protein is expressed in lymphocytes, neutrophils, macrophages, and endothelium and may regulate neutrophil motility, adhesion to fibrinogen matrix proteins, and transendothelial migration. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms.
Adequate recruitment of neutrophils to sites of infection is one of the early and important events of the innate immune response. Mounting evidence shows that severe sepsis is characterized by impaired neutrophil migration to the primary infectious inflammatory site and deleterious accumulation of neutrophils in distant organs, resulting in organ dysfunction and death. There are competing theories as to the mechanisms underlying this maladaptive immune response. We propose that dysregulated neutrophil trafficking in severe sepsis might be effectively explained by a mathematical model that incorporates the dynamic interactions of compartmentalized inflammatory responses. We developed a three-compartmental (peritoneum, blood, and lung) system of ODE model including major effectors of the acute inflammatory response. In order to capture impaired recruitment of neutrophil in severe sepsis, several lines of evidence about the mechanisms influencing neutrophil migration in sepsis were reviewed and ...
0 On the Role of Mast Cells in Chemokine-Induced Leukocyte Recruitment Yusheng Wang Academic Thesis With permission from the Medical Faculty at Lund University for the presentation of this PhD thesis in
During chemotaxis large eosinophils from newts exhibit a gradient of [Ca2+]i from rear to front. The direction of the gradient changes on relocation of the chemoattractant source, suggesting that the Ca2+ signal may trigger the cytoskeletal reorganization required for cell reorientation during chemotaxis. The initial stimulatory effect of chemoattractant on [Ca2+]i and the opposite orientations of the intracellular Ca2+ gradient and the external stimulus gradient suggest that more than one chemoattractant-sensitive messenger pathway may be responsible for the generation of spatially graded Ca2+ signals. To identify these messengers, Ca2+ changes were measured in single live cells stimulated with spatially uniform chemoattractant. On stimulation spatially averaged [Ca2+]i increased rapidly from | or = 100 nM to | or = 400 nM and was accompanied by formation of lamellipods. Subsequently cells flattened, polarized and crawled, and [Ca2+]i fluctuated around a mean value of approximately 200 nM. The initial
In this biology science fair project, test various amounts of glucose to see which ones attract and which repel (chemotaxis) growing Physarum polycephalum slime mold.
Neutrophils were traditionally considered to be a homogeneous population of terminally differentiated cells with very defined roles in inflammation and fighting infections. However, recent advances in neutrophil research challenge this limited view and demonstrate that neutrophils are highly versatile, play different roles in various pathologic scenarios, and are heterogeneous. With this, it is becoming clear that one term-neutrophil-is too general, and more precise nomenclature is urgently required. In this mini review, we discuss the knowns and unknowns in neutrophil terminology and highlight the critical questions that should be addressed for the establishment of clear neutrophil nomenclature.
From HowStuffWorks.com: Neutrophils are the one of the body s main defenses against bacteria. They kill bacteria by actually ingesting them (this is called phagocytosis). Neutrophils can phagocytize five to 20 bacteria in their lifetime. Neutrophils have a multi-lobed, segmented or polymorphonuclear nucleus and so are also called PMNs, polys or segs ...
The recruitment of lymphocytes across the blood brain barrier (BBB) is mediated by adhesion molecules and chemokines. The expression of activation mar
Leukocyte chemotaxis: Methodology, physiology, clinical implications. New York.: Raven Press. CS1 maint: Multiple names: ... FMLP led to the first discovery of a leukocyte receptor for a chemotactic factor, defined three different types of FMLP ... In 1887, Élie Metchnikoff observed that leukocytes isolated from the blood of various animals were attracted towards certain ... I. Harris H (Jul 1954). "Role of chemotaxis in inflammation". Physiological Reviews. 34 (3): 529-62. PMID 13185754. Ward PA, ...
He is a well-cited researcher in the field of inflammation and has won many awards for his seminal work on leukocyte chemotaxis ... Snyderman, R.; Goetzl, E. J. (1981-08-21). "Molecular and cellular mechanisms of leukocyte chemotaxis". Science. 213 (4510): ... Snyderman, Ralph; Phillips, Jean; Mergenhagen, Stephan E. (1970-06-01). "Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Chemotactic Activity in ... "Specific receptor sites for chemotactic peptides on human polymorphonuclear leukocytes". Proceedings of the National Academy of ...
2010). Methods for Quantitation of Leukocyte Chemotaxis and Fugetaxis. T-Cell Trafficking. F. M. Marelli-Berg and S. Nourshargh ... 2001). "The neuronal repellent Slit inhibits leukocyte chemotaxis induced by chemotactic factors". Nature. 410 (6831): 948-952 ... Leukocytes can exhibit active chemorepulsion away from a factor that is normally considered to stimulate chemoattraction ... Other innate leukocytes include natural killer cells, mast cells, eosinophils, basophils, macrophages, and dendritic cells. ...
Turner SR, Campbell JA, Lynn WS (June 1975). "Polymorphonulcear leukocyte chemotaxis toward oxidized lipid components of cell ... Leukocyte-type 12-lipoxygenase in these animal species shares 73-86% amino acid identity with human ALOX15 but only 57-66% ... In 1975, the first biological activity was attached to this metabolite in studies showing that it simulated the chemotaxis of ... Studies on rodents lacking or made deficient in the leukocyte-type 12-lipoxygenase, Alox12 (which is most closely related to ...
... activation mediates leukocyte chemotaxis toward TAAR1 agonists. TAAR1 agonists (specifically, trace amines) have also ... Leukocytes ...Pancreatic islet β cells ... Primary Tonsillar B Cells ... Circulating leukocytes of healthy subjects ( ... Babusyte A, Kotthoff M, Fiedler J, Krautwurst D (March 2013). "Biogenic amines activate blood leukocytes via trace amine- ... Response measured: cAMP accumulation ... Activation of leukocytes Species: Human Tissue: PMN, T and B cells Response measured: ...
Like leukocytes, D. discoideum have chemotaxis. Hence, D. discoideum is a suitable model system to see the influence of host ... As this is occurring, amoebae undergo chemotaxis towards the giant cell surface. The zygote giant cell ingests the surrounding ...
2001). "The neuronal repellent Slit inhibits leukocyte chemotaxis induced by chemotactic factors". Nature. 410 (6831): 948-52. ... Wong K; Park HT; Wu JY; Rao Y (2003). "Slit proteins: molecular guidance cues for cells ranging from neurons to leukocytes". ...
"The effect of verapamil and other calcium antagonists on chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes". Biochemical Pharmacology ...
This reduces leukocyte adhesion and infiltration into tissues, while also limiting damage to underlying tissue. APC supports ... endothelial barrier function and reduces chemotaxis. APC inhibits the release of inflammatory-response mediators in leukocytes ... APC has anti-inflammatory effects on endothelial cells and leukocytes. APC affects endothelial cells by inhibiting inflammatory ... and it is these cells and leukocytes (white blood cells) that APC affects. Because of the crucial role that protein C plays as ...
Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 67 (6): 869-75. PMID 10857861. This article incorporates text from the United States National ... "Serum-induced monocyte differentiation and monocyte chemotaxis are regulated by the p38 MAP kinase signal transduction pathway ...
The effect of these gene knockouts appeared due to faulty leukocyte function and other causes leading to a breakdown in the ... and exhibit chemotaxis in response to H. pylori-derived peptide Hp(2-20)". Journal of Immunology. 172 (12): 7734-43. doi: ... Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 67 (6): 869-75. PMID 10857861. This article incorporates text from the United States National ... "Evaluation of human leukocyte N-formylpeptide receptor (FPR1) SNPs in aggressive periodontitis patients". Genes and Immunity. 4 ...
It is named after Morton McCutcheon who introduced it to describe chemotaxis in leukocytes. Chemotaxis in Leukocytes Archived ...
Chemotaxis towards an injured cell". Antibiot. Chemother. 19: 369-81. PMID 4463832. Hu CL, Barnes FS (1970). "A Theory of ... see interactions of leukocytes with corpse of dead cells). Composition of the substances inducing necrotaxis is rather complex ... Necrotaxis embodies a special type of chemotaxis when the chemoattractant molecules are released from necrotic or apoptotic ... Debru C. (1993). "A particular form of chemotaxis: necrotaxis. An historical view". Blood Cells. 19 (1): 5-19. PMID 8400312. ...
ISBN 978-0-88-167160-5 Gallin, J. I. and Quie, P. G. "Leukocyte Chemotaxis: Methods, Physiology and Clinical Implications." New ... Human Services Secretary's Award for Distinguished Service 2002 Society for Leukocyte Biology Marie T. Bonazinga Lifetime ... microtubule and microfilament orientation and function during chemotaxis". Journal of Cell Biology. 75 (3): 666-693. doi: ...
70, 203-209 (1979). "Measurement of leukocyte motility and chemotaxis parameters using a quantitative analysis of the under- ... "Effects of cell motility and chemotaxis on microbial population growth" (with D. Lauffenburger and K. Keller). Biophys. J. 40, ...
Ligands that activate DP2 stimulate the in vitro chemotaxis (i.e. directed migration) of leukocytes active in mediating ... PGD2, acting through DP2, stimulates the in vitro chemotaxis of CD8+ cells, although the contribution of this to the in vivo ... DP2 was found to stimulate the directed movement or chemotaxis of human T-helper type 2 cells (see T helper cell#Th1/Th2 Model ... "Prostaglandin D2 selectively induces chemotaxis in T helper type 2 cells, eosinophils, and basophils via seven-transmembrane ...
... consists of a thin, protein-rich fluid, known as liquor puris, and dead leukocytes from the body's immune response (mostly ... macrophages release cytokines which trigger neutrophils to seek the site of infection by chemotaxis. There, the neutrophils ...
The protein is also known to interact with the protein KAI1 (CD82) a surface glycoprotein of leukocytes and may have a role in ... The formation of this heterodimer impairs chemotaxis and calcium flux through CCR5, whereas internalization of CCR5 in response ... It mediates chemokine transcytosis, which leds to apical retention of intact chemokines and more leukocyte migration. Binding ...
Lipocortin-1 both suppresses phospholipase A2, thereby blocking eicosanoid production, and inhibits various leukocyte ... inflammatory events (epithelial adhesion, emigration, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, respiratory burst, etc.). In other words, ...
... superoxide anion production and chemotaxis both human and rat PMN leukocytes and monocytes. Tyr-Lys-Pro exert considerable ... Leukokininase can be found on the outer membrane of phagocytic cells: blood neutrophil leukocytes of human and dog, rabbit ... Stimulation of phagocytosis was obtained with polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) cells from human, dog, rabbit and cow as well ...
... or leukocyte) integrins. αMβ2 is expressed on the surface of many leukocytes involved in the innate immune system, including ... chemotaxis and cellular activation. It is involved in the complement system due to its capacity to bind inactivated complement ... Todd RF, Petty HR (May 1997). "Beta 2 (CD11/CD18) integrins can serve as signaling partners for other leukocyte receptors". The ... Stewart M, Thiel M, Hogg N (October 1995). "Leukocyte integrins". Current Opinion in Cell Biology. 7 (5): 690-6. doi:10.1016/ ...
Leukocytes (white blood cells) act like independent, single-celled organisms and are the second arm of the innate immune system ... chemokines that promote chemotaxis; and interferons that have anti-viral effects, such as shutting down protein synthesis in ... The cells of the adaptive immune system are special types of leukocytes, called lymphocytes. B cells and T cells are the major ... The innate leukocytes include the phagocytes (macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells), innate lymphoid cells, mast cells ...
It is also involved in changes to vascular permeability, the oxidative burst, chemotaxis of leukocytes, as well as augmentation ... Benveniste J, Henson PM, Cochrane CG (Dec 1972). "Leukocyte-dependent histamine release from rabbit platelets. The role of IgE ... is a potent phospholipid activator and mediator of many leukocyte functions, platelet aggregation and degranulation, ...
Yale University in 1982 and post-doctoral work at the University of Pennsylvania studying calcium flux in leukocyte chemotaxis ...
... used also for drug testing in the cellular chemotaxis assay and for novel targeted drug delivery systems based on leukocyte- ... "Dynamic Investigation of Leukocyte-Endothelial Cell Adhesion Interaction under Fluid Shear Stress in Vitro". Acta Biochimica et ... Many researchers used parallel-plate flow chambers to investigate the dynamic adhesion between leukocytes (white blood cells) ... In particular, some studies have been carried out to study leukocyte receptor-ligand interactions. Interactions between cell ...
... neutropenia/myelodysplasia P14 deficiency Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 2 Leukocyte ... assays of chemotaxis, bactericidal activity. Due to the rarity of many primary immunodeficiencies, many of the above tests are ...
The effect of these gene knockouts appeared due to faulty leukocyte function and other causes leading to a breakdown in the ... and exhibit chemotaxis in response to H. pylori-derived peptide Hp(2-20)". Journal of Immunology. 172 (12): 7734-43. doi: ... Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 67 (6): 869-75. PMID 10857861. This article incorporates text from the United States National ... "Evaluation of human leukocyte N-formylpeptide receptor (FPR1) SNPs in aggressive periodontitis patients". Genes and Immunity. 4 ...
... chemotaxis leukocyte include Non-invasive Imaging of the Innate Immune Response in a Zebrafish Larval Model of Streptococcus ... Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an ...
Depressed Mononuclear Leukocyte Chemotaxis in Thermally Injured Patients. Leonard C. Altman, Clifton T. Furukawa, Seymour J. ... Depressed Mononuclear Leukocyte Chemotaxis in Thermally Injured Patients. Leonard C. Altman, Clifton T. Furukawa, Seymour J. ... Depressed Mononuclear Leukocyte Chemotaxis in Thermally Injured Patients Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... Depressed Mononuclear Leukocyte Chemotaxis in Thermally Injured Patients. Leonard C. Altman, Clifton T. Furukawa and Seymour J ...
THE ROLE OF SERUM COMPLEMENT IN CHEMOTAXIS OF LEUKOCYTES IN VITRO. Peter A. Ward, Charles G. Cochrane, Hans J. Müller-Eberhard ... THE ROLE OF SERUM COMPLEMENT IN CHEMOTAXIS OF LEUKOCYTES IN VITRO. Peter A. Ward, Charles G. Cochrane, Hans J. Müller-Eberhard ... chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) in vitro was studied employing various agents that fixed serum complement (C ...
Chemotaxis of leukocytes in response to synthetic MIP-3α. (a) T cells; (b) monocytes; (c) neutrophils. The response to MIP-3α ... Figure 3: Chemotaxis of leukocytes in response to synthetic MIP-3α. (a) T cells; (b) monocytes; (c) neutrophils. The response ... Figure 3: Chemotaxis of leukocytes in response to synthetic MIP-3α. (a) T cells; (b) monocytes; (c) neutrophils. The response ... Mentions: Synthetic MIP-3α was tested at concentrations of 10−6 to 10−10 M in chemotaxis assays to characterize the leukocyte ...
Leukocyte Chemotaxis and Migration: Can We Follow the Cells? You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, ... Leukocyte Chemotaxis and Migration: Can We Follow the Cells?. Anesthesiology 9 2010, Vol.113, 512-513. doi:10.1097/ALN. ... Although the molecular mechanisms of leukocyte chemotaxis during inflammation have been investigated with great detail,1 the ... Michel Carles, Jean-Francois Pittet; Leukocyte Chemotaxis and Migration: Can We Follow the Cells?. Anesthesiology 2010;113(3): ...
... and adhesion essential for chemotaxis. Our current understanding of chemotaxis indicates that several signaling pathways act in ... Y721 is the most important for chemotaxis because it recruits phospholipase-C-γ (PL C-γ) and the p85 subunit of class 1A PI3Ks ... The design and testing of inhibitors of signal transduction molecules involved in migration and chemotaxis will be an important ... and they probably act together to allow optimal chemotaxis. Cdc42 is implicated in multiple types of cell polarity, including ...
title = "Prolactin suppression of leukocyte chemotaxis in vitro",. abstract = "Leukocyte chemotaxis in vitro was studied for ... Leukocyte chemotaxis in vitro was studied for cells from patients with pituitary adenomas. Leukocytes obtained preoperatively ... N2 - Leukocyte chemotaxis in vitro was studied for cells from patients with pituitary adenomas. Leukocytes obtained ... AB - Leukocyte chemotaxis in vitro was studied for cells from patients with pituitary adenomas. Leukocytes obtained ...
Multistep Navigation and the Combinatorial Control of Leukocyte Chemotaxis Ellen F. Foxman Ellen F. Foxman ... Combinatorial regulation of chemotaxis. Leukocyte homing during step-by-step navigation is determined by the combination and ... Combinatorial regulation of chemotaxis. Leukocyte homing during step-by-step navigation is determined by the combination and ... Chemotaxis under agarose: a new and simple method for measuring migration of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes ...
Leukocyte Chemotaxis: Methods, Physiology and Clinical Implications. EDITED BY JOHN I. GALLIN AND PAUL G. QUIE, New York, Raven ... Leukocyte Chemotaxis: Methods, Physiology and Clinical Implications. EDITED BY JOHN I. GALLIN AND PAUL G. QUIE, New York, Raven ... Leukocyte Chemotaxis: Methods, Physiology and Clinical Implications. EDITED BY JOHN I. GALLIN AND PAUL G. QUIE, New York, Raven ... CHARLES W. GRAHAM; Leukocyte Chemotaxis: Methods, Physiology and Clinical Implications. EDITED BY JOHN I. GALLIN AND PAUL G. ...
Find out information about leukocyte chemotaxis. see taxis taxis , movement of animals either toward or away from a stimulus, ... such as light , heat , chemicals , gravity , and touch . The turning movements... Explanation of leukocyte chemotaxis ... chemotaxis. (redirected from leukocyte chemotaxis). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical. chemotaxis:. see taxistaxis ... Leukocyte chemotaxis , Article about leukocyte chemotaxis by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/ ...
Effect of Aspirin on Leukocyte Chemotaxis in 3DLA Units. Chemotaxis on the HCMSMC side of the 3DLA units was found in only 10% ... Three-dimensional human coronary in vitro models of leukocyte attack (3DLA models) focus on leukocyte adhesion and chemotaxis ... In 3DLA units, the effect of aspirin (5 mmol/L) on TNF-α-stimulated leukocyte adhesion, chemotaxis, ICAM-1 expression, and the ... on the chemotaxis of leukocytes from the HCAEC side to the HCMSMC side of the 3DLA units is depicted in Figure 5⇓. ...
Chemotaxis and chemokinesis assays. Chemokinesis was performed by adding fMLP directly to BM neutrophils and chemotaxis was ... Effect of divalent cations on adhesion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes to matrix molecules in vitro. J. Leukocyte Biol. 51: 603 ... Endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule-1-dependent and leukocyte (CD11/CD18)-dependent mechanisms contribute to ... The microcirculation and inflammation: modulation of leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion. J. Leukocyte Biol. 55: 662. ...
Title: Chemotaxis signal relay in controlling leukocyte trafficking in inflammation and cancer Guest Speaker: Dr. Ji-Ming Wang ... Chemotaxis signal relay in controlling leukocyte trafficking in inflammation and cancer. Published date 2014-11-14 Provided by ... Leukocyte accumulation at the sites of inflammation and immune responses is the key event in host defense against pathogenic ... Ji Ming Wangs laboratory studies the role of chemoattractant GPCRs in disease and discovered several "chemotaxis signal relay ...
... Academic Article ... chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) in vitro was studied employing various agents that fixed serum complement (C ...
The data shown above demonstrate that BLTR is essential for leukocyte chemotaxis. However, chemotaxis is a slow process lasting ... This mouse reveals that BLTR alone is responsible for LTB4-mediated leukocyte calcium flux, chemotaxis, and firm adhesion to ... 1995) in Physiology and Pathophysiology of Leukocyte Adhesion, Modulation of leukocyte rolling in vivo, eds D.N. Granger, ... Recent studies suggest that chemoattractant-induced chemotaxis and arrest are distinct leukocyte functions, suggesting that ...
After 6 h of incubation, the leukocyte chemotaxis level (quantitated as the number of leukocytes inside the glass chamber) was ... Leukocyte chemotaxis of fresh hamster serum is higher than that of mouse and is due to complement. To explore if complement is ... chemotaxis of leukocytes. Virulent trophozoites of E. histolytica (5 × 104) were resuspended in 60 µl of fresh or heat- ... Chemotaxis of mice peritoneal leukocytes by hamster and mouse fresh sera plus. amoebae. Figure 3 ...
Since many seven-transmembrane Gαi-coupled receptors are involved in chemotaxis of leukocytes (1), we then addressed the issue ... Functional Properties of CRTH2 in Normal Leukocytes.. We next confirmed the above findings with normal leukocytes that ... C) Chemotaxis to PGD2 and DK-PGD2 is selectively induced in Th2 but not Th1 lines (mean ± SD, n = 3). The numbers of migrated ... Chemotaxis Assay.. This was performed on a 96-well microchemotaxis chamber with a 5-μm-pore filter (Neuroprobe) according to ...
... polypeptide and a human leukocyte adhesion inhibitor-1 (LAI-1) polypeptide (previously termed chemokine α1(CKα1 or ckα-1), as ... For the chemotaxis assays, labeled cells were resuspended as 4-8 106 /ml and 25 μl (1-2 105 cells) added to the top of a ... Based on co-culture experiments with leukocytes, it appears that LAI-1 can actually decrease P1 integrin levels on leukocytes ... The ability of LAI-1 to block leukocyte adhesion to HUVEC monolayers appears to be directed towards the leukocytes since LAI- ...
leukocyte chemotaxis IBA Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor. more info. PubMed ...
leukocyte chemotaxis IBA Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor. more info. PubMed ... Role of CXCL5 in leukocyte recruitment to the lungs during secondhand smoke exposure. Balamayooran G, et al. Am J Respir Cell ... Chemokines, which recruit and activate leukocytes, are classified by function (inflammatory or homeostatic) or by structure. ... Chemokine signaling pathway, conserved biosystemInflammatory immune response requires the recruitment of leukocytes to the site ...
leukocyte migration TAS Traceable Author Statement. more info. negative chemotaxis IMP Inferred from Mutant Phenotype. more ...
Transalveolar chemotaxis of leukocytes in response to LPS in vivo. Mice were anesthetized by isoflurane (Baxter Corporation, ... Subcutaneous PMN chemotaxis in response to LPS in vivo. The air pouch model of PMN chemotaxis was used as described previously. ... Transalveolar migration of leukocytes in response to LPS in vivo. Time course of leukocyte recruitment in BALF from male Mmp12 ... In vitro chemotaxis toward MMP-12-proteolyzed mCXCL2 and mCXCL3. The ELR motif in hCXCL8 (IL-8) is essential for CXCR binding,5 ...
Comparison of leukocyte chemotaxis across monolayers of resting and activated HMEC-1. The number of migrant THP-1 cells on the ... Transendothelial leukocyte chemotaxis. A series of experiments was performed to assess the potential of RANTES to induce ... and for stabilisation of the concentration gradients necessary for leukocyte chemotaxis (Adams and Lloyd, 1997; Ali et al., ... Chemotaxis assay. HMEC-1 monolayers were propagated on 24-well format transwell membranes (3μ m pore; Falcon plastic) by ...
chemotaxis. leukocytes. keratinocytes. in chronic dermatitis (psoriasis, atopic dermatitis). Cys-LT. (LTC4. LTD4. LTE4). -. ...
  • Studies conducted in the 1970s found that a series of N-formylmethionine-containing oligopeptides, including the most potent and best known member of this series, N-Formylmethionine-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP or fMet-Leu-Phe), stimulated rabbit and human neutrophils by an apparent receptor-dependent mechanism to migrate in a directional pattern in classical laboratory assays of chemotaxis. (wikipedia.org)
  • FPR1 is prominently expressed by mammalian phagocytic and blood leukocyte cells where it functions to mediate these cells' responses to the N-formylmethionine-containing oligopeptides which are released by invading microorganisms and injured tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fourth, this study also suggests that the potential use of optical imaging to follow leukocytes trafficking in humans as fluorescence reflectance imaging techniques can easily be miniaturized. (asahq.org)
  • ALOX12, often termed plate platelet-type 12-lipoxygenase, is distinguished from leukocyte-type 12-lipoxygenase which is found in mice, rats, cows, and pigs but not humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leukocyte adhesion deficiency-1 (LAD1) is a rare and often fatal genetic disorder in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • This belief was taken apart when it became clear that only few of the ejaculated spermatozoa - in humans, only ~1 of every million spermatozoa - succeed in entering the oviducts (Fallopian tubes) and when more recent studies showed that mammalian spermatozoa employ at least three different mechanisms, each of which can potentially serve as a guidance mechanism: chemotaxis, thermotaxis and rheotaxis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In an observational study of gene expression in blood leukocytes in humans, Harries et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • A subset of MHC in humans is human leukocyte antigen (HLA), which controls the antigen-presenting system, as part of adaptive immunity against pathogens such as bacteria and viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans MHC is also called human leukocyte antigen (HLA). (wikipedia.org)
  • but these assays require postmortem analyses of leukocyte tissue distribution. (asahq.org)
  • In addition, integrin-dependent signaling events induce cytoskeletal rearrangements and cell polarization, modifications necessary in helping to prepare the attached leukocyte to spread and crawl in search for its wayout of the vasculature into tissue [ 10 - 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In general, HU308 administration showed some benefit after LPS administration by reducing the number of adherent leukocytes in both V1 and V3 venules, adding some support to other studies using [CB.sub.agonist administration which show a reduction in leukocyte chemotaxis , endothelial interaction and transmigration, and release of proinflammatory mediators in experimental models of endotoxemia [26- (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In previous studies using "gene-hunting" strategies, we demonstrated stable alterations in gene expression profiles of circulating leukocytes isolated from glaucoma patients with vascular deregulation when compared to healthy individuals with no history of glaucomatous damage. (molvis.org)
  • It is also involved in changes to vascular permeability, the oxidative burst, chemotaxis of leukocytes, as well as augmentation of arachidonic acid metabolism in phagocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sub-primate mammals, such as the mouse, rat, rabbit, cow, and pig, express platelet type 12-lipoxygenase but also a leukocyte type 12-lipoxygenase (also termed 12/15-lipoxygenase, 12/15-LOX or 12/15-LO) which is an ortholog of, and metabolically equivalent to, human 15-LO-1 in that it forms predominantly 15(S)-HpETE with 12(S)-HpETE as a minor product. (wikipedia.org)