Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Chemotactic Factors: Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.Chemotactic Factors, Eosinophil: Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Eosinophil Peroxidase: A 66-kDa peroxidase found in EOSINOPHIL granules. Eosinophil peroxidase is a cationic protein with a pI of 10.8 and is comprised of a heavy chain subunit and a light chain subunit. It possesses cytotoxic activity towards BACTERIA and other organisms, which is attributed to its peroxidase activity.Complement C5: C5 plays a central role in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C5 is cleaved by C5 CONVERTASE into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. The smaller fragment C5a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of inflammatory process. The major fragment C5b binds to the membrane initiating the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components, C5-C9, into the MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Eosinophil Granule Proteins: Proteins found in EOSINOPHIL granules. They are primarily basic proteins that play a role in host defense and the proinflammatory actions of activated eosinophils.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.N-Formylmethionine: Effective in the initiation of protein synthesis. The initiating methionine residue enters the ribosome as N-formylmethionyl tRNA. This process occurs in Escherichia coli and other bacteria as well as in the mitochondria of eucaryotic cells.N-Formylmethionine Leucyl-Phenylalanine: A formylated tripeptide originally isolated from bacterial filtrates that is positively chemotactic to polymorphonuclear leucocytes, and causes them to release lysosomal enzymes and become metabolically activated.Eosinophilia: Abnormal increase of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, tissues or organs.Complement C5a: The minor fragment formed when C5 convertase cleaves C5 into C5a and COMPLEMENT C5B. C5a is a 74-amino-acid glycopeptide with a carboxy-terminal ARGININE that is crucial for its spasmogenic activity. Of all the complement-derived anaphylatoxins, C5a is the most potent in mediating immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE), smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION; HISTAMINE RELEASE; and migration of LEUKOCYTES to site of INFLAMMATION.Interleukin-5: A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Eosinophil Cationic Protein: One of several basic proteins released from EOSINOPHIL cytoplasmic granules. Eosinophil cationic protein is a 21-kDa cytotoxic peptide with a pI of 10.9. Although eosinophil cationic protein is considered a member of the RNAse A superfamily of proteins, it has only limited RNAse activity.Chemokine CCL11: A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Leukotriene B4: The major metabolite in neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It stimulates polymorphonuclear cell function (degranulation, formation of oxygen-centered free radicals, arachidonic acid release, and metabolism). (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)Eosinophil Major Basic Protein: One of several basic proteins released from EOSINOPHIL cytoplasmic granules. Eosinophil major basic protein is a 14-kDa cytotoxic peptide with a pI of 10.9. In addition to its direct cytotoxic effects, it stimulates the release of variety of INFLAMMATION MEDIATORS.Carcinoma 256, Walker: A transplantable carcinoma of the rat that originally appeared spontaneously in the mammary gland of a pregnant albino rat, and which now resembles a carcinoma in young transplants and a sarcoma in older transplants. (Stedman, 25th ed)Eosinophil-Derived Neurotoxin: A 19-kDa cationic peptide found in EOSINOPHIL granules. Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin is a RIBONUCLEASE and may play a role as an endogenous antiviral agent.Chemokines, C: Group of chemokines without adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes only.ZymosanAnaphylatoxins: Serum peptides derived from certain cleaved COMPLEMENT PROTEINS during COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. They induce smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION; mast cell HISTAMINE RELEASE; PLATELET AGGREGATION; and act as mediators of the local inflammatory process. The order of anaphylatoxin activity from the strongest to the weakest is C5a, C3a, C4a, and C5a des-arginine.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Cytochalasin B: A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Chemokines, CC: Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Monocyte Chemoattractant Proteins: Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.Platelet Activating Factor: A phospholipid derivative formed by PLATELETS; BASOPHILS; NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES. It is a potent platelet aggregating agent and inducer of systemic anaphylactic symptoms, including HYPOTENSION; THROMBOCYTOPENIA; NEUTROPENIA; and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Ribonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.Isethionic Acid: A colorless, syrupy, strongly acidic liquid that can form detergents with oleic acid.Receptors, CCR3: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.Pulmonary Eosinophilia: A condition characterized by infiltration of the lung with EOSINOPHILS due to inflammation or other disease processes. Major eosinophilic lung diseases are the eosinophilic pneumonias caused by infections, allergens, or toxic agents.Exudates and Transudates: Exudates are fluids, CELLS, or other cellular substances that are slowly discharged from BLOOD VESSELS usually from inflamed tissues. Transudates are fluids that pass through a membrane or squeeze through tissue or into the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE of TISSUES. Transudates are thin and watery and contain few cells or PROTEINS.Chemokine CCL24: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Hypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Granulocytes: Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Anaphylaxis: An acute hypersensitivity reaction due to exposure to a previously encountered ANTIGEN. The reaction may include rapidly progressing URTICARIA, respiratory distress, vascular collapse, systemic SHOCK, and death.Chemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Cell Degranulation: The process of losing secretory granules (SECRETORY VESICLES). This occurs, for example, in mast cells, basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils, and platelets when secretory products are released from the granules by EXOCYTOSIS.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Receptors, Complement: Molecules on the surface of some B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that recognize and combine with the C3b, C3d, C1q, and C4b components of complement.EsterasesChemokines, CXC: Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Ascitic Fluid: The serous fluid of ASCITES, the accumulation of fluids in the PERITONEAL CAVITY.Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: An acidic glycoprotein of MW 23 kDa with internal disulfide bonds. The protein is produced in response to a number of inflammatory mediators by mesenchymal cells present in the hemopoietic environment and at peripheral sites of inflammation. GM-CSF is able to stimulate the production of neutrophilic granulocytes, macrophages, and mixed granulocyte-macrophage colonies from bone marrow cells and can stimulate the formation of eosinophil colonies from fetal liver progenitor cells. GM-CSF can also stimulate some functional activities in mature granulocytes and macrophages.Mast Cells: Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.Cell Biology: The study of the structure, behavior, growth, reproduction, and pathology of cells; and the function and chemistry of cellular components.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Receptors, Formyl Peptide: A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that was originally identified by its ability to bind N-formyl peptides such as N-FORMYLMETHIONINE LEUCYL-PHENYLALANINE. Since N-formyl peptides are found in MITOCHONDRIA and BACTERIA, this class of receptors is believed to play a role in mediating cellular responses to cellular damage and bacterial invasion. However, non-formylated peptide ligands have also been found for this receptor class.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Blood Protein Electrophoresis: Electrophoresis applied to BLOOD PROTEINS.HexosephosphatesPheniramine: One of the HISTAMINE H1 ANTAGONISTS with little sedative action. It is used in treatment of hay fever, rhinitis, allergic dermatoses, and pruritus.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Superoxides: Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.Lymphokines: Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.Hypereosinophilic Syndrome: A heterogeneous group of disorders with the common feature of prolonged eosinophilia of unknown cause and associated organ system dysfunction, including the heart, central nervous system, kidneys, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and skin. There is a massive increase in the number of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, mimicking leukemia, and extensive eosinophilic infiltration of the various organs.Interleukin-16: A cytokine produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that stimulates the migration of CD4-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES and monocytes. It has been reported to suppress HIV replication.Leukotriene C4: The conjugation product of LEUKOTRIENE A4 and glutathione. It is the major arachidonic acid metabolite in macrophages and human mast cells as well as in antigen-sensitized lung tissue. It stimulates mucus secretion in the lung, and produces contractions of nonvascular and some VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)Arthus Reaction: A dermal inflammatory reaction produced under conditions of antibody excess, when a second injection of antigen produces intravascular antigen-antibody complexes which bind complement, causing cell clumping, endothelial damage, and vascular necrosis.Arachidonic AcidsColchicine: A major alkaloid from Colchicum autumnale L. and found also in other Colchicum species. Its primary therapeutic use is in the treatment of gout, but it has been used also in the therapy of familial Mediterranean fever (PERIODIC DISEASE).Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Cell Aggregation: The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Calcimycin: An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.PeroxidasesAllergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Receptors, Fc: Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.gamma-Globulins: Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.Chemokine CXCL1: A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.Neutrophil Activation: The process in which the neutrophil is stimulated by diverse substances, resulting in degranulation and/or generation of reactive oxygen products, and culminating in the destruction of invading pathogens. The stimulatory substances, including opsonized particles, immune complexes, and chemotactic factors, bind to specific cell-surface receptors on the neutrophil.Cell Migration Inhibition: Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.Mice, Inbred BALB CReceptors, Chemokine: Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Dermatitis: Any inflammation of the skin.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Togaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the TOGAVIRIDAE.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.1-(5-Isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-Methylpiperazine: A specific protein kinase C inhibitor, which inhibits superoxide release from human neutrophils (PMN) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or synthetic diacylglycerol.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Depression, Chemical: The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Bronchial Hyperreactivity: Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.Endotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Macrophage-1 Antigen: An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.GlucuronidaseCulture Media, Conditioned: Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).Micropore Filters: A membrane or barrier with micrometer sized pores used for separation purification processes.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Tissue Extracts: Preparations made from animal tissues or organs (ANIMAL STRUCTURES). They usually contain many components, any one of which may be pharmacologically or physiologically active. Tissue extracts may contain specific, but uncharacterized factors or proteins with specific actions.Luminescent Measurements: Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Respiratory Hypersensitivity: A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Monokines: Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.Receptors, Complement 3b: Molecular sites on or in some B-lymphocytes and macrophages that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3B. The primary structure of these receptors reveal that they contain transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, with their extracellular portion composed entirely of thirty short consensus repeats each having 60 to 70 amino acids.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Basophils: Granular leukocytes characterized by a relatively pale-staining, lobate nucleus and cytoplasm containing coarse dark-staining granules of variable size and stainable by basic dyes.Isoflurophate: A di-isopropyl-fluorophosphate which is an irreversible cholinesterase inhibitor used to investigate the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Microscopy, Interference: The science and application of a double-beam transmission interference microscope in which the illuminating light beam is split into two paths. One beam passes through the specimen while the other beam reflects off a reference mirror before joining and interfering with the other. The observed optical path difference between the two beams can be measured and used to discriminate minute differences in thickness and refraction of non-stained transparent specimens, such as living cells in culture.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Interleukins: Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Receptors, Interleukin-5: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-5. They are heterodimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-5 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT. Signaling from interleukin-5 receptors can occur through interaction of their cytoplasmic domains with SYNTENINS.Peroxidase: A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 1.11.1.7.Mice, Inbred C57BLMuramidase: A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.Pleurisy: INFLAMMATION of PLEURA, the lining of the LUNG. When PARIETAL PLEURA is involved, there is pleuritic CHEST PAIN.Organophosphonates: Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Chemokine CCL3: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins: Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Aminopeptidases: A subclass of EXOPEPTIDASES that act on the free N terminus end of a polypeptide liberating a single amino acid residue. EC 3.4.11.Granulomatous Disease, Chronic: A defect of leukocyte function in which phagocytic cells ingest but fail to digest bacteria, resulting in recurring bacterial infections with granuloma formation. When chronic granulomatous disease is caused by mutations in the CYBB gene, the condition is inherited in an X-linked recessive pattern. When chronic granulomatous disease is caused by CYBA, NCF1, NCF2, or NCF4 gene mutations, the condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern.Pentose Phosphate Pathway: An oxidative decarboxylation process that converts GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE to D-ribose-5-phosphate via 6-phosphogluconate. The pentose product is used in the biosynthesis of NUCLEIC ACIDS. The generated energy is stored in the form of NADPH. This pathway is prominent in tissues which are active in the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS and STEROIDS.Neutrophil Infiltration: The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Sputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Interleukin-5 Receptor alpha Subunit: A low affinity interleukin-5 receptor subunit that combines with the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-5. Several isoforms of the interleukin-5 receptor alpha subunit exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Integrin alpha4: An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.Pertussis Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.Interleukin-3: A multilineage cell growth factor secreted by LYMPHOCYTES; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and ASTROCYTES which stimulates clonal proliferation and differentiation of various types of blood and tissue cells.Concanavalin A: A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.Endothelium: A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Chemokine CCL5: A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.Lysophospholipase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a single fatty acid ester bond in lysoglycerophosphatidates with the formation of glyceryl phosphatidates and a fatty acid. EC 3.1.1.5.Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Dinitrophenols: Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.Sialoglycoproteins: Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Hypersensitivity, Immediate: Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.Nasal Polyps: Focal accumulations of EDEMA fluid in the NASAL MUCOSA accompanied by HYPERPLASIA of the associated submucosal connective tissue. Polyps may be NEOPLASMS, foci of INFLAMMATION, degenerative lesions, or malformations.Pancreatic Elastase: A protease of broad specificity, obtained from dried pancreas. Molecular weight is approximately 25,000. The enzyme breaks down elastin, the specific protein of elastic fibers, and digests other proteins such as fibrin, hemoglobin, and albumin. EC 3.4.21.36.Complement C3: A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.Isoquinolines: A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Virulence Factors, Bordetella: A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Bronchial Provocation Tests: Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Ultracentrifugation: Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Schistosoma mansoni: A species of trematode blood flukes of the family Schistosomatidae. It is common in the Nile delta. The intermediate host is the planorbid snail. This parasite causes schistosomiasis mansoni and intestinal bilharziasis.Chemokine CXCL12: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.SRS-A: A group of LEUKOTRIENES; (LTC4; LTD4; and LTE4) that is the major mediator of BRONCHOCONSTRICTION; HYPERSENSITIVITY; and other allergic reactions. Earlier studies described a "slow-reacting substance of ANAPHYLAXIS" released from lung by cobra venom or after anaphylactic shock. The relationship between SRS-A leukotrienes was established by UV which showed the presence of the conjugated triene. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Conjunctivitis, Allergic: Conjunctivitis due to hypersensitivity to various allergens.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Integrin alpha4beta1: Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.Interleukin-13: A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.Complement Activation: The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Mice, Inbred C3HIsoelectric Focusing: Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.

Selective eosinophil transendothelial migration triggered by eotaxin via modulation of Mac-1/ICAM-1 and VLA-4/VCAM-1 interactions. (1/152)

We have recently cloned eotaxin, a highly efficacious eosinophilic chemokine involved in the development of lung eosinophilia during allergic inflammatory reactions. To understand more precisely how eotaxin facilitates the specific migration of eosinophils, we have studied which adhesion receptors are essential for eotaxin action both in vivo and in vitro. Experiments using mice genetically deficient in adhesion receptors demonstrated that molecules previously reported to be involved in both leukocyte tethering/rolling (P-selectin and E-selectin) and in sticking/ transmigration (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) are required for eotaxin action in vivo. To further elucidate the mechanism(s) involved in this process, we have used an in vitro transendothelial chemotaxis model. mAb neutralization studies performed in this system suggest that the integrins Mac-1 (CD11b/18), VLA-4 (alpha4beta1) and LFA-1 (CD11a/18) are involved in the transendothelial chemotaxis of eosinophils to eotaxin. Accordingly, the expression of these integrins on eosinophils is elevated by direct action of this chemokine in a concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, our results suggest that eotaxin-induced eosinophil transendothelial migration in vivo and in vitro relies on Mac-1/ICAM-1 and VLA-4NCAM-1 interactions, the latter ones becoming more relevant at later time points of the eotaxin-induced recruitment process.  (+info)

Eotaxin contributes to renal interstitial eosinophilia. (2/152)

BACKGROUND: A potent eosinophil chemotactic cytokine, human eotaxin, is directly chemotactic for eosinophils. Therefore, the specific expression of eotaxin in tissue might play a crucial role in tissue eosinophilia. However, the precise molecular mechanism of the recruitment and activation of eosinophils in human renal diseases remains to be investigated. We evaluated the role of eotaxin in the pathogenesis of human diffuse interstitial nephritis with marked infiltration of eosinophils. METHODS: In this study, we examined 20 healthy volunteers. 56 patients with primary or secondary glomerular diseases and two hypereosinophilic syndrome patients without renal involvement. Urinary and serum eotaxin levels were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We also detected the presence of eotaxin protein immunohistochemically. RESULTS: On the one hand, urinary levels of eotaxin were significantly higher before the initiation of glucocorticoid administration in the patient with interstitial nephritis with marked infiltration of eosinophils. On the other hand, urinary eotaxin levels were not detected in any patients with nephrotic syndrome, interstitial nephritis without eosinophils, hypereosinophilic syndrome without renal involvement or other renal diseases. Serum eotaxin levels were not detected in any of the patients. Therefore, the detection of eotaxin in the urine was specific for renal interstitial eosinophilia. Moreover, endothelial cells, infiltrating mononuclear cells and renal epithelial cells in the tubulointerstitial lesions were immunostained with specific anti-eotaxin antibodies. Furthermore, the elevated urinary levels of eotaxin decreased dramatically during glucocorticoid-induced convalescence. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesize that in situ expression of eotaxin may provide a new mechanism to explain the renal interstitial eosinophil infiltration.  (+info)

Differential chemokine expression in tissues involved by Hodgkin's disease: direct correlation of eotaxin expression and tissue eosinophilia. (3/152)

Hodgkin's disease (HD) is a lymphoid malignancy characterized by infrequent malignant cells surrounded by abundant inflammatory cells. In this study, we examined the potential contribution of chemokines to inflammatory cell recruitment in different subtypes of HD. Chemokines are small proteins that are active as chemoattractants and regulators of cell activation. We found that HD tissues generally express higher levels of interferon-gamma-inducible protein-10 (IP-10), Mig, RANTES, macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), and eotaxin, but not macrophage-derived chemotactic factor (MDC), than tissues from lymphoid hyperplasia (LH). Within HD subtypes, expression of IP-10 and Mig was highest in the mixed cellularity (MC) subtype, whereas expression of eotaxin and MDC was highest in the nodular sclerosis (NS) subtype. A significant direct correlation was detected between evidence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in the neoplastic cells and levels of expression of IP-10, RANTES, and MIP-1alpha. Levels of eotaxin expression correlated directly with the extent of tissue eosinophilia. By immunohistochemistry, IP-10, Mig, and eotaxin proteins localized in the malignant Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells and their variants, and to some surrounding inflammatory cells. Eotaxin was also detected in fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells of vessels. These results provide evidence of high level chemokine expression in HD tissues and suggest that chemokines may play an important role in the recruitment of inflammatory cell infiltrates into tissues involved by HD.  (+info)

Eotaxin activates T cells to chemotaxis and adhesion only if induced to express CCR3 by IL-2 together with IL-4. (4/152)

The transmigration and adherence of T lymphocytes through microvascular endothelium are essential events for their recruitment into inflammatory sites. In the present study, we investigated the expression of CC chemokine receptor CCR3 on T lymphocytes and the capacities of the CC chemokine eotaxin to induce chemotaxis and adhesion in T lymphocytes. We have observed a novel phenomenon that IL-2 and IL-4 induce the expression of CCR3 on T lymphocytes. We also report that CC chemokine eotaxin is a potent chemoattractant for IL-2- and IL-4-stimulated T lymphocytes, but not for freshly isolated T lymphocytes. Eotaxin attracts T lymphocytes via CCR3, documented by the fact that anti-CCR3 mAb blocks eotaxin-mediated T lymphocyte chemotaxis. In combination with IL-2 and IL-4, eotaxin enhances the expression of adhesion molecules such as ICAM-1 and several integrins (CD29, CD49a, and CD49b) on T lymphocytes and thus promotes adhesion and aggregation of T lymphocytes. The eotaxin-induced T lymphocyte adhesion could be selectively blocked by a specific cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor, H-89, indicating that eotaxin activates T lymphocytes via a special cAMP-signaling pathway. Our new findings all point toward the fact that eotaxin, in association with the Th1-derived cytokine IL-2 and the Th2-derived cytokine IL-4, is an important T lymphocyte activator, stimulating the directional migration, adhesion, accumulation, and recruitment of T lymphocytes, and paralleled the accumulation of eosinophils and basophils during the process of certain types of inflammation such as allergy.  (+info)

CD26/dipeptidyl-peptidase IV down-regulates the eosinophil chemotactic potency, but not the anti-HIV activity of human eotaxin by affecting its interaction with CC chemokine receptor 3. (5/152)

Chemokines attract and activate distinct sets of leukocytes. The CC chemokine eotaxin has been characterized as an important mediator in allergic reactions because it selectively attracts eosinophils, Th2 lymphocytes, and basophils. Human eotaxin has a penultimate proline, indicating that it might be a substrate for dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (CD26/DPP IV). In this study we demonstrate that eotaxin is efficiently cleaved by CD26/DPP IV and that the NH2-terminal truncation affects its biological activity. CD26/DPP IV-truncated eotaxin(3-74) showed reduced chemotactic activity for eosinophils and impaired binding and signaling properties through the CC chemokine receptor 3. Moreover, eotaxin(3-74) desensitized calcium signaling and inhibited chemotaxis toward intact eotaxin. In addition, HIV-2 infection of CC chemokine receptor 3-transfected cells was inhibited to a similar extent by eotaxin and eotaxin(3-74). Thus, CD26/DPP IV differently regulates the chemotactic and antiviral potencies of eotaxin by the removal of two NH2-terminal residues. This physiological processing may be an important down-regulatory mechanism, limiting eotaxin-mediated inflammatory responses.  (+info)

Immunomodulatory role of C10 chemokine in a murine model of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. (6/152)

The immunomodulatory role of the chemokine C10 was explored in allergic airway responses during experimental allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). The intratracheal delivery of Asperigillus fumigatus Ag into A. fumigatus-sensitized mice resulted in significantly increased levels of C10 within the bronchoalveolar lavage, and these levels peaked at 48 h after A. fumigatus challenge. In addition, C10 levels in BAL samples were greater than 5-fold higher than levels of other chemokines such as monocyte-chemoattractant protein-1, eotaxin, and macrophage-inflammatory protein-1alpha. From in vitro studies, it was evident that major pulmonary sources of C10 may have included alveolar macrophages, lung fibroblasts, and vascular smooth muscle cells. Experimental ABPA was associated with severe peribronchial eosinophilia, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and augmented IL-13 and IgE levels. The immunoneutralization of C10 with polyclonal anti-C10 antiserum 2 h before the intratracheal A. fumigatus challenge significantly reduced the airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in this model of ABPA, but had no effect on IL-10 nor IgE levels. Taken together, these data suggest that C10 has a unique role in the progression of experimental ABPA.  (+info)

Human eotaxin induces eosinophil extravasation through rat mesenteric venules: role of alpha4 integrins and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. (7/152)

Eotaxin is a potent eosinophil-specific CC-chemokine, which has been shown to play a role in the selective induction of eosinophil accumulation in a number of allergic models of inflammation. Many aspects of the mechanism by which eotaxin induces eosinophil accumulation in vivo remain unresolved. In the present study, we investigated the direct effect of synthetic human eotaxin on leucocyte/endothelial cell interactions within rat mesenteric venules, as quantified by intravital microscopy. Topical eotaxin (30 pmol) induced rapid firm adhesion and extravasation of leucocytes within the rat mesentery, the extravasated leucocytes all being eosinophils, as determined by histological analysis. Whilst eotaxin was unable to stimulate the interaction of rat eosinophils with vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) under static conditions in vitro, eotaxin-induced responses in vivo were significantly suppressed by anti-alpha4 integrin and anti-VCAM-1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). The anti-alpha4 integrin mAb, HP2/1 (3.5 mg/kg), inhibited the eotaxin-induced firm adhesion and extravasation, 60 min postapplication of the chemokine, by 89% and 84%, respectively. In the same set of experiments, the anti-VCAM-1 mAb, 5F10 (3.5 mg/kg), inhibited leucocyte adhesion and extravasation by 61% and 63%, respectively. These results demonstrate that eotaxin-induced migration of eosinophils through rat mesenteric venules in vivo is dependent on an alpha4 integrin/VCAM-1 adhesion pathway, the significance of which may only be evident under flow conditions and/or following the ligation of other adhesion molecules expressed on eosinophils.  (+info)

Human thymocytes express CCR-3 and are activated by eotaxin. (8/152)

Eotaxin has been characterized as a chemokine involved in eosinophil activation; however, mRNA for this C-C chemokine has been shown to be constitutively expressed in thymus. Immunohistochemical analysis showed a punctate distribution pattern, with eotaxin expression localized mainly in the medulla and in Hassle's corpuscles. Moreover, the receptor for eotaxin, CCR-3, was detected on thymocytes, with the highest level of expression being on the CD8 single-positive population. Equilibrium binding analyses on unfractionated thymocytes demonstrated specific 125I-eotaxin binding profiles comparable with CCR-3 transfectants. Eotaxin induced cell migration and mobilization of intracellular calcium in all thymocytes except the immature CD4(-)/CD8(-) population. Eotaxin also induced the secretion of the chemokines interleukin-8, RANTES, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta from thymocyte cultures in vitro. These results suggest that eotaxin-induced thymocyte activation may have important physiological implications for lymphocyte mobilization within and from this lymphoid organ.  (+info)

Looking for eosinophil chemotactic factor? Find out information about eosinophil chemotactic factor. A peptide released from mast cell granules that stimulates chemotaxis of eosinophils; may be responsible for accumulation of eosinophils at sites of... Explanation of eosinophil chemotactic factor
Eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now!
Im doing a project for my cell class (sorry if this is in the wrong forum--I couldnt find a homework forum) about the eosinophil chemotactic factor. I was wondering if someone could point me in the right direction for a few answers. My professor seemed to think everything could be found online and I dont doubt him, Im just getting conflicting answers. Heres what I have so far ...
References for Abcams Recombinant human Eotaxin 2 protein (ab54405). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Patients with asthma demonstrate circadian variations in the airway inflammation and lung function. Pinealectomy reduces the total inflammatory cell number in the asthmatic rat lung. We hypothesize that melatonin, a circadian rhythm regulator, may modulate the circadian inflammatory variations in asthma by stimulating the chemotaxins expression in the lung epithelial cell. Lung epithelial cells (A549) were stimulated with melatonin in the presence or absence of TNF-α(100 ng/ml). RANTES (Regulated on Activation Normal T-cells Expressed and Secreted) and eotaxin expression were measured using ELISA and real-time RT-PCR, eosinophil chemotactic activity (ECA) released by A549 was measured by eosinophil chemotaxis assay. TNF-α increased the expression of RANTES (307.84 ± 33.56 versus 207.64 ± 31.27 pg/ml of control, p = 0.025) and eotaxin (108.97 ± 10.87 versus 54.00 ± 5.29 pg/ml of control, p = 0.041). Melatonin(10-10 to 10-6M) alone didnt change the expression of RNATES (204.97 ± 32.56 pg/ml) and
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This release contains summaries, links to PDFs, and contact information for the following newsworthy papers to be published online on January 4, 2006 in the Journal of Clinical Investigation, including: Soy diet worsens heart disease; Breast cancer-causing gene predicts shorter survival; Blocking eotaxin may help asthmatics breathe easier; Turns-ons and turn-offs for smooth muscle cells; Cancer detection: spinning biological trash into diagnostic gold; How chromosomal leap frog causes cancer in B cells; and others.
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Previous investigations have demonstrated a link between elevated levels of eosinophils, eosinophil activation, and adult IBD. However, there have been conflicting data regarding the individual contribution of the eosinophil-selective chemokines eotaxin-1 and eotaxin-2 in eosinophil recruitment in IBD. In the present study we demonstrate the following: 1) that eosinophil numbers are elevated in pediatric UC and that their level correlates with disease severity; 2) eotaxin-1 and not eotaxin-2 or eotaxin-3 is up-regulated in lesional colonic biopsy samples of pediatric UC patients; and 3) eotaxin-1 mRNA expression correlates with colonic eosinophil levels in pediatric UC. Using a chemical-induced colonic injury model, we define that eotaxin-1, and not eotaxin-2, is critical for eosinophil recruitment and that eotaxin-1 is predominantly derived from intestinal macrophages. Consistent with our experimental analysis, we show that eotaxin-1 is predominantly expressed by intestinal macrophages; ...
Subjects admitted on this protocol will have elevated eosinophil counts in the peripheral blood or tissues or will be relatives of subjects with eosinophilia. Eosinophilic subjects will undergo an extensive clinical evaluation focused on the identification of the cause of eosinophilia and the presence of end organ manifestations. In addition, they will be characterized in detail immunologically, and their blood cells and/or serum will be collected to provide reagents (eg. specific antibodies, T-cell clones, etc.) that will be used in the laboratory to address broader questions relating to the etiology of eosinophilia, its immunoregulation, the degree and source of eosinophil activation, and/or the functional role of eosinophils in the afferent arm of those immune response where they are prominent. While the protocol is not primarily designed to study treatment of patients with blood and tissue eosinophilia, the clinical and immunological responses to various medically indicated therapies will be ...
We have characterized previously the expression of the chemokines eotaxin, MCP-5, RANTES, and MCP-1 (mRNA and/or protein), and correlated this with the leukocytes migrating to the lung during a murine model of lung inflammation ((5), (16)). From these experiments, we concluded that MCP-1 mRNA expression paralleled the accumulation of monocytes/macrophages in this organ, both events occurring predominantly at early stages of the response (day 15). Also, eotaxin mRNA expression paralleled lung eosinophilia predominantly at late stages (day 21). In contrast, other chemokines, such as RANTES or MCP-5, were expressed throughout the inflammatory reaction. This underlines the contribution of chemokines at different stages of the response.. From the work presented here, we first conclude that eosinophil recruitment and development of BHR in this model system involve the action of both eosinophilic (eotaxin, RANTES, MCP-5, and MIP-1α) and noneosinophilic chemokines (MCP-1). This indicates the absence of ...
Hi Again Please could you tell me what tissue in mouse is a good positive control for eosinophil staining. Thanks Marilyn _______________________________________________ Histonet mailing list [email protected] http://lists.utsouthwestern.edu/mailman/listinfo/histonet ...
Of the three types of leukocytes recruited, neutrophils, eosinophils, and macrophages, the most striking difference between BLTR−/− and wild-type mice occurred in eosinophil recruitment (Fig. 5 A). Neither group had substantial numbers of peritoneal eosinophils at baseline or 4 h after thioglycollate instillation. Peak numbers of eosinophils were seen in both groups at 48 h, but BLTR−/− mice recruited only 33% as many eosinophils to the inflamed peritoneum as wild-type mice at this time point (P , 0.005). Numbers of peritoneal eosinophils declined in both groups at 96 h, but BLTR−/− mice continued to have significantly fewer of these cells. At 96 h, BLTR−/− mice had only 20% as many eosinophils recovered from the peritoneal cavity as wild-type mice (P , 0.01).. Although the numbers of peritoneal neutrophils and macrophages appeared lower in the BLTR−/− mice at some time points, the differences from wild type did not reach statistical significance for either of these cell ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interleukin-12 inhibits eotaxin secretion of cultured primary lung cells and alleviates airway inflammation in vivo. AU - Ye, Yi Ling. AU - Huang, Wan Ching. AU - Lee, Yueh L.. AU - Chiang, Bor Luen. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - The mechanisms that cause the inflammation of airway and lung tissue in asthma have been studied extensively. It is noted that type 1 T helper cell (Th1)-related cytokines could decrease the accumulation of eosinophils in lung tissue and relieve airway constriction. But the therapeutic mechanisms of Th1 cytokines remain unclear. In this study, interleukin-12 (IL-12) DNA plasmid as a therapeutic reagent was delivered intravenously. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids were collected from IL-12 treated and control mice, and analyzed for cell composition and eotaxin level. The results showed that IL-12 DNA plasmid could effectively inhibit eosinophilia and airway inflammation in vivo. The level of eotaxin in BAL fluid also decreased. To further investigate the ...
Eosinophils play a key role in the pathogenesis of asthma, and T cells are controller cells in the recruitment and activation of eosinophils.
Asthma is associated with eosinophilic airway inflammation and eosinophils are believed to be important in the pathogenesis of asthma. IL-5 has been considered the central mediator for eosinophilic proliferation, differentiation and eosinophilic inflammation, but results of recent studies suggest that besides IL-5, eotaxin may contribute to the pathogenesis of asthma. Eotaxin is CC chemokine first isolated from guinea pig bronchoalveolar lavage. It selectively binds to a specific receptor (CCR3) highly expressed on eosinophils, basophils, and mast cells being important in the pathogenesis of asthma. Eotaxin is produced mainly by epithelial cells of lung and gut, to mediate organ preferential attraction of eosinophils. Production of eotaxin is stimulated by IL-4, IL-13, TNF-α. Human eotaxin family includes: eotaxin-1 (CCL11), eotaxin-2 (CCL24) and eotaxin-3 (CCL26). It seems that eotaxin-3 may be expressed following allergen challenge. Studies with glucocorticosteroids have shown some inhibitory ...
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Eosinophilia (e-o-sin-o-FILL-e-uh) is a higher than normal level of eosinophils. Eosinophils are a type of disease-fighting white blood cell. This condition most often indicates a parasitic infection, an allergic reaction or cancer.. You can have high levels of eosinophils in your blood (blood eosinophilia) or in tissues at the site of an infection or inflammation (tissue eosinophilia).. Tissue eosinophilia may be found in samples taken during an exploratory procedure or in samples of certain fluids, such as mucus released from nasal tissues. If you have tissue eosinophilia, the level of eosinophils in your bloodstream is likely normal.. Blood eosinophilia may be detected with a blood test, usually as part of a complete blood count. A count of more than 500 eosinophils per microliter of blood is generally considered eosinophilia in adults. A count of more than 1,500 eosinophils per microliter of blood that lasts for several months is called hypereosinophilia.. Eosinophils play two roles in your ...
Eosinophils are major effector cells in type 2 inflammatory responses and become activated in response to IL-4 and IL-33, yet the molecular mechanism remains unclear. We examined the direct effect of these cytokines on eosinophils and demonstrated that murine eosinophils respond to IL-4 and IL-33 by phosphorylation of STAT-6 and NFkB, respectively. RNA sequencing analysis of murine eosinophils indicated that IL-33 regulates 519 genes, whereas IL-4 regulates only 28 genes, including 19 IL-33-regulated genes. Interestingly, IL-33 induced eosinophil activation via two distinct mechanisms, IL-4 independent and IL-4 secretion/auto-stimulation dependent. Anti-IL-4 or anti-IL-4Ra antibody-treated eosinophils, as well as Il4- or Stat6-deficient eosinophils, had attenuated protein secretion of a subset of IL-33-induced genes, including Retnla and Ccl17. However, the induction of most IL-33-regulated transcripts (e.g. Il6 and Il13) was IL-4 independent and blocked by NFkB inhibition. Indeed, IL-33 induced the
Eosinophil, coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM). This eosinophil is from a patient with eosinophilic cellulitis (Wells syndrome), a type of inflammatory dermatitis. Eosinophils are a white blood cell involved in the immune response to antigens (fragments on the surface of pathogens or foreign objects). Magnification: x8000 when printed at 10 centimetres wide. - Stock Image C020/8235
Number of eosinophils in lung tissue from immunized wild-type and γ/δ T cell- deficient animals receiving seven exposures with OVA or SAL. Solid bars, mea
இயோசிநாடிகள் அல்லது இயோசினேற்பிகள் அல்லது இயோசினாஃபில்கள் (Eosinophils) என்று இவை அழைக்கப்படுகின்றது. 0.5-3.0% வெள்ளையணுக்கள் இவ்வகை சார்ந்தவை . இவை நகரும் இயல்புடையவை. உடல் உறுப்புகளின் திசுக்களில் வீக்கம் ஏற்படின் இவை அங்கு நகர்ந்து செல்கின்றன. ஒவ்வாமைத் தன்மையில் (Allergy) இவற்றின் எண்ணிக்கை அதிகரிக்கும். இவை நோய் எதிர்ப்பாற்றல் முறைமையில் முக்கிய பங்களிக்கும். பலகல ஒட்டுண்ணிகள் ...
Background: MCP-1 (CCL2), MCP-3 (CCL7), and eotaxin (CCL11) are genes for CC chemokines clustered on the long arm of chromosome 17. Previous studies have implicated these chemokines in monocyte recruitment, viral replication, and anti-HIV cytotoxic T cell responses. An epidemiological analysis identified genetic variants influencing HIV-1 transmission and disease progression. Methods: Genomic DNA from over 3000 participants enrolled in five natural history cohorts in the United States were analyzed. Nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) covering 33 kb containing these three genes were genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction. Distortions in allele, genotype, and haplotype frequencies were assessed with respect to HIV-1 transmission and rates of disease progression using categorical and survival analyses. Results: Extensive linkage disequilibrium was observed. Three SNP (−2136T located in theMCP-1 promoter region, 767G in intron 1 of MCP-1, and −1385A in the Eotaxin promoter) were nearly
Date: Friday, October 26, 2007 16:09 Subject: [Histonet] Eosinophil Staining To: [email protected] > I am looking to do a comparative staining study on eosinophils (tissue > is in FFPE). Among several stains, I plan to include a > hematoxylin/eosin/azure II stain which will stain eosinophils pink > (Friend et al. 2000) and a Sirius red stain (Aust et al. 2000). > Unfortunately, for the H&E/azure II stain, no publications give the > protocol or specific stain sequence. As for the Sirius red > stain, the > study states that the authors bought the stain from Bayer AG in > Germany.I have contacted Bayer and no one seems to know what I > am talking about. > Before I substitute the Bayer Sirius red, I want to make sure that > using another companys stain is appropriate as the protocol is > described as Sirius red (500mg) was dissolved in 45 ml aqua > bidest, 50 > ml absolute ethanol and 1 ml 1% NaOH; 4ml NaCl at 20% solution > was added > until slight precipitation occurred. My ...
An eosinophil count is a type of blood test that measures the quantity of eosinophils in your body. An eosinophil is a type of white blood cell.
An eosinophil count is a type of blood test that measures the quantity of eosinophils in your body. An eosinophil is a type of white blood cell.
Define macrophage chemotactic factor (MCF). macrophage chemotactic factor (MCF) synonyms, macrophage chemotactic factor (MCF) pronunciation, macrophage chemotactic factor (MCF) translation, English dictionary definition of macrophage chemotactic factor (MCF). n. Any of various large, phagocytic white blood cells that develop from monocytes, are found in the spleen, liver, and other tissues, and have a variety of...
The elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP by phosphodiesterase (PDE)4 inhibitors in eosinophils is associated with inhibition of the activation and recruitment of these cells. We have previously shown that systemic treatment with the PDE4 inhibitor rolipram effectively inhibt eosinophil migration in guinea pig skin. In the present study we compare the oral potency and efficacy of the PDE4 inhibitors rolipram, RP 73401 and CDP 840 on allergic and PAF-induced eosinophil recruitment. Rolipram and RP 73401 were equally effective and potent when given by the oral route and much more active than the PDE4 inhibitor CDP 840. We suggest that this guinea pig model of allergic and mediator-induced eosinophil recruitment is both a sensitive and simple tool to test the efficacy and potency of PDE4 inhibitors in vivo ...
Eosinophils are multifunctional leukocytes playing important roles in allergic inflammation and helminth infections. Although most research concerning eosinophils has focused on understanding their function in the blood and lung, it should be noted that eosinophils are much more abundant in the lamina propria (LP) of gastrointestinal (GI) tract than in other tissues. In this study, CD11bhighCD11cint cells, representing an almost pure population of eosinophils, were successfully isolated from the small intestinal LP wild type mice and this subset was not found in the LP of the genetically engineered eosinophil-deficient dblGATA mice. The CD11bhighCD11cint cells had prominent eosinophilic granules in the cytoplasm. Electron microscopic examination demonstrated that a significant fraction of the cytoplasmic granules were bi-compartmental, with an electron-dense or -lucent crystalline core. LP eosinophils express substantially lower levels of L-selectin, PSGL-1, integrin α4β7, and IL-5Rα and ...
IL-33 has emerged as an important cytokine in allergic diseases, largely because of its potential to activate cells that are hallmarks of allergy, including eosinophils, mast cells, and basophils (31). Outside of allergy, IL-33 has also been proposed to be involved in bacterial and viral infections, tumorigenesis, autoimmunity, fibrosis (32), and more recently, hematopoiesis (23, 33). In this article, we define a previously unappreciated mechanism for IL-33 in regulating eosinophil commitment.. Our data demonstrate that IL-33 directs the eosinophil compartment by expanding the EoPre frequency and upregulating IL-5Rα to license the responsiveness of these precursors to IL-5 within the bone marrow. Importantly, the defects in basal eosinophil populations we identified in the IL-33 KO and ST2 KO mice strongly implicate a homeostatic contribution of this cytokine that functions outside of a disease pathogenesis setting. Indeed, the previously defined function of IL-33 as an alarmin released upon ...
Eosinophil cell. Coloured Transmission Electron Micrograph (TEM) of a human eosinophil cell, containing granules with crystal inclusions in its cytoplasm. Granules (red) are seen in the cell cytoplasm (orange); the large cell nucleus is yellow and purple. Eosinophils are white blood cells, known also as granulocytes for the granular cytoplasm they possess. These oval-shaped granules contain enzymes responsible for bacterial destruction. The function of the crystals is unknown. Eosinophil cells, produced in the bone marrow, play an important role in the immune response against allergic and parasitic diseases. Magnification: x6,800 at 6x7cm. - Stock Image P248/0165
Looking for online definition of eosinophil or what eosinophil stands for? eosinophil is listed in the Worlds largest and most authoritative dictionary database of abbreviations and acronyms
Eosinophils migrating to different tissues in the body are part of its function[45]. Eosinophils that are part of the circulatory system remain inactive until they reach the tissue[46]. When eosinophils migrate to endothelial cells, interleukin (IL)-4 or IL-Beta encouragse further migration[46]. The rate of this process further increases if a chemoattractant is used[46]. In an experiment where a culture is used, the endothelial cells that were treated to prevent this chemotactic event lead to a decrease in the expression of CD68[46]. CD69 is an early marker and CD35 is a receptor[47]. Both of these are controlled by endothelial cells and thus their expression increased when the eosinophils migrated to the endothelial cells[47]. Granules express receptors for cytokines and G protein coupled receptors (CCR3) for chemokines. These are located on their surface membranes and respond to external cytokines and chemokines by activating a signal-transduction pathway within. IFN-γ (cytokine) and eotaxin ...
... ,Umbilical cord blood eosinophils, For immunohistochemistry (IHC),biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
The role of selectins in mediating eosinophil recruitment in vivo was assessed in a model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse pleurisy. LPS administration resulted in significant eosinophil influx at 24 hours, whereas neutrophil recruitment to the cavity peaked at 4 hours and persisted for 24 hours. The anti-L-selectin monoclonal antibody (MoAb) MEL-14 effectively inhibited (by 97%) eosinophil influx at 24 hours and also inhibited neutrophil recruitment at both times (75% to 95%). Eosinophil recruitment was partially reduced (54%) by the anti-P- selectin MoAb 5H1 but, in contrast, was unaffected by the anti-E- selectin MoAb 10E6. Neutrophil influx at 4 or 24 hours was not affected by the anti-P- or anti-E-selectin MoAbs. However, coadministration of anti-P-selectin and anti-E-selectin was very effective at inhibiting eosinophil influx at 24 hours (86%) and neutrophil influx at 4 (93%) and 24 hours (92%). These results show that all three selectins play a role in LPS-induced eosinophil and ...
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Following maturation and/or activation, eosinophils (as well as their progenitors) are mobilised, released from bone marrow into circulation and trafficked to tissue sites. A large proportion of these mature eosinophils will remain in bone marrow[8][18]. Once eosinophils enter circulation, they have a half-life of approximately 8-18 hours[8]. Under normal conditions, the vast majority of eosinophils are located in tissues (the tissue/blood eosinophil ratio is about 100:1) and upon gaining entrance to a tissue, most do not recirculate[3]. They have a life span ranging from 2 to 5 days, however locally produced cytokines such as IL-5, IL-3, GM-CSF, IL-33, and interferon-γ may increase this survival time (up to 12 days)[3][8][18]. Eosinophils are predominantly trafficked to mucosal surfaces of the respiratory, lower genitourinary and gastrointestinal tracts where they reside within the lamina propria (excluding the oesophagus). They are also localised within the thymus (medulla and junction ...
Eosinophils are white blood cells. Eosinophils are produced in the bone marrow and are normally found in the bloodstream and the gut lining. They contain proteins that help the body to fight infection from parasitic organisms, such as worms. What is eosinophilia? The term eosinophilia refers to conditions in which…
Question - Found elevated monocytes and eosinophils level. Whats going on?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Bronchial asthma, Ask a Radiologist
I am trying to extract RNA from eosinophils. Ive tried the Invitrogen Micro-to-Midi extraction kit, but didnt get any results. Does anyone have any advice or ideas on how to increase my yield ...
Clinical studies have demonstrated a link between the eosinophil-selective chemokines, eotaxins (eotaxin-1/CCL11 and eotaxin-2/CCL24), eosinophils, and the inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis (UC). However, the cellular source and individual contribution of the eotaxins to colonic eosinophilic accumulation in inflammatory bowel diseases remain unclear. In this study we demonstrate, by gene array and quantitative PCR, elevated levels of eotaxin-1 mRNA in the rectosigmoid colon of pediatric UC patients. We show that elevated levels of eotaxin-1 mRNA positively correlated with rectosigmoid eosinophil numbers. Further, colonic eosinophils appeared to be degranulating, and the levels positively correlated with disease severity. Using the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced intestinal epithelial injury model, we show that DSS treatment of mice strongly induced colonic eotaxin-1 and eotaxin-2 expression and eosinophil levels. Analysis of eosinophil-deficient mice ...
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A 45-year-old woman with a 25-year history of episodic urticaria and rhinitis had no detectable eosinophils in blood or bone marrow; levels of other leukocytes were normal. No eosinophils were found in the nasal discharge or the exudate elicited in s
Question - Is it serious to have a high eosinophils level in child ?. Ask a Doctor about Eosinophil granulocyte, Ask a Pediatrician
Semantic Scholar extracted view of The Influence of the Injection of Tuberculin on the Eosinophile Cells in the Peripheral Blood. by Jeffrey M. Swan
Everyone whose life has been touched by an eosinophil associated disease has a story to share. Here, we feature perspectives from patients and family members
chemotactic factor for and activator of eosinophils. studies needed to determine if inhibiting its production or action ... or pathogens such as chemotactic factors, cytokines, growth factors, and even certain eicosanoids. The activated cells then ... chemotactic factor for and activator of leukocytes; inflammation. studies to date shown no clear benefits of LTB4 receptor ... cPLA2 may also release the lysophospholipid that becomes platelet-activating factor.[28] ...
Monocytes: inhibit their migration response to chemotactic factors and release of pro-inflammatory mediators. Lymphocytes: ... Mouse eosinophils metabolize DHA to a marisen-like product, 14S,20R-dihydroxy-4Z,7Z,10Z,12E,16Z,18Z-docosahexaenoic acid. This ... complement components C5a and C3a which are chemotactic factors formed during the activation of the host's blood complement ... foreign organism-derived N-formylated oligopeptide chemotactic factors (e.g. N-formylmethionine-leucyl-phenylalanine); b) ...
Release into the Circulation of Histamine and Eosinophil Chemotactic Factor of Anaphylaxis during Cold Challenge". New England ...
Part of this cell response is brought on by inflammatory mediators such as chemotactic factors. Other processes involved with ... Those who smoke additionally have Tc1 lymphocyte involvement and some people with COPD have eosinophil involvement similar to ... Other genetic factors are being investigated, of which many are likely. A number of other factors are less closely linked to ... The primary risk factor for COPD globally is tobacco smoking. Of those who smoke, about 20% will get COPD, and of those who are ...
Sehmi R, Cromwell O, Taylor GW, Kay AB (1991). "Identification of guinea pig eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis as ...
5-Oxo-ETE is a particularly potent chemotactic factor for and activator of eosinophils and may thereby contribute to eosinophil ... potent chemotactic factor, LTB4, and possibly also weaker chemotactic factor, 5S-HETE, which serve to attract and otherwise ... On the other hand, 5-oxo-ETrE is almost as potent as 5-oxo-ETE as an eosinophil chemotactic factor and may thereby contribute ... For example, chemotactic factors stimulate human neutrophils to raise cytosolic Ca2+ which triggers cPLA2s, particularly the α ...
... for autofocus SLR cameras Eosinophil chemotactic factor Economic Cooperation Foundation, a non-governmental entity in Israel ...
... including eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis, leukotriene B4, complement complex (C5-C6-C7), interleukin 5, and ... The location of the causal factor can be used to classify eosinophilia into two general types: extrinsic, in which the factor ... Eosinophilia is a condition in which the eosinophil count in the peripheral blood exceeds 4.5×109/L (4.5×103/μL). Eosinophils ... Accumulation of eosinophils in tissues can be significantly damaging. Eosinophils, like other granulocytes, contain granules ( ...
... such as eosinophil chemotactic factor reactive oxygen species Histamine dilates post-capillary venules, activates the ... D2 leukotriene C4 platelet-activating factor cytokines TNF-α basic fibroblast growth factor interleukin-4 stem cell factor ... Abbas, Abul K.; Lichtman, Andrew H. H.; Pillai, Shiv (2011). "Role of Mast Cells, Basophils and Eosinophils in Immediate ... ISBN 0-321-20413-1. Prussin C, Metcalfe DD (February 2003). "4. IgE, mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils". The Journal of ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 24 (CCL24) also known as myeloid progenitor inhibitory factor 2 (MPIF-2) or eosinophil chemotactic ... CCL24 interacts with chemokine receptor CCR3 to induce chemotaxis in eosinophils. This chemokine is also strongly chemotactic ... for resting T lymphocytes and slightly chemotactic for neutrophils. Elevated levels of eotaxin-2 has been seen in patients with ... and functional characterization of a novel human CC chemokine that binds to the CCR3 receptor and activates human eosinophils ...
... including eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis, leukotriene B4 and serotonin mediated release of eosinophil granules ... Eosinophilia is a condition in which the eosinophil count in the peripheral blood exceeds 5.0×108/l (500/μL).[1] Eosinophils ... Accumulation of eosinophils in tissues can be significantly damaging. Eosinophils, like other granulocytes, contain granules ( ... An absolute eosinophil count is not generally needed if the CBC shows marked eosinophilia.[3] The location of the causal factor ...
Initially thought to be a second and low affinity receptor for the neutrophil tripeptide chemotactic factor, N-formyl-met-leu- ... eosinophil, mast cell, and various types of lymphocytes and accordingly are regarded primarily as contributing to the many ... 12-HHT stimulates chemotactic responses in mouse bone marrow mast cells, which naturally express BLT2 receptors, as well as in ... These findings suggest that the 12-HHT/BLT2 receptor pathway may support the pro-inflammatory (i.e. chemotactic) actions of the ...
DP2, is related to members of the chemotactic factor class of GPCRs, sharing an amino acid sequence identity of 29% with the ... eosinophils, basophils, and Th2 cells. DP2 activation also stimulates eosinophils and basophils to release the many pro- ... Ligand-induced activation of DP2 has similar activities in vivo it stimulates the accumulation on and activation of eosinophils ... eosinophils, a subpopulation of Cytotoxic T cells (i.e. CD8+ T cells), thalamus, ovary, and spleen, and, in the central nervous ...
Both are major factors produced by macrophages after they are stimulated with bacterial endotoxins. They are crucial for immune ... Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins (MIP) belong to the family of chemotactic cytokines known as chemokines. In humans, there are ... They activate human granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils) which can lead to acute neutrophilic inflammation. ... MIP-1 are best known for their chemotactic and proinflammatory effects but can also promote homoeostasis. Biophysical analyses ...
The eotaxins are a CC chemokine subfamily of eosinophil chemotactic proteins. In humans, there are three family members: CCL11 ... Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 10 (1): 61-86. doi:10.1016/s1359-6101(99)00005-2. PMID 10379912. ...
... exhibits a chemotactic activity for monocytes and basophils. However, it does not attract neutrophils or eosinophils. ... "Cloning and sequencing of the cDNA for human monocyte chemotactic and activating factor (MCAF)". Biochemical and Biophysical ... Platelet derived growth factor is a major inducer of CCL2 gene. To become activated CCL2 protein has to be cleaved by ... In the bone, CCL2 is expressed by mature osteoclasts and osteoblasts and it is under control of nuclear factor κB (NFκB). In ...
It elicits chemotactic responses in eosinophils, basophils, and T helper cells of the Th2 subtype.[non-primary source needed] ... Generation of a factor chemotactic for polymorphonuclear leukocytes". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 128 (2): 259-75. ... The availability of this technology led to the discovery of C5a, a major chemotactic factor involved in acute inflammation. The ... This family of agonists stimulates chemotactic responses in human eosinophils, neutrophils, and monocytes by binding to the ...
... to form a cluster which also includes the genes for another G protein-coupled chemotactic factor receptor, the C5a receptor ( ... FPL3 is expressed by circulating monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils but not neutrophils; tissue macrophages and dendritic ... Growth Factor Reviews. 17 (6): 501-19. doi:10.1016/j.cytogfr.2006.09.009. PMID 17084101. He HQ, Liao D, Wang ZG, Wang ZL, Zhou ... "Identification and characterization of an endogenous chemotactic ligand specific for FPRL2". The Journal of Experimental ...
The interactions of 5-oxo-ETE with these mediators of allergy (e.g. platelet-activating factor, interleukin 5) in eosinophils ... a key mediator in eosinophil activation) also increases their in vitro chemotactic response to 5-oxo-ETE. 5-Oxo-ETE also acts ... tumor necrosis factor α, or various nucleotides including ATP. Pretreament of eosinophils with interleukin 5 ( ... and production of mediators such as various arachidonic acid metabolites and platelet-activating factor in human eosinophils, ...
... this cluster also includes the genes for two other chemotactic factor receptors, the G protein-coupled C5a receptor (also ... Svensson L, Dahlgren C, Wennerås C (Oct 2002). "The chemoattractant Trp-Lys-Tyr-Met-Val-D-Met activates eosinophils through the ... Shen W, Proost P, Li B, Gong W, Le Y, Sargeant R, Murphy PM, Van Damme J, Wang JM (May 2000). "Activation of the chemotactic ... It is widely expressed by circulating blood neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, and monocytes; lymphocyte T cells and B cells ...
... is a G protein coupled receptor initially identified as a receptor for the leukocyte chemotactic factor, N-Formylmethionine- ... Powell WS, Chung D, Gravel S (1995). "5-Oxo-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid is a potent stimulator of human eosinophil ... LXA4 and 15-epi-LTA4 also act by mobilizing transcription factors that regulate expression of various inflammation-regulating ... eosinophils, monocytes, Innate lymphoid cells, and/or macrophages, as well as suppress proliferation and production of IgM and ...
... is an 8kDa protein classified as a chemotactic cytokine or chemokine. CCL5 is chemotactic for T cells, eosinophils, and ... cellular response to fibroblast growth factor stimulus. • neutrophil chemotaxis. • response to tumor necrosis factor. • ... 3 and 5 affect their anti-HIV-1 activity and chemotactic potencies for neutrophils and eosinophils". Eur. J. Immunol. 31 (7): ... eosinophil chemotaxis. • dendritic cell chemotaxis. • MAPK cascade. • macrophage chemotaxis. • positive regulation of T cell ...
... is an 8kDa protein classified as a chemotactic cytokine or chemokine. CCL5 is chemotactic for T cells, eosinophils, and ... It is also an HIV-suppressive factor released from CD8+ T cells[citation needed]. This chemokine has been localized to ... 3 and 5 affect their anti-HIV-1 activity and chemotactic potencies for neutrophils and eosinophils". Eur. J. Immunol. 31 (7): ... RANTES expression is regulated in T lymphocytes by Kruppel like factor 13 (KLF13). RANTES, along with the related chemokines ...
C3a is a neutrophil chemotactic factor which operates through a G protein coupled chemotactic factor receptor, the C3a receptor ... FPR1 is widely expressed by circulating blood neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes, and platelets; tissue-bound ... suggested that the N-formyl oligopeptides are important chemotatic factors and their receptors are important chemotactic factor ... is a neutrophil chemotactic factor that operates through receptors whose genes cluster with those for the three formly peptide ...
One factor that was initially found to influence haptotaxis is serum spreading factor, which is present in blood serum and ... This actin regulatory protein binds to fibronectin receptors and aids in the haptotactic and chemotactic processes of tumor ... eosinophils and some T cells are influenced by RANTES chemokines. In the autoimmune disorder rheumatoid arthritis and in ... In nerve cells, axonal growth is mediated by nerve growth factor in a haptotactic manner, where the axon of nerve cells grows ...
3 and 5 affect their anti-HIV-1 activity and chemotactic potencies for neutrophils and eosinophils". Eur. J. Immunol. 31 (7): ... Enhanced expression of elongation factor EF-1 alpha". J. Biol. Chem. 263 (8): 3546-9. PMID 3346208.. CS1 одржавање: Експлицитна ... 1990). „Retropseudogenes constitute the major part of the human elongation factor 1 alpha gene family". Nucleic Acids Res. 18 ( ... 1989). „Murine elongation factor 1 alpha (EF-1 alpha) is posttranslationally modified by novel amide-linked ethanolamine- ...
... may be responsible for accumulation of eosinophils at sites of... Explanation of eosinophil chemotactic factor ... Find out information about eosinophil chemotactic factor. A peptide released from mast cell granules that stimulates chemotaxis ... Related to eosinophil chemotactic factor: neutrophil chemotactic factor, eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis ... Eosinophil chemotactic factor , Article about eosinophil chemotactic factor by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2. ...
The eosinophilia is probably due to ecf-a (eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis) which is one of the degranulation ...
Eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, ... eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis in Medicine Expand. eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis n. Abbr. ECF-A A ...
eosinophil chemotactic factor help. Discussion of all aspects of cellular structure, physiology and communication. ... about the eosinophil chemotactic factor. I was wondering if someone could point me in the right direction for a few answers. My ... 1. Name of signal (I assume this is obvious: Eosinophil chemotactic peptide). 2. Type of signal (peptide?). 3. Mode of signal ... 6. Gene function it controls (responsible for accumulation of eosinophils at sites of inflammation?). I also have to find the ...
eosinophil chemotactic factor help. Discussion of all aspects of cellular structure, physiology and communication. ... eosinophil chemotactic factor help. by relamberth » Tue Dec 01, 2009 11:23 pm ... about the eosinophil chemotactic factor. I was wondering if someone could point me in the right direction for a few answers. My ... 1. Name of signal (I assume this is obvious: Eosinophil chemotactic peptide). 2. Type of signal (peptide?). 3. Mode of signal ...
eosinophil chemotactic factor answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for ... factor. Eosinophil Chemotactic Factor [Internet]. In: Venes D, editors. Tabers Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company; 2017. [ ... factor. Accessed August 24, 2019.. Eosinophil chemotactic factor. (2017). In Venes, D. (Ed.), Tabers Medical Dictionary. ... eosinophil chemotactic factor is a topic covered in the Tabers Medical Dictionary. To view the entire topic, please sign in or ...
What is mast cell growth factor? Meaning of mast cell growth factor medical term. What does mast cell growth factor mean? ... Looking for online definition of mast cell growth factor in the Medical Dictionary? mast cell growth factor explanation free. ... eosinophil chemotactic factor. A mediator released in response to inflammation when mast cells are injured. ... factor X, Stuart-Prower factor; factor XI, plasma thromboplastin antecedent; factor XII, Hageman factor; factor XIII, fibrin- ...
ELISA Kit for Eosinophil Chemotactic Factor (ECF) - Simian (Rhesus Monkey) by USCNK ... This assay has high sensitivity and excellent specificity for detection of Eosinophil Chemotactic Factor (ECF). No significant ... Intra-assay Precision (Precision within an assay): 3 samples with low, middle and high level Eosinophil Chemotactic Factor (ECF ... Inter-assay Precision (Precision between assays): 3 samples with low, middle and high level Eosinophil Chemotactic Factor (ECF ...
Eosinophil Chemotactic Protein 1, Chemokine C-C-Motif Ligand 11, Small Inducible Cytokine Subfamily A(Cys-Cys)Member 11, ... ELISA Kit for Eosinophil Chemotactic Factor (ECF), Homo sapiens (Human), Sandwich ELISA, CCL11, SCYA11, Eotaxin 1, ... ELISA Kit for Eosinophil Chemotactic Factor (ECF) CCL11; SCYA11; Eotaxin 1; Eosinophil Chemotactic Protein 1; Chemokine C-C- ... The concentration of Eosinophil Chemotactic Factor (ECF) in the samples is then determined by comparing the O.D. of the samples ...
Thus, the macrophage has to be added to the list of cells able to regulate eosinophil accumulation at tissue sites. ... A low molecular weight eosinophil chemotactic factor (ECF) which has previously been found within mast cells and ... Chemotactic Factors, biosynthesis, Chemotactic Factors, Eosinophil, Chemotaxis, Leukocyte, drug effects, Eosinophils, ... An eosinophil leukocyte chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis. J. Exp.. Vol. 133. pp. 602 (1970) Kay A.B. et al. ...
RANTES is a chemotactic and activating factor for human eosinophils. In: Journal of Immunology. 1993 ; Vol. 150, No. 8 PART 1. ... RANTES is a chemotactic and activating factor for human eosinophils. Journal of Immunology. 1993;150(8 PART 1):3442-3447. ... RANTES is a chemotactic and activating factor for human eosinophils. Rafeul Alam, Susan Stafford, Patricia Forsythe, Robert ... RANTES is a chemotactic and activating factor for human eosinophils. / Alam, Rafeul; Stafford, Susan; Forsythe, Patricia; ...
factor answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, ... eosinophil chemotactic factor. A mediator released in response to inflammation when mast cells are injured. ... factor X, Stuart-Prower factor; factor XI, plasma thromboplastin antecedent; factor XII, Hageman factor; factor XIII, fibrin- ... factor I, fibrinogen; factor II, prothrombin; factor III, thromboplastin; factor IV, calcium (ions); factor V, proaccelerin; ...
... we found a dramatic up-regulation of a recently described eosinophil chemotactic factor, eosinophil chemotactic factor-L/Ym1, ... Production of eosinophil chemotactic factor by CD8+ T cells in Toxocara canis-infected mice. Parasitol. Res. 84: 136. ... We also find that Bm-MIF-1 increases the transcription rate of a gene encoding a novel eosinophil chemotactic factor (ECF-L), ... eosinophil chemotactic factor; PEC, peritoneal exudate cells; EST, expressed sequence tag. ...
chemotactic factor for and activator of eosinophils. studies needed to determine if inhibiting its production or action ... or pathogens such as chemotactic factors, cytokines, growth factors, and even certain eicosanoids. The activated cells then ... chemotactic factor for and activator of leukocytes; inflammation. studies to date shown no clear benefits of LTB4 receptor ... cPLA2 may also release the lysophospholipid that becomes platelet-activating factor.[28] ...
Eosinophil chemotactic factor (ECF). Neutrophil chemotactic factor (NCF) 114 Secondary mediators of mast cells during ... 1-permanent=integrins (adhesion molecules), growth factors. 2-Transient=Ilk, GF, tumor necrosis factors, interferons, hormones ... PMN, Eosinophils, monocyte, lymphocyte, basophil. Circulate in peripheral blood and enter CT to perform special fxn. Bone ... Eosinophils limit magnitude of inflamm by mast cells by inactivating inflamm mediators like histamine and leukotrienes ...
... whose major biological activity is the chemoattraction of eosinophils. Given evidence of autoimmune activity in the ... 0/Chemotactic Factors, Eosinophil; 0/Cytokines; 0/Progesterone Congeners; 0/Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 50-28-2/Estradiol; 520 ... Chemotactic Factors, Eosinophil / chemistry, metabolism*. Cytokines / chemistry, metabolism*, pharmacology. Endometriosis / ... Given evidence of autoimmune activity in the endometriosis syndrome, we hypothesized that eosinophil chemoattractants might be ...
... eosinophil chemotactic factor. A type 2 hypersensitivity reaction involves what antibodies binding to what?. IgG and IgM bind ... Cell derived chemotactic agent; chemokine for neutrophils only. What does TNF do an inflammation mediator?. Causes cell death ... Activated by the coagulation system -,Hageman Factor. The complement system is a family of 20 proteins, what are the 4 most ... Platelet activating factor is derived from and is what?. membrane phospholipids; very potent and versatile mediator. ...
IL-5 as an eosinophil chemotactic factor. J. Exp. Med. 167:1737-1742, pmid:2835420.. ... Eosinophil Assays.. Eosinophils were obtained from either the spleen or blood of transgenic mice expressing the IL-5 gene in ... Eosinophil Production Is Impaired in CCR8−/− Mice.. As CCR8 was not normally expressed by peripheral eosinophils, then impaired ... Circulating eosinophils lack CCR8 mRNA and are unresponsive to CCR8 ligands. (A) Eosinophils isolated from the blood of IL-5 ...
Chemotactic factor for monocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. 1.91. PROS1. Anticoagulant plasma protein, ... Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor, activates nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFkB), ... epidermal growth factor (EGF) (20 ng/mL, Invitrogen, Waltham, MA, USA), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) (20 ng/mL, ... Complement Factor B, cleaved into Ba and Bb which further activate the complement cascade and monocyte response, Ba inhibits ...
Platelet activating factor Eosinophil chemotactic facotr 16 Where does histamine come from? ...
eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis; a primary mediator of Type I anaphylactic hypersensitivity. It is an acidic ... peptide (molecular weight 500) released by mast cells, which attracts eosinophils to areas where it is present. ...
These include histamine, Eosinophil Chemotactic Factor (ECF-A) and leukotrienes. These chemical mediators are pharmacologically ...
Categories: Chemotactic Factors, Eosinophil Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Chemotactic factors that activate. -neutrophils. -eosinophils. -Leukotrienes. -proteases. -platelet activating factor. ... M2 macrophages secrete transforming growth factor beta and other growth factors that stimulate tissue repair and fibrosis. ...
Kay, A. B., and Austen, K. F., 1971, The IgE-mediated release of an eosinophil leukocyte chemotactic factor from human lung, J ... Kay, A. B., Stechschulte, D. J., and Austen, K. F., 1971, An eosinophil leukocyte chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis, J. Exp. ... Wasserman, S. I., Soter, N. A., Poser, J., and Austen, K. F., 1980, Eosinophil chemotactic factors in human disease: Evidence ... Czarnetski, B. M., König, W., and Lichtenstein, L. M., 1976b, Antigen-induced eosinophil chemotactic factor (ECF) release by ...
  • Eosinophil stimulation promoter ESP: A lymphokine induced by specific antigen or phytohemagglutination. (naver.com)
  • ANA-negative systemic lupus erythematosus SLE characterized by absence of antinuclear antibodies-seen in 5% of SLE, photosensitivity, features of Sjögren syndrome, a low incidence of lupus nephritis and lupus psychosis, presence of rheumatoid factor and antibodies to Ro/SSA antigen and La/SSB antigens and single-stranded DNA. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • An antibody-coated surface was prepared by treating a layer of agar, containing tetanus toxoid antigen and eosinophil chemotactic factor (ECF), with human anti-tetanus immunoglobin. (biologists.org)
  • In this paper we present evidence for a link between the differentiation of AAMφ in response to this nematode parasite and the recruitment of eosinophils to the site of infection. (jimmunol.org)
  • Different cellular developmental histories, 5 microenvironmental cues, and factor-dependent polarization 6 vastly increase the complexity of macrophage phenotypes in vivo. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Generation and release of cyclo-oxygenase metabolites in human blood eosinophils from asthmatics," Immunology , vol. 78, no. 2, pp. 279-285, 1993. (hindawi.com)
  • ALOX5 products, particularly 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and 5-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid , promote the proliferation of these ALOX5 aberrantly expressing tumor cell lines suggesting that ALOX5 acts as a pro-malignancy factor for them and by extension their parent tumors. (wikipedia.org)