Chemotactic Factors: Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Complement C5: C5 plays a central role in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C5 is cleaved by C5 CONVERTASE into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. The smaller fragment C5a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of inflammatory process. The major fragment C5b binds to the membrane initiating the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components, C5-C9, into the MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Chemotactic Factors, Eosinophil: Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.N-Formylmethionine: Effective in the initiation of protein synthesis. The initiating methionine residue enters the ribosome as N-formylmethionyl tRNA. This process occurs in Escherichia coli and other bacteria as well as in the mitochondria of eucaryotic cells.N-Formylmethionine Leucyl-Phenylalanine: A formylated tripeptide originally isolated from bacterial filtrates that is positively chemotactic to polymorphonuclear leucocytes, and causes them to release lysosomal enzymes and become metabolically activated.Complement C5a: The minor fragment formed when C5 convertase cleaves C5 into C5a and COMPLEMENT C5B. C5a is a 74-amino-acid glycopeptide with a carboxy-terminal ARGININE that is crucial for its spasmogenic activity. Of all the complement-derived anaphylatoxins, C5a is the most potent in mediating immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE), smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION; HISTAMINE RELEASE; and migration of LEUKOCYTES to site of INFLAMMATION.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Carcinoma 256, Walker: A transplantable carcinoma of the rat that originally appeared spontaneously in the mammary gland of a pregnant albino rat, and which now resembles a carcinoma in young transplants and a sarcoma in older transplants. (Stedman, 25th ed)Chemokines, C: Group of chemokines without adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes only.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Leukotriene B4: The major metabolite in neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It stimulates polymorphonuclear cell function (degranulation, formation of oxygen-centered free radicals, arachidonic acid release, and metabolism). (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)Anaphylatoxins: Serum peptides derived from certain cleaved COMPLEMENT PROTEINS during COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. They induce smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION; mast cell HISTAMINE RELEASE; PLATELET AGGREGATION; and act as mediators of the local inflammatory process. The order of anaphylatoxin activity from the strongest to the weakest is C5a, C3a, C4a, and C5a des-arginine.Cytochalasin B: A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.ZymosanLeukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Isethionic Acid: A colorless, syrupy, strongly acidic liquid that can form detergents with oleic acid.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Exudates and Transudates: Exudates are fluids, CELLS, or other cellular substances that are slowly discharged from BLOOD VESSELS usually from inflamed tissues. Transudates are fluids that pass through a membrane or squeeze through tissue or into the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE of TISSUES. Transudates are thin and watery and contain few cells or PROTEINS.Monocyte Chemoattractant Proteins: Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)EsterasesChemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.Receptors, Complement: Molecules on the surface of some B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that recognize and combine with the C3b, C3d, C1q, and C4b components of complement.Cell Biology: The study of the structure, behavior, growth, reproduction, and pathology of cells; and the function and chemistry of cellular components.Blood Protein Electrophoresis: Electrophoresis applied to BLOOD PROTEINS.Pheniramine: One of the HISTAMINE H1 ANTAGONISTS with little sedative action. It is used in treatment of hay fever, rhinitis, allergic dermatoses, and pruritus.Receptors, Formyl Peptide: A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that was originally identified by its ability to bind N-formyl peptides such as N-FORMYLMETHIONINE LEUCYL-PHENYLALANINE. Since N-formyl peptides are found in MITOCHONDRIA and BACTERIA, this class of receptors is believed to play a role in mediating cellular responses to cellular damage and bacterial invasion. However, non-formylated peptide ligands have also been found for this receptor class.Chemokines, CXC: Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.Ascitic Fluid: The serous fluid of ASCITES, the accumulation of fluids in the PERITONEAL CAVITY.Anaphylaxis: An acute hypersensitivity reaction due to exposure to a previously encountered ANTIGEN. The reaction may include rapidly progressing URTICARIA, respiratory distress, vascular collapse, systemic SHOCK, and death.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.HexosephosphatesColchicine: A major alkaloid from Colchicum autumnale L. and found also in other Colchicum species. Its primary therapeutic use is in the treatment of gout, but it has been used also in the therapy of familial Mediterranean fever (PERIODIC DISEASE).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.gamma-Globulins: Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.Arthus Reaction: A dermal inflammatory reaction produced under conditions of antibody excess, when a second injection of antigen produces intravascular antigen-antibody complexes which bind complement, causing cell clumping, endothelial damage, and vascular necrosis.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Togaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the TOGAVIRIDAE.1-(5-Isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-Methylpiperazine: A specific protein kinase C inhibitor, which inhibits superoxide release from human neutrophils (PMN) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or synthetic diacylglycerol.Granulocytes: Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Lymphokines: Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Chemokine CXCL1: A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.Cell Aggregation: The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.Arachidonic AcidsPlatelet Activating Factor: A phospholipid derivative formed by PLATELETS; BASOPHILS; NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES. It is a potent platelet aggregating agent and inducer of systemic anaphylactic symptoms, including HYPOTENSION; THROMBOCYTOPENIA; NEUTROPENIA; and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION.Endotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.Micropore Filters: A membrane or barrier with micrometer sized pores used for separation purification processes.Depression, Chemical: The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Neutrophil Activation: The process in which the neutrophil is stimulated by diverse substances, resulting in degranulation and/or generation of reactive oxygen products, and culminating in the destruction of invading pathogens. The stimulatory substances, including opsonized particles, immune complexes, and chemotactic factors, bind to specific cell-surface receptors on the neutrophil.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Eosinophilia: Abnormal increase of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, tissues or organs.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Cell Migration Inhibition: Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.Interleukin-16: A cytokine produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that stimulates the migration of CD4-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES and monocytes. It has been reported to suppress HIV replication.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.GlucuronidaseSkin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Culture Media, Conditioned: Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Receptors, Fc: Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.Isoflurophate: A di-isopropyl-fluorophosphate which is an irreversible cholinesterase inhibitor used to investigate the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Superoxides: Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.Microscopy, Interference: The science and application of a double-beam transmission interference microscope in which the illuminating light beam is split into two paths. One beam passes through the specimen while the other beam reflects off a reference mirror before joining and interfering with the other. The observed optical path difference between the two beams can be measured and used to discriminate minute differences in thickness and refraction of non-stained transparent specimens, such as living cells in culture.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Receptors, Complement 3b: Molecular sites on or in some B-lymphocytes and macrophages that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3B. The primary structure of these receptors reveal that they contain transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, with their extracellular portion composed entirely of thirty short consensus repeats each having 60 to 70 amino acids.Calcimycin: An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.Muramidase: A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Tissue Extracts: Preparations made from animal tissues or organs (ANIMAL STRUCTURES). They usually contain many components, any one of which may be pharmacologically or physiologically active. Tissue extracts may contain specific, but uncharacterized factors or proteins with specific actions.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Organophosphonates: Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Dermatitis: Any inflammation of the skin.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Aminopeptidases: A subclass of EXOPEPTIDASES that act on the free N terminus end of a polypeptide liberating a single amino acid residue. EC 3.4.11.Pentose Phosphate Pathway: An oxidative decarboxylation process that converts GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE to D-ribose-5-phosphate via 6-phosphogluconate. The pentose product is used in the biosynthesis of NUCLEIC ACIDS. The generated energy is stored in the form of NADPH. This pathway is prominent in tissues which are active in the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS and STEROIDS.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Mast Cells: Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.Chemokine CCL11: A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Sialoglycoproteins: Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Monokines: Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.Granulomatous Disease, Chronic: A defect of leukocyte function in which phagocytic cells ingest but fail to digest bacteria, resulting in recurring bacterial infections with granuloma formation. When chronic granulomatous disease is caused by mutations in the CYBB gene, the condition is inherited in an X-linked recessive pattern. When chronic granulomatous disease is caused by CYBA, NCF1, NCF2, or NCF4 gene mutations, the condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Luminescent Measurements: Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.Neutrophil Infiltration: The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.Endothelium: A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Dinitrophenols: Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Pancreatic Elastase: A protease of broad specificity, obtained from dried pancreas. Molecular weight is approximately 25,000. The enzyme breaks down elastin, the specific protein of elastic fibers, and digests other proteins such as fibrin, hemoglobin, and albumin. EC 3.4.21.36.Isoquinolines: A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Concanavalin A: A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.Complement C3: A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.Ultracentrifugation: Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Chemokine CCL3: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Pertussis Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.Chemokines, CC: Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.Macrophage-1 Antigen: An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.Receptors, Chemokine: Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Virulence Factors, Bordetella: A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Complement Activation: The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.Interleukins: Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.Chemokine CXCL12: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Receptors, Drug: Proteins that bind specific drugs with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Drug receptors are generally thought to be receptors for some endogenous substance not otherwise specified.Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins: Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.Hypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.Capillary Permeability: The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.Isoelectric Focusing: Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Peroxidase: A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 1.11.1.7.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: An acidic glycoprotein of MW 23 kDa with internal disulfide bonds. The protein is produced in response to a number of inflammatory mediators by mesenchymal cells present in the hemopoietic environment and at peripheral sites of inflammation. GM-CSF is able to stimulate the production of neutrophilic granulocytes, macrophages, and mixed granulocyte-macrophage colonies from bone marrow cells and can stimulate the formation of eosinophil colonies from fetal liver progenitor cells. GM-CSF can also stimulate some functional activities in mature granulocytes and macrophages.Mice, Inbred BALB CMice, Inbred C3HTrypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.

Non-serum-dependent chemotactic factors produced by Candida albicans stimulate chemotaxis by binding to the formyl peptide receptor on neutrophils and to an unknown receptor on macrophages. (1/1836)

Serum-free culture filtrates of six Candida species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were found to contain chemoattractants for human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and a mouse macrophage-like cell line, J774. The chemotactic factors differed for the PMN and J774 cells, however, in terms of heat stability, kinetics of liberation by the yeast cells, and divalent cation requirements for production. The chemoattractant in Candida albicans culture filtrates appeared to act through the formyl peptide receptor (FPR) of PMNs, since it was found to induce chemotaxis of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells that were expressing the human FPR but did not induce chemotaxis of wild-type CHO cells. The C. albicans culture filtrates also induced migration of PMNs across confluent monolayers of a human gastrointestinal epithelial cell line, T84; migration occurred in the basolateral-to-apical direction but not the reverse direction, unless the epithelial tight junctions were disrupted. J774 cells did not migrate toward the formylated peptide (fMet-Leu-Phe; fMLF), and chemotaxis toward the C. albicans culture filtrate was not inhibited by an FPR antagonist (t-butoxycarbonyl-Met-Leu-Phe), suggesting that a different receptor mediated J774 cell chemotaxis. In conclusion, we have identified a receptor by which a non-serum-dependent chemotactic factor (NSCF) produced by C. albicans induced chemotaxis of PMNs. Additionally, we have shown that NSCF was active across epithelial monolayers. These findings suggest that NSCFs produced by C. albicans and other yeast species may influence host-pathogen interactions at the gastrointestinal tract mucosal surface by inducing phagocytic-cell infiltration.  (+info)

Acetyl-CoA:1-O-alkyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine acetyltransferase is directly activated by p38 kinase. (2/1836)

Acetyl-CoA:1-O-alkyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine acetyltransferase, along with phospholipase A2, is a key regulator of platelet-activating factor biosynthesis via the remodeling pathway. We have now obtained evidence in human neutrophils indicating that this enzyme is regulated by a specific member of the mitogen-activated protein kinases, namely the p38 kinase. We earlier demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) as well as N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine treatment leads to increased phosphorylation and activation of p38 kinase in human neutrophils. Strikingly, in the present study these stimuli increased the catalytic activity of acetyltransferase up to 3-fold, whereas 4-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, which activates the extracellular-regulated kinases (ERKs) but not p38 kinase, had no effect. Furthermore, a selective inhibitor of p38 kinase, SB 203580, was able to abolish the TNF-alpha- and N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine-induced activation of acetyltransferase. The same effect was not observed in the presence of an inhibitor that blocked ERK activation (PD 98059). Complementing the findings in intact cells, we have shown that recombinant, activated p38 kinase added to microsomes in the presence of Mg2+ and ATP increased acetyltransferase activity to the same degree as in microsomes obtained from TNF-alpha-stimulated cells. No activation of acetyltransferase occurred upon treatment of microsomes with either recombinant, activated ERK-1 or ERK-2. Finally, the increases in acetyltransferase activity induced by TNF-alpha could be ablated by treating the microsomes with alkaline phosphatase. Thus acetyltransferase appears to be a downstream target for p38 kinase but not ERKs. These data from whole cells as well as cell-free systems fit a model wherein stimulus-induced acetyltransferase activation is mediated by a phosphorylation event catalyzed directly by p38 kinase.  (+info)

Isolation of novel GRO genes and a phylogenetic analysis of the CXC chemokine subfamily in mammals. (3/1836)

Approximately 15 different alpha, or CXC, chemokines have thus far been isolated from 11 species of mammals. Among the best studied chemokines are the 12 human proteins that are encoded by 11 paralogous genes. In order to better understand the evolution and function of this group of genes, we isolated and characterized six novel GRO and GRO-related cDNA sequences from the cow (Bos taurus), the sheep (Ovis aries), the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), and the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus). The amino acid sequence of the diverged guinea pig GRO or KC gene is only 50%-60% similar to presumed orthologs from other species, while the sheep and cow GRO proteins are 90%-99% similar to each other. The presence of multiple GRO genes in the cow, the rabbit, and the sheep is consistent with what has been observed for humans. Phylogenetic analyses of amino acid sequences from 44 proteins indicate that genes orthologous to many of the 11 known from humans exist in other species. One such gene, interleukin 8, or IL8, has been isolated from nine species, including the rodent guinea pig; however, this gene is absent in the rat and the mouse, indicating a unique gene loss event in the rat/mouse (muroid rodent) lineage. The KC (or MIP2) gene of rodents appears to be orthologous to the GRO gene found in other taxonomic orders. Combined evidence from different sources suggests that IP10 and MIG share sister taxon relationships on the evolutionary tree, while the remaining paralogous genes represent independent lineages, with limited evidence for kinship between them. This observation indicates that these genes originated nearly contemporaneously via a series of gene duplication events. Relative-rate tests for synonymous and nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions in the KC and IL8 genes did not detect rate heterogeneity; however, there are several notable features regarding the IL8 genes. For example, the IL8 proteins from two Old World monkeys are as similar to one another as they are to the IL8 protein from humans, and all observed nucleotide differences between the IL8 genes of the two monkeys cause amino acid changes; in other words, there are no synonymous differences between them.  (+info)

Car: a cytoplasmic sensor responsible for arginine chemotaxis in the archaeon Halobacterium salinarum. (4/1836)

A new metabolic signaling pathway for arginine, both a chemoeffector and a fermentative energy source, is described for Halobacterium salinarum. Systematic screening of 80+ potentially chemotactic compounds with two behavioral assays identified leucine, isoleucine, valine, methionine, cysteine, arginine and several peptides as strong chemoattractants. Deletion analysis of a number of potential halobacterial transducer genes led to the identification of Car, a specific cytoplasmic arginine transducer which lacks transmembrane helices and was biochemically shown to be localized in the cytoplasm. Flow assays were used to show specific adaptive responses to arginine and ornithine in wild-type but not Deltacar cells, demonstrating the role of Car in sensing arginine. The signaling pathway from external arginine to the flagellar motor of the cell involves an arginine:ornithine antiporter which was quantitatively characterized for its transport kinetics and inhibitors. By compiling the chemotactic behavior, the adaptive responses and the characteristics of the arginine:ornithine antiporter to arginine and its analogs, we now understand how the combination of arginine uptake and its metabolic conversion is required to build an effective sensing system. In both bacteria and the archaea this is the first chemoeffector molecule of a soluble methylatable transducer to be identified.  (+info)

Rho-kinase in human neutrophils: a role in signalling for myosin light chain phosphorylation and cell migration. (5/1836)

The role of a Rho-associated coiled-coil forming kinase in migration of neutrophils has been investigated. Rho-associated coiled-coil forming kinase I was expressed in human neutrophils. Chemotactic peptide led to a Rho-associated coiled-coil forming kinase-dependent increase in phosphorylation of myosin light chain. This was determined with the help of an antibody directed against serine 19-phosphorylated myosin light chain and an inhibitor of Rho-associated coiled-coil forming kinase (Y-27632). Y-27632 suppressed myosin light chain phosphorylation and chemotactic peptide-induced development of cell polarity and locomotion with similar potency (ED50 0.5-1.1 microM). The data strongly suggest that a Rho-associated coiled-coil forming kinase isoform, activated in human neutrophils exposed to chemotactic peptide, is important for motile functions of these cells.  (+info)

Chemotactic, mitogenic, and angiogenic actions of UTP on vascular endothelial cells. (6/1836)

Endothelial cells express receptors for ATP and UTP, and both UTP and ATP elicit endothelial release of vasoactive compounds such as prostacyclin and nitric oxide; however, the distinction between purine and pyrimidine nucleotide signaling is not known. We hypothesized that UTP plays a more important role in endothelial mitogenesis and chemotaxis than does ATP and that UTP is angiogenic. In cultured endothelial cells from guinea pig cardiac vasculature (CEC), both UTP and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were significant mitogenic and chemotactic factors; in contrast, ATP demonstrated no significant chemotaxis in CEC. In chick chorioallantoic membranes (CAM), UTP and VEGF treatments produced statistically significant increases in CAM vascularity compared with controls. These findings are the first evidence of chemotactic or angiogenic effects of pyrimidines; they suggest a role for pyrimidine nucleotides that is distinct from those assumed by purine nucleotides and provide for the possibility that UTP serves as an extracellular signal for processes such as endothelial repair and angiogenesis.  (+info)

Deficiency of the hematopoietic cell-specific Rho family GTPase Rac2 is characterized by abnormalities in neutrophil function and host defense. (7/1836)

In mammals, the Rho family GTPase Rac2 is restricted in expression to hematopoietic cells, where it is coexpressed with Rac1. Rac2-deficient mice were created to define the physiological requirement for two near-identical Rac proteins in hematopoietic cells. rac2-/- neutrophils displayed significant defects in chemotaxis, in shear-dependent L-selectin-mediated capture on the endothelial substrate Glycam-1, and in both F-actin generation and p38 and, unexpectedly, p42/p44 MAP kinase activation induced by chemoattractants. Superoxide production by rac2-/- bone marrow neutrophils was significantly reduced compared to wild type, but it was normal in activated peritoneal exudate neutrophils. These defects were reflected in vivo by baseline neutrophilia, reduced inflammatory peritoneal exudate formation, and increased mortality when challenged with Aspergillus fumigatus. Rac2 is an essential regulator of multiple specialized neutrophil functions.  (+info)

A functional granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor is required for normal chemoattractant-induced neutrophil activation. (8/1836)

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a hematopoietic growth factor that is widely used to treat neutropenia. In addition to stimulating polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) production, G-CSF may have significant effects on PMN function. Because G-CSF receptor (G-CSFR)-deficient mice do not have the expected neutrophilia after administration of human interleukin-8 (IL-8), we examined the effect of the loss of G-CSFR on IL-8-stimulated PMN function. Compared with wild-type PMNs, PMNs isolated from G-CSFR-deficient mice demonstrated markedly decreased chemotaxis to IL-8. PMN emigration into the skin of G-CSFR-deficient mice in response to IL-8 was also impaired. Significant chemotaxis defects were also seen in response to N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, zymosan-activated serum, or macrophage inflammatory protein-2. The defective chemotactic response to IL-8 does not appear to be due to impaired chemoattractant receptor function, as the number of IL-8 receptors and chemoattractant-induced calcium influx, actin polymerization, and release of gelatinase B were comparable to those of wild-type PMNs. Chemoattractant-induced adhesion of G-CSFR-deficient PMNs was significantly impaired, suggesting a defect in beta2-integrin activation. Collectively, these data demonstrate that selective defects in PMN activation are present in G-CSFR-deficient mice and indicate that G-CSF plays an important role in regulating PMN chemokine responsiveness.  (+info)

*N-Formylmethionine-leucyl-phenylalanine

FMLP led to the first discovery of a leukocyte receptor for a chemotactic factor, defined three different types of FMLP ... Becker EL, Showell HJ (Jun 1974). "The ability of chemotactic factors to induce lysosomal enzyme release. II. The mechanism of ... O'Flaherty JT, Showell HJ, Ward PA (May 1977). "Neutropenia induced by systemic infusion of chemotactic factors". Journal of ... FMLP is the prototypical representative of the N-fomylated oligopeptide family of chemotactic factors. These oligopeptides are ...

*LECT2 amyloidosis

Larsen CP, Ismail W, Kurtin PJ, Vrana JA, Dasari S, Nasr SH (2016). "Leukocyte chemotactic factor 2 amyloidosis (ALECT2) is a ... Hutton, H.L.; DeMarco, M.L.; Magil, A.B.; Taylor, P. (2014). "Renal leukocyte chemotactic factor 2 (LECT2) amyloidosis in first ... Murphy, C. L.; Wang, S.; Kestler, D.; Larsen, C.; Benson, D.; Weiss, D. T. (2010). "Leukocyte chemotactic factor 2 (LECT2)- ... Benson, M. D.; James, S.; Scott, K.; Liepnieks, J. J.; Kluve-Beckerman, B. (April 2008). "Leukocyte chemotactic factor 2: A ...

*Osteopontin

OPN was also found to act as a macrophage chemotactic factor. In this study, researchers looked at the accumulation of ... tumour necrosis factor α [TNFα], infterleukin-1β [IL-1β]), angiotensin II, transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and parathyroid ... Firstly, it has chemotactic properties, which promote cell recruitment to inflammatory sites. It also functions as an adhesion ... Osteopontin has been implicated as an important factor in bone remodeling. Specifically, research suggests it plays a role in ...

*Chemotaxis assay

Zigmond S.H. (1977). "Ability of polymorphonuclear leukocytes to orient in gradients of chemotactic factors". Journal of Cell ... Boyden, S.V. (1962). "The chemotactic effect of mixtures of antibody and antigen on polymorphonuclear leucocytes". J Exp Med. ... Chambers isolated by filters are proper tools for accurate determination of chemotactic behavior. The pioneer type of these ... Chemotaxis assays are experimental tools for evaluation of chemotactic ability of prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells. A wide ...

*LECT2

Leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin-2 (LECT2) is a protein first described in 1996 as a chemotactic factor for neutrophils, i.e. ... Larsen CP, Ismail W, Kurtin PJ, Vrana JA, Dasari S, Nasr SH (2016). "Leukocyte chemotactic factor 2 amyloidosis (ALECT2) is a ... Larsen CP, Beggs ML, Wilson JD, Lathrop SL (2016). "Prevalence and organ distribution of leukocyte chemotactic factor 2 ... 1997). "Purification and primary amino acid sequence of a novel neutrophil chemotactic factor LECT2". Immunol. Lett. 52 (1): 9- ...

*Interleukin-9 receptor

Little FF, Cruikshank WW, Center DM (2001). "Il-9 stimulates release of chemotactic factors from human bronchial epithelial ... 2002). "Human bronchial epithelium expresses interleukin-9 receptors and releases neutrophil chemotactic factor". Exp. Lung Res ... Knoops L, Renauld JC (2005). "IL-9 and its receptor: from signal transduction to tumorigenesis". Growth Factors. 22 (4): 207-15 ...

*John I. Gallin

Gallin EK, Gallin JI (Oct 1977). "Interaction of chemotactic factors with human macrophages: Induction of transmembrane ... Lomax KJ, Leto TL, Nunoi H, Gallin JI, Malech HL (Jul 1989). "Recombinant 47-kD cytosol factor restores NADPH oxidase in ... "Cloning of a 67K neutrophil oxidase factor with similarity to a noncatalytic region of p60c-src". Science. 248 (4956): 727-730 ... "Two forms of autosomal chronic granulomatous disease lack distinct neutrophil cytosol factors". Science. 242 (4883): 1298-1301 ...

*Azurocidin 1

1990). "CAP37, a human neutrophil-derived chemotactic factor with monocyte specific activity". J. Clin. Invest. 85 (5): 1468-76 ... The protein encoded by this gene is an azurophil granule antibiotic protein, with monocyte chemotactic and antibacterial ... Neutrophile elastase homologues with strong monocyte and fibroblast chemotactic activities". Eur. J. Biochem. 197 (2): 535-47. ... a microbicidal and chemotactic protein from human granulocytes". J Immunol. 147 (9): 3210-4. PMID 1919011. "Entrez Gene: AZU1 ...

*SLIT2

2001). "The neuronal repellent Slit inhibits leukocyte chemotaxis induced by chemotactic factors". Nature. 410 (6831): 948-52. ...

*Interleukin 9

Little FF, Cruikshank WW, Center DM (September 2001). "Il-9 stimulates release of chemotactic factors from human bronchial ... "Expression cloning of cDNA encoding a novel human hematopoietic growth factor: human homologue of murine T-cell growth factor ... Whereas the report of others confirms that TGF-β is a essential factor for IL-9 induction. For the first time (Lars Blom,Britta ... Genetic studies on a mouse model of asthma demonstrated that this cytokine is a determining factor in the pathogenesis of ...

*Chemorepulsion

2001). "The neuronal repellent Slit inhibits leukocyte chemotaxis induced by chemotactic factors". Nature. 410 (6831): 948-952 ... The response is stimulated by chemical factors released by injured cells. These chemical factors induce all associated ... Other factors might also provide chemorepulsive effects on immune cells, and these inhibitory effects might be regulated by the ... 2001). "Stromal-derived factor-1 in human tumors recruits and alters the function of plasmacytoid precursor dendritic cells". ...

*Urotensin-II receptor

"Urotensin II is a new chemotactic factor for UT receptor-expressing monocytes". Journal of Immunology. 179 (2): 901-9. doi: ... injection of urotensin II it causes an increase of corticotropin releasing factor through the activation of the hypothalamic ...

*Asbestosis

Warheit D. B.; Hill L. H.; George G.; Brody A. R. (1986). "Time Course of chemotactic factor generation and the macrophage ... The cytokines, transforming growth factor beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha, appear to play major roles in the development ... local immune system and provoke an inflammatory reaction dominated by lung macrophages that respond to chemotactic factors ... "Transforming Growth Factor-β1 overexpression in Tumor Necrosis Factor-α receptor knockout mice induces fibroproliferative lung ...

*Arachidonic acid 5-hydroperoxide

The intermediate is then further metabolized to: a) leukotriene A4 which is then metabolized to the chemotactic factor for ... the leukocyte chemotactic factors, 5-Hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid and 5-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid; or c) the specialized pro- ...

*Specialized pro-resolving mediators

Monocytes: inhibit their migration response to chemotactic factors and release of pro-inflammatory mediators. Lymphocytes: ... complement components C5a and C3a which are chemotactic factors formed during the activation of the host's blood complement ... foreign organism-derived N-formylated oligopeptide chemotactic factors (e.g. N-formylmethionine-leucyl-phenylalanine); b) ... Barnig C, Levy BD (2015). "Innate immunity is a key factor for the resolution of inflammation in asthma". European Respiratory ...

*CMKLR1

... with homology to the chemotactic factor receptors". Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics. 74 (4): 286-90. doi:10.1159/000134436. PMID ...

*CCL2

"Cloning and sequencing of the cDNA for human monocyte chemotactic and activating factor (MCAF)". Biochemical and Biophysical ... Platelet derived growth factor is a major inducer of CCL2 gene. To become activated CCL2 protein has to be cleaved by ... In the bone, CCL2 is expressed by mature osteoclasts and osteoblasts and it is under control of nuclear factor κB (NFκB). In ... CCL2 exhibits a chemotactic activity for monocytes and basophils. However, it does not attract neutrophils or eosinophils. ...

*Neuroregeneration

The growth of the sprouts is governed by chemotactic factors secreted from Schwann cells (neurolemmocytes). Injury to the ... All these factors contribute to the formation of what is known as a glial scar, which axons cannot grow across. The proximal ... Growth factors are not expressed or re-expressed; for instance, the extracellular matrix is lacking laminins. Glial scars ... Fansa H, Schneider W, Wolf G, Keilhoff G. Influence of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) on nerve autografts and tissue- ...

*Linda Hsieh-Wilson

"Profiling the Sulfation Specificities of Glycosaminoglycan Interactions with Growth Factors and Chemotactic Proteins Using ... functions as a molecular recognition element for growth factors and modulates neuronal growth, indicating that these specific ...

*Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Part of this cell response is brought on by inflammatory mediators such as chemotactic factors. Other processes involved with ... Other genetic factors are being investigated, of which many are likely. A number of other factors are less closely linked to ... The primary risk factor for COPD globally is tobacco smoking. Of those who smoke, about 20% will get COPD, and of those who are ... Birth factors such as low birth weight may also play a role, as do a number of infectious diseases, including HIV/AIDS and ...

*NUMB (gene)

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is among the chemotactic factors that stimulate Numb-mediated chemotaxis during cell ... BDNF can function as a chemotactic factor for neural precursors during migration by activating TrkB receptors. Numb binds to ... Since then, a mechanism has been discovered through which Numb binds chemotactic signaling receptors, forming a scaffold for ... Endocytosis supports the relocalization of the chemotactic receptor to the front of the cell to promote receptor-mediated ...

*Tendon

After the release of vasoactive and chemotactic factors, angiogenesis and the proliferation of tenocytes are initiated. ... basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β). These growth factors all have different ... insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), ... Tendinopathies may be caused by several intrinsic factors including age, body weight, and nutrition. The extrinsic factors are ...

*CXCL14

BRAK/CXCL14 is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis and a chemotactic factor for immature dendritic cells. Cancer Res. 2004 Nov ... This chemokine is chemotactic for monocytes and can activate these cells in the presence of an inflammatory mediator called ...

*C3a (complement)

"C3a and C5a Are Chemotactic Factors for Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Which Cause Prolonged ERK1/2 Phosphorylation". The ... that allows it to bind to a plasma protein called Factor B. This complex is then cleaved by Factor D, a serine protease, to ... Factor I, a serine protease activated by cofactors, can cleave and C3b and C4b, thus preventing convertase formation. C3 ... Barbu, Andreea; Hamad, Osama A.; Lind, Lars; Ekdahl, Kristina N.; Nilsson, Bo (2015-09-01). "The role of complement factor C3 ...

*Cold urticaria

Release into the Circulation of Histamine and Eosinophil Chemotactic Factor of Anaphylaxis during Cold Challenge". New England ...

*Angiomotin

Levchenko T, Aase K, Troyanovsky B, Bratt A, Holmgren L (September 2003). "Loss of responsiveness to chemotactic factors by ... as well as the migration of endothelial cells toward growth factors, e.g. bFGF, VEGF and LPA etc. Angiomotin also mediates tube ...

*Interleukin 8

"Monocyte-derived neutrophil chemotactic factor (MDNCF/IL-8) resides in a gene cluster along with several other members of the ... 2000). "Permissive factors for HIV-1 infection of macrophages". J. Leukoc. Biol. 68 (3): 303-10. PMID 10985244. CS1 održavanje ... "Nuclear factor-kappaB-dependent induction of interleukin-8 gene expression by tumor necrosis factor alpha: evidence for an ... Baggiolini M, Clark-Lewis I (1992). "Interleukin-8, a chemotactic and inflammatory cytokine". FEBS Lett. 307 (1): 97-101. PMID ...

*Epoxide hydrolase

The enzyme also possess aminopeptidase activity, degrading, for example, the leukocyte chemotactic factor tripeptide, Pro-Gly- ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Three forms of monocyte-derived neutrophil chemotactic factor (MDNCF) distinguished by different lengths of the amino-terminal sequence. AU - Teizo, Yoshimura. AU - Robinson, Elizabeth A.. AU - Appella, Ettore. AU - Matsushima, Kouji. AU - Showalter, Stephen D.. AU - Skeel, Alison. AU - Leonard, Edward J.. PY - 1989/1. Y1 - 1989/1. N2 - Human monocyte-derived neutrophil chemotactic factor (MDNCF) was purified from culture supernatant of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes on a column of Sepharose-bound murine monoclonal anti-MDNCF. About 65% of the culture fluid chemotactic activity was bound to the column. The unbound 35% probably represents chemotactic activity of other cytokines in the culture fluid. More than 85% of the bound activity was eluted by pH 2.5 glycine buffer. When this material was applied to an HPLC-CM column, gradient elution produced four well-separated A280 peaks, each of which had chemotactic activity. N-terminal amino ...
Define macrophage chemotactic factor (MCF). macrophage chemotactic factor (MCF) synonyms, macrophage chemotactic factor (MCF) pronunciation, macrophage chemotactic factor (MCF) translation, English dictionary definition of macrophage chemotactic factor (MCF). n. Any of various large, phagocytic white blood cells that develop from monocytes, are found in the spleen, liver, and other tissues, and have a variety of...
Treatment of serum with 10 mg/ml of nanoparticle carbon black generated substances that induced a 1.8-fold increase in macrophage migration (P < 0.001) compared with untreated serum. This effect was partially inhibited by antioxidant intervention. Serum treated with an equivalent mass of fine carbon black did not display any chemotactic potential. tBHP treatment of the serum did not result in the generation of macrophage chemotactic factors ...
Primobolan side effects is a selective agonist of beta2-adrenergic receptors. At therapeutic doses it acts on beta2-adrenergic receptors of smooth muscles of the bronchi, providing pronounced bronchodilator effect, prevents and relieves bronchospasm, increases lung capacity. It prevents the release of histamine, slow reacting substances from mast cells and neutrophil chemotactic factors. It is a small …. Read more ...
Primobolan side effects is a selective agonist of beta2-adrenergic receptors. At therapeutic doses it acts on beta2-adrenergic receptors of smooth muscles of the bronchi, providing pronounced bronchodilator effect, prevents and relieves bronchospasm, increases lung capacity. It prevents the release of histamine, slow reacting substances from mast cells and neutrophil chemotactic factors. It is a small …. Read more ...
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Lect2 - Lect2 (untagged) - Mouse leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 (Lect2), (10ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential regulation of the expression of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant by mouse macrophages. AU - Crippen, Tawni L.. AU - Riches, David W H. AU - Hyde, Dallas M.. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - The production of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC) by functionally diverse mouse bone-marrow-derived macrophages was determined. Studies showed that β1,3-glucan, IL-1β, TNFα and IFNγ/TNFα induced expression and production of CINC in macrophages while neither IFNγ nor TGFβ alone induced detectable CINC expression. Pretreatment or simultaneous treatment of macrophages with TGFβ resulted in suppression of CINC protein production. These studies demonstrate that IFNγ and TNFα, found early during the inflammatory response, induce production of CINC, as well as induce macrophages into a cytocidal state that are capable of killing transformed cells, parasites and bacteria, and recruiting neutrophils. In contrast, TGFβ, found during reparative stages of ...
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
CP002355.PE262 Location/Qualifiers FT CDS_pept 251606..252700 FT /codon_start=1 FT /transl_table=11 FT /locus_tag="Sulku_0263" FT /product="methyl-accepting chemotaxis sensory transducer" FT /note="COGs: COG0840 Methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein; FT InterPro IPR004090: IPR004089; KEGG: cla:Cla_1032 FT MCP-domain signal transduction protein; PFAM: chemotaxis FT sensory transducer; SMART: chemotaxis sensory transducer; FT SPTR: Methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein; PFAM: FT Methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein (MCP) signaling domain; FT Myosin-like coiled-coil protein" FT /db_xref="EnsemblGenomes-Gn:Sulku_0263" FT /db_xref="EnsemblGenomes-Tr:ADR32930" FT /db_xref="GOA:E4TY17" FT /db_xref="InterPro:IPR004089" FT /db_xref="InterPro:IPR004090" FT /db_xref="InterPro:IPR025991" FT /db_xref="UniProtKB/TrEMBL:E4TY17" FT /protein_id="ADR32930.1" FT /translation="MGWFSDDTELKEELSVLQKENTALRDENQELARKLQECEAKIAKE FT DERHRCENASMIMTYQNEQLKKNLVDVQGNMASSVASSKENIAQSTALLENIVELGQKA FT ...
The presence of neutrophils in the synovial joint of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is thought to be due to the activity of chemotactic factors released by activated cells in the joint. We have shown in this report, for the first time, the abundance of one such factor, interleukin 8 (IL 8), in the synovial fluid of patients both with RA and other non-RA joint diseases, and the spontaneous production of IL 8 mRNA by RA synovial cells in culture. There was no correlation between the levels of chemotactic activity and IL 8 protein, suggesting that other factors with similar neutrophil chemotactic activity are also present in the synovial fluid exudate. In support of this concept neither the level of chemotactic activity nor IL 8 protein levels correlated with neutrophil or leukocyte infiltration, indicating that the mechanism of migration into the inflammatory environment of the joint is complex. Such migration is likely to be due to a number of chemotactic signals in addition to IL 8, which may
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) derived from a variety of organisms effectively induced C consumption in humans, bovines, and porcines with developmental agammaglobulinemia; birds with experimental agammaglobulinemia; and humans with agammaglobulinemia syndromes. This interaction proceeded even in precolostral piglet sera which contained less than 2.5 x 10-6 mg/ml gamma globulin, and led to generation of neutrophil chemotactic factor and anaphylatoxin in these sera. Hence, the LPS-C interaction can proceed in sera markedly deficient in immunoglobulin. The question of whether immunoglobulins can be bypassed in the LPS-C interaction, or whether they are regularly utilized in a way so efficient that their participation is masked, was considered. ...
Methods Quiescent cultured RASMCs were pretreated with E2 or vehicle for 24 hours before tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α was added. After 6 hours of treatment, total RNA was extracted from cells using TRIzol reagent, and SYBR green real-time RT-PCR was used to detect expression of CINC-2 mRNA. Conditioned media was collected and concentrated to measure CINC-2 protein level by ELISA. To assess neutrophil chemotactic activity of conditioned media, in vitro chemotaxis assays were performed using differentiated HL-60 cells in a 96-well modified Boyden chamber appropriate for the evaluation of leukocyte chemotaxis. The nonselective ER antagonist ICI-182780 was given to cells 2 hours prior to E2 incubation to study the mechanism of E2 effect. ...
PH-domain translocation with uniform stimulus. Kinetic analysis of the translocation from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane of GFP-tagged CRAC (Cytosolic Regulator of Adenylyl Cyclase-a PH domain containing protein) in response to a uniform increase in chemoattractant concentration. Frames were taken every 2 seconds. The chemoattractant was added just before the cell goes out of focus. From C.A. Parent and P.N. Devreotes, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions ...
During chemotaxis large eosinophils from newts exhibit a gradient of [Ca2+]i from rear to front. The direction of the gradient changes on relocation of the chemoattractant source, suggesting that the Ca2+ signal may trigger the cytoskeletal reorganization required for cell reorientation during chemotaxis. The initial stimulatory effect of chemoattractant on [Ca2+]i and the opposite orientations of the intracellular Ca2+ gradient and the external stimulus gradient suggest that more than one chemoattractant-sensitive messenger pathway may be responsible for the generation of spatially graded Ca2+ signals. To identify these messengers, Ca2+ changes were measured in single live cells stimulated with spatially uniform chemoattractant. On stimulation spatially averaged [Ca2+]i increased rapidly from | or = 100 nM to | or = 400 nM and was accompanied by formation of lamellipods. Subsequently cells flattened, polarized and crawled, and [Ca2+]i fluctuated around a mean value of approximately 200 nM. The initial
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
The mobilisation of leukocytes to inflammatory sites is crucial to host defense. Over the years a wealth of information has evolved concerning the mechanism of leukocyte locomotion and factors with...
Affiliation:熊本大学,医学部,助手, Research Field:Experimental pathology, Keywords:Immunohistochemistry,組織分布,Chemotactic factor,Hageman factor,Dhemical mediator,アレルギー,血管透過因子,Kinetics,Delayed hypersensitivity,血管透過性亢進, # of Research Projects:1, # of Research Products:0
An apparatus and method of use for assaying cellular motility in response to a concentration gradient of a chemotactic agent. Generally, the apparatus includes a chamber having a region for receiving
Looking for eosinophil chemotactic factor? Find out information about eosinophil chemotactic factor. A peptide released from mast cell granules that stimulates chemotaxis of eosinophils; may be responsible for accumulation of eosinophils at sites of... Explanation of eosinophil chemotactic factor
Im doing a project for my cell class (sorry if this is in the wrong forum--I couldnt find a homework forum) about the eosinophil chemotactic factor. I was wondering if someone could point me in the right direction for a few answers. My professor seemed to think everything could be found online and I dont doubt him, Im just getting conflicting answers. Heres what I have so far ...
Cultured rabbit aortic and human carotid artery endothelial cells produced a factor that was chemotactic for monocytes but not for neutrophils. Checkerboard analysis showed that the activity was due to chemotaxis and not to chemokinesis. The factor was produced in both serum-containing and serumless media. Treatment with carboxypeptidase and trypsin resulted in inhibition of chemotactic activity, indicating that the factor is a peptide. Medium from cultures of rabbit aortic, human carotid artery, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells previously exposed to beta migrating very low density lipoprotein (beta-VLDL) had substantially more chemotactic activity than medium from untreated cells or cells exposed to low density lipoprotein. beta-VLDL alone had no chemotactic activity. We conclude that large vessel endothelial cells produce a monocyte chemotactic factor that is increased after exposure of the cells to beta-VLDL. ...
Four subjects with clinical histories of milk-induced asthma were studied (three allergic to cows milk; one to soya milk). In each instance, skin prick tests, RAST (IgE and IgG4), the basophil histamine release, and serum precipitins, using appropri
Studies in Dictyostelium have shown that the p110-related phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases PI3K1 and PI3K2 are required for proper development, pinocytosis chemotaxis, and chemoattractant-mediated activation of PKB. Insights into the mechanism by which PI3K regulates chemotaxis derive from studies on PKB in mammalian leukocytes and Dictyostelium cells. PKB activation requires its translocation to the plasma membrane by binding of its PH domain to PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 and PtdIns(3,4)P2 produced upon activation of PI3K, leading to PKB activation. In leukocytes and Dictyostelium cells, chemoattractants mediate PKB activation through a G-protein-coupled pathway that requires the activity of the respective PI3Ks. Chemoattractant stimulation of neutrophils and Dictyostelium cells results in a transient localization of a GFP fusion of the PH domains from the Dictyostelium and mammalian PKBs to the plasma membrane. When these cells are placed in a chemoattractant gradient, membrane localization of the ...
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Chemokines play the key role in initiating immune responses by regulating the attraction and homing of immune cells to the lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues. CXCL14 is a chemokine that in tumors may act as chemoattractant for monocytes and dendritic cells (DC), which may modulate antitumor immune responses in certain cancers. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of loss of CXCL14 in prostate cancer cells. Cell treatment with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine resulted in the recovery of CXCL14 mRNA and protein expression. Hypermethylated CpG island sequences encompassing the CXCL14 gene promoter were identified. The restoration of CXCL14 by 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment had functional impact, based on the DC chemoattractant activity of conditioned medium from drug-treated cells. Conversely, CXCL14 removal from conditioned media by affinity chromatography abolished its chemotactic properties, confirming that functionally active CXCL14 was generated in prostate cancer cells by ...
We demonstrated that PRT-201 fragments elastin, a protein present in blood vessel walls. The fragmentation of elastin in the outside wall of the blood vessel is thought to inhibit formation of neointimal hyperplasia thereby reducing the risk of patency loss. Elastase causes localized fragmentation of elastin protein fibers present in blood vessel walls. The elastin fragments generated by elastase are chemoattractants for scar forming cells, meaning that the fragments attract these scar forming cells, inhibiting their migration to the lumen. The cells recognize the elastin fragments via receptors present on the cell surface that bind to specific elastin fragment sub-types. The importance of elastin fragments in vascular biology, including the response to vascular injury has been established in the scientific literature over three decades. Published academic studies conducted in animals provide evidence that fragmentation of elastin in the outer wall of the blood vessels from administration of ...
Chemerin is a leukocyte chemoattractant and adipokine with important immune and metabolic roles. Chemerin, secreted in an inactive form prochemerin, undergoes C-terminal proteolytic cleavage to generate active chemerin, a ligand for the chemokine-like receptor-1 (CMKLR1). We previously identified that adipocytes secrete and activate chemerin. Following treatment with the obesity-associated inflammatory mediator TNF alpha, unknown adipocyte mechanisms are altered resulting in an increased ratio of active to total chemerin production. Based on these findings we hypothesized adipocytes produce proteases capable of modifying chemerin and its ability to activate CMKRL1. 3T3-L1 adipocytes expressed mRNA of immunocyte and fibrinolytic proteases known to activate chemerin in vitro. Following treatment with a general protease inhibitor cocktail (PIC), the TNF alpha-stimulated increase in apparent active chemerin concentration in adipocyte media was amplified 10-fold, as measured by CMKLR1 activation. ...
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Human IL-16 (hIL-16) is a homotetrameric cytokine with chemotactic properties towards cells expressing the CD4 receptor. This chemotactic cytokine plays an important role in attracting cells of the immune system to the site where CD8+ T-cells were activated for example by a foreign antigen. In addition to the chemotactic activity, hIL-16 also induces expression of IL-2 receptor, increasing the responsiveness to IL-2 and therefore implying a role for specific expansion of the CD4+ T-cell population in an area of induced inflammation. In this report we describe the cloning, sequencing and the expression of feline IL-16 (fIL-16). At the nucleotide level, fIL-16 shows 84.6 and 84.5%, on the amino acid level 93 and 91.5% identity to the human and African green monkey (agm) IL-16, respectively. ...
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Principal Investigator:SHOJI Shunsuke, Project Period (FY):1993 - 1995, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:Respiratory organ internal medicine
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References for Abcams Recombinant human GRO alpha protein (ab73810). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Dirofilaria immitis neutrophil chemotactic factor: aa sequence given in first source; isolated from the adult worm; GenBank D11438
The heterogeneity of the H460 large cell lung cancer cell line was investigated by selecting for chemokinetic cells from a CON population that demonstrated both chemokinesis and chemotaxis. Using Boyden chambers, cells that migrated under chemokinetic conditions were collected and their numbers expanded. Time-lapsed microscopy under isotropic conditions showed that KINE cells moved faster and changed directions more frequently than CON confirming their chemokinetic character. KINE cells which lacked stable focal adhesion were also less adhesive to culture plates compared to CON cells which had focal adhesions at the leading edge shown by phospho-Paxillin-tyr118 antibody labeling. Weak substrate adhesion in KINE cells may account for motile characteristics of rapid and random movement [16-19]. Furthermore, the selection for increased chemokinesis did not compromise the ability of KINE cells to chemotax. KINE cells were also significantly more invasive compared to CON.. These results underscore ...
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Combined influence of quartz dust, ozone and NO₂ on chemotactic mobility, release of chemotactic factors and other cytokines by macrophages in ...
TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor) is an endogenous pyrogen, able to induce fever, sepsis, cachexia, inflammation and it is implicated in many auto-immune diseases and is linked to cancer progression.. IL-8 (inteleukin-8) causes neutrophils and granulocyte to migrate toward the site of infection. IL-8 is also known to be a potent promoter of angiogenesis.. MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic protine-1; CCL2) regulates migration and infiltration of monocytes/macrophages. It is implicated in pathogeneses of diseases such as atherosclerosis and neuroinflammatory diseases. Its also highly elevated in breast cancer cells.. RANTES (regulated and normal T cell expressed and secreted) plays an important role in allergic inflammatory processes, carcinogenesis, and are markedly elevated in primary tumor and metastatic lesions from patients with breast or cervical cancer. GROα (CXCL1) has neutrophil chemoattractant activity. It is involved in angiogenesis, inflammation, wound healing and tumorigenesis. ...
Bacterial chemotaxis, a remarkable behavioral trait which allows bacteria to sense and respond to chemical gradients in the environment, has implications in a broad range of fields including but not limited to disease pathogenesis, in-situ bioremediation and marine biogeochemistry. And therefore, studying bacterial chemotaxis is of significant importance to scientists and engineers alike. Microfluidics has revolutionized the way we study the motile behavior of cells by enabling observations at high spatial and temporal resolution in carefully controlled microenvironments. This thesis aims to explore the potential of microfluidic technology in studying bacterial behavior by investigating different aspects of bacterial chemotaxis on a microfluidic platform. We quantified population-scale transport parameters of bacteria using videomicroscopy and cell tracking in controlled chemoattractant gradients. Previously, transport parameters have been derived theoretically from single-cell swimming behavior ...
The interactions of tumorigenic cells with the extracellular matrix play a critical role in the establishment of metastases. Thrombospondin (TSP) is prominent at sites of tissue injury and promotes the attachment, spreading, and motility of several cell types. We have investigated the relationship between human carcinoma cell metastatic potential and TSP-mediated cell motility by comparing highly metastatic 11B carcinoma cells with a nonmetastatic counterpart, 22B carcinoma cells. 11B cells demonstrated motility in response to soluble TSP with a maximal effect observed at 1 µm TSP. Checkerboard analysis indicated that motility was directional with a significant chemokinetic component. Monoclonal antibody C6.7, specific for the distal COOH terminus of TSP, inhibited chemotaxis by 60%. Studies with TSP fragments demonstrated that the Mr 140,000 COOH-terminal domain (140K) supported chemotaxis to the same extent as intact TSP. The NH2-terminal heparin-binding domain was ineffective in stimulating ...
Abcams GRO alpha ELISA Kit suitable for Cell culture supernatant, Serum, Plasma in mouse. Reliably quantify 1 pg/ml of GRO alpha.
Synthetic peptide MMK-1 is a highly specific chemotactic agonist for leukocyte FPRL1.: Human phagocytic leukocytes express the seven-transmembrane G-protein-cou
K 76 carboxylic acid: effective in blocking formation of chemotactic factor for tumor cells from human complement; oxidized product of sesquiterpene derivative K 76 from fungus Stachybotrys complementi; do not confuse with hydroxamic acid K-76
Define attractant: a substance (such as a pheromone) that attracts specific animals (such as insects or individuals of the opposite sex)
View Notes - Bio 201 F11 Lect 16 (True) v2r from BIO 201 at SUNY Stony Brook. BiologyintheNews[seefolderonBB] Whyaresomeplantspeciesverysuccessful atinvadingnewgeographicalareas(e.g. NorthAmericafromA
Eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now!
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chemotactic response of unicellular tetrahymena to a leukocyte attractant peptide and its repellent derivate. T2 - evolutionary conclusions.. AU - Kõhidai, László. AU - Kovács, Péter. AU - Csaba, György. PY - 1994/2/1. Y1 - 1994/2/1. N2 - Chemotactic properties of the leukocyte chemoattractant N-formyl-Norleucine-Leucine-Phenylalanine (NLP) and its antagonist N-t-BOC-Norleucine-Leucine-Phenylalanine (BOC-NLP) were investigated in unicellular Tetrahymena pyriformis cells. NLP express its attractant character in a two-peak profile of concentration course (maximum at 10-8-10-7 M and 10-11 M) while BOC-NLP has a constant repellent character (maximum at 10-12 M). The observed homology of action concurs with our theory about the wide evolutionary background of signal molecules and receptors.. AB - Chemotactic properties of the leukocyte chemoattractant N-formyl-Norleucine-Leucine-Phenylalanine (NLP) and its antagonist N-t-BOC-Norleucine-Leucine-Phenylalanine (BOC-NLP) were ...
The chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that was previously called GRO1 oncogene, GROα, KC, neutrophil-activating protein 3 (NAP-3) and melanoma growth stimulating activity, alpha (MSGA-α). In humans, this protein is encoded by the CXCL1 gene. CXCL1 is secreted by human melanoma cells, has mitogenic properties and is implicated in melanoma pathogenesis. CXCL1 is expressed by macrophages, neutrophils and epithelial cells, and has neutrophil chemoattractant activity. CXCL1 plays a role in spinal cord development by inhibiting the migration of oligodendrocyte precursors and is involved in the processes of angiogenesis, arteriogenesis, inflammation, wound healing, and tumorigenesis. This chemokine elicits its effects by signaling through the chemokine receptor CXCR2. The gene for CXCL1 is located on human chromosome 4 amongst genes for other CXC chemokines. An initial study in mice showed evidence that CXCL1 decreased the severity of ...
N-Formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) or N-formyl-met-leu-phe) is a N-formylated tripeptide and sometimes simply referred to as chemotactic peptide is a potent polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) chemotactic factor and is also a macrophage activator. FMLP is the prototypical representative of the N-fomylated oligopeptide family of chemotactic factors. These oligopeptides are known to be, or mimic the actions of, the N-formyl oligopeptides that are (a) released by tissue bacteria, (b) attract and activate circulating blood leukocytes by binding to specific G protein coupled receptors on these cells, and (c) thereby direct the inflammatory response to sites of bacterial invasion. FMLP is involved in the innate immunity mechanism for host defense against pathogens. FMLP led to the first discovery of a leukocyte receptor for a chemotactic factor, defined three different types of FMLP receptors that have complimentary and/or opposing effects on inflammatory responses as well as many other ...
Chemoattractants induce cell migration through the activation of a distinct family of structurally related heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors. Over the past few years, several receptors in this family have been identified that recognize different classes of chemoattractants but do not induce cell migration. These atypical "chemoattractant receptors" are unable to activate transduction events that lead directly to cell migration, but appear nonetheless to play a nonredundant role in leukocyte recruitment by shaping the chemoattractant gradient, either by removing, transporting, or concentrating their cognate ligands.. ...
In addition to the steepness of the gradient, the context in which a cell perceives a chemoattractant gradient can have a profound effect on their response to the chemotactic stimulus. For example, both our group (Heit et al., 2005) and others (Ferguson et al., 2007) have demonstrated that neutrophil chemotaxis to fMLP is profoundly impacted by the makeup of the substratum upon which the cell is crawling. For example, ligands for LFA-1, MAC-1 and VLA-4 need to be present to get a full chemotactic response to fMLP (Heit et al., 2005). Moreover, Ferguson et al. have demonstrated profound differences in the chemotaxis of neutrophils to fMLP on glass verses protein substrata (Ferguson et al., 2007). These profound differences in the behavior of neutrophils, based on the substratum they are crawling upon, demonstrate that careful selection of the substratum is an important factor when selecting or designing chemotactic assays, especially in mammalian systems. In this regard, we have used a ...
The sequential and regulated recruitment of leukocytes into tissues by chemoattractants is essential for effective clearance of pathogens and healing. The Rho GTPases Cdc42, Rac, and Rho are important for establishing and maintaining migratory polarity. Most chemoattractants for phagocytes signal either through seven transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) or tyrosine kinase receptors. Y721 is the most important for chemotaxis because it recruits phospholipase-C-γ (PL C-γ) and the p85 subunit of class 1A PI3Ks, both of which are implicated in the initiation of chemotaxis. Several intracellular signaling complexes contribute to the polarization of phagocytes in response to chemoattractants, and they probably act together to allow optimal chemotaxis. Cdc42 is implicated in multiple types of cell polarity, including axon specification, yeast mating, and epithelial polarity. There are several PLC isoforms, of which PLCβ2 and PLCβ3 are activated by GPCR signaling in neutrophils, whereas PLCβ
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GRO (Growth Related Oncogene) belonging to IL-8 family is polypeptide which has three isoforms α, β and γ, and it inhibits proliferation of endothelial cells. GRO/CINC-1 (cytokine-induced neutrophil chemo attractant 1) was originally purified from media conditioned by IL-1β stimulated rat kidney epithelioid cells (NRK-52E.) Amino acid sequence that encodes rat CINC-1 was identified in 1989 by Watanabes group at Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University. CINC-1 is a member of the alpha (CXC) subfamily of chemokines. Three additional rat CXC chemokines (CINC-2α, CINC-2β, CINC-3/MIP-2) have been identified. The protein sequence of CINC-1 is 63 - 67% identical to that of CINC-2α, CINC-2β and CINC-3/MIP-2. In addition, each of GROα, GROβ and GROγ is sharing 68%, 71% and 69% identity with CINC-1. This has been suggested that CINCs are the rat counterparts of human GROs. GROα/MGSA has a high homology with IL-8 in amino acid sequences. It has been reported that it also has a similar ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neutrophil recruitment by intradermally injected neutrophil attractant/activation protein-1. AU - Leonard, Edward J.. AU - Yoshimura, Teizo. AU - Tanaka, Shuji. AU - Raffeld, Mark. PY - 1991/5. Y1 - 1991/5. N2 - Neutrophil attractant/activation protein-1 (NAP-1) is a recently described cytokine that attracts neutrophils, but not monocytes or eosinophils. This leukocyte specificity is not absolute, in that NAP-1 attracts basophils and small numbers of lymphocytes. Our purpose was to determine in vivo effects of NAP-1, and to compare them to the reported action of the complement attractant, C5a. Intradermal injection into normal human subjects of 40 μl of NAP-1, over a concentration range of 4 × 10-8 M to 10-6 M, caused no symptoms or signs such as wheal-and-flare, itching, induration, or tenderness. However, biopsies of injection sites showed perivascular neutrophil infiltration as early as 30 min, which increased at 1 and 3 h. The mean number of neutrophils per mm2 of dermis ...
Looking for online definition of chemoattractant in the Medical Dictionary? chemoattractant explanation free. What is chemoattractant? Meaning of chemoattractant medical term. What does chemoattractant mean?
In 1975 our laboratory reported that a methylated membrane protein is involved in bacterial chemotaxis (Kort et al., 1975). It is now known that the extent of methylation of this protein (called MCP...
PAA087Hu01, CCL2; GDCF2; HC11; HSMCR30; MCAF; MCP1; SCYA2; SMC-CF; Chemokine C-C-Motif Ligand 2; Monocyte Chemotactic And Activating Factor; Monocyte Secretory Protein JE | Products for research use only!
To date, we have not tested the fixation of cells in gel inside the observation area of µ-Slide Chemotaxis. From tube formation assays, we generally know that fixation, permeabilization, blocking, and staining of cells on Matrigel™ is possible. Therefore, it should also be possible to do immunostainings in the 3D chemotaxis assay. In this case, we recommend removing the liquid from one reservoir and successively filling the second reservoir with the different solutions. We can assume that the incubation time should be increased by a factor of 4, in order to give the solutions sufficient time to diffuse into the observation area. The filling of liquids should be carefully done, in order not to push out the gel from the observation area.. ...
Human neutrophils (white blood cells) are attracted to a chemotactic agent in this time-lapse video. This is one of many videos available for the classroom or broadcast.
Studies of chemotactic cell migration rely heavily on various assay systems designed to evaluate the ability of cells to move in response to attractant molecules. In particular, the development of microfluidics-based devices in recent years has made it possible to spatially distribute attractant molecules in Open access articles recently published in Lab on a Chip
The chemokinetic inhibitory factor (CIF) is a recently described B-cell derived lymphokine that mediates a chemokinetic inhibitory effect on human polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) migration. In the present report the interaction of CIF with the neutrophil plasma membrane was studied. Normal human peripheral blood neutrophils and purified neutrophil plasma membranes selectively removed biologic activity from CIF-containing concentrates obtained during the purification procedure from conditioned medium. Removal was obtained at both 4 degrees C and 37 degrees C. Furthermore, HL-60 cells treated with dimethyl sulfoxide removed CIF activity (granulocyte-like cells) but HL-60 cells treated with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (macrophage-like cells) did not. Purified human blood monocytes, cells from the macrophage-like U-937 cell line and cells from the basophilic leukemia cell line KU-812 did not remove CIF. These studies suggest that neutrophils express specific binding sites for ...
Neither excitotoxic neurodegeneration nor lipopolysaccharide induces an acute myelomonocytic exudate in the murine central nervous system (CNS) parenchyma (Andersson, P.-B., V. H. Perry, and S. Gordon. 1991. Neuroscience, 42:201; Andersson, P.-B., V. H. Perry, and S. Gordon. 1992. Neuroscience 48:169). In this study formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, platelet-activating factor, interleukin 8 (IL-8), IL-1, or tumor necrosis factor alpha were injected into the hippocampus to assess whether these leukocyte chemotaxins and known mediators of recruitment could bypass this block. They induced morphologic activation of microglia and widespread leukocyte margination but little or no cell exudation into the CNS parenchyma. By contrast, there was acute myelomonocytic cell recruitment to the choroid plexus, meninges, and ventricular system, comparable to that in the skin after subcutaneous injection. The normal CNS parenchyma appears to be a tissue unique in its resistance to leukocyte diapedesis, ...
During activation in response to injury and inflammation, microglial cells can actively migrate into the damaged region of the brain. To fulfill this function, microglia bear receptors for motility factors such as IL-10, epidermal growth factor, complement 5A, and hyaluronan (Turley et al., 1994; Nolte et al., 1996, 1997; Huettner et al., 1997). C13NJ microglial cells represent an interesting model to study cell migration because wound healing is rapidly achieved when chemoattractant factors that are present in 10% serum are added. However, to avoid the possible contribution of cell proliferation to the migration, we performed the assay in the absence of serum. Under these conditions, NT (10 nm) induces a marked activation of cell migration with an effect representing ∼35% of that measured in the presence of serum. An identical result was obtained by using the modified Boyden chamber. Although the NT effect on cell migration defined using the chemotaxis assay was totally blocked by both PI ...
Dictyostelium mutants lacking the MAP kinase DdERK2 show reduced chemotactic responses to folate and cAMP. Analysis of cAMP chemotaxis shows that Dderk2{dollar}\sp-{dollar} cells are defective in chemotaxis to high concentrations of cAMP. This defect is due to an inability to repolarize in the continued presence of high concentrations of cAMP. Under these conditions, the speed of movement of mutant cells remains low. Instead of generating a leading pseudopod, mutant cells generate transient crown-like structures over multiple regions of the cell surface. These structures differ from pseudopods in that they contain myosin II as well as F actin and coronin. These studies identify a role for MAP kinases in coordinating the formation of cell projections generated in response to chemoattractants. A polyclonal antibody against a MAP kinase (DdERK2) in Dictyostelium has been made and used to study DdERK2 activation and localization. The activation of DdERK2 by chemoattractants cAMP and folate is fast ...
The delivery of phagocytic cells, monocytes or neutrophils, to the site of microbial infection involves two processes: Diapedisis: the migration of cells across vascular walls which is initiated by the mediators of inflammation (kinins, histamine, prostaglandins, etc.) Chemotaxis. Phagocytes are motile by ameboid action. Chemotaxis is movement of the cells in response to a chemical stimulus. The eventual concentration of phagocytes at a site of injury results from chemotactic response by the phagocytes which is analogous to bacterial chemotaxis. A number of chemotactic factors (attractants) have been identified, both for neutrophils and monocytes. These include bacterial products, cell and tissue debris, and components of the inflammatory exudate such as peptides derived from complement. Phagocytic adherence Phagocytosis is initiated by adherence of a particle to the surface of the plasma membrane of a phagocyte. This step usually involves several types of surface receptors on the phagocyte ...
The surface expression and regulation of the adhesion promoting glycoproteins Mac-1 and L-selectin was measured on monocytes and neutrophils from neonates and adults. A significant decrease in Mac-1 up regulation on both monocytes and neutrophils was found in neonates after both high (10(-7)M) and low (10(-9)M) concentrations of the chemotactic factor N-formyl-methionyl-phenylalanine (FMLP). A significant difference was obtained after incubation for five minutes, which was further enhanced after incubation for 15 minutes. Factors related to bacterial infections, lipopolysaccharides, activated sera (C5a), and aggregated IgG induced an impaired Mac-1 up regulation on both monocytes and neutrophils from neonates compared with adults. The expression of L-selectin was significantly lower on neutrophils from neonates and was less down regulated upon stimulation with a low concentration (10(-12)M) of FMLP. On monocytes from neonates, the expression and down regulation of L-selectin did not differ from ...
Chemotaxis is the primary mechanism by which cell movements are directed within multicellular organisms, and it is a major component of embryonic development, wound healing, and immune responses. Chemotaxis involves a complex cascade of events--formation of signaling complexes, receptor polarization, adhesion molecule activation, and cytoskeletal reorganization. Previous assay methods were limited in several ways that reduced users abilities to obtain quantitative data or to control conditions precisely. We describe a unique chemotactic assay that can incorporate multiple chemotactic gradients in different spatial and temporal combinations. In addition, this assay is easily adapted for live-cell imaging and fluorescent microscopy. With its relative simplicity, flexibility, and precision, this method is a key tool for the study of cellular chemotactic responses and the signaling processes underlying them. ...
A team of researchers from the University of Manitoba in collaboration with local clinical scientists in Winnipeg, Canada, have developed a new method for rapid neutrophil chemotaxis test directly from a small drop of whole ...
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BioAssay record AID 297157 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of CXCL8-induced cell migration in human PMN cells at 0.01 uM by chemotaxis assay.
There are several experimental models describing in vivo eosinophil (EO) migration, including ip injection of a large volume of saline (SAL) or Sephadex beads (SEP). The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms involved in the EO migration in these two models. Two consecutive injections of SAL given 48 hr apart, induced a selective recruitment of EO into peritoneal cavity of rats, which peaked 48 hr after the last injection. SEP, when injected ip, promoted EO accumulation in rats. The phenomenom was dose-related and peaked 48 hr after SEP injection. To investigate the mediators involved in this process we showed that BW A4C, MK 886 and dexamethasone (DXA) inhibited the EO migration induced by SAL and SEP. To investigate the source of the EO chemotactic factor we showed that mast cells, macrophages (MO), but not lymphocytes, incubated in vitro in presence of SAL released a factor which induced EO migration. With SEP, only mast cells release a factor that induced EO migration, which was ...
MAA087Hu22, CCL2; GDCF2; HC11; HSMCR30; MCAF; MCP1; SCYA2; SMC-CF; Chemokine C-C-Motif Ligand 2; Monocyte Chemotactic And Activating Factor; Monocyte Secretory Protein JE | Products for research use only!
Interleukin, T Cells, Il-4, Regulation, Transcription Factor, Chemokines, Mouse, Calcium, Cell, Chemoattractants, Arthritides, Arthritis, Disease, Virus, and Alphavirus
The conformationally restricted CHO-L-Met-Xxx-L-Phe-OY (where Xxx = Aib, Ac3c, Ac5c, Ac6c, and Ac7c; Y = H, Me) tripeptides, analogs of the chemoattractant CHO-L-Met-L-Leu-L-Phe-OH, have been synthesized in solution by classical methods and fully cha
Reardon, C, Duncan, G, Bruestle, A et al 2013, Lymphocyte-derived ACh regulates local innate but not adaptive immunity, PNAS - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 110, no. 4, pp. 1410-1415. ...
Used to investigate chemotaxis of fast or slow migrating adherent cells and non-adherent cells in gel matrices Chemotaxis measurement in real-time Stable gra...
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Human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) modulates the function of mature neutrophils by priming for enhanced chemotaxis and oxidative metabolism in response to N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (f-Met-Leu-Phe). Our studies establish a relationship between f-Met-Leu-Phe receptor number and affinity and neutrophil chemotaxis and oxidative metabolism. A brief (5- to 15-min) exposure to physiologic concentrations of GM-CSF (10 pM to 100 pM) enhances f-Met-Leu-Phe-induced neutrophil chemotaxis by 85%, correlating with a rapid threefold increase (46,000/cell to 150,000/cell) in high-affinity neutrophil f-Met-Leu-Phe receptors. More prolonged incubation (1 to 2 hr) of neutrophils with GM-CSF is accompanied by a change to low-affinity f-Met-Leu-Phe receptors (Kd = 29 nM to Kd = 99 nM) concomitant with priming for enhanced neutrophil oxidative metabolism. Moreover, enhanced chemotactic responses to f-Met-Leu-Phe are no longer evident after more prolonged incubation of ...
These studies demonstrate that GM-CSF is a neutrophil chemotactic agent. The concentration of GM-CSF needed to achieve maximal chemotaxis is comparable to that of the potent neutrophil chemoattractant IL-8 and less than the other known chemoattractants that we studied. We believe that GM-CSF induction of neutrophil chemotaxis has been previously unrecognized because the stimulatory effect occurs in a narrow range of concentrations (Fig. 3⇑A) and requires an extended incubation interval of at least 30 min. Results reported by Harakawa et al. (44) agreed with our finding that GM-CSF produces an early stimulation of neutrophil chemokinesis, but observations were not reported past 15 min, which may have been insufficient to recognize an effect on chemotaxis. Other earlier studies provided contradictory data on the effect of GM-CSF on neutrophil migration. In a checkerboard assay using polycarbonate filters, Wang et al. (45) demonstrated that GM-CSF induced chemotaxis in neutrophils, while Kharazmi ...
Specific glutamates in the methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs) of Escherichia coli are modified during sensory adaptation. Attractants that bind to MCPs are known to increase the rate of receptor modification, as with serine and the serine receptor (Tsr), which contributes to an increase in the steady-state (adapted) methylation level. However, MCPs form ternary complexes with two cytoplasmic signaling proteins, the kinase (CheA) and an adaptor protein (CheW), but their influences on receptor methylation are unknown. Here, the influence of CheW on the rate of Tsr methylation has been studied to identify contributions to the process of adaptation. Methyl group incorporation was measured in a series of membrane samples in which the Tsr molecules were engineered to have one available methyl-accepting glutamate residue (297, 304, 311 or 493). The relative rates at these sites (0.14, 0.05, 0.05 and 1, respectively) differed from those found previously for the aspartate receptor (Tar), which was in
CXCR4, (a CXC chemokine Receptor), also called fusin, is an alpha-chemokine receptor specific for stromal-derived-factor-1 (SDF-1 also called CXCL12), a molecule endowed with potent chemotactic activity for lymphocytes. This receptor is one of several chemokine receptors that HIV isolates can use to infect CD4+ T cells. Traditionally, HIV isolates that use CXCR4 are known as T-cell tropic isolates. Typically these viruses are found late in infection. It is unclear whether the emergence of CXCR4-using HIV is a consequence or a cause of immunodeficiency.. CXCR4 is upregulated during the implantation window in natural and Hormone Replacement Therapy cycles in the endometrium, producing, in presence of a human blastocyst, a surface polarization of the CXCR4 receptors suggesting that this receptor is implicated in the adhesion phase of human implantation.. CXCR4s ligand SDF-1 is known to be important in hematopoietic stem cell homing to the bone marrow and in hematopoietic stem cell quiescence. ...
Background/Purpose: Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) is a clinically heterogeneous disorder with inflammatory, fibrotic, and vascular manifestations and a highly variable prognosis and response to therapies. Biomarkers that segregate with disease manifestations and which may predict prognosis or response to therapy are needed. SSc shares a type I interferon (IFN) mRNA signature with Systemic Lupus (SLE). We have previously developed a panel of chemokines which correlate with the IFN signature in SLE, and which predicts SLE disease course. We now report the initial testing of this chemokine panel, and additional potentially relevant biomarkers in SSc patients. Methods: Serum samples from 57 SSc patients, 5 healthy controls, and 6 autoimmune controls were obtained from the Scleroderma biorepository at the Benaroya Research Institute. Autoantibody status and presence/absence of interstitial lung disease(ILD) was determined by initial chart review at time of sample acquisition. Four IFN-regulated ...
JS Parmar, D Bilton, ER Chilvers, DA Lomas; The Selective Chemotactic Effect of α1-Antitrypsin Polymers for Human Peripheral Blood Neutrophils. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 July 2002; 103 (s47): 56P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs103056P. Download citation file:. ...
Chemoattractants control lymphocyte recruitment from the blood, contributing to the systemic organization of the immune system. The G protein-linked receptor GPR15 mediates lymphocyte homing to the large intestines and skin. Here we show that the 9 kDa CC-motif containing cationic polypeptide AP57/colon-derived SUSD2 binding factor (CSBF), encoded by C10orf99 in the human and 2610528A11Rik in the mouse, functions as a chemokine ligand for GPR15 (GPR15L). GPR15L binds GPR15 and attracts GPR15-expressing T cells including lymphocytes in colon draining lymph nodes and Vγ3+ thymic precursors of dermal epithelial T cells. Patterns of GPR15L expression by epithelial cells in adult mice and humans suggest a homeostatic role for the chemokine in lymphocyte localization to the large intestines, as well as a role in homing to the epidermis during wound healing or inflammation. GPR15L is also significantly expressed in squamous mucosa of the oral cavity and esophagus with still poorly defined regulation.
Chemokines are a large group of chemotactic cytokines that play an important pathogenic role in inflammatory diseases and autoimmune disorders by enhancement of leukocyte recruitment and activation at inflammatory sites [3-6]. ENA-78 is a CXC chemokine that attracts neutrophils during inflammation [7].. In this work, serum levels of ENA-78 were significantly higher in autistic children than healthy control children (P , 0.001). In addition, 69.35% of autistic children had increased serum levels of ENA-78. This study was the first to investigate serum levels of ENA-78 in autistic children. ENA-78 is an inflammatory C-X-C chemokine that is encoded by the CXCL5 gene [28]. Its levels are elevated in myriad inflammatory conditions [29-32].. ENA-78 is an α chemokine which is produced concomitantly with IL-8 and melanoma growth stimulating activity [7]. The main stimuli for secretion of chemokines, including ENA-78, are the early signals elicited during innate immune response such as bacterial ...
Chemotaxis is the stimulated directional migration of cells in response to chemotactic factors, manifested for instance during leukocyte interaction with chemoattractants in inflammation. The N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLF) bacterial peptide family is particularly potent in attracting and activating neutrophilic granulocytes. To accomplish defined circumstances for recruitment and activation of cells, we fabricated semitransparent gold-coated glass coverslips functionalized with chemoattractant fMLF receptor peptide agonist analogues. Peptides based on a common leading four-amino-acid sequence Gly-Gly-Gly-Cys were thus coupled to two potent fMLF receptor agonists, N-formyl-Tyr-Nle-Phe-Leu- Nle-Gly-Gly-Gly-Cys and N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe-Gly-Gly-Gly-Cys, and a formylated control peptide, N-formyl-Gly-Gly-Gly-Cys. They were anchored via the SH group of Cys either directly to the gold surface or a mixed self-assembled monolayer composed of maleimide- and hydroxyl-terminated oligo(ethylene glycol) ...
Looking for online definition of Stimulated T-cell chemotactic protein 1 in the Medical Dictionary? Stimulated T-cell chemotactic protein 1 explanation free. What is Stimulated T-cell chemotactic protein 1? Meaning of Stimulated T-cell chemotactic protein 1 medical term. What does Stimulated T-cell chemotactic protein 1 mean?
Chemotaxis, or directed cell migration, is important in many biological processes such as embryonic development, wound healing, and the direction of immune cells to sites of inflammation or infection. When not regulated properly, chemotaxis is implicated in disease states including inflammatory diseases and cancer metastasis. During eukaryotic chemotaxis, cells are able to sense a chemical gradient through receptors on the cell membrane that trigger complicated intracellular signaling networks, ultimately resulting in changes in the actin cytoskeleton leading to cell migration. The proteins involved in these signaling networks require tight spatiotemporal regulation, and the mechanisms underlying this regulation are not well understood. The work of this dissertation aims to better elucidate the pathways that regulate chemotaxis and enable cells to respond and adapt to changes in the chemoattractant gradient. To this end, we utilized the model organism Dictyostelium discoideum, and focused on ...
lymphocyte maturation factor 2, p40) IL12RB1 3594 interleukin 12 receptor, beta 1 19 19p13.1 18031371 18058697 15 12 12 IL12RB2 3595 interleukin 12 receptor, beta 2 1 1p31.3-p31.2 67545635 67635171 21 20 20 IL13 3596 interleukin 13 5 5q31 132021764 132024700 7 6 6 IL13RA1 3597 interleukin 13 receptor, alpha 1 X Xq24 117745587 117812524 5 5 5 IL13RA2 3598 interleukin 13 receptor, alpha 2 X Xq13.1-q28 114144794 114158463 3 2 2 IL15RA 3601 interleukin 15 receptor, alpha 10 10p15.1 6034340 6060148 32 29 29 IL16 3603 interleukin 16 (lymphocyte 15 15q26.3 79276274 79392157 27 25 25 chemoattractant factor) IL17A 3605 interleukin 17A 6 6p12 52159144 52163395 13 13 13 IL17B 27190 interleukin 17B 5 5q33.1 148734023 148739031 6 5 5 IL17C 27189 interleukin 17C 16 16q24 87232502 87234383 7 7 7 IL17D 53342 interleukin 17D 13 13q12.11 20175482 20195237 7 6 6 IL17F 112744 interleukin 17F 6 6p12 52209443 52217257 14 14 14 IL17RB 55540 interleukin 17 receptor B 3 3p21.1 53855617 53874867 10 9 9 IL18 3606 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prolactin suppression of leukocyte chemotaxis in vitro. AU - Harris, R. D.. AU - Kay, N. E.. AU - Seljeskog, E. L.. AU - Murray, K. J.. AU - Douglas, S. D.. PY - 1979/1/1. Y1 - 1979/1/1. N2 - Leukocyte chemotaxis in vitro was studied for cells from patients with pituitary adenomas. Leukocytes obtained preoperatively from two of three patients with elevated serum prolactin levels demonstrated chemotaxic alterations described in other malignant disease. Statistically significant suppression of chemotaxis occurred in the leukocytes of four of 12 specimens from normal donors at concentrations of 1000 ng/ml, and in four of eight specimens at 2000 ng/ml of prolactin in preincubation media. Thus prolactin concentration may influence the motility of leukocytes. The variable neoplastic behavior of morphologically similar pituitary adenomas may, in part, reflect a neurohormonally altered host response to the presence of these lesions.. AB - Leukocyte chemotaxis in vitro was studied for ...
GABAC Rs comprise the GABA1 subunit but in due course grew to a whole of three subunits: GABA1, GABA2, and GABA3. Children with head hurt who have signs of shock such as poor perfusion and bradycardia should pull down fluid size resuscitation (Kleinman et al. Blasphemy, I cognise cheap himplasia 30 caps on-line herbals medicine. Alternatively, the synovectomy of the metarso-sesamoid compartment can be performed together with the endoscopic distal soft fabric procedure through the medial and the toe snare portal in patients with original metatarso-phalangeal synovi- tis associated with hallux valgus , 8]. L5/S1В-S3 or L5/S1В-S4 anterior spinal roots cross anastomosis should be charmed during the operation of bladder going recon- struction during the manoeuvre of Achilles tendon reflex. Comprehen Increase Matter Sci and Substance Device 3:21-33, 2004 buy generic zetia 10mg cholesterol test finger prick. Banks acuteness across the BBB is cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 (Fa‡ade ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mechanisms of neutrophil accumulation in the lungs of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. AU - Hunninghake, G. W.. AU - Gadek, J. E.. AU - Lawley, T. J.. AU - Crystal, R. G.. PY - 1981/1/1. Y1 - 1981/1/1. N2 - Neutrophils are a characteristic feature of the alveolitis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a chronic disorder limited to lung. One mechanism by which neutrophils may be selectively attracted to lung and not other tissues is via the secretion of a neutrophil-specific chemotactic factor by alveolar macrophages. To evaluate the role of alveolar macrophages in modulating the migration of neutrophils to the lung in IPF, alveolar macrophages, obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage of patients with IPF, were evaluated for their ability to release a chemotactic factor for neutrophils. Unstimulated alveolar macrophages from normal individuals did not release the factor. In patients with IPF, there was a significant correlation between the proportions of neutrophils in ...

Macrophage chemotactic factor (MCF) - definition of macrophage chemotactic factor (MCF) by The Free DictionaryMacrophage chemotactic factor (MCF) - definition of macrophage chemotactic factor (MCF) by The Free Dictionary

... macrophage chemotactic factor (MCF) synonyms, macrophage chemotactic factor (MCF) pronunciation, macrophage chemotactic factor ... English dictionary definition of macrophage chemotactic factor (MCF). n. Any of various large, phagocytic white blood cells ... Related to macrophage chemotactic factor (MCF): neutrophil chemotactic factor mac·ro·phage. (măk′rə-fāj′). n.. Any of various ... Macrophage chemotactic factor (MCF) - definition of macrophage chemotactic factor (MCF) by The Free Dictionary https://www. ...
more infohttp://www.thefreedictionary.com/macrophage+chemotactic+factor+

Eosinophil chemotactic factor | Article about eosinophil chemotactic factor by The Free DictionaryEosinophil chemotactic factor | Article about eosinophil chemotactic factor by The Free Dictionary

Find out information about eosinophil chemotactic factor. A peptide released from mast cell granules that stimulates chemotaxis ... Related to eosinophil chemotactic factor: neutrophil chemotactic factor, eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis ... Eosinophil chemotactic factor , Article about eosinophil chemotactic factor by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2. ... a href=https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/eosinophil+chemotactic+factor,eosinophil chemotactic factor,/a,. *Facebook ...
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Three forms of monocyte-derived neutrophil chemotactic factor (MDNCF) distinguished by different lengths of the amino-terminal...Three forms of monocyte-derived neutrophil chemotactic factor (MDNCF) distinguished by different lengths of the amino-terminal...

Three forms of monocyte-derived neutrophil chemotactic factor (MDNCF) distinguished by different lengths of the amino-terminal ... Three forms of monocyte-derived neutrophil chemotactic factor (MDNCF) distinguished by different lengths of the amino-terminal ... Three forms of monocyte-derived neutrophil chemotactic factor (MDNCF) distinguished by different lengths of the amino-terminal ... title = "Three forms of monocyte-derived neutrophil chemotactic factor (MDNCF) distinguished by different lengths of the amino- ...
more infohttps://okayama.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/three-forms-of-monocyte-derived-neutrophil-chemotactic-factor-mdn

Production and Regulation of Human T Lymphocyte Chemotactic Factor (LCF) | SpringerLinkProduction and Regulation of Human T Lymphocyte Chemotactic Factor (LCF) | SpringerLink

Over the years a wealth of information has evolved concerning the mechanism of leukocyte locomotion and factors with... ... Van Epps, D.E., Potter, J.W. and Durant, D.A. (1983). Production of a human T-lymphocyte chemotactic factor by T-cell ... Isolation of lymphocyte chemotactic factors from PPD-induced delayed hypersensitivity skin reaction site in the guinea pig, ... 1982). A human lymphocyte chemotactic factor produced by the mixed lymphocyte reaction. J. Lab. Clin. Med., 100, 558-565.Google ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-349-07834-9_14

Eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis | Define Eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis at Dictionary.comEosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis | Define Eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis at Dictionary.com

Eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, ... eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis in Medicine Expand. eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis n. Abbr. ECF-A A ...
more infohttp://www.dictionary.com/browse/eosinophil-chemotactic-factor-of-anaphylaxis

Molecular cloning of a novel receptor (CMKLR1) with homology to the chemotactic factor receptors.  - PubMed - NCBIMolecular cloning of a novel receptor (CMKLR1) with homology to the chemotactic factor receptors. - PubMed - NCBI

Molecular cloning of a novel receptor (CMKLR1) with homology to the chemotactic factor receptors.. Gantz I1, Konda Y, Yang YK, ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8976386?dopt=Abstract

JCI -
Enhancement of Neutrophil Function as a Result of Prior Exposure to Chemotactic FactorJCI - Enhancement of Neutrophil Function as a Result of Prior Exposure to Chemotactic Factor

The enhanced PMN response resulting from exposure to chemotactic factor was observed with several chemotactic stimuli, ... Exposure of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) to chemotactic factor, as well as the migration of PMN through a 5-μm pore ... Enhancement of Neutrophil Function as a Result of Prior Exposure to Chemotactic Factor. ... Enhancement of Neutrophil Function as a Result of Prior Exposure to Chemotactic Factor. ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/109841/pdf

eosinophil chemotactic factor help - Biology-Onlineeosinophil chemotactic factor help - Biology-Online

eosinophil chemotactic factor help. Discussion of all aspects of cellular structure, physiology and communication. ... about the eosinophil chemotactic factor. I was wondering if someone could point me in the right direction for a few answers. My ... 1. Name of signal (I assume this is obvious: Eosinophil chemotactic peptide). 2. Type of signal (peptide?). 3. Mode of signal ...
more infohttps://www.biology-online.org/biology-forum/viewtopic.php?t=17470&p=116746&hilit=Chemotaxis

Dirofilaria immitis neutrophil chemotactic factor
     Summary Report | CureHunterDirofilaria immitis neutrophil chemotactic factor Summary Report | CureHunter

Dirofilaria immitis neutrophil chemotactic factor: aa sequence given in first source; isolated from the adult worm; GenBank ... Dirofilaria immitis neutrophil chemotactic factor. Subscribe to New Research on Dirofilaria immitis neutrophil chemotactic ...
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Biology-Online • View topic - eosinophil chemotactic factor helpBiology-Online • View topic - eosinophil chemotactic factor help

eosinophil chemotactic factor help. Discussion of all aspects of cellular structure, physiology and communication. ... eosinophil chemotactic factor help. by relamberth » Tue Dec 01, 2009 11:23 pm ... about the eosinophil chemotactic factor. I was wondering if someone could point me in the right direction for a few answers. My ... 1. Name of signal (I assume this is obvious: Eosinophil chemotactic peptide). 2. Type of signal (peptide?). 3. Mode of signal ...
more infohttp://www.biology-online.org/biology-forum/post-116759.html

Search: protein class:Chemokines and chemotactic factors receptors - The Human Protein AtlasSearch: protein class:Chemokines and chemotactic factors receptors - The Human Protein Atlas

annotations (the reliablity of the annotated protein expression using immunohistochemically (IH) stained on human tissues, the reliablity of the annotated protein expression in immunofluorescently (IF) stained human cell lines, tissue specificity (the distribution of antibody staining or protein expression in human cell types), cell line specificity (the distribution of RNA abundance in cell lines) and subcellular location (based on immunofluorescent staining of cell lines ...
more infohttp://www.proteinatlas.org/search/protein_class:Chemokines%20and%20chemotactic%20factors%20receptors

Endothelial cell gene expression of a neutrophil chemotactic factor by TNF-alpha, LPS, and IL-1 beta | ScienceEndothelial cell gene expression of a neutrophil chemotactic factor by TNF-alpha, LPS, and IL-1 beta | Science

Human endothelial cells produced a neutrophil chemotactic factor (NCF) upon stimulation with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- ... Endothelial cell gene expression of a neutrophil chemotactic factor by TNF-alpha, LPS, and IL-1 beta ... Endothelial cell gene expression of a neutrophil chemotactic factor by TNF-alpha, LPS, and IL-1 beta ... Endothelial cell gene expression of a neutrophil chemotactic factor by TNF-alpha, LPS, and IL-1 beta ...
more infohttps://science.sciencemag.org/content/243/4897/1467

Monocyte chemotactic factor produced by large vessel endothelial cells in vitro. | Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular...Monocyte chemotactic factor produced by large vessel endothelial cells in vitro. | Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular...

Monocyte chemotactic factor produced by large vessel endothelial cells in vitro.. J A Berliner, M Territo, L Almada, A Carter, ... Monocyte chemotactic factor produced by large vessel endothelial cells in vitro.. J A Berliner, M Territo, L Almada, A Carter, ... Monocyte chemotactic factor produced by large vessel endothelial cells in vitro.. J A Berliner, M Territo, L Almada, A Carter, ... Cultured rabbit aortic and human carotid artery endothelial cells produced a factor that was chemotactic for monocytes but not ...
more infohttp://atvb.ahajournals.org/content/6/3/254

Interleukin-8: a potent neutrophil chemotactic factor. | ADC Fetal & Neonatal EditionInterleukin-8: a potent neutrophil chemotactic factor. | ADC Fetal & Neonatal Edition

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
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Chemotactic Factor-Induced Recruitment and Activation of Tec Family Kinases in Human Neutrophils. II. Effects of LFM-A13, a...Chemotactic Factor-Induced Recruitment and Activation of Tec Family Kinases in Human Neutrophils. II. Effects of LFM-A13, a...

... chemotactic and oxidative responses to the chemotactic factor formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMet-Leu-Phe). Evidence was ... Chemotactic Factor-Induced Recruitment and Activation of Tec Family Kinases in Human Neutrophils. II. Effects of LFM-A13, a ... Chemotactic Factor-Induced Recruitment and Activation of Tec Family Kinases in Human Neutrophils. II. Effects of LFM-A13, a ... Chemotactic Factor-Induced Recruitment and Activation of Tec Family Kinases in Human Neutrophils. II. Effects of LFM-A13, a ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/170/10/5235.long

Human recombinant macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha and -beta and monocyte chemotactic and activating factor utilize...Human recombinant macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha and -beta and monocyte chemotactic and activating factor utilize...

Human monocyte chemotactic and activating factor (MCAF), a member of the same chemokine family, consistently displaced about 25 ... Human recombinant macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha and -beta and monocyte chemotactic and activating factor utilize ... Human recombinant macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha and -beta and monocyte chemotactic and activating factor utilize ... Human recombinant macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha and -beta and monocyte chemotactic and activating factor utilize ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/150/7/3022?ijkey=dbf50bab0b642e23aa4d61b2be164ebee2e26e80&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

The chemotactic factors induced movement of calcium and sodium across rabbit neutrophil membranes: effect of densensitization...The chemotactic factors induced movement of calcium and sodium across rabbit neutrophil membranes: effect of densensitization...

The preincubation of rabbit neutrophils with the chemotactic factor F-Met-Leu-Phe and the subsequent addition of cytochalasin B ... Chemotactic Factors / pharmacology*. Cytochalasin B / pharmacology*. Lysosomes / enzymology. Muramidase / secretion. ... The chemotactic factors induced movement of calcium and sodium across rabbit neutrophil membranes: effect of densensitization ... 0/Chemotactic Factors; 14930-96-2/Cytochalasin B; 7440-23-5/Sodium; 7440-70-2/Calcium; EC 3.2.1.17/Muramidase ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/chemotactic-factors-induced-movement-calcium/511943.html

Neutrophil chemotactic factors in synovial fluids of patients with lyme disease.Neutrophil chemotactic factors in synovial fluids of patients with lyme disease.

... of the chemotactic activity could be recovered in the aqueous phase. This indicates that the major chemotactic factor in these ... Chemotactic factors. To determine whether the chemotactic activity in Lyme disease synovial fluids could be attributed to C5a, ... Chemotactic factors in Lyme disease synovial fluid. A, Effect of immunoadsorption with antibody to C5a on the chemotactic ... Neutrophil chemotactic factors in synovial fluids of patients with lyme disease.. код для вставки. код для вставки на сайт или ...
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Increased Cholesterol Deposition, Expression of Scavenger Receptors, and Response to Chemotactic Factors in Abca1-Deficient...Increased Cholesterol Deposition, Expression of Scavenger Receptors, and Response to Chemotactic Factors in Abca1-Deficient...

... growth factors, and cytokines, resulting in an increased ability to respond to a variety of chemotactic factors. ... growth factors, and cytokines, resulting in an increased ability to respond to a variety of chemotactic factors. ... Abca1−/− macrophages also exhibit a greater ability to respond to a variety of chemotactic factors. The results from these ... Increased Cholesterol Deposition, Expression of Scavenger Receptors, and Response to Chemotactic Factors in Abca1-Deficient ...
more infohttp://atvb.ahajournals.org/content/25/6/1198

Comparative Evaluation of Chemotactic Factor Effect on Migration and Differentiation of Stem Cells of the Apical PapillaComparative Evaluation of Chemotactic Factor Effect on Migration and Differentiation of Stem Cells of the Apical Papilla

... ... platelet-derived growth factor, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), or fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) on the ... Although many chemotactic factors have been investigated for different mesenchymal stem cells, their effect on SCAP migration ... G-CSF appears to be well suited to be further investigated as a key chemotactic factor in cell homing-based regenerative ...
more infohttps://insights.ovid.com/jendo/201708000/00004770-201708000-00012

KAKEN - Research Projects | Alveolar macrophage-derived chemotactic factor for airway epithelial cells (KAKENHI-PROJECT...KAKEN - Research Projects | Alveolar macrophage-derived chemotactic factor for airway epithelial cells (KAKENHI-PROJECT...

... alveolar macrophage-derived chemotactic factor for airway epithelial cells.However, the significant chemotactic activity has ... 1)Bronchial epithelial cells release fibronectin as a chemotactic factor for mast cells.. We cultured bovine bronchial ... The chemotactic activity was then purified by three serial column chromatographies using HPLC,and finally identified as bovine ... The supernatant had significantly more chemotactic activity for the rat basophilic leukemia(RBL-2H3) cells and rat peritoneal ...
more infohttps://kaken.nii.ac.jp/grant/KAKENHI-PROJECT-05670519/

Neutrophil chemotactic factors in the tears of giant papillary conjunctivitis patients. | IOVS | ARVO JournalsNeutrophil chemotactic factors in the tears of giant papillary conjunctivitis patients. | IOVS | ARVO Journals

Neutrophil chemotactic factors in the tears of giant papillary conjunctivitis patients. S A Elgebaly; P C Donshik; F Rahhal; W ... Neutrophil chemotactic factors in the tears of giant papillary conjunctivitis patients. You will receive an email whenever this ... S A Elgebaly, P C Donshik, F Rahhal, W Williams; Neutrophil chemotactic factors in the tears of giant papillary conjunctivitis ... This study was designed to determine the presence of neutrophil chemotactic factors in the tears of patients with giant ...
more infohttps://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2178668

The role of adhesion molecules, chemotactic factors, and cytokines in inflammatory and neoplastic skin disease--1990 update. -...The role of adhesion molecules, chemotactic factors, and cytokines in inflammatory and neoplastic skin disease--1990 update. -...

... chemotactic factors, and adhesion molecules. One key element is the in vivo movement of T cells that express LFA-1 into the ... and adds recent results dealing with coordinate regulation at the gene-transcriptional level of keratinocyte chemotactic factor ... The role of adhesion molecules, chemotactic factors, and cytokines in inflammatory and neoplastic skin disease--1990 update.. @ ... article{Nickoloff1990TheRO, title={The role of adhesion molecules, chemotactic factors, and cytokines in inflammatory and ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/The-role-of-adhesion-molecules%2C-chemotactic-and-in-Nickoloff-Griffiths/0252b11816ee141a2f89d9559a59d3e529648a77

Evidence for a novel chemotactic C1q domain-containing factor in the leech nerve cord. - Semantic ScholarEvidence for a novel chemotactic C1q domain-containing factor in the leech nerve cord. - Semantic Scholar

The chemotactic activity was reduced when microglia was preincubated with signaling pathway inhibitors (Pertussis Toxin or ... Of interest, by using anti-HmC1q antibodies, HmC1q released in the culture medium was shown to exhibit a similar chemotactic ... Indeed, activated microglial cells are involved in neuroinflammation mechanisms by interacting with numerous immune factors. ... Evidence for a novel chemotactic C1q domain-containing factor in the leech nerve cord.. @article{Tahtouh2009EvidenceFA, title={ ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Evidence-for-a-novel-chemotactic-C1q-factor-in-the-Tahtouh-Croq/ce611fde4caceff4740c4a7abf2988abdc552ed8

Complement chemotactic factor | definition of complement chemotactic factor by Medical dictionaryComplement chemotactic factor | definition of complement chemotactic factor by Medical dictionary

... complement chemotactic factor explanation free. What is complement chemotactic factor? Meaning of complement chemotactic factor ... Looking for online definition of complement chemotactic factor in the Medical Dictionary? ... complement chemotactic factor. com·ple·ment che·mo·tac·tic fac·tor. the activated complex of the fifth component of complement ... Complement chemotactic factor , definition of complement chemotactic factor by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary. ...
more infohttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/complement+chemotactic+factor
  • When this material was applied to an HPLC-CM column, gradient elution produced four well-separated A 280 peaks, each of which had chemotactic activity. (elsevier.com)
  • A major chemotactic factor for PMN is the activated fifth component of complement, C5a, formed in serum by its interaction with immune complexes (7). (docme.ru)
  • This location is close to several immune modulating genes including interleukins 3, 5, and 9 and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study aimed to comparatively evaluate the effect of stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), platelet-derived growth factor, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), or fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) on the migration and differentiation of SCAPs. (ovid.com)
  • The incubating media was then collected and tested for chemotactic activity using homologous PMNs and keratocytes. (elsevier.com)
  • In the absence of added extracellular Ca2+ an initial and rapid (less than 1 minute) loss of ionic responsiveness is followed by partial recovery as the length of the preincubation with the chemotactic factor is increased from one to five minutes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Substances in the exudate include clotting factors, which help prevent the spread of infectious agents throughout the body. (britannica.com)
  • These results indicate that freezing and lyophilization of corneas, as occurs for keratorefractive surgery, results in the generation from the stroma of chemotactic factors for both PMNs and keratocytes. (elsevier.com)
  • A causative link between these two events is strongly suggested by the high affinity of the pleckstrin homology (PH) domains of Tec and Btk for PtdIns(3,4,5)P 3 ( 20 , 21 , 22 ) and by the wortmannin sensitivity of the recruitment of Tec kinases ( 16 ) and of the stimulation of the tyrosine phosphorylation cascade by chemotactic factors ( 23 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Fibronectin provides beta2-integrin co-stimulation, allowing GM-CSF and IL-8 to activate nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB, an effect that does not occur in suspension. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • Although B burgdorferi has been cultured from joint fluid and identified in synovial lesions in a few cases (1,5), the scarcity of organisms in the synovial lesions, the wide spectrum of joint involvement, and the slow response, if any, of chronic arthritis to antibiotic therapy suggest that host factors play a major role in the pathogenesis of Lyme arthritis (5). (docme.ru)
  • RANTES elicited 65% of the chemotactic response to 10 -7 M platelet-activating factor in all experiments. (utmb.edu)
  • Quantitative and qualitative analysis of platelet GPIb and von Willebrand factor in liver cirrhosis. (nih.gov)
  • Platelet Factor 4" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Platelet Factor 4" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Platelet Factor 4" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Platelet Factor 4" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • 6 7 It is currently believed that heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is mediated by antibodies directed at complexes that form between heparin or other anionic mucopolysaccharides and platelet factor 4 (PF4) in plasma, on the surface of platelets, and/or on the endothelium. (bloodjournal.org)