Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
C5 plays a central role in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C5 is cleaved by C5 CONVERTASE into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. The smaller fragment C5a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of inflammatory process. The major fragment C5b binds to the membrane initiating the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components, C5-C9, into the MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
Effective in the initiation of protein synthesis. The initiating methionine residue enters the ribosome as N-formylmethionyl tRNA. This process occurs in Escherichia coli and other bacteria as well as in the mitochondria of eucaryotic cells.
A formylated tripeptide originally isolated from bacterial filtrates that is positively chemotactic to polymorphonuclear leucocytes, and causes them to release lysosomal enzymes and become metabolically activated.
The minor fragment formed when C5 convertase cleaves C5 into C5a and COMPLEMENT C5B. C5a is a 74-amino-acid glycopeptide with a carboxy-terminal ARGININE that is crucial for its spasmogenic activity. Of all the complement-derived anaphylatoxins, C5a is the most potent in mediating immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE), smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION; HISTAMINE RELEASE; and migration of LEUKOCYTES to site of INFLAMMATION.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
A transplantable carcinoma of the rat that originally appeared spontaneously in the mammary gland of a pregnant albino rat, and which now resembles a carcinoma in young transplants and a sarcoma in older transplants. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Group of chemokines without adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes only.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
The major metabolite in neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It stimulates polymorphonuclear cell function (degranulation, formation of oxygen-centered free radicals, arachidonic acid release, and metabolism). (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)
Serum peptides derived from certain cleaved COMPLEMENT PROTEINS during COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. They induce smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION; mast cell HISTAMINE RELEASE; PLATELET AGGREGATION; and act as mediators of the local inflammatory process. The order of anaphylatoxin activity from the strongest to the weakest is C5a, C3a, C4a, and C5a des-arginine.
A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Zymosan is a polysaccharide derived from the cell walls of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, commonly used in research as an immunostimulant to induce inflammation and study phagocytosis, complement activation, and oxidative burst in neutrophils and macrophages.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
A colorless, syrupy, strongly acidic liquid that can form detergents with oleic acid.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Exudates are fluids, CELLS, or other cellular substances that are slowly discharged from BLOOD VESSELS usually from inflamed tissues. Transudates are fluids that pass through a membrane or squeeze through tissue or into the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE of TISSUES. Transudates are thin and watery and contain few cells or PROTEINS.
Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Esterases are hydrolase enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds, converting esters into alcohols and acids, playing crucial roles in various biological processes including metabolism and detoxification.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
Molecules on the surface of some B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that recognize and combine with the C3b, C3d, C1q, and C4b components of complement.
The study of the structure, behavior, growth, reproduction, and pathology of cells; and the function and chemistry of cellular components.
Electrophoresis applied to BLOOD PROTEINS.
One of the HISTAMINE H1 ANTAGONISTS with little sedative action. It is used in treatment of hay fever, rhinitis, allergic dermatoses, and pruritus.
A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that was originally identified by its ability to bind N-formyl peptides such as N-FORMYLMETHIONINE LEUCYL-PHENYLALANINE. Since N-formyl peptides are found in MITOCHONDRIA and BACTERIA, this class of receptors is believed to play a role in mediating cellular responses to cellular damage and bacterial invasion. However, non-formylated peptide ligands have also been found for this receptor class.
Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.
The serous fluid of ASCITES, the accumulation of fluids in the PERITONEAL CAVITY.
An acute hypersensitivity reaction due to exposure to a previously encountered ANTIGEN. The reaction may include rapidly progressing URTICARIA, respiratory distress, vascular collapse, systemic SHOCK, and death.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
Hexosephosphates are sugar phosphate molecules, specifically those derived from hexoses (six-carbon sugars), such as glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate, which play crucial roles in various metabolic pathways including glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and the pentose phosphate pathway.
A major alkaloid from Colchicum autumnale L. and found also in other Colchicum species. Its primary therapeutic use is in the treatment of gout, but it has been used also in the therapy of familial Mediterranean fever (PERIODIC DISEASE).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.
A dermal inflammatory reaction produced under conditions of antibody excess, when a second injection of antigen produces intravascular antigen-antibody complexes which bind complement, causing cell clumping, endothelial damage, and vascular necrosis.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
Virus diseases caused by the TOGAVIRIDAE.
A specific protein kinase C inhibitor, which inhibits superoxide release from human neutrophils (PMN) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or synthetic diacylglycerol.
Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.
The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.
Arachidonic acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids, specifically a type of omega-6 fatty acid, that are essential for human nutrition and play crucial roles in various biological processes, including inflammation, immunity, and cell signaling. They serve as precursors to eicosanoids, which are hormone-like substances that mediate a wide range of physiological responses.
A phospholipid derivative formed by PLATELETS; BASOPHILS; NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES. It is a potent platelet aggregating agent and inducer of systemic anaphylactic symptoms, including HYPOTENSION; THROMBOCYTOPENIA; NEUTROPENIA; and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION.
Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.
A membrane or barrier with micrometer sized pores used for separation purification processes.
The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
The process in which the neutrophil is stimulated by diverse substances, resulting in degranulation and/or generation of reactive oxygen products, and culminating in the destruction of invading pathogens. The stimulatory substances, including opsonized particles, immune complexes, and chemotactic factors, bind to specific cell-surface receptors on the neutrophil.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
Abnormal increase of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, tissues or organs.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
A cytokine produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that stimulates the migration of CD4-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES and monocytes. It has been reported to suppress HIV replication.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
Glucuronidase is an enzyme (specifically, a glycosidase) that catalyzes the hydrolysis of glucuronic acid from various substrates, playing crucial roles in metabolic processes like detoxification and biotransformation within organisms.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.
A di-isopropyl-fluorophosphate which is an irreversible cholinesterase inhibitor used to investigate the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
The science and application of a double-beam transmission interference microscope in which the illuminating light beam is split into two paths. One beam passes through the specimen while the other beam reflects off a reference mirror before joining and interfering with the other. The observed optical path difference between the two beams can be measured and used to discriminate minute differences in thickness and refraction of non-stained transparent specimens, such as living cells in culture.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Molecular sites on or in some B-lymphocytes and macrophages that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3B. The primary structure of these receptors reveal that they contain transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, with their extracellular portion composed entirely of thirty short consensus repeats each having 60 to 70 amino acids.
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
Preparations made from animal tissues or organs (ANIMAL STRUCTURES). They usually contain many components, any one of which may be pharmacologically or physiologically active. Tissue extracts may contain specific, but uncharacterized factors or proteins with specific actions.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Any inflammation of the skin.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A subclass of EXOPEPTIDASES that act on the free N terminus end of a polypeptide liberating a single amino acid residue. EC 3.4.11.
An oxidative decarboxylation process that converts GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE to D-ribose-5-phosphate via 6-phosphogluconate. The pentose product is used in the biosynthesis of NUCLEIC ACIDS. The generated energy is stored in the form of NADPH. This pathway is prominent in tissues which are active in the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS and STEROIDS.
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.
A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.
A defect of leukocyte function in which phagocytic cells ingest but fail to digest bacteria, resulting in recurring bacterial infections with granuloma formation. When chronic granulomatous disease is caused by mutations in the CYBB gene, the condition is inherited in an X-linked recessive pattern. When chronic granulomatous disease is caused by CYBA, NCF1, NCF2, or NCF4 gene mutations, the condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.
The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.
A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
A protease of broad specificity, obtained from dried pancreas. Molecular weight is approximately 25,000. The enzyme breaks down elastin, the specific protein of elastic fibers, and digests other proteins such as fibrin, hemoglobin, and albumin. EC 3.4.21.36.
A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.
A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.
Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.
An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.
Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.
Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Proteins that bind specific drugs with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Drug receptors are generally thought to be receptors for some endogenous substance not otherwise specified.
Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.
Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.
The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 1.11.1.7.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
An acidic glycoprotein of MW 23 kDa with internal disulfide bonds. The protein is produced in response to a number of inflammatory mediators by mesenchymal cells present in the hemopoietic environment and at peripheral sites of inflammation. GM-CSF is able to stimulate the production of neutrophilic granulocytes, macrophages, and mixed granulocyte-macrophage colonies from bone marrow cells and can stimulate the formation of eosinophil colonies from fetal liver progenitor cells. GM-CSF can also stimulate some functional activities in mature granulocytes and macrophages.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
Inbred C3H mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to maintain a high degree of genetic uniformity and share specific genetic characteristics, including susceptibility to certain diseases, which makes them valuable for biomedical research purposes.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.

Non-serum-dependent chemotactic factors produced by Candida albicans stimulate chemotaxis by binding to the formyl peptide receptor on neutrophils and to an unknown receptor on macrophages. (1/1836)

Serum-free culture filtrates of six Candida species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were found to contain chemoattractants for human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and a mouse macrophage-like cell line, J774. The chemotactic factors differed for the PMN and J774 cells, however, in terms of heat stability, kinetics of liberation by the yeast cells, and divalent cation requirements for production. The chemoattractant in Candida albicans culture filtrates appeared to act through the formyl peptide receptor (FPR) of PMNs, since it was found to induce chemotaxis of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells that were expressing the human FPR but did not induce chemotaxis of wild-type CHO cells. The C. albicans culture filtrates also induced migration of PMNs across confluent monolayers of a human gastrointestinal epithelial cell line, T84; migration occurred in the basolateral-to-apical direction but not the reverse direction, unless the epithelial tight junctions were disrupted. J774 cells did not migrate toward the formylated peptide (fMet-Leu-Phe; fMLF), and chemotaxis toward the C. albicans culture filtrate was not inhibited by an FPR antagonist (t-butoxycarbonyl-Met-Leu-Phe), suggesting that a different receptor mediated J774 cell chemotaxis. In conclusion, we have identified a receptor by which a non-serum-dependent chemotactic factor (NSCF) produced by C. albicans induced chemotaxis of PMNs. Additionally, we have shown that NSCF was active across epithelial monolayers. These findings suggest that NSCFs produced by C. albicans and other yeast species may influence host-pathogen interactions at the gastrointestinal tract mucosal surface by inducing phagocytic-cell infiltration.  (+info)

Acetyl-CoA:1-O-alkyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine acetyltransferase is directly activated by p38 kinase. (2/1836)

Acetyl-CoA:1-O-alkyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine acetyltransferase, along with phospholipase A2, is a key regulator of platelet-activating factor biosynthesis via the remodeling pathway. We have now obtained evidence in human neutrophils indicating that this enzyme is regulated by a specific member of the mitogen-activated protein kinases, namely the p38 kinase. We earlier demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) as well as N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine treatment leads to increased phosphorylation and activation of p38 kinase in human neutrophils. Strikingly, in the present study these stimuli increased the catalytic activity of acetyltransferase up to 3-fold, whereas 4-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, which activates the extracellular-regulated kinases (ERKs) but not p38 kinase, had no effect. Furthermore, a selective inhibitor of p38 kinase, SB 203580, was able to abolish the TNF-alpha- and N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine-induced activation of acetyltransferase. The same effect was not observed in the presence of an inhibitor that blocked ERK activation (PD 98059). Complementing the findings in intact cells, we have shown that recombinant, activated p38 kinase added to microsomes in the presence of Mg2+ and ATP increased acetyltransferase activity to the same degree as in microsomes obtained from TNF-alpha-stimulated cells. No activation of acetyltransferase occurred upon treatment of microsomes with either recombinant, activated ERK-1 or ERK-2. Finally, the increases in acetyltransferase activity induced by TNF-alpha could be ablated by treating the microsomes with alkaline phosphatase. Thus acetyltransferase appears to be a downstream target for p38 kinase but not ERKs. These data from whole cells as well as cell-free systems fit a model wherein stimulus-induced acetyltransferase activation is mediated by a phosphorylation event catalyzed directly by p38 kinase.  (+info)

Isolation of novel GRO genes and a phylogenetic analysis of the CXC chemokine subfamily in mammals. (3/1836)

Approximately 15 different alpha, or CXC, chemokines have thus far been isolated from 11 species of mammals. Among the best studied chemokines are the 12 human proteins that are encoded by 11 paralogous genes. In order to better understand the evolution and function of this group of genes, we isolated and characterized six novel GRO and GRO-related cDNA sequences from the cow (Bos taurus), the sheep (Ovis aries), the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), and the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus). The amino acid sequence of the diverged guinea pig GRO or KC gene is only 50%-60% similar to presumed orthologs from other species, while the sheep and cow GRO proteins are 90%-99% similar to each other. The presence of multiple GRO genes in the cow, the rabbit, and the sheep is consistent with what has been observed for humans. Phylogenetic analyses of amino acid sequences from 44 proteins indicate that genes orthologous to many of the 11 known from humans exist in other species. One such gene, interleukin 8, or IL8, has been isolated from nine species, including the rodent guinea pig; however, this gene is absent in the rat and the mouse, indicating a unique gene loss event in the rat/mouse (muroid rodent) lineage. The KC (or MIP2) gene of rodents appears to be orthologous to the GRO gene found in other taxonomic orders. Combined evidence from different sources suggests that IP10 and MIG share sister taxon relationships on the evolutionary tree, while the remaining paralogous genes represent independent lineages, with limited evidence for kinship between them. This observation indicates that these genes originated nearly contemporaneously via a series of gene duplication events. Relative-rate tests for synonymous and nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions in the KC and IL8 genes did not detect rate heterogeneity; however, there are several notable features regarding the IL8 genes. For example, the IL8 proteins from two Old World monkeys are as similar to one another as they are to the IL8 protein from humans, and all observed nucleotide differences between the IL8 genes of the two monkeys cause amino acid changes; in other words, there are no synonymous differences between them.  (+info)

Car: a cytoplasmic sensor responsible for arginine chemotaxis in the archaeon Halobacterium salinarum. (4/1836)

A new metabolic signaling pathway for arginine, both a chemoeffector and a fermentative energy source, is described for Halobacterium salinarum. Systematic screening of 80+ potentially chemotactic compounds with two behavioral assays identified leucine, isoleucine, valine, methionine, cysteine, arginine and several peptides as strong chemoattractants. Deletion analysis of a number of potential halobacterial transducer genes led to the identification of Car, a specific cytoplasmic arginine transducer which lacks transmembrane helices and was biochemically shown to be localized in the cytoplasm. Flow assays were used to show specific adaptive responses to arginine and ornithine in wild-type but not Deltacar cells, demonstrating the role of Car in sensing arginine. The signaling pathway from external arginine to the flagellar motor of the cell involves an arginine:ornithine antiporter which was quantitatively characterized for its transport kinetics and inhibitors. By compiling the chemotactic behavior, the adaptive responses and the characteristics of the arginine:ornithine antiporter to arginine and its analogs, we now understand how the combination of arginine uptake and its metabolic conversion is required to build an effective sensing system. In both bacteria and the archaea this is the first chemoeffector molecule of a soluble methylatable transducer to be identified.  (+info)

Rho-kinase in human neutrophils: a role in signalling for myosin light chain phosphorylation and cell migration. (5/1836)

The role of a Rho-associated coiled-coil forming kinase in migration of neutrophils has been investigated. Rho-associated coiled-coil forming kinase I was expressed in human neutrophils. Chemotactic peptide led to a Rho-associated coiled-coil forming kinase-dependent increase in phosphorylation of myosin light chain. This was determined with the help of an antibody directed against serine 19-phosphorylated myosin light chain and an inhibitor of Rho-associated coiled-coil forming kinase (Y-27632). Y-27632 suppressed myosin light chain phosphorylation and chemotactic peptide-induced development of cell polarity and locomotion with similar potency (ED50 0.5-1.1 microM). The data strongly suggest that a Rho-associated coiled-coil forming kinase isoform, activated in human neutrophils exposed to chemotactic peptide, is important for motile functions of these cells.  (+info)

Chemotactic, mitogenic, and angiogenic actions of UTP on vascular endothelial cells. (6/1836)

Endothelial cells express receptors for ATP and UTP, and both UTP and ATP elicit endothelial release of vasoactive compounds such as prostacyclin and nitric oxide; however, the distinction between purine and pyrimidine nucleotide signaling is not known. We hypothesized that UTP plays a more important role in endothelial mitogenesis and chemotaxis than does ATP and that UTP is angiogenic. In cultured endothelial cells from guinea pig cardiac vasculature (CEC), both UTP and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were significant mitogenic and chemotactic factors; in contrast, ATP demonstrated no significant chemotaxis in CEC. In chick chorioallantoic membranes (CAM), UTP and VEGF treatments produced statistically significant increases in CAM vascularity compared with controls. These findings are the first evidence of chemotactic or angiogenic effects of pyrimidines; they suggest a role for pyrimidine nucleotides that is distinct from those assumed by purine nucleotides and provide for the possibility that UTP serves as an extracellular signal for processes such as endothelial repair and angiogenesis.  (+info)

Deficiency of the hematopoietic cell-specific Rho family GTPase Rac2 is characterized by abnormalities in neutrophil function and host defense. (7/1836)

In mammals, the Rho family GTPase Rac2 is restricted in expression to hematopoietic cells, where it is coexpressed with Rac1. Rac2-deficient mice were created to define the physiological requirement for two near-identical Rac proteins in hematopoietic cells. rac2-/- neutrophils displayed significant defects in chemotaxis, in shear-dependent L-selectin-mediated capture on the endothelial substrate Glycam-1, and in both F-actin generation and p38 and, unexpectedly, p42/p44 MAP kinase activation induced by chemoattractants. Superoxide production by rac2-/- bone marrow neutrophils was significantly reduced compared to wild type, but it was normal in activated peritoneal exudate neutrophils. These defects were reflected in vivo by baseline neutrophilia, reduced inflammatory peritoneal exudate formation, and increased mortality when challenged with Aspergillus fumigatus. Rac2 is an essential regulator of multiple specialized neutrophil functions.  (+info)

A functional granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor is required for normal chemoattractant-induced neutrophil activation. (8/1836)

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a hematopoietic growth factor that is widely used to treat neutropenia. In addition to stimulating polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) production, G-CSF may have significant effects on PMN function. Because G-CSF receptor (G-CSFR)-deficient mice do not have the expected neutrophilia after administration of human interleukin-8 (IL-8), we examined the effect of the loss of G-CSFR on IL-8-stimulated PMN function. Compared with wild-type PMNs, PMNs isolated from G-CSFR-deficient mice demonstrated markedly decreased chemotaxis to IL-8. PMN emigration into the skin of G-CSFR-deficient mice in response to IL-8 was also impaired. Significant chemotaxis defects were also seen in response to N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, zymosan-activated serum, or macrophage inflammatory protein-2. The defective chemotactic response to IL-8 does not appear to be due to impaired chemoattractant receptor function, as the number of IL-8 receptors and chemoattractant-induced calcium influx, actin polymerization, and release of gelatinase B were comparable to those of wild-type PMNs. Chemoattractant-induced adhesion of G-CSFR-deficient PMNs was significantly impaired, suggesting a defect in beta2-integrin activation. Collectively, these data demonstrate that selective defects in PMN activation are present in G-CSFR-deficient mice and indicate that G-CSF plays an important role in regulating PMN chemokine responsiveness.  (+info)

Chemotactic factors are substances that attract or repel cells, particularly immune cells, by stimulating directional movement in response to a chemical gradient. These factors play a crucial role in the body's immune response and inflammation process. They include:

1. Chemokines: A family of small signaling proteins that direct the migration of immune cells to sites of infection or tissue damage.
2. Cytokines: A broad category of signaling molecules that mediate and regulate immunity, inflammation, and hematopoiesis. Some cytokines can also act as chemotactic factors.
3. Complement components: Cleavage products of the complement system can attract immune cells to the site of infection or tissue injury.
4. Growth factors: Certain growth factors, like colony-stimulating factors (CSFs), can stimulate the migration and proliferation of specific cell types.
5. Lipid mediators: Products derived from arachidonic acid metabolism, such as leukotrienes and prostaglandins, can also act as chemotactic factors.
6. Formyl peptides: Bacterial-derived formylated peptides can attract and activate neutrophils during an infection.
7. Extracellular matrix (ECM) components: Fragments of ECM proteins, like collagen and fibronectin, can serve as chemotactic factors for immune cells.

These factors help orchestrate the immune response by guiding the movement of immune cells to specific locations in the body where they are needed.

Chemotaxis, Leukocyte is the movement of leukocytes (white blood cells) towards a higher concentration of a particular chemical substance, known as a chemotactic factor. This process plays a crucial role in the immune system's response to infection and injury.

When there is an infection or tissue damage, certain cells release chemotactic factors, which are small molecules or proteins that can attract leukocytes to the site of inflammation. Leukocytes have receptors on their surface that can detect these chemotactic factors and move towards them through a process called chemotaxis.

Once they reach the site of inflammation, leukocytes can help eliminate pathogens or damaged cells by phagocytosis (engulfing and destroying) or releasing toxic substances that kill the invading microorganisms. Chemotaxis is an essential part of the immune system's defense mechanisms and helps to maintain tissue homeostasis and prevent the spread of infection.

Complement C5 is a protein that plays a crucial role in the complement system, which is a part of the immune system that helps to eliminate pathogens and damaged cells from the body. The complement system is a complex series of biochemical reactions that help to identify and destroy foreign substances, such as bacteria and viruses.

Complement C5 is one of several proteins in the complement system that are activated in a cascading manner in response to an activating event, such as the binding of an antibody to a pathogen. Once activated, Complement C5 can be cleaved into two smaller proteins, C5a and C5b.

C5a is a powerful anaphylatoxin, which means it can cause the release of histamine from mast cells and basophils, leading to inflammation and increased vascular permeability. It also acts as a chemoattractant, drawing immune cells to the site of infection or injury.

C5b, on the other hand, plays a role in the formation of the membrane attack complex (MAC), which is a protein structure that can punch holes in the membranes of pathogens, leading to their lysis and destruction.

Overall, Complement C5 is an important component of the immune system's response to infection and injury, helping to eliminate pathogens and damaged cells from the body.

Chemotactic factors are substances that attract and guide cells, particularly immune cells, to specific locations in the body. Eosinophils are a type of white blood cell that play a role in the immune response, particularly against parasites and in allergic reactions. Therefore, chemotactic factors for eosinophils are substances that attract eosinophils to specific sites in the body.

These factors can be produced by various cells, including mast cells, basophils, and T-lymphocytes, in response to an infection or inflammation. They work by binding to receptors on the surface of eosinophils and activating signaling pathways that cause the eosinophils to migrate towards the source of the chemotactic factor.

Examples of chemotactic factors for eosinophils include:

1. Eotaxins: These are a group of chemokines (a type of signaling protein) that specifically attract eosinophils. They are produced by various cells, including endothelial cells, epithelial cells, and immune cells.
2. Leukotrienes: These are lipid mediators produced by mast cells and basophils in response to an allergic reaction or infection. They can attract eosinophils to the site of inflammation.
3. Platelet-activating factor (PAF): This is a lipid mediator produced by various cells, including endothelial cells and immune cells. It can attract eosinophils and activate them, leading to degranulation and release of their contents.
4. Complement components: The complement system is a group of proteins that play a role in the immune response. Some complement components, such as C3a and C5a, can act as chemotactic factors for eosinophils.

Overall, chemotactic factors for eosinophils play an important role in the immune response by recruiting these cells to sites of infection or inflammation. However, excessive activation of eosinophils and production of chemotactic factors can contribute to the development of various diseases, such as asthma and allergies.

Neutrophils are a type of white blood cell that are part of the immune system's response to infection. They are produced in the bone marrow and released into the bloodstream where they circulate and are able to move quickly to sites of infection or inflammation in the body. Neutrophils are capable of engulfing and destroying bacteria, viruses, and other foreign substances through a process called phagocytosis. They are also involved in the release of inflammatory mediators, which can contribute to tissue damage in some cases. Neutrophils are characterized by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm, which contain enzymes and other proteins that help them carry out their immune functions.

Chemotaxis is a term used in biology and medicine to describe the movement of an organism or cell towards or away from a chemical stimulus. This process plays a crucial role in various biological phenomena, including immune responses, wound healing, and the development and progression of diseases such as cancer.

In chemotaxis, cells can detect and respond to changes in the concentration of specific chemicals, known as chemoattractants or chemorepellents, in their environment. These chemicals bind to receptors on the cell surface, triggering a series of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to changes in the cytoskeleton and directed movement of the cell towards or away from the chemical gradient.

For example, during an immune response, white blood cells called neutrophils use chemotaxis to migrate towards sites of infection or inflammation, where they can attack and destroy invading pathogens. Similarly, cancer cells can use chemotaxis to migrate towards blood vessels and metastasize to other parts of the body.

Understanding chemotaxis is important for developing new therapies and treatments for a variety of diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and inflammatory disorders.

N-Formylmethionine (fMet) is not a medical term per se, but rather a biochemical term. It is the formylated derivative of methionine, which is one of the twenty standard amino acids, and it plays a crucial role in the initiation of protein synthesis in prokaryotes and organelles of eukaryotic cells, such as mitochondria and chloroplasts.

In the context of medical research or clinical laboratory reports, you might encounter fMet in relation to bacterial infections, proteomics, or mitochondrial function. For example, formylated methionine residues on bacterial peptides can stimulate immune responses and are recognized by specific receptors on human immune cells, which can have implications for understanding infectious diseases and inflammation.

To provide a concise definition:
N-Formylmethionine (fMet) is the formylated derivative of methionine, primarily known for its role as the initiator amino acid in protein synthesis in prokaryotes and certain organelles of eukaryotic cells.

N-Formylmethionine Leucyl-Phenylalanine (fMLP) is not a medical condition, but rather a synthetic peptide that is often used in laboratory settings for research purposes. It is a formylated methionine residue linked to a leucine and phenylalanine tripeptide.

fMLP is a potent chemoattractant for certain types of white blood cells, including neutrophils and monocytes. When these cells encounter fMLP, they are stimulated to migrate towards the source of the peptide and release various inflammatory mediators. As such, fMLP is often used in studies of inflammation, immune cell function, and signal transduction pathways.

It's important to note that while fMLP has important research applications, it is not a substance that would be encountered or used in clinical medicine.

Complement C5a is a protein fragment that is generated during the activation of the complement system, which is a part of the immune system. The complement system helps to eliminate pathogens and damaged cells from the body by tagging them for destruction and attracting immune cells to the site of infection or injury.

C5a is formed when the fifth component of the complement system (C5) is cleaved into two smaller fragments, C5a and C5b, during the complement activation cascade. C5a is a potent pro-inflammatory mediator that can attract and activate various immune cells, such as neutrophils, monocytes, and eosinophils, to the site of infection or injury. It can also increase vascular permeability, promote the release of histamine, and induce the production of reactive oxygen species, all of which contribute to the inflammatory response.

However, excessive or uncontrolled activation of the complement system and generation of C5a can lead to tissue damage and inflammation, contributing to the pathogenesis of various diseases, such as sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and autoimmune disorders. Therefore, targeting C5a or its receptors has been explored as a potential therapeutic strategy for these conditions.

Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a type of cytokine, which is a small signaling protein involved in immune response and inflammation. IL-8 is also known as neutrophil chemotactic factor or NCF because it attracts neutrophils, a type of white blood cell, to the site of infection or injury.

IL-8 is produced by various cells including macrophages, epithelial cells, and endothelial cells in response to bacterial or inflammatory stimuli. It acts by binding to specific receptors called CXCR1 and CXCR2 on the surface of neutrophils, which triggers a series of intracellular signaling events leading to neutrophil activation, migration, and degranulation.

IL-8 plays an important role in the recruitment of neutrophils to the site of infection or tissue damage, where they can phagocytose and destroy invading microorganisms. However, excessive or prolonged production of IL-8 has been implicated in various inflammatory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Carcinoma 256, Walker" is not a recognized medical term or diagnosis. It seems that this term may be a misnomer or a typographical error. If you are referring to a specific type of carcinoma or a medical case report by Walker, could you please provide more context or clarify the term? I would be happy to help you with accurate and reliable medical information once I understand your question better.

A carcinoma is a type of cancer that begins in the cells that line various internal and external body surfaces, including organs, glands, and skin. If you are looking for general information about carcinomas or have any other medical questions, please feel free to ask!

Chemokines are a family of small signaling proteins that are involved in immune regulation and inflammation. They exert their effects by binding to specific G protein-coupled receptors on the surface of target cells, leading to various cellular responses such as chemotaxis (directed migration) of leukocytes (white blood cells).

The "C" designation in "Chemokines, C" refers to a subfamily of chemokines that share a specific pattern of cysteine residues in their amino acid sequence. Specifically, the first two cysteines in the N-terminal region are separated by one amino acid, which is different from other chemokine subfamilies.

Chemokines, C can be further divided into two major groups based on the presence or absence of an ELR (glutamic acid-leucine-arginine) motif before the first cysteine residue:

* ELR+ chemokines, which have the ELR motif and are generally involved in neutrophil recruitment.
* ELR- chemokines, which lack the ELR motif and are typically involved in lymphocyte migration.

Examples of ELR+ Chemokines, C include CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, CXCL5, CXCL6, and CXCL8 (also known as IL-8). Examples of ELR- Chemokines, C include CXCL4, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, CXCL12, CXCL13, and CXCL16.

Chemokines, C play important roles in various physiological and pathological processes, including development, tissue homeostasis, inflammation, immune response, angiogenesis, and cancer progression. Dysregulation of chemokine signaling has been implicated in a variety of diseases, such as autoimmune disorders, infections, and malignancies.

Eosinophils are a type of white blood cell that play an important role in the body's immune response. They are produced in the bone marrow and released into the bloodstream, where they can travel to different tissues and organs throughout the body. Eosinophils are characterized by their granules, which contain various proteins and enzymes that are toxic to parasites and can contribute to inflammation.

Eosinophils are typically associated with allergic reactions, asthma, and other inflammatory conditions. They can also be involved in the body's response to certain infections, particularly those caused by parasites such as worms. In some cases, elevated levels of eosinophils in the blood or tissues (a condition called eosinophilia) can indicate an underlying medical condition, such as a parasitic infection, autoimmune disorder, or cancer.

Eosinophils are named for their staining properties - they readily take up eosin dye, which is why they appear pink or red under the microscope. They make up only about 1-6% of circulating white blood cells in healthy individuals, but their numbers can increase significantly in response to certain triggers.

Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is a type of lipid mediator called eicosanoid, which is derived from arachidonic acid through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. It is primarily produced by neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, and macrophages in response to various stimuli such as infection, inflammation, or injury. LTB4 acts as a potent chemoattractant and activator of these immune cells, playing a crucial role in the recruitment and activation of neutrophils during acute inflammatory responses. It also enhances the adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial cells, contributing to the development of tissue damage and edema. Dysregulation of LTB4 production has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including asthma, atherosclerosis, and cancer.

Anaphylatoxins are a group of small protein molecules that are released during an immune response, specifically as a result of the activation of the complement system. The term "anaphylatoxin" comes from their ability to induce anaphylaxis, a severe and rapid allergic reaction. There are three main anaphylatoxins, known as C3a, C4a, and C5a, which are derived from the cleavage of complement components C3, C4, and C5, respectively.

Anaphylatoxins play a crucial role in the immune response by attracting and activating various immune cells, such as neutrophils, eosinophils, and mast cells, to the site of infection or injury. They also increase vascular permeability, causing fluid to leak out of blood vessels and leading to tissue swelling. Additionally, anaphylatoxins can induce smooth muscle contraction, which can result in bronchoconstriction and hypotension.

While anaphylatoxins are important for the immune response, they can also contribute to the pathogenesis of various inflammatory diseases, such as asthma, arthritis, and sepsis. Therefore, therapies that target the complement system and anaphylatoxin production have been developed and are being investigated as potential treatments for these conditions.

Cytochalasin B is a fungal metabolite that inhibits actin polymerization in cells, which can disrupt the cytoskeleton and affect various cellular processes such as cell division and motility. It is often used in research to study actin dynamics and cell shape.

Monocytes are a type of white blood cell that are part of the immune system. They are large cells with a round or oval shape and a nucleus that is typically indented or horseshoe-shaped. Monocytes are produced in the bone marrow and then circulate in the bloodstream, where they can differentiate into other types of immune cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells.

Monocytes play an important role in the body's defense against infection and tissue damage. They are able to engulf and digest foreign particles, microorganisms, and dead or damaged cells, which helps to clear them from the body. Monocytes also produce cytokines, which are signaling molecules that help to coordinate the immune response.

Elevated levels of monocytes in the bloodstream can be a sign of an ongoing infection, inflammation, or other medical conditions such as cancer or autoimmune disorders.

Zymosan is a type of substance that is derived from the cell walls of yeast and some types of fungi. It's often used in laboratory research as an agent to stimulate inflammation, because it can activate certain immune cells (such as neutrophils) and cause them to release pro-inflammatory chemicals.

In medical terms, Zymosan is sometimes used as a tool for studying the immune system and inflammation in experimental settings. It's important to note that Zymosan itself is not a medical condition or disease, but rather a research reagent with potential applications in understanding human health and disease.

Leukocytes, also known as white blood cells (WBCs), are a crucial component of the human immune system. They are responsible for protecting the body against infections and foreign substances. Leukocytes are produced in the bone marrow and circulate throughout the body in the bloodstream and lymphatic system.

There are several types of leukocytes, including:

1. Neutrophils - These are the most abundant type of leukocyte and are primarily responsible for fighting bacterial infections. They contain enzymes that can destroy bacteria.
2. Lymphocytes - These are responsible for producing antibodies and destroying virus-infected cells, as well as cancer cells. There are two main types of lymphocytes: B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes.
3. Monocytes - These are the largest type of leukocyte and help to break down and remove dead or damaged tissues, as well as microorganisms.
4. Eosinophils - These play a role in fighting parasitic infections and are also involved in allergic reactions and inflammation.
5. Basophils - These release histamine and other chemicals that cause inflammation in response to allergens or irritants.

An abnormal increase or decrease in the number of leukocytes can indicate an underlying medical condition, such as an infection, inflammation, or a blood disorder.

The complement system is a group of proteins found in the blood and on the surface of cells that when activated, work together to help eliminate pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi from the body. The proteins are normally inactive in the bloodstream. When they encounter an invading microorganism or foreign substance, a series of reactions take place leading to the activation of the complement system. Activation results in the production of effector molecules that can punch holes in the cell membranes of pathogens, recruit and activate immune cells, and help remove debris and dead cells from the body.

There are three main pathways that can lead to complement activation: the classical pathway, the lectin pathway, and the alternative pathway. Each pathway involves a series of proteins that work together in a cascade-like manner to amplify the response and generate effector molecules. The three main effector molecules produced by the complement system are C3b, C4b, and C5b. These molecules can bind to the surface of pathogens, marking them for destruction by other immune cells.

Complement proteins also play a role in the regulation of the immune response. They help to prevent excessive activation of the complement system, which could damage host tissues. Dysregulation of the complement system has been implicated in a number of diseases, including autoimmune disorders and inflammatory conditions.

In summary, Complement System Proteins are a group of proteins that play a crucial role in the immune response by helping to eliminate pathogens and regulate the immune response. They can be activated through three different pathways, leading to the production of effector molecules that mark pathogens for destruction. Dysregulation of the complement system has been linked to various diseases.

Isethionic acid is not typically considered a medical term, but it does have relevance in the field of pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. It's a chemical compound with the formula CH2CH2SO3H. Here's a definition related to its chemical and industrial uses:

Isethionic acid is an organic compound that serves as a detergent, surfactant, and pH adjuster in various pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and cleaning formulations. It is a type of carboxylic acid that contains a sulfonate group, making it a zwitterion at neutral pH. This property imparts excellent water solubility and mildness to isethionic acid and its salts, which are often used as alternatives to sulfates in personal care products.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

Oligopeptides are defined in medicine and biochemistry as short chains of amino acids, typically containing fewer than 20 amino acid residues. These small peptides are important components in various biological processes, such as serving as signaling molecules, enzyme inhibitors, or structural elements in some proteins. They can be found naturally in foods and may also be synthesized for use in medical research and therapeutic applications.

Cell movement, also known as cell motility, refers to the ability of cells to move independently and change their location within tissue or inside the body. This process is essential for various biological functions, including embryonic development, wound healing, immune responses, and cancer metastasis.

There are several types of cell movement, including:

1. **Crawling or mesenchymal migration:** Cells move by extending and retracting protrusions called pseudopodia or filopodia, which contain actin filaments. This type of movement is common in fibroblasts, immune cells, and cancer cells during tissue invasion and metastasis.
2. **Amoeboid migration:** Cells move by changing their shape and squeezing through tight spaces without forming protrusions. This type of movement is often observed in white blood cells (leukocytes) as they migrate through the body to fight infections.
3. **Pseudopodial extension:** Cells extend pseudopodia, which are temporary cytoplasmic projections containing actin filaments. These protrusions help the cell explore its environment and move forward.
4. **Bacterial flagellar motion:** Bacteria use a whip-like structure called a flagellum to propel themselves through their environment. The rotation of the flagellum is driven by a molecular motor in the bacterial cell membrane.
5. **Ciliary and ependymal movement:** Ciliated cells, such as those lining the respiratory tract and fallopian tubes, have hair-like structures called cilia that beat in coordinated waves to move fluids or mucus across the cell surface.

Cell movement is regulated by a complex interplay of signaling pathways, cytoskeletal rearrangements, and adhesion molecules, which enable cells to respond to environmental cues and navigate through tissues.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Exudates and transudates are two types of bodily fluids that can accumulate in various body cavities or tissues as a result of injury, inflammation, or other medical conditions. Here are the medical definitions:

1. Exudates: These are fluids that accumulate due to an active inflammatory process. Exudates contain high levels of protein, white blood cells (such as neutrophils and macrophages), and sometimes other cells like red blood cells or cellular debris. They can be yellow, green, or brown in color and may have a foul odor due to the presence of dead cells and bacteria. Exudates are often seen in conditions such as abscesses, pneumonia, pleurisy, or wound infections.

Examples of exudative fluids include pus, purulent discharge, or inflammatory effusions.

2. Transudates: These are fluids that accumulate due to increased hydrostatic pressure or decreased oncotic pressure within the blood vessels. Transudates contain low levels of protein and cells compared to exudates. They are typically clear and pale yellow in color, with no odor. Transudates can be found in conditions such as congestive heart failure, liver cirrhosis, or nephrotic syndrome.

Examples of transudative fluids include ascites, pleural effusions, or pericardial effusions.

It is essential to differentiate between exudates and transudates because their underlying causes and treatment approaches may differ significantly. Medical professionals often use various tests, such as fluid analysis, to determine whether a fluid sample is an exudate or transudate.

Monocyte chemoattractant proteins (MCPs) are a group of chemokines, which are small signaling proteins that attract immune cells to sites of infection or inflammation. Specifically, MCPs are responsible for recruiting monocytes and other immune cells to areas of tissue damage or infection.

There are several subtypes of MCPs, including MCP-1 (CCL2), MCP-2 (CCL8), MCP-3 (CCL7), and MCP-4 (CCL13). These proteins bind to specific receptors on the surface of monocytes and other immune cells, triggering a series of intracellular signaling events that result in cell migration towards the site of injury or infection.

MCPs play an important role in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer. For example, elevated levels of MCP-1 have been associated with increased monocyte recruitment to the arterial wall, leading to the formation of plaques that can cause heart attacks and strokes. Similarly, high levels of MCPs have been found in the synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, contributing to joint inflammation and damage.

Overall, Monocyte chemoattractant proteins are crucial components of the immune system's response to injury and infection, but their dysregulation can contribute to the development of various diseases.

I must clarify that the term "Guinea Pigs" is not typically used in medical definitions. However, in colloquial or informal language, it may refer to people who are used as the first to try out a new medical treatment or drug. This is known as being a "test subject" or "in a clinical trial."

In the field of scientific research, particularly in studies involving animals, guinea pigs are small rodents that are often used as experimental subjects due to their size, cost-effectiveness, and ease of handling. They are not actually pigs from Guinea, despite their name's origins being unclear. However, they do not exactly fit the description of being used in human medical experiments.

Macrophages are a type of white blood cell that are an essential part of the immune system. They are large, specialized cells that engulf and destroy foreign substances, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi, as well as damaged or dead cells. Macrophages are found throughout the body, including in the bloodstream, lymph nodes, spleen, liver, lungs, and connective tissues. They play a critical role in inflammation, immune response, and tissue repair and remodeling.

Macrophages originate from monocytes, which are a type of white blood cell produced in the bone marrow. When monocytes enter the tissues, they differentiate into macrophages, which have a larger size and more specialized functions than monocytes. Macrophages can change their shape and move through tissues to reach sites of infection or injury. They also produce cytokines, chemokines, and other signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response and recruit other immune cells to the site of infection or injury.

Macrophages have a variety of surface receptors that allow them to recognize and respond to different types of foreign substances and signals from other cells. They can engulf and digest foreign particles, bacteria, and viruses through a process called phagocytosis. Macrophages also play a role in presenting antigens to T cells, which are another type of immune cell that helps coordinate the immune response.

Overall, macrophages are crucial for maintaining tissue homeostasis, defending against infection, and promoting wound healing and tissue repair. Dysregulation of macrophage function has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and chronic inflammatory conditions.

Esterases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds in esters, producing alcohols and carboxylic acids. They are widely distributed in plants, animals, and microorganisms and play important roles in various biological processes, such as metabolism, digestion, and detoxification.

Esterases can be classified into several types based on their substrate specificity, including carboxylesterases, cholinesterases, lipases, and phosphatases. These enzymes have different structures and mechanisms of action but all share the ability to hydrolyze esters.

Carboxylesterases are the most abundant and diverse group of esterases, with a wide range of substrate specificity. They play important roles in the metabolism of drugs, xenobiotics, and lipids. Cholinesterases, on the other hand, specifically hydrolyze choline esters, such as acetylcholine, which is an important neurotransmitter in the nervous system. Lipases are a type of esterase that preferentially hydrolyzes triglycerides and plays a crucial role in fat digestion and metabolism. Phosphatases are enzymes that remove phosphate groups from various molecules, including esters, and have important functions in signal transduction and other cellular processes.

Esterases can also be used in industrial applications, such as in the production of biodiesel, detergents, and food additives. They are often produced by microbial fermentation or extracted from plants and animals. The use of esterases in biotechnology is an active area of research, with potential applications in biofuel production, bioremediation, and medical diagnostics.

Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2, also known as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), is a small signaling protein that belongs to the chemokine family. Chemokines are a group of cytokines, or regulatory proteins, that play important roles in immune responses and inflammation by recruiting various immune cells to sites of infection or injury.

CCL2 specifically acts as a chemoattractant for monocytes, memory T cells, and dendritic cells, guiding them to migrate towards the source of infection or tissue damage. It does this by binding to its receptor, CCR2, which is expressed on the surface of these immune cells.

CCL2 has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and various cancers, where it contributes to the recruitment of immune cells that can exacerbate tissue damage or promote tumor growth and metastasis. Therefore, targeting CCL2 or its signaling pathways has emerged as a potential therapeutic strategy for these diseases.

Complement receptors are proteins found on the surface of various cells in the human body, including immune cells and some non-immune cells. They play a crucial role in the complement system, which is a part of the innate immune response that helps to eliminate pathogens and damaged cells from the body. Complement receptors bind to complement proteins or fragments that are generated during the activation of the complement system. This binding triggers various intracellular signaling events that can lead to diverse cellular responses, such as phagocytosis, inflammation, and immune regulation.

There are several types of complement receptors, including:

1. CR1 (CD35): A receptor found on erythrocytes, B cells, neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, and glomerular podocytes. It functions in the clearance of immune complexes and regulates complement activation.
2. CR2 (CD21): Expressed mainly on B cells and follicular dendritic cells. It facilitates antigen presentation, B-cell activation, and immune regulation.
3. CR3 (CD11b/CD18, Mac-1): Present on neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, and some T cells. It mediates cell adhesion, phagocytosis, and intracellular signaling.
4. CR4 (CD11c/CD18, p150,95): Expressed on neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. It is involved in cell adhesion, phagocytosis, and intracellular signaling.
5. C5aR (CD88): Found on various immune cells, including neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, mast cells, eosinophils, and dendritic cells. It binds to the complement protein C5a and mediates chemotaxis, degranulation, and inflammation.
6. C5L2 (GPR77): Present on various cell types, including immune cells. Its function is not well understood but may involve regulating C5a-mediated responses or acting as a receptor for other ligands.

These receptors play crucial roles in the immune response and inflammation by mediating various functions such as chemotaxis, phagocytosis, cell adhesion, and intracellular signaling. Dysregulation of these receptors has been implicated in several diseases, including autoimmune disorders, infections, and cancer.

Cell biology is the branch of biology that deals with the study of cells, which are the basic units of life. It involves understanding the structure, function, and behavior of cells, as well as their interactions with one another and with their environment. Cell biologists may study various aspects of cellular processes, such as cell growth and division, metabolism, gene expression, signal transduction, and intracellular transport. They use a variety of techniques, including microscopy, biochemistry, genetics, and molecular biology, to investigate the complex and dynamic world inside cells. The ultimate goal of cell biology is to gain a deeper understanding of how cells work, which can have important implications for human health and disease.

Blood protein electrophoresis (BPE) is a laboratory test that separates and measures the different proteins in the blood, such as albumin, alpha-1 globulins, alpha-2 globulins, beta globulins, and gamma globulins. This test is often used to help diagnose or monitor conditions related to abnormal protein levels, such as multiple myeloma, macroglobulinemia, and other plasma cell disorders.

In this test, a sample of the patient's blood is placed on a special gel and an electric current is applied. The proteins in the blood migrate through the gel based on their electrical charge and size, creating bands that can be visualized and measured. By comparing the band patterns to reference ranges, doctors can identify any abnormal protein levels or ratios, which may indicate underlying medical conditions.

It's important to note that while BPE is a useful diagnostic tool, it should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical findings and laboratory tests for accurate diagnosis and management of the patient's condition.

Pheniramine is an antihistamine drug that works by blocking the action of histamine, a substance in the body that causes allergic symptoms. It is used to relieve or prevent symptoms of hay fever and other allergies such as rash, itching, watery eyes, and runny nose. Pheniramine may also be used to treat motion sickness and to help with sleep before surgery.

It's important to note that pheniramine can cause drowsiness, so it should not be taken with alcohol or other drugs that may also cause drowsiness. It is also recommended to consult a healthcare professional before taking this medication, especially for children under 2 years old and people with certain medical conditions such as glaucoma, enlarged prostate, and difficulty urinating.

Formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) are a type of G protein-coupled receptors that play a crucial role in the innate immune system. They are expressed on various cells including neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages. FPRs recognize and respond to formylated peptides derived from bacteria, mitochondria, and host proteins during cell damage or stress. Activation of FPRs triggers a variety of cellular responses, such as chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and release of inflammatory mediators, which help to eliminate invading pathogens and promote tissue repair. There are three subtypes of human FPRs (FPR1, FPR2, and FPR3) that have distinct ligand specificities and functions in the immune response.

Chemokines are a family of small signaling proteins that are involved in immune regulation and inflammation. They mediate their effects by interacting with specific cell surface receptors, leading to the activation and migration of various types of immune cells. Chemokines can be divided into four subfamilies based on the arrangement of conserved cysteine residues near the N-terminus: CXC, CC, C, and CX3C.

CXC chemokines are characterized by the presence of a single amino acid (X) between the first two conserved cysteine residues. They play important roles in the recruitment and activation of neutrophils, which are critical effector cells in the early stages of inflammation. CXC chemokines can be further divided into two subgroups based on the presence or absence of a specific amino acid sequence (ELR motif) near the N-terminus: ELR+ and ELR-.

ELR+ CXC chemokines, such as IL-8, are potent chemoattractants for neutrophils and play important roles in the recruitment of these cells to sites of infection or injury. They bind to and activate the CXCR1 and CXCR2 receptors on the surface of neutrophils, leading to their migration towards the source of the chemokine.

ELR- CXC chemokines, such as IP-10 and MIG, are involved in the recruitment of T cells and other immune cells to sites of inflammation. They bind to and activate different receptors, such as CXCR3, on the surface of these cells, leading to their migration towards the source of the chemokine.

Overall, CXC chemokines play important roles in the regulation of immune responses and inflammation, and dysregulation of their expression or activity has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases.

Ascitic fluid is defined as the abnormal accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity, which is the space between the two layers of the peritoneum, a serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and covers the abdominal organs. This buildup of fluid, also known as ascites, can be caused by various medical conditions such as liver cirrhosis, cancer, heart failure, or infection. The fluid itself is typically straw-colored and clear, but it may also contain cells, proteins, and other substances depending on the underlying cause. Analysis of ascitic fluid can help doctors diagnose and manage the underlying condition causing the accumulation of fluid.

Anaphylaxis is a severe, life-threatening systemic allergic reaction that occurs suddenly after exposure to an allergen (a substance that triggers an allergic reaction) to which the person has previously been sensitized. The symptoms of anaphylaxis include rapid onset of symptoms such as itching, hives, swelling of the throat and tongue, difficulty breathing, wheezing, cough, chest tightness, rapid heartbeat, hypotension (low blood pressure), shock, and in severe cases, loss of consciousness and death. Anaphylaxis is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment with epinephrine (adrenaline) and other supportive measures to stabilize the patient's condition.

Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a type of cytokine, which are proteins that play a crucial role in cell signaling. Specifically, IL-1 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that is involved in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses in the body. It is produced by various cells, including monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, in response to infection or injury.

IL-1 exists in two forms, IL-1α and IL-1β, which have similar biological activities but are encoded by different genes. Both forms of IL-1 bind to the same receptor, IL-1R, and activate intracellular signaling pathways that lead to the production of other cytokines, chemokines, and inflammatory mediators.

IL-1 has a wide range of biological effects, including fever induction, activation of immune cells, regulation of hematopoiesis (the formation of blood cells), and modulation of bone metabolism. Dysregulation of IL-1 production or activity has been implicated in various inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, gout, and inflammatory bowel disease. Therefore, IL-1 is an important target for the development of therapies aimed at modulating the immune response and reducing inflammation.

Hexose phosphates are organic compounds that consist of a hexose sugar molecule (a monosaccharide containing six carbon atoms, such as glucose or fructose) that has been phosphorylated, meaning that a phosphate group has been added to it. This process is typically facilitated by enzymes called kinases, which transfer a phosphate group from a donor molecule (usually ATP) to the sugar molecule.

Hexose phosphates play important roles in various metabolic pathways, including glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and the pentose phosphate pathway. For example, glucose-6-phosphate is a key intermediate in both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, while fructose-6-phosphate and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate are important intermediates in glycolysis. The pentose phosphate pathway, which is involved in the production of NADPH and ribose-5-phosphate, begins with the conversion of glucose-6-phosphate to 6-phosphogluconolactone by the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase.

Overall, hexose phosphates are important metabolic intermediates that help regulate energy production and utilization in cells.

Colchicine is a medication that is primarily used to treat gout, a type of arthritis characterized by sudden and severe attacks of pain, swelling, redness, and tenderness in the joints. It works by reducing inflammation and preventing the formation of uric acid crystals that cause gout symptoms.

Colchicine is also used to treat familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), a genetic disorder that causes recurrent fevers and inflammation in the abdomen, chest, and joints. It can help prevent FMF attacks and reduce their severity.

The medication comes in the form of tablets or capsules that are taken by mouth. Common side effects of colchicine include diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. In rare cases, it can cause more serious side effects such as muscle weakness, nerve damage, and bone marrow suppression.

It is important to follow the dosage instructions carefully when taking colchicine, as taking too much of the medication can be toxic. People with certain health conditions, such as liver or kidney disease, may need to take a lower dose or avoid using colchicine altogether.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Gamma-globulins are a type of protein found in the blood serum, specifically a class of immunoglobulins (antibodies) known as IgG. They are the most abundant type of antibody and provide long-term defense against bacterial and viral infections. Gamma-globulins can also be referred to as "gamma globulin" or "gamma immune globulins."

These proteins are produced by B cells, a type of white blood cell, in response to an antigen (a foreign substance that triggers an immune response). IgG gamma-globulins have the ability to cross the placenta and provide passive immunity to the fetus. They can be measured through various medical tests such as serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP) or immunoelectrophoresis, which are used to diagnose and monitor conditions related to immune system disorders, such as multiple myeloma or primary immunodeficiency diseases.

In addition, gamma-globulins can be administered therapeutically in the form of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) to provide passive immunity for patients with immunodeficiencies, autoimmune disorders, or infectious diseases.

The Arthus reaction is a type of localized immune complex-mediated hypersensitivity reaction (type III hypersensitivity). It is named after the French scientist Nicolas Maurice Arthus who first described it in 1903. The reaction occurs when an antigen is injected into the skin or tissues of a sensitized individual, leading to the formation of immune complexes composed of antigens and antibodies (usually IgG). These immune complexes deposit in the small blood vessels, causing complement activation, recruitment of inflammatory cells, and release of mediators that result in tissue damage.

Clinically, an Arthus reaction is characterized by localized signs of inflammation, such as redness, swelling, pain, and warmth at the site of antigen injection. In severe cases, it can lead to necrosis and sloughing of the skin. The Arthus reaction typically occurs within 2-8 hours after antigen exposure and is distinct from immediate hypersensitivity reactions (type I), which occur within minutes of antigen exposure.

The Arthus reaction is often seen in laboratory animals used for antibody production, where repeated injections of antigens can lead to sensitization and subsequent Arthus reactions. In humans, it can occur as a complication of immunizations or diagnostic tests that involve the injection of foreign proteins or drugs. To prevent Arthus reactions, healthcare providers may perform skin testing before administering certain medications or vaccines to assess for preexisting sensitization.

Chemokines are a family of small cytokines, or signaling proteins, that are secreted by cells and play an important role in the immune system. They are chemotactic, meaning they can attract and guide the movement of various immune cells to specific locations within the body. Chemokines do this by binding to G protein-coupled receptors on the surface of target cells, initiating a signaling cascade that leads to cell migration.

There are four main subfamilies of chemokines, classified based on the arrangement of conserved cysteine residues near the amino terminus: CXC, CC, C, and CX3C. Different chemokines have specific roles in inflammation, immune surveillance, hematopoiesis, and development. Dysregulation of chemokine function has been implicated in various diseases, including autoimmune disorders, infections, and cancer.

In summary, Chemokines are a group of signaling proteins that play a crucial role in the immune system by directing the movement of immune cells to specific locations within the body, thus helping to coordinate the immune response.

Togaviridae is a family of single-stranded, enveloped RNA viruses that includes several important pathogens affecting humans and animals. The most well-known member of this family is the genus Alphavirus, which includes viruses such as Chikungunya, Eastern equine encephalitis, Sindbis, O'nyong-nyong, Ross River, and Western equine encephalitis viruses.

Togaviridae infections typically cause symptoms such as fever, rash, arthralgia (joint pain), myalgia (muscle pain), and sometimes more severe manifestations like meningitis or encephalitis, depending on the specific virus and the host's immune status. The transmission of these viruses usually occurs through the bite of infected mosquitoes, although some members of this family can also be transmitted via other arthropod vectors or through contact with infected animals or their bodily fluids.

Prevention strategies for Togaviridae infections include using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and eliminating breeding sites for mosquitoes. Vaccines are available for some members of this family, such as the Eastern and Western equine encephalitis viruses, but not for others like Chikungunya virus. Treatment is generally supportive, focusing on relieving symptoms and managing complications.

Granulocytes are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the body's immune system. They are called granulocytes because they contain small granules in their cytoplasm, which are filled with various enzymes and proteins that help them fight off infections and destroy foreign substances.

There are three types of granulocytes: neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils. Neutrophils are the most abundant type and are primarily responsible for fighting bacterial infections. Eosinophils play a role in defending against parasitic infections and regulating immune responses. Basophils are involved in inflammatory reactions and allergic responses.

Granulocytes are produced in the bone marrow and released into the bloodstream, where they circulate and patrol for any signs of infection or foreign substances. When they encounter a threat, they quickly move to the site of infection or injury and release their granules to destroy the invading organisms or substances.

Abnormal levels of granulocytes in the blood can indicate an underlying medical condition, such as an infection, inflammation, or a bone marrow disorder.

Gel chromatography is a type of liquid chromatography that separates molecules based on their size or molecular weight. It uses a stationary phase that consists of a gel matrix made up of cross-linked polymers, such as dextran, agarose, or polyacrylamide. The gel matrix contains pores of various sizes, which allow smaller molecules to penetrate deeper into the matrix while larger molecules are excluded.

In gel chromatography, a mixture of molecules is loaded onto the top of the gel column and eluted with a solvent that moves down the column by gravity or pressure. As the sample components move down the column, they interact with the gel matrix and get separated based on their size. Smaller molecules can enter the pores of the gel and take longer to elute, while larger molecules are excluded from the pores and elute more quickly.

Gel chromatography is commonly used to separate and purify proteins, nucleic acids, and other biomolecules based on their size and molecular weight. It is also used in the analysis of polymers, colloids, and other materials with a wide range of applications in chemistry, biology, and medicine.

Lymphokines are a type of cytokines that are produced and released by activated lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell, in response to an antigenic stimulation. They play a crucial role in the regulation of immune responses and inflammation. Lymphokines can mediate various biological activities such as chemotaxis, activation, proliferation, and differentiation of different immune cells including lymphocytes, monocytes, macrophages, and eosinophils. Examples of lymphokines include interleukins (ILs), interferons (IFNs), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and colony-stimulating factors (CSFs).

Cell adhesion refers to the binding of cells to extracellular matrices or to other cells, a process that is fundamental to the development, function, and maintenance of multicellular organisms. Cell adhesion is mediated by various cell surface receptors, such as integrins, cadherins, and immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecules (Ig-CAMs), which interact with specific ligands in the extracellular environment. These interactions lead to the formation of specialized junctions, such as tight junctions, adherens junctions, and desmosomes, that help to maintain tissue architecture and regulate various cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival. Disruptions in cell adhesion can contribute to a variety of diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and degenerative disorders.

Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1), also known as growth-regulated oncogene-alpha (GRO-α), is a small signaling protein belonging to the chemokine family. Chemokines are a group of cytokines, or cell signaling molecules, that play important roles in immune responses and inflammation by recruiting immune cells to sites of infection or tissue injury.

CXCL1 specifically binds to and activates the CXCR2 receptor, which is found on various types of immune cells, such as neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes. The activation of the CXCR2 receptor by CXCL1 leads to a series of intracellular signaling events that result in the directed migration of these immune cells towards the site of chemokine production.

CXCL1 is involved in various physiological and pathological processes, including wound healing, angiogenesis, and tumor growth and metastasis. It has been implicated in several inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and atherosclerosis, as well as in cancer progression and metastasis.

Cell aggregation is the process by which individual cells come together and adhere to each other to form a group or cluster. This phenomenon can occur naturally during embryonic development, tissue repair, and wound healing, as well as in the formation of multicellular organisms such as slime molds. In some cases, cell aggregation may also be induced in the laboratory setting through the use of various techniques, including the use of cell culture surfaces that promote cell-to-cell adhesion or the addition of factors that stimulate the expression of adhesion molecules on the cell surface.

Cell aggregation can be influenced by a variety of factors, including the type and properties of the cells involved, as well as environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, and nutrient availability. The ability of cells to aggregate is often mediated by the presence of adhesion molecules on the cell surface, such as cadherins, integrins, and immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecules (Ig-CAMs). These molecules interact with each other and with extracellular matrix components to promote cell-to-cell adhesion and maintain the stability of the aggregate.

In some contexts, abnormal or excessive cell aggregation can contribute to the development of diseases such as cancer, fibrosis, and inflammatory disorders. For example, the aggregation of cancer cells can facilitate their invasion and metastasis, while the accumulation of fibrotic cells in tissues can lead to organ dysfunction and failure. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate cell aggregation is therefore an important area of research with potential implications for the development of new therapies and treatments for a variety of diseases.

Arachidonic acids are a type of polyunsaturated fatty acid that is primarily found in the phospholipids of cell membranes. They contain 20 carbon atoms and four double bonds (20:4n-6), with the first double bond located at the sixth carbon atom from the methyl end.

Arachidonic acids are derived from linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid that cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources such as meat, fish, and eggs. Once ingested, linoleic acid is converted to arachidonic acid in a series of enzymatic reactions.

Arachidonic acids play an important role in various physiological processes, including inflammation, immune response, and cell signaling. They serve as precursors for the synthesis of eicosanoids, which are signaling molecules that include prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes. These eicosanoids have diverse biological activities, such as modulating blood flow, platelet aggregation, and pain perception, among others.

However, excessive production of arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including inflammation, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Therefore, the regulation of arachidonic acid metabolism is an important area of research for the development of new therapeutic strategies.

Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a potent phospholipid mediator that plays a significant role in various inflammatory and immune responses. It is a powerful lipid signaling molecule released mainly by activated platelets, neutrophils, monocytes, endothelial cells, and other cell types during inflammation or injury.

PAF has a molecular structure consisting of an alkyl chain linked to a glycerol moiety, a phosphate group, and an sn-2 acetyl group. This unique structure allows PAF to bind to its specific G protein-coupled receptor (PAF-R) on the surface of target cells, triggering various intracellular signaling cascades that result in cell activation, degranulation, and aggregation.

The primary functions of PAF include:

1. Platelet activation and aggregation: PAF stimulates platelets to aggregate, release their granules, and activate the coagulation cascade, which can lead to thrombus formation.
2. Neutrophil and monocyte activation: PAF activates these immune cells, leading to increased adhesion, degranulation, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pro-inflammatory cytokines.
3. Vasodilation and increased vascular permeability: PAF can cause vasodilation by acting on endothelial cells, leading to an increase in blood flow and facilitating the extravasation of immune cells into inflamed tissues.
4. Bronchoconstriction: In the respiratory system, PAF can induce bronchoconstriction and recruitment of inflammatory cells, contributing to asthma symptoms.
5. Neurotransmission modulation: PAF has been implicated in neuroinflammation and may play a role in neuronal excitability, synaptic plasticity, and cognitive functions.

Dysregulated PAF signaling has been associated with several pathological conditions, including atherosclerosis, sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), ischemia-reperfusion injury, and neuroinflammatory disorders. Therefore, targeting the PAF pathway may provide therapeutic benefits in these diseases.

Endotoxins are toxic substances that are associated with the cell walls of certain types of bacteria. They are released when the bacterial cells die or divide, and can cause a variety of harmful effects in humans and animals. Endotoxins are made up of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which are complex molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide component.

Endotoxins are particularly associated with gram-negative bacteria, which have a distinctive cell wall structure that includes an outer membrane containing LPS. These toxins can cause fever, inflammation, and other symptoms when they enter the bloodstream or other tissues of the body. They are also known to play a role in the development of sepsis, a potentially life-threatening condition characterized by a severe immune response to infection.

Endotoxins are resistant to heat, acid, and many disinfectants, making them difficult to eliminate from contaminated environments. They can also be found in a variety of settings, including hospitals, industrial facilities, and agricultural operations, where they can pose a risk to human health.

Micropore filters are medical devices used to filter or sterilize fluids and gases. They are made of materials like cellulose, mixed cellulose ester, or polyvinylidene fluoride with precise pore sizes, typically ranging from 0.1 to 10 micrometers in diameter. These filters are used to remove bacteria, fungi, and other particles from solutions in laboratory and medical settings, such as during the preparation of injectable drugs, tissue culture media, or sterile fluids for medical procedures. They come in various forms, including syringe filters, vacuum filters, and bottle-top filters, and are often used with the assistance of a vacuum or positive pressure to force the fluid through the filter material.

I couldn't find a medical definition for "Depression, Chemical" as it is not a recognized medical term. However, I can provide you with information about chemical imbalances in the brain that are associated with depression.

Major depressive disorder (MDD), commonly referred to as depression, is believed to be caused by a combination of genetic, environmental, and physiological factors. While there is no definitive evidence that depression is solely caused by a "chemical imbalance," neurotransmitter irregularities in the brain are associated with depressive symptoms. Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that transmit signals in the brain and other parts of the body. Some of the primary neurotransmitters involved in mood regulation include serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine.

In depression, it is thought that there may be alterations in the functioning of these neurotransmitter systems, leading to an imbalance. For example:

1. Serotonin: Low levels of serotonin are associated with depressive symptoms. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), a common class of antidepressants, work by increasing the availability of serotonin in the synapse (the space between neurons) to improve communication between brain cells.
2. Norepinephrine: Imbalances in norepinephrine levels can contribute to depressive symptoms and anxiety. Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (NRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are medications that target norepinephrine to help alleviate depression.
3. Dopamine: Deficiencies in dopamine can lead to depressive symptoms, anhedonia (the inability to feel pleasure), and motivation loss. Some antidepressants, like bupropion, work by increasing dopamine levels in the brain.

In summary, while "Chemical Depression" is not a recognized medical term, chemical imbalances in neurotransmitter systems are associated with depressive symptoms. However, depression is a complex disorder that cannot be solely attributed to a single cause or a simple chemical imbalance. It is essential to consider multiple factors when diagnosing and treating depression.

Neutrophil activation refers to the process by which neutrophils, a type of white blood cell, become activated in response to a signal or stimulus, such as an infection or inflammation. This activation triggers a series of responses within the neutrophil that enable it to carry out its immune functions, including:

1. Degranulation: The release of granules containing enzymes and other proteins that can destroy microbes.
2. Phagocytosis: The engulfment and destruction of microbes through the use of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other toxic substances.
3. Formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs): A process in which neutrophils release DNA and proteins to trap and kill microbes outside the cell.
4. Release of cytokines and chemokines: Signaling molecules that recruit other immune cells to the site of infection or inflammation.

Neutrophil activation is a critical component of the innate immune response, but excessive or uncontrolled activation can contribute to tissue damage and chronic inflammation.

Molecular weight, also known as molecular mass, is the mass of a molecule. It is expressed in units of atomic mass units (amu) or daltons (Da). Molecular weight is calculated by adding up the atomic weights of each atom in a molecule. It is a useful property in chemistry and biology, as it can be used to determine the concentration of a substance in a solution, or to calculate the amount of a substance that will react with another in a chemical reaction.

Delayed hypersensitivity, also known as type IV hypersensitivity, is a type of immune response that takes place several hours to days after exposure to an antigen. It is characterized by the activation of T cells (a type of white blood cell) and the release of various chemical mediators, leading to inflammation and tissue damage. This reaction is typically associated with chronic inflammatory diseases, such as contact dermatitis, granulomatous disorders (e.g. tuberculosis), and certain autoimmune diseases.

The reaction process involves the following steps:

1. Sensitization: The first time an individual is exposed to an antigen, T cells are activated and become sensitized to it. This process can take several days.
2. Memory: Some of the activated T cells differentiate into memory T cells, which remain in the body and are ready to respond quickly if the same antigen is encountered again.
3. Effector phase: Upon subsequent exposure to the antigen, the memory T cells become activated and release cytokines, which recruit other immune cells (e.g. macrophages) to the site of inflammation. These cells cause tissue damage through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis, degranulation, and the release of reactive oxygen species.
4. Chronic inflammation: The ongoing immune response can lead to chronic inflammation, which may result in tissue destruction and fibrosis (scarring).

Examples of conditions associated with delayed hypersensitivity include:

* Contact dermatitis (e.g. poison ivy, nickel allergy)
* Tuberculosis
* Leprosy
* Sarcoidosis
* Rheumatoid arthritis
* Type 1 diabetes mellitus
* Multiple sclerosis
* Inflammatory bowel disease (e.g. Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis)

Eosinophilia is a medical condition characterized by an abnormally high concentration of eosinophils in the circulating blood. Eosinophils are a type of white blood cell that play an important role in the immune system, particularly in fighting off parasitic infections and regulating allergic reactions. However, when their numbers become excessively high, they can contribute to tissue damage and inflammation.

Eosinophilia is typically defined as a count of more than 500 eosinophils per microliter of blood. Mild eosinophilia (up to 1,500 cells/μL) may not cause any symptoms and may be discovered during routine blood tests. However, higher levels of eosinophilia can lead to various symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, skin rashes, and organ damage, depending on the underlying cause.

The causes of eosinophilia are varied and can include allergic reactions, parasitic infections, autoimmune disorders, certain medications, and some types of cancer. Accurate diagnosis and treatment of eosinophilia require identification and management of the underlying cause.

Inflammation is a complex biological response of tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. It is characterized by the following signs: rubor (redness), tumor (swelling), calor (heat), dolor (pain), and functio laesa (loss of function). The process involves the activation of the immune system, recruitment of white blood cells, and release of inflammatory mediators, which contribute to the elimination of the injurious stimuli and initiation of the healing process. However, uncontrolled or chronic inflammation can also lead to tissue damage and diseases.

Cell migration inhibition refers to the process or agents that restrict the movement of cells, particularly in the context of cancer metastasis. Cell migration is a critical biological process involved in various physiological and pathological conditions, including embryonic development, wound healing, and tumor cell dissemination. Inhibiting cell migration can help prevent the spread of cancer to distant organs, thereby improving treatment outcomes and patient survival rates.

Various factors and mechanisms contribute to cell migration inhibition, such as:

1. Modulation of signaling pathways: Cell migration is regulated by complex intracellular signaling networks that control cytoskeletal rearrangements, adhesion molecules, and other components required for cell motility. Inhibiting specific signaling proteins or pathways can suppress cell migration.
2. Extracellular matrix (ECM) modifications: The ECM provides structural support and biochemical cues that guide cell migration. Altering the composition or organization of the ECM can hinder cell movement.
3. Inhibition of adhesion molecules: Cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions are mediated by adhesion molecules, such as integrins and cadherins. Blocking these molecules can prevent cells from attaching to their surroundings and migrating.
4. Targeting cytoskeletal components: The cytoskeleton is responsible for the mechanical forces required for cell migration. Inhibiting cytoskeletal proteins, such as actin or tubulin, can impair cell motility.
5. Use of pharmacological agents: Several drugs and compounds have been identified to inhibit cell migration, either by targeting specific molecules or indirectly affecting the overall cellular environment. These agents include chemotherapeutic drugs, natural compounds, and small molecule inhibitors.

Understanding the mechanisms underlying cell migration inhibition can provide valuable insights into developing novel therapeutic strategies for cancer treatment and other diseases involving aberrant cell migration.

Interleukin-16 (IL-16) is a chemokine, which is a type of signaling protein involved in immune responses and inflammation. IL-16 was initially identified as a T cell chemoattractant, meaning it can attract or draw T cells, a type of white blood cell, to areas where it is produced.

IL-16 is produced by a variety of cells, including CD4+ T cells, eosinophils, mast cells, and epithelial cells. It is involved in the regulation of immune responses, including the activation and proliferation of T cells, as well as the recruitment of other immune cells to sites of inflammation or injury.

IL-16 binds to a specific receptor called CD4, which is found on the surface of certain immune cells, including T cells, monocytes, and dendritic cells. The binding of IL-16 to its receptor triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to changes in gene expression and cell behavior.

In addition to its role in the immune system, IL-16 has also been implicated in various disease processes, including asthma, allergies, autoimmune disorders, and cancer.

A leukocyte count, also known as a white blood cell (WBC) count, is a laboratory test that measures the number of leukocytes in a sample of blood. Leukocytes are a vital part of the body's immune system and help fight infection and inflammation. A high or low leukocyte count may indicate an underlying medical condition, such as an infection, inflammation, or a bone marrow disorder. The normal range for a leukocyte count in adults is typically between 4,500 and 11,000 cells per microliter (mcL) of blood. However, the normal range can vary slightly depending on the laboratory and the individual's age and sex.

Glucuronidase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of glucuronic acid from various substrates, including molecules that have been conjugated with glucuronic acid as part of the detoxification process in the body. This enzyme plays a role in the breakdown and elimination of certain drugs, toxins, and endogenous compounds, such as bilirubin. It is found in various tissues and organisms, including humans, bacteria, and insects. In clinical contexts, glucuronidase activity may be measured to assess liver function or to identify the presence of certain bacterial infections.

In medical terms, the skin is the largest organ of the human body. It consists of two main layers: the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (inner layer), as well as accessory structures like hair follicles, sweat glands, and oil glands. The skin plays a crucial role in protecting us from external factors such as bacteria, viruses, and environmental hazards, while also regulating body temperature and enabling the sense of touch.

Conditioned culture media refers to a type of growth medium that has been previously used to culture and maintain the cells of an organism. The conditioned media contains factors secreted by those cells, such as hormones, nutrients, and signaling molecules, which can affect the behavior and growth of other cells that are introduced into the media later on.

When the conditioned media is used for culturing a new set of cells, it can provide a more physiologically relevant environment than traditional culture media, as it contains factors that are specific to the original cell type. This can be particularly useful in studies that aim to understand cell-cell interactions and communication, or to mimic the natural microenvironment of cells in the body.

It's important to note that conditioned media should be handled carefully and used promptly after preparation, as the factors it contains can degrade over time and affect the quality of the results.

Tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA) is defined as a pharmacological agent that is a derivative of the phorbol ester family. It is a potent tumor promoter and activator of protein kinase C (PKC), a group of enzymes that play a role in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, proliferation, and differentiation. TPA has been widely used in research to study PKC-mediated signaling pathways and its role in cancer development and progression. It is also used in topical treatments for skin conditions such as psoriasis.

Fc receptors (FcRs) are specialized proteins found on the surface of various immune cells, including neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, eosinophils, basophils, mast cells, and B lymphocytes. They play a crucial role in the immune response by recognizing and binding to the Fc region of antibodies (IgG, IgA, and IgE) after they have interacted with their specific antigens.

FcRs can be classified into several types based on the class of antibody they bind:

1. FcγRs - bind to the Fc region of IgG antibodies
2. FcαRs - bind to the Fc region of IgA antibodies
3. FcεRs - bind to the Fc region of IgE antibodies

The binding of antibodies to Fc receptors triggers various cellular responses, such as phagocytosis, degranulation, and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), which contribute to the elimination of pathogens, immune complexes, and other foreign substances. Dysregulation of Fc receptor function has been implicated in several diseases, including autoimmune disorders and allergies.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Isoflurophate" does not appear to be a recognized term in medical or scientific literature. It is possible that there may be a spelling error or typo in the term you are looking for. If you meant "Isoflurane," which is a commonly used anesthetic in medical and surgical procedures, I can provide a definition for that.

Isoflurane: A volatile halogenated ether liquid used as an inhalational general anesthetic agent. It has a rapid onset and offset of action, making it useful for both induction and maintenance of anesthesia. Isoflurane is also known to have bronchodilatory properties, which can be beneficial in patients with reactive airway disease or asthma.

Superoxides are partially reduced derivatives of oxygen that contain one extra electron, giving them an overall charge of -1. They are highly reactive and unstable, with the most common superoxide being the hydroxyl radical (•OH-) and the superoxide anion (O2-). Superoxides are produced naturally in the body during metabolic processes, particularly within the mitochondria during cellular respiration. They play a role in various physiological processes, but when produced in excess or not properly neutralized, they can contribute to oxidative stress and damage to cells and tissues, potentially leading to the development of various diseases such as cancer, atherosclerosis, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Interference microscopy is a type of microscopy that uses the interference of light waves to enhance contrast and visualize details in a specimen. It is often used to measure thin transparent samples, such as cells or tissues, with very high precision. One common method of interference microscopy is phase contrast microscopy, which converts differences in the optical path length of light passing through the sample into changes in amplitude and/or phase of the transmitted light. This results in enhanced contrast and visibility of details that may be difficult to see using other forms of microscopy. Other types of interference microscopy include differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy, which uses polarized light to enhance contrast, and holographic microscopy, which records and reconstructs the wavefront of light passing through the sample to create a 3D image.

'Immune sera' refers to the serum fraction of blood that contains antibodies produced in response to an antigenic stimulus, such as a vaccine or an infection. These antibodies are proteins known as immunoglobulins, which are secreted by B cells (a type of white blood cell) and can recognize and bind to specific antigens. Immune sera can be collected from an immunized individual and used as a source of passive immunity to protect against infection or disease. It is often used in research and diagnostic settings to identify or measure the presence of specific antigens or antibodies.

Complement receptor 3b (CR3b or CD11b/CD18) is not a medical definition itself, but I can provide you with the relevant information regarding this term.

Complement receptor 3 (CR3) is a heterodimeric receptor consisting of two subunits, CD11b (also known as Mac-1 or CR3 alpha) and CD18 (also known as beta2 integrin). There are two forms of the CD11b/CD18 heterodimer: CR3a (CD11b/CD18) and CR3b (CD11b/CD18'). The difference between these two forms lies in the conformation of the CD11b subunit.

Complement receptor 3b (CR3b or CD11b/CD18') is a less common form of the CR3 receptor, which is primarily expressed on myeloid cells such as monocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils. CR3b has a higher affinity for complement component C3b and its fragments iC3b and C3dg compared to CR3a.

CR3b plays a role in various immune functions, including:

1. Phagocytosis: Binding of C3b or its fragments to CR3b facilitates the recognition and uptake of opsonized pathogens by phagocytes.
2. Adhesion: The integrin component of CR3b mediates cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, contributing to leukocyte migration and recruitment to sites of inflammation or infection.
3. Intracellular signaling: Activation of CR3b can lead to intracellular signaling events that modulate immune responses, such as the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species.

In summary, Complement receptor 3b (CR3b or CD11b/CD18') is a less common form of CR3 primarily expressed on myeloid cells that binds complement component C3b and its fragments with high affinity, mediating phagocytosis, adhesion, and intracellular signaling.

Calcimycin is a ionophore compound that is produced by the bacterium Streptomyces chartreusensis. It is also known as Calcineurin A inhibitor because it can bind to and inhibit the activity of calcineurin, a protein phosphatase. In medical research, calcimycin is often used to study calcium signaling in cells.
It has been also used in laboratory studies for its antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on certain types of cancer cells. However, it is not approved for use as a drug in humans.

Muramidase, also known as lysozyme, is an enzyme that hydrolyzes the glycosidic bond between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetylglucosamine in peptidoglycan, a polymer found in bacterial cell walls. This enzymatic activity plays a crucial role in the innate immune system by contributing to the destruction of invading bacteria. Muramidase is widely distributed in various tissues and bodily fluids, such as tears, saliva, and milk, and is also found in several types of white blood cells, including neutrophils and monocytes.

Chromatography is a technique used in analytical chemistry for the separation, identification, and quantification of the components of a mixture. It is based on the differential distribution of the components of a mixture between a stationary phase and a mobile phase. The stationary phase can be a solid or liquid, while the mobile phase is a gas, liquid, or supercritical fluid that moves through the stationary phase carrying the sample components.

The interaction between the sample components and the stationary and mobile phases determines how quickly each component will move through the system. Components that interact more strongly with the stationary phase will move more slowly than those that interact more strongly with the mobile phase. This difference in migration rates allows for the separation of the components, which can then be detected and quantified.

There are many different types of chromatography, including paper chromatography, thin-layer chromatography (TLC), gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography (LC), and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Each type has its own strengths and weaknesses, and is best suited for specific applications.

In summary, chromatography is a powerful analytical technique used to separate, identify, and quantify the components of a mixture based on their differential distribution between a stationary phase and a mobile phase.

Tissue extracts refer to the substances or compounds that are extracted from various types of biological tissues, such as plants, animals, or microorganisms. These extracts contain bioactive molecules, including proteins, peptides, lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and other small molecules, which can have therapeutic or diagnostic potential. The process of tissue extraction involves homogenizing the tissue, followed by separation and purification of the desired components using various techniques such as centrifugation, filtration, chromatography, or precipitation.

In medical research and clinical settings, tissue extracts are often used to study the biochemical and molecular properties of cells and tissues, investigate disease mechanisms, develop diagnostic tests, and identify potential drug targets. Examples of tissue extracts include cell lysates, subcellular fractions, organelle preparations, plasma membrane extracts, nuclear extracts, and various types of protein or nucleic acid extracts. It is important to note that the quality and purity of tissue extracts can significantly impact the accuracy and reproducibility of experimental results, and appropriate controls and validation methods should be employed to ensure their proper use.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Organophosphonates are a class of organic compounds characterized by the presence of a carbon-phosphorus bond. They contain a phosphonic acid group, which consists of a phosphorus atom bonded to four oxygen or nitrogen atoms, with one of those bonds being replaced by a carbon atom.

In a medical context, organophosphonates are commonly used as radiopharmaceuticals in diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures, such as bone scans. These compounds have the ability to bind to hydroxyapatite, the mineral component of bones, and can be labeled with radioactive isotopes for imaging purposes. They may also be used in therapeutic settings, including as treatments for conditions such as tumor-induced hypercalcemia and Paget's disease of bone.

It is important to note that organophosphonates are distinct from organophosphates, another class of compounds that contain a phosphorus atom bonded to three oxygen or sulfur atoms and one carbon atom. Organophosphates have been widely used as pesticides and chemical warfare agents, and can pose significant health risks due to their toxicity.

Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a cytokine, a type of small signaling protein involved in immune response and inflammation. It is primarily produced by activated macrophages, although other cell types such as T-cells, natural killer cells, and mast cells can also produce it.

TNF-α plays a crucial role in the body's defense against infection and tissue injury by mediating inflammatory responses, activating immune cells, and inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death) in certain types of cells. It does this by binding to its receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2, which are found on the surface of many cell types.

In addition to its role in the immune response, TNF-α has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and psoriasis, as well as cancer, where it can promote tumor growth and metastasis.

Therapeutic agents that target TNF-α, such as infliximab, adalimumab, and etanercept, have been developed to treat these conditions. However, these drugs can also increase the risk of infections and other side effects, so their use must be carefully monitored.

An antigen-antibody complex is a type of immune complex that forms when an antibody binds to a specific antigen. An antigen is any substance that triggers an immune response, while an antibody is a protein produced by the immune system to neutralize or destroy foreign substances like antigens.

When an antibody binds to an antigen, it forms a complex that can be either soluble or insoluble. Soluble complexes are formed when the antigen is small and can move freely through the bloodstream. Insoluble complexes, on the other hand, are formed when the antigen is too large to move freely, such as when it is part of a bacterium or virus.

The formation of antigen-antibody complexes plays an important role in the immune response. Once formed, these complexes can be recognized and cleared by other components of the immune system, such as phagocytes, which help to prevent further damage to the body. However, in some cases, the formation of large numbers of antigen-antibody complexes can lead to inflammation and tissue damage, contributing to the development of certain autoimmune diseases.

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are large molecules found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. They consist of a hydrophilic polysaccharide called the O-antigen, a core oligosaccharide, and a lipid portion known as Lipid A. The Lipid A component is responsible for the endotoxic activity of LPS, which can trigger a powerful immune response in animals, including humans. This response can lead to symptoms such as fever, inflammation, and septic shock, especially when large amounts of LPS are introduced into the bloodstream.

Dermatitis is a general term that describes inflammation of the skin. It is often characterized by redness, swelling, itching, and tenderness. There are many different types of dermatitis, including atopic dermatitis (eczema), contact dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, and nummular dermatitis.

Atopic dermatitis is a chronic skin condition that often affects people with a family history of allergies, such as asthma or hay fever. It typically causes dry, scaly patches on the skin that can be extremely itchy.

Contact dermatitis occurs when the skin comes into contact with an irritant or allergen, such as poison ivy or certain chemicals. This type of dermatitis can cause redness, swelling, and blistering.

Seborrheic dermatitis is a common condition that causes a red, itchy rash, often on the scalp, face, or other areas of the body where oil glands are located. It is thought to be related to an overproduction of oil by the skin's sebaceous glands.

Nummular dermatitis is a type of eczema that causes round, coin-shaped patches of dry, scaly skin. It is more common in older adults and often occurs during the winter months.

Treatment for dermatitis depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, over-the-counter creams or lotions may be sufficient to relieve symptoms. Prescription medications, such as corticosteroids or immunosuppressants, may be necessary in more severe cases. Avoiding triggers and irritants can also help prevent flare-ups of dermatitis.

Intercellular signaling peptides and proteins are molecules that mediate communication and interaction between different cells in living organisms. They play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell growth, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). These signals can be released into the extracellular space, where they bind to specific receptors on the target cell's surface, triggering intracellular signaling cascades that ultimately lead to a response.

Peptides are short chains of amino acids, while proteins are larger molecules made up of one or more polypeptide chains. Both can function as intercellular signaling molecules by acting as ligands for cell surface receptors or by being cleaved from larger precursor proteins and released into the extracellular space. Examples of intercellular signaling peptides and proteins include growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, hormones, neurotransmitters, and their respective receptors.

These molecules contribute to maintaining homeostasis within an organism by coordinating cellular activities across tissues and organs. Dysregulation of intercellular signaling pathways has been implicated in various diseases, such as cancer, autoimmune disorders, and neurodegenerative conditions. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying intercellular signaling is essential for developing targeted therapies to treat these disorders.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Aminopeptidases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the removal of amino acids from the N-terminus of polypeptides and proteins. They play important roles in various biological processes, including protein degradation, processing, and activation. Aminopeptidases are classified based on their specificity for different types of amino acids and the mechanism of their action. Some of the well-known aminopeptidases include leucine aminopeptidase, alanyl aminopeptidase, and arginine aminopeptidase. They are widely distributed in nature and found in various tissues and organisms, including bacteria, plants, and animals. In humans, aminopeptidases are involved in several physiological functions, such as digestion, immune response, and blood pressure regulation.

The Pentose Phosphate Pathway (also known as the Hexose Monophosphate Shunt or HMP Shunt) is a metabolic pathway that runs parallel to glycolysis. It serves two major functions:

1. Providing reducing equivalents in the form of NADPH for reductive biosynthesis and detoxification processes.
2. Generating ribose-5-phosphate, a pentose sugar used in the synthesis of nucleotides and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA).

This pathway begins with the oxidation of glucose-6-phosphate to form 6-phosphogluconolactone, catalyzed by the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. The resulting NADPH is used in various anabolic reactions and antioxidant defense systems.

The Pentose Phosphate Pathway also includes a series of reactions called the non-oxidative branch, which interconverts various sugars to meet cellular needs for different types of monosaccharides. These conversions are facilitated by several enzymes including transketolase and transaldolase.

Pulmonary alveoli, also known as air sacs, are tiny clusters of air-filled pouches located at the end of the bronchioles in the lungs. They play a crucial role in the process of gas exchange during respiration. The thin walls of the alveoli, called alveolar membranes, allow oxygen from inhaled air to pass into the bloodstream and carbon dioxide from the bloodstream to pass into the alveoli to be exhaled out of the body. This vital function enables the lungs to supply oxygen-rich blood to the rest of the body and remove waste products like carbon dioxide.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

In a medical context, "hot temperature" is not a standard medical term with a specific definition. However, it is often used in relation to fever, which is a common symptom of illness. A fever is typically defined as a body temperature that is higher than normal, usually above 38°C (100.4°F) for adults and above 37.5-38°C (99.5-101.3°F) for children, depending on the source.

Therefore, when a medical professional talks about "hot temperature," they may be referring to a body temperature that is higher than normal due to fever or other causes. It's important to note that a high environmental temperature can also contribute to an elevated body temperature, so it's essential to consider both the body temperature and the environmental temperature when assessing a patient's condition.

Phagocytosis is the process by which certain cells in the body, known as phagocytes, engulf and destroy foreign particles, bacteria, or dead cells. This mechanism plays a crucial role in the immune system's response to infection and inflammation. Phagocytes, such as neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages, have receptors on their surface that recognize and bind to specific molecules (known as antigens) on the target particles or microorganisms.

Once attached, the phagocyte extends pseudopodia (cell extensions) around the particle, forming a vesicle called a phagosome that completely encloses it. The phagosome then fuses with a lysosome, an intracellular organelle containing digestive enzymes and other chemicals. This fusion results in the formation of a phagolysosome, where the engulfed particle is broken down by the action of these enzymes, neutralizing its harmful effects and allowing for the removal of cellular debris or pathogens.

Phagocytosis not only serves as a crucial defense mechanism against infections but also contributes to tissue homeostasis by removing dead cells and debris.

Mast cells are a type of white blood cell that are found in connective tissues throughout the body, including the skin, respiratory tract, and gastrointestinal tract. They play an important role in the immune system and help to defend the body against pathogens by releasing chemicals such as histamine, heparin, and leukotrienes, which help to attract other immune cells to the site of infection or injury. Mast cells also play a role in allergic reactions, as they release histamine and other chemicals in response to exposure to an allergen, leading to symptoms such as itching, swelling, and redness. They are derived from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow and mature in the tissues where they reside.

Chemokine CCL11, also known as eotaxin-1, is a small chemotactic cytokine that belongs to the CC subfamily of chemokines. Chemokines are a group of proteins that play crucial roles in immunity and inflammation by recruiting immune cells to sites of infection or tissue injury.

CCL11 specifically attracts eosinophils, a type of white blood cell that is involved in allergic reactions and the immune response to parasitic worm infections. It does this by binding to its specific receptor, CCR3, which is expressed on the surface of eosinophils and other cells.

CCL11 is produced by a variety of cells, including epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and immune cells such as macrophages and Th2 lymphocytes. It has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including asthma, allergies, and certain neurological disorders.

Immunologic receptors are specialized proteins found on the surface of immune cells that recognize and bind to specific molecules, known as antigens, on the surface of pathogens or infected cells. This binding triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that activate the immune cell and initiate an immune response.

There are several types of immunologic receptors, including:

1. T-cell receptors (TCRs): These receptors are found on the surface of T cells and recognize antigens presented in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules.
2. B-cell receptors (BCRs): These receptors are found on the surface of B cells and recognize free antigens in solution.
3. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs): These receptors are found inside immune cells and recognize conserved molecular patterns associated with pathogens, such as lipopolysaccharides and flagellin.
4. Fc receptors: These receptors are found on the surface of various immune cells and bind to the constant region of antibodies, mediating effector functions such as phagocytosis and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC).

Immunologic receptors play a critical role in the recognition and elimination of pathogens and infected cells, and dysregulation of these receptors can lead to immune disorders and diseases.

Sialglycoproteins are a type of glycoprotein that have sialic acid as the terminal sugar in their oligosaccharide chains. These complex molecules are abundant on the surface of many cell types and play important roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, cell-cell interactions, and protection against proteolytic degradation.

The presence of sialic acid on the outermost part of these glycoproteins makes them negatively charged, which can affect their interaction with other molecules such as lectins, antibodies, and enzymes. Sialglycoproteins are also involved in the regulation of various physiological functions, including blood coagulation, inflammation, and immune response.

Abnormalities in sialglycoprotein expression or structure have been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, autoimmune disorders, and neurodegenerative conditions. Therefore, understanding the biology of sialoglycoproteins is important for developing new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for these diseases.

Cytoplasmic granules are small, membrane-bound organelles or inclusions found within the cytoplasm of cells. They contain various substances such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and genetic material. Cytoplasmic granules have diverse functions depending on their specific composition and cellular location. Some examples include:

1. Secretory granules: These are found in secretory cells and store hormones, neurotransmitters, or enzymes before they are released by exocytosis.
2. Lysosomes: These are membrane-bound organelles that contain hydrolytic enzymes for intracellular digestion of waste materials, foreign substances, and damaged organelles.
3. Melanosomes: Found in melanocytes, these granules produce and store the pigment melanin, which is responsible for skin, hair, and eye color.
4. Weibel-Palade bodies: These are found in endothelial cells and store von Willebrand factor and P-selectin, which play roles in hemostasis and inflammation.
5. Peroxisomes: These are single-membrane organelles that contain enzymes for various metabolic processes, such as β-oxidation of fatty acids and detoxification of harmful substances.
6. Lipid bodies (also called lipid droplets): These are cytoplasmic granules that store neutral lipids, such as triglycerides and cholesteryl esters. They play a role in energy metabolism and intracellular signaling.
7. Glycogen granules: These are cytoplasmic inclusions that store glycogen, a polysaccharide used for energy storage in animals.
8. Protein bodies: Found in plants, these granules store excess proteins and help regulate protein homeostasis within the cell.
9. Electron-dense granules: These are found in certain immune cells, such as mast cells and basophils, and release mediators like histamine during an allergic response.
10. Granules of unknown composition or function may also be present in various cell types.

Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that is an essential part of the immune system. They are responsible for recognizing and responding to potentially harmful substances such as viruses, bacteria, and other foreign invaders. There are two main types of lymphocytes: B-lymphocytes (B-cells) and T-lymphocytes (T-cells).

B-lymphocytes produce antibodies, which are proteins that help to neutralize or destroy foreign substances. When a B-cell encounters a foreign substance, it becomes activated and begins to divide and differentiate into plasma cells, which produce and secrete large amounts of antibodies. These antibodies bind to the foreign substance, marking it for destruction by other immune cells.

T-lymphocytes, on the other hand, are involved in cell-mediated immunity. They directly attack and destroy infected cells or cancerous cells. T-cells can also help to regulate the immune response by producing chemical signals that activate or inhibit other immune cells.

Lymphocytes are produced in the bone marrow and mature in either the bone marrow (B-cells) or the thymus gland (T-cells). They circulate throughout the body in the blood and lymphatic system, where they can be found in high concentrations in lymph nodes, the spleen, and other lymphoid organs.

Abnormalities in the number or function of lymphocytes can lead to a variety of immune-related disorders, including immunodeficiency diseases, autoimmune disorders, and cancer.

Monokines are cytokines that are produced and released by monocytes, which are a type of white blood cell. These proteins play an important role in the immune response, including inflammation, immunoregulation, and hematopoiesis (the formation of blood cells).

Monokines include several types of cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-12 (IL-12). These molecules help to regulate the activity of other immune cells, such as T cells and B cells, and can also have direct effects on infected or damaged tissues.

Monokines are involved in a variety of physiological and pathological processes, including host defense against infection, tissue repair and regeneration, and the development of chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and atherosclerosis.

A chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a group of rare inherited disorders that affect the body's ability to fight off certain types of bacterial and fungal infections. It is characterized by the formation of granulomas, which are abnormal masses or nodules composed of immune cells called macrophages that cluster together in an attempt to wall off and destroy the infectious agents.

In CGD, the macrophages have a genetic defect that prevents them from producing reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are molecules that help kill bacteria and fungi. As a result, the immune system is unable to effectively eliminate these pathogens, leading to chronic inflammation and the formation of granulomas.

CGD is typically diagnosed in childhood and can affect various organs and systems in the body, including the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, skin, and lymph nodes. Symptoms may include recurrent infections, fever, fatigue, weight loss, cough, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Treatment typically involves antibiotics or antifungal medications to manage infections, as well as immunosuppressive therapy to control inflammation and prevent the formation of granulomas. In some cases, bone marrow transplantation may be considered as a curative treatment option.

A dose-response relationship in immunology refers to the quantitative relationship between the dose or amount of an antigen (a substance that triggers an immune response) and the magnitude or strength of the resulting immune response. Generally, as the dose of an antigen increases, the intensity and/or duration of the immune response also increase, up to a certain point. This relationship helps in determining the optimal dosage for vaccines and immunotherapies, ensuring sufficient immune activation while minimizing potential adverse effects.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

Cytokines are a broad and diverse category of small signaling proteins that are secreted by various cells, including immune cells, in response to different stimuli. They play crucial roles in regulating the immune response, inflammation, hematopoiesis, and cellular communication.

Cytokines mediate their effects by binding to specific receptors on the surface of target cells, which triggers intracellular signaling pathways that ultimately result in changes in gene expression, cell behavior, and function. Some key functions of cytokines include:

1. Regulating the activation, differentiation, and proliferation of immune cells such as T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and macrophages.
2. Coordinating the inflammatory response by recruiting immune cells to sites of infection or tissue damage and modulating their effector functions.
3. Regulating hematopoiesis, the process of blood cell formation in the bone marrow, by controlling the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.
4. Modulating the development and function of the nervous system, including neuroinflammation, neuroprotection, and neuroregeneration.

Cytokines can be classified into several categories based on their structure, function, or cellular origin. Some common types of cytokines include interleukins (ILs), interferons (IFNs), tumor necrosis factors (TNFs), chemokines, colony-stimulating factors (CSFs), and transforming growth factors (TGFs). Dysregulation of cytokine production and signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammation, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Immunosorbent techniques are a group of laboratory methods used in immunology and clinical chemistry to isolate or detect specific proteins, antibodies, or antigens from a complex mixture. These techniques utilize the specific binding properties of antibodies or antigens to capture and concentrate target molecules.

The most common immunosorbent technique is the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), which involves coating a solid surface with a capture antibody, allowing the sample to bind, washing away unbound material, and then detecting bound antigens or antibodies using an enzyme-conjugated detection reagent. The enzyme catalyzes a colorimetric reaction that can be measured and quantified, providing a sensitive and specific assay for the target molecule.

Other immunosorbent techniques include Radioimmunoassay (RIA), Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA), and Lateral Flow Immunoassay (LFIA). These methods have wide-ranging applications in research, diagnostics, and drug development.

Luminescent measurements refer to the quantitative assessment of the emission of light from a substance that has been excited, typically through some form of energy input such as electrical energy or radiation. In the context of medical diagnostics and research, luminescent measurements can be used in various applications, including bioluminescence imaging, which is used to study biological processes at the cellular and molecular level.

Bioluminescence occurs when a chemical reaction produces light within a living organism, often through the action of enzymes such as luciferase. By introducing a luciferase gene into cells or organisms, researchers can use bioluminescent measurements to track cellular processes and monitor gene expression in real time.

Luminescent measurements may also be used in medical research to study the properties of materials used in medical devices, such as LEDs or optical fibers, or to develop new diagnostic tools based on light-emitting nanoparticles or other luminescent materials.

In summary, luminescent measurements are a valuable tool in medical research and diagnostics, providing a non-invasive way to study biological processes and develop new technologies for disease detection and treatment.

Neutrophil infiltration is a pathological process characterized by the accumulation of neutrophils, a type of white blood cell, in tissue. It is a common feature of inflammation and occurs in response to infection, injury, or other stimuli that trigger an immune response. Neutrophils are attracted to the site of tissue damage by chemical signals called chemokines, which are released by damaged cells and activated immune cells. Once they reach the site of inflammation, neutrophils help to clear away damaged tissue and microorganisms through a process called phagocytosis. However, excessive or prolonged neutrophil infiltration can also contribute to tissue damage and may be associated with various disease states, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and ischemia-reperfusion injury.

The endothelium is the thin, delicate tissue that lines the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels. It is a single layer of cells called endothelial cells that are in contact with the blood or lymph fluid. The endothelium plays an essential role in maintaining vascular homeostasis by regulating blood flow, coagulation, platelet activation, immune function, and angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels). It also acts as a barrier between the vessel wall and the circulating blood or lymph fluid. Dysfunction of the endothelium has been implicated in various cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, inflammation, and cancer.

Calcium is an essential mineral that is vital for various physiological processes in the human body. The medical definition of calcium is as follows:

Calcium (Ca2+) is a crucial cation and the most abundant mineral in the human body, with approximately 99% of it found in bones and teeth. It plays a vital role in maintaining structural integrity, nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, hormonal secretion, blood coagulation, and enzyme activation.

Calcium homeostasis is tightly regulated through the interplay of several hormones, including parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin, and vitamin D. Dietary calcium intake, absorption, and excretion are also critical factors in maintaining optimal calcium levels in the body.

Hypocalcemia refers to low serum calcium levels, while hypercalcemia indicates high serum calcium levels. Both conditions can have detrimental effects on various organ systems and require medical intervention to correct.

Dinitrophenols (DNP) are a class of chemical compounds that contain two nitro groups (-NO2) attached to a phenol group. Dinitrophenols have been used in the past as industrial dyes, wood preservatives, and pesticides. However, they have also been misused as weight loss supplements due to their ability to increase metabolic rate and cause weight loss.

The use of DNP for weight loss is dangerous and has been linked to several fatalities. DNP works by disrupting the normal functioning of the mitochondria in cells, which are responsible for producing energy. This disruption causes an increase in metabolic rate, leading to a rapid breakdown of fat and carbohydrates, and ultimately weight loss. However, this increased metabolism can also produce excessive heat, leading to hyperthermia, dehydration, and damage to organs such as the heart, liver, and kidneys.

Due to their potential for serious harm, DNP-containing products are banned in many countries, including the United States. Medical professionals should be aware of the dangers associated with DNP use and advise patients accordingly.

Growth substances, in the context of medical terminology, typically refer to natural hormones or chemically synthesized agents that play crucial roles in controlling and regulating cell growth, differentiation, and division. They are also known as "growth factors" or "mitogens." These substances include:

1. Proteins: Examples include insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and fibroblast growth factors (FGFs). They bind to specific receptors on the cell surface, activating intracellular signaling pathways that promote cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival.

2. Steroids: Certain steroid hormones, such as androgens and estrogens, can also act as growth substances by binding to nuclear receptors and influencing gene expression related to cell growth and division.

3. Cytokines: Some cytokines, like interleukins (ILs) and hematopoietic growth factors (HGFs), contribute to the regulation of hematopoiesis, immune responses, and inflammation, thus indirectly affecting cell growth and differentiation.

These growth substances have essential roles in various physiological processes, such as embryonic development, tissue repair, and wound healing. However, abnormal or excessive production or response to these growth substances can lead to pathological conditions, including cancer, benign tumors, and other proliferative disorders.

An antigen-antibody reaction is a specific immune response that occurs when an antigen (a foreign substance, such as a protein or polysaccharide on the surface of a bacterium or virus) comes into contact with a corresponding antibody (a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to the antigen). The antigen and antibody bind together, forming an antigen-antibody complex. This interaction can neutralize the harmful effects of the antigen, mark it for destruction by other immune cells, or activate complement proteins to help eliminate the antigen from the body. Antigen-antibody reactions are a crucial part of the adaptive immune response and play a key role in the body's defense against infection and disease.

Pancreatic elastase is a type of elastase that is specifically produced by the pancreas. It is an enzyme that helps in digesting proteins found in the food we eat. Pancreatic elastase breaks down elastin, a protein that provides elasticity to tissues and organs in the body.

In clinical practice, pancreatic elastase is often measured in stool samples as a diagnostic tool to assess exocrine pancreatic function. Low levels of pancreatic elastase in stool may indicate malabsorption or exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, which can be caused by various conditions such as chronic pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, or pancreatic cancer.

Isoquinolines are not a medical term per se, but a chemical classification. They refer to a class of organic compounds that consist of a benzene ring fused to a piperidine ring. This structure is similar to that of quinoline, but with the nitrogen atom located at a different position in the ring.

Isoquinolines have various biological activities and can be found in some natural products, including certain alkaloids. Some isoquinoline derivatives have been developed as drugs for the treatment of various conditions, such as cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, and cancer. However, specific medical definitions related to isoquinolines typically refer to the use or effects of these specific drugs rather than the broader class of compounds.

Concanavalin A (Con A) is a type of protein known as a lectin, which is found in the seeds of the plant Canavalia ensiformis, also known as jack bean. It is often used in laboratory settings as a tool to study various biological processes, such as cell division and the immune response, due to its ability to bind specifically to certain sugars on the surface of cells. Con A has been extensively studied for its potential applications in medicine, including as a possible treatment for cancer and viral infections. However, more research is needed before these potential uses can be realized.

Complement C3 is a protein that plays a central role in the complement system, which is a part of the immune system that helps to clear pathogens and damaged cells from the body. Complement C3 can be activated through three different pathways: the classical pathway, the lectin pathway, and the alternative pathway. Once activated, it breaks down into two fragments, C3a and C3b.

C3a is an anaphylatoxin that helps to recruit immune cells to the site of infection or injury, while C3b plays a role in opsonization, which is the process of coating pathogens or damaged cells with proteins to make them more recognizable to the immune system. Additionally, C3b can also activate the membrane attack complex (MAC), which forms a pore in the membrane of target cells leading to their lysis or destruction.

In summary, Complement C3 is an important protein in the complement system that helps to identify and eliminate pathogens and damaged cells from the body through various mechanisms.

Ultracentrifugation is a medical and laboratory technique used for the separation of particles of different sizes, densities, or shapes from a mixture based on their sedimentation rates. This process involves the use of a specialized piece of equipment called an ultracentrifuge, which can generate very high centrifugal forces, much greater than those produced by a regular centrifuge.

In ultracentrifugation, a sample is placed in a special tube and spun at extremely high speeds, causing the particles within the sample to separate based on their size, shape, and density. The larger or denser particles will sediment faster and accumulate at the bottom of the tube, while smaller or less dense particles will remain suspended in the solution or sediment more slowly.

Ultracentrifugation is a valuable tool in various fields, including biochemistry, molecular biology, and virology. It can be used to purify and concentrate viruses, subcellular organelles, membrane fractions, ribosomes, DNA, and other macromolecules from complex mixtures. The technique can also provide information about the size, shape, and density of these particles, making it a crucial method for characterizing and studying their properties.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3 (CCL3), also known as macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1α), is a small signaling protein belonging to the chemokine family. Chemokines are a group of cytokines, or cell signaling molecules, that play important roles in immune responses and inflammation. They mediate their effects by interacting with specific receptors on the surface of target cells, leading to various biological responses such as chemotaxis (directed migration) of immune cells.

CCL3 is primarily produced by activated T cells, monocytes, macrophages, and other immune cells in response to infection or injury. It plays a crucial role in recruiting immune cells like monocytes, neutrophils, and dendritic cells to the sites of inflammation or infection. CCL3 also contributes to the activation and differentiation of immune cells, thereby participating in the regulation of adaptive immunity. Dysregulation of CCL3 has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammation, and cancer.

A lung is a pair of spongy, elastic organs in the chest that work together to enable breathing. They are responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide through the process of respiration. The left lung has two lobes, while the right lung has three lobes. The lungs are protected by the ribcage and are covered by a double-layered membrane called the pleura. The trachea divides into two bronchi, which further divide into smaller bronchioles, leading to millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli, where the exchange of gases occurs.

CD18 is a type of protein called an integrin that is found on the surface of many different types of cells in the human body, including white blood cells (leukocytes). It plays a crucial role in the immune system by helping these cells to migrate through blood vessel walls and into tissues where they can carry out their various functions, such as fighting infection and inflammation.

CD18 forms a complex with another protein called CD11b, and together they are known as Mac-1 or CR3 (complement receptor 3). This complex is involved in the recognition and binding of various molecules, including bacterial proteins and fragments of complement proteins, which help to trigger an immune response.

CD18 has been implicated in a number of diseases, including certain types of cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, and rheumatoid arthritis. Mutations in the gene that encodes CD18 can lead to a rare disorder called leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) type 1, which is characterized by recurrent bacterial infections and impaired wound healing.

Pertussis toxin is an exotoxin produced by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis, which is responsible for causing whooping cough in humans. This toxin has several effects on the host organism, including:

1. Adenylyl cyclase activation: Pertussis toxin enters the host cell and modifies a specific G protein (Gαi), leading to the continuous activation of adenylyl cyclase. This results in increased levels of intracellular cAMP, which disrupts various cellular processes.
2. Inhibition of immune response: Pertussis toxin impairs the host's immune response by inhibiting the migration and function of immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages. It also interferes with antigen presentation and T-cell activation, making it difficult for the body to clear the infection.
3. Increased inflammation: The continuous activation of adenylyl cyclase by pertussis toxin leads to increased production of proinflammatory cytokines, contributing to the severe coughing fits and other symptoms associated with whooping cough.

Pertussis toxin is an essential virulence factor for Bordetella pertussis, and its effects contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of whooping cough. Vaccination against pertussis includes inactivated or genetically detoxified forms of pertussis toxin, which provide immunity without causing disease symptoms.

Chemokines are a family of small proteins that are involved in immune responses and inflammation. They mediate the chemotaxis (directed migration) of various cells, including leukocytes (white blood cells). Chemokines are classified into four major subfamilies based on the arrangement of conserved cysteine residues near the amino terminus: CXC, CC, C, and CX3C.

CC chemokines, also known as β-chemokines, are characterized by the presence of two adjacent cysteine residues near their N-terminal end. There are 27 known human CC chemokines, including MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1), RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted), and eotaxin.

CC chemokines play important roles in the recruitment of immune cells to sites of infection or injury, as well as in the development and maintenance of immune responses. They bind to specific G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) on the surface of target cells, leading to the activation of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate cell migration, proliferation, and survival.

Dysregulation of CC chemokines and their receptors has been implicated in various inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, as well as in cancer. Therefore, targeting CC chemokine-mediated signaling pathways has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of these conditions.

The Macrophage-1 Antigen (also known as Macrophage Antigen-1 or CD14) is a glycoprotein found on the surface of various cells, including monocytes, macrophages, and some dendritic cells. It functions as a receptor for complexes formed by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and LPS-binding protein (LBP), which are involved in the immune response to gram-negative bacteria. CD14 plays a crucial role in activating immune cells and initiating the release of proinflammatory cytokines upon recognizing bacterial components.

In summary, Macrophage-1 Antigen is a cell surface receptor that contributes to the recognition and response against gram-negative bacteria by interacting with LPS-LBP complexes.

Chemokine receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that bind to chemokines, which are small signaling proteins involved in immune cell trafficking and inflammation. These receptors play a crucial role in the regulation of immune responses, hematopoiesis, and development. Chemokine receptors are expressed on the surface of various cells, including leukocytes, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts. Upon binding to their respective chemokines, these receptors activate intracellular signaling pathways that lead to cell migration, activation, or proliferation. There are several subfamilies of chemokine receptors, including CXCR, CCR, CX3CR, and XCR, each with distinct specificities for different chemokines. Dysregulation of chemokine receptor signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as autoimmune diseases, cancer, and viral infections.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Virulence factors in Bordetella pertussis, the bacterium that causes whooping cough, refer to the characteristics or components of the organism that contribute to its ability to cause disease. These virulence factors include:

1. Pertussis Toxin (PT): A protein exotoxin that inhibits the immune response and affects the nervous system, leading to the characteristic paroxysmal cough of whooping cough.
2. Adenylate Cyclase Toxin (ACT): A toxin that increases the levels of cAMP in host cells, disrupting their function and contributing to the pathogenesis of the disease.
3. Filamentous Hemagglutinin (FHA): A surface protein that allows the bacterium to adhere to host cells and evade the immune response.
4. Fimbriae: Hair-like appendages on the surface of the bacterium that facilitate adherence to host cells.
5. Pertactin (PRN): A surface protein that also contributes to adherence and is a common component of acellular pertussis vaccines.
6. Dermonecrotic Toxin: A toxin that causes localized tissue damage and necrosis, contributing to the inflammation and symptoms of whooping cough.
7. Tracheal Cytotoxin: A toxin that damages ciliated epithelial cells in the respiratory tract, impairing mucociliary clearance and increasing susceptibility to infection.

These virulence factors work together to enable Bordetella pertussis to colonize the respiratory tract, evade the host immune response, and cause the symptoms of whooping cough.

Peptides are short chains of amino acid residues linked by covalent bonds, known as peptide bonds. They are formed when two or more amino acids are joined together through a condensation reaction, which results in the elimination of a water molecule and the formation of an amide bond between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another.

Peptides can vary in length from two to about fifty amino acids, and they are often classified based on their size. For example, dipeptides contain two amino acids, tripeptides contain three, and so on. Oligopeptides typically contain up to ten amino acids, while polypeptides can contain dozens or even hundreds of amino acids.

Peptides play many important roles in the body, including serving as hormones, neurotransmitters, enzymes, and antibiotics. They are also used in medical research and therapeutic applications, such as drug delivery and tissue engineering.

Complement activation is the process by which the complement system, a part of the immune system, is activated to help eliminate pathogens and damaged cells from the body. The complement system consists of a group of proteins that work together to recognize and destroy foreign substances.

Activation of the complement system can occur through three different pathways: the classical pathway, the lectin pathway, and the alternative pathway. Each pathway involves a series of proteolytic reactions that ultimately result in the formation of the membrane attack complex (MAC), which creates a pore in the membrane of the target cell, leading to its lysis and removal.

The classical pathway is typically activated by the binding of antibodies to antigens on the surface of a pathogen or damaged cell. The lectin pathway is activated by the recognition of specific carbohydrate structures on the surface of microorganisms. The alternative pathway can be spontaneously activated and serves as an amplification loop for both the classical and lectin pathways.

Complement activation plays a crucial role in the immune response, but uncontrolled or excessive activation can also lead to tissue damage and inflammation. Dysregulation of complement activation has been implicated in various diseases, including autoimmune disorders, inflammatory conditions, and neurodegenerative diseases.

Interleukins (ILs) are a group of naturally occurring proteins that are important in the immune system. They are produced by various cells, including immune cells like lymphocytes and macrophages, and they help regulate the immune response by facilitating communication between different types of cells. Interleukins can have both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects, depending on the specific interleukin and the context in which it is produced. They play a role in various biological processes, including the development of immune responses, inflammation, and hematopoiesis (the formation of blood cells).

There are many different interleukins that have been identified, and they are numbered according to the order in which they were discovered. For example, IL-1, IL-2, IL-3, etc. Each interleukin has a specific set of functions and targets certain types of cells. Dysregulation of interleukins has been implicated in various diseases, including autoimmune disorders, infections, and cancer.

Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (CXCL12), also known as stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1), is a small signaling protein belonging to the chemokine family. Chemokines are a group of cytokines, or signaling molecules, that play important roles in immune responses and inflammation by recruiting and activating various immune cells.

CXCL12 is produced by several types of cells, including stromal cells, endothelial cells, and certain immune cells. It exerts its effects by binding to a specific receptor called C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), which is found on the surface of various cell types, including immune cells, stem cells, and some cancer cells.

The CXCL12-CXCR4 axis plays crucial roles in various physiological processes, such as embryonic development, tissue homeostasis, hematopoiesis (the formation of blood cells), and neurogenesis (the formation of neurons). Additionally, this signaling pathway has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including cancer metastasis, inflammatory diseases, and HIV infection.

In summary, Chemokine CXCL12 is a small signaling protein that binds to the CXCR4 receptor and plays essential roles in various physiological processes and pathological conditions.

A cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is a thin semi-permeable phospholipid bilayer that surrounds all cells in animals, plants, and microorganisms. It functions as a barrier to control the movement of substances in and out of the cell, allowing necessary molecules such as nutrients, oxygen, and signaling molecules to enter while keeping out harmful substances and waste products. The cell membrane is composed mainly of phospholipids, which have hydrophilic (water-loving) heads and hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails. This unique structure allows the membrane to be flexible and fluid, yet selectively permeable. Additionally, various proteins are embedded in the membrane that serve as channels, pumps, receptors, and enzymes, contributing to the cell's overall functionality and communication with its environment.

Drug receptors are specific protein molecules found on the surface of cells, to which drugs can bind. These receptors are part of the cell's communication system and are responsible for responding to neurotransmitters, hormones, and other signaling molecules in the body. When a drug binds to its corresponding receptor, it can alter the receptor's function and trigger a cascade of intracellular events that ultimately lead to a biological response.

Drug receptors can be classified into several types based on their function, including:

1. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs): These are the largest family of drug receptors and are involved in various physiological processes such as vision, olfaction, neurotransmission, and hormone signaling. They activate intracellular signaling pathways through heterotrimeric G proteins.
2. Ion channel receptors: These receptors form ion channels that allow the flow of ions across the cell membrane when activated. They are involved in rapid signal transduction and can be directly gated by ligands or indirectly through G protein-coupled receptors.
3. Enzyme-linked receptors: These receptors have an intracellular domain that functions as an enzyme, activating intracellular signaling pathways when bound to a ligand. Examples include receptor tyrosine kinases and receptor serine/threonine kinases.
4. Nuclear receptors: These receptors are located in the nucleus and function as transcription factors, regulating gene expression upon binding to their ligands.

Understanding drug receptors is crucial for developing new drugs and predicting their potential therapeutic and adverse effects. By targeting specific receptors, drugs can modulate cellular responses and produce desired pharmacological actions.

Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins (MIPs) are a group of chemokines, which are a type of signaling protein involved in immune responses and inflammation. Specifically, MIPs are chemotactic cytokines that attract monocytes, macrophages, and other immune cells to sites of infection or tissue damage. They play a crucial role in the recruitment and activation of these cells during the immune response.

There are several subtypes of MIPs, including MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and MIP-3α (also known as CCL3, CCL4, and CCL20, respectively). These proteins bind to specific G protein-coupled receptors on the surface of target cells, triggering a cascade of intracellular signaling events that lead to cell migration and activation.

MIPs have been implicated in a variety of inflammatory and immune-related conditions, including autoimmune diseases, cancer, and infectious diseases. They are also being studied as potential targets for the development of new therapies aimed at modulating the immune response in these conditions.

Hypersensitivity is an exaggerated or inappropriate immune response to a substance that is generally harmless to most people. It's also known as an allergic reaction. This abnormal response can be caused by various types of immunological mechanisms, including antibody-mediated reactions (types I, II, and III) and cell-mediated reactions (type IV). The severity of the hypersensitivity reaction can range from mild discomfort to life-threatening conditions. Common examples of hypersensitivity reactions include allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, food allergies, and anaphylaxis.

Capillary permeability refers to the ability of substances to pass through the walls of capillaries, which are the smallest blood vessels in the body. These tiny vessels connect the arterioles and venules, allowing for the exchange of nutrients, waste products, and gases between the blood and the surrounding tissues.

The capillary wall is composed of a single layer of endothelial cells that are held together by tight junctions. The permeability of these walls varies depending on the size and charge of the molecules attempting to pass through. Small, uncharged molecules such as water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide can easily diffuse through the capillary wall, while larger or charged molecules such as proteins and large ions have more difficulty passing through.

Increased capillary permeability can occur in response to inflammation, infection, or injury, allowing larger molecules and immune cells to enter the surrounding tissues. This can lead to swelling (edema) and tissue damage if not controlled. Decreased capillary permeability, on the other hand, can lead to impaired nutrient exchange and tissue hypoxia.

Overall, the permeability of capillaries is a critical factor in maintaining the health and function of tissues throughout the body.

Isoelectric focusing (IEF) is a technique used in electrophoresis, which is a method for separating proteins or other molecules based on their electrical charges. In IEF, a mixture of ampholytes (molecules that can carry both positive and negative charges) is used to create a pH gradient within a gel matrix. When an electric field is applied, the proteins or molecules migrate through the gel until they reach the point in the gradient where their net charge is zero, known as their isoelectric point (pI). At this point, they focus into a sharp band and stop moving, resulting in a highly resolved separation of the different components based on their pI. This technique is widely used in protein research for applications such as protein identification, characterization, and purification.

Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of a foreign substance, such as a bacterium or virus. They are capable of identifying and binding to specific antigens (foreign substances) on the surface of these invaders, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Antibodies are also known as immunoglobulins and come in several different types, including IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM, each with a unique function in the immune response. They are composed of four polypeptide chains, two heavy chains and two light chains, that are held together by disulfide bonds. The variable regions of the heavy and light chains form the antigen-binding site, which is specific to a particular antigen.

Peroxidase is a type of enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction in which hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is broken down into water (H2O) and oxygen (O2). This enzymatic reaction also involves the oxidation of various organic and inorganic compounds, which can serve as electron donors.

Peroxidases are widely distributed in nature and can be found in various organisms, including bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. They play important roles in various biological processes, such as defense against oxidative stress, breakdown of toxic substances, and participation in metabolic pathways.

The peroxidase-catalyzed reaction can be represented by the following chemical equation:

H2O2 + 2e- + 2H+ → 2H2O

In this reaction, hydrogen peroxide is reduced to water, and the electron donor is oxidized. The peroxidase enzyme facilitates the transfer of electrons between the substrate (hydrogen peroxide) and the electron donor, making the reaction more efficient and specific.

Peroxidases have various applications in medicine, industry, and research. For example, they can be used for diagnostic purposes, as biosensors, and in the treatment of wastewater and medical wastes. Additionally, peroxidases are involved in several pathological conditions, such as inflammation, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases, making them potential targets for therapeutic interventions.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

The endothelium is a thin layer of simple squamous epithelial cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and heart chambers. The vascular endothelium, specifically, refers to the endothelial cells that line the blood vessels. These cells play a crucial role in maintaining vascular homeostasis by regulating vasomotor tone, coagulation, platelet activation, inflammation, and permeability of the vessel wall. They also contribute to the growth and repair of the vascular system and are involved in various pathological processes such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and diabetes.

Methionine is an essential amino acid, which means that it cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through the diet. It plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including:

1. Protein synthesis: Methionine is one of the building blocks of proteins, helping to create new proteins and maintain the structure and function of cells.
2. Methylation: Methionine serves as a methyl group donor in various biochemical reactions, which are essential for DNA synthesis, gene regulation, and neurotransmitter production.
3. Antioxidant defense: Methionine can be converted to cysteine, which is involved in the formation of glutathione, a potent antioxidant that helps protect cells from oxidative damage.
4. Homocysteine metabolism: Methionine is involved in the conversion of homocysteine back to methionine through a process called remethylation, which is essential for maintaining normal homocysteine levels and preventing cardiovascular disease.
5. Fat metabolism: Methionine helps facilitate the breakdown and metabolism of fats in the body.

Foods rich in methionine include meat, fish, dairy products, eggs, and some nuts and seeds.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Fibroblasts are specialized cells that play a critical role in the body's immune response and wound healing process. They are responsible for producing and maintaining the extracellular matrix (ECM), which is the non-cellular component present within all tissues and organs, providing structural support and biochemical signals for surrounding cells.

Fibroblasts produce various ECM proteins such as collagens, elastin, fibronectin, and laminins, forming a complex network of fibers that give tissues their strength and flexibility. They also help in the regulation of tissue homeostasis by controlling the turnover of ECM components through the process of remodeling.

In response to injury or infection, fibroblasts become activated and start to proliferate rapidly, migrating towards the site of damage. Here, they participate in the inflammatory response, releasing cytokines and chemokines that attract immune cells to the area. Additionally, they deposit new ECM components to help repair the damaged tissue and restore its functionality.

Dysregulation of fibroblast activity has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including fibrosis (excessive scarring), cancer (where they can contribute to tumor growth and progression), and autoimmune diseases (such as rheumatoid arthritis).

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid is a type of clinical specimen obtained through a procedure called bronchoalveolar lavage. This procedure involves inserting a bronchoscope into the lungs and instilling a small amount of saline solution into a specific area of the lung, then gently aspirating the fluid back out. The fluid that is recovered is called bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

BAL fluid contains cells and other substances that are present in the lower respiratory tract, including the alveoli (the tiny air sacs where gas exchange occurs). By analyzing BAL fluid, doctors can diagnose various lung conditions, such as pneumonia, interstitial lung disease, and lung cancer. They can also monitor the effectiveness of treatments for these conditions by comparing the composition of BAL fluid before and after treatment.

BAL fluid is typically analyzed for its cellular content, including the number and type of white blood cells present, as well as for the presence of bacteria, viruses, or other microorganisms. The fluid may also be tested for various proteins, enzymes, and other biomarkers that can provide additional information about lung health and disease.

Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) is a type of cytokine, which is a small signaling protein involved in immune response and hematopoiesis (the formation of blood cells). GM-CSF's specific role is to stimulate the production, proliferation, and activation of granulocytes (a type of white blood cell that fights against infection) and macrophages (large white blood cells that eat foreign substances, bacteria, and dead or dying cells).

In medical terms, GM-CSF is often used in therapeutic settings to boost the production of white blood cells in patients undergoing chemotherapy or radiation treatment for cancer. This can help to reduce the risk of infection during these treatments. It can also be used to promote the growth and differentiation of stem cells in bone marrow transplant procedures.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

'C3H' is the name of an inbred strain of laboratory mice that was developed at the Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine. The mice are characterized by their uniform genetic background and have been widely used in biomedical research for many decades.

The C3H strain is particularly notable for its susceptibility to certain types of cancer, including mammary tumors and lymphomas. It also has a high incidence of age-related macular degeneration and other eye diseases. The strain is often used in studies of immunology, genetics, and carcinogenesis.

Like all inbred strains, the C3H mice are the result of many generations of brother-sister matings, which leads to a high degree of genetic uniformity within the strain. This makes them useful for studying the effects of specific genes or environmental factors on disease susceptibility and other traits. However, it also means that they may not always be representative of the genetic diversity found in outbred populations, including humans.

Trypsin is a proteolytic enzyme, specifically a serine protease, that is secreted by the pancreas as an inactive precursor, trypsinogen. Trypsinogen is converted into its active form, trypsin, in the small intestine by enterokinase, which is produced by the intestinal mucosa.

Trypsin plays a crucial role in digestion by cleaving proteins into smaller peptides at specific arginine and lysine residues. This enzyme helps to break down dietary proteins into amino acids, allowing for their absorption and utilization by the body. Additionally, trypsin can activate other zymogenic pancreatic enzymes, such as chymotrypsinogen and procarboxypeptidases, thereby contributing to overall protein digestion.

Ward PA, Lepow IH, Newman LJ (April 1968). "Bacterial factors chemotactic for polymorphonuclear leukocytes". The American ... "The isolation and partial characterization of neutrophil chemotactic factors from Escherichia coli". Journal of Immunology. 114 ...
fMLF led to the first discovery of a leukocyte receptor for a chemotactic factor, defined three different types of fMLF ... Becker EL, Showell HJ (Jun 1974). "The ability of chemotactic factors to induce lysosomal enzyme release. II. The mechanism of ... O'Flaherty JT, Showell HJ, Ward PA (May 1977). "Neutropenia induced by systemic infusion of chemotactic factors". Journal of ... fMLF is the prototypical representative of the N-formylated oligopeptide family of chemotactic factors. These oligopeptides are ...
"CXCL17 is a major chemotactic factor for lung macrophages". Journal of Immunology. 193 (3): 1468-74. doi:10.4049/jimmunol. ...
Deuel TF, Senior RM, Chang D, Griffin GL, Heinrikson RL, Kaiser ET (July 1981). "Platelet factor 4 is chemotactic for ... Platelet-activating factor Platelet-derived growth factor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000163737 - Ensembl, May 2017 ... Maurer AM, Zhou B, Han ZC (December 2006). "Roles of platelet factor 4 in hematopoiesis and angiogenesis". Growth Factors. 24 ( ... "The control of angiogenesis and tumor invasion by platelet factor-4 and platelet factor-4-derived molecules". Seminars in ...
Larsen CP, Ismail W, Kurtin PJ, Vrana JA, Dasari S, Nasr SH (2016). "Leukocyte chemotactic factor 2 amyloidosis (ALECT2) is a ... Hutton, H.L.; DeMarco, M.L.; Magil, A.B.; Taylor, P. (2014). "Renal leukocyte chemotactic factor 2 (LECT2) amyloidosis in first ... Murphy, C. L.; Wang, S.; Kestler, D.; Larsen, C.; Benson, D.; Weiss, D. T. (2010). "Leukocyte chemotactic factor 2 (LECT2)- ... Benson, M. D.; James, S.; Scott, K.; Liepnieks, J. J.; Kluve-Beckerman, B. (April 2008). "Leukocyte chemotactic factor 2: A ...
M2 cells can also secrete angiogenic and chemotactic factors. These cells can be distinguished based on the different ... M2d are pro-angiogenic cells that secrete IL-10, TGF-β, and vascular endothelial growth factor and are induced by IL-6 and A2 ... IL-9 can function as a growth factor for ILC-2 and thereby assist in the induction of Mregs. Another cytokine that helps the ... November 2018). "Recombinant factor VIII Fc fusion protein drives regulatory macrophage polarization". Blood Advances. 2 (21): ...
OPN was also found to act as a macrophage chemotactic factor. In rhesus monkey, OPN prevents macrophages from leaving the ... tumour necrosis factor α [TNFα], infterleukin-1β [IL-1β]), angiotensin II, transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and parathyroid ... Firstly, it has chemotactic properties, which promote cell recruitment to inflammatory sites. It also functions as an adhesion ... OPN is an important anti-apoptotic factor in many circumstances. OPN blocks the activation-induced cell death of macrophages ...
Generation of a factor chemotactic for polymorphonuclear leukocytes". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 128 (2): 259-75. ... The availability of this technology led to the discovery of C5a, a major chemotactic factor involved in acute inflammation. The ... Zigmond SH (November 1977). "Ability of polymorphonuclear leukocytes to orient in gradients of chemotactic factors". The ... The chemotactic factor ligands and receptors related to formyl peptides are summarized in the related article, Formyl peptide ...
Zigmond S.H. (1977). "Ability of polymorphonuclear leukocytes to orient in gradients of chemotactic factors". Journal of Cell ... Boyden, S.V. (1962). "The chemotactic effect of mixtures of antibody and antigen on polymorphonuclear leucocytes". J Exp Med. ... Chambers isolated by filters are proper tools for accurate determination of chemotactic behavior. The pioneer type of these ... Chemotaxis assays are experimental tools for evaluation of chemotactic ability of prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells. A wide ...
Little FF, Cruikshank WW, Center DM (2001). "Il-9 stimulates release of chemotactic factors from human bronchial epithelial ... 2002). "Human bronchial epithelium expresses interleukin-9 receptors and releases neutrophil chemotactic factor". Exp. Lung Res ... Knoops L, Renauld JC (2005). "IL-9 and its receptor: from signal transduction to tumorigenesis". Growth Factors. 22 (4): 207-15 ...
Gallin EK, Gallin JI (Oct 1977). "Interaction of chemotactic factors with human macrophages: Induction of transmembrane ... Lomax KJ, Leto TL, Nunoi H, Gallin JI, Malech HL (Jul 1989). "Recombinant 47-kD cytosol factor restores NADPH oxidase in ... "Cloning of a 67K neutrophil oxidase factor with similarity to a noncatalytic region of p60c-src". Science. 248 (4956): 727-730 ... "Two forms of autosomal chronic granulomatous disease lack distinct neutrophil cytosol factors". Science. 242 (4883): 1298-1301 ...
1990). "CAP37, a human neutrophil-derived chemotactic factor with monocyte specific activity". J. Clin. Invest. 85 (5): 1468-76 ... The protein encoded by this gene is an azurophil granule antimicrobial protein, with monocyte chemotactic and antibacterial ... Neutrophile elastase homologues with strong monocyte and fibroblast chemotactic activities". Eur. J. Biochem. 197 (2): 535-47. ... a microbicidal and chemotactic protein from human granulocytes". J Immunol. 147 (9): 3210-4. PMID 1919011. "Entrez Gene: AZU1 ...
2001). "The neuronal repellent Slit inhibits leukocyte chemotaxis induced by chemotactic factors". Nature. 410 (6831): 948-52. ...
Little FF, Cruikshank WW, Center DM (September 2001). "Il-9 stimulates release of chemotactic factors from human bronchial ... "Expression cloning of cDNA encoding a novel human hematopoietic growth factor: human homologue of murine T-cell growth factor ... It was first purified and characterized as a T cell and mast cell growth factor and termed as P40, based on their molecular ... Whereas the report of others confirms that TGF-β is an essential factor for IL-9 induction. For the first time (Lars Blom, ...
2001). "The neuronal repellent Slit inhibits leukocyte chemotaxis induced by chemotactic factors". Nature. 410 (6831): 948-952 ... The response is stimulated by chemical factors released by injured cells. These chemical factors induce all associated ... Other factors might also provide chemorepulsive effects on immune cells, and these inhibitory effects might be regulated by the ... 2001). "Stromal-derived factor-1 in human tumors recruits and alters the function of plasmacytoid precursor dendritic cells". ...
IL-8, also known as neutrophil chemotactic factor, has two primary functions. It induces chemotaxis in target cells, primarily ... Modi WS, Dean M, Seuanez HN, Mukaida N, Matsushima K, O'Brien SJ (1990). "Monocyte-derived neutrophil chemotactic factor (MDNCF ... "Nuclear factor-kappaB-dependent induction of interleukin-8 gene expression by tumor necrosis factor alpha: evidence for an ... IL-8 has also been implied to have a role in colorectal cancer by acting as an autocrine growth factor for colon carcinoma cell ...
"Urotensin II is a new chemotactic factor for UT receptor-expressing monocytes". Journal of Immunology. 179 (2): 901-9. doi: ... injection of urotensin II it causes an increase of corticotropin releasing factor through the activation of the hypothalamic ...
Leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin-2 (LECT2) is a protein first described in 1996 as a chemotactic factor for neutrophils, i.e. ... Larsen CP, Ismail W, Kurtin PJ, Vrana JA, Dasari S, Nasr SH (2016). "Leukocyte chemotactic factor 2 amyloidosis (ALECT2) is a ... Larsen CP, Beggs ML, Wilson JD, Lathrop SL (2016). "Prevalence and organ distribution of leukocyte chemotactic factor 2 ... 1997). "Purification and primary amino acid sequence of a novel neutrophil chemotactic factor LECT2". Immunol. Lett. 52 (1): 9- ...
C3a, C5a, IL-8 are all chemotactic factors of the activated complement system. Part of their role is to recruit ... Other factors that will influence the survival rate are the severity of proteinuria, blood urea nitrogen levels, serum creatine ... Males are at a higher risk factor than females. Overall, about 50% of patients with DPGN require daily dialysis within 6-12 ... They then looked at the complement factors and immunoglobulin deposits to identify the underlying cause. The aims of this study ...
Warheit D. B.; Hill L. H.; George G.; Brody A. R. (1986). "Time Course of chemotactic factor generation and the macrophage ... The cytokines, transforming growth factor beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha, appear to play major roles in the development ... local immune system and provoke an inflammatory reaction dominated by lung macrophages that respond to chemotactic factors ... "Transforming Growth Factor-β1 overexpression in Tumor Necrosis Factor-α receptor knockout mice induces fibroproliferative lung ...
The intermediate is then further metabolized to: a) leukotriene A4 which is then metabolized to the chemotactic factor for ... the leukocyte chemotactic factors, 5-Hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid and 5-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid; or c) the specialized pro- ...
... factor VIII, fibrinogen, fibronectin, platelet-derived growth factor, and chemotactic agents. Delta granules, or dense bodies, ... fibroblast growth factor, insulin-like growth factor 1, platelet-derived epidermal growth factor, and vascular endothelial ... Platelets release platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), a potent chemotactic agent; and TGF beta, which stimulates the ... Granule characteristics: α granules (alpha granules) - containing P-selectin, platelet factor 4, transforming growth factor-β1 ...
Thus, chemotactic factor CCL7 recruits leukocytes to infected tissues to mediate the immune response. Furthermore, CCL7 has an ... Van Coillie E, Van Damme J, Opdenakker G (March 1999). "The MCP/eotaxin subfamily of CC chemokines". Cytokine & Growth Factor ... Opdenakker G, Froyen G, Fiten P, Proost P, Van Damme J (March 1993). "Human monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (MCP-3): molecular ... Opdenakker G, Froyen G, Fiten P, Proost P, Van Damme J (March 1993). "Human monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (MCP-3): molecular ...
Monocytes: inhibit their migration response to chemotactic factors and release of pro-inflammatory mediators. Lymphocytes: ... complement components C5a and C3a which are chemotactic factors formed during the activation of the host's blood complement ... foreign organism-derived N-formylated oligopeptide chemotactic factors (e.g. N-formylmethionine-leucyl-phenylalanine); b) ... Barnig C, Levy BD (2015). "Innate immunity is a key factor for the resolution of inflammation in asthma". European Respiratory ...
... with homology to the chemotactic factor receptors". Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics. 74 (4): 286-90. doi:10.1159/000134436. PMID ...
... may refer to: Eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis, released from mast cell granules. Economic Cooperation ...
"Cloning and sequencing of the cDNA for human monocyte chemotactic and activating factor (MCAF)". Biochemical and Biophysical ... Platelet derived growth factor is a major inducer of CCL2 gene. CCR2 and CCR4 are two cell surface receptors that bind CCL2. ... In the bone, CCL2 is expressed by mature osteoclasts and osteoblasts and it is under control of nuclear factor κB (NFκB). In ... CCL2 exhibits a chemotactic activity for monocytes and basophils. However, it does not attract neutrophils or eosinophils. ...
The growth of these axons is also governed by chemotactic factors secreted from Schwann cells. Injury to the peripheral nervous ... All these factors contribute to the formation of what is known as a glial scar, which axons cannot grow across. The proximal ... Growth factors are not expressed or re-expressed; for instance, the extracellular matrix is lacking laminins. Glial scars ... Fansa H, Schneider W, Wolf G, Keilhoff G (July 2002). "Influence of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) on nerve autografts ...
"Profiling the Sulfation Specificities of Glycosaminoglycan Interactions with Growth Factors and Chemotactic Proteins Using ... functions as a molecular recognition element for growth factors and modulates neuronal growth, indicating that these specific ...
Part of this cell response is brought on by inflammatory mediators such as chemotactic factors. Other processes involved with ... Host factors include a genetic susceptibility, factors associated with poverty, aging and physical inactivity. Asthma and ... In Europe airway hyperresponsiveness is rated as the second most important risk factor after smoking. A host factor of an ... The primary risk factor for COPD globally is tobacco smoking with an increased rate of developing COPD shown in smokers and ex- ...
LPG, lipophosphoglycan; ACP, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase; LCF, Leishmania chemotactic factor; LTB4, leukotriene B4; LXA ... Similar to other Leishmania factors, like the elongation factor-1alpha (EF-1alpha) and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase ... and Leishmania chemotactic factor (LCF) inhibit the respiratory burst, (Figure 1C) (Remaley et al., 1984; Al Tuwaijri et al., ... Leishmania promastigotes release a granulocyte chemotactic factor and induce interleukin-8 release but inhibit gamma interferon ...
Ward PA, Lepow IH, Newman LJ (April 1968). "Bacterial factors chemotactic for polymorphonuclear leukocytes". The American ... "The isolation and partial characterization of neutrophil chemotactic factors from Escherichia coli". Journal of Immunology. 114 ...
... includes a number of secreted growth factors and interferons involved in mitogenic, chemotactic, and inflammatory activity; ... Platelet factor 4 induces bone loss by inhibiting the integrin alpha5-FAK-ERK pathway. Title: Platelet factor 4 induces bone ... Platelet factor 4 is a biomarker for lymphatic-promoted disorders. Title: Platelet factor 4 is a biomarker for lymphatic- ... Platelet factors attenuate inflammation and rescue cognition in ageing. Title: Platelet factors attenuate inflammation and ...
Producing chemotactic factors, as well as RANK ligand (RANKL; a transmembrane or soluble protein essential for the formation, ... has been shown to be a chemotactic factor that attracts tumor cells to bone. ... These factors make the orthopedic surgeons task in prophylactic or reconstructive surgery more challenging. [18] ... Prognostic factors of postrecurrence survival in completely resected stage I non-small cell lung cancer with distant metastasis ...
... chemotactic factors and growth factors; deposition and retention modeling of inhaled non-fibrous and fibrous particulate ... The aspect ratio of the fibers is an important factor for their deposition, and several figures from Dr. Yus work are attached ... studies, example attached). An important factor in many studies is the existence of a non-fibrous fraction in fiber samples ... Overall, then, there are a number of possible factors which may interfere with particle clearance, but none have been ...
Categories: Chemotactic Factors Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted ...
cohort study: Get ppl w/risk factor & w/o risk factor. Follow them and figure out relative risk of getting the disease. ... 2 groups are risk-factor vs no risk factor. Follow them and see what their relative risk of developing the disease is. ... 2 groups are risk-factor vs no risk factor. Follow them and see what their relative risk of developing the disease is. ... case-control: get ppl w/disease & w/o disease - look back in their past and find presence/absence of risk factor. Retrospective ...
5-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid and 7-hydroxy DCHA were inactive as chemotactic factors whereas 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid ...
Small amounts of allergen extract initiated formation of complement dependent factors which were chemotactic for human ...
... increased expression of chemotactic factors during later stages of alveolarization and vascular remodeling may suggest an ... fibroblast growth factor receptor, platelet-derived growth factor, nerve growth factor, and stem cell factor. ... Transcription factors (Hopx, Nkx2-1, Errfi1), growth factors (Fgfr2, Vegfa) and genes involved in pulmonary surfactant ... Several growth factors and transcription factors including NK2 homeobox 1 (Nkx2-1), GATA binding protein 6 (Gata6), GLI-Kruppel ...
... produce a variety of lymphokines that are involved in eosinophilic maturation and act as eosinophil-chemotactic factors. Damage ... the synthesis of transforming growth factor-alpha and transforming growth factor-beta is not increased in infiltrating ... The source of the chronic irritation also is not evident in a number of patients; therefore, factors other than trauma may be ... In most patients with eosinophilic ulcers, trauma is the etiologic factor, and the apparent source of irritation is easily ...
IL-8 is a chemotactic factor that attracts neutrophils, basophils, and T-cells, but not monocytes. It is also involved in ... IL-8 is a chemotactic factor that attracts neutrophils, basophils, and T-cells, but not monocytes. It is also involved in ... Monocyte-derived neutrophil chemotactic factor, MDNCF, Monocyte-derived neutrophil-activating peptide, MONAP, Neutrophil- ... activating protein 1, NAP-1, Protein 3-10C, T-cell chemotactic factor. Gene name: IL8, CXCL8 ...
Several factors determine RSV virulence including the infective properties of individual strains and viral load (VL). Disease ... Research has demonstrated that there exists a complex interplay between viral and host factors that determines the severity of ... This chapter outlines our current understanding of these factors and provides an oversight of their relative importance. ... outcome from RSV infection is also impacted considerably by a variety of host factors with the host immune response ...
In the first aim of this thesis, the dose of insulin-like growth factor-1 in the cup walls was optimized to enhance the ... polymer-based walls that release insulin-like growth factor-1, which is well-established for inducing chondrocyte migration, ... with native cartilage can be strengthened by inducing chondrocyte migration to the graft-cartilage junction through chemotactic ... factor release from the walls of the cup, and 2) graft integration with host bone and the formation of calcified cartilage can ...
Chemotactic Factor, Macrophage Factor, Macrophage Chemotactic Macrophage Chemotactic Factor Macrophage Chemotactic Factors ... Factor, Chemotactic. Factor, Macrophage Chemotactic. Macrophage Chemotactic Factor. Macrophage Chemotactic Factors. Tree number ... 1980; see CHEMOTACTIC FACTORS 1984-1990; for CHEMOTACTIC FACTORS, MACROPHAGE see CHEMOTACTIC FACTORS, MACROPHAGE 1980-2007. ... Chemotactic Factor. Chemotactic Factor, Macrophage. Chemotactic Factors, Macrophage. Chemotaxin. Chemotaxins. Cytotaxinogens. ...
Epidermal growth factor-mediated transient phosphorylation and membrane localization of myosin II-B are required for efficient ...
Chemotactic Factors 23% * Neoplasms 19% * The tumor mycobiome: A paradigm shift in cancer pathogenesis. Li, X. & Saxena, D., ...
Monocyte Chemotactic Protein 1 (MCP-1), Differentiation-Inducing Factor (DIA), growth-related oncogene and onco-statin-M will ... TNF‐α is a major factor in rheumatoid arthritis where it is released when rheumatoid factor (ACPA) is formed were also TNF is ... Which is due to the diet, heredity combinations and raised level of urate in serum [39,40]. Risk factors that cause gout are ... Gouty arthritis can be caused by various factors where the mechanism is when the uric acid level in our blood increased due to ...
Monocyte derived neutrophil chemotactic factor (MDNCF); Neutrophil activating factor (NAF); Neutrophil activating peptide 1 ( ... NAP1); Neutrophil activating protein 1 (NAP1); SCYB8; T cell chemotactic factor; T Cell Interferon ... Lymphocyte derived neutrophil activating factor; LYNAP; Macrophage Activating Factor (MAF); Monocyte derived neutrophil ... Many of the induced genes are transcription factors such as IRF1 that are able to further drive regulation of a next wave of ...
Critical Role of Monocyte Chemotactic Protein -۱ and Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor in Children who Have Pneumonia. ... Prognostic Factor Predicting Severity of COVID- ۱۹ : Narrative Review. Authors: Mohammad Reza Rouhbakhsh Zahmatkesh، Saman ... Identifying the pattern and risk factors for potential medication dosing errors in chronic renal impairment of critically ill ...
Interleukin-8: A potent neutrophil chemotactic factor. Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed.. 1995. 73. F54. 7552603. 43.. ... Interleukin-8 (IL-8): The major neutrophil chemotactic factor in the lung. Exp. Lung Res.. 1991. 17. 17. 23. 10.3109/ ... Tumour necrosis factors receptor associated signalling molecules and their role in activation of apoptosis, JNK and NF-kappaB. ... A metalloproteinase disintegrin that releases tumour-necrosis factor-alpha from cells. Nature. 1997. 385. 729. 733. 9034190. 47 ...
release of chemotactic factors & inflammatory mediators. - activate complement & platelets. - disrupt lysosomes in leucocytes ...
RANTES and stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α), on human CD45RO+ T cells migrating within an ECM-like context. For this ... TNF-α present in the ECM at sites of inflammation may function to anchor T cells recruited to these sites by chemotactic ... RANTES and stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α), on human CD45RO+ T cells migrating within an ECM-like context. For this ... TNF-α present in the ECM at sites of inflammation may function to anchor T cells recruited to these sites by chemotactic ...
D23 - Biological Factors. Chemotactic Factors, Macrophage Chemotactic Factors. D27 - Chemical Actions and Uses. Biological ...
... produce the chemotactic factors CCL-4, CCL-5, and CCL-11. In addition we demonstrate that circulating plasmablasts are expanded ... produced the chemotactic factors CCL4, CCL5, and CCL11; and (4) induced production of these same chemokines by activated ... Profibrotic soluble factors and collagen production in cocultures were assessed by using ELISAs and Luminex assays. RNA ... RESULTS: B cells from patients with IgG4-RD (1) produced the profibrotic molecule platelet-derived growth factor B and ...
Possible transmission of leukocyte chemotactic factor 2 amyloidosis after interpopulational liver transplantation. ... read.qxmd.com/read/38444123/possible-transmission-of-leukocyte-chemotactic-factor-2-amyloidosis-after-interpopulational-liver- ... This study evaluates the changes of age-of-onset (AOO) and other age-related clinical factors within and among families ...
... which activates factor XII. Subsequently, factor XI and, eventually, factor X are activated by a complex of factor IX, factor ... TF interacts with factor VIIa to form factor VIIa-TF complex, which activates factors X and IX. Activation of coagulation in ... macrophage inhibitory factor; PAF = platelet-activating factor; SDC-1 = syndecan-1; TNF = tumor necrosis factor; VAP-1 = ... macrophage inhibitory factor; PAF = platelet-activating factor; SDC-1 = syndecan-1; TNF = tumor necrosis factor; VAP-1 = ...
Pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemotactic factors increase insulin resistance in obesity. Therefore, a greater systemic ... The immune system is a determinant factor in defense against viral infections. Thus, when it acts in a balanced and effective ... and tumoral necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), which are products of the Toll-Like receptors 4 (TLR4) pathway. The SARS-CoV-2 ... and the lymphedema arose after the action of some external factor. However, there are no studies in the literature that ...
  • The study evaluated, with an immunoassay, the concentrations of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta (MIP-1beta), in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of 12 smokers affected by chronic bronchitis and 14 smoking, 15 nonsmoking and six exsmoking healthy subjects. (ersjournals.com)
  • This development occurs under the influence of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), which is secreted by various cell types (eg, endothelial cells, fibroblasts). (msdmanuals.com)
  • At infection sites, activated T cells secrete cytokines (eg, interferon-gamma [IFN-gamma]) that induce production of macrophage migration inhibitory factor, preventing macrophages from leaving. (msdmanuals.com)
  • An increase of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 is related to smoking habit and seems consistent with a lung inflammatory reaction. (ersjournals.com)
  • Despite being one of the most recently described amyloid proteins, amyloid composed of leukocyte chemotactic factor 2 (ALECT2) is actually quite prevalent. (arkanalabs.com)
  • Prevalence and morphology of leukocyte chemotactic factor 2-associated amyloid in renal biopsies. (arkanalabs.com)
  • Clinical, morphologic, and genetic features of renal leukocyte chemotactic factor 2 amyloidosis. (arkanalabs.com)
  • Characterization and outcomes of renal leukocyte chemotactic factor 2-associated amyloidosis. (arkanalabs.com)
  • Leukocyte chemotactic factor 2 amyloidosis (ALECT2) is a common form of renal amyloidosis among Egyptians. (arkanalabs.com)
  • Renal leukocyte chemotactic factor 2 (LECT2) amyloidosis in First Nations people in northern British Columbia, Canada: a report of 4 cases. (arkanalabs.com)
  • Diagnosis, pathogenesis and outcome in leucocyte chemotactic factor 2 (ALECT2) amyloidosis. (arkanalabs.com)
  • therefore, factors other than trauma may be involved in the pathogenesis of these ulcers. (medscape.com)
  • During inflammation, chemotactic signals draw neutrophils and macrophages to the site of injury for phagocytosis [ 5 , 9 , 10 ]. (medsci.org)
  • Despite the fact that macrophages in the early stage may participate in sustaining the inflammatory response and contribute to secondary damage, these cells also release various growth factors which directly accelerate tissue repair and regeneration [ 5 , 11 ]. (medsci.org)
  • Small amounts of allergen extract initiated formation of complement dependent factors which were chemotactic for human polymorphonuclear leucocytes. (cdc.gov)
  • CXCL12 derived from the peripheral nerves stimulated the invasion and chemotactic migration of CXCR4-positive cancer cells in a paracrine manner, eventually leading to PNI. (oncotarget.com)
  • Neutrophils are first in infiltrating infection sites and could act either favoring or protecting against infection, depending on factors such as the genetic background of the host or the parasite species. (frontiersin.org)
  • Asthma likely develops because of both a genetic predisposition preventive strategies designed to reduce the morbidity and mor- and exposure to environmental factors. (cdc.gov)
  • FcRn augments induction of tissue factor activity by IgG-containing immune complexes. (nih.gov)
  • In certain predisposed individuals, recurrent trauma may lead to the alteration of tissue antigens or ingress of unknown factors (eg, viral particles, toxic microbial products), which result in a hypersensitivity or allergic reaction. (medscape.com)
  • [ 4 ] This observation is in contrast to that of the animal wound-healing model, in which eosinophils that express transforming growth factor are typically recruited to healing tissue sites. (medscape.com)
  • Nowadays, research highlights a deeper understanding of the complex interplay of cells and the distinct influence of the different cytokines and growth factors, and unfolds the molecular biology of skin wound healing. (karger.com)
  • Orthologous to several human genes including PF4 (platelet factor 4). (nih.gov)
  • These cancer driving chemotactic pathways are well-characterized and currently being exploited with the goal of develop oncologic therapies [5]. (openwetware.org)
  • In most patients with eosinophilic ulcers, trauma is the etiologic factor, and the apparent source of irritation is easily identified. (medscape.com)
  • CC-chemokines are chemotactic factors expressed in a wide range of cell types and tissues. (ersjournals.com)
  • However, attaining proper release kinetics of multiple factors is a challenge even when polymers are used in conjugation for delivery [5]. (openwetware.org)
  • It is widely expressed in endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and monocytes in response to several atherogenic stimulants such as CD40 ligand, platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and oxidized low density lipoprotein. (biolegend.com)
  • Is the monocyte chemotactic protein-1 -2518 G allele a risk factor for severe acute pancreatitis? (nih.gov)
  • Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) gene expression is altered by an A/G polymorphism (-2518), with the G allele increasing MCP-1 production. (nih.gov)
  • Inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 1beta, interleukin 6, interleukin 8, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1) and cells were analyzed in lavage fluid as the primary endpoint. (asahq.org)
  • Potential mechanisms underlying impaired chemotactic responsiveness of neonatal neutrophils were investigated. (nih.gov)
  • IL-8 is a chemotactic factor that attracts neutrophils, basophils, and T-cells, but not monocytes. (joplink.net)
  • Two distinct chemoattractants were compared: bacterially derived N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) and a unique chemotactic monoclonal antibody, designated DL1.2, which binds to a neutrophil antigen with an apparent molecular mass of 120 kDa. (nih.gov)
  • Small amounts of allergen extract initiated formation of complement dependent factors which were chemotactic for human polymorphonuclear leucocytes. (cdc.gov)
  • Most plasma angiogenic factors were higher in GBM than in MI patients. (hindawi.com)
  • It is widely expressed in endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and monocytes in response to several atherogenic stimulants such as CD40 ligand, platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and oxidized low density lipoprotein. (biolegend.com)
  • M.A. Chaplain and A. Stuart, A model mechanism for the chemotactic response of endothelial cells to tumour angiogenesis factor. (esaim-cocv.org)
  • It starts when large tumors become hypoxic, and secrete growth factors like Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF). (nih.gov)
  • We investigated the five most important EPC subsets and 21 angiogenesis-related plasma factors in peripheral blood samples of 29 patients with glioma, 14 patients with myocardial infarction, and 20 healthy people as controls, by FACS and Luminex assay. (hindawi.com)
  • Chemoattractants guide EPCs to their target tissues, where they exit from blood vessels and fuel angiogenesis by secreting proangiogenic factors. (hindawi.com)
  • We also find that the cleaved form of VEGF, removed from the matrix by the action of MMPs, is distributed with a gradient that points away from the tumor, calling into question whether the cleaved form of VEGF plays a chemotactic role in tumor-induced angiogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • Though specialized to serve distinct functions among tissues, epithelial cells respond similarly to injury and infection, and regulate leukocyte influx through the production of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines and other factors that modulate chemokine gradients and effect leukocyte migration. (medscape.com)
  • Since chemotactic migration is guided by growth factor gradients, we have devised a system of reaction-diffusion equations to model the diffusion, binding, and cleavage of VEGF in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • For this purpose, we used a newly constructed three-dimensional gel system designed to follow, in real time, the migration of individual leukocytes along chemotactic gradients in vitro. (tau.ac.il)
  • For more than 20 years, the protective power of breast milk has been known against many diseases and with special regard to infections due to its richness in immune-related factors like human milk oligosaccharides, milk proteins and lipids, and other active mediators (see section Breast Milk and Mediators and Breast Milk and Viral Infection). (frontiersin.org)
  • Here we studied the interplay between a pleiotropic cytokine, TNF-α, and two prototypic chemoattractants, RANTES and stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α), on human CD45RO + T cells migrating within an ECM-like context. (tau.ac.il)
  • Background: Numerous growth factors, cytokine, mitogen and chemotactic factors are involved in wound healing. (cumhuriyet.edu.tr)
  • The Laboratory of Host Immunity and Microbiome (LHIM), examines the factors controlling immunity and inflammation, whether they are host intrinsic (e.g., tissue-specific or the consequence of tissue-tissue communication) or extrinsic (e.g., involving the microbiota, nutrition, or infection). (nih.gov)
  • Thus, TNF-α present in the ECM at sites of inflammation may function to anchor T cells recruited to these sites by chemotactic signals. (tau.ac.il)
  • This is consistent with observations that cleaved VEGF molecules have a weaker chemotactic effect on receptors. (nih.gov)
  • These chemotactic molecules also attract other white blood cells (leukocytes) within 24-48 hours after the injury. (warnerorthopedics.com)
  • The uptake of these growth factors by capillaries initiates a sequence of events such as cell migration, cell differentiation and assembly which finally lead to the formation of a capillary network. (nih.gov)
  • There are open questions concerning which form of VEGF actually guides chemotactic migration of cells to form a capillary network, and the roles of the extracellular matrix and matrix metalloproteases (MMPs). (nih.gov)
  • Extracellular matrix (ECM) properties (e.g., mechanics, multiscale structure, and biochemical content including ligand presentation and soluble factors) are essential for proper connective tissue function and repair. (aiche.org)
  • We designed a 2-stage study to investigate chemotactic factor receptor 5 (CCR5) gene expression in breast cancer tissues and axillary lymph nodes and analyze the association between the CCR5-Î"32 gene polymorphism and the clinical features and prognosis of breast cancer patients. (nih.gov)
  • Following acute myocardial infarction (MI) for instance, EPC subsets are mobilized by the release of proangiogenic factors and chemoattractants [ 10 - 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • 8 Toward imparting biochemical content into hydrogel systems, controlled release of soluble proteins from hydrogels provides the opportunity to use soluble factors to direct cell behavior. (aiche.org)
  • However, the type of respirator used by workers (the disposable particulate respirator) would not have an adequate protection factor for some of the higher dust and endotoxin concentrations. (cdc.gov)
  • Here, we compared the EPC subsets and plasma factors in the peripheral circulation of patients with gliomas to acute myocardial infarctions. (hindawi.com)
  • 2. High Levels of DEK Autoantibodies in Sera of Patients With Polyarticular Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis and With Early Disease Flares Following Cessation of Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Therapy. (nih.gov)
  • Dual-role transcription factors stabilize intermediate expression levels. (nih.gov)
  • 7 Matsuoka M, Tsukamoto H. Stimulation of hepatic lipocyte collagen production by Kupffer cell-derived transforming growth factor beta: implication for a pathogenetic role in alcoholic liver fibrogenesis. (thieme-connect.com)
  • EPCs are mobilized by factors secreted by ischemic or neoplastic tissues [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Labour promotes systemic mobilisation of monocytes, T cell activation and local secretion of chemotactic factors in the intervillous space of the placenta. (nih.gov)
  • MCP-1 -2518 G allele is a risk factor for severe AP. (nih.gov)
  • Tagliaferri A, Love TE, Szczotka-Flynn LB. Risk factors for contact lens-induced papillary conjunctivitis associated with silicone hydrogel contact lens wear. (medscape.com)
  • However, for an antiangiogenic therapy to be successful, the therapy should specifically target glioma-related EPC subsets and secreted factors only. (hindawi.com)

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