Treatment that combines chemotherapy with radiotherapy.
Combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery. It is commonly used in the therapy of cancer.
Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.
Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.
Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)
Excision of part (partial) or all (total) of the esophagus. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.
The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
Administration of the total dose of radiation (RADIATION DOSAGE) in parts, at timed intervals.
Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.
Deoxycytidine is a nucleoside consisting of the pentose sugar deoxyribose linked to the nitrogenous base cytosine, which plays a crucial role in DNA replication and repair processes within cells.
Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Initial drug treatment designed to bring about REMISSION INDUCTION. It is typically a short-term and high-dose drug treatment that is followed by CONSOLIDATION CHEMOTHERAPY and then MAINTENANCE CHEMOTHERAPY.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Tumors or cancer of the HYPOPHARYNX.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
Techniques, procedures, and therapies carried out on diseased organs in such a way to avoid complete removal of the organ and preserve the remaining organ function.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
An organoplatinum compound that possesses antineoplastic activity.
Cancers or tumors of the LARYNX or any of its parts: the GLOTTIS; EPIGLOTTIS; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; LARYNGEAL MUSCLES; and VOCAL CORDS.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Agents that aid or increase the action of the principle drug (DRUG SYNERGISM) or that affect the absorption, mechanism of action, metabolism, or excretion of the primary drug (PHARMACOKINETICS) in such a way as to enhance its effects.
Difficulty in SWALLOWING which may result from neuromuscular disorder or mechanical obstruction. Dysphagia is classified into two distinct types: oropharyngeal dysphagia due to malfunction of the PHARYNX and UPPER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER; and esophageal dysphagia due to malfunction of the ESOPHAGUS.
Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.
Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Radiotherapy where there is improved dose homogeneity within the tumor and reduced dosage to uninvolved structures. The precise shaping of dose distribution is achieved via the use of computer-controlled multileaf collimators.
A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.
Tumors or cancer of the OROPHARYNX.
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
A group of diterpenoid CYCLODECANES named for the taxanes that were discovered in the TAXUS tree. The action on MICROTUBULES has made some of them useful as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.
An INFLAMMATION of the MUCOSA with burning or tingling sensation. It is characterized by atrophy of the squamous EPITHELIUM, vascular damage, inflammatory infiltration, and ulceration. It usually occurs at the mucous lining of the MOUTH, the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or the airway due to chemical irritations, CHEMOTHERAPY, or radiation therapy (RADIOTHERAPY).
A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.
Surgery performed on the digestive system or its parts.
The active metabolite of FOLIC ACID. Leucovorin is used principally as an antidote to FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS.
Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.
Drugs used to potentiate the effectiveness of radiation therapy in destroying unwanted cells.
An antineoplastic agent that inhibits DNA synthesis through the inhibition of ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase.
Organic compounds which contain platinum as an integral part of the molecule.
A collective term for interstitial, intracavity, and surface radiotherapy. It uses small sealed or partly-sealed sources that may be placed on or near the body surface or within a natural body cavity or implanted directly into the tissues.
The area covering the terminal portion of ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of STOMACH at the cardiac orifice.
Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.
The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)
Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
Tumors or cancer of the ANAL CANAL.
Excision of the whole (total gastrectomy) or part (subtotal gastrectomy, partial gastrectomy, gastric resection) of the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Congener of FLUOROURACIL with comparable antineoplastic action. It has been suggested especially for the treatment of breast neoplasms.
Antagonist of urate oxidase.
CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY that combines several intensity-modulated beams to provide improved dose homogeneity and highly conformal dose distributions.
INFLAMMATION, acute or chronic, of the ESOPHAGUS caused by BACTERIA, chemicals, or TRAUMA.
A general concept for tumors or cancer of any part of the EAR; the NOSE; the THROAT; and the PHARYNX. It is used when there is no specific heading.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p966)
Total or partial excision of the larynx.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
Tumors or cancer of the pelvic region.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.
Inflammation of the lung due to harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.
Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)
INFLAMMATION of the soft tissues of the MOUTH, such as MUCOSA; PALATE; GINGIVA; and LIP.
External or interstitial irradiation to treat lymphomas (e.g., Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas) and lymph node metastases and also some autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.
The excision of lung tissue including partial or total lung lobectomy.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
Pathological processes that affect voice production, usually involving VOCAL CORDS and the LARYNGEAL MUCOSA. Voice disorders can be caused by organic (anatomical), or functional (emotional or psychological) factors leading to DYSPHONIA; APHONIA; and defects in VOICE QUALITY, loudness, and pitch.
An antineoplastic antibiotic produced by Streptomyces caespitosus. It is one of the bi- or tri-functional ALKYLATING AGENTS causing cross-linking of DNA and inhibition of DNA synthesis.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
Radiotherapy using high-energy (megavolt or higher) ionizing radiation. Types of radiation include gamma rays, produced by a radioisotope within a teletherapy unit; x-rays, electrons, protons, alpha particles (helium ions) and heavy charged ions, produced by particle acceleration; and neutrons and pi-mesons (pions), produced as secondary particles following bombardment of a target with a primary particle.
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.
Leukopenia is a condition characterized by an abnormally low white blood cell count (less than 4,000 cells per microliter of blood) in peripheral blood, increasing the risk of infection due to decreased immune defense.
A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
Neoplasms of the SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in tissue composed of squamous elements.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.
Works about studies that are usually controlled to assess the effectiveness and dosage (if appropriate) of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques. These studies are performed on several hundred volunteers, including a limited number of patients with the target disease or disorder, and last about two years. This concept includes phase II studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
A therapeutic approach, involving chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery, after initial regimens have failed to lead to improvement in a patient's condition. Salvage therapy is most often used for neoplastic diseases.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).
Tumors or cancer located in muscle tissue or specific muscles. They are differentiated from NEOPLASMS, MUSCLE TISSUE which are neoplasms composed of skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscle tissue, such as MYOSARCOMA or LEIOMYOMA.
A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)
Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Techniques for the removal of subpopulations of cells (usually residual tumor cells) from the bone marrow ex vivo before it is infused. The purging is achieved by a variety of agents including pharmacologic agents, biophysical agents (laser photoirradiation or radioisotopes) and immunologic agents. Bone marrow purging is used in both autologous and allogeneic BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
Antitumor alkaloid isolated from Vinca rosea. (Merck, 11th ed.)
Tumors or cancer of the PHARYNX.
An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
An antineoplastic agent. It has significant activity against melanomas. (from Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p564)
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
Used for excision of the urinary bladder.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Spasmodic contraction of the masseter muscle resulting in forceful jaw closure. This may be seen with a variety of diseases, including TETANUS, as a complication of radiation therapy, trauma, or in association with neoplastic conditions.
One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.
The vocal apparatus of the larynx, situated in the middle section of the larynx. Glottis consists of the VOCAL FOLDS and an opening (rima glottidis) between the folds.
Tumors or cancer of the NOSE.
The highest dose of a biologically active agent given during a chronic study that will not reduce longevity from effects other than carcinogenicity. (from Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)
Positional isomer of CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE which is active as an alkylating agent and an immunosuppressive agent.
Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.
An alkaloid isolated from the stem wood of the Chinese tree, Camptotheca acuminata. This compound selectively inhibits the nuclear enzyme DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE I. Several semisynthetic analogs of camptothecin have demonstrated antitumor activity.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.
The use of combination of imaging techniques or platforms (e.g., MRI SCAN and PET SCAN) encompassing aspects of anatomical, functional, or molecular imaging methods.
Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.
The period following a surgical operation.
A poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in which the nucleus is pressed to one side by a cytoplasmic droplet of mucus. It usually arises in the gastrointestinal system.
Remnant of a tumor or cancer after primary, potentially curative therapy. (Dr. Daniel Masys, written communication)
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
Works about comparative studies to verify the effectiveness of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques determined in phase II studies. During these trials, patients are monitored closely by physicians to identify any adverse reactions from long-term use. These studies are performed on groups of patients large enough to identify clinically significant responses and usually last about three years. This concept includes phase III studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.
An anthracycline which is the 4'-epi-isomer of doxorubicin. The compound exerts its antitumor effects by interference with the synthesis and function of DNA.
Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A mixed adenocarcinoma and squamous cell or epidermoid carcinoma.
An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.
Surgical removal of a part of the pharynx. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.
The act of taking solids and liquids into the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT through the mouth and throat.
The ability of some cells or tissues to survive lethal doses of IONIZING RADIATION. Tolerance depends on the species, cell type, and physical and chemical variables, including RADIATION-PROTECTIVE AGENTS and RADIATION-SENSITIZING AGENTS.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.
A phosphorothioate proposed as a radiation-protective agent. It causes splenic vasodilation and may block autonomic ganglia.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Dissection in the neck to remove all disease tissues including cervical LYMPH NODES and to leave an adequate margin of normal tissue. This type of surgery is usually used in tumors or cervical metastases in the head and neck. The prototype of neck dissection is the radical neck dissection described by Crile in 1906.
Tracheal neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop within the trachea, which can be benign or malignant, and have the potential to obstruct the airway and impair respiratory function.
Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
## I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Japan" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located in Asia, known as Nihon-koku or Nippon-koku in Japanese, and is renowned for its unique culture, advanced technology, and rich history. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to help answer them!
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.
Abnormal passage communicating with the ESOPHAGUS. The most common type is TRACHEOESOPHAGEAL FISTULA between the esophagus and the TRACHEA.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A subspecialty of medical oncology and radiology concerned with the radiotherapy of cancer.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
The exposure of the head to roentgen rays or other forms of radioactivity for therapeutic or preventive purposes.
A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
A connective tissue neoplasm formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells; it is usually highly malignant.
ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.
Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.
A decrease in the number of NEUTROPHILS found in the blood.
A tumor of undifferentiated (anaplastic) cells of large size. It is usually bronchogenic. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.
Surgical incision into the chest wall.
Ultrasonography of internal organs using an ultrasound transducer sometimes mounted on a fiberoptic endoscope. In endosonography the transducer converts electronic signals into acoustic pulses or continuous waves and acts also as a receiver to detect reflected pulses from within the organ. An audiovisual-electronic interface converts the detected or processed echo signals, which pass through the electronics of the instrument, into a form that the technologist can evaluate. The procedure should not be confused with ENDOSCOPY which employs a special instrument called an endoscope. The "endo-" of endosonography refers to the examination of tissue within hollow organs, with reference to the usual ultrasonography procedure which is performed externally or transcutaneously.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.
Uracil is a nitrogenous base, specifically a pyrimidine derivative, which constitutes one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA (ribonucleic acid), pairing with adenine via hydrogen bonds during base-pairing. (25 words)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The act of dilating.
An alkylating nitrogen mustard that is used as an antineoplastic in the form of the levo isomer - MELPHALAN, the racemic mixture - MERPHALAN, and the dextro isomer - MEDPHALAN; toxic to bone marrow, but little vesicant action; potential carcinogen.
Heterocyclic rings containing three nitrogen atoms, commonly in 1,2,4 or 1,3,5 or 2,4,6 formats. Some are used as HERBICIDES.
A subnormal level of BLOOD PLATELETS.
Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A form of highly malignant lung cancer that is composed of small ovoid cells (SMALL CELL CARCINOMA).
Bones that constitute each half of the pelvic girdle in VERTEBRATES, formed by fusion of the ILIUM; ISCHIUM; and PUBIC BONE.
Computer-assisted mathematical calculations of beam angles, intensities of radiation, and duration of irradiation in radiotherapy.
The period before a surgical operation.
'Squalene' is a biologically occurring triterpene compound, naturally produced in humans, animals, and plants, that forms an essential part of the lipid-rich membranes in various tissues, including the skin surface and the liver, and has been studied for its potential benefits in skincare, dietary supplements, and vaccine adjuvant systems.
An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes the reaction 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate and dUMP to dihydrofolate and dTMP in the synthesis of thymidine triphosphate. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 2.1.1.45.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.

The influence of total nodes examined, number of positive nodes, and lymph node ratio on survival after surgical resection and adjuvant chemoradiation for pancreatic cancer: a secondary analysis of RTOG 9704. (1/158)

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Long-term toxic effects of adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer. (2/158)

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Elevation in exhaled nitric oxide predicts for radiation pneumonitis. (3/158)

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Is surgery indicated in patients with stage IIIa lung cancer and mediastinal nodal involvement? (4/158)

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Lymphoepithelial carcinoma: two case reports and a systematic review of oral and sinonasal cases. (5/158)

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Adjuvant Therapy of Pancreatic Cancer. Highlights from the "2011 ASCO Annual Meeting". Chicago, IL, USA; June 3-7, 2011. (6/158)

Strong evidence exists for the use of adjuvant chemotherapy following surgical resection in pancreatic cancer, whereas the role of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy remains controversial. The optimal time to initiate adjuvant therapy has yet to be elucidated, but is usually started 2-10 weeks following resection. First line adjuvant chemotherapy is gemcitabine, as this drug has demonstrated the better efficacy in studies. Other chemotherapeutic agents and gemcitabine in combination with biologic agents are under investigation. Furthermore, predicting response to gemcitabine based chemotherapy and other adjuvant therapies will be invaluable in guiding the practitioner to choose the most appropriate adjuvant treatment. Once adjuvant therapy has been started, accurately quantifying response to therapy is also important. The adjuvant regimen may be appropriately modified if response is inadequate. This review is an update from the 2011 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting regarding recent developments in the adjuvant treatment of pancreatic cancer with regards to choice of adjuvant regimen, timing of adjuvant therapy, predicting response to therapy and measuring response to adjuvant therapy. We will present the findings from Abstracts #4039, #4042, #e14519, #4118, and #4024. In conclusion, multiple adjuvant therapeutic regimens are associated with incremental improvements in the management of pancreatic cancer. The timing of initiation of adjuvant therapy appears to be important in outcomes. Research is ongoing into markers that can predict response to adjuvant therapy.  (+info)

Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy for locoregionally advanced and high-risk salivary gland malignancies. (7/158)

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Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery and chemotherapy or by surgery and chemoradiotherapy for patients with resectable gastric cancer (CRITICS). (8/158)

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Chemoradiotherapy is a medical treatment that combines chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Chemotherapy involves the use of drugs to kill or damage cancer cells, while radiotherapy uses ionizing radiation to achieve the same goal. In chemoradiotherapy, these two modalities are used simultaneously or sequentially to treat a malignancy.

The aim of chemoradiotherapy is to increase the effectiveness of treatment by targeting cancer cells with both chemotherapy and radiation therapy. This approach can be particularly effective in treating certain types of cancer, such as head and neck cancer, lung cancer, esophageal cancer, cervical cancer, anal cancer, and rectal cancer.

The specific drugs used in chemoradiotherapy and the doses and schedules of both chemotherapy and radiotherapy vary depending on the type and stage of cancer being treated. The side effects of chemoradiotherapy can be significant and may include fatigue, skin reactions, mucositis, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and myelosuppression. However, these side effects are usually manageable with appropriate supportive care.

Chemoradiotherapy, adjuvant is a medical treatment approach that involves the use of both chemotherapy and radiotherapy in combination to kill any remaining cancer cells after surgery. The goal of this therapy is to reduce the risk of recurrence or spread of the cancer. Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy may be recommended for certain types of cancers, such as colon, rectal, breast, head and neck, and lung cancer, among others.

Adjuvant chemotherapy involves the use of drugs that kill cancer cells throughout the body, while adjuvant radiotherapy uses high-energy radiation to target specific areas where the cancer was removed during surgery. The combination of these two treatments can be more effective than either treatment alone in preventing cancer recurrence and improving survival rates.

The timing and duration of chemoradiotherapy, as well as the specific drugs and doses used, may vary depending on the type and stage of cancer being treated, as well as the individual patient's overall health and medical history. It is important for patients to discuss their treatment options with their healthcare team to determine the best approach for their particular situation.

Adjuvant chemotherapy is a medical treatment that is given in addition to the primary therapy, such as surgery or radiation, to increase the chances of a cure or to reduce the risk of recurrence in patients with cancer. It involves the use of chemicals (chemotherapeutic agents) to destroy any remaining cancer cells that may not have been removed by the primary treatment. This type of chemotherapy is typically given after the main treatment has been completed, and its goal is to kill any residual cancer cells that may be present in the body and reduce the risk of the cancer coming back. The specific drugs used and the duration of treatment will depend on the type and stage of cancer being treated.

Combined modality therapy (CMT) is a medical treatment approach that utilizes more than one method or type of therapy simultaneously or in close succession, with the goal of enhancing the overall effectiveness of the treatment. In the context of cancer care, CMT often refers to the combination of two or more primary treatment modalities, such as surgery, radiation therapy, and systemic therapies (chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, etc.).

The rationale behind using combined modality therapy is that each treatment method can target cancer cells in different ways, potentially increasing the likelihood of eliminating all cancer cells and reducing the risk of recurrence. The specific combination and sequence of treatments will depend on various factors, including the type and stage of cancer, patient's overall health, and individual preferences.

For example, a common CMT approach for locally advanced rectal cancer may involve preoperative (neoadjuvant) chemoradiation therapy, followed by surgery to remove the tumor, and then postoperative (adjuvant) chemotherapy. This combined approach allows for the reduction of the tumor size before surgery, increases the likelihood of complete tumor removal, and targets any remaining microscopic cancer cells with systemic chemotherapy.

It is essential to consult with a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals to determine the most appropriate CMT plan for each individual patient, considering both the potential benefits and risks associated with each treatment method.

Adjuvant radiotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses radiation therapy as an adjunct to a primary surgical procedure. The goal of adjuvant radiotherapy is to eliminate any remaining microscopic cancer cells that may be present in the surrounding tissues after surgery, thereby reducing the risk of local recurrence and improving the chances of cure.

Radiotherapy involves the use of high-energy radiation to destroy cancer cells and shrink tumors. In adjuvant radiotherapy, the radiation is usually delivered to the tumor bed and regional lymph nodes in order to target any potential sites of residual disease. The timing and dosing of adjuvant radiotherapy may vary depending on the type and stage of cancer being treated, as well as other factors such as patient age and overall health status.

Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the treatment of various types of cancer, including breast, colorectal, lung, head and neck, and gynecologic cancers. Its use has been shown to improve survival rates and reduce the risk of recurrence in many cases, making it an important component of comprehensive cancer care.

Immunologic adjuvants are substances that are added to a vaccine to enhance the body's immune response to the antigens contained in the vaccine. They work by stimulating the immune system and promoting the production of antibodies and activating immune cells, such as T-cells and macrophages, which help to provide a stronger and more sustained immune response to the vaccine.

Immunologic adjuvants can be derived from various sources, including bacteria, viruses, and chemicals. Some common examples include aluminum salts (alum), oil-in-water emulsions (such as MF59), and bacterial components (such as lipopolysaccharide or LPS).

The use of immunologic adjuvants in vaccines can help to improve the efficacy of the vaccine, particularly for vaccines that contain weak or poorly immunogenic antigens. They can also help to reduce the amount of antigen needed in a vaccine, which can be beneficial for vaccines that are difficult or expensive to produce.

It's important to note that while adjuvants can enhance the immune response to a vaccine, they can also increase the risk of adverse reactions, such as inflammation and pain at the injection site. Therefore, the use of immunologic adjuvants must be carefully balanced against their potential benefits and risks.

Fluorouracil is a antineoplastic medication, which means it is used to treat cancer. It is a type of chemotherapy drug known as an antimetabolite. Fluorouracil works by interfering with the growth of cancer cells and ultimately killing them. It is often used to treat colon, esophageal, stomach, and breast cancers, as well as skin conditions such as actinic keratosis and superficial basal cell carcinoma. Fluorouracil may be given by injection or applied directly to the skin in the form of a cream.

It is important to note that fluorouracil can have serious side effects, including suppression of bone marrow function, mouth sores, stomach and intestinal ulcers, and nerve damage. It should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare professional.

Esophageal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the tissue of the esophagus, which is the muscular tube that connects the throat to the stomach. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant esophageal neoplasms are typically classified as either squamous cell carcinomas or adenocarcinomas, depending on the type of cell from which they originate.

Esophageal cancer is a serious and often life-threatening condition that can cause symptoms such as difficulty swallowing, chest pain, weight loss, and coughing. Risk factors for esophageal neoplasms include smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and Barrett's esophagus. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Neoadjuvant therapy is a treatment regimen that is administered to patients before they undergo definitive or curative surgery for their cancer. The main goal of neoadjuvant therapy is to reduce the size and extent of the tumor, making it easier to remove surgically and increasing the likelihood of complete resection. This type of therapy often involves the use of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or targeted therapy, and it can help improve treatment outcomes by reducing the risk of recurrence and improving overall survival rates. Neoadjuvant therapy is commonly used in the treatment of various types of cancer, including breast, lung, esophageal, rectal, and bladder cancer.

Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent used to treat various types of cancers, including testicular, ovarian, bladder, head and neck, lung, and cervical cancers. It is an inorganic platinum compound that contains a central platinum atom surrounded by two chloride atoms and two ammonia molecules in a cis configuration.

Cisplatin works by forming crosslinks between DNA strands, which disrupts the structure of DNA and prevents cancer cells from replicating. This ultimately leads to cell death and slows down or stops the growth of tumors. However, cisplatin can also cause damage to normal cells, leading to side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hearing loss, and kidney damage. Therefore, it is essential to monitor patients closely during treatment and manage any adverse effects promptly.

Antineoplastic combined chemotherapy protocols refer to a treatment plan for cancer that involves the use of more than one antineoplastic (chemotherapy) drug given in a specific sequence and schedule. The combination of drugs is used because they may work better together to destroy cancer cells compared to using a single agent alone. This approach can also help to reduce the likelihood of cancer cells becoming resistant to the treatment.

The choice of drugs, dose, duration, and frequency are determined by various factors such as the type and stage of cancer, patient's overall health, and potential side effects. Combination chemotherapy protocols can be used in various settings, including as a primary treatment, adjuvant therapy (given after surgery or radiation to kill any remaining cancer cells), neoadjuvant therapy (given before surgery or radiation to shrink the tumor), or palliative care (to alleviate symptoms and prolong survival).

It is important to note that while combined chemotherapy protocols can be effective in treating certain types of cancer, they can also cause significant side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, fatigue, and an increased risk of infection. Therefore, patients undergoing such treatment should be closely monitored and managed by a healthcare team experienced in administering chemotherapy.

Rectal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the tissues of the rectum, which can be benign or malignant. They are characterized by uncontrolled cell division and can invade nearby tissues or spread to other parts of the body (metastasis). The most common type of rectal neoplasm is rectal cancer, which often begins as a small polyp or growth in the lining of the rectum. Other types of rectal neoplasms include adenomas, carcinoids, and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Regular screenings are recommended for early detection and treatment of rectal neoplasms.

Squamous cell carcinoma is a type of skin cancer that begins in the squamous cells, which are flat, thin cells that form the outer layer of the skin (epidermis). It commonly occurs on sun-exposed areas such as the face, ears, lips, and backs of the hands. Squamous cell carcinoma can also develop in other areas of the body including the mouth, lungs, and cervix.

This type of cancer usually develops slowly and may appear as a rough or scaly patch of skin, a red, firm nodule, or a sore or ulcer that doesn't heal. While squamous cell carcinoma is not as aggressive as some other types of cancer, it can metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body if left untreated, making early detection and treatment important.

Risk factors for developing squamous cell carcinoma include prolonged exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or tanning beds, fair skin, a history of sunburns, a weakened immune system, and older age. Prevention measures include protecting your skin from the sun by wearing protective clothing, using a broad-spectrum sunscreen with an SPF of at least 30, avoiding tanning beds, and getting regular skin examinations.

Radiotherapy dosage refers to the total amount of radiation energy that is absorbed by tissues or organs, typically measured in units of Gray (Gy), during a course of radiotherapy treatment. It is the product of the dose rate (the amount of radiation delivered per unit time) and the duration of treatment. The prescribed dosage for cancer treatments can range from a few Gray to more than 70 Gy, depending on the type and location of the tumor, the patient's overall health, and other factors. The goal of radiotherapy is to deliver a sufficient dosage to destroy the cancer cells while minimizing damage to surrounding healthy tissues.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Neoplasm staging is a systematic process used in medicine to describe the extent of spread of a cancer, including the size and location of the original (primary) tumor and whether it has metastasized (spread) to other parts of the body. The most widely accepted system for this purpose is the TNM classification system developed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC).

In this system, T stands for tumor, and it describes the size and extent of the primary tumor. N stands for nodes, and it indicates whether the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes. M stands for metastasis, and it shows whether the cancer has spread to distant parts of the body.

Each letter is followed by a number that provides more details about the extent of the disease. For example, a T1N0M0 cancer means that the primary tumor is small and has not spread to nearby lymph nodes or distant sites. The higher the numbers, the more advanced the cancer.

Staging helps doctors determine the most appropriate treatment for each patient and estimate the patient's prognosis. It is an essential tool for communication among members of the healthcare team and for comparing outcomes of treatments in clinical trials.

Head and neck neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the head and neck region, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These tumors can develop in various sites, including the oral cavity, nasopharynx, oropharynx, larynx, hypopharynx, paranasal sinuses, salivary glands, and thyroid gland.

Benign neoplasms are slow-growing and generally do not spread to other parts of the body. However, they can still cause problems if they grow large enough to press on surrounding tissues or structures. Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, can invade nearby tissues and organs and may also metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body.

Head and neck neoplasms can have various symptoms depending on their location and size. Common symptoms include difficulty swallowing, speaking, or breathing; pain in the mouth, throat, or ears; persistent coughing or hoarseness; and swelling or lumps in the neck or face. Early detection and treatment of head and neck neoplasms are crucial for improving outcomes and reducing the risk of complications.

Esophagectomy is a surgical procedure in which part or all of the esophagus (the muscular tube that connects the throat to the stomach) is removed. This surgery is typically performed as a treatment for esophageal cancer, although it may also be used to treat other conditions such as severe damage to the esophagus from acid reflux or benign tumors.

During an esophagectomy, the surgeon will make incisions in the neck, chest, and/or abdomen to access the esophagus. The affected portion of the esophagus is then removed, and the remaining ends are reconnected, often using a section of the stomach or colon to create a new conduit for food to pass from the throat to the stomach.

Esophagectomy is a complex surgical procedure that requires significant expertise and experience on the part of the surgeon. It carries risks such as bleeding, infection, and complications related to anesthesia. Additionally, patients who undergo esophagectomy may experience difficulty swallowing, chronic pain, and other long-term complications. However, for some patients with esophageal cancer or other serious conditions affecting the esophagus, esophagectomy may be the best available treatment option.

Disease-free survival (DFS) is a term used in medical research and clinical practice, particularly in the field of oncology. It refers to the length of time after primary treatment for a cancer during which no evidence of the disease can be found. This means that the patient shows no signs or symptoms of the cancer, and any imaging studies or other tests do not reveal any tumors or other indications of the disease.

DFS is often used as an important endpoint in clinical trials to evaluate the effectiveness of different treatments for cancer. By measuring the length of time until the cancer recurs or a new cancer develops, researchers can get a better sense of how well a particular treatment is working and whether it is improving patient outcomes.

It's important to note that DFS is not the same as overall survival (OS), which refers to the length of time from primary treatment until death from any cause. While DFS can provide valuable information about the effectiveness of cancer treatments, it does not necessarily reflect the impact of those treatments on patients' overall survival.

Freund's adjuvant is not a medical condition but a substance used in laboratory research to enhance the body's immune response to an antigen or vaccine. It is named after its developer, Jules T. Freund.

There are two types of Freund's adjuvants: complete and incomplete. Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) contains killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria, which causes a strong inflammatory response when injected into the body. This makes it an effective adjuvant for experimental vaccines, as it helps to stimulate the immune system and promote a stronger and longer-lasting immune response.

Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA) is similar to FCA but does not contain Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is less potent than FCA but still useful for boosting the immune response to certain antigens.

It is important to note that Freund's adjuvants are not used in human vaccines due to their potential to cause adverse reactions, including granulomas and other inflammatory responses. They are primarily used in laboratory research with animals.

Radiotherapy, also known as radiation therapy, is a medical treatment that uses ionizing radiation to kill cancer cells, shrink tumors, and prevent the growth and spread of cancer. The radiation can be delivered externally using machines or internally via radioactive substances placed in or near the tumor. Radiotherapy works by damaging the DNA of cancer cells, which prevents them from dividing and growing. Normal cells are also affected by radiation, but they have a greater ability to repair themselves compared to cancer cells. The goal of radiotherapy is to destroy as many cancer cells as possible while minimizing damage to healthy tissue.

Survival analysis is a branch of statistics that deals with the analysis of time to event data. It is used to estimate the time it takes for a certain event of interest to occur, such as death, disease recurrence, or treatment failure. The event of interest is called the "failure" event, and survival analysis estimates the probability of not experiencing the failure event until a certain point in time, also known as the "survival" probability.

Survival analysis can provide important information about the effectiveness of treatments, the prognosis of patients, and the identification of risk factors associated with the event of interest. It can handle censored data, which is common in medical research where some participants may drop out or be lost to follow-up before the event of interest occurs.

Survival analysis typically involves estimating the survival function, which describes the probability of surviving beyond a certain time point, as well as hazard functions, which describe the instantaneous rate of failure at a given time point. Other important concepts in survival analysis include median survival times, restricted mean survival times, and various statistical tests to compare survival curves between groups.

Medical survival rate is a statistical measure used to determine the percentage of patients who are still alive for a specific period of time after their diagnosis or treatment for a certain condition or disease. It is often expressed as a five-year survival rate, which refers to the proportion of people who are alive five years after their diagnosis. Survival rates can be affected by many factors, including the stage of the disease at diagnosis, the patient's age and overall health, the effectiveness of treatment, and other health conditions that the patient may have. It is important to note that survival rates are statistical estimates and do not necessarily predict an individual patient's prognosis.

Adenocarcinoma is a type of cancer that arises from glandular epithelial cells. These cells line the inside of many internal organs, including the breasts, prostate, colon, and lungs. Adenocarcinomas can occur in any of these organs, as well as in other locations where glands are present.

The term "adenocarcinoma" is used to describe a cancer that has features of glandular tissue, such as mucus-secreting cells or cells that produce hormones. These cancers often form glandular structures within the tumor mass and may produce mucus or other substances.

Adenocarcinomas are typically slow-growing and tend to spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or bloodstream. They can be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these treatments. The prognosis for adenocarcinoma depends on several factors, including the location and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and age.

Local neoplasm recurrence is the return or regrowth of a tumor in the same location where it was originally removed or treated. This means that cancer cells have survived the initial treatment and started to grow again in the same area. It's essential to monitor and detect any local recurrence as early as possible, as it can affect the prognosis and may require additional treatment.

Dose fractionation is a medical term that refers to the practice of dividing the total dose of radiation therapy or chemotherapy into smaller doses, which are given over a longer period. This approach allows for the delivery of a higher total dose of treatment while minimizing damage to healthy tissues and reducing side effects.

In radiation therapy, fractionation is used to target cancer cells while sparing surrounding normal tissues. By delivering smaller doses of radiation over several treatments, healthy tissue has time to recover between treatments, reducing the risk of complications. The number and size of fractions can vary depending on the type and location of the tumor, as well as other factors such as the patient's overall health.

Similarly, in chemotherapy, dose fractionation is used to maximize the effectiveness of the treatment while minimizing toxicity. By administering smaller doses of chemotherapy over time, the body has a chance to recover between treatments, reducing side effects and allowing for higher total doses to be given. The schedule and duration of chemotherapy fractionation may vary depending on the type of drug used, the type and stage of cancer, and other factors.

Overall, dose fractionation is an important technique in both radiation therapy and chemotherapy that allows for more effective treatment while minimizing harm to healthy tissues.

Nasopharyngeal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the nasopharynx, which is the upper part of the pharynx (throat) behind the nose. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Malignant nasopharyngeal neoplasms are often referred to as nasopharyngeal carcinoma or cancer. There are different types of nasopharyngeal carcinomas, including keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma, non-keratinizing carcinoma, and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma.

The risk factors for developing nasopharyngeal neoplasms include exposure to the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), consumption of certain foods, smoking, and genetic factors. Symptoms may include a lump in the neck, nosebleeds, hearing loss, ringing in the ears, and difficulty swallowing or speaking. Treatment options depend on the type, size, and stage of the neoplasm and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these treatments.

Deoxycytidine is a chemical compound that is a component of DNA, one of the nucleic acids in living organisms. It is a nucleoside, consisting of the sugar deoxyribose and the base cytosine. Deoxycytidine pairs with guanine via hydrogen bonds to form base pairs in the double helix structure of DNA.

In biochemistry, deoxycytidine can also exist as a free nucleoside, not bound to other molecules. It is involved in various cellular processes related to DNA metabolism and replication. Deoxycytidine can be phosphorylated to form deoxycytidine monophosphate (dCMP), which is an important intermediate in the synthesis of DNA.

It's worth noting that while deoxycytidine is a component of DNA, its counterpart in RNA is cytidine, which contains ribose instead of deoxyribose as the sugar component.

Antimetabolites are a class of antineoplastic (chemotherapy) drugs that interfere with the metabolism of cancer cells and inhibit their growth and proliferation. These agents are structurally similar to naturally occurring metabolites, such as amino acids, nucleotides, and folic acid, which are essential for cellular replication and growth. Antimetabolites act as false analogs and get incorporated into the growing cells' DNA or RNA, causing disruption of the normal synthesis process, leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Examples of antimetabolite drugs include:

1. Folate antagonists: Methotrexate, Pemetrexed
2. Purine analogs: Mercaptopurine, Thioguanine, Fludarabine, Cladribine
3. Pyrimidine analogs: 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), Capecitabine, Cytarabine, Gemcitabine

These drugs are used to treat various types of cancers, such as leukemias, lymphomas, breast, ovarian, and gastrointestinal cancers. Due to their mechanism of action, antimetabolites can also affect normal, rapidly dividing cells in the body, leading to side effects like myelosuppression (decreased production of blood cells), mucositis (inflammation and ulceration of the gastrointestinal tract), and alopecia (hair loss).

Prognosis is a medical term that refers to the prediction of the likely outcome or course of a disease, including the chances of recovery or recurrence, based on the patient's symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. It is an important aspect of clinical decision-making and patient communication, as it helps doctors and patients make informed decisions about treatment options, set realistic expectations, and plan for future care.

Prognosis can be expressed in various ways, such as percentages, categories (e.g., good, fair, poor), or survival rates, depending on the nature of the disease and the available evidence. However, it is important to note that prognosis is not an exact science and may vary depending on individual factors, such as age, overall health status, and response to treatment. Therefore, it should be used as a guide rather than a definitive forecast.

Induction chemotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that involves the use of cytotoxic drugs to reduce the size of tumors prior to administering other forms of therapy, such as radiation therapy or surgery. The goal of induction chemotherapy is to eliminate as many cancer cells as possible and shrink the tumor to improve the chances of a successful outcome with subsequent treatments.

This approach is often used in the treatment of certain types of cancer, including lymphoma, leukemia, and testicular cancer, among others. The specific drugs used and the duration of treatment may vary depending on the type and stage of cancer being treated.

It's important to note that induction chemotherapy is a complex medical procedure that should be administered under the close supervision of an experienced oncologist. Patients undergoing this treatment may experience side effects, such as nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and hair loss, among others. However, these side effects can often be managed with supportive care and medications.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

The Kaplan-Meier estimate is a statistical method used to calculate the survival probability over time in a population. It is commonly used in medical research to analyze time-to-event data, such as the time until a patient experiences a specific event like disease progression or death. The Kaplan-Meier estimate takes into account censored data, which occurs when some individuals are lost to follow-up before experiencing the event of interest.

The method involves constructing a survival curve that shows the proportion of subjects still surviving at different time points. At each time point, the survival probability is calculated as the product of the conditional probabilities of surviving from one time point to the next. The Kaplan-Meier estimate provides an unbiased and consistent estimator of the survival function, even when censoring is present.

In summary, the Kaplan-Meier estimate is a crucial tool in medical research for analyzing time-to-event data and estimating survival probabilities over time while accounting for censored observations.

Antineoplastic agents are a class of drugs used to treat malignant neoplasms or cancer. These agents work by inhibiting the growth and proliferation of cancer cells, either by killing them or preventing their division and replication. Antineoplastic agents can be classified based on their mechanism of action, such as alkylating agents, antimetabolites, topoisomerase inhibitors, mitotic inhibitors, and targeted therapy agents.

Alkylating agents work by adding alkyl groups to DNA, which can cause cross-linking of DNA strands and ultimately lead to cell death. Antimetabolites interfere with the metabolic processes necessary for DNA synthesis and replication, while topoisomerase inhibitors prevent the relaxation of supercoiled DNA during replication. Mitotic inhibitors disrupt the normal functioning of the mitotic spindle, which is essential for cell division. Targeted therapy agents are designed to target specific molecular abnormalities in cancer cells, such as mutated oncogenes or dysregulated signaling pathways.

It's important to note that antineoplastic agents can also affect normal cells and tissues, leading to various side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and myelosuppression (suppression of bone marrow function). Therefore, the use of these drugs requires careful monitoring and management of their potential adverse effects.

Hypopharyngeal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the hypopharynx, which is the lower part of the pharynx or throat. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant hypopharyngeal neoplasms are often squamous cell carcinomas and are aggressive with a poor prognosis due to their location and tendency to spread early. They can cause symptoms such as difficulty swallowing, pain when swallowing, sore throat, ear pain, and neck masses. Risk factors for hypopharyngeal cancer include smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, and poor nutrition.

Lung neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the lung tissue. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant lung neoplasms are further classified into two main types: small cell lung carcinoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma. Lung neoplasms can cause symptoms such as cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, and weight loss. They are often caused by smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke, but can also occur due to genetic factors, radiation exposure, and other environmental carcinogens. Early detection and treatment of lung neoplasms is crucial for improving outcomes and survival rates.

Organ sparing treatments refer to medical interventions that are designed to preserve the structure and function of an organ, while still effectively treating the underlying disease or condition. These treatments can include surgical techniques, radiation therapy, or medications that aim to target specific cells or processes involved in the disease, while minimizing damage to healthy tissues.

Organ sparing treatments may be used in a variety of medical contexts, such as cancer treatment, where the goal is to eliminate malignant cells while preserving as much normal tissue as possible. For example, radiation therapy may be delivered with precise techniques that limit exposure to surrounding organs, or medications may be used to target specific receptors on cancer cells, reducing the need for more extensive surgical interventions.

Similarly, in the context of kidney disease, organ sparing treatments may include medications that help control blood pressure and reduce proteinuria (protein in the urine), which can help slow the progression of kidney damage and potentially delay or prevent the need for dialysis or transplantation.

Overall, organ sparing treatments represent an important area of medical research and practice, as they offer the potential to improve patient outcomes, reduce treatment-related morbidity, and maintain quality of life.

A "Drug Administration Schedule" refers to the plan for when and how a medication should be given to a patient. It includes details such as the dose, frequency (how often it should be taken), route (how it should be administered, such as orally, intravenously, etc.), and duration (how long it should be taken) of the medication. This schedule is often created and prescribed by healthcare professionals, such as doctors or pharmacists, to ensure that the medication is taken safely and effectively. It may also include instructions for missed doses or changes in the dosage.

Carboplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent used to treat various types of cancers, including ovarian, lung, and head and neck cancer. It is a platinum-containing compound that works by forming crosslinks in DNA, which leads to the death of rapidly dividing cells, such as cancer cells. Carboplatin is often used in combination with other chemotherapy drugs and is administered intravenously.

The medical definition of Carboplatin is:

"A platinum-containing antineoplastic agent that forms crosslinks with DNA, inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. It is used to treat a variety of cancers, including ovarian, lung, and head and neck cancer."

Laryngeal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the larynx, also known as the voice box. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Laryngeal neoplasms can affect any part of the larynx, including the vocal cords, epiglottis, and the area around the vocal cords called the ventricle.

Benign laryngeal neoplasms may include papillomas, hemangiomas, or polyps. Malignant laryngeal neoplasms are typically squamous cell carcinomas, which account for more than 95% of all malignant laryngeal tumors. Other types of malignant laryngeal neoplasms include adenocarcinoma, sarcoma, and lymphoma.

Risk factors for developing laryngeal neoplasms include smoking, alcohol consumption, exposure to industrial chemicals, and a history of acid reflux. Symptoms may include hoarseness, difficulty swallowing, sore throat, ear pain, or a lump in the neck. Treatment options depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the neoplasm but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these treatments.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

An adjuvant in pharmaceutics is a substance that is added to a drug formulation to enhance the immune response to the drug or vaccine, increase its absorption and bioavailability, or improve its stability and shelf life. Adjuvants can stimulate the immune system, making vaccines more effective by increasing the production of antibodies and activating T-cells. Commonly used adjuvants include aluminum salts, oil-in-water emulsions, and bacterial components such as lipopolysaccharides. The use of adjuvants in pharmaceutics is a complex and active area of research aimed at improving the efficacy and safety of vaccines and other drug formulations.

Deglutition disorders, also known as swallowing disorders, are conditions that affect the ability to move food or liquids from the mouth to the stomach safely and efficiently. These disorders can occur at any stage of the swallowing process, which includes oral preparation (chewing and manipulating food in the mouth), pharyngeal phase (activating muscles and structures in the throat to move food toward the esophagus), and esophageal phase (relaxing and contracting the esophagus to propel food into the stomach).

Symptoms of deglutition disorders may include coughing or choking during or after eating, difficulty initiating a swallow, food sticking in the throat or chest, regurgitation, unexplained weight loss, and aspiration (inhaling food or liquids into the lungs), which can lead to pneumonia.

Deglutition disorders can be caused by various factors, such as neurological conditions (e.g., stroke, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis), structural abnormalities (e.g., narrowing or blockage of the esophagus), muscle weakness or dysfunction, and cognitive or behavioral issues. Treatment for deglutition disorders may involve dietary modifications, swallowing exercises, medications, or surgical interventions, depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition.

Radiation injuries refer to the damages that occur to living tissues as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation. These injuries can be acute, occurring soon after exposure to high levels of radiation, or chronic, developing over a longer period after exposure to lower levels of radiation. The severity and type of injury depend on the dose and duration of exposure, as well as the specific tissues affected.

Acute radiation syndrome (ARS), also known as radiation sickness, is the most severe form of acute radiation injury. It can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, fever, and skin burns. In more severe cases, it can lead to neurological damage, hemorrhage, infection, and death.

Chronic radiation injuries, on the other hand, may not appear until months or even years after exposure. They can cause a range of symptoms, including fatigue, weakness, skin changes, cataracts, reduced fertility, and an increased risk of cancer.

Radiation injuries can be treated with supportive care, such as fluids and electrolytes replacement, antibiotics, wound care, and blood transfusions. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged tissue or control bleeding. Prevention is the best approach to radiation injuries, which includes limiting exposure through proper protective measures and monitoring radiation levels in the environment.

Preoperative care refers to the series of procedures, interventions, and preparations that are conducted before a surgical operation. The primary goal of preoperative care is to ensure the patient's well-being, optimize their physical condition, reduce potential risks, and prepare them mentally and emotionally for the upcoming surgery.

Preoperative care typically includes:

1. Preoperative assessment: A thorough evaluation of the patient's overall health status, including medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and diagnostic imaging, to identify any potential risk factors or comorbidities that may impact the surgical procedure and postoperative recovery.
2. Informed consent: The process of ensuring the patient understands the nature of the surgery, its purpose, associated risks, benefits, and alternative treatment options. The patient signs a consent form indicating they have been informed and voluntarily agree to undergo the surgery.
3. Preoperative instructions: Guidelines provided to the patient regarding their diet, medication use, and other activities in the days leading up to the surgery. These instructions may include fasting guidelines, discontinuing certain medications, or arranging for transportation after the procedure.
4. Anesthesia consultation: A meeting with the anesthesiologist to discuss the type of anesthesia that will be used during the surgery and address any concerns related to anesthesia risks, side effects, or postoperative pain management.
5. Preparation of the surgical site: Cleaning and shaving the area where the incision will be made, as well as administering appropriate antimicrobial agents to minimize the risk of infection.
6. Medical optimization: Addressing any underlying medical conditions or correcting abnormalities that may negatively impact the surgical outcome. This may involve adjusting medications, treating infections, or managing chronic diseases such as diabetes.
7. Emotional and psychological support: Providing counseling, reassurance, and education to help alleviate anxiety, fear, or emotional distress related to the surgery.
8. Preoperative holding area: The patient is transferred to a designated area near the operating room where they are prepared for surgery by changing into a gown, having intravenous (IV) lines inserted, and receiving monitoring equipment.

By following these preoperative care guidelines, healthcare professionals aim to ensure that patients undergo safe and successful surgical procedures with optimal outcomes.

Conformal radiotherapy is a type of external beam radiation therapy that uses advanced technology to conform the radiation beam to the shape of the tumor, allowing for more precise and targeted treatment while minimizing exposure to healthy surrounding tissue. This can help reduce the risk of side effects and improve the therapeutic ratio. Conformal radiotherapy techniques include 3D conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). These techniques use sophisticated imaging and treatment planning systems to create a personalized treatment plan for each patient, based on the size, shape, and location of their tumor.

Carcinoma, non-small-cell lung (NSCLC) is a type of lung cancer that includes several subtypes of malignant tumors arising from the epithelial cells of the lung. These subtypes are classified based on the appearance of the cancer cells under a microscope and include adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and large cell carcinoma. NSCLC accounts for about 85% of all lung cancers and tends to grow and spread more slowly than small-cell lung cancer (SCLC).

NSCLC is often asymptomatic in its early stages, but as the tumor grows, symptoms such as coughing, chest pain, shortness of breath, hoarseness, and weight loss may develop. Treatment options for NSCLC depend on the stage and location of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and lung function. Common treatments include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Oropharyngeal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the oropharynx, which is the middle part of the pharynx (throat) that includes the back one-third of the tongue, the soft palate, the side and back walls of the throat, and the tonsils. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Oropharyngeal cancer is a significant global health concern, with squamous cell carcinoma being the most common type of malignant neoplasm in this region. The primary risk factors for oropharyngeal cancers include tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Early detection and treatment are crucial for improving outcomes and survival rates.

Positron-Emission Tomography (PET) is a type of nuclear medicine imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material, called a radiotracer, to produce detailed, three-dimensional images. This technique measures metabolic activity within the body, such as sugar metabolism, to help distinguish between healthy and diseased tissue, identify cancerous cells, or examine the function of organs.

During a PET scan, the patient is injected with a radiotracer, typically a sugar-based compound labeled with a positron-emitting radioisotope, such as fluorine-18 (^18^F). The radiotracer accumulates in cells that are metabolically active, like cancer cells. As the radiotracer decays, it emits positrons, which then collide with electrons in nearby tissue, producing gamma rays. A special camera, called a PET scanner, detects these gamma rays and uses this information to create detailed images of the body's internal structures and processes.

PET is often used in conjunction with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to provide both functional and anatomical information, allowing for more accurate diagnosis and treatment planning. Common applications include detecting cancer recurrence, staging and monitoring cancer, evaluating heart function, and assessing brain function in conditions like dementia and epilepsy.

Taxoids are a class of naturally occurring compounds that are derived from the bark of the Pacific yew tree (Taxus brevifolia) and other species of the genus Taxus. They are known for their antineoplastic (cancer-fighting) properties and have been used in chemotherapy to treat various types of cancer, including ovarian, breast, and lung cancer.

The most well-known taxoid is paclitaxel (also known by the brand name Taxol), which was first discovered in the 1960s and has since become a widely used cancer drug. Paclitaxel works by stabilizing microtubules, which are important components of the cell's skeleton, and preventing them from disassembling. This disrupts the normal function of the cell's mitotic spindle, leading to cell cycle arrest and ultimately apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Other taxoids that have been developed for clinical use include docetaxel (Taxotere), which is a semi-synthetic analogue of paclitaxel, and cabazitaxel (Jevtana), which is a second-generation taxoid. These drugs have similar mechanisms of action to paclitaxel but may have different pharmacokinetic properties or be effective against cancer cells that have developed resistance to other taxoids.

While taxoids have been successful in treating certain types of cancer, they can also cause significant side effects, including neutropenia (low white blood cell count), anemia (low red blood cell count), and peripheral neuropathy (nerve damage). As with all chemotherapy drugs, the use of taxoids must be carefully balanced against their potential benefits and risks.

Mucositis is a common side effect of cancer treatment, particularly chemotherapy and radiation therapy. It's defined as the inflammation and damage to the mucous membranes that line the digestive tract, from the mouth to the anus. This condition can cause symptoms such as pain, redness, swelling, and ulcers in the mouth, throat, esophagus, stomach, and intestines.

Mucositis can make it difficult for patients to eat, drink, and swallow, which can lead to dehydration, malnutrition, and weight loss. It can also increase the risk of infection, as the damaged mucous membranes provide an entry point for bacteria and other microorganisms.

The severity of mucositis can vary depending on the type and dose of chemotherapy or radiation therapy, as well as individual patient factors such as age, overall health status, and genetic makeup. Mucositis typically occurs within a few days to a week after starting cancer treatment and may persist for several weeks or even months after treatment has ended.

Management of mucositis typically involves a combination of strategies, including pain relief, oral hygiene measures, nutritional support, and infection prevention. In severe cases, hospitalization and intravenous fluids may be necessary to prevent dehydration and manage infection.

Paclitaxel is a chemotherapeutic agent derived from the bark of the Pacific yew tree (Taxus brevifolia). It is an antimicrotubule agent that promotes the assembly and stabilization of microtubules, thereby interfering with the normal dynamic reorganization of the microtubule network that is essential for cell division.

Paclitaxel is used in the treatment of various types of cancer including ovarian, breast, lung, and pancreatic cancers. It works by inhibiting the disassembly of microtubules, which prevents the separation of chromosomes during mitosis, leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Common side effects of paclitaxel include neutropenia (low white blood cell count), anemia (low red blood cell count), alopecia (hair loss), peripheral neuropathy (nerve damage causing numbness or tingling in the hands and feet), myalgias (muscle pain), arthralgias (joint pain), and hypersensitivity reactions.

The digestive system is a series of organs that work together to convert food into nutrients and energy. Digestive system surgical procedures involve operations on any part of the digestive system, including the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, pancreas, and gallbladder. These procedures can be performed for a variety of reasons, such as to treat diseases, repair damage, or remove cancerous growths.

Some common digestive system surgical procedures include:

1. Gastric bypass surgery: A procedure in which the stomach is divided into two parts and the smaller part is connected directly to the small intestine, bypassing a portion of the stomach and upper small intestine. This procedure is used to treat severe obesity.
2. Colonoscopy: A procedure in which a flexible tube with a camera on the end is inserted into the rectum and colon to examine the lining for polyps, cancer, or other abnormalities.
3. Colectomy: A procedure in which all or part of the colon is removed, often due to cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, or diverticulitis.
4. Gastrostomy: A procedure in which a hole is made through the abdominal wall and into the stomach to create an opening for feeding. This is often done for patients who have difficulty swallowing.
5. Esophagectomy: A procedure in which all or part of the esophagus is removed, often due to cancer. The remaining esophagus is then reconnected to the stomach or small intestine.
6. Liver resection: A procedure in which a portion of the liver is removed, often due to cancer or other diseases.
7. Pancreatectomy: A procedure in which all or part of the pancreas is removed, often due to cancer or chronic pancreatitis.
8. Cholecystectomy: A procedure in which the gallbladder is removed, often due to gallstones or inflammation.

These are just a few examples of digestive system surgical procedures. There are many other types of operations that can be performed on the digestive system depending on the specific needs and condition of each patient.

Leucovorin is the pharmaceutical name for a form of folic acid, also known as folinic acid. It is used in medicine as a medication to reduce the toxic effects of certain chemotherapy drugs, such as methotrexate, that work by blocking the action of folic acid in the body. Leucovorin is able to bypass this blockage and restore some of the necessary functions of folic acid, helping to prevent or reduce the severity of side effects like nausea, vomiting, and damage to the mucous membranes.

Leucovorin may also be used in combination with fluorouracil chemotherapy to enhance its effectiveness in treating certain types of cancer. It is important to note that leucovorin should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it can interact with other medications and have potentially serious side effects if not used properly.

Lymphatic metastasis is the spread of cancer cells from a primary tumor to distant lymph nodes through the lymphatic system. It occurs when malignant cells break away from the original tumor, enter the lymphatic vessels, and travel to nearby or remote lymph nodes. Once there, these cancer cells can multiply and form new tumors, leading to further progression of the disease. Lymphatic metastasis is a common way for many types of cancer to spread and can have significant implications for prognosis and treatment strategies.

Radiation-sensitizing agents are drugs that make cancer cells more sensitive to radiation therapy. These agents work by increasing the ability of radiation to damage the DNA of cancer cells, which can lead to more effective tumor cell death. This means that lower doses of radiation may be required to achieve the same therapeutic effect, reducing the potential for damage to normal tissues surrounding the tumor.

Radiation-sensitizing agents are often used in conjunction with radiation therapy to improve treatment outcomes for patients with various types of cancer. They can be given either systemically (through the bloodstream) or locally (directly to the tumor site). The choice of agent and the timing of administration depend on several factors, including the type and stage of cancer, the patient's overall health, and the specific radiation therapy protocol being used.

It is important to note that while radiation-sensitizing agents can enhance the effectiveness of radiation therapy, they may also increase the risk of side effects. Therefore, careful monitoring and management of potential toxicities are essential during treatment.

Hydroxyurea is an antimetabolite drug that is primarily used in the treatment of myeloproliferative disorders such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), essential thrombocythemia, and polycythemia vera. It works by interfering with the synthesis of DNA, which inhibits the growth of cancer cells.

In addition to its use in cancer therapy, hydroxyurea is also used off-label for the management of sickle cell disease. In this context, it helps to reduce the frequency and severity of painful vaso-occlusive crises by increasing the production of fetal hemoglobin (HbF), which decreases the formation of sickled red blood cells.

The medical definition of hydroxyurea is:

A hydantoin derivative and antimetabolite that inhibits ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase, thereby interfering with DNA synthesis. It has been used as an antineoplastic agent, particularly in the treatment of myeloproliferative disorders, and more recently for the management of sickle cell disease to reduce the frequency and severity of painful vaso-occlusive crises by increasing fetal hemoglobin production.

Organoplatinum compounds are a group of chemical substances that contain at least one carbon-platinum bond. These compounds have been widely studied and used in the field of medicine, particularly in cancer chemotherapy. The most well-known organoplatinum compound is cisplatin, which is a platinum-based drug used to treat various types of cancers such as testicular, ovarian, bladder, and lung cancers. Cisplatin works by forming crosslinks with the DNA of cancer cells, disrupting their ability to replicate and ultimately leading to cell death. Other examples of organoplatinum compounds used in cancer treatment include carboplatin and oxaliplatin.

Brachytherapy is a type of cancer treatment that involves placing radioactive material directly into or near the tumor site. The term "brachy" comes from the Greek word for "short," which refers to the short distance that the radiation travels. This allows for a high dose of radiation to be delivered directly to the tumor while minimizing exposure to healthy surrounding tissue.

There are two main types of brachytherapy:

1. Intracavitary brachytherapy: The radioactive material is placed inside a body cavity, such as the uterus or windpipe.
2. Interstitial brachytherapy: The radioactive material is placed directly into the tumor or surrounding tissue using needles, seeds, or catheters.

Brachytherapy can be used alone or in combination with other cancer treatments such as surgery, external beam radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. It may be recommended for a variety of cancers, including prostate, cervical, vaginal, vulvar, head and neck, and skin cancers. The specific type of brachytherapy used will depend on the size, location, and stage of the tumor.

The advantages of brachytherapy include its ability to deliver a high dose of radiation directly to the tumor while minimizing exposure to healthy tissue, which can result in fewer side effects compared to other forms of radiation therapy. Additionally, brachytherapy is often a shorter treatment course than external beam radiation therapy, with some treatments lasting only a few minutes or hours.

However, there are also potential risks and side effects associated with brachytherapy, including damage to nearby organs and tissues, bleeding, infection, and pain. Patients should discuss the benefits and risks of brachytherapy with their healthcare provider to determine if it is an appropriate treatment option for them.

The esophagogastric junction (EGJ) is the region of the gastrointestinal tract where the esophagus (the tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach) meets the stomach. It serves as a physiological sphincter, which helps control the direction of flow and prevent reflux of gastric contents back into the esophagus. The EGJ is also known as the gastroesophageal junction or cardia.

Remission induction is a treatment approach in medicine, particularly in the field of oncology and hematology. It refers to the initial phase of therapy aimed at reducing or eliminating the signs and symptoms of active disease, such as cancer or autoimmune disorders. The primary goal of remission induction is to achieve a complete response (disappearance of all detectable signs of the disease) or a partial response (a decrease in the measurable extent of the disease). This phase of treatment is often intensive and may involve the use of multiple drugs or therapies, including chemotherapy, immunotherapy, or targeted therapy. After remission induction, patients may receive additional treatments to maintain the remission and prevent relapse, known as consolidation or maintenance therapy.

Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 (FDG-18) is not a medical condition, but a radiopharmaceutical used in medical imaging. It is a type of glucose (a simple sugar) that has been chemically combined with a small amount of a radioactive isotope called fluorine-18.

FDG-18 is used in positron emission tomography (PET) scans to help identify areas of the body where cells are using more energy than normal, such as cancerous tumors. The FDG-18 is injected into the patient's vein and travels throughout the body. Because cancer cells often use more glucose than normal cells, they tend to absorb more FDG-18.

Once inside the body, the FDG-18 emits positrons, which interact with electrons in nearby tissue, producing gamma rays that can be detected by a PET scanner. The resulting images can help doctors locate and assess the size and activity of cancerous tumors, as well as monitor the effectiveness of treatment.

Uterine cervical neoplasms, also known as cervical cancer or cervical dysplasia, refer to abnormal growths or lesions on the lining of the cervix that have the potential to become cancerous. These growths are usually caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and can be detected through routine Pap smears.

Cervical neoplasms are classified into different grades based on their level of severity, ranging from mild dysplasia (CIN I) to severe dysplasia or carcinoma in situ (CIN III). In some cases, cervical neoplasms may progress to invasive cancer if left untreated.

Risk factors for developing cervical neoplasms include early sexual activity, multiple sexual partners, smoking, and a weakened immune system. Regular Pap smears and HPV testing are recommended for early detection and prevention of cervical cancer.

Pancreatic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the pancreas that can be benign or malignant. The pancreas is a gland located behind the stomach that produces hormones and digestive enzymes. Pancreatic neoplasms can interfere with the normal functioning of the pancreas, leading to various health complications.

Benign pancreatic neoplasms are non-cancerous growths that do not spread to other parts of the body. They are usually removed through surgery to prevent any potential complications, such as blocking the bile duct or causing pain.

Malignant pancreatic neoplasms, also known as pancreatic cancer, are cancerous growths that can invade and destroy surrounding tissues and organs. They can also spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body, such as the liver, lungs, or bones. Pancreatic cancer is often aggressive and difficult to treat, with a poor prognosis.

There are several types of pancreatic neoplasms, including adenocarcinomas, neuroendocrine tumors, solid pseudopapillary neoplasms, and cystic neoplasms. The specific type of neoplasm is determined through various diagnostic tests, such as imaging studies, biopsies, and blood tests. Treatment options depend on the type, stage, and location of the neoplasm, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences.

Anus neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the anus, which is the opening at the end of the digestive tract where solid waste leaves the body. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Common types of anus neoplasms include squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and melanoma.

Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of anus cancer, accounting for about 80% of all cases. It begins in the squamous cells that line the anal canal and can spread to other parts of the body if left untreated.

Adenocarcinoma is a less common type of anus cancer that arises from glandular cells in the anus. This type of cancer is often associated with long-standing inflammatory conditions, such as anal fistulas or ulcerative colitis.

Melanoma is a rare form of skin cancer that can also occur in the anus. It develops from pigment-producing cells called melanocytes and tends to be aggressive with a high risk of spreading to other parts of the body.

Other less common types of anus neoplasms include basal cell carcinoma, sarcoma, and lymphoma. Treatment options for anus neoplasms depend on the type, stage, and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health.

A Gastrectomy is a surgical procedure involving the removal of all or part of the stomach. This procedure can be total (complete resection of the stomach), partial (removal of a portion of the stomach), or sleeve (removal of a portion of the stomach to create a narrow sleeve-shaped pouch).

Gastrectomies are typically performed to treat conditions such as gastric cancer, benign tumors, severe peptic ulcers, and in some cases, for weight loss in individuals with morbid obesity. The type of gastrectomy performed depends on the patient's medical condition and the extent of the disease.

Following a gastrectomy, patients may require adjustments to their diet and lifestyle, as well as potential supplementation of vitamins and minerals that would normally be absorbed in the stomach. In some cases, further reconstructive surgery might be necessary to reestablish gastrointestinal continuity.

Tegafur is an antineoplastic agent, which is a type of drug used to treat cancer. It is a prodrug of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), meaning that it is converted into 5-FU in the body after administration. 5-FU is a chemotherapeutic agent that interferes with DNA and RNA synthesis, ultimately leading to the death of cancer cells.

Tegafur is used alone or in combination with other antineoplastic agents to treat various types of cancers, including colon, rectal, gastric, breast, and head and neck cancers. It works by disrupting the growth of cancer cells, which are rapidly dividing cells.

Like all chemotherapeutic agents, Tegafur has potential side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, mouth sores, and hair loss. Additionally, it can cause myelosuppression, a condition in which the production of blood cells in the bone marrow is decreased, leading to an increased risk of infection, anemia, and bleeding. Therefore, patients receiving Tegafur require regular monitoring of their blood counts and other laboratory tests to ensure that they are tolerating the treatment well.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Oxonic Acid" is not a recognized term in medical or clinical sciences. It is, however, a chemical compound with the formula C5H7NO5. It is a type of organic acid that is used in research and industrial settings, particularly as a precursor in the synthesis of other chemicals.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help answer them for you!

Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is a type of external beam radiation therapy that uses advanced technology to precisely target tumors while minimizing exposure to healthy tissues. In IMRT, the intensity of the radiation beam is modulated or varied during treatment, allowing for more conformal dose distributions and better sparing of normal structures. This is achieved through the use of computer-controlled linear accelerators that shape the radiation beam to match the three-dimensional shape of the tumor. The result is improved treatment accuracy, reduced side effects, and potentially higher cure rates compared to conventional radiotherapy techniques.

Esophagitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation and irritation of the esophageal lining, which is the muscular tube that connects the throat to the stomach. This inflammation can cause symptoms such as difficulty swallowing, chest pain, heartburn, and acid reflux.

Esophagitis can be caused by various factors, including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), infection, allergies, medications, and chronic vomiting. Prolonged exposure to stomach acid can also cause esophagitis, leading to a condition called reflux esophagitis.

If left untreated, esophagitis can lead to complications such as strictures, ulcers, and Barrett's esophagus, which is a precancerous condition that increases the risk of developing esophageal cancer. Treatment for esophagitis typically involves addressing the underlying cause, managing symptoms, and protecting the esophageal lining to promote healing.

Otorhinolaryngologic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that occur in the structures related to the head and neck, which are studied and managed by the medical specialty of otorhinolaryngology (also known as ENT - ear, nose, and throat). These neoplasms can be benign or malignant and can develop in various areas such as:

1. The external auditory canal (the ear canal)
2. The middle ear and inner ear
3. The nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses
4. The pharynx (throat), including the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and hypopharynx
5. The larynx (voice box)

The symptoms and treatment options for otorhinolaryngologic neoplasms depend on their location, size, and type (benign or malignant). Common symptoms include:

* A mass or growth in the ear, nose, or throat
* Difficulty swallowing or speaking
* Hearing loss or tinnitus (ringing in the ears)
* Nosebleeds or nasal congestion
* Facial pain or numbness
* Swelling in the neck or face

It is essential to consult an otorhinolaryngologist if any concerning symptoms are present, as early detection and treatment can significantly improve outcomes.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Lymph node excision is a surgical procedure in which one or more lymph nodes are removed from the body for the purpose of examination. This procedure is often conducted to help diagnose or stage various types of cancer, as malignant cells may spread to the lymphatic system and eventually accumulate within nearby lymph nodes.

During a lymph node excision, an incision is made in the skin overlying the affected lymph node(s). The surgeon carefully dissects the tissue surrounding the lymph node(s) to isolate them from adjacent structures before removing them. In some cases, a sentinel lymph node biopsy may be performed instead, where only the sentinel lymph node (the first lymph node to which cancer cells are likely to spread) is removed and examined.

The excised lymph nodes are then sent to a laboratory for histopathological examination, which involves staining and microscopic evaluation of the tissue to determine whether it contains any malignant cells. The results of this examination can help guide further treatment decisions and provide valuable prognostic information.

A laryngectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of the larynx, also known as the voice box. This is typically performed in cases of advanced laryngeal cancer or other severe diseases of the larynx. After the surgery, the patient will have a permanent stoma (opening) in the neck to allow for breathing. The ability to speak after a total laryngectomy can be restored through various methods such as esophageal speech, tracheoesophageal puncture with a voice prosthesis, or electronic devices.

A feasibility study is a preliminary investigation or analysis conducted to determine the viability of a proposed project, program, or product. In the medical field, feasibility studies are often conducted before implementing new treatments, procedures, equipment, or facilities. These studies help to assess the practicality and effectiveness of the proposed intervention, as well as its potential benefits and risks.

Feasibility studies in healthcare typically involve several steps:

1. Problem identification: Clearly define the problem that the proposed project, program, or product aims to address.
2. Objectives setting: Establish specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART) objectives for the study.
3. Literature review: Conduct a thorough review of existing research and best practices related to the proposed intervention.
4. Methodology development: Design a methodology for data collection and analysis that will help answer the research questions and achieve the study's objectives.
5. Resource assessment: Evaluate the availability and adequacy of resources, including personnel, time, and finances, required to carry out the proposed intervention.
6. Risk assessment: Identify potential risks and challenges associated with the implementation of the proposed intervention and develop strategies to mitigate them.
7. Cost-benefit analysis: Estimate the costs and benefits of the proposed intervention, including direct and indirect costs, as well as short-term and long-term benefits.
8. Stakeholder engagement: Engage relevant stakeholders, such as patients, healthcare providers, administrators, and policymakers, to gather their input and support for the proposed intervention.
9. Decision-making: Based on the findings of the feasibility study, make an informed decision about whether or not to proceed with the proposed project, program, or product.

Feasibility studies are essential in healthcare as they help ensure that resources are allocated efficiently and effectively, and that interventions are evidence-based, safe, and beneficial for patients.

Pelvic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors located in the pelvic region. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). They can originate from various tissues within the pelvis, including the reproductive organs (such as ovaries, uterus, cervix, vagina, and vulva in women; and prostate, testicles, and penis in men), the urinary system (kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra), the gastrointestinal tract (colon, rectum, and anus), as well as the muscles, nerves, blood vessels, and other connective tissues.

Malignant pelvic neoplasms can invade surrounding tissues and spread to distant parts of the body (metastasize). The symptoms of pelvic neoplasms may vary depending on their location, size, and type but often include abdominal or pelvic pain, bloating, changes in bowel or bladder habits, unusual vaginal bleeding or discharge, and unintentional weight loss. Early detection and prompt treatment are crucial for improving the prognosis of malignant pelvic neoplasms.

A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a type of clinical study in which participants are randomly assigned to receive either the experimental intervention or the control condition, which may be a standard of care, placebo, or no treatment. The goal of an RCT is to minimize bias and ensure that the results are due to the intervention being tested rather than other factors. This design allows for a comparison between the two groups to determine if there is a significant difference in outcomes. RCTs are often considered the gold standard for evaluating the safety and efficacy of medical interventions, as they provide a high level of evidence for causal relationships between the intervention and health outcomes.

Postoperative care refers to the comprehensive medical treatment and nursing attention provided to a patient following a surgical procedure. The goal of postoperative care is to facilitate the patient's recovery, prevent complications, manage pain, ensure proper healing of the incision site, and maintain overall health and well-being until the patient can resume their normal activities.

This type of care includes monitoring vital signs, managing pain through medication or other techniques, ensuring adequate hydration and nutrition, helping the patient with breathing exercises to prevent lung complications, encouraging mobility to prevent blood clots, monitoring for signs of infection or other complications, administering prescribed medications, providing wound care, and educating the patient about postoperative care instructions.

The duration of postoperative care can vary depending on the type and complexity of the surgical procedure, as well as the individual patient's needs and overall health status. It may be provided in a hospital setting, an outpatient surgery center, or in the patient's home, depending on the level of care required.

Carcinoma is a type of cancer that develops from epithelial cells, which are the cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body. These cells cover organs, glands, and other structures within the body. Carcinomas can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, lungs, breasts, prostate, colon, and pancreas. They are often characterized by the uncontrolled growth and division of abnormal cells that can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body through a process called metastasis. Carcinomas can be further classified based on their appearance under a microscope, such as adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma.

The larynx, also known as the voice box, is a complex structure in the neck that plays a crucial role in protection of the lower respiratory tract and in phonation. It is composed of cartilaginous, muscular, and soft tissue structures. The primary functions of the larynx include:

1. Airway protection: During swallowing, the larynx moves upward and forward to close the opening of the trachea (the glottis) and prevent food or liquids from entering the lungs. This action is known as the swallowing reflex.
2. Phonation: The vocal cords within the larynx vibrate when air passes through them, producing sound that forms the basis of human speech and voice production.
3. Respiration: The larynx serves as a conduit for airflow between the upper and lower respiratory tracts during breathing.

The larynx is located at the level of the C3-C6 vertebrae in the neck, just above the trachea. It consists of several important structures:

1. Cartilages: The laryngeal cartilages include the thyroid, cricoid, and arytenoid cartilages, as well as the corniculate and cuneiform cartilages. These form a framework for the larynx and provide attachment points for various muscles.
2. Vocal cords: The vocal cords are thin bands of mucous membrane that stretch across the glottis (the opening between the arytenoid cartilages). They vibrate when air passes through them, producing sound.
3. Muscles: There are several intrinsic and extrinsic muscles associated with the larynx. The intrinsic muscles control the tension and position of the vocal cords, while the extrinsic muscles adjust the position and movement of the larynx within the neck.
4. Nerves: The larynx is innervated by both sensory and motor nerves. The recurrent laryngeal nerve provides motor innervation to all intrinsic laryngeal muscles, except for one muscle called the cricothyroid, which is innervated by the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve. Sensory innervation is provided by the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve and the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

The larynx plays a crucial role in several essential functions, including breathing, speaking, and protecting the airway during swallowing. Dysfunction or damage to the larynx can result in various symptoms, such as hoarseness, difficulty swallowing, shortness of breath, or stridor (a high-pitched sound heard during inspiration).

Radiation pneumonitis is a inflammatory reaction in the lung tissue that occurs as a complication of thoracic radiation therapy. It usually develops 1-3 months following the completion of radiation treatment. The symptoms can range from mild to severe and may include cough, shortness of breath, fever, and chest discomfort. In severe cases, it can lead to fibrosis (scarring) of the lung tissue, which can cause permanent lung damage. Radiation pneumonitis is diagnosed through a combination of clinical symptoms, imaging studies such as chest X-ray or CT scan, and sometimes through bronchoscopy with lavage. Treatment typically involves corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and supportive care to manage symptoms.

Radiopharmaceuticals are defined as pharmaceutical preparations that contain radioactive isotopes and are used for diagnosis or therapy in nuclear medicine. These compounds are designed to interact specifically with certain biological targets, such as cells, tissues, or organs, and emit radiation that can be detected and measured to provide diagnostic information or used to destroy abnormal cells or tissue in therapeutic applications.

The radioactive isotopes used in radiopharmaceuticals have carefully controlled half-lives, which determine how long they remain radioactive and how long the pharmaceutical preparation remains effective. The choice of radioisotope depends on the intended use of the radiopharmaceutical, as well as factors such as its energy, range of emission, and chemical properties.

Radiopharmaceuticals are used in a wide range of medical applications, including imaging, cancer therapy, and treatment of other diseases and conditions. Examples of radiopharmaceuticals include technetium-99m for imaging the heart, lungs, and bones; iodine-131 for treating thyroid cancer; and samarium-153 for palliative treatment of bone metastases.

The use of radiopharmaceuticals requires specialized training and expertise in nuclear medicine, as well as strict adherence to safety protocols to minimize radiation exposure to patients and healthcare workers.

Stomatitis is a medical term that refers to inflammation of the mucous membrane of any of the soft tissues in the mouth, including the lips, gums, tongue, palate, and cheek lining. It can cause discomfort, pain, and sores or lesions in the mouth. Stomatitis may result from a variety of causes, such as infection, injury, allergic reaction, or systemic diseases. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, mouth rinses, or changes in oral hygiene practices.

Lymphatic irradiation is a medical procedure that involves the use of radiation therapy to target and treat the lymphatic system. This type of treatment is often used in cancer care, specifically in cases where cancer has spread to the lymph nodes. The goal of lymphatic irradiation is to destroy any remaining cancer cells in the lymphatic system and reduce the risk of cancer recurrence.

The procedure typically involves the use of a linear accelerator, which directs high-energy X-rays or electrons at the affected area. The radiation oncologist will determine the appropriate dose and duration of treatment based on the location and extent of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and medical history.

It is important to note that lymphatic irradiation can have side effects, including fatigue, skin changes, and swelling in the affected area. Patients may also experience longer-term side effects, such as lymphedema, which is a chronic swelling of the limbs due to damage to the lymphatic system.

Overall, lymphatic irradiation is an important tool in cancer care and can help improve outcomes for patients with cancer that has spread to the lymphatic system. However, it should be administered by trained medical professionals and accompanied by appropriate supportive care to manage side effects and optimize patient outcomes.

A pneumonectomy is a surgical procedure in which an entire lung is removed. This type of surgery is typically performed as a treatment for certain types of lung cancer, although it may also be used to treat other conditions such as severe damage or infection in the lung that does not respond to other treatments. The surgery requires general anesthesia and can be quite complex, with potential risks including bleeding, infection, pneumonia, and air leaks. Recovery from a pneumonectomy can take several weeks, and patients may require ongoing rehabilitation to regain strength and mobility.

Stomach neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the stomach that can be benign or malignant. They include a wide range of conditions such as:

1. Gastric adenomas: These are benign tumors that develop from glandular cells in the stomach lining.
2. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs): These are rare tumors that can be found in the stomach and other parts of the digestive tract. They originate from the stem cells in the wall of the digestive tract.
3. Leiomyomas: These are benign tumors that develop from smooth muscle cells in the stomach wall.
4. Lipomas: These are benign tumors that develop from fat cells in the stomach wall.
5. Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs): These are tumors that develop from the neuroendocrine cells in the stomach lining. They can be benign or malignant.
6. Gastric carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that develop from the glandular cells in the stomach lining. They are the most common type of stomach neoplasm and include adenocarcinomas, signet ring cell carcinomas, and others.
7. Lymphomas: These are malignant tumors that develop from the immune cells in the stomach wall.

Stomach neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and difficulty swallowing. The diagnosis of stomach neoplasms usually involves a combination of imaging tests, endoscopy, and biopsy. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the neoplasm and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or targeted therapy.

Voice disorders are conditions that affect the quality, pitch, or volume of a person's voice. These disorders can result from damage to or abnormalities in the vocal cords, which are the small bands of muscle located in the larynx (voice box) that vibrate to produce sound.

There are several types of voice disorders, including:

1. Vocal cord dysfunction: This occurs when the vocal cords do not open and close properly, resulting in a weak or breathy voice.
2. Vocal cord nodules: These are small growths that form on the vocal cords as a result of excessive use or misuse of the voice, such as from shouting or singing too loudly.
3. Vocal cord polyps: These are similar to nodules but are usually larger and can cause more significant changes in the voice.
4. Laryngitis: This is an inflammation of the vocal cords that can result from a viral infection, overuse, or exposure to irritants such as smoke.
5. Muscle tension dysphonia: This occurs when the muscles around the larynx become tense and constricted, leading to voice changes.
6. Paradoxical vocal fold movement: This is a condition in which the vocal cords close when they should be open, causing breathing difficulties and a weak or breathy voice.
7. Spasmodic dysphonia: This is a neurological disorder that causes involuntary spasms of the vocal cords, resulting in voice breaks and difficulty speaking.

Voice disorders can cause significant impairment in communication, social interactions, and quality of life. Treatment may include voice therapy, medication, or surgery, depending on the underlying cause of the disorder.

Mitomycin is an antineoplastic antibiotic derived from Streptomyces caespitosus. It is primarily used in cancer chemotherapy, particularly in the treatment of various carcinomas including gastrointestinal tract malignancies and breast cancer. Mitomycin works by forming cross-links in DNA, thereby inhibiting its replication and transcription, which ultimately leads to cell death.

In addition to its systemic use, mitomycin is also used topically in ophthalmology for the treatment of certain eye conditions such as glaucoma and various ocular surface disorders. The topical application of mitomycin can help reduce scarring and fibrosis by inhibiting the proliferation of fibroblasts.

It's important to note that mitomycin has a narrow therapeutic index, meaning there is only a small range between an effective dose and a toxic one. Therefore, its use should be closely monitored to minimize side effects, which can include myelosuppression, mucositis, alopecia, and potential secondary malignancies.

Breast neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the breast tissue that can be benign or malignant. Benign breast neoplasms are non-cancerous tumors or growths, while malignant breast neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body.

Breast neoplasms can arise from different types of cells in the breast, including milk ducts, milk sacs (lobules), or connective tissue. The most common type of breast cancer is ductal carcinoma, which starts in the milk ducts and can spread to other parts of the breast and nearby structures.

Breast neoplasms are usually detected through screening methods such as mammography, ultrasound, or MRI, or through self-examination or clinical examination. Treatment options for breast neoplasms depend on several factors, including the type and stage of the tumor, the patient's age and overall health, and personal preferences. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, or targeted therapy.

Cyclophosphamide is an alkylating agent, which is a type of chemotherapy medication. It works by interfering with the DNA of cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and growing. This helps to stop the spread of cancer in the body. Cyclophosphamide is used to treat various types of cancer, including lymphoma, leukemia, multiple myeloma, and breast cancer. It can be given orally as a tablet or intravenously as an injection.

Cyclophosphamide can also have immunosuppressive effects, which means it can suppress the activity of the immune system. This makes it useful in treating certain autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. However, this immunosuppression can also increase the risk of infections and other side effects.

Like all chemotherapy medications, cyclophosphamide can cause a range of side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, fatigue, and increased susceptibility to infections. It is important for patients receiving cyclophosphamide to be closely monitored by their healthcare team to manage these side effects and ensure the medication is working effectively.

High-energy radiotherapy, also known as external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), is a type of cancer treatment that uses high-energy radiation beams to destroy cancer cells and shrink tumors. The radiation beams are produced by a machine called a linear accelerator (LINAC) and are directed at the tumor site from outside the body. High-energy radiotherapy can be used to treat many different types of cancer, either alone or in combination with other treatments such as surgery or chemotherapy.

The high-energy radiation beams used in this type of radiotherapy are able to penetrate deep into the body and target large areas, making it an effective treatment for cancers that have spread or are too large to be removed surgically. The dose and duration of treatment will depend on the type and stage of cancer being treated, as well as the patient's overall health.

High-energy radiotherapy works by damaging the DNA of cancer cells, which prevents them from dividing and growing. This ultimately leads to the death of the cancer cells. While radiation therapy can also damage normal cells, they are generally better able to repair themselves compared to cancer cells. Therefore, the goal of high-energy radiotherapy is to deliver a high enough dose to destroy the cancer cells while minimizing harm to surrounding healthy tissue.

It's important to note that high-energy radiotherapy requires careful planning and delivery to ensure that the radiation beams are focused on the tumor site and avoid healthy tissues as much as possible. This is typically done using imaging techniques such as CT, MRI, or PET scans to create a treatment plan that maps out the exact location and shape of the tumor. The patient will then undergo a series of treatments, usually scheduled daily over several weeks.

Etoposide is a chemotherapy medication used to treat various types of cancer, including lung cancer, testicular cancer, and certain types of leukemia. It works by inhibiting the activity of an enzyme called topoisomerase II, which is involved in DNA replication and transcription. By doing so, etoposide can interfere with the growth and multiplication of cancer cells.

Etoposide is often administered intravenously in a hospital or clinic setting, although it may also be given orally in some cases. The medication can cause a range of side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and an increased risk of infection. It can also have more serious side effects, such as bone marrow suppression, which can lead to anemia, bleeding, and a weakened immune system.

Like all chemotherapy drugs, etoposide is not without risks and should only be used under the close supervision of a qualified healthcare provider. It is important for patients to discuss the potential benefits and risks of this medication with their doctor before starting treatment.

Leukopenia is a medical term used to describe an abnormally low white blood cell (WBC) count in the blood. White blood cells are crucial components of the body's immune system, helping to fight infections and diseases. A normal WBC count ranges from 4,500 to 11,000 cells per microliter (μL) of blood in most laboratories. Leukopenia is typically diagnosed when the WBC count falls below 4,500 cells/μL.

There are several types of white blood cells, including neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. Neutropenia, a specific type of leukopenia, refers to an abnormally low neutrophil count (less than 1,500 cells/μL). Neutropenia increases the risk of bacterial and fungal infections since neutrophils play a significant role in combating these types of pathogens.

Leukopenia can result from various factors, such as viral infections, certain medications (like chemotherapy or radiation therapy), bone marrow disorders, autoimmune diseases, or congenital conditions affecting white blood cell production. It is essential to identify the underlying cause of leukopenia to provide appropriate treatment and prevent complications.

Treatment failure is a term used in medicine to describe the situation when a prescribed treatment or intervention is not achieving the desired therapeutic goals or objectives. This may occur due to various reasons, such as:

1. Development of drug resistance by the pathogen or disease being treated.
2. Inadequate dosage or frequency of the medication.
3. Poor adherence or compliance to the treatment regimen by the patient.
4. The presence of underlying conditions or comorbidities that may affect the efficacy of the treatment.
5. The severity or progression of the disease despite appropriate treatment.

When treatment failure occurs, healthcare providers may need to reassess the patient's condition and modify the treatment plan accordingly, which may include adjusting the dosage, changing the medication, adding new medications, or considering alternative treatments.

Neoplasm metastasis is the spread of cancer cells from the primary site (where the original or primary tumor formed) to other places in the body. This happens when cancer cells break away from the original (primary) tumor and enter the bloodstream or lymphatic system. The cancer cells can then travel to other parts of the body and form new tumors, called secondary tumors or metastases.

Metastasis is a key feature of malignant neoplasms (cancers), and it is one of the main ways that cancer can cause harm in the body. The metastatic tumors may continue to grow and may cause damage to the organs and tissues where they are located. They can also release additional cancer cells into the bloodstream or lymphatic system, leading to further spread of the cancer.

The metastatic tumors are named based on the location where they are found, as well as the type of primary cancer. For example, if a patient has a primary lung cancer that has metastasized to the liver, the metastatic tumor would be called a liver metastasis from lung cancer.

It is important to note that the presence of metastases can significantly affect a person's prognosis and treatment options. In general, metastatic cancer is more difficult to treat than cancer that has not spread beyond its original site. However, there are many factors that can influence a person's prognosis and response to treatment, so it is important for each individual to discuss their specific situation with their healthcare team.

Squamous cell neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that originate from squamous cells, which are flat, scale-like cells that make up the outer layer of the skin and the lining of mucous membranes. These neoplasms can be benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous). When malignant, they are called squamous cell carcinomas.

Squamous cell carcinomas often develop in areas exposed to excessive sunlight or ultraviolet radiation, such as the skin, lips, and mouth. They can also occur in other areas of the body, including the cervix, anus, and lungs. Risk factors for developing squamous cell carcinoma include fair skin, a history of sunburns, exposure to certain chemicals or radiation, and a weakened immune system.

Symptoms of squamous cell carcinomas may include rough or scaly patches on the skin, a sore that doesn't heal, a wart-like growth, or a raised bump with a central depression. Treatment for squamous cell carcinomas typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, along with radiation therapy or chemotherapy in some cases. Early detection and treatment can help prevent the spread of the cancer to other parts of the body.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Aluminum hydroxide is a medication that contains the active ingredient aluminum hydroxide, which is an inorganic compound. It is commonly used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid and relieve symptoms of acid reflux and heartburn. Aluminum hydroxide works by reacting with the acid in the stomach to form a physical barrier that prevents the acid from backing up into the esophagus.

In addition to its use as an antacid, aluminum hydroxide is also used as a phosphate binder in patients with kidney disease. It works by binding to phosphate in the gut and preventing it from being absorbed into the bloodstream, which can help to control high phosphate levels in the body.

Aluminum hydroxide is available over-the-counter and by prescription in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquid suspensions. It is important to follow the dosage instructions carefully and to talk to a healthcare provider if symptoms persist or worsen.

Phase II clinical trials are a type of medical research study that aims to assess the safety and effectiveness of a new drug or intervention in a specific patient population. These studies typically follow successful completion of Phase I clinical trials, which focus primarily on evaluating the safety and dosage of the treatment in a small group of healthy volunteers.

In Phase II clinical trials, the treatment is tested in a larger group of patients (usually several hundred) who have the condition or disease that the treatment is intended to treat. The main goals of these studies are to:

1. Determine the optimal dosage range for the treatment
2. Evaluate the safety and side effects of the treatment at different doses
3. Assess how well the treatment works in treating the target condition or disease

Phase II clinical trials are typically randomized, controlled studies, meaning that participants are randomly assigned to receive either the new treatment or a comparison group, such as a placebo or standard of care. The study is also often blinded, meaning that neither the participants nor the researchers know who is receiving which treatment. This helps to minimize bias and ensure that the results are due to the treatment itself rather than other factors.

Overall, Phase II clinical trials play an important role in determining whether a new drug or intervention is safe and effective enough to move on to larger, more expensive Phase III clinical trials, which involve even larger groups of patients and are designed to confirm and expand upon the results of Phase II studies.

Clinical trials are research studies that involve human participants and are designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of new medical treatments, drugs, devices, or behavioral interventions. The purpose of clinical trials is to determine whether a new intervention is safe, effective, and beneficial for patients, as well as to compare it with currently available treatments. Clinical trials follow a series of phases, each with specific goals and criteria, before a new intervention can be approved by regulatory authorities for widespread use.

Clinical trials are conducted according to a protocol, which is a detailed plan that outlines the study's objectives, design, methodology, statistical analysis, and ethical considerations. The protocol is developed and reviewed by a team of medical experts, statisticians, and ethicists, and it must be approved by an institutional review board (IRB) before the trial can begin.

Participation in clinical trials is voluntary, and participants must provide informed consent before enrolling in the study. Informed consent involves providing potential participants with detailed information about the study's purpose, procedures, risks, benefits, and alternatives, as well as their rights as research subjects. Participants can withdraw from the study at any time without penalty or loss of benefits to which they are entitled.

Clinical trials are essential for advancing medical knowledge and improving patient care. They help researchers identify new treatments, diagnostic tools, and prevention strategies that can benefit patients and improve public health. However, clinical trials also pose potential risks to participants, including adverse effects from experimental interventions, time commitment, and inconvenience. Therefore, it is important for researchers to carefully design and conduct clinical trials to minimize risks and ensure that the benefits outweigh the risks.

Salvage therapy, in the context of medical oncology, refers to the use of treatments that are typically considered less desirable or more aggressive, often due to greater side effects or lower efficacy, when standard treatment options have failed. These therapies are used to attempt to salvage a response or delay disease progression in patients with refractory or relapsed cancers.

In other words, salvage therapy is a last-resort treatment approach for patients who have not responded to first-line or subsequent lines of therapy. It may involve the use of different drug combinations, higher doses of chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, or radiation therapy. The goal of salvage therapy is to extend survival, improve quality of life, or achieve disease stabilization in patients with limited treatment options.

Proportional hazards models are a type of statistical analysis used in medical research to investigate the relationship between covariates (predictor variables) and survival times. The most common application of proportional hazards models is in the Cox regression model, which is named after its developer, Sir David Cox.

In a proportional hazards model, the hazard rate or risk of an event occurring at a given time is assumed to be proportional to the hazard rate of a reference group, after adjusting for the covariates. This means that the ratio of the hazard rates between any two individuals remains constant over time, regardless of their survival times.

Mathematically, the hazard function h(t) at time t for an individual with a set of covariates X can be expressed as:

h(t|X) = h0(t) \* exp(β1X1 + β2X2 + ... + βpXp)

where h0(t) is the baseline hazard function, X1, X2, ..., Xp are the covariates, and β1, β2, ..., βp are the regression coefficients that represent the effect of each covariate on the hazard rate.

The assumption of proportionality is crucial in the interpretation of the results from a Cox regression model. If the assumption is violated, then the estimated regression coefficients may be biased and misleading. Therefore, it is important to test for the proportional hazards assumption before interpreting the results of a Cox regression analysis.

Radiation dosage, in the context of medical physics, refers to the amount of radiation energy that is absorbed by a material or tissue, usually measured in units of Gray (Gy), where 1 Gy equals an absorption of 1 Joule of radiation energy per kilogram of matter. In the clinical setting, radiation dosage is used to plan and assess the amount of radiation delivered to a patient during treatments such as radiotherapy. It's important to note that the biological impact of radiation also depends on other factors, including the type and energy level of the radiation, as well as the sensitivity of the irradiated tissues or organs.

Muscle neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the muscle tissue. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign muscle neoplasms are typically slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant muscle neoplasms, also known as soft tissue sarcomas, can grow quickly, invade nearby tissues, and metastasize (spread) to distant parts of the body.

Soft tissue sarcomas can arise from any of the muscles in the body, including the skeletal muscles (voluntary muscles that attach to bones and help with movement), smooth muscles (involuntary muscles found in the walls of blood vessels, digestive tract, and other organs), or cardiac muscle (the specialized muscle found in the heart).

There are many different types of soft tissue sarcomas, each with its own set of characteristics and prognosis. Treatment for muscle neoplasms typically involves a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, depending on the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor.

Antineoplastic agents, alkylating, are a class of chemotherapeutic drugs that work by alkylating (adding alkyl groups) to DNA, which can lead to the death or dysfunction of cancer cells. These agents can form cross-links between strands of DNA, preventing DNA replication and transcription, ultimately leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis (programmed cell death). Examples of alkylating agents include cyclophosphamide, melphalan, and cisplatin. While these drugs are designed to target rapidly dividing cancer cells, they can also affect normal cells that divide quickly, such as those in the bone marrow and digestive tract, leading to side effects like anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and nausea/vomiting.

Multivariate analysis is a statistical method used to examine the relationship between multiple independent variables and a dependent variable. It allows for the simultaneous examination of the effects of two or more independent variables on an outcome, while controlling for the effects of other variables in the model. This technique can be used to identify patterns, associations, and interactions among multiple variables, and is commonly used in medical research to understand complex health outcomes and disease processes. Examples of multivariate analysis methods include multiple regression, factor analysis, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis.

Carcinoma, small cell is a type of lung cancer that typically starts in the bronchi (the airways that lead to the lungs). It is called "small cell" because the cancer cells are small and appear round or oval in shape. This type of lung cancer is also sometimes referred to as "oat cell carcinoma" due to the distinctive appearance of the cells, which can resemble oats when viewed under a microscope.

Small cell carcinoma is a particularly aggressive form of lung cancer that tends to spread quickly to other parts of the body. It is strongly associated with smoking and is less common than non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which accounts for about 85% of all lung cancers.

Like other types of lung cancer, small cell carcinoma may not cause any symptoms in its early stages. However, as the tumor grows and spreads, it can cause a variety of symptoms, including coughing, chest pain, shortness of breath, hoarseness, and weight loss. Treatment for small cell carcinoma typically involves a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and sometimes surgery.

Autologous transplantation is a medical procedure where cells, tissues, or organs are removed from a person, stored and then returned back to the same individual at a later time. This is different from allogeneic transplantation where the tissue or organ is obtained from another donor. The term "autologous" is derived from the Greek words "auto" meaning self and "logos" meaning study.

In autologous transplantation, the patient's own cells or tissues are used to replace or repair damaged or diseased ones. This reduces the risk of rejection and eliminates the need for immunosuppressive drugs, which are required in allogeneic transplants to prevent the body from attacking the foreign tissue.

Examples of autologous transplantation include:

* Autologous bone marrow or stem cell transplantation, where stem cells are removed from the patient's blood or bone marrow, stored and then reinfused back into the same individual after high-dose chemotherapy or radiation therapy to treat cancer.
* Autologous skin grafting, where a piece of skin is taken from one part of the body and transplanted to another area on the same person.
* Autologous chondrocyte implantation, where cartilage cells are harvested from the patient's own knee, cultured in a laboratory and then implanted back into the knee to repair damaged cartilage.

Tumor markers are substances that can be found in the body and their presence can indicate the presence of certain types of cancer or other conditions. Biological tumor markers refer to those substances that are produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to cancer or certain benign (non-cancerous) conditions. These markers can be found in various bodily fluids such as blood, urine, or tissue samples.

Examples of biological tumor markers include:

1. Proteins: Some tumor markers are proteins that are produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to the presence of cancer. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by normal prostate cells and in higher amounts by prostate cancer cells.
2. Genetic material: Tumor markers can also include genetic material such as DNA, RNA, or microRNA that are shed by cancer cells into bodily fluids. For example, circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is genetic material from cancer cells that can be found in the bloodstream.
3. Metabolites: Tumor markers can also include metabolic products produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to cancer. For example, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme that is released into the bloodstream when cancer cells break down glucose for energy.

It's important to note that tumor markers are not specific to cancer and can be elevated in non-cancerous conditions as well. Therefore, they should not be used alone to diagnose cancer but rather as a tool in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical evaluations.

A dose-response relationship in radiation refers to the correlation between the amount of radiation exposure (dose) and the biological response or adverse health effects observed in exposed individuals. As the level of radiation dose increases, the severity and frequency of the adverse health effects also tend to increase. This relationship is crucial in understanding the risks associated with various levels of radiation exposure and helps inform radiation protection standards and guidelines.

The effects of ionizing radiation can be categorized into two types: deterministic and stochastic. Deterministic effects have a threshold dose below which no effect is observed, and above this threshold, the severity of the effect increases with higher doses. Examples include radiation-induced cataracts or radiation dermatitis. Stochastic effects, on the other hand, do not have a clear threshold and are based on probability; as the dose increases, so does the likelihood of the adverse health effect occurring, such as an increased risk of cancer.

Understanding the dose-response relationship in radiation exposure is essential for setting limits on occupational and public exposure to ionizing radiation, optimizing radiation protection practices, and developing effective medical countermeasures in case of radiation emergencies.

Lymph nodes are small, bean-shaped organs that are part of the immune system. They are found throughout the body, especially in the neck, armpits, groin, and abdomen. Lymph nodes filter lymph fluid, which carries waste and unwanted substances such as bacteria, viruses, and cancer cells. They contain white blood cells called lymphocytes that help fight infections and diseases by attacking and destroying the harmful substances found in the lymph fluid. When an infection or disease is present, lymph nodes may swell due to the increased number of immune cells and fluid accumulation as they work to fight off the invaders.

The Predictive Value of Tests, specifically the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV), are measures used in diagnostic tests to determine the probability that a positive or negative test result is correct.

Positive Predictive Value (PPV) is the proportion of patients with a positive test result who actually have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true positives divided by the total number of positive results (true positives + false positives). A higher PPV indicates that a positive test result is more likely to be a true positive, and therefore the disease is more likely to be present.

Negative Predictive Value (NPV) is the proportion of patients with a negative test result who do not have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true negatives divided by the total number of negative results (true negatives + false negatives). A higher NPV indicates that a negative test result is more likely to be a true negative, and therefore the disease is less likely to be present.

The predictive value of tests depends on the prevalence of the disease in the population being tested, as well as the sensitivity and specificity of the test. A test with high sensitivity and specificity will generally have higher predictive values than a test with low sensitivity and specificity. However, even a highly sensitive and specific test can have low predictive values if the prevalence of the disease is low in the population being tested.

Bone marrow purging is a procedure that involves the removal of cancerous or damaged cells from bone marrow before it is transplanted into a patient. This process is often used in the treatment of blood cancers such as leukemia and lymphoma, as well as other diseases that affect the bone marrow.

The purging process typically involves collecting bone marrow from the patient or a donor, then treating it with chemicals or medications to eliminate any cancerous or damaged cells. The purged bone marrow is then transplanted back into the patient's body, where it can help to produce healthy new blood cells.

There are several methods that can be used for bone marrow purging, including physical separation techniques, chemical treatments, and immunological approaches using antibodies or other immune system components. The choice of method depends on several factors, including the type and stage of the disease being treated, as well as the patient's individual medical history and condition.

It is important to note that bone marrow purging is a complex procedure that carries some risks and potential complications, such as damage to healthy cells, delayed recovery, and increased risk of infection. As with any medical treatment, it should be carefully evaluated and discussed with a healthcare provider to determine whether it is appropriate for a given patient's situation.

Brain neoplasms, also known as brain tumors, are abnormal growths of cells within the brain. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign brain tumors typically grow slowly and do not spread to other parts of the body. However, they can still cause serious problems if they press on sensitive areas of the brain. Malignant brain tumors, on the other hand, are cancerous and can grow quickly, invading surrounding brain tissue and spreading to other parts of the brain or spinal cord.

Brain neoplasms can arise from various types of cells within the brain, including glial cells (which provide support and insulation for nerve cells), neurons (nerve cells that transmit signals in the brain), and meninges (the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord). They can also result from the spread of cancer cells from other parts of the body, known as metastatic brain tumors.

Symptoms of brain neoplasms may vary depending on their size, location, and growth rate. Common symptoms include headaches, seizures, weakness or paralysis in the limbs, difficulty with balance and coordination, changes in speech or vision, confusion, memory loss, and changes in behavior or personality.

Treatment for brain neoplasms depends on several factors, including the type, size, location, and grade of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these approaches. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence and manage any long-term effects of treatment.

Doxorubicin is a type of chemotherapy medication known as an anthracycline. It works by interfering with the DNA in cancer cells, which prevents them from growing and multiplying. Doxorubicin is used to treat a wide variety of cancers, including leukemia, lymphoma, breast cancer, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, and many others. It may be given alone or in combination with other chemotherapy drugs.

Doxorubicin is usually administered through a vein (intravenously) and can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, mouth sores, and increased risk of infection. It can also cause damage to the heart muscle, which can lead to heart failure in some cases. For this reason, doctors may monitor patients' heart function closely while they are receiving doxorubicin treatment.

It is important for patients to discuss the potential risks and benefits of doxorubicin therapy with their healthcare provider before starting treatment.

Vinblastine is an alkaloid derived from the Madagascar periwinkle plant (Catharanthus roseus) and is primarily used in cancer chemotherapy. It is classified as a vinca alkaloid, along with vincristine, vinorelbine, and others.

Medically, vinblastine is an antimicrotubule agent that binds to tubulin, a protein involved in the formation of microtubules during cell division. By binding to tubulin, vinblastine prevents the assembly of microtubules, which are essential for mitosis (cell division). This leads to the inhibition of cell division and ultimately results in the death of rapidly dividing cells, such as cancer cells.

Vinblastine is used to treat various types of cancers, including Hodgkin's lymphoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, testicular cancer, breast cancer, and others. It is often administered intravenously in a healthcare setting and may be given as part of a combination chemotherapy regimen with other anticancer drugs.

As with any medication, vinblastine can have side effects, including bone marrow suppression (leading to an increased risk of infection, anemia, and bleeding), neurotoxicity (resulting in peripheral neuropathy, constipation, and jaw pain), nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and mouth sores. Regular monitoring by a healthcare professional is necessary during vinblastine treatment to manage side effects and ensure the safe and effective use of this medication.

Pharyngeal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the pharynx, which is the part of the throat that lies behind the nasal cavity and mouth, and above the esophagus and larynx. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Pharyngeal neoplasms can occur in any part of the pharynx, which is divided into three regions: the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and hypopharynx. The most common type of pharyngeal cancer is squamous cell carcinoma, which arises from the flat cells that line the mucosal surface of the pharynx.

Risk factors for developing pharyngeal neoplasms include tobacco use, heavy alcohol consumption, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV). Symptoms may include sore throat, difficulty swallowing, ear pain, neck masses, and changes in voice or speech. Treatment options depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the neoplasm, and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Vincristine is an antineoplastic agent, specifically a vinca alkaloid. It is derived from the Madagascar periwinkle plant (Catharanthus roseus). Vincristine binds to tubulin, a protein found in microtubules, and inhibits their polymerization, which results in disruption of mitotic spindles leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis (programmed cell death). It is used in the treatment of various types of cancer including leukemias, lymphomas, and solid tumors. Common side effects include peripheral neuropathy, constipation, and alopecia.

Risk assessment in the medical context refers to the process of identifying, evaluating, and prioritizing risks to patients, healthcare workers, or the community related to healthcare delivery. It involves determining the likelihood and potential impact of adverse events or hazards, such as infectious diseases, medication errors, or medical devices failures, and implementing measures to mitigate or manage those risks. The goal of risk assessment is to promote safe and high-quality care by identifying areas for improvement and taking action to minimize harm.

Disease progression is the worsening or advancement of a medical condition over time. It refers to the natural course of a disease, including its development, the severity of symptoms and complications, and the impact on the patient's overall health and quality of life. Understanding disease progression is important for developing appropriate treatment plans, monitoring response to therapy, and predicting outcomes.

The rate of disease progression can vary widely depending on the type of medical condition, individual patient factors, and the effectiveness of treatment. Some diseases may progress rapidly over a short period of time, while others may progress more slowly over many years. In some cases, disease progression may be slowed or even halted with appropriate medical interventions, while in other cases, the progression may be inevitable and irreversible.

In clinical practice, healthcare providers closely monitor disease progression through regular assessments, imaging studies, and laboratory tests. This information is used to guide treatment decisions and adjust care plans as needed to optimize patient outcomes and improve quality of life.

Dacarbazine is a medical term that refers to a chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of various types of cancer. It is an alkylating agent, which means it works by modifying the DNA of cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and growing. Dacarbazine is often used to treat malignant melanoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and soft tissue sarcomas.

The drug is typically administered intravenously in a hospital or clinic setting, and the dosage and schedule may vary depending on the type and stage of cancer being treated, as well as the patient's overall health and response to treatment. Common side effects of dacarbazine include nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and weakness or fatigue. More serious side effects, such as low white blood cell counts, anemia, and liver damage, may also occur.

It is important for patients receiving dacarbazine to follow their doctor's instructions carefully and report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly. Regular monitoring of blood counts and other laboratory tests may be necessary to ensure safe and effective treatment.

Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a medical procedure in which damaged or destroyed bone marrow is replaced with healthy bone marrow from a donor. Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside bones that produces blood cells. The main types of BMT are autologous, allogeneic, and umbilical cord blood transplantation.

In autologous BMT, the patient's own bone marrow is used for the transplant. This type of BMT is often used in patients with lymphoma or multiple myeloma who have undergone high-dose chemotherapy or radiation therapy to destroy their cancerous bone marrow.

In allogeneic BMT, bone marrow from a genetically matched donor is used for the transplant. This type of BMT is often used in patients with leukemia, lymphoma, or other blood disorders who have failed other treatments.

Umbilical cord blood transplantation involves using stem cells from umbilical cord blood as a source of healthy bone marrow. This type of BMT is often used in children and adults who do not have a matched donor for allogeneic BMT.

The process of BMT typically involves several steps, including harvesting the bone marrow or stem cells from the donor, conditioning the patient's body to receive the new bone marrow or stem cells, transplanting the new bone marrow or stem cells into the patient's body, and monitoring the patient for signs of engraftment and complications.

BMT is a complex and potentially risky procedure that requires careful planning, preparation, and follow-up care. However, it can be a life-saving treatment for many patients with blood disorders or cancer.

Neoplasm invasiveness is a term used in pathology and oncology to describe the aggressive behavior of cancer cells as they invade surrounding tissues and organs. This process involves the loss of cell-to-cell adhesion, increased motility and migration, and the ability of cancer cells to degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM) through the production of enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs).

Invasive neoplasms are cancers that have spread beyond the original site where they first developed and have infiltrated adjacent tissues or structures. This is in contrast to non-invasive or in situ neoplasms, which are confined to the epithelial layer where they originated and have not yet invaded the underlying basement membrane.

The invasiveness of a neoplasm is an important prognostic factor in cancer diagnosis and treatment, as it can indicate the likelihood of metastasis and the potential effectiveness of various therapies. In general, more invasive cancers are associated with worse outcomes and require more aggressive treatment approaches.

Cystectomy is a surgical procedure in which all or part of the urinary bladder is removed. This procedure is often used to treat bladder cancer, but it may also be necessary in cases of severe bladder damage, infection, or inflammation that do not respond to other treatments.

There are several types of cystectomy, including:

1. Radical cystectomy: This is the most common type of cystectomy performed for bladder cancer. It involves removing the entire bladder, as well as nearby lymph nodes, the prostate gland in men, and the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, and a portion of the vagina in women.
2. Partial cystectomy: In this procedure, only a part of the bladder is removed. This may be an option for patients with early-stage bladder cancer that has not spread deeply into the bladder muscle or to other parts of the body.
3. Urinary diversion: After a cystectomy, the surgeon must create a new way for urine to leave the body. This may involve creating a urostomy, in which a piece of intestine is used to form a stoma (an opening) on the abdominal wall, through which urine can be collected in a bag. Alternatively, the surgeon may create an internal pouch using a segment of intestine, which can then be connected to the ureters and allowed to drain into the rectum or vagina.

As with any surgical procedure, cystectomy carries risks such as bleeding, infection, and reactions to anesthesia. Patients may also experience long-term complications such as urinary incontinence, sexual dysfunction, and changes in bowel habits. However, for many patients with bladder cancer or other severe bladder conditions, cystectomy can be a life-saving procedure.

Monoclonal antibodies are laboratory-produced proteins that mimic the immune system's ability to fight off harmful antigens such as viruses and cancer cells. They are created by fusing a single B cell (the type of white blood cell responsible for producing antibodies) with a tumor cell, resulting in a hybrid cell called a hybridoma. This hybridoma can then be cloned to produce a large number of identical cells, all producing the same antibody, hence "monoclonal."

Humanized monoclonal antibodies are a type of monoclonal antibody that have been genetically engineered to include human components. This is done to reduce the risk of an adverse immune response in patients receiving the treatment. In this process, the variable region of the mouse monoclonal antibody, which contains the antigen-binding site, is grafted onto a human constant region. The resulting humanized monoclonal antibody retains the ability to bind to the target antigen while minimizing the immunogenicity associated with murine (mouse) antibodies.

In summary, "antibodies, monoclonal, humanized" refers to a type of laboratory-produced protein that mimics the immune system's ability to fight off harmful antigens, but with reduced immunogenicity due to the inclusion of human components in their structure.

Immunization is defined medically as the process where an individual is made immune or resistant to an infectious disease, typically through the administration of a vaccine. The vaccine stimulates the body's own immune system to recognize and fight off the specific disease-causing organism, thereby preventing or reducing the severity of future infections with that organism.

Immunization can be achieved actively, where the person is given a vaccine to trigger an immune response, or passively, where antibodies are transferred to the person through immunoglobulin therapy. Immunizations are an important part of preventive healthcare and have been successful in controlling and eliminating many infectious diseases worldwide.

Trismus is a term used in medicine to describe the inability to open the mouth fully due to spasm or prolonged stiffness of the muscles involved in jaw movement, specifically the masseter and temporalis muscles. This condition can result from various causes such as dental procedures, infections, tetanus, radiation therapy to the head and neck region, or trauma. In some cases, trismus can lead to complications like difficulty eating, speaking, and maintaining oral hygiene, which can negatively impact a person's quality of life. Treatment typically involves physical therapy, stretching exercises, medication, or in severe cases, surgery.

Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) medication that is primarily used in the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. It works by blocking the action of estrogen in the body, particularly in breast tissue. This can help to stop or slow the growth of hormone-sensitive tumors.

Tamoxifen has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in both men and women. It is often used as a part of adjuvant therapy, which is treatment given after surgery to reduce the risk of cancer recurrence. Tamoxifen may also be used to treat metastatic breast cancer that has spread to other parts of the body.

Common side effects of tamoxifen include hot flashes, vaginal discharge, and changes in mood or vision. Less commonly, tamoxifen can increase the risk of blood clots, stroke, and endometrial cancer (cancer of the lining of the uterus). However, for many women with breast cancer, the benefits of taking tamoxifen outweigh the risks.

It's important to note that while tamoxifen can be an effective treatment option for some types of breast cancer, it is not appropriate for all patients. A healthcare professional will consider a variety of factors when determining whether tamoxifen is the right choice for an individual patient.

The glottis is a medical term that refers to the opening between the vocal cords (the ligaments in the larynx that produce sound when air passes through them during speech) in the human throat or larynx. It is an important structure for breathing, swallowing, and producing sounds or speech. The glottis opens during inhalation to allow air into the lungs and closes during swallowing to prevent food or liquids from entering the trachea (windpipe) and lungs.

Nose neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the nasal cavity or paranasal sinuses. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are typically slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant neoplasms can invade surrounding tissues and have the potential to metastasize.

Nose neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as nasal congestion, nosebleeds, difficulty breathing through the nose, loss of smell, facial pain or numbness, and visual changes if they affect the eye. The diagnosis of nose neoplasms usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging studies (such as CT or MRI scans), and biopsy to determine the type and extent of the growth. Treatment options depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the neoplasm and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

The Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD) is a term used in medical research, particularly in clinical trials of new drugs or treatments. It refers to the highest dose of a medication or treatment that can be given without causing unacceptable or severe side effects or toxicity to the patient.

Determining the MTD is an important step in developing new medications, as it helps researchers establish a safe and effective dosage range for future use. This process typically involves gradually increasing the dose in a group of subjects (often healthy volunteers in early phase trials) until intolerable side effects occur, at which point the previous dose is considered the MTD.

It's important to note that the MTD may vary between individuals and populations, depending on factors such as age, sex, genetic makeup, and overall health status. Therefore, individualized dosing strategies may be necessary to ensure safe and effective treatment with new medications.

Ifosfamide is an alkylating agent, which is a type of chemotherapy medication. It works by interfering with the DNA of cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and growing. Ifosfamide is used to treat various types of cancers, such as testicular cancer, small cell lung cancer, ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, and certain types of sarcomas.

The medical definition of Ifosfamide is:

Ifosfamide is a synthetic antineoplastic agent, an oxazaphosphorine derivative, with the chemical formula C6H15Cl2N2O2P. It is used in the treatment of various malignancies, including germ cell tumors, sarcomas, lymphomas, and testicular cancer. The drug is administered intravenously and exerts its cytotoxic effects through the alkylation and cross-linking of DNA, leading to the inhibition of DNA replication and transcription. Ifosfamide can cause significant myelosuppression and has been associated with urotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and secondary malignancies. Therefore, it is essential to monitor patients closely during treatment and manage any adverse effects promptly.

Patient selection, in the context of medical treatment or clinical research, refers to the process of identifying and choosing appropriate individuals who are most likely to benefit from a particular medical intervention or who meet specific criteria to participate in a study. This decision is based on various factors such as the patient's diagnosis, stage of disease, overall health status, potential risks, and expected benefits. The goal of patient selection is to ensure that the selected individuals will receive the most effective and safe care possible while also contributing to meaningful research outcomes.

Camptothecin is a topoisomerase I inhibitor, which is a type of chemotherapeutic agent used in cancer treatment. It works by interfering with the function of an enzyme called topoisomerase I, which helps to uncoil DNA during cell division. By inhibiting this enzyme, camptothecin prevents the cancer cells from dividing and growing, ultimately leading to their death.

Camptothecin is found naturally in the bark and stem of the Camptotheca acuminata tree, also known as the "happy tree," which is native to China. It was first isolated in 1966 and has since been developed into several synthetic derivatives, including irinotecan and topotecan, which are used clinically to treat various types of cancer, such as colon, lung, and ovarian cancers.

Like other chemotherapeutic agents, camptothecin can have significant side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and myelosuppression (suppression of bone marrow function). It is important for patients receiving camptothecin-based therapies to be closely monitored by their healthcare team to manage these side effects effectively.

Recurrence, in a medical context, refers to the return of symptoms or signs of a disease after a period of improvement or remission. It indicates that the condition has not been fully eradicated and may require further treatment. Recurrence is often used to describe situations where a disease such as cancer comes back after initial treatment, but it can also apply to other medical conditions. The likelihood of recurrence varies depending on the type of disease and individual patient factors.

Tumor burden is a term used to describe the total amount of cancer in the body. It can refer to the number of tumors, the size of the tumors, or the amount of cancer cells in the body. In research and clinical trials, tumor burden is often measured to assess the effectiveness of treatments or to monitor disease progression. High tumor burden can cause various symptoms and complications, depending on the type and location of the cancer. It can also affect a person's prognosis and treatment options.

Multimodal imaging is a medical term that refers to the combination of two or more imaging techniques to obtain complementary information about the structure, function, and/or physiology of tissues, organs, or organ systems. This approach allows for a more comprehensive assessment of normal and abnormal processes in the body than can be achieved with any single imaging modality alone.

Commonly used imaging modalities in multimodal imaging include computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), ultrasound, and optical imaging techniques. Each modality provides unique information that can be integrated to improve diagnostic accuracy, guide treatment planning, and monitor response to therapy.

For example, a patient with a suspected brain tumor may undergo both MRI and PET scans. The MRI provides detailed anatomical information about the size, shape, and location of the tumor, while the PET scan shows metabolic activity within the tumor, which can help distinguish between benign and malignant lesions.

Multimodal imaging is also used in research settings to study various physiological processes, such as blood flow, oxygenation, and neurotransmission, in both health and disease.

Drug-related side effects and adverse reactions refer to any unintended or harmful outcome that occurs during the use of a medication. These reactions can be mild or severe and may include predictable, known responses (side effects) as well as unexpected, idiosyncratic reactions (adverse effects). Side effects are typically related to the pharmacologic properties of the drug and occur at therapeutic doses, while adverse reactions may result from allergic or hypersensitivity reactions, overdoses, or interactions with other medications or substances.

Side effects are often dose-dependent and can be managed by adjusting the dose, frequency, or route of administration. Adverse reactions, on the other hand, may require discontinuation of the medication or treatment with antidotes or supportive care. It is important for healthcare providers to monitor patients closely for any signs of drug-related side effects and adverse reactions and to take appropriate action when necessary.

The postoperative period is the time following a surgical procedure during which the patient's response to the surgery and anesthesia is monitored, and any complications or adverse effects are managed. This period can vary in length depending on the type of surgery and the individual patient's needs, but it typically includes the immediate recovery phase in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) or recovery room, as well as any additional time spent in the hospital for monitoring and management of pain, wound healing, and other aspects of postoperative care.

The goals of postoperative care are to ensure the patient's safety and comfort, promote optimal healing and rehabilitation, and minimize the risk of complications such as infection, bleeding, or other postoperative issues. The specific interventions and treatments provided during this period will depend on a variety of factors, including the type and extent of surgery performed, the patient's overall health and medical history, and any individualized care plans developed in consultation with the patient and their healthcare team.

Carcinoma, signet ring cell is a type of adenocarcinoma, which is a cancer that begins in glandular cells. In signet ring cell carcinoma, the cancer cells have a characteristic appearance when viewed under a microscope. They contain large amounts of mucin, a substance that causes the nucleus of the cell to be pushed to one side, giving the cell a crescent or "signet ring" shape.

Signet ring cell carcinoma can occur in various organs, including the stomach, colon, rectum, and breast. It is often aggressive and has a poor prognosis, as it tends to grow and spread quickly. Treatment options may include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, depending on the location and extent of the cancer.

A residual neoplasm is a term used in pathology and oncology to describe the remaining abnormal tissue or cancer cells after a surgical procedure or treatment aimed at completely removing a tumor. This means that some cancer cells have been left behind and continue to persist in the body. The presence of residual neoplasm can increase the risk of recurrence or progression of the disease, as these remaining cells may continue to grow and divide.

Residual neoplasm is often assessed during follow-up appointments and monitoring, using imaging techniques like CT scans, MRIs, or PET scans, and sometimes through biopsies. The extent of residual neoplasm can influence the choice of further treatment options, such as additional surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or targeted therapies, to eliminate the remaining cancer cells and reduce the risk of recurrence.

Quality of Life (QOL) is a broad, multidimensional concept that usually includes an individual's physical health, psychological state, level of independence, social relationships, personal beliefs, and their relationship to salient features of their environment. It reflects the impact of disease and treatment on a patient's overall well-being and ability to function in daily life.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines QOL as "an individual's perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns." It is a subjective concept, meaning it can vary greatly from person to person.

In healthcare, QOL is often used as an outcome measure in clinical trials and other research studies to assess the impact of interventions or treatments on overall patient well-being.

A drug combination refers to the use of two or more drugs in combination for the treatment of a single medical condition or disease. The rationale behind using drug combinations is to achieve a therapeutic effect that is superior to that obtained with any single agent alone, through various mechanisms such as:

* Complementary modes of action: When different drugs target different aspects of the disease process, their combined effects may be greater than either drug used alone.
* Synergistic interactions: In some cases, the combination of two or more drugs can result in a greater-than-additive effect, where the total response is greater than the sum of the individual responses to each drug.
* Antagonism of adverse effects: Sometimes, the use of one drug can mitigate the side effects of another, allowing for higher doses or longer durations of therapy.

Examples of drug combinations include:

* Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for HIV infection, which typically involves a combination of three or more antiretroviral drugs to suppress viral replication and prevent the development of drug resistance.
* Chemotherapy regimens for cancer treatment, where combinations of cytotoxic agents are used to target different stages of the cell cycle and increase the likelihood of tumor cell death.
* Fixed-dose combination products, such as those used in the treatment of hypertension or type 2 diabetes, which combine two or more active ingredients into a single formulation for ease of administration and improved adherence to therapy.

However, it's important to note that drug combinations can also increase the risk of adverse effects, drug-drug interactions, and medication errors. Therefore, careful consideration should be given to the selection of appropriate drugs, dosing regimens, and monitoring parameters when using drug combinations in clinical practice.

Phase III clinical trials are a type of medical research study that involves testing the safety and efficacy of a new drug, device, or treatment in a large group of people. These studies typically enroll hundreds to thousands of participants, who are randomly assigned to receive either the experimental treatment or a standard of care comparison group.

The primary goal of Phase III clinical trials is to determine whether the new treatment works better than existing treatments and to assess its safety and side effects in a larger population. The data collected from these studies can help regulatory agencies like the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) decide whether to approve the new treatment for use in the general population.

Phase III clinical trials are usually conducted at multiple centers, often across different countries, to ensure that the results are generalizable to a wide range of patients. Participants may be followed for several years to assess long-term safety and efficacy outcomes.

Overall, Phase III clinical trials play a critical role in ensuring that new treatments are safe and effective before they become widely available to patients.

Epirubicin is an anthracycline antibiotic used in cancer chemotherapy. It works by interfering with the DNA in cancer cells and preventing them from dividing and growing. Epirubicin is often used to treat breast cancer, lung cancer, stomach cancer, and ovarian cancer.

Like other anthracyclines, epirubicin can cause side effects such as hair loss, nausea and vomiting, mouth sores, and increased risk of infection due to damage to the bone marrow. It can also cause heart problems, including congestive heart failure, especially when given in high doses or when combined with other chemotherapy drugs that can also harm the heart.

Epirubicin is usually given by injection into a vein (intravenously) and is typically administered in cycles, with breaks between treatment periods to allow the body to recover from any side effects. The dose and schedule of epirubicin may vary depending on the type and stage of cancer being treated, as well as other factors such as the patient's overall health and any other medical conditions they may have.

Antineoplastic agents, hormonal, are a class of drugs used to treat cancers that are sensitive to hormones. These agents work by interfering with the production or action of hormones in the body. They can be used to slow down or stop the growth of cancer cells and may also help to relieve symptoms caused by the spread of cancer.

Hormonal therapies can work in one of two ways: they can either block the production of hormones or prevent their action on cancer cells. For example, some hormonal therapies work by blocking the action of estrogen or testosterone, which are hormones that can stimulate the growth of certain types of cancer cells.

Examples of hormonal agents used to treat cancer include:

* Aromatase inhibitors (such as letrozole, anastrozole, and exemestane), which block the production of estrogen in postmenopausal women
* Selective estrogen receptor modulators (such as tamoxifen and raloxifene), which block the action of estrogen on cancer cells
* Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists (such as leuprolide, goserelin, and triptorelin), which block the production of testosterone in men
* Antiandrogens (such as bicalutamide, flutamide, and enzalutamide), which block the action of testosterone on cancer cells

Hormonal therapies are often used in combination with other treatments, such as surgery or radiation therapy. They may be used to shrink tumors before surgery, to kill any remaining cancer cells after surgery, or to help control the spread of cancer that cannot be removed by surgery. Hormonal therapies can also be used to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life in people with advanced cancer.

It's important to note that hormonal therapies are not effective for all types of cancer. They are most commonly used to treat breast, prostate, and endometrial cancers, which are known to be sensitive to hormones. Hormonal therapies may also be used to treat other types of cancer in certain situations.

Like all medications, hormonal therapies can have side effects. These can vary depending on the specific drug and the individual person. Common side effects of hormonal therapies include hot flashes, fatigue, mood changes, and sexual dysfunction. Some hormonal therapies can also cause more serious side effects, such as an increased risk of osteoporosis or blood clots. It's important to discuss the potential risks and benefits of hormonal therapy with a healthcare provider before starting treatment.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Adenosquamous carcinoma is a rare type of cancer that contains two types of cells: glandular (adeno) and squamous. This mixed composition leads to a unique microscopic appearance and more aggressive behavior compared to other types of carcinomas. Adenosquamous carcinoma can occur in various organs, such as the lung, pancreas, cervix, and skin.

The glandular (adeno) component is made up of columnar epithelial cells that form glands or tubular structures. These cells produce mucus or other secretions. The squamous component consists of flat, scale-like cells that resemble the cells found in the outer layer of the skin.

The presence of both adeno and squamous components in a single tumor can lead to more rapid growth, increased likelihood of metastasis (spreading to other parts of the body), and poorer prognosis compared to carcinomas with only one cell type. Treatment typically involves surgical resection, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches, depending on the location and stage of the cancer.

Methotrexate is a medication used in the treatment of certain types of cancer and autoimmune diseases. It is an antimetabolite that inhibits the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase, which is necessary for the synthesis of purines and pyrimidines, essential components of DNA and RNA. By blocking this enzyme, methotrexate interferes with cell division and growth, making it effective in treating rapidly dividing cells such as cancer cells.

In addition to its use in cancer treatment, methotrexate is also used to manage autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and inflammatory bowel disease. In these conditions, methotrexate modulates the immune system and reduces inflammation.

It's important to note that methotrexate can have significant side effects and should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider. Regular monitoring of blood counts, liver function, and kidney function is necessary during treatment with methotrexate.

A pharyngectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of all or part of the pharynx, which is the muscular tube that extends from the back of the nasal cavity and mouth to the esophagus. This procedure is typically performed to treat cancers of the head and neck, such as throat cancer, that have invaded the tissues of the pharynx.

During a pharyngectomy, an incision is made in the neck or chest, depending on the location of the tumor. The surgeon then carefully dissects the pharynx away from surrounding structures, such as the esophagus, carotid artery, and spinal cord. Depending on the extent of the cancer, nearby lymph nodes may also be removed.

After the pharynx has been removed, the surgeon will reconstruct the area using tissue from another part of the body, such as the forearm or leg. This reconstruction is necessary to restore normal functions such as swallowing and speaking.

Pharyngectomy is a complex surgical procedure that requires extensive training and expertise. It carries significant risks, including bleeding, infection, and damage to surrounding structures. However, for some patients with advanced throat cancer, it may be the best option for achieving long-term survival.

In the context of medicine and healthcare, 'probability' does not have a specific medical definition. However, in general terms, probability is a branch of mathematics that deals with the study of numerical quantities called probabilities, which are assigned to events or sets of events. Probability is a measure of the likelihood that an event will occur. It is usually expressed as a number between 0 and 1, where 0 indicates that the event is impossible and 1 indicates that the event is certain to occur.

In medical research and statistics, probability is often used to quantify the uncertainty associated with statistical estimates or hypotheses. For example, a p-value is a probability that measures the strength of evidence against a hypothesis. A small p-value (typically less than 0.05) suggests that the observed data are unlikely under the assumption of the null hypothesis, and therefore provides evidence in favor of an alternative hypothesis.

Probability theory is also used to model complex systems and processes in medicine, such as disease transmission dynamics or the effectiveness of medical interventions. By quantifying the uncertainty associated with these models, researchers can make more informed decisions about healthcare policies and practices.

Deglutition is the medical term for swallowing. It refers to the process by which food or liquid is transferred from the mouth to the stomach through a series of coordinated muscle movements and neural responses. The deglutition process involves several stages, including oral preparatory, oral transit, pharyngeal, and esophageal phases, each of which plays a critical role in ensuring safe and efficient swallowing.

Dysphagia is the medical term for difficulty with swallowing, which can result from various underlying conditions such as neurological disorders, structural abnormalities, or muscular weakness. Proper evaluation and management of deglutition disorders are essential to prevent complications such as aspiration pneumonia, malnutrition, and dehydration.

Radiation tolerance, in the context of medicine and particularly radiation oncology, refers to the ability of tissues or organs to withstand and recover from exposure to ionizing radiation without experiencing significant damage or loss of function. It is often used to describe the maximum dose of radiation that can be safely delivered to a specific area of the body during radiotherapy treatments.

Radiation tolerance varies depending on the type and location of the tissue or organ. For example, some tissues such as the brain, spinal cord, and lungs have lower radiation tolerance than others like the skin or bone. Factors that can affect radiation tolerance include the total dose of radiation, the fractionation schedule (the number and size of radiation doses), the volume of tissue treated, and the individual patient's overall health and genetic factors.

Assessing radiation tolerance is critical in designing safe and effective radiotherapy plans for cancer patients, as excessive radiation exposure can lead to serious side effects such as radiation-induced injury, fibrosis, or even secondary malignancies.

A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular infectious disease. It typically contains an agent that resembles the disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the agent as a threat, destroy it, and "remember" it, so that the immune system can more easily recognize and destroy any of these microorganisms that it encounters in the future.

Vaccines can be prophylactic (to prevent or ameliorate the effects of a future infection by a natural or "wild" pathogen), or therapeutic (to fight disease that is already present). The administration of vaccines is called vaccination. Vaccinations are generally administered through needle injections, but can also be administered by mouth or sprayed into the nose.

The term "vaccine" comes from Edward Jenner's 1796 use of cowpox to create immunity to smallpox. The first successful vaccine was developed in 1796 by Edward Jenner, who showed that milkmaids who had contracted cowpox did not get smallpox. He reasoned that exposure to cowpox protected against smallpox and tested his theory by injecting a boy with pus from a cowpox sore and then exposing him to smallpox, which the boy did not contract. The word "vaccine" is derived from Variolae vaccinae (smallpox of the cow), the term devised by Jenner to denote cowpox. He used it in 1798 during a conversation with a fellow physician and later in the title of his 1801 Inquiry.

Intranasal administration refers to the delivery of medication or other substances through the nasal passages and into the nasal cavity. This route of administration can be used for systemic absorption of drugs or for localized effects in the nasal area.

When a medication is administered intranasally, it is typically sprayed or dropped into the nostril, where it is absorbed by the mucous membranes lining the nasal cavity. The medication can then pass into the bloodstream and be distributed throughout the body for systemic effects. Intranasal administration can also result in direct absorption of the medication into the local tissues of the nasal cavity, which can be useful for treating conditions such as allergies, migraines, or pain in the nasal area.

Intranasal administration has several advantages over other routes of administration. It is non-invasive and does not require needles or injections, making it a more comfortable option for many people. Additionally, intranasal administration can result in faster onset of action than oral administration, as the medication bypasses the digestive system and is absorbed directly into the bloodstream. However, there are also some limitations to this route of administration, including potential issues with dosing accuracy and patient tolerance.

A "second primary neoplasm" is a distinct, new cancer or malignancy that develops in a person who has already had a previous cancer. It is not a recurrence or metastasis of the original tumor, but rather an independent cancer that arises in a different location or organ system. The development of second primary neoplasms can be influenced by various factors such as genetic predisposition, environmental exposures, and previous treatments like chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

It is important to note that the definition of "second primary neoplasm" may vary slightly depending on the specific source or context. In general medical usage, it refers to a new, separate cancer; however, in some research or clinical settings, there might be more precise criteria for defining and diagnosing second primary neoplasms.

Amifostine is a medication that is used to protect tissues from the harmful effects of radiation therapy and certain chemotherapy drugs. It is an organic thiophosphate compound, chemically known as (3-Aminopropyl)amidophosphoric acid, and is administered intravenously.

Amifostine works by scavenging free radicals and converting them into non-reactive substances, which helps to prevent damage to normal cells during cancer treatment. It is particularly useful in protecting the kidneys from cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and reducing xerostomia (dry mouth) caused by radiation therapy in head and neck cancers.

The medication is typically given as a slow intravenous infusion over 15 minutes before cancer treatment, and its use should be monitored carefully due to potential side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hypotension, and allergic reactions. Healthcare professionals must consider the benefits and risks of amifostine therapy on a case-by-case basis, taking into account the patient's overall health status, cancer type, and treatment plan.

Monoclonal antibodies are a type of antibody that are identical because they are produced by a single clone of cells. They are laboratory-produced molecules that act like human antibodies in the immune system. They can be designed to attach to specific proteins found on the surface of cancer cells, making them useful for targeting and treating cancer. Monoclonal antibodies can also be used as a therapy for other diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and inflammatory conditions.

Monoclonal antibodies are produced by fusing a single type of immune cell, called a B cell, with a tumor cell to create a hybrid cell, or hybridoma. This hybrid cell is then able to replicate indefinitely, producing a large number of identical copies of the original antibody. These antibodies can be further modified and engineered to enhance their ability to bind to specific targets, increase their stability, and improve their effectiveness as therapeutic agents.

Monoclonal antibodies have several mechanisms of action in cancer therapy. They can directly kill cancer cells by binding to them and triggering an immune response. They can also block the signals that promote cancer growth and survival. Additionally, monoclonal antibodies can be used to deliver drugs or radiation directly to cancer cells, increasing the effectiveness of these treatments while minimizing their side effects on healthy tissues.

Monoclonal antibodies have become an important tool in modern medicine, with several approved for use in cancer therapy and other diseases. They are continuing to be studied and developed as a promising approach to treating a wide range of medical conditions.

Neck dissection is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of lymph nodes and other tissues from the neck. It is typically performed as part of cancer treatment, particularly in cases of head and neck cancer, to help determine the stage of the cancer, prevent the spread of cancer, or treat existing metastases. There are several types of neck dissections, including radical, modified radical, and selective neck dissection, which vary based on the extent of tissue removal. The specific type of neck dissection performed depends on the location and extent of the cancer.

Tracheal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the trachea, which is the windpipe that carries air from the nose and throat to the lungs. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant tracheal neoplasms are relatively rare and can be primary (originating in the trachea) or secondary (spreading from another part of the body, such as lung cancer). Primary tracheal cancers can be squamous cell carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, or sarcomas. Symptoms may include cough, difficulty breathing, wheezing, or chest pain. Treatment options depend on the type, size, and location of the neoplasm and can include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Urinary Bladder Neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors in the urinary bladder, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant neoplasms can be further classified into various types of bladder cancer, such as urothelial carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma. These malignant tumors often invade surrounding tissues and organs, potentially spreading to other parts of the body (metastasis), which can lead to serious health consequences if not detected and treated promptly and effectively.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Japan" is not a medical term. Japan is the name of a country, officially known as Nippon-koku or Nihon-koku in Japanese, and is located in East Asia. It is an island nation in the Pacific Ocean with a population of about 126 million people.

If you have any medical questions or terms that you would like me to define, please let me know!

Medical oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer using systemic medications, including chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy. Medical oncologists are specialized physicians who manage cancer patients throughout their illness, from diagnosis to survivorship or end-of-life care. They work closely with other healthcare professionals, such as surgeons, radiation oncologists, radiologists, pathologists, and nurses, to provide comprehensive cancer care for their patients. The primary goal of medical oncology is to improve the quality of life and overall survival of cancer patients while minimizing side effects and toxicities associated with cancer treatments.

An esophageal fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between the esophagus (the tube that carries food and liquids from the throat to the stomach) and another organ, such as the trachea (windpipe) or the skin. This condition can result from complications of certain medical conditions, including cancer, prolonged infection, or injury to the esophagus.

Esophageal fistulas can cause a variety of symptoms, including difficulty swallowing, coughing, chest pain, and fever. They can also lead to serious complications, such as pneumonia or sepsis, if left untreated. Treatment for an esophageal fistula typically involves surgical repair of the abnormal connection, along with management of any underlying conditions that may have contributed to its development.

Intravenous (IV) infusion is a medical procedure in which liquids, such as medications, nutrients, or fluids, are delivered directly into a patient's vein through a needle or a catheter. This route of administration allows for rapid absorption and distribution of the infused substance throughout the body. IV infusions can be used for various purposes, including resuscitation, hydration, nutrition support, medication delivery, and blood product transfusion. The rate and volume of the infusion are carefully controlled to ensure patient safety and efficacy of treatment.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Radiation oncology is a branch of medicine that uses ionizing radiation in the treatment and management of cancer. The goal of radiation therapy, which is the primary treatment modality in radiation oncology, is to destroy cancer cells or inhibit their growth while minimizing damage to normal tissues. This is achieved through the use of high-energy radiation beams, such as X-rays, gamma rays, and charged particles, that are directed at the tumor site with precision. Radiation oncologists work in interdisciplinary teams with other healthcare professionals, including medical physicists, dosimetrists, and radiation therapists, to plan and deliver effective radiation treatments for cancer patients.

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

Cranial irradiation is a medical treatment that involves the use of radiation therapy to target the brain. It is often used to treat various conditions affecting the brain, such as brain tumors, leukemia, and certain neurological disorders. The radiation is directed at the skull and can be focused on specific areas of the brain or delivered more broadly, depending on the nature and location of the condition being treated.

The goal of cranial irradiation may be to destroy cancer cells, reduce the size of tumors, prevent the spread of cancer, or provide symptomatic relief for patients with advanced disease. However, it is important to note that cranial irradiation can have side effects, including hair loss, fatigue, memory problems, and cognitive changes, among others. These side effects can vary in severity and duration depending on the individual patient and the specific treatment regimen.

Glioblastoma, also known as Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), is a highly aggressive and malignant type of brain tumor that arises from the glial cells in the brain. These tumors are characterized by their rapid growth, invasion into surrounding brain tissue, and resistance to treatment.

Glioblastomas are composed of various cell types, including astrocytes and other glial cells, which make them highly heterogeneous and difficult to treat. They typically have a poor prognosis, with a median survival rate of 14-15 months from the time of diagnosis, even with aggressive treatment.

Symptoms of glioblastoma can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor but may include headaches, seizures, nausea, vomiting, memory loss, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, changes in personality or behavior, and weakness or paralysis on one side of the body.

Standard treatment for glioblastoma typically involves surgical resection of the tumor, followed by radiation therapy and chemotherapy with temozolomide. However, despite these treatments, glioblastomas often recur, leading to a poor overall prognosis.

The term "Area Under Curve" (AUC) is commonly used in the medical field, particularly in the analysis of diagnostic tests or pharmacokinetic studies. The AUC refers to the mathematical calculation of the area between a curve and the x-axis in a graph, typically representing a concentration-time profile.

In the context of diagnostic tests, the AUC is used to evaluate the performance of a test by measuring the entire two-dimensional area underneath the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, which plots the true positive rate (sensitivity) against the false positive rate (1-specificity) at various threshold settings. The AUC ranges from 0 to 1, where a higher AUC indicates better test performance:

* An AUC of 0.5 suggests that the test is no better than chance.
* An AUC between 0.7 and 0.8 implies moderate accuracy.
* An AUC between 0.8 and 0.9 indicates high accuracy.
* An AUC greater than 0.9 signifies very high accuracy.

In pharmacokinetic studies, the AUC is used to assess drug exposure over time by calculating the area under a plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-t) or AUC(0-\∞)) following drug administration. This value can help determine dosing regimens and evaluate potential drug interactions:

* AUC(0-t): Represents the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to the last measurable concentration (t).
* AUC(0-\∞): Refers to the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity, which estimates total drug exposure.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Sarcoma is a type of cancer that develops from certain types of connective tissue (such as muscle, fat, fibrous tissue, blood vessels, or nerves) found throughout the body. It can occur in any part of the body, but it most commonly occurs in the arms, legs, chest, and abdomen.

Sarcomas are classified into two main groups: bone sarcomas and soft tissue sarcomas. Bone sarcomas develop in the bones, while soft tissue sarcomas develop in the soft tissues of the body, such as muscles, tendons, ligaments, fat, blood vessels, and nerves.

Sarcomas can be further classified into many subtypes based on their specific characteristics, such as the type of tissue they originate from, their genetic makeup, and their appearance under a microscope. The different subtypes of sarcoma have varying symptoms, prognoses, and treatment options.

Overall, sarcomas are relatively rare cancers, accounting for less than 1% of all cancer diagnoses in the United States each year. However, they can be aggressive and may require intensive treatment, such as surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.

Experimental arthritis refers to the induction of joint inflammation in animal models for the purpose of studying the disease process and testing potential treatments. This is typically achieved through the use of various methods such as injecting certain chemicals or proteins into the joints, genetically modifying animals to develop arthritis-like symptoms, or immunizing animals to induce an autoimmune response against their own joint tissues. These models are crucial for advancing our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of arthritis and for developing new therapies to treat this debilitating disease.

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a type of cancer that originates in the lymphatic system, which is part of the immune system. It involves the abnormal growth and proliferation of malignant lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell), leading to the formation of tumors in lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, or other organs. NHL can be further classified into various subtypes based on the specific type of lymphocyte involved and its characteristics.

The symptoms of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma may include:

* Painless swelling of lymph nodes in the neck, armpits, or groin
* Persistent fatigue
* Unexplained weight loss
* Fever
* Night sweats
* Itchy skin

The exact cause of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is not well understood, but it has been associated with certain risk factors such as age (most common in people over 60), exposure to certain chemicals, immune system deficiencies, and infection with viruses like Epstein-Barr virus or HIV.

Treatment for Non-Hodgkin lymphoma depends on the stage and subtype of the disease, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, stem cell transplantation, or a combination of these approaches. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor the progression of the disease and manage any potential long-term side effects of treatment.

Neutropenia is a condition characterized by an abnormally low concentration (less than 1500 cells/mm3) of neutrophils, a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in fighting off bacterial and fungal infections. Neutrophils are essential components of the innate immune system, and their main function is to engulf and destroy microorganisms that can cause harm to the body.

Neutropenia can be classified as mild, moderate, or severe based on the severity of the neutrophil count reduction:

* Mild neutropenia: Neutrophil count between 1000-1500 cells/mm3
* Moderate neutropenia: Neutrophil count between 500-1000 cells/mm3
* Severe neutropenia: Neutrophil count below 500 cells/mm3

Severe neutropenia significantly increases the risk of developing infections, as the body's ability to fight off microorganisms is severely compromised. Common causes of neutropenia include viral infections, certain medications (such as chemotherapy or antibiotics), autoimmune disorders, and congenital conditions affecting bone marrow function. Treatment for neutropenia typically involves addressing the underlying cause, administering granulocyte-colony stimulating factors to boost neutrophil production, and providing appropriate antimicrobial therapy to prevent or treat infections.

Carcinoma, large cell is a type of lung cancer that is characterized by the presence of large, abnormal-looking cells when viewed under a microscope. These cells have a large nucleus and a significant amount of cytoplasm. This type of lung cancer can be further divided into subtypes based on the appearance of the cells and the presence or absence of specific genetic mutations.

Large cell carcinoma is often aggressive and tends to grow and spread quickly. It is typically treated with a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy. The prognosis for large cell carcinoma varies depending on the stage at diagnosis and the individual's overall health.

Antibody formation, also known as humoral immune response, is the process by which the immune system produces proteins called antibodies in response to the presence of a foreign substance (antigen) in the body. This process involves several steps:

1. Recognition: The antigen is recognized and bound by a type of white blood cell called a B lymphocyte or B cell, which then becomes activated.
2. Differentiation: The activated B cell undergoes differentiation to become a plasma cell, which is a type of cell that produces and secretes large amounts of antibodies.
3. Antibody production: The plasma cells produce and release antibodies, which are proteins made up of four polypeptide chains (two heavy chains and two light chains) arranged in a Y-shape. Each antibody has two binding sites that can recognize and bind to specific regions on the antigen called epitopes.
4. Neutralization or elimination: The antibodies bind to the antigens, neutralizing them or marking them for destruction by other immune cells. This helps to prevent the spread of infection and protect the body from harmful substances.

Antibody formation is an important part of the adaptive immune response, which allows the body to specifically recognize and respond to a wide variety of pathogens and foreign substances.

A mouth neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth or tumor in the oral cavity, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant mouth neoplasms are also known as oral cancer. They can develop on the lips, gums, tongue, roof and floor of the mouth, inside the cheeks, and in the oropharynx (the middle part of the throat at the back of the mouth).

Mouth neoplasms can have various causes, including genetic factors, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV). Symptoms may include a lump or thickening in the oral soft tissues, white or red patches, persistent mouth sores, difficulty swallowing or speaking, and numbness in the mouth. Early detection and treatment of mouth neoplasms are crucial for improving outcomes and preventing complications.

Thoracotomy is a surgical procedure that involves making an incision on the chest wall to gain access to the thoracic cavity, which contains the lungs, heart, esophagus, trachea, and other vital organs. The incision can be made on the side (lateral thoracotomy), back (posterolateral thoracotomy), or front (median sternotomy) of the chest wall, depending on the specific surgical indication.

Thoracotomy is performed for various indications, including lung biopsy, lung resection, esophagectomy, heart surgery, and mediastinal mass removal. The procedure allows the surgeon to directly visualize and access the organs within the thoracic cavity, perform necessary procedures, and control bleeding if needed.

After the procedure, the incision is typically closed with sutures or staples, and a chest tube may be placed to drain any accumulated fluid or air from the pleural space around the lungs. The patient will require postoperative care and monitoring in a hospital setting until their condition stabilizes.

Endosonography, also known as endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), is a medical procedure that combines endoscopy and ultrasound to obtain detailed images and information about the digestive tract and surrounding organs. An endoscope, which is a flexible tube with a light and camera at its tip, is inserted through the mouth or rectum to reach the area of interest. A high-frequency ultrasound transducer at the tip of the endoscope generates sound waves that bounce off body tissues and create echoes, which are then translated into detailed images by a computer.

Endosonography allows doctors to visualize structures such as the esophageal, stomach, and intestinal walls, lymph nodes, blood vessels, and organs like the pancreas, liver, and gallbladder. It can help diagnose conditions such as tumors, inflammation, and infections, and it can also be used to guide biopsies or fine-needle aspirations of suspicious lesions.

Overall, endosonography is a valuable tool for the diagnosis and management of various gastrointestinal and related disorders.

A fatal outcome is a term used in medical context to describe a situation where a disease, injury, or illness results in the death of an individual. It is the most severe and unfortunate possible outcome of any medical condition, and is often used as a measure of the severity and prognosis of various diseases and injuries. In clinical trials and research, fatal outcome may be used as an endpoint to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different treatments or interventions.

A subunit vaccine is a type of vaccine that contains a specific piece or component of the microorganism (such as a protein, sugar, or part of the bacterial outer membrane), instead of containing the entire organism. This piece of the microorganism is known as an antigen, and it stimulates an immune response in the body, allowing the development of immunity against the targeted infection without introducing the risk of disease associated with live vaccines.

Subunit vaccines offer several advantages over other types of vaccines. They are generally safer because they do not contain live or weakened microorganisms, making them suitable for individuals with weakened immune systems or specific medical conditions that prevent them from receiving live vaccines. Additionally, subunit vaccines can be designed to focus on the most immunogenic components of a pathogen, potentially leading to stronger and more targeted immune responses.

Examples of subunit vaccines include the Hepatitis B vaccine, which contains a viral protein, and the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, which uses pieces of the bacterial polysaccharide capsule. These vaccines have been crucial in preventing serious infectious diseases and reducing associated complications worldwide.

Uracil is not a medical term, but it is a biological molecule. Medically or biologically, uracil can be defined as one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that is linked to a ribose sugar by an N-glycosidic bond. It forms base pairs with adenine in double-stranded RNA and DNA. Uracil is a pyrimidine derivative, similar to thymine found in DNA, but it lacks the methyl group (-CH3) that thymine has at the 5 position of its ring.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Dilation, also known as dilatation, refers to the process of expanding or enlarging a body passage or cavity. In medical terms, it typically refers to the widening of a bodily opening or hollow organ, allowing for increased flow or access. This can occur naturally, such as during childbirth when the cervix dilates to allow for the passage of a baby, or it can be induced through medical procedures or interventions.

For example, dilation of the pupils is a natural response to darkness or certain medications, while dilation of blood vessels is a common side effect of some drugs and can also occur in response to changes in temperature or emotional state. Dilation of the stomach or intestines may be necessary for medical procedures such as endoscopies or surgeries.

It's important to note that dilation can also refer to the abnormal enlargement of a body part, such as dilated cardiomyopathy, which refers to an enlarged and weakened heart muscle.

Melphalan is an antineoplastic agent, specifically an alkylating agent. It is used in the treatment of multiple myeloma and other types of cancer. The medical definition of Melphalan is:

A nitrogen mustard derivative that is used as an alkylating agent in the treatment of cancer, particularly multiple myeloma and ovarian cancer. Melphalan works by forming covalent bonds with DNA, resulting in cross-linking of the double helix and inhibition of DNA replication and transcription. This ultimately leads to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis (programmed cell death) in rapidly dividing cells, such as cancer cells.

Melphalan is administered orally or intravenously, and its use is often accompanied by other anticancer therapies, such as radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Common side effects of Melphalan include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and bone marrow suppression, which can lead to anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia. Other potential side effects include hair loss, mucositis, and secondary malignancies.

It is important to note that Melphalan should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare professional, as it can cause serious adverse reactions if not administered correctly.

Triazines are not a medical term, but a class of chemical compounds. They have a six-membered ring containing three nitrogen atoms and three carbon atoms. Some triazine derivatives are used in medicine as herbicides, antimicrobials, and antitumor agents.

Thrombocytopenia is a medical condition characterized by an abnormally low platelet count (thrombocytes) in the blood. Platelets are small cell fragments that play a crucial role in blood clotting, helping to stop bleeding when a blood vessel is damaged. A healthy adult typically has a platelet count between 150,000 and 450,000 platelets per microliter of blood. Thrombocytopenia is usually diagnosed when the platelet count falls below 150,000 platelets/µL.

Thrombocytopenia can be classified into three main categories based on its underlying cause:

1. Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP): An autoimmune disorder where the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys its own platelets, leading to a decreased platelet count. ITP can be further divided into primary or secondary forms, depending on whether it occurs alone or as a result of another medical condition or medication.
2. Decreased production: Thrombocytopenia can occur when there is insufficient production of platelets in the bone marrow due to various causes, such as viral infections, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, leukemia, aplastic anemia, or vitamin B12 or folate deficiency.
3. Increased destruction or consumption: Thrombocytopenia can also result from increased platelet destruction or consumption due to conditions like disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), or severe bacterial infections.

Symptoms of thrombocytopenia may include easy bruising, prolonged bleeding from cuts, spontaneous nosebleeds, bleeding gums, blood in urine or stools, and skin rashes like petechiae (small red or purple spots) or purpura (larger patches). The severity of symptoms can vary depending on the degree of thrombocytopenia and the presence of any underlying conditions. Treatment for thrombocytopenia depends on the cause and may include medications, transfusions, or addressing the underlying condition.

Whole-Body Irradiation (WBI) is a medical procedure that involves the exposure of the entire body to a controlled dose of ionizing radiation, typically used in the context of radiation therapy for cancer treatment. The purpose of WBI is to destroy cancer cells or suppress the immune system prior to a bone marrow transplant. It can be delivered using various sources of radiation, such as X-rays, gamma rays, or electrons, and is carefully planned and monitored to minimize harm to healthy tissues while maximizing the therapeutic effect on cancer cells. Potential side effects include nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and an increased risk of infection due to decreased white blood cell counts.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody, which is a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to foreign substances like bacteria or viruses. IgG is the most abundant type of antibody in human blood, making up about 75-80% of all antibodies. It is found in all body fluids and plays a crucial role in fighting infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and toxins.

IgG has several important functions:

1. Neutralization: IgG can bind to the surface of bacteria or viruses, preventing them from attaching to and infecting human cells.
2. Opsonization: IgG coats the surface of pathogens, making them more recognizable and easier for immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytose (engulf and destroy) them.
3. Complement activation: IgG can activate the complement system, a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body. Activation of the complement system leads to the formation of the membrane attack complex, which creates holes in the cell membranes of bacteria, leading to their lysis (destruction).
4. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC): IgG can bind to immune cells like natural killer (NK) cells and trigger them to release substances that cause target cells (such as virus-infected or cancerous cells) to undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death).
5. Immune complex formation: IgG can form immune complexes with antigens, which can then be removed from the body through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis by immune cells or excretion in urine.

IgG is a critical component of adaptive immunity and provides long-lasting protection against reinfection with many pathogens. It has four subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) that differ in their structure, function, and distribution in the body.

Small Cell Lung Carcinoma (SCLC) is a type of lung cancer that typically originates in the central part of the lungs. It is called "small cell" because the tumor cells appear small and round under a microscope. SCLC is an aggressive form of lung cancer that tends to spread rapidly to other parts of the body, such as the lymph nodes, liver, bones, and brain.

SCLC is strongly associated with smoking and is relatively uncommon in people who have never smoked. It accounts for about 10-15% of all lung cancer cases. SCLC is often diagnosed at a later stage because it can grow quickly and cause symptoms such as coughing, chest pain, shortness of breath, and weight loss.

Treatment for SCLC typically involves a combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Surgery is not usually an option due to the advanced stage of the disease at diagnosis. The prognosis for SCLC is generally poor, with a five-year survival rate of less than 7%. However, early detection and treatment can improve outcomes in some cases.

The pelvic bones, also known as the hip bones, are a set of three irregularly shaped bones that connect to form the pelvic girdle in the lower part of the human body. They play a crucial role in supporting the spine and protecting the abdominal and pelvic organs.

The pelvic bones consist of three bones:

1. The ilium: This is the largest and uppermost bone, forming the majority of the hip bone and the broad, flaring part of the pelvis known as the wing of the ilium or the iliac crest, which can be felt on the side of the body.
2. The ischium: This is the lower and back portion of the pelvic bone that forms part of the sitting surface or the "sit bones."
3. The pubis: This is the front part of the pelvic bone, which connects to the other side at the pubic symphysis in the midline of the body.

The pelvic bones are joined together at the acetabulum, a cup-shaped socket that forms the hip joint and articulates with the head of the femur (thigh bone). The pelvic bones also have several openings for the passage of blood vessels, nerves, and reproductive and excretory organs.

The shape and size of the pelvic bones differ between males and females due to their different roles in childbirth and locomotion. Females typically have a wider and shallower pelvis than males to accommodate childbirth, while males usually have a narrower and deeper pelvis that is better suited for weight-bearing and movement.

Computer-assisted radiotherapy planning (CARP) is the use of computer systems and software to assist in the process of creating a treatment plan for radiotherapy. The goal of radiotherapy is to deliver a precise and effective dose of radiation to a tumor while minimizing exposure to healthy tissue. CARP involves using imaging data, such as CT or MRI scans, to create a 3D model of the patient's anatomy. This model is then used to simulate the delivery of radiation from different angles and determine the optimal treatment plan. The use of computers in this process allows for more accurate and efficient planning, as well as the ability to easily adjust the plan as needed.

The preoperative period is the time period before a surgical procedure during which various preparations are made to ensure the best possible outcome for the surgery. This includes evaluating the patient's overall health status, identifying and managing any underlying medical conditions that could increase the risk of complications, obtaining informed consent from the patient, and providing preoperative instructions regarding medications, food and drink intake, and other aspects of preparation for the surgery.

The specific activities that occur during the preoperative period may vary depending on the type and complexity of the surgical procedure, as well as the individual needs and medical history of the patient. However, some common elements of the preoperative period include:

* A thorough medical history and physical examination to assess the patient's overall health status and identify any potential risk factors for complications
* Diagnostic tests such as blood tests, imaging studies, or electrocardiograms (ECGs) to provide additional information about the patient's health status
* Consultation with anesthesia providers to determine the appropriate type and dosage of anesthesia for the procedure
* Preoperative teaching to help the patient understand what to expect before, during, and after the surgery
* Management of any underlying medical conditions such as diabetes, heart disease, or lung disease to reduce the risk of complications
* Administration of medications such as antibiotics or anti-coagulants to prevent infection or bleeding
* Fasting instructions to ensure that the stomach is empty during the surgery and reduce the risk of aspiration (inhalation of stomach contents into the lungs)

Overall, the preoperative period is a critical time for ensuring the safety and success of surgical procedures. By taking a thorough and systematic approach to preparing patients for surgery, healthcare providers can help to minimize the risks of complications and ensure the best possible outcomes for their patients.

Squalene is a organic compound that is a polyunsaturated triterpene. It is a natural component of human skin surface lipids and sebum, where it plays a role in maintaining the integrity and permeability barrier of the stratum corneum. Squalene is also found in various plant and animal tissues, including olive oil, wheat germ oil, and shark liver oil.

In the body, squalene is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of cholesterol and other sterols. It is produced in the liver and transported to other tissues via low-density lipoproteins (LDLs). Squalene has been studied for its potential health benefits due to its antioxidant properties, as well as its ability to modulate immune function and reduce the risk of certain types of cancer. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits.

Thymidylate synthase (TS) is an essential enzyme in the metabolic pathway for DNA synthesis and repair. It catalyzes the conversion of deoxyuridine monophosphate (dUMP) to deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP), which is a crucial building block for DNA replication and repair. This reaction also involves the methylation of dUMP using a methyl group donated by N5,N10-methylenetetrahydrofolate, resulting in the formation of dihydrofolate as a byproduct. The regeneration of dihydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate is necessary for TS to continue functioning, making it dependent on the folate cycle. Thymidylate synthase inhibitors are used in cancer chemotherapy to interfere with DNA synthesis and replication, leading to cytotoxic effects in rapidly dividing cells.

Vaccination is a simple, safe, and effective way to protect people against harmful diseases, before they come into contact with them. It uses your body's natural defenses to build protection to specific infections and makes your immune system stronger.

A vaccination usually contains a small, harmless piece of a virus or bacteria (or toxins produced by these germs) that has been made inactive or weakened so it won't cause the disease itself. This piece of the germ is known as an antigen. When the vaccine is introduced into the body, the immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign and produces antibodies to fight it.

If a person then comes into contact with the actual disease-causing germ, their immune system will recognize it and immediately produce antibodies to destroy it. The person is therefore protected against that disease. This is known as active immunity.

Vaccinations are important for both individual and public health. They prevent the spread of contagious diseases and protect vulnerable members of the population, such as young children, the elderly, and people with weakened immune systems who cannot be vaccinated or for whom vaccination is not effective.

Ovalbumin is the major protein found in egg white, making up about 54-60% of its total protein content. It is a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of around 45 kDa and has both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions. Ovalbumin is a single polypeptide chain consisting of 385 amino acids, including four disulfide bridges that contribute to its structure.

Ovalbumin is often used in research as a model antigen for studying immune responses and allergies. In its native form, ovalbumin is not allergenic; however, when it is denatured or degraded into smaller peptides through cooking or digestion, it can become an allergen for some individuals.

In addition to being a food allergen, ovalbumin has been used in various medical and research applications, such as vaccine development, immunological studies, and protein structure-function analysis.

Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is a type of cancer that develops in the transitional epithelium, which is the tissue that lines the inner surface of the urinary tract. This includes the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Transitional cell carcinoma is the most common type of bladder cancer and can also occur in other parts of the urinary system.

Transitional cells are specialized epithelial cells that can stretch and change shape as the organs they line expand or contract. These cells normally have a flat, squamous appearance when at rest but become more cuboidal and columnar when the organ is full. Transitional cell carcinomas typically start in the urothelium, which is the innermost lining of the urinary tract.

Transitional cell carcinoma can be classified as non-invasive (also called papillary or superficial), invasive, or both. Non-invasive TCCs are confined to the urothelium and have not grown into the underlying connective tissue. Invasive TCCs have grown through the urothelium and invaded the lamina propria (a layer of connective tissue beneath the urothelium) or the muscle wall of the bladder.

Transitional cell carcinoma can also be categorized as low-grade or high-grade, depending on how abnormal the cancer cells look under a microscope and how likely they are to grow and spread. Low-grade TCCs tend to have a better prognosis than high-grade TCCs.

Treatment for transitional cell carcinoma depends on the stage and grade of the cancer, as well as other factors such as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or immunotherapy.

Mucosal immunity refers to the immune system's defense mechanisms that are specifically adapted to protect the mucous membranes, which line various body openings such as the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urogenital tracts. These membranes are constantly exposed to foreign substances, including potential pathogens, and therefore require a specialized immune response to maintain homeostasis and prevent infection.

Mucosal immunity is primarily mediated by secretory IgA (SIgA) antibodies, which are produced by B cells in the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). These antibodies can neutralize pathogens and prevent them from adhering to and invading the epithelial cells that line the mucous membranes.

In addition to SIgA, other components of the mucosal immune system include innate immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils, which can recognize and respond to pathogens through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). T cells also play a role in mucosal immunity, particularly in the induction of cell-mediated immunity against viruses and other intracellular pathogens.

Overall, mucosal immunity is an essential component of the body's defense system, providing protection against a wide range of potential pathogens while maintaining tolerance to harmless antigens present in the environment.

Levamisole is an anthelmintic medication used to treat parasitic worm infections. It works by paralyzing the worms, allowing the body to remove them from the system. In addition, levamisole has been used in veterinary medicine as an immunomodulator, a substance that affects the immune system.

In human medicine, levamisole was previously used in the treatment of colon cancer and autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. However, its use in these areas has largely been discontinued due to side effects and the availability of more effective treatments.

It is important to note that levamisole has also been identified as a common adulterant in cocaine, which can lead to various health issues, including agranulocytosis (a severe decrease in white blood cells), skin lesions, and neurological symptoms.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Saponins are a type of naturally occurring chemical compound found in various plants, including soapwords, ginseng, and many others. They are known for their foaming properties, similar to that of soap, which gives them their name "saponin" derived from the Latin word "sapo" meaning soap.

Medically, saponins have been studied for their potential health benefits, including their ability to lower cholesterol levels, reduce inflammation, and boost the immune system. However, they can also have toxic effects in high concentrations, causing gastrointestinal disturbances and potentially damaging red blood cells.

Saponins are typically found in the cell walls of plants and can be extracted through various methods for use in pharmaceuticals, food additives, and cosmetics.

Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are a class of drugs that are primarily used in the treatment of hormone-sensitive breast cancer in postmenopausal women. They work by inhibiting the enzyme aromatase, which is responsible for converting androgens into estrogens. By blocking this conversion, AIs decrease the amount of estrogen in the body, thereby depriving hormone-sensitive breast cancer cells of the estrogen they need to grow and multiply.

There are three main types of aromatase inhibitors:

1. Letrozole (Femara) - a non-steroidal AI that is taken orally once a day.
2. Anastrozole (Arimidex) - another non-steroidal AI that is also taken orally once a day.
3. Exemestane (Aromasin) - a steroidal AI that is taken orally once a day.

In addition to their use in breast cancer treatment, AIs are also sometimes used off-label for the treatment of estrogen-dependent conditions such as endometriosis and uterine fibroids. However, it's important to note that the use of aromatase inhibitors can have significant side effects, including hot flashes, joint pain, and bone loss, so they should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

A Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve is a graphical representation used in medical decision-making and statistical analysis to illustrate the performance of a binary classifier system, such as a diagnostic test or a machine learning algorithm. It's a plot that shows the tradeoff between the true positive rate (sensitivity) and the false positive rate (1 - specificity) for different threshold settings.

The x-axis of an ROC curve represents the false positive rate (the proportion of negative cases incorrectly classified as positive), while the y-axis represents the true positive rate (the proportion of positive cases correctly classified as positive). Each point on the curve corresponds to a specific decision threshold, with higher points indicating better performance.

The area under the ROC curve (AUC) is a commonly used summary measure that reflects the overall performance of the classifier. An AUC value of 1 indicates perfect discrimination between positive and negative cases, while an AUC value of 0.5 suggests that the classifier performs no better than chance.

ROC curves are widely used in healthcare to evaluate diagnostic tests, predictive models, and screening tools for various medical conditions, helping clinicians make informed decisions about patient care based on the balance between sensitivity and specificity.

The Ki-67 antigen is a cellular protein that is expressed in all active phases of the cell cycle (G1, S, G2, and M), but not in the resting phase (G0). It is often used as a marker for cell proliferation and can be found in high concentrations in rapidly dividing cells. Immunohistochemical staining for Ki-67 can help to determine the growth fraction of a group of cells, which can be useful in the diagnosis and prognosis of various malignancies, including cancer. The level of Ki-67 expression is often associated with the aggressiveness of the tumor and its response to treatment.

Vomiting is defined in medical terms as the forceful expulsion of stomach contents through the mouth. It is a violent, involuntary act that is usually accompanied by strong contractions of the abdominal muscles and retching. The body's vomiting reflex is typically triggered when the brain receives signals from the digestive system that something is amiss.

There are many potential causes of vomiting, including gastrointestinal infections, food poisoning, motion sickness, pregnancy, alcohol consumption, and certain medications or medical conditions. In some cases, vomiting can be a symptom of a more serious underlying condition, such as a brain injury, concussion, or chemical imbalance in the body.

Vomiting is generally not considered a serious medical emergency on its own, but it can lead to dehydration and other complications if left untreated. If vomiting persists for an extended period of time, or if it is accompanied by other concerning symptoms such as severe abdominal pain, fever, or difficulty breathing, it is important to seek medical attention promptly.

A biopsy is a medical procedure in which a small sample of tissue is taken from the body to be examined under a microscope for the presence of disease. This can help doctors diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as cancer, infections, or autoimmune disorders. The type of biopsy performed will depend on the location and nature of the suspected condition. Some common types of biopsies include:

1. Incisional biopsy: In this procedure, a surgeon removes a piece of tissue from an abnormal area using a scalpel or other surgical instrument. This type of biopsy is often used when the lesion is too large to be removed entirely during the initial biopsy.

2. Excisional biopsy: An excisional biopsy involves removing the entire abnormal area, along with a margin of healthy tissue surrounding it. This technique is typically employed for smaller lesions or when cancer is suspected.

3. Needle biopsy: A needle biopsy uses a thin, hollow needle to extract cells or fluid from the body. There are two main types of needle biopsies: fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy. FNA extracts loose cells, while a core needle biopsy removes a small piece of tissue.

4. Punch biopsy: In a punch biopsy, a round, sharp tool is used to remove a small cylindrical sample of skin tissue. This type of biopsy is often used for evaluating rashes or other skin abnormalities.

5. Shave biopsy: During a shave biopsy, a thin slice of tissue is removed from the surface of the skin using a sharp razor-like instrument. This technique is typically used for superficial lesions or growths on the skin.

After the biopsy sample has been collected, it is sent to a laboratory where a pathologist will examine the tissue under a microscope and provide a diagnosis based on their findings. The results of the biopsy can help guide further treatment decisions and determine the best course of action for managing the patient's condition.

Neoplasm grading is a system used by pathologists to classify the degree of abnormality in cells that make up a tumor (neoplasm). It provides an assessment of how quickly the tumor is likely to grow and spread. The grade helps doctors predict the prognosis and determine the best treatment options.

Neoplasm grading typically involves evaluating certain cellular features under a microscope, such as:

1. Differentiation or degree of maturity: This refers to how closely the tumor cells resemble their normal counterparts in terms of size, shape, and organization. Well-differentiated tumors have cells that look more like normal cells and are usually slower growing. Poorly differentiated tumors have cells that appear very abnormal and tend to grow and spread more aggressively.

2. Mitotic count: This is the number of times the tumor cells divide (mitosis) within a given area. A higher mitotic count indicates a faster-growing tumor.

3. Necrosis: This refers to areas of dead tissue within the tumor. A significant amount of necrosis may suggest a more aggressive tumor.

Based on these and other factors, pathologists assign a grade to the tumor using a standardized system, such as the Bloom-Richardson or Scarff-Bloom-Richardson grading systems for breast cancer or the Fuhrman grading system for kidney cancer. The grade usually consists of a number or a range (e.g., G1, G2, G3, or G4) or a combination of grades (e.g., low grade, intermediate grade, and high grade).

In general, higher-grade tumors have a worse prognosis than lower-grade tumors because they are more likely to grow quickly, invade surrounding tissues, and metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body. However, neoplasm grading is just one aspect of cancer diagnosis and treatment planning. Other factors, such as the stage of the disease, location of the tumor, patient's overall health, and specific molecular markers, are also considered when making treatment decisions.

Polysorbates are a type of nonionic surfactant (a compound that lowers the surface tension between two substances, such as oil and water) commonly used in pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics. They are derived from sorbitol and reacted with ethylene oxide to create a polyoxyethylene structure. The most common types of polysorbates used in medicine are polysorbate 20, polysorbate 40, and polysorbate 60, which differ in the number of oxyethylene groups in their molecular structure.

Polysorbates are often added to pharmaceutical formulations as emulsifiers, solubilizers, or stabilizers. They help to improve the solubility and stability of drugs that are otherwise insoluble in water, allowing for better absorption and bioavailability. Polysorbates can also prevent the aggregation and precipitation of proteins in injectable formulations.

In addition to their use in pharmaceuticals, polysorbates are also used as emulsifiers in food products such as ice cream, salad dressings, and baked goods. They help to mix oil and water-based ingredients together and prevent them from separating. In cosmetics, polysorbates are used as surfactants, solubilizers, and stabilizers in a variety of personal care products.

It is important to note that some people may have allergic reactions to polysorbates, particularly those with sensitivities to sorbitol or other ingredients used in their production. Therefore, it is essential to carefully consider the potential risks and benefits of using products containing polysorbates in individuals who may be at risk for adverse reactions.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

Cholera toxin is a protein toxin produced by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which causes the infectious disease cholera. The toxin is composed of two subunits, A and B, and its primary mechanism of action is to alter the normal function of cells in the small intestine.

The B subunit of the toxin binds to ganglioside receptors on the surface of intestinal epithelial cells, allowing the A subunit to enter the cell. Once inside, the A subunit activates a signaling pathway that results in the excessive secretion of chloride ions and water into the intestinal lumen, leading to profuse, watery diarrhea, dehydration, and other symptoms associated with cholera.

Cholera toxin is also used as a research tool in molecular biology and immunology due to its ability to modulate cell signaling pathways. It has been used to study the mechanisms of signal transduction, protein trafficking, and immune responses.

Antineoplastic agents, phytogenic, also known as plant-derived anticancer drugs, are medications that are derived from plants and used to treat cancer. These agents have natural origins and work by interfering with the growth and multiplication of cancer cells, helping to slow or stop the spread of the disease. Some examples of antineoplastic agents, phytogenic include paclitaxel (Taxol), vincristine, vinblastine, and etoposide. These drugs are often used in combination with other treatments such as surgery, radiation therapy, and other medications to provide a comprehensive approach to cancer care.

Bone neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the bone. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign bone neoplasms do not spread to other parts of the body and are rarely a threat to life, although they may cause problems if they grow large enough to press on surrounding tissues or cause fractures. Malignant bone neoplasms, on the other hand, can invade and destroy nearby tissue and may spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body.

There are many different types of bone neoplasms, including:

1. Osteochondroma - a benign tumor that develops from cartilage and bone
2. Enchondroma - a benign tumor that forms in the cartilage that lines the inside of the bones
3. Chondrosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from cartilage
4. Osteosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from bone cells
5. Ewing sarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops in the bones or soft tissues around the bones
6. Giant cell tumor of bone - a benign or occasionally malignant tumor that develops from bone tissue
7. Fibrosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from fibrous tissue in the bone

The symptoms of bone neoplasms vary depending on the type, size, and location of the tumor. They may include pain, swelling, stiffness, fractures, or limited mobility. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the tumor but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these treatments.

Acetylmuramyl-Alanyl-Isoglutamine is a chemical compound that is a component of bacterial cell walls. It is also known as N-acetylmuramic acid-L-alanine-γ-D-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelic acid, which is its more detailed and complete chemical name.

This compound is a key building block of peptidoglycan, a complex polymer that provides structural rigidity to bacterial cell walls. Specifically, Acetylmuramyl-Alanyl-Isoglutamine is a part of the peptide subunit that links individual peptidoglycan strands together, forming a cross-linked network that helps protect bacteria from external stresses and osmotic pressure.

In addition to its structural role, Acetylmuramyl-Alanyl-Isoglutamine has been shown to have immunostimulatory properties, and it is being investigated as a potential vaccine adjuvant to enhance the immune response to other antigens.

Palliative care is a type of medical care that focuses on relieving the pain, symptoms, and stress of serious illnesses. The goal is to improve quality of life for both the patient and their family. It is provided by a team of doctors, nurses, and other specialists who work together to address the physical, emotional, social, and spiritual needs of the patient. Palliative care can be provided at any stage of an illness, alongside curative treatments, and is not dependent on prognosis.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines palliative care as: "an approach that improves the quality of life of patients and their families facing the problems associated with life-threatening illness, through the prevention and relief of suffering by means of early identification and impeccable assessment and treatment of pain and other problems, physical, psychological and spiritual."

Cancer vaccines are a type of immunotherapy that stimulate the body's own immune system to recognize and destroy cancer cells. They can be prophylactic (preventive) or therapeutic (treatment) in nature. Prophylactic cancer vaccines, such as the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, are designed to prevent the initial infection that can lead to certain types of cancer. Therapeutic cancer vaccines, on the other hand, are used to treat existing cancer by boosting the immune system's ability to identify and eliminate cancer cells. These vaccines typically contain specific antigens (proteins or sugars) found on the surface of cancer cells, which help the immune system to recognize and target them.

It is important to note that cancer vaccines are different from vaccines used to prevent infectious diseases, such as measles or influenza. While traditional vaccines introduce a weakened or inactivated form of a virus or bacteria to stimulate an immune response, cancer vaccines focus on training the immune system to recognize and attack cancer cells specifically.

There are several types of cancer vaccines under investigation, including:

1. Autologous cancer vaccines: These vaccines use the patient's own tumor cells, which are processed and then reintroduced into the body to stimulate an immune response.
2. Peptide-based cancer vaccines: These vaccines contain specific pieces (peptides) of proteins found on the surface of cancer cells. They are designed to trigger an immune response against cells that express these proteins.
3. Dendritic cell-based cancer vaccines: Dendritic cells are a type of immune cell responsible for presenting antigens to other immune cells, activating them to recognize and destroy infected or cancerous cells. In this approach, dendritic cells are isolated from the patient's blood, exposed to cancer antigens in the lab, and then reintroduced into the body to stimulate an immune response.
4. DNA-based cancer vaccines: These vaccines use pieces of DNA that code for specific cancer antigens. Once inside the body, these DNA fragments are taken up by cells, leading to the production of the corresponding antigen and triggering an immune response.
5. Viral vector-based cancer vaccines: In this approach, a harmless virus is modified to carry genetic material encoding cancer antigens. When introduced into the body, the virus infects cells, causing them to produce the cancer antigen and stimulating an immune response.

While some cancer vaccines have shown promising results in clinical trials, none have yet been approved for widespread use by regulatory authorities such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Researchers continue to explore and refine various vaccine strategies to improve their efficacy and safety.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "pilot projects" is not a medical term per se. Instead, it is a general term used in various fields, including healthcare and medicine, to describe a small-scale initiative that is implemented on a temporary basis to evaluate its feasibility, effectiveness, or impact before deciding whether to expand or continue it.

In the context of healthcare, pilot projects might involve testing new treatment protocols, implementing innovative care models, or introducing technology solutions in a limited setting to assess their potential benefits and drawbacks. The results of these projects can help inform decisions about broader implementation and provide valuable insights for improving the quality and efficiency of healthcare services.

Neoplasms are abnormal growths of cells or tissues in the body that serve no physiological function. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are typically slow growing and do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant neoplasms are aggressive, invasive, and can metastasize to distant sites.

Neoplasms occur when there is a dysregulation in the normal process of cell division and differentiation, leading to uncontrolled growth and accumulation of cells. This can result from genetic mutations or other factors such as viral infections, environmental exposures, or hormonal imbalances.

Neoplasms can develop in any organ or tissue of the body and can cause various symptoms depending on their size, location, and type. Treatment options for neoplasms include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy, among others.

Neoplastic gene expression regulation refers to the processes that control the production of proteins and other molecules from genes in neoplastic cells, or cells that are part of a tumor or cancer. In a normal cell, gene expression is tightly regulated to ensure that the right genes are turned on or off at the right time. However, in cancer cells, this regulation can be disrupted, leading to the overexpression or underexpression of certain genes.

Neoplastic gene expression regulation can be affected by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, epigenetic changes, and signals from the tumor microenvironment. These changes can lead to the activation of oncogenes (genes that promote cancer growth and development) or the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes (genes that prevent cancer).

Understanding neoplastic gene expression regulation is important for developing new therapies for cancer, as targeting specific genes or pathways involved in this process can help to inhibit cancer growth and progression.

Synthetic vaccines are artificially produced, designed to stimulate an immune response and provide protection against specific diseases. Unlike traditional vaccines that are derived from weakened or killed pathogens, synthetic vaccines are created using synthetic components, such as synthesized viral proteins, DNA, or RNA. These components mimic the disease-causing agent and trigger an immune response without causing the actual disease. The use of synthetic vaccines offers advantages in terms of safety, consistency, and scalability in production, making them valuable tools for preventing infectious diseases.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Hodgkin disease, also known as Hodgkin lymphoma, is a type of cancer that originates in the white blood cells called lymphocytes. It typically affects the lymphatic system, which is a network of vessels and glands spread throughout the body. The disease is characterized by the presence of a specific type of abnormal cell, known as a Reed-Sternberg cell, within the affected lymph nodes.

The symptoms of Hodgkin disease may include painless swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck, armpits, or groin; fever; night sweats; weight loss; and fatigue. The exact cause of Hodgkin disease is unknown, but it is thought to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and infectious factors.

Hodgkin disease is typically treated with a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and/or immunotherapy, depending on the stage and extent of the disease. With appropriate treatment, the prognosis for Hodgkin disease is generally very good, with a high cure rate. However, long-term side effects of treatment may include an increased risk of secondary cancers and other health problems.

Drug resistance in neoplasms (also known as cancer drug resistance) refers to the ability of cancer cells to withstand the effects of chemotherapeutic agents or medications designed to kill or inhibit the growth of cancer cells. This can occur due to various mechanisms, including changes in the cancer cell's genetic makeup, alterations in drug targets, increased activity of drug efflux pumps, and activation of survival pathways.

Drug resistance can be intrinsic (present at the beginning of treatment) or acquired (developed during the course of treatment). It is a significant challenge in cancer therapy as it often leads to reduced treatment effectiveness, disease progression, and poor patient outcomes. Strategies to overcome drug resistance include the use of combination therapies, development of new drugs that target different mechanisms, and personalized medicine approaches that consider individual patient and tumor characteristics.

Nonparametric statistics is a branch of statistics that does not rely on assumptions about the distribution of variables in the population from which the sample is drawn. In contrast to parametric methods, nonparametric techniques make fewer assumptions about the data and are therefore more flexible in their application. Nonparametric tests are often used when the data do not meet the assumptions required for parametric tests, such as normality or equal variances.

Nonparametric statistical methods include tests such as the Wilcoxon rank-sum test (also known as the Mann-Whitney U test) for comparing two independent groups, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for comparing two related groups, and the Kruskal-Wallis test for comparing more than two independent groups. These tests use the ranks of the data rather than the actual values to make comparisons, which allows them to be used with ordinal or continuous data that do not meet the assumptions of parametric tests.

Overall, nonparametric statistics provide a useful set of tools for analyzing data in situations where the assumptions of parametric methods are not met, and can help researchers draw valid conclusions from their data even when the data are not normally distributed or have other characteristics that violate the assumptions of parametric tests.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

Tumor suppressor protein p53, also known as p53 or tumor protein p53, is a nuclear phosphoprotein that plays a crucial role in preventing cancer development and maintaining genomic stability. It does so by regulating the cell cycle and acting as a transcription factor for various genes involved in apoptosis (programmed cell death), DNA repair, and cell senescence (permanent cell growth arrest).

In response to cellular stress, such as DNA damage or oncogene activation, p53 becomes activated and accumulates in the nucleus. Activated p53 can then bind to specific DNA sequences and promote the transcription of target genes that help prevent the proliferation of potentially cancerous cells. These targets include genes involved in cell cycle arrest (e.g., CDKN1A/p21), apoptosis (e.g., BAX, PUMA), and DNA repair (e.g., GADD45).

Mutations in the TP53 gene, which encodes p53, are among the most common genetic alterations found in human cancers. These mutations often lead to a loss or reduction of p53's tumor suppressive functions, allowing cancer cells to proliferate uncontrollably and evade apoptosis. As a result, p53 has been referred to as "the guardian of the genome" due to its essential role in preventing tumorigenesis.

A glioma is a type of tumor that originates from the glial cells in the brain. Glial cells are non-neuronal cells that provide support and protection for nerve cells (neurons) within the central nervous system, including providing nutrients, maintaining homeostasis, and insulating neurons.

Gliomas can be classified into several types based on the specific type of glial cell from which they originate. The most common types include:

1. Astrocytoma: Arises from astrocytes, a type of star-shaped glial cells that provide structural support to neurons.
2. Oligodendroglioma: Develops from oligodendrocytes, which produce the myelin sheath that insulates nerve fibers.
3. Ependymoma: Originate from ependymal cells, which line the ventricles (fluid-filled spaces) in the brain and spinal cord.
4. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM): A highly aggressive and malignant type of astrocytoma that tends to spread quickly within the brain.

Gliomas can be further classified based on their grade, which indicates how aggressive and fast-growing they are. Lower-grade gliomas tend to grow more slowly and may be less aggressive, while higher-grade gliomas are more likely to be aggressive and rapidly growing.

Symptoms of gliomas depend on the location and size of the tumor but can include headaches, seizures, cognitive changes, and neurological deficits such as weakness or paralysis in certain parts of the body. Treatment options for gliomas may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

A needle biopsy is a medical procedure in which a thin, hollow needle is used to remove a small sample of tissue from a suspicious or abnormal area of the body. The tissue sample is then examined under a microscope to check for cancer cells or other abnormalities. Needle biopsies are often used to diagnose lumps or masses that can be felt through the skin, but they can also be guided by imaging techniques such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI to reach areas that cannot be felt. There are several types of needle biopsy procedures, including fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy. FNA uses a thin needle and gentle suction to remove fluid and cells from the area, while core needle biopsy uses a larger needle to remove a small piece of tissue. The type of needle biopsy used depends on the location and size of the abnormal area, as well as the reason for the procedure.

Defecation is the medical term for the act of passing stools (feces) through the anus. It is a normal bodily function that involves the contraction of muscles in the colon and anal sphincter to release waste from the body. Defecation is usually a regular and daily occurrence, with the frequency varying from person to person.

The stool is made up of undigested food, bacteria, and other waste products that are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus. The process of defecation is controlled by the autonomic nervous system, which regulates involuntary bodily functions such as heart rate and digestion.

Difficulties with defecation can occur due to various medical conditions, including constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. These conditions can cause symptoms such as hard or painful stools, straining during bowel movements, and a feeling of incomplete evacuation. If you are experiencing any problems with defecation, it is important to speak with your healthcare provider for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Nausea is a subjective, unpleasant sensation of discomfort in the stomach and upper gastrointestinal tract that may precede vomiting. It's often described as a feeling of queasiness or the need to vomit. Nausea can be caused by various factors, including motion sickness, pregnancy, gastrointestinal disorders, infections, certain medications, and emotional stress. While nausea is not a disease itself, it can be a symptom of an underlying medical condition that requires attention and treatment.

A confidence interval (CI) is a range of values that is likely to contain the true value of a population parameter with a certain level of confidence. It is commonly used in statistical analysis to express the uncertainty associated with estimates derived from sample data.

For example, if we calculate a 95% confidence interval for the mean height of a population based on a sample of individuals, we can say that we are 95% confident that the true population mean height falls within the calculated range. The width of the confidence interval gives us an idea of how precise our estimate is - narrower intervals indicate more precise estimates, while wider intervals suggest greater uncertainty.

Confidence intervals are typically calculated using statistical formulas that take into account the sample size, standard deviation, and level of confidence desired. They can be used to compare different groups or to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions in medical research.

Delayed hypersensitivity, also known as type IV hypersensitivity, is a type of immune response that takes place several hours to days after exposure to an antigen. It is characterized by the activation of T cells (a type of white blood cell) and the release of various chemical mediators, leading to inflammation and tissue damage. This reaction is typically associated with chronic inflammatory diseases, such as contact dermatitis, granulomatous disorders (e.g. tuberculosis), and certain autoimmune diseases.

The reaction process involves the following steps:

1. Sensitization: The first time an individual is exposed to an antigen, T cells are activated and become sensitized to it. This process can take several days.
2. Memory: Some of the activated T cells differentiate into memory T cells, which remain in the body and are ready to respond quickly if the same antigen is encountered again.
3. Effector phase: Upon subsequent exposure to the antigen, the memory T cells become activated and release cytokines, which recruit other immune cells (e.g. macrophages) to the site of inflammation. These cells cause tissue damage through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis, degranulation, and the release of reactive oxygen species.
4. Chronic inflammation: The ongoing immune response can lead to chronic inflammation, which may result in tissue destruction and fibrosis (scarring).

Examples of conditions associated with delayed hypersensitivity include:

* Contact dermatitis (e.g. poison ivy, nickel allergy)
* Tuberculosis
* Leprosy
* Sarcoidosis
* Rheumatoid arthritis
* Type 1 diabetes mellitus
* Multiple sclerosis
* Inflammatory bowel disease (e.g. Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis)

Interferon-alpha (IFN-α) is a type I interferon, which is a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of viruses, parasites, and tumor cells. It plays a crucial role in the immune response against viral infections. IFN-α has antiviral, immunomodulatory, and anti-proliferative effects.

IFN-α is produced naturally by various cell types, including leukocytes (white blood cells), fibroblasts, and epithelial cells, in response to viral or bacterial stimulation. It binds to specific receptors on the surface of nearby cells, triggering a signaling cascade that leads to the activation of genes involved in the antiviral response. This results in the production of proteins that inhibit viral replication and promote the presentation of viral antigens to the immune system, enhancing its ability to recognize and eliminate infected cells.

In addition to its role in the immune response, IFN-α has been used as a therapeutic agent for various medical conditions, including certain types of cancer, chronic hepatitis B and C, and multiple sclerosis. However, its use is often limited by side effects such as flu-like symptoms, depression, and neuropsychiatric disorders.

Estrogen receptors (ERs) are a type of nuclear receptor protein that are expressed in various tissues and cells throughout the body. They play a critical role in the regulation of gene expression and cellular responses to the hormone estrogen. There are two main subtypes of ERs, ERα and ERβ, which have distinct molecular structures, expression patterns, and functions.

ERs function as transcription factors that bind to specific DNA sequences called estrogen response elements (EREs) in the promoter regions of target genes. When estrogen binds to the ER, it causes a conformational change in the receptor that allows it to recruit co-activator proteins and initiate transcription of the target gene. This process can lead to a variety of cellular responses, including changes in cell growth, differentiation, and metabolism.

Estrogen receptors are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including the development and maintenance of female reproductive tissues, bone homeostasis, cardiovascular function, and cognitive function. They have also been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as breast cancer, endometrial cancer, and osteoporosis. As a result, ERs are an important target for therapeutic interventions in these diseases.

Liver neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the liver that can be benign or malignant. Benign liver neoplasms are non-cancerous tumors that do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant liver neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade and destroy surrounding tissue and spread to other organs.

Liver neoplasms can be primary, meaning they originate in the liver, or secondary, meaning they have metastasized (spread) to the liver from another part of the body. Primary liver neoplasms can be further classified into different types based on their cell of origin and behavior, including hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, and hepatic hemangioma.

The diagnosis of liver neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging studies, such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, and biopsy to confirm the type and stage of the tumor. Treatment options depend on the type and extent of the neoplasm and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or liver transplantation.

ISCOMs, or Immune Stimulating Complexes, are non-inflammatory, virus-like particles that are used as a delivery system for vaccines. They were developed to improve the immune response to antigens, which are substances that trigger an immune response. ISCOMs are made up of saponins, cholesterol, phospholipids, and antigen. The saponins in ISCOMs are derived from the bark of the Quillaia saponaria tree and have adjuvant properties, which means they help to boost the immune response to the antigen.

The unique structure of ISCOMs allows them to be taken up by both immune cells that reside in the skin and mucous membranes (known as antigen-presenting cells) and by cells that line the inside of blood vessels (known as endothelial cells). This broad cellular uptake helps to stimulate both the humoral and cell-mediated arms of the immune system, leading to a strong and balanced immune response.

ISCOMs have been studied as a delivery system for a variety of vaccines, including those against infectious diseases such as HIV, influenza, and tuberculosis. They have also been explored as a potential platform for cancer vaccines.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

I could not find a specific medical definition for "Vaccines, DNA." However, I can provide you with some information about DNA vaccines.

DNA vaccines are a type of vaccine that uses genetically engineered DNA to stimulate an immune response in the body. They work by introducing a small piece of DNA into the body that contains the genetic code for a specific antigen (a substance that triggers an immune response). The cells of the body then use this DNA to produce the antigen, which prompts the immune system to recognize and attack it.

DNA vaccines have several advantages over traditional vaccines. They are relatively easy to produce, can be stored at room temperature, and can be designed to protect against a wide range of diseases. Additionally, because they use DNA to stimulate an immune response, DNA vaccines do not require the growth and culture of viruses or bacteria, which can make them safer than traditional vaccines.

DNA vaccines are still in the experimental stages, and more research is needed to determine their safety and effectiveness. However, they have shown promise in animal studies and are being investigated as a potential tool for preventing a variety of infectious diseases, including influenza, HIV, and cancer.

Patient compliance, also known as medication adherence or patient adherence, refers to the degree to which a patient's behavior matches the agreed-upon recommendations from their healthcare provider. This includes taking medications as prescribed (including the correct dosage, frequency, and duration), following dietary restrictions, making lifestyle changes, and attending follow-up appointments. Poor patient compliance can negatively impact treatment outcomes and lead to worsening of symptoms, increased healthcare costs, and development of drug-resistant strains in the case of antibiotics. It is a significant challenge in healthcare and efforts are being made to improve patient education, communication, and support to enhance compliance.

Neuroblastoma is defined as a type of cancer that develops from immature nerve cells found in the fetal or early postnatal period, called neuroblasts. It typically occurs in infants and young children, with around 90% of cases diagnosed before age five. The tumors often originate in the adrenal glands but can also arise in the neck, chest, abdomen, or spine. Neuroblastoma is characterized by its ability to spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body, including bones, bone marrow, lymph nodes, and skin. The severity and prognosis of neuroblastoma can vary widely, depending on factors such as the patient's age at diagnosis, stage of the disease, and specific genetic features of the tumor.

A mastectomy is a surgical procedure where the entire breast tissue along with the nipple and areola is removed. This is usually performed to treat or prevent breast cancer. There are different types of mastectomies, such as simple (total) mastectomy, skin-sparing mastectomy, and nipple-sparing mastectomy. The choice of procedure depends on various factors including the type and stage of cancer, patient's preference, and the recommendation of the surgical team.

Bacterial vaccines are types of vaccines that are created using bacteria or parts of bacteria as the immunogen, which is the substance that triggers an immune response in the body. The purpose of a bacterial vaccine is to stimulate the immune system to develop protection against specific bacterial infections.

There are several types of bacterial vaccines, including:

1. Inactivated or killed whole-cell vaccines: These vaccines contain entire bacteria that have been killed or inactivated through various methods, such as heat or chemicals. The bacteria can no longer cause disease, but they still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response.
2. Subunit, protein, or polysaccharide vaccines: These vaccines use specific components of the bacterium, such as proteins or polysaccharides, that are known to trigger an immune response. By using only these components, the vaccine can avoid using the entire bacterium, which may reduce the risk of adverse reactions.
3. Live attenuated vaccines: These vaccines contain live bacteria that have been weakened or attenuated so that they cannot cause disease but still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response. This type of vaccine can provide long-lasting immunity, but it may not be suitable for people with weakened immune systems.

Bacterial vaccines are essential tools in preventing and controlling bacterial infections, reducing the burden of diseases such as tuberculosis, pneumococcal disease, meningococcal disease, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease. They work by exposing the immune system to a harmless form of the bacteria or its components, which triggers the production of antibodies and memory cells that can recognize and fight off future infections with that same bacterium.

It's important to note that while vaccines are generally safe and effective, they may cause mild side effects such as pain, redness, or swelling at the injection site, fever, or fatigue. Serious side effects are rare but can occur, so it's essential to consult with a healthcare provider before receiving any vaccine.

I'm happy to help! "Rats, Inbred Lew" is a specific strain of laboratory rats that have been inbred for research purposes. The "Lew" part of the name refers to the location where they were first developed, the Lewis Institute in Lake Bluff, Illinois, USA.

Inbreeding is a process of mating closely related individuals over many generations to create a genetically homogeneous population. This results in a high degree of genetic similarity among members of the strain, making them ideal for use as experimental models because any differences observed between individuals are more likely to be due to the experimental manipulation rather than genetic variation.

Inbred Lew rats have been widely used in biomedical research, particularly in studies related to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. They exhibit a number of unique characteristics that make them useful for these types of studies, including their susceptibility to developing high blood pressure when fed a high-salt diet or given certain drugs.

It's important to note that while inbred strains like Lew rats can be very useful tools for researchers, they are not perfect models for human disease. Because they have been bred in a controlled environment and selected for specific traits, they may not respond to experimental manipulations in the same way that humans or other animals would. Therefore, it's important to interpret findings from these studies with caution and consider multiple lines of evidence before drawing any firm conclusions.

Nelfinavir is a medication that belongs to a class of antiretroviral drugs called protease inhibitors. It is used in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Nelfinavir works by blocking the activity of HIV protease, an enzyme that is necessary for the replication of the virus. By inhibiting this enzyme, nelfinavir prevents the virus from multiplying and thus slows down the progression of the disease.

Here's a medical definition of Nelfinavir:

"Nelfinavir mesylate is a synthetic peptidomimetic inhibitor of the HIV-1 protease, an enzyme essential for the processing of viral gag and gag-pol polyproteins, reverse transcriptase, and integrase. Nelfinavir is used in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of HIV infection and AIDS."

It's important to note that nelfinavir is not a cure for HIV or AIDS, but it can help manage the disease by reducing the amount of virus in the body and improving the immune system function. As with any medication, nelfinavir has potential side effects and risks, so it should be taken under the guidance and supervision of a healthcare provider.

Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which are found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. It is responsible for the endotoxic activity of LPS and plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of gram-negative bacterial infections. Lipid A is a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor, consisting of a glucosamine disaccharide backbone with multiple fatty acid chains and phosphate groups attached to it. It can induce the release of proinflammatory cytokines, fever, and other symptoms associated with sepsis when introduced into the bloodstream.

Prednisone is a synthetic glucocorticoid, which is a type of corticosteroid hormone. It is primarily used to reduce inflammation in various conditions such as asthma, allergies, arthritis, and autoimmune disorders. Prednisone works by mimicking the effects of natural hormones produced by the adrenal glands, suppressing the immune system's response and reducing the release of substances that cause inflammation.

It is available in oral tablet form and is typically prescribed to be taken at specific times during the day, depending on the condition being treated. Common side effects of prednisone include increased appetite, weight gain, mood changes, insomnia, and easy bruising. Long-term use or high doses can lead to more serious side effects such as osteoporosis, diabetes, cataracts, and increased susceptibility to infections.

Healthcare providers closely monitor patients taking prednisone for extended periods to minimize the risk of adverse effects. It is essential to follow the prescribed dosage regimen and not discontinue the medication abruptly without medical supervision, as this can lead to withdrawal symptoms or a rebound of the underlying condition.

The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is a type of receptor found on the surface of many cells in the body, including those of the epidermis or outer layer of the skin. It is a transmembrane protein that has an extracellular ligand-binding domain and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain.

EGFR plays a crucial role in various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival. When EGF (Epidermal Growth Factor) or other ligands bind to the extracellular domain of EGFR, it causes the receptor to dimerize and activate its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity. This leads to the autophosphorylation of specific tyrosine residues on the receptor, which in turn recruits and activates various downstream signaling molecules, resulting in a cascade of intracellular signaling events that ultimately regulate gene expression and cell behavior.

Abnormal activation of EGFR has been implicated in several human diseases, including cancer. Overexpression or mutation of EGFR can lead to uncontrolled cell growth and division, angiogenesis, and metastasis, making it an important target for cancer therapy.

Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) is a type of growth factor that specifically stimulates the production and survival of granulocytes, a type of white blood cell crucial for fighting off infections. G-CSF works by promoting the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells into mature granulocytes, primarily neutrophils, in the bone marrow.

Recombinant forms of G-CSF are used clinically as a medication to boost white blood cell production in patients undergoing chemotherapy or radiation therapy for cancer, those with congenital neutropenia, and those who have had a bone marrow transplant. By increasing the number of circulating neutrophils, G-CSF helps reduce the risk of severe infections during periods of intense immune suppression.

Examples of recombinant G-CSF medications include filgrastim (Neupogen), pegfilgrastim (Neulasta), and lipegfilgrastim (Lonquex).

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In August 2021, the U.S. FDA approved nivolumab for the adjuvant treatment of people with urothelial carcinoma (UC) who are at ... cancer with residual pathologic disease who have received neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. ... Nivolumab is indicated for the adjuvant treatment of people with melanoma with involvement of lymph nodes or in people with ... On 20 December 2017, the FDA granted approval to nivolumab for adjuvant treatment of melanoma with involvement of lymph nodes ...
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... alone or chemoradiotherapy (CRT), which hampered the comparison of the efficacy of RT alone with that of surgery combined with ... adjuvant RT. But some effort had been made to reflect the role of surgery in salivary gland tumours. Treatment may include the ...
In elderly people with newly diagnosed glioblastoma who are reasonably fit, concurrent and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy gives the ... Mason WP, Mirimanoff RO, Stupp R (2006). "Radiotherapy with Concurrent and Adjuvant Temozolomide: A New Standard of Care for ... May 2009). "Effects of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide versus radiotherapy alone on survival in ... December 2008). "Dose-intensity temozolomide after concurrent chemoradiotherapy in operated high-grade gliomas". Journal of ...
Evidence suggests chemoradiotherapy may increase overall survival and reduce the risk of disease recurrence compared to ... Falcetta FS, Medeiros LR, Edelweiss MI, Pohlmann PR, Stein AT, Rosa DD (November 2016). "Adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy ... Chemoradiotherapy for Cervical Cancer Meta-analysis Collaboration (CCCMAC) (January 2010). "Reducing uncertainties about the ... Tangjitgamol S, Katanyoo K, Laopaiboon M, Lumbiganon P, Manusirivithaya S, Supawattanabodee B (December 2014). "Adjuvant ...
Higher tumour grades may benefit from adjuvant treatment such as platinum-based chemotherapy. Optimal debulking is used to ... This combination approach may be substituted with chemoradiotherapy alone in some. Hysterectomy and bilateral oophorectomy is ... If nodal disease is confirmed, adjuvant radiotherapy is administered. Treatment depends on the stage of vaginal cancer. ...
March 2013). "Induction chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy (sequential chemoradiotherapy) versus concurrent ... The addition of another modality of treatment is referred to as adjuvant (literally helping) therapy, compared to its use as ... The adequacy of surgical resection is a major factor in determining the role of postoperative adjuvant therapy. In the presence ... Such patient selection may enable them to avoid the morbidity of additional adjuvant treatment. In the absence of favourable ...
"Adjuvant docetaxel/Cyclophosphamide in breast cancer patients over the age of 70: Results of an observational study". Critical ... "Preoperative Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer with High-Dose Radiation and Oxaliplatin-Containing ... "Adjuvant docetaxel/cyclophosphamide in breast cancer patients over the age of 70: Results of an observational study". Critical ...
Moreover, no patient in the trial needed chemoradiotherapy or surgery, and no patient reported adverse events of grade 3 or ... For people who have undergone curative surgery or adjuvant therapy (or both) to treat non-metastatic colorectal cancer, intense ... In addition, MRI tumor regression grades can be assigned after chemoradiotherapy which correlate with patients' long-term ... MRI is also performed after completion of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy to identify patients who achieve complete response. ...
Ashraf M, Jha J, Choudhry A, Aggarwal B, Nayak S, Chakraborty J, Majumder S, Biswas J. Neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy with ... Less than 12 lymph nodes in the surgical specimen after neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy: an indicator of tumor regression in ...
"Adjuvant Weekly Girentuximab Following Nephrectomy for High-Risk Renal Cell Carcinoma: The ARISER Randomized Clinical Trial". ... relates to poor vascularization and resistance of squamous cell head and neck cancer to chemoradiotherapy". Clinical Cancer ...
... incomplete Freund's adjuvant - indinavir - indium In 111 ibritumomab tiuxetan - indium In 111 pentetreotide - indole-3-carbinol ... chemoradiotherapy - chemosensitivity - chemosensitivity assay - chemosensitizer - chemotherapeutic agent - chemotherapy - ... uvula vaccine adjuvant - vaccine therapy - vaccinia CEA vaccine - vaginal cancer - vaginal melanoma-vaginal tumors - ... adjuvant therapy - adrenocortical - Adriamycin - adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma - AE-941 - AEE788 - aerobic metabolism - ...
May 2009). "Effects of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide versus radiotherapy alone on survival in ... December 2008). "Dose-intensity temozolomide after concurrent chemoradiotherapy in operated high-grade gliomas". Journal of ...
In locally advanced adenocarcinoma of middle and lower rectum, regional hyperthermia added to chemoradiotherapy achieved good ... Hyperthermia is usually applied as an adjuvant to radiotherapy or chemotherapy, to which it works as a sensitizer, in an effort ...
Lecavalier-Barsoum M, Quon H, Abdulkarim B (May 2014). "Adjuvant treatment of anaplastic oligodendrogliomas and ... surgical resection while glioblastoma multiforme has a median survival of only 12 months even with aggressive chemoradiotherapy ...
"Erythropoietin as an adjuvant treatment with (chemo) radiation therapy for head and neck cancer". The Cochrane Database of ... as would be expected with concurrent chemoradiotherapy, which is the current gold standard treatment for advanced head and neck ... interpretation is difficult since cetuximab-radiotherapy was not directly compared to chemoradiotherapy. The results of ongoing ...
Total neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX versus neoadjuvant gemcitabine-based chemoradiotherapy and adjuvant gemcitabine for resectable and ... Keywords: Chemoradiotherapy; FOLFIRINOX; Gemcitabine; Intention-to-treat; Localized pancreatic cancer; Neoadjuvant; Overall ... Patients receive 8 cycles of neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX chemotherapy followed by surgery without adjuvant treatment (arm A), or 3 ... whether neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX improves OS compared with neoadjuvant gemcitabine-based chemoradiotherapy and adjuvant ...
Capecitabine as a Radiosensitizer in Adjuvant Chemoradiotherapy for Pancreatic Cancer: A Retrospective Study. MATTHEW J. ABRAMS ... Capecitabine as a Radiosensitizer in Adjuvant Chemoradiotherapy for Pancreatic Cancer: A Retrospective Study ... Summary of randomized and non-randomized data evaluating adjuvant chemoradiotherapy in pancreatic cancer. ... Capecitabine as a Radiosensitizer in Adjuvant Chemoradiotherapy for Pancreatic Cancer: A Retrospective Study ...
Economic Analysis of Adjuvant Chemoradiotherapy Compared with Chemotherapy in Resected Pancreas Cancer. Published: September 18 ... Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression survival analyses were used to determine associations between adjuvant ... Population-based survival and costs of pancreas adenocarcinoma patients receiving adjuvant chemoradiation and chemotherapy ...
Adjuvant Chemoradiotherapy With Epirubicin, Cisplatin, and Fluorouracil Compared With Adjuvant Chemoradiotherapy With ... Adjuvant chemotherapy after curative resection for gastric cancer in non-Asian patients: revisiting a meta-analysis of ... Chemoradiotherapy after surgery compared with surgery alone for adenocarcinoma of the stomach or gastroesophageal junction. N ... Adjuvant capecitabine and oxaliplatin for gastric cancer after D2 gastrectomy (CLASSIC): a phase 3 open-label, randomised ...
Maintenance tegafur-plus-uracil after adjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy may improve ou Maintenance tegafur-plus-uracil ... after their adjuvant CCRT. The UFTm trial enrolled patients without relapse within 2 months after the end of adjuvant CCRT and ... following postoperation adjuvant cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) may reduce distant metastasis in patients ... after adjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy may improve outcome for resected oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma with ...
The PD-1/PD-L1 axis and human papilloma virus in patients with head and neck cancer after adjuvant chemoradiotherapy: a ... The PD-1/PD-L1 axis and human papilloma virus in patients with head and neck cancer after adjuvant chemoradiotherapy: a ...
"Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy and chemotherapy in resectable pancreatic cancer: a randomised controlled trial". The Lancet. 358 ( ...
Adjuvant Chemoradiotherapy vs Radiotherapy Alone in High-Risk Endometrial Cancer. As reported in The Lancet Oncology by ... Adjuvant Capecitabine After Resection for Biliary Tract Cancer. In the phase III BILCAP trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, ... ctDNA and Recurrence Risk After Surgery and Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Stage III Colon Cancer. In a cohort biomarker study ... analysis of the phase III PORTEC-3 trial has shown a significant overall survival benefit of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy vs ...
Survival effects of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy after resection for pancreatic carcinoma. Arch Surg. 2010 Jan. 145(1):49-56. [ ... Adjuvant combined radiation and chemotherapy following curative resection. Arch Surg. 1985 Aug. 120(8):899-903. [QxMD MEDLINE ... Adjuvant chemotherapy with gemcitabine vs observation in patients undergoing curative-intent resection of pancreatic cancer: a ... LBA-1 Phase 3 APACT trial of adjuvant nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine (nab-P + Gem) vs gemcitabine (Gem) alone in patients with ...
Survival effects of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy after resection for pancreatic carcinoma. Arch Surg. 2010 Jan. 145(1):49-56. [ ... Adjuvant combined radiation and chemotherapy following curative resection. Arch Surg. 1985 Aug. 120(8):899-903. [QxMD MEDLINE ... Adjuvant chemotherapy with gemcitabine vs observation in patients undergoing curative-intent resection of pancreatic cancer: a ... LBA-1 Phase 3 APACT trial of adjuvant nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine (nab-P + Gem) vs gemcitabine (Gem) alone in patients with ...
Adult, Aged, Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant, Europe, Female, Humans, Incidence, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Male, Medical Audit, ... Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant; Europe; Female; Humans; Incidence; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Male; Medical Audit; Middle Aged; ... Following chemoradiotherapy, a complete response may be detected clinically and radiologically (cCR) prior to surgery or ... Following chemoradiotherapy, a complete response may be detected clinically and radiologically (cCR) prior to surgery or ...
Chemoradiotherapy is frequently used to treat cancer. Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is a single high-dose radiotherapy ... Chemoradiotherapy is frequently used to treat cancer. stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is a single high-dose radiotherapy ... Chemoradiotherapy combines chemotherapy with anticancer drugs and radiotherapy to treat cancer. Chemoradiotherapy can be ... Baldini, E. H., Le Cesne, A., and Trent, J. C. (2018). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy, concurrent chemoradiation, and adjuvant ...
The patient achieved good response after chemoradiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy. During following up, the computed ... The patient subsequently received palliative chemoradiotherapy to the rectal tumour and survived for 5 months. To the best of ... Esophageal cancer with colonic metastasis successfully treated by chemoradiotherapy followed by chemotherapy with S-1 and ...
Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery and chemotherapy or by surgery and chemoradiotherapy for patients with resectable ... Interim results of a phase III trial involving adjuvant chemotherapy and/or chemoradiotherapy after D2-gastrectomy in stage II/ ... Final Report of the Adjuvant Chemoradiotherapy in Stomach Tumors Trial, Including Survival and Subset Analyses. J Clin Oncol, ... The prognostic significance of an R1 resection in gastric cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Annals of ...
Pelareorep, in addition to GM-CSF, standard chemoradiotherapy, and adjuvant temozolomide, was safe and well-tolerated ... alongside standard chemoradiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide, for the treatment of newly diagnosed GBM. Fifteen patients were ... alongside standard chemoradiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide (aka "Temodar") to treat GBM.. "The ReoGlio trial results add to ... objective of the study was to determine the maximum tolerated dose of pelareorep and GM-CSF with standard chemoradiotherapy. ...
J.-F. Bosset, G. Calais, L. Mineur et al., "Fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy after preoperative chemoradiotherapy in ... new adjuvant chemoradiotherapy followed by selective radical resection of rectal cancer is one of the generally recognized ... a series of novel adjuvant chemoradiotherapy have been recommended for patients with TNM stage rectal cancer [16]. Until now, ...
Postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy with six cycles in the mFOLFOX6 group, or eight cycles in the chemoradiotherapy group, was ... while were rest given the chemoradiotherapy before surgery (9% ended up receiving chemoradiotherapy). ... It may depend on whether the long-term neuropathy associated with chemoradiotherapy may be more relevant for some, such as ... The standard chemoradiotherapy consisted of pelvic radiotherapy at 50.4 Gy over 28 fractions alongside sensitizing chemotherapy ...
... adjuvant therapies, systemic therapies, and single-agent regimens. Surgical resection Surgery is the only curative modality for ... patients should be considered for adjuvant systemic chemotherapy and/or chemoradiotherapy. ... Adjuvant therapy following curative-intent resection. Adjuvant therapy is the standard of care following R0 or R1 resection. ... For periampullary tumors, the following regimens have been used for adjuvant therapy [34] :. * Gemcitabine 1000 mg/m 2 IV once ...
Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant/standards * Esophageal Neoplasms/mortality/pathology/surgery/therapy * Esophagectomy * Esophagus/ ...
Strategies for optimised adjuvant immunotherapy following curative-intent radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy for squamous cell ... Investigating the translational potential of inhibiting AXL in combination with adjuvant chemotherapy in the treatment of ...
66 patients with resectable squamous cell carcinoma of the thoracic esophagus underwent preoperative adjuvant therapy. These ... 66 patients with resectable squamous cell carcinoma of the thoracic esophagus underwent preoperative adjuvant therapy. These ... Prospective randomized study of hyperthermia combined with chemoradiotherapy for esophageal carcinoma J Surg Oncol. 1995 Sep;60 ... The present prospective trial demonstrated that the addition of hyperthermia to chemoradiotherapy resulted in a better local ...
The development of image diagnostic techniques and introducing chemoradiotherapy (chemo-IMRT) followed by adjuvant chemotherapy ... the adjuvant chemotherapy role after alternative chemoradiotherapy is uncertain. The chemotherapy induction attempts for cases ... some research studies evaluating chemoradiotherapy protocols without adjuvant chemotherapy which provided similar results to ... The administration of adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with significant toxicity, with 25-45% of the patients exhibiting ...
Kim TH, Han SS, Park SJ, et al.: Role of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy for resected extrahepatic biliary tract cancer. Int J ... Adjuvant therapy. Chemotherapy. Numerous retrospective series have suggested that adjuvant chemotherapy after complete surgical ... Adjuvant therapy.. Surgery. Intrahepatic bile duct cancer. For intrahepatic bile duct cancers, hepatic resection to achieve ... Among all patients, adjuvant chemotherapy, compared with observation, was not associated with significant OS benefit. However, ...
The long-term effect of adjuvant postoperative chemoradiotherapy for rectal carcinoma on bowel function. Ann Surg 1994;220:676- ... Effective surgical adjuvant therapy for high-risk rectal carcinoma. N Engl J Med 1991;324:709-715. ... Body mass index and outcomes in patients who receive adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 2006;98:1647- ... Oxaliplatin/5FU/LV in adjuvant colon cancer: updated efficacy results of the MOSAIC trial, including survival, with a median ...
Surgery + adjuvant radiotherapy 1. 8%. Attempts to reduce bicycling problems (n = 63) 2:. ... Primary chemo-radiotherapy. 6%. None. 43 (68.3%). Primary radiotherapy. 3%. New bike. 3 (4.8%). ... exclusive or adjuvant radiotherapy, or the incidence of lymphedema. As many of these factors may interact, the creation of ...
Role of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy after endoscopic treatment of early-stage esophageal cancer: a systematic review ...
... surgical resection via trans oral surgery with curative intent and at least unilateral neck dissection OR chemoradiotherapy. ... De-Escalated Adjuvant and Definitive Radiation Therapy Informed by DART 2.0 ctHPV-DNA. * Print details ...
Checkmate 238-adjuvant treatment of patients with completely resected Stage III or Stage IV melanoma; Checkmate 76K-adjuvant ... junction cancer with residual pathologic disease in adult patients who have received neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT). ... OPDIVO® is indicated for the adjuvant treatment of adult and pediatric patients 12 years and older with completely resected ... OPDIVO® (nivolumab), as a single agent, is indicated for the adjuvant treatment of adult patients with urothelial carcinoma (UC ...
... evaluation of supervised aerobic and resistance exercise for patients with glioblastoma undertaking adjuvant chemoradiotherapy ...
... and chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients with resectable pancreatic cancer. ... Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy for unfavorable carcinoma of the ampulla of vater. Arch Surg. 2001;136:65-9. ... Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy and chemotherapy in resectable pancreatic cancer: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2001;358: ... Despite this, adjuvant CT alone has evolved and remains the standard of care in the adjuvant treatment of resectable pancreatic ...
  • The conventional strategy is surgical resection followed by adjuvant radiotherapy with or without concurrent chemotherapy. (centerwatch.com)
  • 8. Adjuvant hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy after curative resection for Dukes C colorectal cancer: a pilot study. (nih.gov)
  • 15. En bloc vascular resection for locally advanced pancreatic malignancies infiltrating major blood vessels: perioperative outcome and long-term survival in 136 patients. (nih.gov)
  • For fit patients, the standard treatment approach is maximal safe resection with adjuvant brain radiation and temozolomide. (hindawi.com)
  • Surgical resection includes cholecystectomy, en bloc hepatic resection (typically of segments IVb and V), and lymphadenectomy with or without bile duct excision, depending on the location of the tumor. (medscape.com)
  • Following R0 resection of T2-4 disease in N1 gallbladder cancer, patients should be considered for adjuvant systemic chemotherapy and/or chemoradiotherapy. (medscape.com)
  • A pathological complete response was seen in the resection specimens from 47 patients (29%) treated with chemoradiotherapy plus surgery. (medscape.com)
  • As for chemoradiotherapy (CRT) after resection, the results have not been positive. (jnccn.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of fluoropyrimidine-based adjuvant chemotherapy for BTC patients undergoing microscopically margin-negative (R0) resection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Patients were eligible if they received either fluoropyrimidine-based adjuvant chemotherapy or observation after R0 resection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fluoropyrimidine-based adjuvant chemotherapy may prolong the survival of patients with stages II and III BTC after R0 resection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A meta-analysis, which included 20 studies with 6712 patients, showed that patients with BTC benefited more from adjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy than from radiotherapy alone, and that the greatest benefit from adjuvant therapy was observed in patients who underwent R1 resection and/or had lymph node-positive disease [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, even in this meta-analysis, the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy for the patients who underwent R1 resection and/or had lymph node-negative disease remains unclear. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The patients who met one of the following criteria were excluded: (1) underwent R1 or macroscopically positive margin (R2) resection, (2) died of surgical complications within 3 months after resection, (3) treated with adjuvant radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy, (4) with another primary cancer at the time of BTC diagnosis, and (5) treated with gemcitabine-based adjuvant chemotherapy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Curative-intent R0 resection was performed in all patients in the present study, and the subsequent adjuvant chemotherapy plan and schedule were decided according to the clinicians' discretion. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Of the 61 patients in the chemoradiotherapy-surgery group who underwent resection and died after having been discharged, 52 (85%) died from recurrent cancer and 9 (15%) from other causes (2 from sepsis, 2 from cardiac failure, 2 from respiratory insufficiency, 1 from kidney failure, 1 from a second primary tumor, and 1 after reconstructive surgery for a persistent postoperative neo-esophagotracheal fistula). (cancer.org)
  • Objective The benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy after definitive chemoradiotherapy in patients with pelvic lymph node-positive cervical cancer has been poorly studied. (bmj.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: The survival benefit of adjuvant radiotherapy and 5-fluorouracil versus observation alone after surgery was investigated in patients with pancreatic head and periampullary cancers. (eur.nl)
  • This study aimed to test the hypothesis that the addition of adjuvant chemotherapy to definitive radiotherapy or concurrent chemoradiotherapy improves survival in patients with pelvic lymph node-positive cervical squamous cell carcinoma. (bmj.com)
  • Methods This retrospective study enrolled patients with stage IB-IVA pelvic lymph node-positive cervical squamous cell carcinoma, without para-aortic lymph node metastases and initially treated with definitive radiotherapy or concurrent chemoradiotherapy between March 2007 and February 2018. (bmj.com)
  • For concurrent chemoradiotherapy, consolidation therapy with durvalumab was established. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Adult patients with newly diagnosed GBM were randomly assigned to receive standard radiotherapy with concurrent daily temozolomide followed by six adjuvant cycles of either dose-dense (150 mg/m(2) days 1 to 7 and 15 to 21) or metronomic (50 mg/m(2) continuous daily) temozolomide. (nih.gov)
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy versus concurrent chemoradiotherapy for high-risk cervical cancer after radical hysterectomy and systematic lymphadenectomy. (researchmap.jp)
  • In the treatment of patients with rectal cancer, improved outcomes have been noted with the use of total mesorectal excision and preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy. (nih.gov)
  • 1-3 Based on several prospective clinical trials that have validated the survival benefit of concurrent chemoradiotherapy over radiotherapy alone 4 or chemotherapy followed by sequential radiotherapy for stage IIIA (N2) NSCLC. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy is not currently a standard option for patients with biliary tract cancer. (medscape.com)
  • The role of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in the treatment of patients with esophageal or esophagogastric-junction cancer has not well established, they explain. (medscape.com)
  • The role of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy has been debated for several decades. (medscape.com)
  • Officials with the FDA have approved nivolumab (Opdivo) as the first and only immunotherapy indicated for the adjuvant treatment of completely resected esophageal or gastroesophageal junction cancer with residual pathologic disease in patients who have received neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT). (pharmacytimes.com)
  • The benefit of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in resectable and borderline resectable pancreatic cancer remains controversial. (fcshemoncreview.com)
  • In this multicenter, phase III trial, patients with resectable and borderline resectable pancreatic cancer were randomly assigned (1:1) to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy or upfront surgery in 16 Dutch centers. (fcshemoncreview.com)
  • Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy consisted of three cycles of gemcitabine combined with 36 Gy radiotherapy in 15 fractions during the second cycle. (fcshemoncreview.com)
  • Between April 24, 2013, and July 25, 2017, 246 eligible patients were randomly assigned to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (n = 119) and upfront surgery (n = 127). (fcshemoncreview.com)
  • Although the difference in median survival was only 1.4 months (15.7 months v 14.3 months), the 5-year OS rate was 20.5% (95% CI, 14.2 to 29.8) with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and 6.5% (95% CI, 3.1 to 13.7) with upfront surgery. (fcshemoncreview.com)
  • The effect of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy was consistent across the prespecified subgroups, including resectable and borderline resectable pancreatic cancer. (fcshemoncreview.com)
  • For example, gastric cancer patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy had significantly decreased skeletal muscle mass, which was an independent risk factor for overall survival rate ( 11 ). (iiarjournals.org)
  • 9. Is postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy useful for gallbladder carcinoma? (nih.gov)
  • Each patient received postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Xeloda (capecitabine) was given as adjuvant chemotherapy postoperatively. (hindawi.com)
  • Dr. Tempero briefly reviewed some of the representative adjuvant therapy clinical trials conducted in pancreatic cancer, focusing primarily on the relatively recent phase III ESPAC-4 trial of gemcitabine/capecitabine 1 and the emerging use of neoadjuvant therapy. (jnccn.org)
  • In the ESPAC-4 trial of patients with resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, adjuvant therapy with gemcitabine/capecitabine yielded a statistically significant improvement in survival compared with gemcitabine monotherapy, with a median OS of 28 months for patients randomized to receive gemcitabine/capecitabine. (jnccn.org)
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy with the regimens of FOLFOX, XELOX or capecitabine alone was performed for patients with lymph node metastasis and those with high-risk microsatellite stable stage II tumors, including patients with perforated tumors, pT4N0 lesions, vascular invasion and/or bowel obstruction ( 13 ), following the NCCN guidelines of colon cancer (Version 3.2022). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Capecitabine and oxaliplatin (CAPOX) and infusional 5-fluouracil, folinic acid, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) are the two chemotherapy regimens in current clinical use for the adjuvant treatment of Stage III CRC. (cfms.org)
  • Patients received either standard preoperative chemoradiotherapy (5FU or capecitabine), surgery, and adjuvant chemotherapy or induction chemotherapy with six cycles of FOLFOX followed by assessment of tumor response: Patients with 20% or greater tumor reduction could proceed to surgery - without radiotherapy - followed by adjuvant chemotherapy, whereas patients with nonresponding tumors received chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. (universimed.com)
  • In the phase 3 NEOCOL trial, patients in Scandinavia with clinical stage T3-4 colon cancer as assessed by computed tomography imaging were randomized to either standard surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy as dictated by surgical pathology or preoperative chemotherapy (3 cycles of capecitabine/oxaliplatin or 4 cycles of mFOLFOX6) followed by surgery, followed by adjuvant chemotherapy as dictated by surgical pathology ( abstract LBA3503 ). (universimed.com)
  • Predictive value of pancreatic dose-volume metrics on sarcopenia rate in gastric cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. (bvsalud.org)
  • To evaluate the relationship of sarcopenia with the pancreatic dose -volume histogram (DVH) in gastric cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) after radical gastrectomy . (bvsalud.org)
  • Appropriated administration of pancreas dose -volume may be conducive to reduce the risk of sarcopenia and improve survival in gastric cancer patients treated with adjuvant CRT. (bvsalud.org)
  • Further prospective studies are needed to provide supportive evidence for the therapeutic efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy. (bmj.com)
  • In conclusion, high Ki67 expression was associated with a good therapeutic outcome in patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy in colon cancer. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Improved Survival After Adjuvant Therapy in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Patients With Pathologic Complete Response. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Adjuvant targeted therapy has again gained increasing interest. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • He then went on to receive adjuvant radiation therapy with a total of 60 Grays divided into 30 fractions during the course of 44 days. (hindawi.com)
  • Adjuvant Therapy in Gastric Cancer: Can We Prevent Recurrences? (cancernetwork.com)
  • FOLFOX adjuvant therapy was administered postoperatively. (hindawi.com)
  • The issues regarding postoperative adjuvant therapy and prognostic risk factors for patients with stage I-II cervical cancer: A review. (researchmap.jp)
  • Current randomized clinical trials in the adjuvant therapy of colorectal cancer are examining the value of adding agents known to be active in metastatic disease, including those that modify specific molecular targets. (nih.gov)
  • Surgery is the primary therapy for localized gastric cancer, but even with the best results only 40% 5-year survival can be achieved with the use of postoperative adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. (scirp.org)
  • 1 A historical glance at the past 30 years of adjuvant therapy in this disease reveals little difference between regimens in overall survival (OS), until this past year, noted Dr. Tempero. (jnccn.org)
  • 1 As a result of these findings, "this regimen has now entered our guidelines as an important option for adjuvant therapy," she reported. (jnccn.org)
  • Placing these findings into perspective, Dr. Tempero indicated that adjuvant therapy works, and oncologists can build on the use of gemcitabine and optimally administered fluorouracil (5-FU). (jnccn.org)
  • In the up-front surgery group, 27% of patients were deemed not to require adjuvant therapy. (universimed.com)
  • This trial adds to the controversy about the role of preoperative therapy in colon cancer, with the results suggesting that a significant percentage of patients are clinically over-staged and may not require adjuvant chemotherapy at all. (universimed.com)
  • Administering chemotherapy (chemo), either alone or with radiation therapy (chemoradiation), after surgery (known as treatment adjuvants) can help some patients live longer. (canceroz.com)
  • Conclusions Most women require adjuvant treatment after surgery because of positive lymph nodes. (bmj.com)
  • One of the questions that remains about treatment in this setting, note the authors, is whether or not esophageal and esophagogastric-junction tumors should be treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy or with perioperative chemotherapy. (medscape.com)
  • Two trials - the Medical Research Council Adjuvant Gastric Infusional Chemotherapy (MAGIC) trial and the Actions Concertées dans les Cancer Colorectaux et Digestifs (ACCORD) 07 trial - found that perioperative chemotherapy provides better outcomes, the authors report. (medscape.com)
  • Although perioperative chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy have been investigated for borderline resectable pancreatic cancer, the effectiveness of preoperative treatment has not been sufficiently proven. (go.jp)
  • Neoadjuvant gemcitabine-based chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery and adjuvant gemcitabine improves OS compared with upfront surgery and adjuvant gemcitabine in resectable and borderline resectable pancreatic cancer. (fcshemoncreview.com)
  • In that trial, patients with esophagogastric-junction tumors were randomly assigned to preoperative chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. (medscape.com)
  • Adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy in the "sandwich" method for high risk endometrial cancer has been described consisting of initial chemotherapy of limited duration, followed by radiotherapy, and then subsequent consolidation chemotherapy again (CRC). (medscape.com)
  • We made a systematic review about the adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy in the "sandwich" method for high risk endometrial cancer after surgery to help clinicians in identifying the most effective adjuvant treatment for patients with high risks. (medscape.com)
  • 14. Adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy in ampullary cancers. (nih.gov)
  • The initiative will support several individual research programs for in vivo and in vitro testing of investigational anti-tumor drugs as adjuvants to chemo-radiotherapy. (nih.gov)
  • SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: A previous study of adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy in these cancers by the Gastrointestinal Tract Cancer Cooperative Group of EORTC has been followed by other studies with conflicting results. (eur.nl)
  • Treatments were grouped in seven categories: RT alone (RT), induction CT followed by RT (IC-RT), RT followed by adjuvant CT (RT-AC), IC followed by RT followed by AC (IC-RT-AC), concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CRT), IC followed by CRT (IC-CRT), and CRT followed by AC (CRT-AC). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The CONKO-001 trial by Oettle et al 2 showed that, with a median OS of 22.8 months, gemcitabine delayed the development of recurrent disease versus observation alone, when used as adjuvant treatment. (jnccn.org)
  • Optimal regimen is unknown as studies with other options such as Folfirinox, gemcitabine/albumin-bound paclitaxel are needed, post chemoradiotherapy. (fcshemoncreview.com)
  • After restaging, patients underwent surgery followed by four cycles of adjuvant gemcitabine. (fcshemoncreview.com)
  • Patients in the upfront surgery group underwent surgery followed by six cycles of adjuvant gemcitabine. (fcshemoncreview.com)
  • Systemic adjuvant treatment includes chemotherapy and radiotherapy. (medscape.com)
  • Methods: A total of 138 patients were en-rolled, T2-weighted MR images and clinical information of the patients before treatment were collected. (authorea.com)
  • Of these, 42 patients received a median of two cycles (range, 1-6) of adjuvant chemotherapy and 117 patients under observation after primary treatment. (bmj.com)
  • Stefanie C. Fischer, MD , of Manchester Cancer Research Centre and The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, discusses an international retrospective analysis of the rare clinical scenario of men relapsing after adjuvant treatment with bleomycin/etoposide/cisplatin for clinical stage I nonseminoma (Abstract 510). (ascopost.com)
  • He then received standard postsurgical adjuvant treatment for glioblastoma. (hindawi.com)
  • The goal of this randomized phase II study was to evaluate two different temozolomide regimens in the adjuvant treatment of newly diagnosed GBM. (nih.gov)
  • For patients with Stage III colon cancer, an overall survival benefit for fluorouracil-based chemotherapy has been firmly established, and recent data have shown further efficacy through the inclusion of oxaliplatin into adjuvant treatment programs. (nih.gov)
  • I think that for patients with esophageal cancer, the combined modality treatment (i.e., preoperative chemoradiotherapy) can be a standard of care. (medscape.com)
  • The chemoradiotherapy was associated with a low frequency of high-grade toxic effects and could be given as an outpatient treatment," they write. (medscape.com)
  • routine use of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy is not warranted as standard treatment in cancer of the head of the pancreas or periampullary region. (eur.nl)
  • Because it is difficult to cure redsecttable pancreatic cancer by surgery alone, multidisciplinary treatment combined with perioperative adjuvant chemotherapy is the current standard of care. (go.jp)
  • Nivolumab as an adjuvant is indicated for the treatment of urothelial carcinoma. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
  • Thirty-two women (34.8%) had disease recurrence: 6 women (16.7%) in the group undergoing surgery alone, 15 women (48.4%) in the group requiring adjuvant treatment after surgery, and 11 women (44%) in the group having primary radiotherapy/chemoradiotherapy. (bmj.com)
  • Overall survival and PFS were higher for women undergoing surgery alone (91.7% and 83.3%) compared with women requiring adjuvant treatment after surgery (54.8% and 51.4%) and those having primary radiotherapy/chemoradiotherapy (60% and 56%) ( P = 0.0004 and P = 0.005, respectively). (bmj.com)
  • Because survival outcomes for women requiring dual treatment are similar to those for women undergoing primary chemoradiotherapy, nodal assessment before definitive treatment should guide the management of these women and identify a low-risk group that can be treated with surgery alone. (bmj.com)
  • Patients were classified into the adjuvant chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil or paclitaxel, plus cisplatin) and no-adjuvant chemotherapy groups. (bmj.com)
  • Our regimen is well tolerated but not tested against, for example, chemoradiotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil," he told Medscape Medical News in an email. (medscape.com)
  • The use of neodjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy will likely increase overtime, as systemic options improve, even in pancreatic cancer. (fcshemoncreview.com)
  • Only 9.1% of patients in the FOLFOX arm required chemoradiotherapy, and an additional 1.4% received postoperative chemoradiotherapy. (universimed.com)
  • Given the high recurrence rate of BTC, adjuvant chemotherapy is usually administered in clinical practice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 5,6 However, stage IIIA (N2) NSCLC patients have heterogeneous disease presentation, 7 the value of postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy(PORT) for completely resected NSCLC remains controversial, as the effect on survival has been inconclusive. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • The 3-year rates of progression-free survival, overall survival, local control, and distant metastasis-free survival in the adjuvant chemotherapy and no-adjuvant chemotherapy groups were 80.2% and 60.4% (P=0.07), 83.0% and 63.7% (P=0.17), 94.0% and 81.9% (P=0.12), and 85.9% and 60.1% (P=0.04), respectively. (bmj.com)
  • Discussion Adjuvant chemotherapy significantly improved 3-year distant metastasis-free survival in patients with pelvic lymph node-positive cervical squamous cell carcinoma. (bmj.com)
  • Primary malignant melanoma of uterine cervix treated with pembrolizumab as adjuvant immunotherapy. (researchmap.jp)
  • A total of 312 consecutive patients with stage I‑III colon cancer who underwent radical surgery with or without adjuvant chemotherapy were included in the present study. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Results Sixty-seven women (72.8%) underwent primary surgery, and 25 women (27.2%) had primary radiotherapy/chemoradiotherapy. (bmj.com)
  • For patients with Stage II colon cancer, the use of adjuvant chemotherapy remains controversial, but may be appropriate in a subset of individuals at high risk for disease recurrence. (nih.gov)
  • Adjuvant radiotherapy in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains controversial,Whether the mutation status of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) will affect the recurrence and survival of patients with resected NSCLC is rarely reported. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • In the entire patient cohort, no significant differences were observed in 5-year overall survival (OS) rates (48.4% vs. 39.6%, P = 0.439) or 3-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates (49.1% vs. 39.5%, P = 0.299) between patients who received fluoropyrimidine-based adjuvant chemotherapy or observation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Who Benefits the Most From Adjuvant Durvalumab After Chemoradiotherapy for Non-small Cell Lung Cancer? (elsevierpure.com)
  • 50%) was associated with improved DFS in patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy postoperatively, but not in patients who received surgery alone (P=0.138). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Brian C. Baumann, MD , of Washington University School of Medicine, discusses phase III study findings on adjuvant sequential chemotherapy plus radiotherapy vs adjuvant radiotherapy alone for locally advanced bladder cancer after radical cystectomy (Abstract 351). (ascopost.com)
  • Radical surgery was performed in all patients with or without adjuvant chemotherapy. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Objective Both radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy and primary chemoradiotherapy have been shown to be effective in the management of women with stage IB2 cervical cancer. (bmj.com)
  • The chemoradiotherapy approach, which featured carboplatin and paclitaxel, should be considered by other oncologists, suggested Dr. van der Gaast. (medscape.com)
  • Current information on the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy on BTC mostly comes from single-arm or retrospective studies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with R0-resected BTC. (biomedcentral.com)
  • May 30, 2012 - Preoperative chemoradiotherapy dramatically improved survival in patients with potentially curable esophageal or esophagogastric-junction cancer, according to a 366-patient randomized trial. (medscape.com)
  • Complete remission in both the primary tumor and the lymph nodes (ypT0N0) was the best possible pathological outcome of chemoradiotherapy. (cancer.org)
  • Median overall survival was 49.4 months with chemoradiotherapy plus surgery (n = 178) and 24.0 months with surgery alone (n = 188), report the authors, led by Ate van der Gaast, MD, from Erasmus University Medical Center in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. (medscape.com)
  • At a median follow-up of 34.2 months for the postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy (PORT) group and 31.0 months for the non-PORT group, PORT group significantly improved progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (ucdenver.edu)
  • 10. [Comparing the effect of adjuvant chemotherapy by portal vein infusion with intraluminal chemotherapy for colorectal cancer]. (nih.gov)
  • Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy was administrated postoperatively and included FOLFIRI (5-FU, leucovorin and irinotecan) as well as pelvic radiation due to positive colonic margins. (hindawi.com)
  • Thirty-one of 67 women (46.3%) required adjuvant radiotherapy/chemoradiotherapy after surgery because of positive lymph nodes in 77.4% of cases. (bmj.com)
  • According to a study by Neoptolemos et al, 3 adjuvant chemotherapy was linked to a significant surgical benefit in this setting, but adjuvant CRT had a "deleterious effect" on survival. (jnccn.org)
  • Another option might be to have surgery first, followed by adjuvant chemotherapy (and possibly radiation). (canceroz.com)