Chemoprevention: The use of chemical compounds to prevent the development of a specific disease.Anticarcinogenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.Sulindac: A sulfinylindene derivative prodrug whose sulfinyl moiety is converted in vivo to an active NSAID analgesic. Specifically, the prodrug is converted by liver enzymes to a sulfide which is excreted in the bile and then reabsorbed from the intestine. This helps to maintain constant blood levels with reduced gastrointestinal side effects.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Isothiocyanates: Organic compounds with the general formula R-NCS.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Eflornithine: An inhibitor of ORNITHINE DECARBOXYLASE, the rate limiting enzyme of the polyamine biosynthetic pathway.Isotretinoin: A topical dermatologic agent that is used in the treatment of ACNE VULGARIS and several other skin diseases. The drug has teratogenic and other adverse effects.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Catechin: An antioxidant flavonoid, occurring especially in woody plants as both (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin (cis) forms.Azoxymethane: A potent carcinogen and neurotoxic compound. It is particularly effective in inducing colon carcinomas.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Tea: The infusion of leaves of CAMELLIA SINENSIS (formerly Thea sinensis) as a beverage, the familiar Asian tea, which contains CATECHIN (especially epigallocatechin gallate) and CAFFEINE.Retinoids: A group of tetraterpenes, with four terpene units joined head-to-tail. Biologically active members of this class are used clinically in the treatment of severe cystic ACNE; PSORIASIS; and other disorders of keratinization.Polyphenols: A large class of organic compounds having more than one PHENOL group.Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors: A subclass of cyclooxygenase inhibitors with specificity for CYCLOOXYGENASE-2.Etretinate: An oral retinoid used in the treatment of keratotic genodermatosis, lichen planus, and psoriasis. Beneficial effects have also been claimed in the prophylaxis of epithelial neoplasia. The compound may be teratogenic.Curcumin: A yellow-orange dye obtained from tumeric, the powdered root of CURCUMA longa. It is used in the preparation of curcuma paper and the detection of boron. Curcumin appears to possess a spectrum of pharmacological properties, due primarily to its inhibitory effects on metabolic enzymes.Leukoplakia: A white patch lesion found on a MUCOUS MEMBRANE that cannot be scraped off. Leukoplakia is generally considered a precancerous condition, however its appearance may also result from a variety of HEREDITARY DISEASES.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Chlorophyllides: Products of the hydrolysis of chlorophylls in which the phytic acid side chain has been removed and the carboxylic acids saponified.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Tamoxifen: One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.Fenretinide: A synthetic retinoid that is used orally as a chemopreventive against prostate cancer and in women at risk of developing contralateral breast cancer. It is also effective as an antineoplastic agent.Cyclooxygenase 2: An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.Organoselenium Compounds: Organic compounds which contain selenium as an integral part of the molecule.Piroxicam: A cyclooxygenase inhibiting, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that is well established in treating rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis and used for musculoskeletal disorders, dysmenorrhea, and postoperative pain. Its long half-life enables it to be administered once daily.Thiocyanates: Organic derivatives of thiocyanic acid which contain the general formula R-SCN.Pyrazoles: Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.Raloxifene: A second generation selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) used to prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. It has estrogen agonist effects on bone and cholesterol metabolism but behaves as a complete estrogen antagonist on mammary gland and uterine tissue.Finasteride: An orally active 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE inhibitor. It is used as a surgical alternative for treatment of benign PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA.Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators: A structurally diverse group of compounds distinguished from ESTROGENS by their ability to bind and activate ESTROGEN RECEPTORS but act as either an agonist or antagonist depending on the tissue type and hormonal milieu. They are classified as either first generation because they demonstrate estrogen agonist properties in the ENDOMETRIUM or second generation based on their patterns of tissue specificity. (Horm Res 1997;48:155-63)Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Silymarin: A mixture of flavonoids extracted from seeds of the MILK THISTLE, Silybum marianum. It consists primarily of silybin and its isomers, silicristin and silidianin. Silymarin displays antioxidant and membrane stabilizing activity. It protects various tissues and organs against chemical injury, and shows potential as an antihepatoxic agent.Methylnitrosourea: A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Punicaceae: A plant family of the order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida that is a small family with a single genus.9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene: 7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in tobacco smoke that is a potent carcinogen.Adenomatous Polyposis Coli: A polyposis syndrome due to an autosomal dominant mutation of the APC genes (GENES, APC) on CHROMOSOME 5. The syndrome is characterized by the development of hundreds of ADENOMATOUS POLYPS in the COLON and RECTUM of affected individuals by early adulthood.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Sulfonamides: A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.Antimutagenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced mutations independently of the mechanism involved.Selenium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain selenium as an integral part of the molecule.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Rats, Inbred F344Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE. They are commonly used to reduce the production of DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE.Anethole Trithione: Choleretic used to allay dry mouth and constipation due to tranquilizers.4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide: A potent mutagen and carcinogen. This compound and its metabolite 4-HYDROXYAMINOQUINOLINE-1-OXIDE bind to nucleic acids. It inactivates bacteria but not bacteriophage.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Chalcones: Compounds based on CHALCONE. They are important intermediates in the formation of FLAVONOIDS.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.beta Carotene: A carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC). (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.)Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Azasteroids: Steroidal compounds in which one or more carbon atoms in the steroid ring system have been substituted with nitrogen atoms.Selenomethionine: Diagnostic aid in pancreas function determination.Mouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Aspirin: The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Intestinal Polyps: Discrete abnormal tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the INTESTINE. A polyp is attached to the intestinal wall either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Selenium: An element with the atomic symbol Se, atomic number 34, and atomic weight 78.96. It is an essential micronutrient for mammals and other animals but is toxic in large amounts. Selenium protects intracellular structures against oxidative damage. It is an essential component of GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Tertiary Prevention: Measures aimed at providing appropriate supportive and rehabilitative services to minimize morbidity and maximize quality of life after a long-term disease or injury is present.Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases: Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.Nitrosamines: A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.Intestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.Respiratory Tract NeoplasmsCell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Garlic: One of the Liliaceae used as a spice (SPICES) and traditional remedy. It contains alliin lyase and alliin, which is converted by alliin lyase to allicin, the pungent ingredient responsible for the aroma of fresh cut garlic.PolyaminesFlavonoids: A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.Aberrant Crypt Foci: Clusters of colonic crypts that appear different from the surrounding mucosa when visualized after staining. They are of interest as putative precursors to colorectal adenomas and potential biomarkers for colorectal carcinoma.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Stilbenes: Organic compounds that contain 1,2-diphenylethylene as a functional group.Leukoplakia, Oral: A white patch seen on the oral mucosa. It is considered a premalignant condition and is often tobacco-induced. When evidence of Epstein-Barr virus is present, the condition is called hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).Carotenoids: The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.Hesperidin: A flavanone glycoside found in CITRUS fruit peels.Ornithine Decarboxylase: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein, believed to be the rate-limiting compound in the biosynthesis of polyamines. It catalyzes the decarboxylation of ornithine to form putrescine, which is then linked to a propylamine moiety of decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine to form spermidine.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Benzo(a)pyrene: A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.Milk Thistle: The plant Silybum marianum in the family ASTERACEAE containing the bioflavonoid complex SILYMARIN. For centuries this has been used traditionally to treat liver disease. Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. = Carduus marianus L.Allyl CompoundsCell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Carcinoma, Basal Cell: A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)Urethane: Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Aflatoxin B1: A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed meal, corn, and other grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites aflatoxin M1 and Q1.Keratosis: Any horny growth such as a wart or callus.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Biflavonoids: Dimers (homo and hetero) of FLAVONOIDS.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Keratosis, Actinic: White or pink lesions on the arms, hands, face, or scalp that arise from sun-induced DNA DAMAGE to KERATINOCYTES in exposed areas. They are considered precursor lesions to superficial SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA.Vitamin A: Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.NF-E2-Related Factor 2: A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that was originally described as a transcriptional regulator controlling expression of the BETA-GLOBIN gene. It may regulate the expression of a wide variety of genes that play a role in protecting cells from oxidative damage.Tretinoin: An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).Acitretin: An oral retinoid effective in the treatment of psoriasis. It is the major metabolite of ETRETINATE with the advantage of a much shorter half-life when compared with etretinate.Camellia sinensis: Camellia sinensis L. (formerly Thea sinensis) is an evergreen Asiatic shrub of the THEACEAE family. The infusion of leaves of this plant is used as Oriental TEA which contains CAFFEINE; THEOPHYLLINE; and epigallocatechin gallate.Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.DNA Adducts: The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.Mouth Mucosa: Lining of the ORAL CAVITY, including mucosa on the GUMS; the PALATE; the LIP; the CHEEK; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations.Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal: Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)Mesalamine: An anti-inflammatory agent, structurally related to the SALICYLATES, which is active in INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE. It is considered to be the active moiety of SULPHASALAZINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed)Markov Chains: A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.Genes, APC: Tumor suppressor genes located in the 5q21 region on the long arm of human chromosome 5. The mutation of these genes is associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI) and GARDNER SYNDROME, as well as some sporadic colorectal cancers.Oleanolic Acid: A pentacyclic triterpene that occurs widely in many PLANTS as the free acid or the aglycone for many SAPONINS. It is biosynthesized from lupane. It can rearrange to the isomer, ursolic acid, or be oxidized to taraxasterol and amyrin.Colonic Polyps: Discrete tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the COLON. These POLYPS are connected to the wall of the colon either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase (Quinone): A flavoprotein that reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of NADH or NADPH by various quinones and oxidation-reduction dyes. The enzyme is inhibited by dicoumarol, capsaicin, and caffeine.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Mice, Inbred AChalconeCactaceae: The cactus plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. Cacti are succulent perennial plants well adapted to dry regions.Cheek: The part of the face that is below the eye and to the side of the nose and mouth.Apigenin: 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-flavone, one of the FLAVONES.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Genistein: An isoflavonoid derived from soy products. It inhibits PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE and topoisomerase-II (DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE II); activity and is used as an antineoplastic and antitumor agent. Experimentally, it has been shown to induce G2 PHASE arrest in human and murine cell lines and inhibits PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE.Tongue Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TONGUE.Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Diosmin: A bioflavonoid that strengthens vascular walls.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Terpenes: A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.Papilloma: A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Vitamin E: A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.Bronchial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BRONCHI.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Quercetin: A flavonol widely distributed in plants. It is an antioxidant, like many other phenolic heterocyclic compounds. Glycosylated forms include RUTIN and quercetrin.Prunella: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE. Members contain TRITERPENES. Heal all is another common name.Dinoprostone: The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.HT29 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells such as the GOBLET CELLS.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Alcohol Abstinence: Non-consumption of ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Cyclin D1: Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.TriterpenesEsophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Pentacyclic Triterpenes: Five-ring derivatives of dammarane having a chair-chair-chair-boat configuration. They include the lupanes, oleananes, amyrins, GLYCYRRHIZIC ACID, and soyasaponins.Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.1,2-Dimethylhydrazine: A DNA alkylating agent that has been shown to be a potent carcinogen and is widely used to induce colon tumors in experimental animals.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.OcimumDisease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Interdisciplinary Studies: Programs of study which span the traditional boundaries of academic scholarship.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Rosaceae: The rose plant family in the order ROSALES and class Magnoliopsida. They are generally woody plants. A number of the species of this family contain cyanogenic compounds.Estrogen Receptor Modulators: Substances that possess antiestrogenic actions but can also produce estrogenic effects as well. They act as complete or partial agonist or as antagonist. They can be either steroidal or nonsteroidal in structure.Neoplasms, Second Primary: Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Sulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Metabolic Detoxication, Phase II: The conjugation of exogenous substances with various hydrophilic substituents to form water soluble products that are excretable in URINE. Phase II modifications include GLUTATHIONE conjugation; ACYLATION; and AMINATION. Phase II enzymes include GLUTATHIONE TRANSFERASE and GLUCURONOSYLTRANSFERASE. In a sense these reactions detoxify phase I reaction products.Sodium Selenite: The disodium salt of selenious acid. It is used therapeutically to supply the trace element selenium and is prepared by the reaction of SELENIUM DIOXIDE with SODIUM HYDROXIDE.Benzopyrenes: A class of chemicals that contain an anthracene ring with a naphthalene ring attached to it.Ursodeoxycholic Acid: An epimer of chenodeoxycholic acid. It is a mammalian bile acid found first in the bear and is apparently either a precursor or a product of chenodeoxycholate. Its administration changes the composition of bile and may dissolve gallstones. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.Acetylcysteine: The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.Metaplasia: A condition in which there is a change of one adult cell type to another similar adult cell type.Azadirachta: A plant genus of the family MELIACEAE. Members contain azadirachtin A (a limonoid commonly referred to as azadirachtin) and other TRITERPENES. They have been used in PESTICIDES. The old name of Melia azadirachta is very similar to a related plant, MELIA AZEDARACH.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Barrett Esophagus: A condition with damage to the lining of the lower ESOPHAGUS resulting from chronic acid reflux (ESOPHAGITIS, REFLUX). Through the process of metaplasia, the squamous cells are replaced by a columnar epithelium with cells resembling those of the INTESTINE or the salmon-pink mucosa of the STOMACH. Barrett's columnar epithelium is a marker for severe reflux and precursor to ADENOCARCINOMA of the esophagus.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Trypsin Inhibitor, Bowman-Birk Soybean: A low-molecular-weight protein (minimum molecular weight 8000) which has the ability to inhibit trypsin as well as chymotrypsin at independent binding sites. It is characterized by a high cystine content and the absence of glycine.PyrazinesAromatase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit AROMATASE in order to reduce production of estrogenic steroid hormones.Adenomatous Polyps: Benign neoplasms derived from glandular epithelium. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Primary Prevention: Specific practices for the prevention of disease or mental disorders in susceptible individuals or populations. These include HEALTH PROMOTION, including mental health; protective procedures, such as COMMUNICABLE DISEASE CONTROL; and monitoring and regulation of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS. Primary prevention is to be distinguished from SECONDARY PREVENTION and TERTIARY PREVENTION.Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Annexin A4: Protein of the annexin family originally isolated from the electric organ of the electric ray Torpedo marmorata. It has been found in a wide range of mammalian tissue where it is localized to the apical membrane of polarized EPITHELIAL CELLS.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Carcinoma in Situ: A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.Cyanates: Organic salts of cyanic acid containing the -OCN radical.Isoflavones: 3-Phenylchromones. Isomeric form of FLAVONOIDS in which the benzene group is attached to the 3 position of the benzopyran ring instead of the 2 position.Monoterpenes: Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).Estrogen Antagonists: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the action or biosynthesis of estrogenic compounds.Receptors, Retinoic Acid: Proteins in the nucleus or cytoplasm that specifically bind RETINOIC ACID or RETINOL and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Retinoic acid receptors, like steroid receptors, are ligand-activated transcription regulators. Several types have been recognized.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Delphinium: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain ACONITINE and other diterpenoid alkaloids.Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced: Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Digestive System Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Polyglycolic Acid: A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.

Differential responses of normal, premalignant, and malignant human bronchial epithelial cells to receptor-selective retinoids. (1/1034)

Using an in vitro lung carcinogenesis model consisting of normal, premalignant, and malignant human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells, we analyzed the growth inhibitory effects of 26 novel synthetic retinoic acid receptor (RAR)- and retinoid X receptor (RXR)-selective retinoids. RAR-selective retinoids such as CD271, CD437, CD2325, and SR11364 showed potent activity in inhibiting the growth of either normal or premalignant and malignant HBE cells (IC50s mostly <1 microM) and were much more potent than RXR-selective retinoids. Nonetheless, the combination of RAR- and RXR-selective retinoids exhibited additive effects in HBE cells. As the HBE cells became progressively more malignant, they exhibited decreased or lost sensitivity to many retinoids. The activity of the RAR-selective retinoids, with the exception of the most potent retinoid, CD437, could be suppressed by an RAR panantagonist. These results suggest that: (a) RAR/RXR heterodimers play an important role in mediating the growth inhibitory effects of most retinoids in HBE cells; (b) CD437 may act through an RAR-independent pathway; (c) some of the RAR-selective retinoids may have the potential to be used in the clinic as chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents for lung cancer; and (d) early stages of lung carcinogenesis may be responsive targets for chemoprevention by retinoids, as opposed to later stages.  (+info)

KRAS mutations predict progression of preneoplastic gastric lesions. (2/1034)

Eight hundred sixty-three subjects with atrophic gastritis were recruited to participate in an ongoing chemoprevention trial in Narino, Colombia. The participants were randomly assigned to intervention therapies, which included treatment to eradicate Helicobacter pylori infection followed by daily dietary supplementation with antioxidant micronutrients in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design. A series of biopsies of gastric mucosa were obtained according to a specified protocol from designated locations in the stomach for each participant at baseline (before intervention therapy) and at year three. A systematic sample of 160 participants was selected from each of the eight treatment combinations. DNA was isolated from each of these biopsies (n = 320), and the first exon of KRAS was amplified using PCR. Mutations in the KRAS gene were detected using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and confirmed by sequence analysis. Of all baseline biopsies, 14.4% (23 of 160) contained KRAS mutations. Among those participants with atrophic gastritis without metaplasia, 19.4% (6 of 25) contained KRAS mutations, indicating that mutation of this important gene is likely an early event in the etiology of gastric carcinoma. An important association was found between the presence of KRAS mutations in baseline biopsies and the progression of preneoplastic lesions. Only 14.6% (20 of 137) of participants without baseline KRAS mutations progressed from atrophic gastritis to intestinal metaplasia or from small intestinal metaplasia to colonic metaplasia; however, 39.1% (9 of 23) with baseline KRAS mutations progressed to a more advanced lesion after 3 years [univariate odds ratio (OR), 3.76 (P = 0.05); multivariate OR adjusted for treatment, 3.74 (P = 0.04)]. In addition, the specificity of the KRAS mutation predicted progression. For those participants with G-->T transversions at position 1 of codon 12 (GGT-->TGT), 19.4% (5 of 17) progressed (univariate OR, 2.4); however, 60.0% (3 of 5) of participants with G-->A transitions at position 1 of codon 12 (GGT-->AGT) progressed (univariate OR, 8.7; P = 0.004 using chi2 test).  (+info)

Disorders in cell circuitry associated with multistage carcinogenesis: exploitable targets for cancer prevention and therapy. (3/1034)

The development of a malignant tumor involves the progressive acquisition of mutations and epigenetic abnormalities in multiple genes that have highly diverse functions. Some of these genes code for pathways of signal transduction that mediate the action of growth factors. The enzyme protein kinase C plays an important role in these events and in the process of tumor promotion. Therefore, we examined the effects of three inhibitors of protein kinase C, CGP 41251, RO 31-8220, and calphostin C, on human glioblastoma cells. These compounds inhibited growth and induced apoptosis; these activities were associated with a decrease in the level of CDC2 and cyclin B1/CDC2-associated kinase activity. This may explain why the treated cells accumulated in G2-M. In a separate series of studies, we examined abnormalities in cell cycle control genes in human cancer. We have found that cyclin D1 is frequently overexpressed in a variety of human cancers. Mechanistic studies indicate that cyclin D1 can play a critical role in carcinogenesis because: overexpression enhances cell transformation and tumorigenesis; introduction of an antisense cyclin D1 cDNA into either human esophageal or colon cancer cells reverts their malignant phenotype; and overexpression of cyclin D1 can enhance the amplification of other genes. The latter finding suggests that cyclin D1 can enhance genomic instability and, thereby, the process of tumor progression. Therefore, inhibitors of the function of cyclin D1 may be useful in both cancer chemoprevention and therapy. We obtained evidence for the existence of homeostatic feedback loops between cyclins D1 or E and the cell cycle inhibitory protein p27Kip1. On the basis of these and other findings, we hypothesize that, because of their disordered circuitry, cancer cells suffer from "gene addiction" and "gene hypersensitivity," disorders that might be exploited in both cancer prevention and therapy.  (+info)

Determination of an optimal dosing regimen for aspirin chemoprevention of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon tumours in rats. (4/1034)

In order to establish an optimal timing and duration of aspirin treatment in the chemoprevention of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon cancer in rats, colon tumours were induced using an established protocol and aspirin was given in the diet at 500 p.p.m. during various stages of colon carcinogenesis. Results indicate that only aspirin treatment throughout the entire carcinogenic period significantly reduced tumour incidence and volume whereas intermittent aspirin dosing increased tumour number and/or volume, suggesting that aspirin must be used for an extended period in order to gain any chemopreventive benefit.  (+info)

Evaluation of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) for cancer chemoprevention: lack of efficacy against nascent adenomatous polyps in the Apc(Min) mouse. (5/1034)

Recent experimental and epidemiological evidence suggests that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are effective in the prevention of colorectal cancer. However, the toxicity associated with the long-term use of most classical NSAIDs has limited their usefulness for the purpose of cancer chemoprevention. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, in particular, are sensitive to the adverse side effects of NSAIDs, and these patients also have an increased risk for the development of intestinal cancer. 5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is an anti-inflammatory drug commonly used in the treatment of IBD and may provide protection against the development of colorectal cancer in these patients. To directly evaluate the ability of 5-ASA to suppress intestinal tumors, we studied several formulations of 5-ASA (free acid, sulfasalazine, and Pentasa) at multiple oral dosage levels [500, 2400, 4800, and 9600 parts/million (ppm)] in the adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) mouse model of multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min). Although the ApcMin mouse is not a model of colitis-associated neoplasia, it is, nonetheless, a useful model for assessing the ability of anti-inflammatory agents to prevent tumor formation in a genetically preinitiated population of cells. We used a study design in which drug was provided ad libitum through the diet beginning at the time of weaning (28 days of age) until 100 days of age. We included 200 ppm of piroxicam and 160 ppm of sulindac as positive controls, and the negative control was AIN-93G diet alone. Treatment with either piroxicam or sulindac produced statistically significant reductions in intestinal tumor multiplicity (95% and 83% reductions in tumor number, respectively; P < 0.001 versus controls). By contrast, none of the 5-ASA drug formulations or dosage levels produced consistent dose-progressive changes in polyp number, distribution, or size, despite high luminal and serum concentrations of 5-ASA and its primary metabolite N-acetyl-5-ASA. Thus, 5-ASA does not seem to possess direct chemosuppressive activity against the development of nascent intestinal adenomas in the ApcMin mouse. However, because intestinal tumor development in the ApcMin mouse is driven by a germline mutation in the Apc gene rather than by chronic inflammation, we caution that these findings do not definitively exclude the possibility that 5-ASA may exert a chemopreventive effect in human IBD patients.  (+info)

Should we be doing more to prevent Group C meningococcal infection in school age children? How can we decide? (6/1034)

Meningococcal Group C infections are potentially preventable by vaccination in most cases. Population immunization has not been adopted because the disease is rare and the vaccine effective for only about three years. However, the recent rise in cases in school age children has prompted an assessment of the cost-effectiveness of alternative strategies for management of a case of Group C infection. Chemoprophylaxis and vaccination of close contacts is the most cost-effective strategy but will prevent relatively few cases. Population vaccination prevents considerably more cases, but at a much higher total and marginal cost. An intermediate strategy of giving antibiotics to and vaccinating the school population following a single case, in addition to contact tracing, has intermediate cost-effectiveness. Policy decisions will take into account other important factors but the approach we have taken makes explicit key assumptions so that wider debate including profession and public can be developed.  (+info)

Chemoprevention of tobacco smoke-induced lung tumors in A/J strain mice with dietary myo-inositol and dexamethasone. (7/1034)

Male A/J strain mice were fed AIN-76A diet supplemented with myo-inositol/dexamethasone (10 g and 0.5 mg/kg diet) or acetylsalicylic acid (300 mg/kg) and exposed for 5 months to a mixture of sidestream and mainstream cigarette smoke at a concentration of 132 mg total suspended particulates/m3. After tobacco smoke exposure, they were allowed to recover for another 4 months in filtered air. In the animals fed AIN-75A diet alone or acetylsalicylic acid, the average number of tumors/lung was 2.1, whereas in the animals given the myo-inositol/dexamethasone diet, the average lung tumor multiplicity was 1.0 (P < 0.05). In animals exposed to filtered air, lung tumor multiplicities were 0.6 for animals fed AIN-76A or myo-inositol/dexamethasone and 1.2 for animals fed acetylsalicylic acid. It was concluded that the combination of myo-inositol and dexamethasone constitutes an effective chemopreventive regimen against tobacco smoke-induced lung tumorigenesis.  (+info)

Retinoids: present role and future potential. (8/1034)

Vitamin A and its biologically active derivatives, retinal and retinoic acid (RA), together with a large repertoire of synthetic analogues are collectively referred to as retinoids. Naturally occurring retinoids regulate the growth and differentiation of a wide variety of cell types and play a crucial role in the physiology of vision and as morphogenic agents during embryonic development. Retinoids and their analogues have been evaluated as chemoprevention agents, and also in the management of acute promyelocytic leukaemia. Retinoids exert most of their effects by binding to specific receptors and modulating gene expression. The development of new active retinoids and the identification of two distinct families of retinoid receptors has led to an increased understanding of the cellular effects of activation of these receptors. In this article we review the use of retinoids in chemoprevention strategies, discuss the cellular consequences of activated retinoid receptors, and speculate on how our increasing understanding of retinoid-induced signalling pathways may contribute to future therapeutic strategies in the management of malignant disease.  (+info)

*Clinical Lung Cancer

... chemoprevention strategies; multimodality therapy; and integration of various approaches. The journal publishes editorials, ...

*Clinical Colorectal Cancer

... chemoprevention strategies; multimodality therapy; and integration of various approaches. Clinical Colorectal Cancer is indexed ...

*Gary H. Posner

Cancer Chemoprevention. 1: 259-274. doi:10.1007/978-1-59259-767-3_17. ISBN 978-1-61737-342-8. O'Neill, Paul M.; Posner, Gary H ...

*Marc Micozzi

Chemoprevention of cancer. Implications for clinical pharmacology (1985) with Boone, C.W., Kelloff, G.A., Tangrea, J.A., ...

*Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2

Saba N, Jain S, Khuri F (2004). "Chemoprevention in lung cancer". Curr Probl Cancer. 28 (5): 287-306. doi:10.1016/j. ...

*Cancer

Carriers of these mutations may then undergo enhanced surveillance, chemoprevention, or preventative surgery to reduce their ... Thomsen A, Kolesar JM (December 2008). "Chemoprevention of breast cancer". American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy. 65 (23 ... "Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer: systematic review and economic evaluation". Health Technology Assessment. 14 (32): 1-206 ...

*Finasteride

"Chemoprevention of prostate cancer". The New England Journal of Medicine. 362 (13): 1237-8. doi:10.1056/NEJMe1001045. PMID ... reduction in the risk of developing prostate cancer with 5α-reductase inhibitor chemoprevention. However, 5α-reductase ... "5-α-Reductase inhibitors for prostate cancer chemoprevention: an updated Cochrane systematic review". BJU Int. 106 (10): 1444- ...

*Retinoic acid receptor beta

Saba N, Jain S, Khuri F (2004). "Chemoprevention in lung cancer". Current Problems in Cancer. 28 (5): 287-306. doi:10.1016/j. ...

*Mango

Chaturvedi PK, Bhui K, Shukla Y (2008). "Lupeol: connotations for chemoprevention". Cancer Lett. 263 (1): 1-13. doi:10.1016/j. ...

*Cancer prevention

Thomsen A, Kolesar JM (December 2008). "Chemoprevention of breast cancer". Am J Health Syst Pharm. 65 (23): 2221-8. doi:10.2146 ... "Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer: systematic review and economic evaluation". Health Technol Assess. 14 (32): 1-206. doi: ...

*Antiandrogen

505-. ISBN 978-1-935281-91-7. Rittmaster RS (2011). "Chemoprevention of prostate cancer". Acta Oncol. 50 Suppl 1: 127-36. doi: ... Lieberman R (2001). "Androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer chemoprevention: current status and future directions for ...

*Malaria Consortium

"Malaria Consortium - Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention". GiveWell. November 2016. Retrieved November 30, 2016. "Malaria ... for the consortium's work on seasonal malaria chemoprevention, and published a review of the consortium's work on that front. ...

*Methaneseleninic acid

Ip, C.; Dong, Y.; Ganther, H. E. (2002). "New concepts in selenium chemoprevention". Cancer Metastasis Rev. 21: 281-289. ... evidence that a monomethylated selenium metabolite is critical for cancer chemoprevention". Cancer Res. 60: 2882-2886. PMID ...

*Aberrant crypt foci

The "chemoprevention database" shows the results of all published scientific studies of chemopreventive agents, in people and ... "Colorectal Cancer Prevention: Chemoprevention Database". "ACF-MDF-BCAC". Resveratrol From Transgenic Alfalfa for Prevention of ...

*Sulforaphane

Yang L, Palliyaguru DL, Kensler TW (February 2016). "Frugal chemoprevention: targeting Nrf2 with foods rich in sulforaphane". ... "Targeting NRF2 signaling for cancer chemoprevention". Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 244 (1): 66-76. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2009.08.028. ...

*Cancer systems biology

Huang, YW; Kuo, Stoner; Huang, Wang (2011). "An overview of epigenetics and chemoprevention". FEBS Lett. 585 (13): 2129-2136. ...

*Cancer biomarkers

Cohen, Victor; Fadlo Khuri (2003). "Progress in Lung Cancer Chemoprevention" (PDF). Cancer Control. 10 (4): 315-324. Retrieved ...

*Histone deacetylase inhibitor

Ullah MF, Ahmad A (2015-10-06). Critical Dietary Factors in Cancer Chemoprevention. Springer. ISBN 9783319214610. Ho E, Clarke ...

*Jon Sudbø

Sudbø J. [Chemoprevention of oral cancer]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2003 May 29;123(11):1518-21. Review. Retraction: Haug C. ... Reith A, Sudbø J. Impact of genomic instability in risk assessment and chemoprevention of oral premalignancies. Int J Cancer. ... 2003;25(4):157-8. Sudbø J. [Chemoprevention: treatment of persons at high risk of cancer]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2003 May 29; ...

*Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine

"Guess who pioneered chemoprevention through diet?". Science-Based Medicine. 2015-12-24. Retrieved 2017-01-16. "Homeopathy". NPR ...

*Bismuth subsalicylate

Apr 2005). "Travelers' diarrhea: antimicrobial therapy and chemoprevention". Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2 (4): 191-8 ...

*Plant sources of anti-cancer agents

Phytotherapy Research Apigenin and cancer chemoprevention. ...

*Resveratrol

PMC 3060966 . Uzarska, M; Czajkowski, R; Schwartz, R. A.; Bajek, A; Zegarska, B; Drewa, T (2013). "Chemoprevention of skin ...

*Morus (plant)

Hou DX (March 2003). "Potential mechanisms of cancer chemoprevention by anthocyanins". Current Molecular Medicine. 3 (2): 149- ...

*Phenethyl isothiocyanate

PEITC has been studied for its potential for chemoprevention of cancers, such as prostate cancer. In terms of biosynthesis, ... Disease Progression and Chemoprevention: 109-126. Wang, LG; Chiao, JW (2010). "Prostate cancer chemopreventive activity of ... "Molecular targets of dietary phenethyl isothiocyanate and sulforaphane for cancer chemoprevention". The AAPS Journal. 12 (1): ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Retinoids in lung cancer chemoprevention and treatment. AU - Toma, S.. AU - Raffo, P.. AU - Isnardi, L.. AU - Palumbo, R.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - In this review, we aim to synthesize the emerging picture of retinoids in lung cancer through a summary of ongoing investigations in biology, chemoprevention and therapy settings, in an attempt to clarify the possible role of these agents in such a disease. Early work in head and neck cancer has evidenced the capability of retinoids to interrupt field carcinogenesis by reversing premalignant lesions and decreasing the incidence of second primary tumors (SPTs). At this time, the completed randomized trials in lung cancer have failed to demonstrate an evident chemopreventive effect of the tested agents on different study end points, although both a marginally significant benefit of retinol palmitate in time-to-development rates for smoke-related SPTs and a potential preventive effect of retinol supplementation against mesothelioma in ...
In this modified phase I pilot study with LP, we demonstrate, for the first time, the safety, tolerability, and the dose of a standardized GSE that corresponded to favorable modulations of SEBM for lung cancer chemoprevention, including bronchial Ki-67 LI, and serum oncomirs miR-19a, -19b, and -106b.. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the world, accounting for an estimated 2.09 million deaths in 2018 (19). Despite significant advancements in anticancer treatments, the 5-year survival rate for lung cancer remains dismal. The lack of effective therapy provides the impetus to search for alternative, safe, and efficacious agents for lung cancer chemoprevention, to impede the driving forces of cancerization, and prevent the development of lung cancer in at-risk individuals (20). Whereas chemopreventive approaches have been proven successful for various cancers such as breast and colon cancer (21, 22), successes in phase III lung cancer chemoprevention trials have remained ...
U.S., March 8 -- ClinicalTrials.gov registry received information related to the study (NCT03069742) titled Study of Web-based Decision Aids for Increasing Breast Cancer Chemoprevention in the Primary Care Setting on Feb. 28. Brief Summary: The purpose of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) is to evaluate a decision support website (RealRisks) designed to inform patients about breast cancer prevention options. It is coupled with a physician-centered (BNAV) decision support website as part of clinical workflow in the primary care setting. The investigators hypothesize that improving accuracy of breast cancer risk perception and understanding of the risks and benefits of breast cancer risk lowering drugs, also known as chemoprevention, will increase the uptake of chemoprevention in the primary care setting. Study Start Date: November 2016 Study Type: Interventional Condition: Breast Neoplasm Intervention: Other: RealRisks RealRisks is a web-based patient decision aid with modules that present ...
In humans, myo-inositol has been studied in the treatment of psychiatric disorders such as depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and panic attacks (2-7), as well as diabetic neuropathy (8, 9). No serious adverse effects were observed in doses up to 20 g/d p.o. for 2 to 6 weeks. Minor symptoms such as nausea, abdominal pain, flatulence, or soft stools were reported in only a small proportion of the subjects treated (3, 7). The results of blood tests, when reported, usually stated that no hematologic, renal, or liver function abnormality was observed, although the actual laboratory values were not shown. In the only study where abnormal laboratory results were reported (3), 2 of the 13 patients who received myo-inositol 12 g/d for 4 weeks for treatment of depression showed a mild increase in the fasting blood glucose. In one subject, the blood glucose returned to normal despite continuing to take myo-inositol after the clinical trial. The second patient showed the same mild increase several ...
The available results from breast cancer chemoprevention trials are reviewed. Four trials using tamoxifen have been performed, of which three have reported efficacy results. A fifth trial using...
The basic cancer-related chemical and biological sciences, pathology, and epidemiology have contributed to the understanding that antimutagenesis and antiproliferation are the important general mechanisms of chemoprevention and to the development of antimutagenic and anti-proliferative agents as potential chemopreventive drugs. These disciplines have also provided the biochemical and histopathological bases for identifying intermediate biomarkers that can be used as surrogate end points for cancer incidence in clinical chemoprevention trials and for selecting cohorts for these trials. Particularly important as histological biomarkers of cancer are the cytonuclear morphological and densitometric changes that define intraepithelial neoplasia (IEN). IEN changes are on the causal pathway to cancer. They may serve as target lesions in Phase II chemoprevention trials and as standards against which other earlier cellular and molecular biomarkers can be evaluated. Strategies for the clinical evaluation ...
The trial, known as APPROVe (Adenomatous Polyp Prevention on Vioxx), was the longest test yet of Vioxx as a chemoprevention agent, and was designed to determine whether the drug could prevent the re-growth of precancerous colon polyps in people who had already had polyps removed. The prospective chemoprevention study randomized 2,586 participants from 108 centers in 29 countries to receive either 25 mgs. of Vioxx daily or a placebo drug for three years, 2001-2004. The trial was stopped September 30, 2004 - approximately two months before its planned completion. ...
The overall goal of this research project is to develop Oriental herbal compound 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl- beta-D-glucose (PGG) for the chemoprevention of pros...
Powered by Pure, Scopus & Elsevier Fingerprint Engine™ © 2020 Elsevier B.V. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Log in to Pure. ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Justyna Szumiło, Justyna Podlodowska, Wiktor Podlodowski, Elzbieta Starosławska, Franciszek Burdan].
Full Text CA-97-014 PIVOTAL CLINICAL TRIALS FOR CHEMOPREVENTION AGENT DEVELOPMENT NIH GUIDE, Volume 26, Number 7, March 7, 1997 RFA: CA-97-014 P.T. 34 Keywords: Cancer/Carcinogenesis Clinical Trial Chemopreventive Agents National Cancer Institute Letter of Intent Receipt Date: April 3, 1997 Application Receipt Date: May 22, 1997 PURPOSE The Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC), National Cancer Institute (NCI) invites applications to further the drug development efforts of the Chemoprevention Branch by carrying out intermediate-sized Phase II/III efficacy trials of promising chemopreventive agents in major cancer target organs, particularly prostate, breast, lung, colon, and bladder. Currently, most NCI-sponsored Phase II clinical trials enroll fewer than 100 participants and evaluate a spectrum of potential SEBs as study endpoints over a relatively brief study period (2 weeks 6 months). This is in contrast to the large Phase III clinical chemoprevention trials with tamoxifen, ...
Based on age and risk, an estimated 10 million women in the United States may be eligible for an agent aimed at preventing breast cancer, but chemoprevention is underutilized. Fewer than 5% of women at high risk who are offered tamoxifen for chemoprevention agree to take the drug, partly due to inadequate time for counseling, insufficient knowledge about risk-reduction strategies, and concerns about side effects, according to Parijathan S. Sivasubramanian, MD, of Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York.1. Dr. Sivasubramanian led one of two studies examining the factors that influence the uptake of chemoprevention. The other was presented at the meeting by Erin W. Hofstatter, MD, of Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.2. Richer and Wiser Women. Dr. Hofstatter reported that being "richer and wiser" was a factor in the acceptance of chemoprevention, based on information from the National Health Interview Survey, a population-based survey conducted ...
1661 There is a clear need to develop effective chemoprevention strategies to reduce the high incidence of lung cancer. The purpose of the this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two targeted approaches, reversal of gene silencing by methylation through demethylation therapy and the induction of apoptosis through activation of the PPAR-γ pathway. A chemoprevention study was designed in which A/J mice that are highly susceptible to lung cancer were treated with the tobacco carcinogen, NNK. Animals were held for 42 wks to allow the development of pre-invasive lesions: alveolar hyperplasias and adenomas. At that time mice were separated into 12 groups of 15 mice and treated for 6 weeks with individual or a combination of the agents. The agents used were hydralazine (Hyd), selenium (Se), sodium phenylbutyrate (PheB), valproic acid (VPA), iloprost (Ilo), and rosiglitazone (Ros). Not all combinations could be evaluated due to number of treated mice. Following sacrifice, the number of lesions ...
Coming of age - the chemoprevention of cancer. Chemoprevention as a form of cancer control. Comparison of low-dose isotretinoin with beta carotene to prevent oral carcinogenesis
Cancer chemoprevention involves the use of artificial or naturally occurring substances aimed to arrest or reverse the process of carcinogenesis. Numerous agents including dietary phytochemicals, anti-inflammatory drugs, vitamins and others are thought to possess preventative anti-cancer activities. Paul Ehrlich was the first to devise the idea that the immune system could suppress the increased frequency of carcinomas. This concept was further matured with the formulation of the
Overview of outcomes of the use of Raloxifene in reducing cancer risk. This drug lowers the risk for breast cancer in certain high-risk women.
467 Prostate cancer (PCa) has become one of the most frequently diagnosed malignancies in the United States with similar trend in most Western countries. The substantial mortality and morbidity associated with PCa and its poor treatment options have led a surge to develop novel means for its prevention. The development of chemoprevention strategies against PCa would have huge impact, both medically and economically. Because of its ubiquity and disease burden, PCa is an attractive target for chemoprevention. Fisetin (3,3,4,7-tetrahydroxyflavone), is found in fruits andvegetables, such as strawberry, apple, persimmon, grape, onionand cucumber. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of fisetin on cell-growth and apoptosis in human PCa cells. Treatment of fisetin (10-60 μM; 48 h) was found to result in a decrease in the viability of LNCaP, CWR22Rυ1 and PC-3 cells but had only minimal effect on normal prostate epithelial PrEC cells as assessed by MTT assay. To decipher the mechanism of ...
Chemoprevention (also Chemoprophylaxis) refers to the administration of a medication for the purpose of preventing disease or infection.[1] Antibiotics, for example, may be administered to patients with disorders of immune system function to prevent bacterial infections (particularly opportunistic infection).[2] Antibiotics may also be administered to healthy individuals to limit the spread of an epidemic, or to patients who have repeated infections (such as urinary tract infections) to prevent recurrence. It may also refer to the administration of heparin to prevent deep venous thrombosis in hospitalized patients. In some cases, chemoprophylaxis is initiated to prevent the spread of an existing infection in an individual to a new organ system, as when intrathecal chemotherapy is administered in patients with malignancy to prevent further infection. The use of chemoprophylaxis is limited primarily by two factors: risk and financial costs. ...
Side effects were minimal and no different in both groups: of those taking placebo, 38 percent had grade 1 or 2 toxicity, and 3 percent had grade 3, compared to 39 percent and 1 percent, respectively in those taking the supplement. The study was stopped by the independent Data and Safety Monitoring Committee due to futility. The researchers did find that in a small group of the lung cancer patients who were never smoked, selenium did provide a small benefit; however, the size of the group of patients, 94, was too small to be statistically significant. "Our results demonstrate that selenium is not an effective chemoprevention agent in an unselected group of lung cancer patients, and its not something we can recommend to our patients to prevent a second cancer from developing or recurring," said Karp. "These findings also remind us that never smokers may represent a unique disease and should be an area for special consideration for research focus.. "Given our results and that of SELECT, ...
Cancer chemoprevention is a term thats received a great deal of attention in recent years. It refers to the use of nontoxic natural or synthetic chemicals to halt the development of cancer. Many research studies have focused on the cancer chemopreventive properties of botanical substances. One of the most extensively investigated of these plant-based substances…
The purpose of this study is to determine whether erlotinib will be effective in controlling cancer that has returned after treatment with radiation. Th
TY - JOUR. T1 - Application of pharmacogenomics to dietary cancer chemoprevention. AU - Prawan, Auemduan. AU - Khor, Tin Oo. AU - Li, Wenge. AU - Kong, Ah Ng Tony. PY - 2007/9. Y1 - 2007/9. N2 - Many lines of evidence demonstrate that certain dietary phytochemicals have cancer chemopreventive effects. These dietary phytochemicals or chemo-preventive agents can suppress or block carcinogenesis by 1 enhancing the biotransformation enzymatic activities for efficient elimination of carcinogens or reactive oxidative or nitrosative species (ROS/RNS); 2 suppressing the growth/inflammatory signaling pathways involved in cancer cell proliferation; and 3 modulating phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes, e.g. glutathione S-transferases (GST), NAD(P)H-quinone reductase 1 (NQO1), UDP-glueuronosyltransferases (UGT), and antioxidant enzymes such as gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO1). Comparison of gene expression profiles among Nrf2 wild type and Nrf2 knockout mice showed ...
1. Torre LA, Siegel RL, Jemal A. Lung Cancer Statistics. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2016;893:1-19 2. Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2017. CA Cancer J Clin. 2017;67:7-30 3. Lim SM, Syn NL, Cho BC, Soo RA. Acquired resistance to EGFR targeted therapy in non-small cell lung cancer: Mechanisms and therapeutic strategies. Cancer Treat Rev. 2018;65:1-10 4. Yue J, Lv D, Wang C, Li L, Zhao Q, Chen H. et al. Epigenetic silencing of miR-483-3p promotes acquired gefitinib resistance and EMT in EGFR-mutant NSCLC by targeting integrin beta3. Oncogene. 2018;37:4300-12 5. Dragnev K, You M Fau - Wang Y, Wang Y Fau - Lubet R, Lubet R. Lung cancer chemoprevention: difficulties, promise and potential agents?. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2013;22:35-47 6. Li Q, Zhang D, Chen X, He L, Li T, Xu X. et al. Nuclear PKM2 contributes to gefitinib resistance via upregulation of STAT3 activation in colorectal cancer. Scientific reports. 2015;5:16082 7. Tang J, Guo F, Du Y, Liu X, Qin Q, Liu X. et al. Continuous ...
Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death worldwide with more than 1.3 million people dying of the disease annually. While antitobacco initiatives in young people are important in preventing lung cancer in the long term, additional measures such as early detection and chemoprevention are needed for individuals already at risk due to past exposure to tobacco smoke. This review highlights the potential use of sputum, exhaled breath and blood biomarkers as well as thoracic CT and autofluorescence bronchoscopy for early detection. The current status of chemoprevention is summarized. The case for using a two-step screening strategy is also discussed.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Colorectal chemoprevention pilot study (SWOG-9041), randomized and placebo controlled. T2 - The importance of multiple luminal lesions. AU - Chu, David Z J. AU - Hussey, Michael A.. AU - Alberts, David S. AU - Meyskens, Frank L.. AU - Fenoglio-Preiser, Cecilia M.. AU - Rivkin, Saul E.. AU - Mills, Glenn M.. AU - Giguere, Jeffrey K.. AU - Blanke, Charles D.. AU - Goodman, Gary E.. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. N2 - Background: Colorectal cancer is common worldwide and chemoprevention has the potential of reducing the number of individuals who may suffer and perish from this disease. Methods: A randomized placebo controlled pilot study in colorectal cancer patients was performed using calcium carbonate as the test agent in a multi-institutional oncology study group. Results: Two hundred twenty volunteers were randomized in the study. The primary goals of compliance, accrual, and toxicity monitoring are presented. Presence of multiple adenomas at study entry and subsequent development of ...
Simply no clinically effective chemoprevention for lung malignancy has been found. enumerated and measured. Vandetanib resulted in reductions in tumor multiplicity (6.5 +/? 0.86 vs 1.0 +/? 0.30, p = 0.001) and average tumor volume (0.85 +/? 0.10 mm3 vs. 0.15 +/? 0.09 mm3, p = 0.001), but not incidence (71% vs. 100%, p = ns), compared to control. As vandetanib has other activities besides VEGFR-2 tyrosine kinase inhibition, we administered the anti-VEGFR-2 monoclonal antibody, DC101, for weeks 11C15 of a urethane Ispinesib carcinogenesis protocol with an arrest in tumor volume increase, but no switch in multiplicity or incidence. Further investigation of the chemopreventive effect of vandetanib and other VEGF signaling inhibitors is needed. Introduction Lung malignancy is the leading cause of cancer death in the world(1). Tobacco smoking is the major cause of lung malignancy and smoking cessation is an efficient means to reduce lung cancers risk(2). Nevertheless, significant threat of lung ...
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a major cause of cellular injury in an increasing number of diseases, including cancer. Most ROS are created in the cell through normal cellular metabolism. They can be produced by environmental insults such as ultraviolet light and toxic chemicals, as well as by the inflammatory process. Interception of ROS or limiting their cellular effects is a major role of antioxidants. Due to their content of phenolic and flavonoid compounds, berries exhibit high antioxidant potential, exceeding that of many other foodstuffs. Through their ability to scavenge ROS and reduce oxidative DNA damage, stimulate antioxidant enzymes, inhibit carcinogen-induced DNA adduct formation and enhance DNA repair, berry compounds have been shown to inhibit mutagenesis and cancer initiation. Berry constituents also influence cellular processes associated with cancer progression including signaling pathways associated with cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and angiogenesis. This ...
Scientific Experts, Genomes and Genes, Publications, Species, Research Topics about Chemoprevention of IBD-Associated Colon Cancer
In this study of a large series of patients included in a prospective chemoprevention trial with a median follow-up of 7.5 years, we show for the first time the value of ΔNp63 expression as a predictor of oral cancer development. In a multicovariate analysis that included age, treatment arm, and histologic status, ΔNp63 expression was independently associated with oral cancer development with a HR of 3.308 (95% CI, 1.663-6.580). At 5 years after the randomization date, 39% of the patients with positive ΔNp63 staining had developed cancer compared with only 11% of patients with negative ΔNp63 staining. Interestingly, we observed that the presence of clusters of EIC was associated with an increased risk of developing oral cancer, although this risk was marginally significant in the multicovariate analysis. The significance of ΔNp63 expression in predicting oral cancer development was comparable with that of podoplanin. Because these two factors were highly associated, analyzing them together ...
In this prospective, randomized clinical trial, 6-month interventions with sulindac, atorvastatin, and ORAFTI®Synergy1 did not yield significant reductions in rectal ACF number, as compared with control (maltodextrin), among subjects at increased risk for sporadic CRC. To our knowledge, this study represents the largest ACF-based CRC chemoprevention trial reported to date and the first such trial to be conducted in a stand-alone fashion rather than ancillary to or embedded within a larger parent study. Furthermore, secondary analyses of tissue-based biomarkers (assessed from normal appearing rectal mucosa) in our study revealed that none of the interventions had a statistically significant effect on cellular proliferation whereas all of interventions (including the maltodextrin control) were associated with increased apoptosis. Yet, because the observed proapoptotic effects did not differ appreciably between the active and control interventions, the relevance of these latter data to defining ...
Title: Mouse Prostate Proteome Changes Induced by Oral Pentagalloylglucose Treatment Suggest Targets for Cancer Chemoprevention. VOLUME: 11 ISSUE: 7. Author(s):J. Zhang, K. Nkhata, A. A. Shaik, L. Wang, L. Li, Y. Zhang, L. A. Higgins, K. H. Kim, J. D. Liao, C. Xing, S.-H. Kim and J. Lu. Affiliation:Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center. 1300 S. Coulter St, Amarillo, TX79106, USA.. Keywords:Cancer chemoprevention, iTRAQ, penta-1, 6-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (PGG), prostate, proteomic, tolerated dose determination, transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate, heat shock protein 5, fatty acid synthase, glutathione S-transferase mu. Abstract: Recent in vitro and in vivo preclinical studies have suggested that the Oriental herbal compound penta-1, 2, 3, 4, 6-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (PGG) is a promising chemopreventive agent for prostate cancer. Little is known of its safety for chronic chemoprevention use and virtually nothing is known of ...
Whitsett, T. and Lamartineiere, C.A. Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, UAB Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham. Even with the advent of new and aggressive therapeutics, breast cancer remains a destructive disease and a leading killer among cancers. There is and should be a concerted effort to prevent breast cancer. We have shown that the consumption of genistein, a major constituent of soy, in a prepubertal rat confers protection against chemically-induced mammary cancer.. Another polyphenol that has received much attention for health benefits is resveratrol, a component found in red grapes (red wine). We have investigated the chemopreventive properties of resveratrol using the DMBA model for mammary carcinoma in the Sprague-Dawley rat. Dietary administration of pure resveratroil (1 g/kg AIN-76A diet) was provided for the entirety of life. Control animals were maintained on AIN-76A diet, reportedly void of phytoestrogens. With a least 30 animals per ...
Abstract To determine if there is a difference in compliance with antimalarial chemoprophylaxis between febrile travelers with and without malaria, 157 patients with malaria, a history of fever, and recent travel to a malariaendemic area were compared with 157 matched controls. Antimalarial prophylaxis had been taken by 48% of all patients. Chemoprophylaxis use was correlated with region and purpose of travel. Cases were less likely to have taken prophylaxis (53%) than controls (76%) (odds ratio = 0.35, confidence interval = 0.27, 0.73), even after controlling for region of travel, purpose of travel, and previous exposure to malaria. Chemoprophylaxis was effective in reducing malaria risk. Travel agents and health practitioners should provide all travelers to malaria-endemic areas with adequate information about chemoprophylaxis and its importance.
The vitamins and plant-derived compounds currently under study have been highly effective at inducing apoptosis in breast cancer cells, thus demonstrating their immense promise as possible forms of treatment. However, the exact mechanism by which each compound signals a cell to die has not been determined because the intricate details of apoptosis are not yet fully understood. Programmed cell death involves multiple pathways; the exact pathway leading to apoptosis depends on the initiation signal and the particular genes and proteins that are activated. With a better understanding of apoptosis, scientists can apply that knowledge to design innovative breast cancer treatments, possibly involving vitamins and plant-derived compounds.. Literature Cited. American Cancer Society, Inc. Fast facts. American Cancer Society. 2000. (Nov. 2000). http://www.cancer.org/NBCAM_fastfacts.html. Danielsson, C., Mathiasen, I.S., James, S.Y., Nayeri, S., Bretting, C., Hansen, C.M., Colston, K.W., Carlberg, C. ...
For some groups of patients at greater risk of HIV infection (e.g., serodiscordant partners, men who have sex with men and engage in high-risk behaviors, persons with multiple concurrent sex partners, persons who exchange sex for money), preexposure prophylaxis decreased the risk of acquiring HIV infection (number needed to treat [NNT] = 56).
Chemoprevention of disease with cannabis--this is what everyone should be talking about. Using marijuana can protect you from serious illnesses by reducing inflammation, counteracting harmful oxidation, down regulating the production of harmful chemicals in the body, stimulating the production of beneficial chemicals in the body and triggering our intrinsic repair mechanisms, this is big news! We need to encourage everyone we meet to consider embracing cannabis supplementation to guard themselves from Alzheimers disease, cancer, diabetes and more with chemoprevention. J Mol Med (Berl). 2012 Aug;90(8):925-34. Epub 2012 Jan 10.. Chemopreventive effect of the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid cannabidiol on experimental colon cancer.. Aviello G, Romano B, Borrelli F, Capasso R, Gallo L, Piscitelli F, Di Marzo V, Izzo AA.. Source. Department of Experimental Pharmacology, Endocannabinoid Research Group, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy.. Abstract. Colon cancer affects millions of ...
Today, the United States, on behalf of the Department of Health and Human Services, filed a complaint in federal district court against Gilead Sciences, Inc. and Gilead Sciences Ireland UC (collectively, Gilead) seeking damages for Gileads infringement of HHS patents related to pre-exposure prophylaxis (or PrEP) for HIV prevention.
The purpose of this study is to test the preventive effects of a combination of drugs: polyphenon E (PPE) derived from green tea extracts, and erlotinib. Because this combination of drugs has not been tested in humans before for the prevention of cancer, it is not clear which dose of each agent will be optimal in combination.. We will test the safety of the combination of PPE and erlotinib and see what effects (good and/or bad) it has on the patients premalignant lesion, and find the highest dose of each agent that can be given in combination without causing severe side effects. ...
Wang, Z., Xie, C., Huang, Y., Lam, C., and Chow, M.S. Overcoming chemotherapy resistance with herbal medicines: past, present and future perspectives. Phytochem Rev, 2013. 1-15.. Wang ZJ, Fan J, Liu M, Yeung S, Chang A, Chow MS, Pon D, Huang Y. Nutraceuticals for prostate cancer chemoprevention: from molecular mechanisms to clinical application. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2013,22(12):1613-1626. Du Q, Wang Z, He L, Jiang X, Wang L. PXR polymorphisms and their impact on Pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of repaglinide in healthy Chinese volunteers. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2013:1-9.. Liu M, Fan J, Wang S, Wang Z, Wang C, Zuo Z, Chow MSS, Shi LM, Wen Z, Y Huang. Transcriptional profiling of Chinese medicinal formula Si-Wu-Tang on breast cancer cells reveals phytoestrogenic activity. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2013; 13(1):11.. McAfee L, Tung C, Espinosa-Silva Y, Rahman M, Fatima K, Clark R, Wang Z. Pearce, D. A Survey of a Small Sample of Emergency Department and Admitted Patients Asking Whether They ...
PrEP has the potential to contribute to effective and safe HIV prevention when it is used as follows: Targeted to individuals at high risk for HIV acquisition Delivered as part of a comprehensive se... more
Of the 68 HIV infections that occurred before the visit at 52 weeks (or the first visit after April 18, 2011), 33 occurred in the TDF-FTC group (incidence rate, 4.7 per 100 person-years) and 35 in the placebo group (incidence rate, 5.0 per 100 person-years), leading to an estimated hazard ratio in the TDF-FTC group of 0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59 to 1.52; P=0.81) (Table 2). A prespecified sensitivity analysis in which data were censored when the study drug was no longer available (i.e., owing to an interruption or a missed visit) also showed a between-group difference that was not significant (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.49 to 1.36; P=0.44). When all HIV infections occurring after randomization (i.e., through week 8 after the regular study visit) were included in the analysis, there were 34 infections in the TDF-FTC group and 39 in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.55 to 1.38; P=0.56). The estimated cumulative probability of infection at 12 months was 0.049 in the ...
Background Naturally occurring polyphenolic compounds from fruits, particularly from blueberries, have been reported to be significantly involved in cancer chemoprevention and chemotherapy. and controlling PI3E/AKT, MAPK/ERK, and STAT3 pathways, central nodes in CSC inflammatory signaling. PEBP significantly inhibited cell expansion of 4T1, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. In all cell lines, PEBP reduced mammosphere formation, cell mobility and cell migration. In vivo,… More →. ...
Our results show that topical application of a bioadhesive 10% FBR gel positively affects oral IEN lesions in a subset of patients. Further, none of the 27 clinical trial participants developed any adverse effects. These encouraging toxicity data support previous studies conducted by our laboratories, which confirmed that large doses of FBR are well tolerated by humans (19-21), and further validate the established safety record for the two cross-linked polyacrylic acid-based polymers used as either the bioadhesive or the gel base (22).. Our histopathology data show appreciable interpatient variability in IEN responsiveness, with 41% of our participants showing a decrease in lesional grade, 23% of participants showing an increase in lesional grade, and 35% of the patients lesions exhibiting stable disease. Although modest, these histologic response rates compare favorably with previous oral IEN chemoprevention trials (27). Indeed, it is possible that optimized dose or dosing schedules may ...
The landmark iPrEx study demonstrated the feasibility of taking Truvada for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). It also demonstrated that success depends on ...
Abstract: ABSTRACT Although many mouse models of lung adenocarcinoma exist, there is no mouse lung squamous cell carcinoma model that has been validated for use in preclinical lung cancer chemoprevention studies. Since most clinical chemoprevention trials of lung cancer are performed in subjects with bronchial dysplasia, development of a lung squamous cell carcinoma mouse model becomes one of the highest priorities. We have shown that lung squamous cell carcinomas can be induced chemically in several strains of mice (Wang et al. 2004) and that green tea polyphenols exhibit a significant efficacy against the development of lung squamous cell carcinomas (preliminary data section). In this proposal, we will use a standardized green tea preparation called Polyphenon E (PE) and its major component, EGCG. The overall objective of this proposal is to determine the efficacy of green tea polyphenols in a mouse lung squamous cell carcinoma model and to determine the molecular mechanism that underlies the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Does mutated K-RAS oncogene attenuate the effect of sulindac in colon cancer chemoprevention?. AU - Rice, Photini F.S.. AU - Ehrichs, Kevin G.. AU - Jones, Mykella S.. AU - Chen, Hwu Dau Rw. AU - Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh. AU - Abril, Edward R.. AU - Nagle, Raymond B. AU - Besselsen, David G.. AU - Barton, Jennifer K. AU - Ignatenko, Natalia. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - The NSAID sulindac has been successfully used alone or in combination with other agents to suppress colon tumorigenesis in patients with genetic predisposition and also showed its efficacy in prevention of sporadic colon adenomas. At the same time, some experimental and clinical reports suggest that a mutant K-RAS oncogene may negate sulindac antitumor efficacy. To directly assess sulindac activity at suppressing premalignant lesions carrying K-RAS mutation, we utilized a novel mouse model with an inducible colon-specific expression of the mutant K-ras oncogene (K-rasG12D). Tumor development and treatment effects ...
To assess the role of BAX in drug-induced apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells, we generated cells that lack functional BAX genes. Such cells were partially resistant to the apoptotic effects of the chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil, but apoptosis was not abolished. In contrast, the absence of BAX completely abolished the apoptotic response to the chemopreventive agent sulindac and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). NSAIDs inhibited the expression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-XL, resulting in an altered ratio of BAX to Bcl-XL and subsequent mitochondria-mediated cell death. These results establish an unambiguous role forBAX in apoptotic processes in human epithelial cancers and may have implications for cancer chemoprevention strategies. ...
Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 selective inhibitors, reduce the risk of developing cancer. Experimental studies in human cancer cell lines and rodent models of carcinogenesis support these observations by providing strong evidence for the antineoplastic properties of NSAIDs. The involvement of COX-2 in tumorigenesis and its overexpression in various cancer tissues suggest that inhibition of COX-2 is responsible for the chemopreventive efficacy of these agents. However, the precise mechanisms by which NSAIDs exert their antiproliferative effects are still a matter of debate. Numerous other studies have shown that NSAIDs can act through COX-independent mechanisms. This review provides a detailed description of the major COX-independent molecular targets of NSAIDs and discusses how these targets may be involved in their anticancer effects. Toxicities resulting from COX inhibition and the suppression of
A review paper by Shirikami et al, investigates epidemiological studies and a large number of experimental studies on Green Tea and its anti-Cancer benefits.
Several recent studies examining the anti-carcinogenic properties of Green Tea catechins in humans have yielded promising results that suggest the possibility of their application to human clinical trials. This review article evaluates the results of these investigations on Green Tea and its constituents and the data and postulates future directions for this area. | Herbs & Spices
Reverse transcriptase-E138X variants, where the most common were rilpivirine resistance-associated mutations E138A/G/K, were significantly enriched in HLA-B*18-positive individuals globally (P = 3.5 × 10−20) and in all HIV-1 subtypes except A. Reverse transcriptase-E138X and B*18 frequencies correlated positively in 16 cohorts with linked HIV/HLA genotypes (Spearmans R = 0.75; P = 7.6 × 10−4) and in unlinked HIV/HLA data from 43 countries (Spearmans R = 0.34, P = 0.02). Notably, reverse transcriptase-E138X frequencies approached (or exceeded) 10% in key epidemic regions (e.g. sub-Saharan Africa, Southeastern Europe) where B*18 is more common. This, along with the observation that reverse transcriptase-E138X variants do not confer in-vitro replicative costs, supports their persistence, and ongoing accumulation in circulation over time.. Conclusions ...
This document contains the 2014 U.S. Public Health Service Clinical Practice Guideline for Preexposure Prophylaxis for the Prevention of HIV Infection. The guideline is the first federal resource that provides comprehensive evidence-based information about the provision of daily oral antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP), including how to identify patients with indications for PrEP, guidance for safe prescribing practices, monitoring clinical safety for patients taking PrEP medications, and supporting medication adherence and the reduction of HIV risk behaviors. The guideline is intended for use by clinicians in the United States providing medical care for persons without HIV infection who are at substantial risk of acquiring it by their sexual or injection drug use behaviors. For these patients, the U.S. Public Health Service recommends offering PrEP as a prevention option ...
Abstract: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as sulindac are promising chemoprevention agents against colon cancer, but their weak potency and side effects limit their use for both chemoprevention and chemotherapy. Here, we evaluated the effect of a new sulindac derivative, phospho-sulindac or OXT-922, on the growth of human cancer cell lines and its mechanism of action. OXT-922 inhibited the growth of human cancer cell lines originating from colon, pancreas and breast ~11- to 30-fold more potently than sulindac. This effect was mediated by a strong cytokinetic effect. Compared with control, OXT-922 inhibited cell proliferation by up to 67%, induced apoptosis 4.1-fold over control and blocked the G1 to S cell cycle phase transition. OXT-922 suppressed the levels of cell cycle regulating proteins, including cyclins D1 and D3 and Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) 4 and 6. The levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially those of mitochondrial ...
Chemoprevention represents a technique made to protect cells or cells against various carcinogens and carcinogenic metabolites produced from exogenous or endogenous resources. mainly because promising applicants in the chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive strategies. and L. The anti-inflammatory aftereffect of OA was reported in 1969, when Gupta and coworkers demonstrated its inhibitory impact in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and formaldehyde-induced joint disease (Gupta (2011) possess recently found that OA inhibited the proliferation of human being glioblastoma cells via inhibition of sign transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3). From anti-tumorigenic and anti-inflammatory activity broadly referred to in the books Aside, OA offers documented hepatoprotective properties. In animal versions, it shields against selection of hepatotoxicants, for instance carbon tetrachloride, cadmium and bromobenzene (sources in: Liu and triggered significant inhibition of endothelial cell ...
Head and neck cancer is the sixth most common type of cancer and is on the rise in some demographic groups, including young women without any known risk factors. Now, researchers at Fox Chase Cancer Center report that estrogen may increase the movement of precancerous cells in the mouth and thus promote the spread of the disease within the oral cavity.. The new results, published in the January issue of Cancer Prevention Research, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, may lead to novel chemoprevention strategies in the future.. Margie Clapper, Ph.D., co-leader of the Cancer Prevention and Control Program at Fox Chase Cancer Center and Cancer Prevention Research editorial board member, and colleagues had previously reported that estrogen metabolism changes following smoke exposure in the lungs and may contribute to lung cancer. This study on estrogen and lung cancer first appeared in the June 3, 2010, issue of Cancer Prevention Research.. To find out if this female hormone ...
Chalcone and its derivates are group reported to show promising anticancer activity. These compounds are precursor of flavonoids and isoflavonoids abundant in crops. Previous research suggested that Chalcone and its derivatives have anticancer activity in several cancer cells. Chalcone natural and synthetic showed strong antiproliferative effect on ovarian cancer cells and in gastric cancer cells HGC-27 (Achanta, et al., 2006). Hydroxyl Chalcone and isoliquiritigenin showed a strong inhibitor on skin carcinogenesis in vivo. Some research indicates that Chalcone also act as a chemoprevention agent, capable of inhibit carcinogenesis induced by chemical agents through increasing levels of reduced glutathione. However, the exact mechanism of the compound Chalcone in tumor cells is still being revealed. It has been proposed that isoliquiritigenin inhibit the proliferation of lung cancer cells A549 by stopping the cell cycle phase G2/M and induce p21 expression. Research on HepG2 hepatocellular ...
Background:Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is the first biomedical intervention with proven efficacy to reduce HIV acquisition in men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women. Little is known about levels of interest and characteristics of individuals who elect to take PrEP in real-world cli
The last phase of ANRS IPERGAY has confirmed that on-demand pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a highly effective method of reducing the risk of HIV infection in men who have sex with men and who report high-risk behavior. These results will be presented at AIDS 2016 in Durban, South Africa. From late 2016, a vast research program, ANRS PREVENIR, will assess PrEP on a large scale in Paris and its suburbs.
Information about how to order the U.S. government publication about traveling titled &quot;Health Information for International Travel&quot; (also called the &quot;Yellow Book&quot;). Provided by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Overall, 972 individuals initiated PrEP, accumulating 850 person-years of PrEP use. Mean adherence was 92% overall. Black race/ethnicity [adjusted risk ratio (aRR) 3.0; 95% confidence interval: 1.7 to 5.1, P , 0.001], higher copayments (aRR 2.0; 1.2 to 3.3, P = 0.005), and smoking (aRR 1.6; 1.1 to 2.3, P = 0.025) were associated with ,80% adherence. PrEP was discontinued by 219 (22.5%); female sex (aRR 2.6; 1.5 to 4.6, P , 0.001) and drug/alcohol abuse (aRR 1.8; 1.3 to 2.6, P = 0.002) were associated with discontinuation. Among 909 with follow-up creatinine testing, 141 (15.5%) had an eGFR ,70 mL·min·1.73 m and 5 (0.6%) stopped PrEP because of low eGFR. Quarterly STI positivity was high and increased over time for rectal chlamydia (P , 0.001) and urethral gonorrhea (P = 0.012). No HIV seroconversions occurred during PrEP use; however, 2 occurred in individuals who discontinued PrEP after losing insurance coverage. ...
Perhaps the best way to fight cancer is to prevent it from developing in the first place, and based on newly published research from investigators at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, nanoparticles may be able to make cancer chemoprevention a reality. Using nanoparticles made of a biocompatible polymer, the investigators were able to encapsulate a molecule isolated from green tea that triggers apoptosis and inhibits angiogenesis, two key biochemical events that could prevent cancer. Hasan Mukhtar, Ph.D., led the team that published its results in the journal Cancer Research. One of the chief issues in chemoprevention-the use of biologically active molecules to thwart cancer before it gains a foothold in the body-is that any such agents must be exceedingly safe, since it is likely that a person at risk for cancer would need to take the chemopreventive agent on a regular basis for a long time. Because of this requirement, many investigators have been screening naturally occuring molecules for ...
Kathy and her niece, Rhonda, regularly make the trip from their small town in Illinois, to Salt Lake City. They dont come to see family and friends or to cheer for the University of Utah. They come to Huntsman Cancer Institute (HCI) to be tested for polyp
Kathy and her niece, Rhonda, regularly make the trip from their small town in Illinois, to Salt Lake City. They dont come to see family and friends or to cheer for the University of Utah. They come to Huntsman Cancer Institute (HCI) to be tested for polyp
Kathy and her niece, Rhonda, regularly make the trip from their small town in Illinois, to Salt Lake City. They dont come to see family and friends or to cheer for the University of Utah. They come to Huntsman Cancer Institute (HCI) to be tested for polyp
Although a drug that prevents HIV was approved in 2012, several organizations in Bakersfield that serve high-risk communities believe that Bakersfield is too uninformed of Truvada, the brand-name pill. The Food and Drug Administration approved Truvada for preexposure prophylaxis. PrEP means that the pill can be taken as a preventative measure against HIV, but must...
Estimated proportions of people living in the United States at risk for HIV infection (2015 data) and distribution of PrEP prescriptions in 2016 among the subset for whom race/ethnicity data is available ...
A short course of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) taken before and after sexual activity appears to significantly reduce the risk of HIV infection ...
This study investigated the use of chemoprophylaxis for malaria prevention in air travellers departing from Kotoka International Airport (KIA) in Accra, Ghana. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the departure lounge of the KIA between February and May 2012. A total of 424 respondents voluntarily completed a semi-structured questionnaire, which included socio- demographic characteristics, duration of stay, nationality, country of permanent residence, chemoprophylaxis used, number of doses missed, cost and side effects experienced, and cost of treatment. The mean age of respondents was 37 ± 0.84 years with a male:female ratio of 1.2:1.The mean duration of stay in Ghana was 47.9 days [SD 56.8] and 73.5% had made one trip to the country in the preceding year. Of the respondents, 50.7% were from Europe, 24.1% from North America and 17.5% from Africa. The most popular malaria prevention method used was prophylactics (37%) with atovaquone/proguanil used most frequently (34.9%), followed by ...
GiveWell analyzed the evidence for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy. This is an interim intervention report; several major unanswered questions remain.
Japanese researchers discovered that β-Cryptoxanthin and hesperidin possess inhibitory effects on carcinogenesis in several rodent and mouse tissues. For their experiment they chemically induced cancer in the rat colon, rat tongue, and mouse lung. They then prepared a formula of pulp and citrus juices from the satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Mar.). Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Mar.) juice and pulp contains high amounts of β-cryptoxanthin and hesperidin. Their formula inhibited tumorigenesis in all three cancers. 1. Beta-cryptoxanthin belongs to the class of carotenoids, more specifically the xanthophylls. In the human body, beta-cryptoxanthin is converted to vitamin A (retinol) and is therefore considered as a pro-vitamin A.. Hesperidin is a flavan-on glycoside found in citrus fruits. Its aglycone form is called hesperetin. Hesperidin inhibits chemically induced carcinogenesis in several organs. 2. The study from the Japanese researchers demonstrate that oral administration of ...
Medscape Medical News. Troy Brown. Jun 12, 2013. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has updated its recommendations on the use of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in individuals at high risk of acquiring HIV to include its use in injection drug users (IDUs) as well as those with high-risk sexual behaviors, the agency announced today.. The recommendations follow the results of a clinical trial, published online June 12 in the Lancet, that showed that a daily oral dose of 300 mg of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is effective at reducing HIV infection acquisition among injection drug users.. On July 16, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the use of a fixed-dose combination of TDF 300 mg and emtricitabine (FTC) 200 mg (Truvada, Gilead Sciences) for the indication of PrEP against sexual transmission of HIV by men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexually active women and men. The recommendations were based on the results of clinical trials in MSM and heterosexually ...
Pre-exposure prophylaxis, or PrEP, is a way for people who do not have HIV to help prevent HIV infection by taking a pill every day. The pill contains two medicines that are also used, in combination with other medicines, to treat HIV. When someone is exposed to HIV through sex or injection drug use, PrEP can help stop the virus from establishing a permanent infection ...
There is now strong evidence that preventive oral antiretroviral therapy can moderately reduce likelihood of HIV infection. This concept is called HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Premature closures of some previous PrEP clinical trials, secondar
Selenium an essential micronutrient, and part of the bodys antioxidant defense system has been shown to inhibit tumorigenesis in a variety of experimental models. Methylated selenium sensitizes CaP cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis, effectively down-regulates the expression of androgen receptor (AR) and PSA in the androgen-responsive LNCaP cells, and inhibits the growth of LNCaP xenografts in nude mice (8, 9). Dong et al. have identified various selenium targets, including GADD153, cyclin A, cyclin-dependent kinase-1 (CDK-1), CDK-2, CDK-4, CDC25, E2Fs, and the mitogen-activated protein kinase/c-Jun-NH2-kinase and PI3K pathways in PC-3 CaP cells (10). A body of evidence indicates that the chemopreventive efficacy of selenium depends on the chemical form in which it is given (11). The benefits of selenium are mediated, at least in part, by selenoproteins, in which selenium is specifically incorporated as selenocysteine. In addition, selenium can replace sulfur in methionine, forming ...
The antiretroviral medication Truvada was recently approved by the FDA as a pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to reduce the risk of HIV infection among high risk...
Rilpivirine long-acting (RPV-LA) is a parenteral formulation, allowing prolonged plasma exposure. We explored its multiple compartment pharmacokinetics (PK) after a single dose, for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP).Sixty-six HIV-negative volunteers were enrolled; females received an intramuscular dose of 300, 600, or 1200 mg with plasma and genital levels measured to 84 days post-dose. Males receiving 600 mg had similar PK determined in plasma and rectum. Ex-vivo antiviral activity of cervico-vaginal lavage (CVL) was also assessed.After single dose, RPV concentrations peaked at day 6-8 and were present in plasma and GT fluid to day 84. Vaginal and male rectal tissue levels matched those in plasma.With the 1200mg dose, CVL showed greater antiviral activity, above baseline, at days 28 & 56. All doses were well tolerated.All doses gave prolonged plasma and genital tract rilpivirine exposure. PK and viral inhibition of repeated RPV-LA doses will be important in further dose selection.Clinical ...
Adverse effects associated with the long-term low-dose regimens of retinoids used in cancer chemoprevention studies are not well described. In order to examine the clinical and laboratory adverse effects of 3 years of intervention with isotretinoin (10 mg/day) and to assess potential risk factors for developing these, we collected adverse effect data on patients participating in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial designed to evaluate the effectiveness of isotretinoin in preventing the subsequent occurrence of new basal cell carcinoma. Our results showed a significantly higher incidence of adverse mucocutaneous effects and serum triglyceride elevations in the isotretinoin group (P , 0.001). Associated risk factors included male gender, very fair skin, and elevated pretreatment triglyceride levels. The toxicity observed, although less severe and less frequent, was similar to that seen with higher doses and should be weighed with adverse skeletal effects when considering long-term treatment of ...
TrendTerms displays relevant terms of the abstract of this publication and related documents on a map. The terms and their relations were extracted from ZORA using word statistics. Their timelines are taken from ZORA as well. The bubble size of a term is proportional to the number of documents where the term occurs. Red, orange, yellow and green colors are used for terms that occur in the current document; red indicates high interlinkedness of a term with other terms, orange, yellow and green decreasing interlinkedness. Blue is used for terms that have a relation with the terms in this document, but occur in other documents ...
The authors propose a base case rooted in an almost unthinkably high-incidence population, in which the cumulative lifetime probability of HIV acquisition is >60%. Initially, looking at use during the 18-25 years of age timeframe, the CEPAC model predicts substantial improvements in cumulative lifetime risk of HIV acquisition and life expectancy, compared with no PrEP, and an incremental improvement over standard daily oral PrEP. Similarly, the incidence of HIV infections and HIV-related deaths during the 5-year period of treatment are reduced incrementally, compared with standard PrEP. Both standard PrEP and long-acting PrEP are cost saving in this scenario, with long-acting PrEP costing an incremental $150 per year of life saved, compared with standard PrEP. Fascinatingly, despite initial higher up-front financial investment costs for programmatic scale-up, in the long-run (after approximately 30 years), long-acting PrEP actually is the most cost-saving intervention, driven by overall reduced ...
chemBlink provides information about CAS # 520-32-1, Tricin, Tricetin 3,5-dimethyl ether, 5,7-Dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)chromen-4-one, molecular formula: C17H14O7.
The last decade has witnessed great research interest in biological activities of phenolic compounds that include anticancer, anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation, among other things. A large number of anticancer agents combat cancer through cell cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis and differentiation, as well as through inhibition of cell growth and proliferation, or a combination of two or more of these mechanisms. Various phenolic compounds from different sources have been reported to be promising anticancer agents by acting through one of these mechanisms ...
WORKSHOP 2012. Molecular biology is one of science with rapid development from science side or method that is used to learn it. It is very useful for interest discovery and drug development or therapy, all of which requires a molecular approach to reach sensitivity and selectivity that high in the target.. Cancer Chemoprevention Research Center (CCRC) as one of research group in Faculty of Pharmacy UGM will held Workshop molecular biology technique that often be used for cancer research.. There are various kinds of Workshop that were held, which every kind of workshop include short course, discussion, and laboratory work. Type of workshop that were held :. 1. Western Blot. Date: March, 19 2012, Fee: Free (maximal 20 participants). 2. Molecular Docking. Date: March, 19 2012, Fee Rp 750.000 (maksimal 10 peserta). 3. Cells Culture In Vitro. Date: March, 26-27 2012, Fee: Rp 1.500.000,00. 4. Carcinogenesis In vivo. Date: March, 30-31 2012, Fee Rp 1.500.000,00. 5. Ovariectomy. Date: April, 6-7 2012, ...
Probiotics are of great value to our overall health as outlined in the following study. There are a variety of conditions in which the use of pro-biotics has proven effective:diarrhoea with its various causes, inflammatory bowel diseases, irritable bowel disease, colon cancer chemoprevention and hepato-portal encefalopathy. The pro-biotics have shown to be a promising therapeutical […]. ...
Probiotics are of great value to our overall health as outlined in the following study. There are a variety of conditions in which the use of pro-biotics has proven effective:diarrhoea with its various causes, inflammatory bowel diseases, irritable bowel disease, colon cancer chemoprevention and hepato-portal encefalopathy. The pro-biotics have shown to be a promising therapeutical […]. ...
... is a chapter in the book, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, containing the following 3 pages: HIV Transmission, HIV Exposure, HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the second drug to help prevent HIV infections on Thursday. Descovy is a PrEP or pre-exposure prophylaxis drug, which means the drug is taken daily to lower the risk of getting HIV among people who dont have the disease but are at risk.
The level of access to intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) in Nigeria is still low despite relatively high antenatal care coverage in the study area. This paper presents information on provider factors that affect the de
BACKGROUND: Reproductive-age women need effective interventions to prevent the acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled trial to assess daily treatment with oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), oral tenofovir-emtricitabine (TDF-FTC), or 1% tenofovir (TFV) vaginal gel as preexposure prophylaxis against HIV-1 infection in women in South Africa, Uganda, and Zimbabwe. HIV-1 testing was performed monthly, and plasma TFV levels were assessed quarterly.
The current research in our laboratory concerns evaluation of various chemopreventive effects of some edible antioxidative and anti-inflammatory phytochemicals and elucidation of their underlying molecular mechanisms. Our research program has attempted to unravel common events mediated by redox-sensitive transcription factors such as NF-κB and Nrf2 and upstream kinases involved in the cellular signaling network for molecular target-based chemoprevention with selected dietary and medicinal phytochemicals, especially those with anti-inflammatory and/or antioxidative properties [1].. Curcumin, a yellow coloring agent contained in turmeric (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae), has been reported to possess strong anti-tumor promotional as well as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Our recent studies have demonstrated that curcumin inhibits expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in mouse skin treated with the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) through inactivation of ...
In 2013, WHO published the first consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs for HIV treatment and prevention across all age groups and populations. A comprehensive revision of these guidelines based on new scientific evidence and lessons from implementation is being undertaken in 2015.. This early-release guideline makes available two key recommendations that were developed during the revision process in 2015. First, antiretroviral therapy (ART) should be initiated in everyone living with HIV at any CD4 cell count. Second, the use of daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended as a prevention choice for people at substantial risk of HIV infection as part of combination prevention approaches. The first of these recommendations is based on evidence from clinical trials and observational studies released since 2013 showing that earlier use of ART results in better clinical outcomes for people living with HIV compared with delayed treatment. The second ...
This clinical trial demonstrated the safety and efficacy of daily TDF/FTC, in conjunction with behavioral interventions, in reducing sexual HIV acquisition in a multinational population of MSM exposed to HIV through high-risk sex (4). A recent safety study of PrEP with TDF among 400 MSM in the United States also revealed few safety concerns (5). As a component of a comprehensive HIV prevention intervention, PrEP showed a significant added benefit, although effectiveness was highly dependent on medication adherence. The findings in this report are subject to at least five limitations. First, the trial was not large enough to evaluate efficacy in each of the sites, and the majority of the participants were in South America; only 10% were in the United States, making it impossible to determine effects on incidence in the United States trial sites specifically. Second, the assessment of adherence by drug-level testing was not performed for all trial participants and was performed for seroconverters ...
Long-term follow-up in the ANRS TEMPRANO trial confirms that tuberculosis chemoprophylaxis in HIV-infected people is more than ever relevant in resource-limited countries.
Learn about TRUVADA (emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) for PrEP®, a once daily pill that, when taken every day and used together with safer sex practices, can help prevent HIV in individuals who are at risk of getting HIV through sex. See benefits and risks.
Despite recent advances in medicinal chemistry, intrinsic and acquired resistance to chemotherapy treatments and the possibility of relapse present drawbacks in the treatment of breast cancer [39]. Because of the clear risks posed by chemotherapy, researchers worldwide have started searching for natural products that have better anti-carcinogenic activity without side effects. In addition, we believe that long chemotherapy treatment weakens the immunological defense system of the body and leaves patients susceptible to other infections and diseases. Radiation therapy is another treatment to combat cancer but also shows several potentially harmful side effects including weakened immune system and the potential to induce carcinogenesis itself. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop chemoprevention approaches for the prevention of cancer. Chemoprevention is an important function area of oncology that focuses on the prevention of cancer using natural or synthetic agents. Recently, natural ...
Synthesizing these two pieces of data, the researchers confirmed that individuals estimated to have high adenoma PGE2 levels at baseline, based on high COX-2 expression and/or absence of 15-PGDH, attained a 41% reduction in adenoma detection with Celecoxib treatment as opposed to placebo ( RR 0.59; p less than 0.0001 ...
http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1011205?viewType=Print.. This phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multinational trial of fixed-dose combination tenofovir disporoxil fumarate/emtricitabine orally once daily for the prevention of HIV acquisition in at-risk men who have sex with men was the first large-scale trial that demonstrated that daily oral preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir disporoxil fumarate/emtricitabine is safe and efficacious, particularly with high rates of adherence. It led to the first US guidance on the role of PrEP in the prevention of HIV in high risk populations. ...
The Chinese Clinical Oncology (Print ISSN 2304-3865; Online ISSN 2304-3873; Chin Clin Oncol; CCO) publishes articles that describe new findings in the field of oncology, provides current and practical information on diagnosis, prevention and clinical investigations of cancer. Specific areas of interest include, but not limited to, multimodality therapy, markers, imaging, tumor biology, pathology, chemoprevention, and technical advances related to cancer.
The Chinese Clinical Oncology (Print ISSN 2304-3865; Online ISSN 2304-3873; Chin Clin Oncol; CCO) publishes articles that describe new findings in the field of oncology, provides current and practical information on diagnosis, prevention and clinical investigations of cancer. Specific areas of interest include, but not limited to, multimodality therapy, markers, imaging, tumor biology, pathology, chemoprevention, and technical advances related to cancer.
Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) against malaria is a malaria control strategy aimed at reducing the burden of malaria in certain high-risk groups, namely pregnant women and children. Three strategies - IPT in pregnancy (IPTp), infants (IPTi) and children (IPTc) - are reviewed here focusing on the mechanism of action, choice of drugs available, controversies and future research. Drugs for IPT need to be co-formulated, long acting, safe and preferably administered as a single dose. There is no obvious replacement for sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, the most commonly utilized drug combination. All strategies face similar problems of rising drug resistance, falling malaria transmission and a policy shift from controlling disease to malaria elimination and eradication. IPT is an accepted form of malaria control, but to date only IPTp has been adopted as policy.. ...
Intermittent Preventive Treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is widely used for the control of malaria in pregnancy in Africa. The emergence of resistance to SP is a concern requiring monitoring the effectiveness of SP for IPTp. This was an in-vivo efficacy study to determine the parasitological treatment response and the duration of post-treatment prophylaxis among asymptomatic pregnant women receiving SP as part of IPTp in Mali and Burkina-Faso. The primary outcome was the PCR-unadjusted % of patients with parasites recurrence by day 42 defined as a positive diagnostic test by malaria smear at any visit between days 4 and 42. Treatment failure was based on the standard World Health Organization criteria. The therapeutic response was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier curve. A total of 580 women were enrolled in Mali (N=268) and Burkina-Faso (N=312) and followed weekly for 42 days. Among these, 94.3% completed the follow-up. The PCR-unadjusted cumulative risk of recurrence

Chemoprevention of Breast Cancer | SpringerLinkChemoprevention of Breast Cancer | SpringerLink

Anzano MA, Peer CW, Smith JM, et al: Chemoprevention of mammary carcinogenesis in the rat: combined use of raloxifene and 9-cis ... ORegan R.M. (2000) Chemoprevention of Breast Cancer. In: Gradishar W.J., Wood W.C. (eds) Advances in Breast Cancer Management ... Powles TJ, Jones AL, Ashley SE, et al: The Royal Marsden Hospital pilot tamoxifen chemoprevention trial. Breast Cancer Res ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4757-3147-7_9

Chemoprevention of Cancer | SpringerLinkChemoprevention of Cancer | SpringerLink

... part of the papers given at the second annual conference of the newly founded International Society of Cancer Chemoprevention ... bioprevention of cancer breast cancer cancer cancer prevention chemoprevention colorectal cancer genetics lung cancer ... Identification of Meaningful High Risk Groups for Cancer Chemoprevention. * Front Matter Pages 69-69 ... Metabolic Targets of Cancer Chemoprevention: Interruption of Tumor Development by Inhibitors of Arachidonic Acid Metabolism ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-3-642-59945-3

Breast Cancer ChemopreventionBreast Cancer Chemoprevention

Overview of outcomes of the use of Raloxifene in reducing cancer risk. This drug lowers the risk for breast cancer in certain high-risk women.
more infohttp://www.facingourrisk.org/understanding-brca-and-hboc/information/risk-management/chemoprevention-breast-cancer/basics/raloxifene.php

Cancer Chemoprevention with Green Tea Cate...Cancer Chemoprevention with Green Tea Cate...

A review paper by Shirikami et al, investigates epidemiological studies and a large number of experimental studies on Green Tea and its anti-Cancer benefits.
Several recent studies examining the anti-carcinogenic properties of Green Tea catechins in humans have yielded promising results that suggest the possibility of their application to human clinical trials. This review article evaluates the results of these investigations on Green Tea and its constituents and the data and postulates future directions for this area. | Herbs & Spices
more infohttps://www.scoop.it/t/herbs-spices/p/3406077903/2012/11/20/cancer-chemoprevention-with-green-tea-catechins

Cancer chemoprevention with dietary phytochemicals.  - PubMed - NCBICancer chemoprevention with dietary phytochemicals. - PubMed - NCBI

Cancer chemoprevention with dietary phytochemicals.. Surh YJ1.. Author information. 1. College of Pharmacy, Seoul National ... Chemoprevention refers to the use of agents to inhibit, reverse or retard tumorigenesis. Numerous phytochemicals derived from ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14570043

Chemoprevention strategies for prostate cancer.  - PubMed - NCBIChemoprevention strategies for prostate cancer. - PubMed - NCBI

Chemoprevention strategies for prostate cancer.. Bosland MC1, McCormick DL, Melamed J, Walden PD, Zeleniuch-Jacquotte A, Lumey ... Because prostate cancer is histologically present in 30-50% of 30- to 50-year-old men, effective chemoprevention needs to ... Such trials are an essential step in the development of antiprostate cancer chemoprevention agents. ... Prevention of clinically detectable prostate cancer requires earlier chemoprevention interventions. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12570331?dopt=Abstract

Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer - SOFAR SPAChemoprevention of colorectal cancer - SOFAR SPA

Herszenyi et al., "Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer: feasibility in everyday practice?," European Journal of Cancer ... OMorain, C et al., "Concept of chemoprevention in colorectal cancer," World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology, 2009 V. 1, ... 4. Lyakhovich A, Gasche C. Systematic review: molecular chemoprevention of colorectal malignancy by mesalazine. Aliment ... Lyakhovich, A. et al., "Systematic review: molecular chemoprevention of colorectal malignancy by mesalazine," Alimentary ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/10555956.html

Chemoprevention to Prevent CancerChemoprevention to Prevent Cancer

Chemoprevention is a new, recent approach to cancer prevention. It is important to select those at very high risk and target ... Obviously, chemoprevention is a new, recent approach to cancer prevention, and current studies are being done to evaluate its ... In 1990, he demonstrated chemoprevention for head and neck malignancies, using vitamin A analogs, which suppressed and ... The National Cancer Institute has promoted research studies to develop agents for the chemoprevention of cancer. ...
more infohttp://cancersupportivecare.com/chemoprevention.html

Cancer Chemoprevention Research Interest Group | MoffittCancer Chemoprevention Research Interest Group | Moffitt

... as signified by cellular invasion across the basement membrane is Cancer Chemoprevention. ... Additional chemoprevention trials include curcumin + ω-3 fatty acids for lung cancer chemoprevention in former smokers with ... Additional chemoprevention trials include curcumin + ω-3 fatty acids for lung cancer chemoprevention in former smokers with ... Cancer chemoprevention is the active way of combating cancer and carcinogenesis at earlier and earlier stages. The aims of the ...
more infohttps://moffitt.org/research-science/research-teams/cancer-chemoprevention-research-interest-group/

Chemoprevention for Colon Cancer | MD Anderson Cancer CenterChemoprevention for Colon Cancer | MD Anderson Cancer Center

... opening a new potential avenue for chemoprevention of colon cancer.. ... which would be a new approach to chemoprevention," Wu says. ...
more infohttps://www.mdanderson.org/publications/conquest/chemoprevention-for-colon-cancer.h34-1585890.html

Chemoprevention With Folic AcidChemoprevention With Folic Acid

3389 Colorectal Adenoma: Chemoprevention With Folic Acid. Trial Phase:. Phase 2. Minimum Age:. 18 Years. Maximum Age:. 80 Years ...
more infohttp://www.knowcancer.com/cancer-trials/NCT00018551/

Nano-Capsules Show Potential For More Potent Chemoprevention - RedorbitNano-Capsules Show Potential For More Potent Chemoprevention - Redorbit

Chemoprevention is currently used to help stop the recurrence of cancer in patients and reduce the risk of cancer in others. ... researchers conclude nano-luteolin has immense potential for future human studies of chemoprevention ...
more infohttp://www.redorbit.com/news/health/1113042249/nano-capsules-show-potential-for-more-potent-chemoprevention/

Chemoprevention of Colorectal Adenomas - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.govChemoprevention of Colorectal Adenomas - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Chemoprevention of Colorectal Adenomas. Official Title ICMJE A Clinical Trial Evaluating the Efficacy and Safety of a ... Chemoprevention of Colorectal Adenomas. This study has been terminated. (Planned Interim Analysis failed to show difference ... Carroll C, Cooper K, Papaioannou D, Hind D, Pilgrim H, Tappenden P. Supplemental calcium in the chemoprevention of colorectal ... placebo controlled clinical trial of chemoprevention in patients at increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). The ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT00486512

Chemical Immunomodulation for Cancer Chemoprevention | Frontiers Research TopicChemical Immunomodulation for Cancer Chemoprevention | Frontiers Research Topic

Cancer chemoprevention involves the use of artificial or naturally occurring substances aimed to arrest or reverse the process ... Cancer chemoprevention involves the use of artificial or naturally occurring substances aimed to arrest or reverse the process ... Cancer chemoprevention involves the use of artificial or naturally occurring substances aimed to arrest or reverse the process ... This Research Topic will highlight recent advances on the endogenous modulation of immune system for cancer chemoprevention. We ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/research-topics/6855/chemical-immunomodulation-for-cancer-chemoprevention

Chemoprevention of Colorectal Adenomas - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govChemoprevention of Colorectal Adenomas - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Chemoprevention of Colorectal Adenomas. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study ... Assessment of number and size of colorectal adenomas measured after three years of chemoprevention using the study drug [ Time ... Carroll C, Cooper K, Papaioannou D, Hind D, Pilgrim H, Tappenden P. Supplemental calcium in the chemoprevention of colorectal ... Assessment of durability of polyp-free colon post surgical ablation for two years post-treatment with chemoprevention with ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00486512

Molecules  | Free Full-Text | Cancer Chemoprevention by Carotenoids | HTMLMolecules | Free Full-Text | Cancer Chemoprevention by Carotenoids | HTML

Since chemoprevention is one of the most important strategies in the control of cancer development, molecular mechanism-based ... cancer chemoprevention using carotenoids seems to be an attractive approach. Various carotenoids, such as β-carotene, a- ... 6. Cancer Chemoprevention by Carotenoids in Preclinical Studies. Cancer chemoprevention is a rapidly expanding discipline that ... Tanaka, T. Chemoprevention of oral carcinogenesis. Eur. J. Cancer B Oral Oncol. 1995, 31B, 3-15. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/17/3/3202/htm

Chemoprevention of IBD-Associated Colon CancerChemoprevention of IBD-Associated Colon Cancer

Research Topics about Chemoprevention of IBD-Associated Colon Cancer ... You are here: Research Grants , R01 , CA , chemoprevention , of , Chemoprevention of IBD-Associated Colon Cancer ... Chemoprevention of IBD-Associated Colon Cancer. Summary. Principal Investigator: LAURA HALE. Abstract: Patients with ...
more infohttps://www.labome.org/grant/r01/ca/chemoprevention/of/chemoprevention-of-ibd-associated-colon-cancer-7897692.html

Chemoprevention Archives - Oncology Nurse AdvisorChemoprevention Archives - Oncology Nurse Advisor

ASCO encourages providers to speak to women at increased BC risk about the benefits, hazards of chemoprevention as a clinical ...
more infohttps://www.oncologynurseadvisor.com/tag/chemoprevention/

Pomegranate fruit juice for chemoprevention and chemotherapy of prostate cancer | PNASPomegranate fruit juice for chemoprevention and chemotherapy of prostate cancer | PNAS

Pomegranate fruit juice for chemoprevention and chemotherapy of prostate cancer. Arshi Malik, Farrukh Afaq, Sami Sarfaraz, ... Pomegranate fruit juice for chemoprevention and chemotherapy of prostate cancer. Arshi Malik, Farrukh Afaq, Sami Sarfaraz, ... Pomegranate fruit juice for chemoprevention and chemotherapy of prostate cancer Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... Pomegranate fruit juice for chemoprevention and chemotherapy of prostate cancer. Arshi Malik, Farrukh Afaq, Sami Sarfaraz, ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/102/41/14813.short

More articles from Poster Presentations - Chemoprevention 2 | Cancer ResearchMore articles from Poster Presentations - Chemoprevention 2 | Cancer Research

Venkateshwar Madka, Altaf Mohammed, Qian Li, Yuting Zhang, Laura Biddick, Jagan M.R. Patlolla, Stanley Lightfoot, Xue-Ru Wu, Vernon Steele, Levy Kopelovich, Chinthalapally V. Rao ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/by/section/Poster%20Presentations%20-%20Chemoprevention%202

chemoprevention | Tabers Medical Dictionarychemoprevention | Taber's Medical Dictionary

chemoprevention answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, ... chemoprevention is a topic covered in the Tabers Medical Dictionary. To view the entire topic, please sign in or purchase a ... "Chemoprevention." Tabers Medical Dictionary, 23rd ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2017. Tabers Online, www.tabers.com/tabersonline/ ... view/Tabers-Dictionary/729606/all/chemoprevention. Chemoprevention. In: Venes D, ed. Tabers Medical Dictionary. 23rd ed. F.A. ...
more infohttps://www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/729606/all/chemoprevention

NIH Guide: PIVOTAL CLINICAL TRIALS FOR CHEMOPREVENTION AGENT DEVELOPMENTNIH Guide: PIVOTAL CLINICAL TRIALS FOR CHEMOPREVENTION AGENT DEVELOPMENT

Phase IIb chemoprevention studies are done subsequently to establish the dose-response relationship of SEB modulation and the ... The NCIs chemoprevention drug development program has the mission of identifying safe and effective chemical agents for ... Phase II chemoprevention studies characterize dose-biomarker response and more common chronic toxicities, to identify safe and ... Additionally, the title of the RFA, PIVOTAL CLINICAL TRIALS FOR CHEMOPREVENTION AGENT DEVELOPMENT and the RFA number CA-97-014 ...
more infohttps://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/rfa-files/RFA-CA-97-014.html

Molecular Carcinogenesis and Chemoprevention | OSUCCC - JamesMolecular Carcinogenesis and Chemoprevention | OSUCCC - James

Read about the Molecular Carcinogenesis and Chemoprevention research program at the OSUCCC - James, focusing on the molecular ... Chemoprevention: To develop and test novel chemopreventive agents and define their mechanisms, safety and efficiency in ... Studies in carcinogenesis and ultimately in chemoprevention have been part of the OSUCCC - James research efforts since the ... These studies are embodied in the Molecular Carcinogenesis and Chemoprevention (MCC) Program, one of five transdisciplinary and ...
more infohttps://cancer.osu.edu/research-and-education/research-programs/molecular-carcinogenesis-and-chemoprevention

Regulation of Human Cytochrome P4501A1 (hCYP1A1): A Plausible Target for Chemoprevention?Regulation of Human Cytochrome P4501A1 (hCYP1A1): A Plausible Target for Chemoprevention?

... Rebeca Santes-Palacios, Diego ... regulation are opportunities for the selection of new therapeutic targets that allow drug development for chemoprevention. ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/5341081/

Cancer Chemoprevention by Garlic and Its Organosulfur Compounds-P...: Ingenta ConnectCancer Chemoprevention by Garlic and Its Organosulfur Compounds-P...: Ingenta Connect

... foods rich in bioactive phytochemicals have received growing attention as potential agents for cancer chemoprevention. ...
more infohttps://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/ben/acamc/2008/00000008/00000003/art00007
  • As described above, the intermediate-sized clinical trials supported through this RFA are a pivotal decision point in the NCI chemoprevention drug development program. (nih.gov)
  • This RFA, Pivotal Clinical Trials for Chemoprevention Agent Development, is related to the priority area of cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Thus the efficacy and safety data from these studies potentially supports FDA marketing approval (NDA applications) for chemoprevention indications, and certainly facilitates decisions regarding the most appropriate recommendations for subsequent large, community-based efficacy studies. (nih.gov)
  • Chemoprevention of oral cancer--clinical and experimental studies]. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Dr. Sivasubramanian led one of two studies examining the factors that influence the uptake of chemoprevention. (ascopost.com)
  • These findings highlight the potential disparities in access to appropriate chemoprevention options," Dr. Hofstatter commented. (ascopost.com)
  • Families with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), with hundreds of precancerous polyps in the colon and rectum, is a population at very high risk, meriting chemoprevention using drugs such as Celebrex in children with FAP, to help delay or control growth of adenomatous polyps. (cancersupportivecare.com)
  • Of 1,448 enrolled between 2007 and 2013, 416 were deemed at high risk or diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), 316 of whom were offered chemoprevention. (ascopost.com)
  • A two-drug combination destroys precancerous colon polyps with no effect on normal tissue, opening a new potential avenue for chemoprevention of colon cancer. (mdanderson.org)
  • Because of the critical nature of the biomarkers used in Phases I IIb of clinic al chemopreventive drug development, the careful scientific conduct of these biomarker assessments is considered essential to progress in chemoprevention. (nih.gov)
  • This Research Topic will highlight recent advances on the endogenous modulation of immune system for cancer chemoprevention. (frontiersin.org)
  • The UW Carbone Cancer Center has the resources to build a program in chemoprevention research, and as a tertiary referral center, many patients with genitourinary cancers such as bladder cancer may benefit from this research. (uwhealth.org)
  • Taber's Online , www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/729606/all/chemoprevention. (tabers.com)
  • chemoprevention is a topic covered in the Taber's Medical Dictionary . (tabers.com)
  • Chemoprevention is currently used to help stop the recurrence of cancer in patients and reduce the risk of cancer in others. (redorbit.com)
  • This is a multicenter, randomized, parallel group, prospective, double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial of chemoprevention in patients at increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Regulation of Human Cytochrome P4501A1 (hCYP1A1): A Plausible Target for Chemoprevention? (hindawi.com)
  • In 2010, the survey was conducted on 10,959 women ≥ 35 years old, of whom 0.21% reported taking chemoprevention. (ascopost.com)
  • ASCO encourages providers to speak to women at increased BC risk about the benefits, hazards of chemoprevention as a clinical option. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Most women don't understand what chemoprevention is," she said. (ascopost.com)
  • Dr. Hofstatter reported that being "richer and wiser" was a factor in the acceptance of chemoprevention, based on information from the National Health Interview Survey, a population-based survey conducted annually by the Centers for Disease Control. (ascopost.com)