The use of chemical compounds to prevent the development of a specific disease.
Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.
A sulfinylindene derivative prodrug whose sulfinyl moiety is converted in vivo to an active NSAID analgesic. Specifically, the prodrug is converted by liver enzymes to a sulfide which is excreted in the bile and then reabsorbed from the intestine. This helps to maintain constant blood levels with reduced gastrointestinal side effects.
Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Organic compounds with the general formula R-NCS.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
An inhibitor of ORNITHINE DECARBOXYLASE, the rate limiting enzyme of the polyamine biosynthetic pathway.
A topical dermatologic agent that is used in the treatment of ACNE VULGARIS and several other skin diseases. The drug has teratogenic and other adverse effects.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
An antioxidant flavonoid, occurring especially in woody plants as both (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin (cis) forms.
A potent carcinogen and neurotoxic compound. It is particularly effective in inducing colon carcinomas.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The infusion of leaves of CAMELLIA SINENSIS (formerly Thea sinensis) as a beverage, the familiar Asian tea, which contains CATECHIN (especially epigallocatechin gallate) and CAFFEINE.
A group of tetraterpenes, with four terpene units joined head-to-tail. Biologically active members of this class are used clinically in the treatment of severe cystic ACNE; PSORIASIS; and other disorders of keratinization.
A large class of organic compounds having more than one PHENOL group.
A subclass of cyclooxygenase inhibitors with specificity for CYCLOOXYGENASE-2.
An oral retinoid used in the treatment of keratotic genodermatosis, lichen planus, and psoriasis. Beneficial effects have also been claimed in the prophylaxis of epithelial neoplasia. The compound may be teratogenic.
A yellow-orange dye obtained from tumeric, the powdered root of CURCUMA longa. It is used in the preparation of curcuma paper and the detection of boron. Curcumin appears to possess a spectrum of pharmacological properties, due primarily to its inhibitory effects on metabolic enzymes.
A white patch lesion found on a MUCOUS MEMBRANE that cannot be scraped off. Leukoplakia is generally considered a precancerous condition, however its appearance may also result from a variety of HEREDITARY DISEASES.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Products of the hydrolysis of chlorophylls in which the phytic acid side chain has been removed and the carboxylic acids saponified.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.
A synthetic retinoid that is used orally as a chemopreventive against prostate cancer and in women at risk of developing contralateral breast cancer. It is also effective as an antineoplastic agent.
An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.
Organic compounds which contain selenium as an integral part of the molecule.
A cyclooxygenase inhibiting, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that is well established in treating rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis and used for musculoskeletal disorders, dysmenorrhea, and postoperative pain. Its long half-life enables it to be administered once daily.
Organic derivatives of thiocyanic acid which contain the general formula R-SCN.
Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.
A second generation selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) used to prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. It has estrogen agonist effects on bone and cholesterol metabolism but behaves as a complete estrogen antagonist on mammary gland and uterine tissue.
An orally active 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE inhibitor. It is used as a surgical alternative for treatment of benign PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA.
A structurally diverse group of compounds distinguished from ESTROGENS by their ability to bind and activate ESTROGEN RECEPTORS but act as either an agonist or antagonist depending on the tissue type and hormonal milieu. They are classified as either first generation because they demonstrate estrogen agonist properties in the ENDOMETRIUM or second generation based on their patterns of tissue specificity. (Horm Res 1997;48:155-63)
Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
A mixture of flavonoids extracted from seeds of the MILK THISTLE, Silybum marianum. It consists primarily of silybin and its isomers, silicristin and silidianin. Silymarin displays antioxidant and membrane stabilizing activity. It protects various tissues and organs against chemical injury, and shows potential as an antihepatoxic agent.
A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A plant family of the order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida that is a small family with a single genus.
7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in tobacco smoke that is a potent carcinogen.
A polyposis syndrome due to an autosomal dominant mutation of the APC genes (GENES, APC) on CHROMOSOME 5. The syndrome is characterized by the development of hundreds of ADENOMATOUS POLYPS in the COLON and RECTUM of affected individuals by early adulthood.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced mutations independently of the mechanism involved.
Inorganic compounds that contain selenium as an integral part of the molecule.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Drugs that inhibit 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE. They are commonly used to reduce the production of DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE.
Choleretic used to allay dry mouth and constipation due to tranquilizers.
A potent mutagen and carcinogen. This compound and its metabolite 4-HYDROXYAMINOQUINOLINE-1-OXIDE bind to nucleic acids. It inactivates bacteria but not bacteriophage.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
Compounds based on CHALCONE. They are important intermediates in the formation of FLAVONOIDS.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
A carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC). (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.)
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Steroidal compounds in which one or more carbon atoms in the steroid ring system have been substituted with nitrogen atoms.
Diagnostic aid in pancreas function determination.
Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
Discrete abnormal tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the INTESTINE. A polyp is attached to the intestinal wall either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
An element with the atomic symbol Se, atomic number 34, and atomic weight 78.96. It is an essential micronutrient for mammals and other animals but is toxic in large amounts. Selenium protects intracellular structures against oxidative damage. It is an essential component of GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE.
Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.
Measures aimed at providing appropriate supportive and rehabilitative services to minimize morbidity and maximize quality of life after a long-term disease or injury is present.
Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.
A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.
Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
One of the Liliaceae used as a spice (SPICES) and traditional remedy. It contains alliin lyase and alliin, which is converted by alliin lyase to allicin, the pungent ingredient responsible for the aroma of fresh cut garlic.
A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.
Clusters of colonic crypts that appear different from the surrounding mucosa when visualized after staining. They are of interest as putative precursors to colorectal adenomas and potential biomarkers for colorectal carcinoma.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Organic compounds that contain 1,2-diphenylethylene as a functional group.
A white patch seen on the oral mucosa. It is considered a premalignant condition and is often tobacco-induced. When evidence of Epstein-Barr virus is present, the condition is called hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).
The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.
A flavanone glycoside found in CITRUS fruit peels.
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein, believed to be the rate-limiting compound in the biosynthesis of polyamines. It catalyzes the decarboxylation of ornithine to form putrescine, which is then linked to a propylamine moiety of decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine to form spermidine.
Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.
A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.
The plant Silybum marianum in the family ASTERACEAE containing the bioflavonoid complex SILYMARIN. For centuries this has been used traditionally to treat liver disease. Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. = Carduus marianus L.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)
Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed meal, corn, and other grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites aflatoxin M1 and Q1.
Any horny growth such as a wart or callus.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Dimers (homo and hetero) of FLAVONOIDS.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
White or pink lesions on the arms, hands, face, or scalp that arise from sun-induced DNA DAMAGE to KERATINOCYTES in exposed areas. They are considered precursor lesions to superficial SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA.
Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.
A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that was originally described as a transcriptional regulator controlling expression of the BETA-GLOBIN gene. It may regulate the expression of a wide variety of genes that play a role in protecting cells from oxidative damage.
An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).
An oral retinoid effective in the treatment of psoriasis. It is the major metabolite of ETRETINATE with the advantage of a much shorter half-life when compared with etretinate.
Camellia sinensis L. (formerly Thea sinensis) is an evergreen Asiatic shrub of the THEACEAE family. The infusion of leaves of this plant is used as Oriental TEA which contains CAFFEINE; THEOPHYLLINE; and epigallocatechin gallate.
Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
Lining of the ORAL CAVITY, including mucosa on the GUMS; the PALATE; the LIP; the CHEEK; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations.
Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)
An anti-inflammatory agent, structurally related to the SALICYLATES, which is active in INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE. It is considered to be the active moiety of SULPHASALAZINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed)
A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.
Tumor suppressor genes located in the 5q21 region on the long arm of human chromosome 5. The mutation of these genes is associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI) and GARDNER SYNDROME, as well as some sporadic colorectal cancers.
A pentacyclic triterpene that occurs widely in many PLANTS as the free acid or the aglycone for many SAPONINS. It is biosynthesized from lupane. It can rearrange to the isomer, ursolic acid, or be oxidized to taraxasterol and amyrin.
Discrete tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the COLON. These POLYPS are connected to the wall of the colon either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.
A flavoprotein that reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of NADH or NADPH by various quinones and oxidation-reduction dyes. The enzyme is inhibited by dicoumarol, capsaicin, and caffeine.
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.
The cactus plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. Cacti are succulent perennial plants well adapted to dry regions.
The part of the face that is below the eye and to the side of the nose and mouth.
5,7,4'-trihydroxy-flavone, one of the FLAVONES.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.
An isoflavonoid derived from soy products. It inhibits PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE and topoisomerase-II (DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE II); activity and is used as an antineoplastic and antitumor agent. Experimentally, it has been shown to induce G2 PHASE arrest in human and murine cell lines and inhibits PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE.
Tumors or cancer of the TONGUE.
Material prepared from plants.
A bioflavonoid that strengthens vascular walls.
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.
Tumors or cancer of the BRONCHI.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A flavonol widely distributed in plants. It is an antioxidant, like many other phenolic heterocyclic compounds. Glycosylated forms include RUTIN and quercetrin.
A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE. Members contain TRITERPENES. Heal all is another common name.
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells such as the GOBLET CELLS.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Non-consumption of ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.
Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.
Five-ring derivatives of dammarane having a chair-chair-chair-boat configuration. They include the lupanes, oleananes, amyrins, GLYCYRRHIZIC ACID, and soyasaponins.
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
A DNA alkylating agent that has been shown to be a potent carcinogen and is widely used to induce colon tumors in experimental animals.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
Programs of study which span the traditional boundaries of academic scholarship.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The rose plant family in the order ROSALES and class Magnoliopsida. They are generally woody plants. A number of the species of this family contain cyanogenic compounds.
Substances that possess antiestrogenic actions but can also produce estrogenic effects as well. They act as complete or partial agonist or as antagonist. They can be either steroidal or nonsteroidal in structure.
Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
The conjugation of exogenous substances with various hydrophilic substituents to form water soluble products that are excretable in URINE. Phase II modifications include GLUTATHIONE conjugation; ACYLATION; and AMINATION. Phase II enzymes include GLUTATHIONE TRANSFERASE and GLUCURONOSYLTRANSFERASE. In a sense these reactions detoxify phase I reaction products.
The disodium salt of selenious acid. It is used therapeutically to supply the trace element selenium and is prepared by the reaction of SELENIUM DIOXIDE with SODIUM HYDROXIDE.
A class of chemicals that contain an anthracene ring with a naphthalene ring attached to it.
An epimer of chenodeoxycholic acid. It is a mammalian bile acid found first in the bear and is apparently either a precursor or a product of chenodeoxycholate. Its administration changes the composition of bile and may dissolve gallstones. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.
The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.
A condition in which there is a change of one adult cell type to another similar adult cell type.
A plant genus of the family MELIACEAE. Members contain azadirachtin A (a limonoid commonly referred to as azadirachtin) and other TRITERPENES. They have been used in PESTICIDES. The old name of Melia azadirachta is very similar to a related plant, MELIA AZEDARACH.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A condition with damage to the lining of the lower ESOPHAGUS resulting from chronic acid reflux (ESOPHAGITIS, REFLUX). Through the process of metaplasia, the squamous cells are replaced by a columnar epithelium with cells resembling those of the INTESTINE or the salmon-pink mucosa of the STOMACH. Barrett's columnar epithelium is a marker for severe reflux and precursor to ADENOCARCINOMA of the esophagus.
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
A low-molecular-weight protein (minimum molecular weight 8000) which has the ability to inhibit trypsin as well as chymotrypsin at independent binding sites. It is characterized by a high cystine content and the absence of glycine.
Compounds that inhibit AROMATASE in order to reduce production of estrogenic steroid hormones.
Benign neoplasms derived from glandular epithelium. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Specific practices for the prevention of disease or mental disorders in susceptible individuals or populations. These include HEALTH PROMOTION, including mental health; protective procedures, such as COMMUNICABLE DISEASE CONTROL; and monitoring and regulation of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS. Primary prevention is to be distinguished from SECONDARY PREVENTION and TERTIARY PREVENTION.
Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.
Protein of the annexin family originally isolated from the electric organ of the electric ray Torpedo marmorata. It has been found in a wide range of mammalian tissue where it is localized to the apical membrane of polarized EPITHELIAL CELLS.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.
Organic salts of cyanic acid containing the -OCN radical.
3-Phenylchromones. Isomeric form of FLAVONOIDS in which the benzene group is attached to the 3 position of the benzopyran ring instead of the 2 position.
Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the action or biosynthesis of estrogenic compounds.
Proteins in the nucleus or cytoplasm that specifically bind RETINOIC ACID or RETINOL and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Retinoic acid receptors, like steroid receptors, are ligand-activated transcription regulators. Several types have been recognized.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain ACONITINE and other diterpenoid alkaloids.
Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
Tumors or cancer of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)

Differential responses of normal, premalignant, and malignant human bronchial epithelial cells to receptor-selective retinoids. (1/1034)

Using an in vitro lung carcinogenesis model consisting of normal, premalignant, and malignant human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells, we analyzed the growth inhibitory effects of 26 novel synthetic retinoic acid receptor (RAR)- and retinoid X receptor (RXR)-selective retinoids. RAR-selective retinoids such as CD271, CD437, CD2325, and SR11364 showed potent activity in inhibiting the growth of either normal or premalignant and malignant HBE cells (IC50s mostly <1 microM) and were much more potent than RXR-selective retinoids. Nonetheless, the combination of RAR- and RXR-selective retinoids exhibited additive effects in HBE cells. As the HBE cells became progressively more malignant, they exhibited decreased or lost sensitivity to many retinoids. The activity of the RAR-selective retinoids, with the exception of the most potent retinoid, CD437, could be suppressed by an RAR panantagonist. These results suggest that: (a) RAR/RXR heterodimers play an important role in mediating the growth inhibitory effects of most retinoids in HBE cells; (b) CD437 may act through an RAR-independent pathway; (c) some of the RAR-selective retinoids may have the potential to be used in the clinic as chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents for lung cancer; and (d) early stages of lung carcinogenesis may be responsive targets for chemoprevention by retinoids, as opposed to later stages.  (+info)

KRAS mutations predict progression of preneoplastic gastric lesions. (2/1034)

Eight hundred sixty-three subjects with atrophic gastritis were recruited to participate in an ongoing chemoprevention trial in Narino, Colombia. The participants were randomly assigned to intervention therapies, which included treatment to eradicate Helicobacter pylori infection followed by daily dietary supplementation with antioxidant micronutrients in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design. A series of biopsies of gastric mucosa were obtained according to a specified protocol from designated locations in the stomach for each participant at baseline (before intervention therapy) and at year three. A systematic sample of 160 participants was selected from each of the eight treatment combinations. DNA was isolated from each of these biopsies (n = 320), and the first exon of KRAS was amplified using PCR. Mutations in the KRAS gene were detected using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and confirmed by sequence analysis. Of all baseline biopsies, 14.4% (23 of 160) contained KRAS mutations. Among those participants with atrophic gastritis without metaplasia, 19.4% (6 of 25) contained KRAS mutations, indicating that mutation of this important gene is likely an early event in the etiology of gastric carcinoma. An important association was found between the presence of KRAS mutations in baseline biopsies and the progression of preneoplastic lesions. Only 14.6% (20 of 137) of participants without baseline KRAS mutations progressed from atrophic gastritis to intestinal metaplasia or from small intestinal metaplasia to colonic metaplasia; however, 39.1% (9 of 23) with baseline KRAS mutations progressed to a more advanced lesion after 3 years [univariate odds ratio (OR), 3.76 (P = 0.05); multivariate OR adjusted for treatment, 3.74 (P = 0.04)]. In addition, the specificity of the KRAS mutation predicted progression. For those participants with G-->T transversions at position 1 of codon 12 (GGT-->TGT), 19.4% (5 of 17) progressed (univariate OR, 2.4); however, 60.0% (3 of 5) of participants with G-->A transitions at position 1 of codon 12 (GGT-->AGT) progressed (univariate OR, 8.7; P = 0.004 using chi2 test).  (+info)

Disorders in cell circuitry associated with multistage carcinogenesis: exploitable targets for cancer prevention and therapy. (3/1034)

The development of a malignant tumor involves the progressive acquisition of mutations and epigenetic abnormalities in multiple genes that have highly diverse functions. Some of these genes code for pathways of signal transduction that mediate the action of growth factors. The enzyme protein kinase C plays an important role in these events and in the process of tumor promotion. Therefore, we examined the effects of three inhibitors of protein kinase C, CGP 41251, RO 31-8220, and calphostin C, on human glioblastoma cells. These compounds inhibited growth and induced apoptosis; these activities were associated with a decrease in the level of CDC2 and cyclin B1/CDC2-associated kinase activity. This may explain why the treated cells accumulated in G2-M. In a separate series of studies, we examined abnormalities in cell cycle control genes in human cancer. We have found that cyclin D1 is frequently overexpressed in a variety of human cancers. Mechanistic studies indicate that cyclin D1 can play a critical role in carcinogenesis because: overexpression enhances cell transformation and tumorigenesis; introduction of an antisense cyclin D1 cDNA into either human esophageal or colon cancer cells reverts their malignant phenotype; and overexpression of cyclin D1 can enhance the amplification of other genes. The latter finding suggests that cyclin D1 can enhance genomic instability and, thereby, the process of tumor progression. Therefore, inhibitors of the function of cyclin D1 may be useful in both cancer chemoprevention and therapy. We obtained evidence for the existence of homeostatic feedback loops between cyclins D1 or E and the cell cycle inhibitory protein p27Kip1. On the basis of these and other findings, we hypothesize that, because of their disordered circuitry, cancer cells suffer from "gene addiction" and "gene hypersensitivity," disorders that might be exploited in both cancer prevention and therapy.  (+info)

Determination of an optimal dosing regimen for aspirin chemoprevention of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon tumours in rats. (4/1034)

In order to establish an optimal timing and duration of aspirin treatment in the chemoprevention of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon cancer in rats, colon tumours were induced using an established protocol and aspirin was given in the diet at 500 p.p.m. during various stages of colon carcinogenesis. Results indicate that only aspirin treatment throughout the entire carcinogenic period significantly reduced tumour incidence and volume whereas intermittent aspirin dosing increased tumour number and/or volume, suggesting that aspirin must be used for an extended period in order to gain any chemopreventive benefit.  (+info)

Evaluation of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) for cancer chemoprevention: lack of efficacy against nascent adenomatous polyps in the Apc(Min) mouse. (5/1034)

Recent experimental and epidemiological evidence suggests that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are effective in the prevention of colorectal cancer. However, the toxicity associated with the long-term use of most classical NSAIDs has limited their usefulness for the purpose of cancer chemoprevention. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, in particular, are sensitive to the adverse side effects of NSAIDs, and these patients also have an increased risk for the development of intestinal cancer. 5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is an anti-inflammatory drug commonly used in the treatment of IBD and may provide protection against the development of colorectal cancer in these patients. To directly evaluate the ability of 5-ASA to suppress intestinal tumors, we studied several formulations of 5-ASA (free acid, sulfasalazine, and Pentasa) at multiple oral dosage levels [500, 2400, 4800, and 9600 parts/million (ppm)] in the adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) mouse model of multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min). Although the ApcMin mouse is not a model of colitis-associated neoplasia, it is, nonetheless, a useful model for assessing the ability of anti-inflammatory agents to prevent tumor formation in a genetically preinitiated population of cells. We used a study design in which drug was provided ad libitum through the diet beginning at the time of weaning (28 days of age) until 100 days of age. We included 200 ppm of piroxicam and 160 ppm of sulindac as positive controls, and the negative control was AIN-93G diet alone. Treatment with either piroxicam or sulindac produced statistically significant reductions in intestinal tumor multiplicity (95% and 83% reductions in tumor number, respectively; P < 0.001 versus controls). By contrast, none of the 5-ASA drug formulations or dosage levels produced consistent dose-progressive changes in polyp number, distribution, or size, despite high luminal and serum concentrations of 5-ASA and its primary metabolite N-acetyl-5-ASA. Thus, 5-ASA does not seem to possess direct chemosuppressive activity against the development of nascent intestinal adenomas in the ApcMin mouse. However, because intestinal tumor development in the ApcMin mouse is driven by a germline mutation in the Apc gene rather than by chronic inflammation, we caution that these findings do not definitively exclude the possibility that 5-ASA may exert a chemopreventive effect in human IBD patients.  (+info)

Should we be doing more to prevent Group C meningococcal infection in school age children? How can we decide? (6/1034)

Meningococcal Group C infections are potentially preventable by vaccination in most cases. Population immunization has not been adopted because the disease is rare and the vaccine effective for only about three years. However, the recent rise in cases in school age children has prompted an assessment of the cost-effectiveness of alternative strategies for management of a case of Group C infection. Chemoprophylaxis and vaccination of close contacts is the most cost-effective strategy but will prevent relatively few cases. Population vaccination prevents considerably more cases, but at a much higher total and marginal cost. An intermediate strategy of giving antibiotics to and vaccinating the school population following a single case, in addition to contact tracing, has intermediate cost-effectiveness. Policy decisions will take into account other important factors but the approach we have taken makes explicit key assumptions so that wider debate including profession and public can be developed.  (+info)

Chemoprevention of tobacco smoke-induced lung tumors in A/J strain mice with dietary myo-inositol and dexamethasone. (7/1034)

Male A/J strain mice were fed AIN-76A diet supplemented with myo-inositol/dexamethasone (10 g and 0.5 mg/kg diet) or acetylsalicylic acid (300 mg/kg) and exposed for 5 months to a mixture of sidestream and mainstream cigarette smoke at a concentration of 132 mg total suspended particulates/m3. After tobacco smoke exposure, they were allowed to recover for another 4 months in filtered air. In the animals fed AIN-75A diet alone or acetylsalicylic acid, the average number of tumors/lung was 2.1, whereas in the animals given the myo-inositol/dexamethasone diet, the average lung tumor multiplicity was 1.0 (P < 0.05). In animals exposed to filtered air, lung tumor multiplicities were 0.6 for animals fed AIN-76A or myo-inositol/dexamethasone and 1.2 for animals fed acetylsalicylic acid. It was concluded that the combination of myo-inositol and dexamethasone constitutes an effective chemopreventive regimen against tobacco smoke-induced lung tumorigenesis.  (+info)

Retinoids: present role and future potential. (8/1034)

Vitamin A and its biologically active derivatives, retinal and retinoic acid (RA), together with a large repertoire of synthetic analogues are collectively referred to as retinoids. Naturally occurring retinoids regulate the growth and differentiation of a wide variety of cell types and play a crucial role in the physiology of vision and as morphogenic agents during embryonic development. Retinoids and their analogues have been evaluated as chemoprevention agents, and also in the management of acute promyelocytic leukaemia. Retinoids exert most of their effects by binding to specific receptors and modulating gene expression. The development of new active retinoids and the identification of two distinct families of retinoid receptors has led to an increased understanding of the cellular effects of activation of these receptors. In this article we review the use of retinoids in chemoprevention strategies, discuss the cellular consequences of activated retinoid receptors, and speculate on how our increasing understanding of retinoid-induced signalling pathways may contribute to future therapeutic strategies in the management of malignant disease.  (+info)

TY - CHAP. T1 - Phase III prostate cancer chemoprevention trials. AU - Parnes, Howard L.. AU - Brawley, Otis W.. AU - Minasian, Lori M.. AU - Ford, Leslie G.. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Chemoprevention refers to the use of pharmacologic interventions to delay, prevent, or reverse carcinogenesis with the ultimate goal of reducing cancer incidence. Two large, population-based, phase 3 prostate cancer prevention trials reported that 5-alpha reductase inhibitors significantly reduce prostate cancer risk. However, this class of agents were also associated with increased detection of high-grade prostate cancer. Another large, phase 3 prostate cancer prevention clinical trial showed no benefit for long-term supplementation with the trace element Se, given in the form of selenomethionine, or vitamin E, either individually or in combination. Paradoxically, a significant increase in prostate cancer was observed among men randomized to receive vitamin E alone. A great deal of progress had been made in the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Retinoids in lung cancer chemoprevention and treatment. AU - Toma, S.. AU - Raffo, P.. AU - Isnardi, L.. AU - Palumbo, R.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - In this review, we aim to synthesize the emerging picture of retinoids in lung cancer through a summary of ongoing investigations in biology, chemoprevention and therapy settings, in an attempt to clarify the possible role of these agents in such a disease. Early work in head and neck cancer has evidenced the capability of retinoids to interrupt field carcinogenesis by reversing premalignant lesions and decreasing the incidence of second primary tumors (SPTs). At this time, the completed randomized trials in lung cancer have failed to demonstrate an evident chemopreventive effect of the tested agents on different study end points, although both a marginally significant benefit of retinol palmitate in time-to-development rates for smoke-related SPTs and a potential preventive effect of retinol supplementation against mesothelioma in ...
In this modified phase I pilot study with LP, we demonstrate, for the first time, the safety, tolerability, and the dose of a standardized GSE that corresponded to favorable modulations of SEBM for lung cancer chemoprevention, including bronchial Ki-67 LI, and serum oncomirs miR-19a, -19b, and -106b.. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the world, accounting for an estimated 2.09 million deaths in 2018 (19). Despite significant advancements in anticancer treatments, the 5-year survival rate for lung cancer remains dismal. The lack of effective therapy provides the impetus to search for alternative, safe, and efficacious agents for lung cancer chemoprevention, to impede the driving forces of cancerization, and prevent the development of lung cancer in at-risk individuals (20). Whereas chemopreventive approaches have been proven successful for various cancers such as breast and colon cancer (21, 22), successes in phase III lung cancer chemoprevention trials have remained ...
Approximately 1 in 8 women in the U.S. will develop breast cancer in their lifetime. But not every womans chances of developing the disease are the same, and those with more risk factors might benefit from taking chemoprevention agents.. Chemoprevention agents are drugs that can inhibit or slow the growth of cancer cells. For some women who dont currently have breast cancer, taking medications like tamoxifen, raloxifene, or aromatase inhibitors can help reduce their odds for getting some types of the disease in the future, according to new recommendations from the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF).. Heres some more information about these recommendations and how you and your doctor can decide whether these medications are right for you.. ...
U.S., March 8 -- registry received information related to the study (NCT03069742) titled Study of Web-based Decision Aids for Increasing Breast Cancer Chemoprevention in the Primary Care Setting on Feb. 28. Brief Summary: The purpose of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) is to evaluate a decision support website (RealRisks) designed to inform patients about breast cancer prevention options. It is coupled with a physician-centered (BNAV) decision support website as part of clinical workflow in the primary care setting. The investigators hypothesize that improving accuracy of breast cancer risk perception and understanding of the risks and benefits of breast cancer risk lowering drugs, also known as chemoprevention, will increase the uptake of chemoprevention in the primary care setting. Study Start Date: November 2016 Study Type: Interventional Condition: Breast Neoplasm Intervention: Other: RealRisks RealRisks is a web-based patient decision aid with modules that present ...
In humans, myo-inositol has been studied in the treatment of psychiatric disorders such as depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and panic attacks (2-7), as well as diabetic neuropathy (8, 9). No serious adverse effects were observed in doses up to 20 g/d p.o. for 2 to 6 weeks. Minor symptoms such as nausea, abdominal pain, flatulence, or soft stools were reported in only a small proportion of the subjects treated (3, 7). The results of blood tests, when reported, usually stated that no hematologic, renal, or liver function abnormality was observed, although the actual laboratory values were not shown. In the only study where abnormal laboratory results were reported (3), 2 of the 13 patients who received myo-inositol 12 g/d for 4 weeks for treatment of depression showed a mild increase in the fasting blood glucose. In one subject, the blood glucose returned to normal despite continuing to take myo-inositol after the clinical trial. The second patient showed the same mild increase several ...
Cancer chemoprevention is the concept of taking a medication or other type of chemical agent to prevent, suppress, or reverse the process of carcinogenesis in asymptomatic individuals. In identifying patients who may benefit from chemoprevention, their risk of developing cancer must be weighed against the risks and side effects from the study agent/medication. Therefore, the ideal chemoprevention study would involve subjects from a population at high-risk and a study agent with a favorable side-effect profile.. Interest in cancer chemoprevention is growing among certain groups of patients. Hormonal modulators such as tamoxifen, raloxifene, and aromatase inhibitors have been associated with significant reductions in risk for breast cancer (15, 16) and uptake of these is increasing among women with abnormal breast histology or genetic predisposition, which place them at high risk for breast cancer. Among women with germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations, use of oral contraceptive pills (OCP) has ...
The available results from breast cancer chemoprevention trials are reviewed. Four trials using tamoxifen have been performed, of which three have reported efficacy results. A fifth trial using...
The basic cancer-related chemical and biological sciences, pathology, and epidemiology have contributed to the understanding that antimutagenesis and antiproliferation are the important general mechanisms of chemoprevention and to the development of antimutagenic and anti-proliferative agents as potential chemopreventive drugs. These disciplines have also provided the biochemical and histopathological bases for identifying intermediate biomarkers that can be used as surrogate end points for cancer incidence in clinical chemoprevention trials and for selecting cohorts for these trials. Particularly important as histological biomarkers of cancer are the cytonuclear morphological and densitometric changes that define intraepithelial neoplasia (IEN). IEN changes are on the causal pathway to cancer. They may serve as target lesions in Phase II chemoprevention trials and as standards against which other earlier cellular and molecular biomarkers can be evaluated. Strategies for the clinical evaluation ...
The trial, known as APPROVe (Adenomatous Polyp Prevention on Vioxx), was the longest test yet of Vioxx as a chemoprevention agent, and was designed to determine whether the drug could prevent the re-growth of precancerous colon polyps in people who had already had polyps removed. The prospective chemoprevention study randomized 2,586 participants from 108 centers in 29 countries to receive either 25 mgs. of Vioxx daily or a placebo drug for three years, 2001-2004. The trial was stopped September 30, 2004 - approximately two months before its planned completion. ...
The overall goal of this research project is to develop Oriental herbal compound 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl- beta-D-glucose (PGG) for the chemoprevention of pros...
Aditya Bardia, Tanya E. Keenan, Jon O. Ebbert, Deann Lazovich, Alice H. Wang, Robert A. Vierkant, Janet E. Olson, Celine M. Vachon, Paul J. Limburg, Kristin E. Anderson, James R. Cerhan ...
One promising approach to cancer chemoprevention involves the induction of phase II xenobiotic metabolism enzymes. Since this approach requires drugs specifically intended to alter tissue gene expression patterns over long periods, it will be important to determine experimentally which proteins are …
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Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Justyna Szumiło, Justyna Podlodowska, Wiktor Podlodowski, Elzbieta Starosławska, Franciszek Burdan].
Full Text CA-97-014 PIVOTAL CLINICAL TRIALS FOR CHEMOPREVENTION AGENT DEVELOPMENT NIH GUIDE, Volume 26, Number 7, March 7, 1997 RFA: CA-97-014 P.T. 34 Keywords: Cancer/Carcinogenesis Clinical Trial Chemopreventive Agents National Cancer Institute Letter of Intent Receipt Date: April 3, 1997 Application Receipt Date: May 22, 1997 PURPOSE The Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC), National Cancer Institute (NCI) invites applications to further the drug development efforts of the Chemoprevention Branch by carrying out intermediate-sized Phase II/III efficacy trials of promising chemopreventive agents in major cancer target organs, particularly prostate, breast, lung, colon, and bladder. Currently, most NCI-sponsored Phase II clinical trials enroll fewer than 100 participants and evaluate a spectrum of potential SEBs as study endpoints over a relatively brief study period (2 weeks 6 months). This is in contrast to the large Phase III clinical chemoprevention trials with tamoxifen, ...
The aim of this study was to determine whether single high oral doses of resveratrol are safe and yield systemic concentrations associated with chemopreventive activity in cells in vitro (5-18). Serious adverse events were not observed. The low toxicity prevalence and the limited number of subjects studied do not permit a statistically valid conclusion about safety. Assuming that the reproducibility of adverse events found in this trial can be generalized to a large, randomized clinical trial, resveratrol might be considered safe for chemopreventive intervention in healthy individuals. Nevertheless, it is important to be mindful of the possibility that, on chronic administration, resveratrol may generate unanticipated adverse effects.. The pharmacokinetic analysis suggests that ingestion of resveratrol equivalent to the amount contained in several hundred bottles of red wine produces Cmax concentrations of between 0.3 and 2.4 μmol/L, markedly below the resveratrol concentrations required in in ...
Based on age and risk, an estimated 10 million women in the United States may be eligible for an agent aimed at preventing breast cancer, but chemoprevention is underutilized. Fewer than 5% of women at high risk who are offered tamoxifen for chemoprevention agree to take the drug, partly due to inadequate time for counseling, insufficient knowledge about risk-reduction strategies, and concerns about side effects, according to Parijathan S. Sivasubramanian, MD, of Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York.1. Dr. Sivasubramanian led one of two studies examining the factors that influence the uptake of chemoprevention. The other was presented at the meeting by Erin W. Hofstatter, MD, of Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.2. Richer and Wiser Women. Dr. Hofstatter reported that being richer and wiser was a factor in the acceptance of chemoprevention, based on information from the National Health Interview Survey, a population-based survey conducted ...
1661 There is a clear need to develop effective chemoprevention strategies to reduce the high incidence of lung cancer. The purpose of the this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two targeted approaches, reversal of gene silencing by methylation through demethylation therapy and the induction of apoptosis through activation of the PPAR-γ pathway. A chemoprevention study was designed in which A/J mice that are highly susceptible to lung cancer were treated with the tobacco carcinogen, NNK. Animals were held for 42 wks to allow the development of pre-invasive lesions: alveolar hyperplasias and adenomas. At that time mice were separated into 12 groups of 15 mice and treated for 6 weeks with individual or a combination of the agents. The agents used were hydralazine (Hyd), selenium (Se), sodium phenylbutyrate (PheB), valproic acid (VPA), iloprost (Ilo), and rosiglitazone (Ros). Not all combinations could be evaluated due to number of treated mice. Following sacrifice, the number of lesions ...
Coming of age - the chemoprevention of cancer. Chemoprevention as a form of cancer control. Comparison of low-dose isotretinoin with beta carotene to prevent oral carcinogenesis
Cancer chemoprevention involves the use of artificial or naturally occurring substances aimed to arrest or reverse the process of carcinogenesis. Numerous agents including dietary phytochemicals, anti-inflammatory drugs, vitamins and others are thought to possess preventative anti-cancer activities. Paul Ehrlich was the first to devise the idea that the immune system could suppress the increased frequency of carcinomas. This concept was further matured with the formulation of the
Quercetin and Cancer Chemoprevention Lara Gibellini, 1 Marcello Pinti, 1 Milena Nasi, 1 Jonas P. Montagna, 1 Sara De Biasi, 1 Erika Roat, 1 Linda Bertoncelli, 1 Edwin L. Cooper, 2 and Andrea Cossarizza 1 *. 1Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia School of Medicine, 41125 Modena, Italy. 2David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA Medical Center (CHS), Los Angeles, CA, USA. *Andrea Cossarizza: Email: [email protected] Received November 24, 2009; Accepted April 9, 2010.. Abstract. Several molecules present in the diet, including flavonoids, can inhibit the growth of cancer cells with an ability to act as chemopreventers. Their cancer-preventive effects have been attributed to various mechanisms, including the induction of cell-cycle arrest and/or apoptosis as well as the antioxidant functions. The antioxidant activity of chemopreventers has recently received a great interest, essentially because oxidative stress participates in the initiation and ...
Overview of outcomes of the use of Raloxifene in reducing cancer risk. This drug lowers the risk for breast cancer in certain high-risk women.
467 Prostate cancer (PCa) has become one of the most frequently diagnosed malignancies in the United States with similar trend in most Western countries. The substantial mortality and morbidity associated with PCa and its poor treatment options have led a surge to develop novel means for its prevention. The development of chemoprevention strategies against PCa would have huge impact, both medically and economically. Because of its ubiquity and disease burden, PCa is an attractive target for chemoprevention. Fisetin (3,3,4,7-tetrahydroxyflavone), is found in fruits andvegetables, such as strawberry, apple, persimmon, grape, onionand cucumber. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of fisetin on cell-growth and apoptosis in human PCa cells. Treatment of fisetin (10-60 μM; 48 h) was found to result in a decrease in the viability of LNCaP, CWR22Rυ1 and PC-3 cells but had only minimal effect on normal prostate epithelial PrEC cells as assessed by MTT assay. To decipher the mechanism of ...
Chemoprevention (also Chemoprophylaxis) refers to the administration of a medication for the purpose of preventing disease or infection.[1] Antibiotics, for example, may be administered to patients with disorders of immune system function to prevent bacterial infections (particularly opportunistic infection).[2] Antibiotics may also be administered to healthy individuals to limit the spread of an epidemic, or to patients who have repeated infections (such as urinary tract infections) to prevent recurrence. It may also refer to the administration of heparin to prevent deep venous thrombosis in hospitalized patients. In some cases, chemoprophylaxis is initiated to prevent the spread of an existing infection in an individual to a new organ system, as when intrathecal chemotherapy is administered in patients with malignancy to prevent further infection. The use of chemoprophylaxis is limited primarily by two factors: risk and financial costs. ...
Side effects were minimal and no different in both groups: of those taking placebo, 38 percent had grade 1 or 2 toxicity, and 3 percent had grade 3, compared to 39 percent and 1 percent, respectively in those taking the supplement. The study was stopped by the independent Data and Safety Monitoring Committee due to futility. The researchers did find that in a small group of the lung cancer patients who were never smoked, selenium did provide a small benefit; however, the size of the group of patients, 94, was too small to be statistically significant. Our results demonstrate that selenium is not an effective chemoprevention agent in an unselected group of lung cancer patients, and its not something we can recommend to our patients to prevent a second cancer from developing or recurring, said Karp. These findings also remind us that never smokers may represent a unique disease and should be an area for special consideration for research focus.. Given our results and that of SELECT, ...
Cancer chemoprevention is a term thats received a great deal of attention in recent years. It refers to the use of nontoxic natural or synthetic chemicals to halt the development of cancer. Many research studies have focused on the cancer chemopreventive properties of botanical substances. One of the most extensively investigated of these plant-based substances…
The purpose of this study is to determine whether erlotinib will be effective in controlling cancer that has returned after treatment with radiation. Th
TY - JOUR. T1 - Application of pharmacogenomics to dietary cancer chemoprevention. AU - Prawan, Auemduan. AU - Khor, Tin Oo. AU - Li, Wenge. AU - Kong, Ah Ng Tony. PY - 2007/9. Y1 - 2007/9. N2 - Many lines of evidence demonstrate that certain dietary phytochemicals have cancer chemopreventive effects. These dietary phytochemicals or chemo-preventive agents can suppress or block carcinogenesis by 1 enhancing the biotransformation enzymatic activities for efficient elimination of carcinogens or reactive oxidative or nitrosative species (ROS/RNS); 2 suppressing the growth/inflammatory signaling pathways involved in cancer cell proliferation; and 3 modulating phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes, e.g. glutathione S-transferases (GST), NAD(P)H-quinone reductase 1 (NQO1), UDP-glueuronosyltransferases (UGT), and antioxidant enzymes such as gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO1). Comparison of gene expression profiles among Nrf2 wild type and Nrf2 knockout mice showed ...
1. Torre LA, Siegel RL, Jemal A. Lung Cancer Statistics. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2016;893:1-19 2. Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2017. CA Cancer J Clin. 2017;67:7-30 3. Lim SM, Syn NL, Cho BC, Soo RA. Acquired resistance to EGFR targeted therapy in non-small cell lung cancer: Mechanisms and therapeutic strategies. Cancer Treat Rev. 2018;65:1-10 4. Yue J, Lv D, Wang C, Li L, Zhao Q, Chen H. et al. Epigenetic silencing of miR-483-3p promotes acquired gefitinib resistance and EMT in EGFR-mutant NSCLC by targeting integrin beta3. Oncogene. 2018;37:4300-12 5. Dragnev K, You M Fau - Wang Y, Wang Y Fau - Lubet R, Lubet R. Lung cancer chemoprevention: difficulties, promise and potential agents?. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2013;22:35-47 6. Li Q, Zhang D, Chen X, He L, Li T, Xu X. et al. Nuclear PKM2 contributes to gefitinib resistance via upregulation of STAT3 activation in colorectal cancer. Scientific reports. 2015;5:16082 7. Tang J, Guo F, Du Y, Liu X, Qin Q, Liu X. et al. Continuous ...
Potential Use of Chronic Disease Medicines for Cancer Chemoprevention. The aim of this project is to investigate whether use of the above common chronic disease medications is associated with a reduced risk of developing: 1) endometrial cancer; 2) thyroid cancer; or 3) pancreas cancer... If we find that existing medications with well-established safety profiles are associated with reduced cancer risk, this could result in significant health and economic benefits and our findings may have the potential to inform prescribing choices for women from the general population needing treatment for other chronic diseases.. - A/Prof Susan Jordan, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute. ...
PubMed journal article: A review of animal model studies of tomato carotenoids, lycopene, and cancer chemoprevention. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death worldwide with more than 1.3 million people dying of the disease annually. While antitobacco initiatives in young people are important in preventing lung cancer in the long term, additional measures such as early detection and chemoprevention are needed for individuals already at risk due to past exposure to tobacco smoke. This review highlights the potential use of sputum, exhaled breath and blood biomarkers as well as thoracic CT and autofluorescence bronchoscopy for early detection. The current status of chemoprevention is summarized. The case for using a two-step screening strategy is also discussed.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Colorectal chemoprevention pilot study (SWOG-9041), randomized and placebo controlled. T2 - The importance of multiple luminal lesions. AU - Chu, David Z J. AU - Hussey, Michael A.. AU - Alberts, David S. AU - Meyskens, Frank L.. AU - Fenoglio-Preiser, Cecilia M.. AU - Rivkin, Saul E.. AU - Mills, Glenn M.. AU - Giguere, Jeffrey K.. AU - Blanke, Charles D.. AU - Goodman, Gary E.. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. N2 - Background: Colorectal cancer is common worldwide and chemoprevention has the potential of reducing the number of individuals who may suffer and perish from this disease. Methods: A randomized placebo controlled pilot study in colorectal cancer patients was performed using calcium carbonate as the test agent in a multi-institutional oncology study group. Results: Two hundred twenty volunteers were randomized in the study. The primary goals of compliance, accrual, and toxicity monitoring are presented. Presence of multiple adenomas at study entry and subsequent development of ...
Simply no clinically effective chemoprevention for lung malignancy has been found. enumerated and measured. Vandetanib resulted in reductions in tumor multiplicity (6.5 +/? 0.86 vs 1.0 +/? 0.30, p = 0.001) and average tumor volume (0.85 +/? 0.10 mm3 vs. 0.15 +/? 0.09 mm3, p = 0.001), but not incidence (71% vs. 100%, p = ns), compared to control. As vandetanib has other activities besides VEGFR-2 tyrosine kinase inhibition, we administered the anti-VEGFR-2 monoclonal antibody, DC101, for weeks 11C15 of a urethane Ispinesib carcinogenesis protocol with an arrest in tumor volume increase, but no switch in multiplicity or incidence. Further investigation of the chemopreventive effect of vandetanib and other VEGF signaling inhibitors is needed. Introduction Lung malignancy is the leading cause of cancer death in the world(1). Tobacco smoking is the major cause of lung malignancy and smoking cessation is an efficient means to reduce lung cancers risk(2). Nevertheless, significant threat of lung ...
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a major cause of cellular injury in an increasing number of diseases, including cancer. Most ROS are created in the cell through normal cellular metabolism. They can be produced by environmental insults such as ultraviolet light and toxic chemicals, as well as by the inflammatory process. Interception of ROS or limiting their cellular effects is a major role of antioxidants. Due to their content of phenolic and flavonoid compounds, berries exhibit high antioxidant potential, exceeding that of many other foodstuffs. Through their ability to scavenge ROS and reduce oxidative DNA damage, stimulate antioxidant enzymes, inhibit carcinogen-induced DNA adduct formation and enhance DNA repair, berry compounds have been shown to inhibit mutagenesis and cancer initiation. Berry constituents also influence cellular processes associated with cancer progression including signaling pathways associated with cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and angiogenesis. This ...
Scientific Experts, Genomes and Genes, Publications, Species, Research Topics about Chemoprevention of IBD-Associated Colon Cancer
Principal Investigator:KAWANISHI Shosuke, Project Period (FY):2001 - 2003, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), Section:展開研究, Research Field:Hygiene
In this study of a large series of patients included in a prospective chemoprevention trial with a median follow-up of 7.5 years, we show for the first time the value of ΔNp63 expression as a predictor of oral cancer development. In a multicovariate analysis that included age, treatment arm, and histologic status, ΔNp63 expression was independently associated with oral cancer development with a HR of 3.308 (95% CI, 1.663-6.580). At 5 years after the randomization date, 39% of the patients with positive ΔNp63 staining had developed cancer compared with only 11% of patients with negative ΔNp63 staining. Interestingly, we observed that the presence of clusters of EIC was associated with an increased risk of developing oral cancer, although this risk was marginally significant in the multicovariate analysis. The significance of ΔNp63 expression in predicting oral cancer development was comparable with that of podoplanin. Because these two factors were highly associated, analyzing them together ...
Title: Mouse Prostate Proteome Changes Induced by Oral Pentagalloylglucose Treatment Suggest Targets for Cancer Chemoprevention. VOLUME: 11 ISSUE: 7. Author(s):J. Zhang, K. Nkhata, A. A. Shaik, L. Wang, L. Li, Y. Zhang, L. A. Higgins, K. H. Kim, J. D. Liao, C. Xing, S.-H. Kim and J. Lu. Affiliation:Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center. 1300 S. Coulter St, Amarillo, TX79106, USA.. Keywords:Cancer chemoprevention, iTRAQ, penta-1, 6-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (PGG), prostate, proteomic, tolerated dose determination, transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate, heat shock protein 5, fatty acid synthase, glutathione S-transferase mu. Abstract: Recent in vitro and in vivo preclinical studies have suggested that the Oriental herbal compound penta-1, 2, 3, 4, 6-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (PGG) is a promising chemopreventive agent for prostate cancer. Little is known of its safety for chronic chemoprevention use and virtually nothing is known of ...
Whitsett, T. and Lamartineiere, C.A. Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, UAB Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham. Even with the advent of new and aggressive therapeutics, breast cancer remains a destructive disease and a leading killer among cancers. There is and should be a concerted effort to prevent breast cancer. We have shown that the consumption of genistein, a major constituent of soy, in a prepubertal rat confers protection against chemically-induced mammary cancer.. Another polyphenol that has received much attention for health benefits is resveratrol, a component found in red grapes (red wine). We have investigated the chemopreventive properties of resveratrol using the DMBA model for mammary carcinoma in the Sprague-Dawley rat. Dietary administration of pure resveratroil (1 g/kg AIN-76A diet) was provided for the entirety of life. Control animals were maintained on AIN-76A diet, reportedly void of phytoestrogens. With a least 30 animals per ...
Colorectal Cancer (CRC) is one of the most frequently encountered neoplasms in humans. The incidence of CRC has been increasing and new strategies for prevention, including chemoprevention, are required to lower its incidence and associated mortality. Metformin is a biguanide compound commonly used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Many recent basic research, epidemiological and clinical trial studies have indicated that metformin has benefits not only in diabetes treatment, but also in lowering the risk of developing cancer (including CRC). These studies indicate that metformin may be a candidate chemoprevention agent for CRC. This review article shall discuss the present evidence of metformin treatment and CRC, as well as outline our challenge in the investigation of metformin use in chemoprevention therapy for colorectal tumors.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer. AU - Gwyn, Karin. AU - Sinicrope, Frank A.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Colorectal cancer is the third most incident cancer in the United States and is second only to lung cancer as a cause of cancer-related mortality. Colorectal cancer develops through a multistep process characterized by histopathological precursor lesions and molecular genetic alterations. This sequential process of tumorigenesis provides opportunities for the development and testing of both primary and secondary prevention strategies. This review focuses on chemoprevention, which is defined as the use of natural or synthetic agents to reverse the process of carcinogenesis. Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that chronic intake of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), principally aspirin, can reduce the incidence of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas. Evaluation of NSAIDs, including ...
Abstract To determine if there is a difference in compliance with antimalarial chemoprophylaxis between febrile travelers with and without malaria, 157 patients with malaria, a history of fever, and recent travel to a malariaendemic area were compared with 157 matched controls. Antimalarial prophylaxis had been taken by 48% of all patients. Chemoprophylaxis use was correlated with region and purpose of travel. Cases were less likely to have taken prophylaxis (53%) than controls (76%) (odds ratio = 0.35, confidence interval = 0.27, 0.73), even after controlling for region of travel, purpose of travel, and previous exposure to malaria. Chemoprophylaxis was effective in reducing malaria risk. Travel agents and health practitioners should provide all travelers to malaria-endemic areas with adequate information about chemoprophylaxis and its importance.
Plants have been genetically enhanced to produce a number of products for agricultural, industrial and pharmaceutical purposes. This technology could potentially be applied to providing chemoprevention strategies to the general population. Resveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxystilbene) is a compound that has been shown to have protective activity against a number of cancers and could be an ideal candidate for such an application. Alfalfa that was genetically modified to express resveratrol-synthase was used as a model in applying biotechnological approaches to cancer prevention. The transgenic alfalfa, which accumulates resveratrol as a glucoside (piceid = trans-resveratrol-3-O−β-D-glucopyranoside) (152 ± 17.5 μ g piceid/g dry weight), was incorporated into a standard mouse diet at 20% of the diet by weight and fed for 5 wk to 6-wk-old, female CF-1 mice (N = 17-30) that were injected with a single dose of azoxymethane (5 mg/kg body weight). While the addition of resveratrol-aglycone (20 mg/kg diet) to
The vitamins and plant-derived compounds currently under study have been highly effective at inducing apoptosis in breast cancer cells, thus demonstrating their immense promise as possible forms of treatment. However, the exact mechanism by which each compound signals a cell to die has not been determined because the intricate details of apoptosis are not yet fully understood. Programmed cell death involves multiple pathways; the exact pathway leading to apoptosis depends on the initiation signal and the particular genes and proteins that are activated. With a better understanding of apoptosis, scientists can apply that knowledge to design innovative breast cancer treatments, possibly involving vitamins and plant-derived compounds.. Literature Cited. American Cancer Society, Inc. Fast facts. American Cancer Society. 2000. (Nov. 2000). Danielsson, C., Mathiasen, I.S., James, S.Y., Nayeri, S., Bretting, C., Hansen, C.M., Colston, K.W., Carlberg, C. ...
Although the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention currently only recommend daily dosing of HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP), an on-demand PrEP dosing strategy that includes doses before and after sexual activity has been shown to reduce risk for HIV acquisition in men who have sex with men. In this letter, we report a case of HIV infection and drug resistance in a patient using PrEP outside of regular clinical care, adopting a sporadic, suboptimal dosing strategy with pills he obtained from his sexual partners. This case illustrates the potential risks of PrEP use without provider monitoring to ensure safe and effective dosing and laboratory follow-up, as well as key challenges that must be addressed as non-daily PrEP use becomes more common outside of controlled research settings. ...
For some groups of patients at greater risk of HIV infection (e.g., serodiscordant partners, men who have sex with men and engage in high-risk behaviors, persons with multiple concurrent sex partners, persons who exchange sex for money), preexposure prophylaxis decreased the risk of acquiring HIV infection (number needed to treat [NNT] = 56).
Chemoprevention of disease with cannabis--this is what everyone should be talking about. Using marijuana can protect you from serious illnesses by reducing inflammation, counteracting harmful oxidation, down regulating the production of harmful chemicals in the body, stimulating the production of beneficial chemicals in the body and triggering our intrinsic repair mechanisms, this is big news! We need to encourage everyone we meet to consider embracing cannabis supplementation to guard themselves from Alzheimers disease, cancer, diabetes and more with chemoprevention. J Mol Med (Berl). 2012 Aug;90(8):925-34. Epub 2012 Jan 10.. Chemopreventive effect of the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid cannabidiol on experimental colon cancer.. Aviello G, Romano B, Borrelli F, Capasso R, Gallo L, Piscitelli F, Di Marzo V, Izzo AA.. Source. Department of Experimental Pharmacology, Endocannabinoid Research Group, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy.. Abstract. Colon cancer affects millions of ...
Today, the United States, on behalf of the Department of Health and Human Services, filed a complaint in federal district court against Gilead Sciences, Inc. and Gilead Sciences Ireland UC (collectively, Gilead) seeking damages for Gileads infringement of HHS patents related to pre-exposure prophylaxis (or PrEP) for HIV prevention.
The purpose of this study is to test the preventive effects of a combination of drugs: polyphenon E (PPE) derived from green tea extracts, and erlotinib. Because this combination of drugs has not been tested in humans before for the prevention of cancer, it is not clear which dose of each agent will be optimal in combination.. We will test the safety of the combination of PPE and erlotinib and see what effects (good and/or bad) it has on the patients premalignant lesion, and find the highest dose of each agent that can be given in combination without causing severe side effects. ...
85 Studies found for: Pre-exposure prophylaxis AND PRep OR HIV prevention AND PRep , Recruiting, Not yet recruiting, Available Studies , HIV ...
Cancer is a major disease accounting for over 7 million deaths per year worldwide.1Though recent advances in cancer diagnosis, its early detection, and therapy have improved the quality of life for...
Wang, Z., Xie, C., Huang, Y., Lam, C., and Chow, M.S. Overcoming chemotherapy resistance with herbal medicines: past, present and future perspectives. Phytochem Rev, 2013. 1-15.. Wang ZJ, Fan J, Liu M, Yeung S, Chang A, Chow MS, Pon D, Huang Y. Nutraceuticals for prostate cancer chemoprevention: from molecular mechanisms to clinical application. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2013,22(12):1613-1626. Du Q, Wang Z, He L, Jiang X, Wang L. PXR polymorphisms and their impact on Pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of repaglinide in healthy Chinese volunteers. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2013:1-9.. Liu M, Fan J, Wang S, Wang Z, Wang C, Zuo Z, Chow MSS, Shi LM, Wen Z, Y Huang. Transcriptional profiling of Chinese medicinal formula Si-Wu-Tang on breast cancer cells reveals phytoestrogenic activity. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2013; 13(1):11.. McAfee L, Tung C, Espinosa-Silva Y, Rahman M, Fatima K, Clark R, Wang Z. Pearce, D. A Survey of a Small Sample of Emergency Department and Admitted Patients Asking Whether They ...
Agents may enter clinical advancement for cancer avoidance either initially or after previous advancement for the different indication, such as for example joint disease, with both strategies consuming a long time of advancement before a realtor is fully evaluated for cancers avoidance. carcinogenesis also take place on the molecular levelaccumulating hereditary and epigenetic occasions are essential to induce phenotypical adjustments. Open in another window Body 1 Schema displaying development from high-risk expresses to advanced lung cancers, correlating with an increase of hereditary changes, and the procedure (Tx) choices at each stage. Intraepithelial neoplasia (IEN) contains hyperplasia, metaplasia, and dysplasia. To time, large-scale lung-cancer chemoprevention studies have been harmful: neutral as well as dangerous (18, 32C34). Does not have of predictive and risk biomarkers and of a high-risk cohort certainly added to the harmful results of the studies. Furthermore, these studies did ...
PrEP has the potential to contribute to effective and safe HIV prevention when it is used as follows: Targeted to individuals at high risk for HIV acquisition Delivered as part of a comprehensive se... more
Of the 68 HIV infections that occurred before the visit at 52 weeks (or the first visit after April 18, 2011), 33 occurred in the TDF-FTC group (incidence rate, 4.7 per 100 person-years) and 35 in the placebo group (incidence rate, 5.0 per 100 person-years), leading to an estimated hazard ratio in the TDF-FTC group of 0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59 to 1.52; P=0.81) (Table 2). A prespecified sensitivity analysis in which data were censored when the study drug was no longer available (i.e., owing to an interruption or a missed visit) also showed a between-group difference that was not significant (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.49 to 1.36; P=0.44). When all HIV infections occurring after randomization (i.e., through week 8 after the regular study visit) were included in the analysis, there were 34 infections in the TDF-FTC group and 39 in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.55 to 1.38; P=0.56). The estimated cumulative probability of infection at 12 months was 0.049 in the ...
Jennifer Sanders PhD05, assistant professor of pediatrics (research) and a Rhode Island Hospital researcher, described her findings that administering the chemical rapamycin in a critical three-week window can reduce cancerous lesions in the liver. Her work in the COBRE for Cancer Research and Development has traced the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of a pathway called mTOR. The hope is inhibition of mTOR, or its downstream effectors, may be a chemopreventive strategy against hepatocellular carcinoma.. In the COBRE for Cancer Signaling Networks, Richard Freiman, PhD, associate professor of medical science, is elucidating molecular pathways hes linked to ovarian cancer. His team has found that decreasing the levels of the protein Notch3 reduces the levels of a particular collagen protein in ovarian cancer cells. That, in turn, reduces the cells ability to resist cell death through a process called anoikis. We are presently testing a number of biological and small molecule ...
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Background Naturally occurring polyphenolic compounds from fruits, particularly from blueberries, have been reported to be significantly involved in cancer chemoprevention and chemotherapy. and controlling PI3E/AKT, MAPK/ERK, and STAT3 pathways, central nodes in CSC inflammatory signaling. PEBP significantly inhibited cell expansion of 4T1, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. In all cell lines, PEBP reduced mammosphere formation, cell mobility and cell migration. In vivo,… More →. ...
Our results show that topical application of a bioadhesive 10% FBR gel positively affects oral IEN lesions in a subset of patients. Further, none of the 27 clinical trial participants developed any adverse effects. These encouraging toxicity data support previous studies conducted by our laboratories, which confirmed that large doses of FBR are well tolerated by humans (19-21), and further validate the established safety record for the two cross-linked polyacrylic acid-based polymers used as either the bioadhesive or the gel base (22).. Our histopathology data show appreciable interpatient variability in IEN responsiveness, with 41% of our participants showing a decrease in lesional grade, 23% of participants showing an increase in lesional grade, and 35% of the patients lesions exhibiting stable disease. Although modest, these histologic response rates compare favorably with previous oral IEN chemoprevention trials (27). Indeed, it is possible that optimized dose or dosing schedules may ...
The landmark iPrEx study demonstrated the feasibility of taking Truvada for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). It also demonstrated that success depends on ...
A US trial among 15 to 17 year-old men who have sex with men (MSM) suggests this group stands to benefit hugely should pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) be approved - and supported - for this age group. ...
A US trial among 15 to 17 year-old men who have sex with men (MSM) suggests this group stands to benefit hugely should pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) be approved - and supported - for this age group. ...
... chemoprevention strategies; multimodality therapy; and integration of various approaches. The journal publishes editorials, ...
... chemoprevention strategies; multimodality therapy; and integration of various approaches. Clinical Colorectal Cancer is indexed ...
Chemoprevention Database. Retrieved on 30 November 2012. Lo, M. M.; Tsong, T. Y.; Conrad, M. K.; Strittmatter, S. M.; ... The Chemoprevention Database shows macrogol is the most effective known agent for the suppression of chemical carcinogenesis in ...
Cancer Chemoprevention. Methods in Molecular Biology. 1379. pp. 201-211. doi:10.1007/978-1-4939-3191-0_18. ISBN 978-1-4939-3190 ...
Workman, Paul (2004). "Pharmacological Intervention With Multistep Oncogenesis". Cancer Chemoprevention. Humana Press, Totowa, ...
Cancer Chemoprevention. 1. pp. 259-274. doi:10.1007/978-1-59259-767-3_17. ISBN 978-1-61737-342-8. O'Neill, Paul M.; Posner, ...
Saba N, Jain S, Khuri F (2004). "Chemoprevention in lung cancer". Curr Probl Cancer. 28 (5): 287-306. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Carriers of these mutations may then undergo enhanced surveillance, chemoprevention, or preventative surgery to reduce their ... Thomsen A, Kolesar JM (December 2008). "Chemoprevention of breast cancer". American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy. 65 (23 ... "Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer: systematic review and economic evaluation". Health Technology Assessment. 14 (32): 1-206 ...
"Chemoprevention of prostate cancer". The New England Journal of Medicine. 362 (13): 1237-8. doi:10.1056/NEJMe1001045. PMID ... "5-α-Reductase inhibitors for prostate cancer chemoprevention: an updated Cochrane systematic review". BJU Int. 106 (10): 1444- ...
Saba N, Jain S, Khuri F (2004). "Chemoprevention in lung cancer". Current Problems in Cancer. 28 (5): 287-306. doi:10.1016/j. ...
They also support seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) campaigns, and are the largest organisation running SMC campaigns in ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "WHO , Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC)". WHO. Retrieved 2021-02-09. BMZ, Healthy ... "Malaria Consortium - Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention". GiveWell. Retrieved 2021-02-09. "Malaria Consortium - Trustees' Report ... Continues Support for Malaria Consortium's Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention Programme". 2021-01-05. Retrieved ...
Chaturvedi PK, Bhui K, Shukla Y (2008). "Lupeol: connotations for chemoprevention". Cancer Lett. 263 (1): 1-13. doi:10.1016/j. ...
1991 - Chemoprevention (synthetic and natural) studies, DCPC + Produce for Better Health Foundation begins 5-A-Day message ( ... 1983 - NCI begins chemoprevention and early detection research. Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP) and Division of Cancer ... 1982 - "Chemoprevention:" Nutrients and compounds for cancer prevention. SBIR moves research to private sector. Smoking, ... Thomsen A, Kolesar JM (December 2008). "Chemoprevention of breast cancer". Am J Health Syst Pharm. 65 (23): 2221-8. doi:10.2146 ...
"Chemoprevention of prostate cancer". The New England Journal of Medicine. 362 (13): 1237-8. doi:10.1056/NEJMe1001045. PMID ... reduction in the risk of developing prostate cancer with 5α-reductase inhibitor chemoprevention. However, 5α-reductase ... "5-α-Reductase inhibitors for prostate cancer chemoprevention: an updated Cochrane systematic review". BJU International. 106 ( ...
ISBN 978-1-60327-829-4. Rittmaster RS (2011). "Chemoprevention of prostate cancer". Acta Oncol. 50 Suppl 1: 127-36. doi:10.3109 ... Lieberman R (2001). "Androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer chemoprevention: current status and future directions for ...
"Cancer chemoprevention: a radical perspective". Free Radical Biology & Medicine. 45 (2): 97-110. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed. ...
Chemoprevention; Molecular Epidemiology & the Environment; Early Detection & Risk Prediction of Cancer; Cancer Health ...
Ip, C.; Dong, Y.; Ganther, H. E. (2002). "New concepts in selenium chemoprevention". Cancer Metastasis Rev. 21 (3-4): 281-289. ... evidence that a monomethylated selenium metabolite is critical for cancer chemoprevention". Cancer Res. 60 (11): 2882-2886. ...
The "chemoprevention database" shows the results of all published scientific studies of chemopreventive agents, in people and ... "Colorectal Cancer Prevention: Chemoprevention Database". "ACF-MDF-BCAC". Resveratrol From Transgenic Alfalfa for Prevention of ...
Huang, YW; Kuo, Stoner; Huang, Wang (2011). "An overview of epigenetics and chemoprevention". FEBS Lett. 585 (13): 2129-2136. ...
Sudbø J. [Chemoprevention of oral cancer]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2003 May 29;123(11):1518-21. Review. Retraction: Haug C. ...
Bellamy, Jann (2015-12-24). "Guess who pioneered chemoprevention through diet?". Science-Based Medicine. Retrieved 2017-01-16 ...
DuPont HL (April 2005). "Travelers' diarrhea: antimicrobial therapy and chemoprevention". Nature Clinical Practice. ...
Phytotherapy Research Apigenin and cancer chemoprevention. ...
Cohen, Victor; Fadlo Khuri (2003). "Progress in Lung Cancer Chemoprevention" (PDF). Cancer Control. 10 (4): 315-324. doi: ...
PEITC has been studied for its potential for chemoprevention of cancers, such as prostate cancer. In terms of biosynthesis, ... Disease Progression and Chemoprevention: 109-126. Wang, LG; Chiao, JW (2010). "Prostate cancer chemopreventive activity of ... "Molecular targets of dietary phenethyl isothiocyanate and sulforaphane for cancer chemoprevention". The AAPS Journal. 12 (1): ...
Kinsinger LS, Harris R, Woolf SH, Sox HC, Lohr KN (July 2002). "Chemoprevention of breast cancer: a summary of the evidence for ... Hormonal therapy has been used for chemoprevention in individuals at high risk for breast cancer. Overall it is recommended ... U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (July 2002). "Chemoprevention of breast cancer: recommendations and rationale". Annals of ... discuss chemoprevention with women at high risk for breast cancer and at low risk for adverse effects of chemoprevention" with ...
Szekely CA, Town T, Zandi PP (2007). NSAIDs for the chemoprevention of Alzheimer's disease. Subcellular Biochemistry. 42. pp. ...
This method of prevention is known as "chemoprevention." Play media House improvement is also a method of prevention. ...
Wada S (2009). "Chemoprevention of tocotrienols: the mechanism of antiproliferative effects". Food Factors for Health Promotion ...
Source for information on Chemoprevention: Gale Encyclopedia of Cancer dictionary. ... Chemoprevention Definition Chemoprevention is the attempt to prevent cancer from developing by using substances that interfere ... Chemoprevention uses natural products from foods or synthetic preparations. Because chemoprevention is used long-term, it must ... Chemoprevention. Definition. Chemoprevention is the attempt to prevent cancer from developing by using substances that ...
1]-Gescher A J, Sharma R A, Steward W P. Cancer chemoprevention by. dietary constituents: a tale of failure and promise. Lancet ... original rationales for molecular chemoprevention strategies all had a. fundamental flaw: they failed to take account of the ... linked to the chronic exposure inherent to chemoprevention.. Protective strategies involving antioxidants can invariably be ... Cancer chemoprevention. BMJ 2002; 324 doi: (Published 23 March 2002) Cite this as: BMJ ...
Chemoprevention Working Group. .Prevention of cancer in the next millennium: report of the Chemoprevention Working Group to the ... Chemoprevention trials for prostate cancer. In: Chung LWK, Isaaca WB, Simons JW, eds. Prostate cancer: biology, genetics, and ... Clinical chemoprevention trials. Phase I clinical trials are generally conducted in a limited number of healthy subjects. They ... Chemoprevention and medical practice. The medical community can play an important part in cancer prevention by recognising the ...
Anzano MA, Peer CW, Smith JM, et al: Chemoprevention of mammary carcinogenesis in the rat: combined use of raloxifene and 9-cis ... ORegan R.M. (2000) Chemoprevention of Breast Cancer. In: Gradishar W.J., Wood W.C. (eds) Advances in Breast Cancer Management ... Powles TJ, Jones AL, Ashley SE, et al: The Royal Marsden Hospital pilot tamoxifen chemoprevention trial. Breast Cancer Res ...
... part of the papers given at the second annual conference of the newly founded International Society of Cancer Chemoprevention ... bioprevention of cancer breast cancer cancer cancer prevention chemoprevention colorectal cancer genetics lung cancer ... Identification of Meaningful High Risk Groups for Cancer Chemoprevention. * Front Matter Pages 69-69 ... Metabolic Targets of Cancer Chemoprevention: Interruption of Tumor Development by Inhibitors of Arachidonic Acid Metabolism ...
Cancer chemoprevention with dietary phytochemicals.. Surh YJ1.. Author information. 1. College of Pharmacy, Seoul National ... Chemoprevention refers to the use of agents to inhibit, reverse or retard tumorigenesis. Numerous phytochemicals derived from ...
Chemoprevention strategies for prostate cancer.. Bosland MC1, McCormick DL, Melamed J, Walden PD, Zeleniuch-Jacquotte A, Lumey ... Because prostate cancer is histologically present in 30-50% of 30- to 50-year-old men, effective chemoprevention needs to ... Such trials are an essential step in the development of antiprostate cancer chemoprevention agents. ... Prevention of clinically detectable prostate cancer requires earlier chemoprevention interventions. ...
Overview of outcomes of the use of Raloxifene in reducing cancer risk. This drug lowers the risk for breast cancer in certain high-risk women.
A review paper by Shirikami et al, investigates epidemiological studies and a large number of experimental studies on Green Tea and its anti-Cancer benefits.
Several recent studies examining the anti-carcinogenic properties of Green Tea catechins in humans have yielded promising results that suggest the possibility of their application to human clinical trials. This review article evaluates the results of these investigations on Green Tea and its constituents and the data and postulates future directions for this area. | Herbs & Spices
Herszenyi et al., "Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer: feasibility in everyday practice?," European Journal of Cancer ... OMorain, C et al., "Concept of chemoprevention in colorectal cancer," World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology, 2009 V. 1, ... 4. Lyakhovich A, Gasche C. Systematic review: molecular chemoprevention of colorectal malignancy by mesalazine. Aliment ... Lyakhovich, A. et al., "Systematic review: molecular chemoprevention of colorectal malignancy by mesalazine," Alimentary ...
Sporn and Liby critically discuss the issues that have hampered the advances of chemoprevention in the oncology field, and ... for the control of these targets that are both safe and effective will be important for the future of cancer chemoprevention. ... The development of new drugs that are both safe and effective is paramount for the future of cancer chemoprevention. ... 2002) Chemoprevention through the Keap1-Nrf2 signaling pathway by phase 2 enzyme inducers. Mutat Res 555: 133-148 ...
Chemoprevention is currently used to help stop the recurrence of cancer in patients and reduce the risk of cancer in others. ... researchers conclude nano-luteolin has immense potential for future human studies of chemoprevention ...
... Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2006 Feb;5(2):243-53. doi: ... Chemoprevention refers to the use of agents that can inhibit, reverse or retard the process of skin carcinogenesis. In recent ...
... opening a new potential avenue for chemoprevention of colon cancer.. ... which would be a new approach to chemoprevention," Wu says. ...
Chemoprevention of Colorectal Adenomas. Official Title ICMJE A Clinical Trial Evaluating the Efficacy and Safety of a ... Chemoprevention of Colorectal Adenomas. This study has been terminated. (Planned Interim Analysis failed to show difference ... Carroll C, Cooper K, Papaioannou D, Hind D, Pilgrim H, Tappenden P. Supplemental calcium in the chemoprevention of colorectal ... placebo controlled clinical trial of chemoprevention in patients at increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). The ...
... as signified by cellular invasion across the basement membrane is Cancer Chemoprevention. ... Additional chemoprevention trials include curcumin + ω-3 fatty acids for lung cancer chemoprevention in former smokers with ... Additional chemoprevention trials include curcumin + ω-3 fatty acids for lung cancer chemoprevention in former smokers with ... Cancer chemoprevention is the active way of combating cancer and carcinogenesis at earlier and earlier stages. The aims of the ...
Chemoprevention is a new, recent approach to cancer prevention. It is important to select those at very high risk and target ... Obviously, chemoprevention is a new, recent approach to cancer prevention, and current studies are being done to evaluate its ... In 1990, he demonstrated chemoprevention for head and neck malignancies, using vitamin A analogs, which suppressed and ... The National Cancer Institute has promoted research studies to develop agents for the chemoprevention of cancer. ...
Pomegranate fruit juice for chemoprevention and chemotherapy of prostate cancer. Arshi Malik, Farrukh Afaq, Sami Sarfaraz, ... Pomegranate fruit juice for chemoprevention and chemotherapy of prostate cancer. Arshi Malik, Farrukh Afaq, Sami Sarfaraz, ... Pomegranate fruit juice for chemoprevention and chemotherapy of prostate cancer Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... Pomegranate fruit juice for chemoprevention and chemotherapy of prostate cancer. Arshi Malik, Farrukh Afaq, Sami Sarfaraz, ...
PHILADELPHIA - The next cancer-fighting therapeutic could be growing in your garden, according to research presented today, at the American Association for Cancer Research s Sixth Annual International...
Chemoprevention of Colorectal Adenomas. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study ... Assessment of number and size of colorectal adenomas measured after three years of chemoprevention using the study drug [ Time ... Carroll C, Cooper K, Papaioannou D, Hind D, Pilgrim H, Tappenden P. Supplemental calcium in the chemoprevention of colorectal ... Assessment of durability of polyp-free colon post surgical ablation for two years post-treatment with chemoprevention with ...
Since chemoprevention is one of the most important strategies in the control of cancer development, molecular mechanism-based ... cancer chemoprevention using carotenoids seems to be an attractive approach. Various carotenoids, such as β-carotene, a- ... 6. Cancer Chemoprevention by Carotenoids in Preclinical Studies. Cancer chemoprevention is a rapidly expanding discipline that ... Tanaka, T. Chemoprevention of oral carcinogenesis. Eur. J. Cancer B Oral Oncol. 1995, 31B, 3-15. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] ...
... Acta Pol Pharm. Jan-Feb 2003;60(1):97-100. ...
Cancer chemoprevention involves the use of artificial or naturally occurring substances aimed to arrest or reverse the process ... Cancer chemoprevention involves the use of artificial or naturally occurring substances aimed to arrest or reverse the process ... Cancer chemoprevention involves the use of artificial or naturally occurring substances aimed to arrest or reverse the process ... This Research Topic will highlight recent advances on the endogenous modulation of immune system for cancer chemoprevention. We ...
... present a new tool that could be used to identify patients most likely to benefit from chemoprevention -- and may be applicable ... First precision medicine trial in cancer prevention identifies chemoprevention strategy Study finds genetic predictor of oral ... First precision medicine trial in cancer prevention identifies chemoprevention strategy. University of California - San Diego ... present a new tool that could be used to identify patients most likely to benefit from chemoprevention -- and may be applicable ...
... Rebeca Santes-Palacios, Diego ... regulation are opportunities for the selection of new therapeutic targets that allow drug development for chemoprevention. ...
... foods rich in bioactive phytochemicals have received growing attention as potential agents for cancer chemoprevention. ...
... Philipp Baumeister, Maximilian Reiter, and ... field cancerization predestines upper aerodigestive tract epithelium for cancer chemoprevention by polyphenols. In this paper, ...
3389 Colorectal Adenoma: Chemoprevention With Folic Acid. Trial Phase:. Phase 2. Minimum Age:. 18 Years. Maximum Age:. 80 Years ...
Phase IIb chemoprevention studies are done subsequently to establish the dose-response relationship of SEB modulation and the ... The NCIs chemoprevention drug development program has the mission of identifying safe and effective chemical agents for ... Phase II chemoprevention studies characterize dose-biomarker response and more common chronic toxicities, to identify safe and ... Additionally, the title of the RFA, PIVOTAL CLINICAL TRIALS FOR CHEMOPREVENTION AGENT DEVELOPMENT and the RFA number CA-97-014 ...
... Shes a Hairdresser and Breast Cancer Survivor: The Hardest Part of My ... For some patients, chemoprevention drugs ― the most common are tamoxifen, raloxifene and aromatase inhibitors― are also on the ... "Even though about 15 percent of U.S. women could benefit from chemoprevention, only about 5 to 15 percent of women who are ... While the purpose of the MiCHOICE study isnt to track the long-term outcomes of women taking chemoprevention drugs (other ...
  • This is in contrast to the large Phase III clinical chemoprevention trials with tamoxifen, finasteride (Proscar), and aspirin conducted under the direction of the Community Oncology & Rehabilitation Branch or the Chemoprevention Branch which are enrolling 10,000 22,000 participants and evaluating clinical parameters, such as cancer incidence reduction, over many years. (
  • For some patients, chemoprevention drugs ― the most common are tamoxifen, raloxifene and aromatase inhibitors― are also on the table. (
  • Estimates suggest that as many as 15% of women aged 35-79 years may be eligible for tamoxifen chemoprevention. (
  • The large chemoprevention clinical trial with the selective estrogen receptor modulator, tamoxifen, showed the benefit of tamoxifen in the prevention of breast cancer in high-risk women. (
  • This knowledge would establish a practical approach to breast cancer chemoprevention for women at high risk (tamoxifen) and low risk (raloxifene). (
  • In full-scale, randomized chemoprevention trials, the selective estrogen receptor modulators tamoxifen and raloxifene and the aromatase inhibitors exemestane and anastrozole all reduce breast cancer incidence in postmenopausal women. (
  • However, long-term follow-up of the International Breast Cancer Intervention Study I and the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene chemoprevention trials question the primacy of tamoxifen use in the prevention setting. (
  • 4 In addition, updated, long-term follow-up of two of these chemoprevention trials raises questions regarding the role of tamoxifen in this setting. (
  • Fewer than 5% of women at high risk who are offered tamoxifen for chemoprevention agree to take the drug, partly due to inadequate time for counseling, insufficient knowledge about risk-reduction strategies, and concerns about side effects, according to Parijathan S. Sivasubramanian, MD , of Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. (
  • Antiestrogen drugs (primarily tamoxifen) were adopted by 162 women, while 154 declined chemoprevention. (
  • Generally speaking, you and your doctor might consider whether chemoprevention with tamoxifen is right for you if:Your Gail Model risk score is greater than 1.7 percent. (
  • See our most recent report on seasonal malaria chemoprevention . (
  • Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) involves giving children under the age of 5 full malaria treatment courses intermittently during the malaria season. (
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) defines seasonal malaria chemoprevention as "the intermittent administration of full treatment courses of an antimalarial medicine to children during the malaria season in areas of highly seasonal transmission. (
  • Participate in a webinar titled "Getting The Most From Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention This Year: New Learnings from Niger, Nigeria, and Benin" with presentations from PMI Impact Malaria , Malaria Consortium , and Catholic Relief Services (CRS), and moderators from Population Services International (PSI) and Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV). (
  • It is supporting National Malaria Control Programmes across the Sahel to scale up access to seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) saving thousands of young children's lives. (
  • These results suggest that weekly dosing of DHA-PQ for malaria chemoprevention would improve treatment outcomes compared to monthly administration by lowering the incidence of malaria infections, reducing safety concerns about high PQ peak plasma concentrations and being more forgiving. (
  • This study looks at the use of Intermittent Preventative Treatment in children under 5 years of age (IPTc) in an area with long malaria transmission season and also evaluates the use of a longer acting antimalarial for treatment as a means of chemoprevention. (
  • The objective of this study was to provide insights on the perceptions and attitudes towards seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) and intermittent preventive treatment of infants (IPTi) to identify drivers of and barriers to acceptance. (
  • Clinical trials are currently investigating chemoprevention for people at high risk of certain cancers. (
  • Such trials are an essential step in the development of antiprostate cancer chemoprevention agents. (
  • This comparison emphasizes the need for Phase II/III chemoprevention clinical trials of intermediate size and duration which are designed to establish the efficacy of promising agents and the validity of the most promising histopathologic and laboratory-based SEBs currently held to be "reasonably certain" predictors of cancer prevention. (
  • As described above, the intermediate-sized clinical trials supported through this RFA are a pivotal decision point in the NCI chemoprevention drug development program. (
  • This RFA, Pivotal Clinical Trials for Chemoprevention Agent Development, is related to the priority area of cancer. (
  • 1 , 2 , 9 Some attribute this to insufficient follow-up, but chemoprevention trials collectively have more than 300 000 person-years of follow-up. (
  • G-actin as a risk factor and modulatable endpoint for cancer chemoprevention trials. (
  • The use of such markers can increase the specificity of chemoprevention trials by targeting therapy to patients likely to respond, and thereby markedly reduce the costs of the trials. (
  • Since most clinical chemoprevention trials of lung cancer are performed in subjects with bronchial dysplasia, development of a lung squamous cell carcinoma mouse model becomes one of the highest priorities. (
  • They found forty-six articles on five projects but were surprised to find that no new chemoprevention trials have been set up for mesothelioma for twenty years, despite what they call "considerable advances" in the area of chemoprevention. (
  • They go on to note the often confusing results of selenium chemoprevention trials and use these results as a case study for the risks of using nutrients in this regard. (
  • The abridged version of the selenium and prostate chemoprevention story is that supplementation trials have shown potential benefit for those who started with low selenium status, and a potential harm for those who already had adequate or high selenium status. (
  • Updated findings from breast cancer chemoprevention trials inform our understanding regarding benefits and risks of available interventions. (
  • [ 1 ] The success of several clinical trials in cancer prevention in high-risk populations suggests that chemoprevention is a rational and appealing strategy. (
  • We hope this treatment will spur future trials looking at chemoprevention or precision cancer prevention in high-risk disorders such as FAP, Lynch syndrome (another cause of colon cancer), and hereditary breast and ovarian cancer," he says. (
  • Preliminary data on a mechanistic rationale for chemoprevention activity as observed from epidemiological, in vitro and preclinical studies, phase I data of safety in suitable cohorts, duration of intervention based on time to progression of pre-neoplastic disease to cancer and using a valid panel of biomarkers representing the hypothesized carcinogenesis pathway for measuring efficacy must inform the design of clinical trials. (
  • Extensive evidence for aflatoxin B 1 adducts as biomarkers of risk and progression of hepatic carcinogenesis and for oxidative DNA adducts as biomarkers of the development of prostate carcinogenesis is reviewed together with the clinical trials measuring these adducts as biomarkers of the efficacy of chemoprevention. (
  • These disciplines have also provided the biochemical and histopathological bases for identifying intermediate biomarkers that can be used as surrogate end points for cancer incidence in clinical chemoprevention trials and for selecting cohorts for these trials. (
  • They may serve as target lesions in Phase II chemoprevention trials and as standards against which other earlier cellular and molecular biomarkers can be evaluated. (
  • Chemoprevention agents for melanoma: A path forward into phase 3 clinical trials. (
  • Dr. Mascaux and colleagues hypothesized that miRNAs could be both potential surrogate endpoints and predictive biomarkers for chemoprevention trials. (
  • This is one of the first efforts to unite experts of all major groups and centers worldwide in the highly fascinating and thought-provoking field of chemoprevention of cancer, especially of the breast, colon and prostate. (
  • Chemoprevention strategies for prostate cancer. (
  • Prevention of clinically detectable prostate cancer requires earlier chemoprevention interventions. (
  • Because prostate cancer is histologically present in 30-50% of 30- to 50-year-old men, effective chemoprevention needs to inhibit not only prostate carcinogenesis but also growth and progression of these cancers. (
  • Selenium, an inhibitor of the glutathione peroxidase system, is being tested in the chemoprevention of prostate cancer and lung cancer. (
  • Chemoprevention involving the use of natural agents to suppress, block or reverse the process of carcinogenesis could be an effective approach to reduce the incidence of prostate cancer. (
  • There is intense activity in defining chemopreventive agents and molecular targets for prostate cancer chemoprevention. (
  • Over the past three decades, there have been only minor advancements within the field of chemoprevention and chemoprophylaxis. (
  • Although still in its infancy, the field of chemoprevention is an exciting and rapidly advancing area of investigation. (
  • To address this question, our laboratory now explores the ability of triterpenoids (natural and synthetic) to induce the expression of 15-PGDH, and whether an induction of this enzyme is associated with effective chemoprevention of colon cancer. (
  • Sun, S.Y., Hail, N. Jr. and Lotan, R. (2004) Apoptosis as a novel target for cancer chemoprevention. (
  • Abstract: ABSTRACT Although many mouse models of lung adenocarcinoma exist, there is no mouse lung squamous cell carcinoma model that has been validated for use in preclinical lung cancer chemoprevention studies. (
  • Families with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), with hundreds of precancerous polyps in the colon and rectum, is a population at very high risk, meriting chemoprevention using drugs such as Celebrex in children with FAP, to help delay or control growth of adenomatous polyps. (
  • Indeed, CaP is an ideal candidate disease for chemoprevention because it is typically diagnosed in the elderly population with a relatively slower rate of growth and progression, and therefore, even a modest delay in the development of cancer, achieved through pharmacologic or nutritional intervention, could result in substantial reduction in the incidence of clinically detectable disease. (
  • This cancer represents an excellent candidate disease for chemoprevention, as it is typically diagnosed in elderly men. (
  • Because of the critical nature of the biomarkers used in Phases I IIb of clinic al chemopreventive drug development, the careful scientific conduct of these biomarker assessments is considered essential to progress in chemoprevention. (
  • Therapeutic intervention for the purpose of cancer chemoprevention may modify these biomarkers. (
  • In this article, the potential efficacy of DNA adducts as biomarkers of carcinogenesis and chemoprevention is discussed using criteria defined for phases of biomarker development. (
  • Additional information regarding reliability, reproducibility, specificity, and confounding variables are required at the clinical level to validate adducts as suitable biomarkers of chemoprevention. (
  • Therefore, a group of researchers analyzed the expression of selected miRNA as potential surrogate biomarkers in the iloprost (Ventavis, a synthetic analog of prostacyclin) phase II, placebo-controlled multicenter lung cancer chemoprevention trial. (
  • Identify, characterize and develop agents that can modulate carcinogenesis for cancer chemoprevention and evaluate the safety, efficacy and mechanisms of action using in vitro and preclinical models. (
  • Favorable modification of oxidative DNA adducts by dietary intervention and chemoprevention has been demonstrated in preclinical and clinical studies. (
  • Chemoprevention is one of the cancer prevention methods, applied for the oral squamous cell carcinoma and its main precursor lesions--leukoplakia and erythroplakia. (
  • CRC prevention involves a healthy lifestyle and chemoprevention-more specifically, oral chemoprevention that can interfere with progression from a normal colonic mucosa to adenocarcinoma. (
  • Sporn MB and Suh N (2002) Chemoprevention: an essential approach to controlling cancer. (
  • 2002) Chemoprevention through the Keap1-Nrf2 signaling pathway by phase 2 enzyme inducers. (
  • The basic cancer-related chemical and biological sciences, pathology, and epidemiology have contributed to (1) the understanding that antimutagenesis and antiproliferation are the important general mechanisms of chemoprevention and (2) the development of antimutagenic and antiproliferative agents as potential chemopreventive drugs. (
  • This paper presents a review on the molecular mechanisms of the anti-leukemic activity of various phenolic compounds on cell cycle, cell growth and proliferation and apoptosis, and it advocates that more studies should be conducted to determine the potential role of honey in both chemoprevention and chemotherapy in leukemia. (
  • Chemoprevention differs from chemotherapy in that it is used long before cancer develops to prevent cancer or to inhibit pre-cancer, possibly in at-risk individuals. (
  • Ramos, S. (2008) Cancer chemoprevention and chemotherapy: Dietary polyphenols and signalling pathways. (
  • The drug ranpirnase (Onconase), a chemotherapy agent with low toxicity, is believed to be one of the best candidates for chemoprevention of mesothelioma. (
  • Dr. Sivasubramanian led one of two studies examining the factors that influence the uptake of chemoprevention. (
  • Studies have shown that the uptake of chemoprevention is very low among women at high risk of developing breast cancer. (
  • The findings, published in the November 5, 2015 online issue of Journal of the American Medical Association Oncology , present a new tool that could be used to identify patients most likely to benefit from chemoprevention -- and may be applicable to preventing other types of cancer. (
  • Even though about 15 percent of U.S. women could benefit from chemoprevention, only about 5 to 15 percent of women who are offered chemoprevention agree to take the medication. (
  • Clinicians should consider both the risk for breast cancer and the risk for adverse effects when identifying women who may be candidates for chemoprevention. (
  • These studies are embodied in the Molecular Carcinogenesis and Chemoprevention (MCC) Program, one of five transdisciplinary and highly collaborative research programs at the OSUCCC - James. (
  • Individuals not at a particularly high risk can use behavioral and dietary modifications for chemoprevention. (
  • Dietary factors and lifestyle changes are important areas in chemoprevention. (
  • Cancer chemoprevention with dietary phytochemicals. (
  • In this review, we have summarized the recent investigations and mechanistic studies on CaP chemoprevention using dietary agents, such as selenium, vitamins D and E, lycopene, phytoestrogens, flavonoids, and green tea polyphenols. (
  • Concept of chemoprevention in colorectal cancer," World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology, 2009 V. 1, Issue 1, pp. 21-25. (
  • The Southwest Oncology Group study, called Making Informed Choices on Incorporating Chemoprevention Into Care (MiCHOICE), is for women ages 35-74 who have no history of cancer themselves, but have been diagnosed with atypical hyperplasia or lobular carcinoma in situ (abnormal cells in the breast that can become cancerous). (
  • 2005) Cardiovascular events associated with rofecoxib in a colorectal adenoma chemoprevention trial. (
  • Identification of alternative NSAID targets and elucidation of the biochemical processes by which they inhibit tumor growth could lead to the development of safer and more efficacious drugs for cancer chemoprevention. (
  • The UW Carbone Cancer Center and the University of Wisconsin Department of Urology is conducting research in the areas of chemoprevention, early events in carcinogenesis and biological markers of tumor recurrence and progression in bladder cancer and other genitourinary malignancies. (
  • As we move forward in lung cancer chemoprevention, the importance of this class of drugs cannot be ignored. (
  • Among the 851 respondents (58.2%), 228 (26.8%) agreed to participate in a hypothetical chemoprevention trial aimed at reducing the incidence of lung cancer and 116 (29.3%) of 396 women agreed to a breast cancer chemoprevention trial. (
  • Therefore, the researchers concluded that the change in miR-34c expression in follow-up biopsies is correlated with histologic response and may be a quantitative biomarker of response in lung chemoprevention studies. (
  • 1. Mascaux C, Keith RL, Feser WJ, et al: MIR-34C is a potential biomarker for histological response in lung cancer chemoprevention studies. (
  • The original rationales for molecular chemoprevention strategies all had a fundamental flaw: they failed to take account of the dual effects that all anti-initiation or anti-promotion/progression strategies inevitably exert. (
  • Since chemoprevention is one of the most important strategies in the control of cancer development, molecular mechanism-based cancer chemoprevention using carotenoids seems to be an attractive approach. (
  • The idea of condemned mucosa and field cancerization ignited an early interest in chemoprevention strategies but, ultimately, an efficacious, well-tolerated agent has yet to be found. (
  • Results strongly support the hypothesis that cytosolic G-actin levels measured by quantitative fluorescence image analysis (QFIA) can be an important intermediate endpoint marker for chemoprevention and that the p300 (M344) and DNA ploidy markers identify a high-risk group that requires more aggressive therapy and recurrence monitoring. (
  • Endobronchial histology is currently considered as the best intermediate endpoint for chemoprevention studies. (
  • Baptist Health's Miami Cancer Institute is leading the effort to reduce breast cancer in women at risk by taking part in a clinical trial to better educate women on chemoprevention ― medications designed to stop cancer from developing. (
  • In 2019, after an extensive review of chemoprevention medications, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force publicly endorsed the move to prescribe the drugs to women at increased risk for breast cancer. (
  • Primary chemoprevention of breast cancer: Are the adverse effects too burdensome? (
  • Enthusiasm for the chemoprevention of breast cancer has grown in recent years. (
  • 6 In addition, chemoprevention offers mixed success among women at higzhest risk of breast cancer: those with germ-line BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. (
  • Although chemoprevention of breast cancer has been shown to decrease incident cancer, it has not been shown to avert breast cancer deaths. (
  • This statement summarizes the current U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendations for the chemoprevention of breast cancer and the supporting scientific evidence. (
  • 3 Despite these recommendations, uptake of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) for breast cancer chemoprevention in clinical practice has been extremely limited. (
  • Based on age and risk, an estimated 10 million women in the United States may be eligible for an agent aimed at preventing breast cancer, but chemoprevention is underutilized. (
  • She attributed the high rate of acceptance-about 50%-to the fact that the participants attended a breast clinic where they received accurate and comprehensive information about chemoprevention. (
  • Chemoprevention is an appealing strategy with proven success in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and breast cancer. (
  • The USPSTF concluded, however, that the potential harms of chemoprevention may outweigh the potential benefits in women who are not at high risk for breast cancer. (
  • The USPSTF recommends that clinicians discuss chemoprevention with women at high risk for breast cancer and at low risk for adverse effects of chemoprevention (see Clinical Considerations). (
  • If you're at high risk of breast cancer, you may be able to improve your odds of staying cancer-free by taking certain medicines, an approach known as chemoprevention or preventive therapy. (
  • Decision support tools are designed to improve informed choice about breast cancer chemoprevention. (
  • I. To compare the frequency of chemoprevention informed choice at 6 months after registration among women with atypical hyperplasia (AH) or lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) between the intervention (RealRisks decision aid/breast cancer risk navigation [BNAV] + standard educational materials) and control (standard educational materials alone) arms. (
  • I. To assess patient chemoprevention knowledge, chemoprevention intention/decision, perceived breast cancer risk and worry, accuracy of breast cancer risk perception, decision conflict and decision regret at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months in the intervention and control arms. (
  • GROUP I (CONTROL): Patients receive standard educational materials about breast cancer risk and chemoprevention in RealRisks via the patient portal or website. (
  • Patients receive patient-centered decision support within the patient portal via an action plan summarizing their breast cancer risk profile, their risks and benefits of SERMs and AIs, and personal preferences for chemoprevention. (
  • Under the Affordable Care Act, women over age 40 are also entitled to free breast cancer mammography screenings every 1 or 2 years, as well as genetic counseling and chemoprevention counseling for women at higher risk for breast cancer, whether due to age, family history, or other risk factors. (
  • Dr. Isaacs said that one of the factors influencing women's decisions regarding chemoprevention is discussion with their primary care physicians, many of whom identify other priorities for the limited time they have with their patients, especially when most women at high risk will never develop breast cancer. (
  • It is hoped that, combining the knowledge based on agents with targets, effective approaches for CaP chemoprevention can be established. (
  • Other potential targets for chemoprevention were also identified. (
  • Systematic review: molecular chemoprevention of colorectal malignancy by mesalazine," Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 31, 202-209. (
  • Lee J-S and Surh Y-J (2005) Nrf2 as a novel molecular target for chemoprevention. (
  • In particular, recent data indicate that the loss of 15-PGDH expression is an important determinant of the response to inhibitors of COX-2 in the context of cancer chemoprevention. (
  • Therefore, agents with a capacity to induce the expression of 15-PGDH may serve as an effective form of cancer chemoprevention, and may either enhance the response to or overcome the resistance to COX-2 inhibitors (such as celecoxib or Celebrex(R)). 15-PGDH is highly expressed in normal colon mucosa, but the expression of this enzyme is invariably lost in human colon cancers. (
  • Among the most widely studied agents for the chemoprevention of colorectal cancer, aspirin, the NSAIDs and COX-2 inhibitors seem to be the most promising. (
  • In 1990, he demonstrated chemoprevention for head and neck malignancies, using vitamin A analogs, which suppressed and inhibited cancer growth and differentiation of both malignant and pre-malignant cells. (
  • Oral keratosis with atypia is an ideal model for the study of head and neck cancer development and chemoprevention because the lesions are readily accessible to visual examination, diagnostic sampling, and evaluation of response to treatment. (
  • In discussing chemoprevention in head and neck cancer, only histologic terminology allows significance. (
  • As cell and tissue homeostasis are mediated by the balance between proliferation and apoptosis, controlling this balance is important for cancer chemoprevention. (
  • Because polyphenols occur in many foods and beverages in high concentration and evidence for their anticancer activity is best for tissues they can come into direct contact with, field cancerization predestines upper aerodigestive tract epithelium for cancer chemoprevention by polyphenols. (
  • 1 Chemoprevention is widely used and readily accepted by doctors and patients in the form of drugs that lower cholesterol concentrations and blood pressure to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. (
  • Chemoprevention is currently used to help stop the recurrence of cancer in patients and reduce the risk of cancer in others. (
  • This is a multicenter, randomized, parallel group, prospective, double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial of chemoprevention in patients at increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). (
  • In addition to research, the Cancer Chemoprevention initiative disseminates current and authoritative information to patients, public, and health professionals towards integrating findings into evidence-based clinical practice. (
  • The national study hopes to determine whether patients, when provided with information and the pros and cons of taking chemoprevention medications, may feel more confident about their decision to take or not take the drugs for their specific risk level and medical history. (
  • While the purpose of the MiCHOICE study isn't to track the long-term outcomes of women taking chemoprevention drugs (other studies do that), it is trying to determine if patients who use the online tool to learn more about the medications feel more confident in their personal decision for or against chemoprevention. (
  • Dr. Sandoval knows that communication is key when she is talking to patients about chemoprevention and she believes the study will help better educate women. (
  • The UW Carbone Cancer Center has the resources to build a program in chemoprevention research, and as a tertiary referral center, many patients with genitourinary cancers such as bladder cancer may benefit from this research. (
  • Primary chemoprevention is directed at patients with premalignant lesions (mucosal keratosis with atypia and erythroplakia). (
  • Secondary chemoprevention is targeted at patients with cancer who, in order to prevent recurrent disease or to prevent metachronous primary diseases, have undergone potentially curative therapy. (
  • Clinicians should inform patients of the potential benefits and harms of chemoprevention. (
  • To assess shared decision-making about chemoprevention among patients and healthcare providers after their 6-month clinic visit in the intervention and control arms. (
  • Patients with superficial bladder cancers (Ta/T1 with or without carcinoma in situ) are cohorts for studies of chemoprevention in bladder, and patients with dysplastic oral leukoplakia are evaluated for chemoprevention of oral cancers. (
  • Several of these potential agents have been investigated in studies of chemoprevention of colorectal cancer. (
  • The National Cancer Institute has promoted research studies to develop agents for the chemoprevention of cancer. (
  • Thus the efficacy and safety data from these studies potentially supports FDA marketing approval (NDA applications) for chemoprevention indications, and certainly facilitates decisions regarding the most appropriate recommendations for subsequent large, community-based efficacy studies. (
  • Chemoprevention of oral cancer--clinical and experimental studies]. (
  • Studies in carcinogenesis and ultimately in chemoprevention have been part of the OSUCCC - James research efforts since the National Cancer Institute designated Ohio State as a Comprehensive Cancer Center in 1976. (
  • In an effort to determine the status of research into chemoprevention of mesothelioma, the team compiled a list of all the studies that have been done on the method. (
  • Our findings will serve as a prelude to conducting chemoprevention studies for CRC and help to synthesize drugs to prevent or delay the onset of colon cancer. (
  • Although the potential for the chemoprevention of cancer is a relatively new concept (8) , hundreds of studies have been reported and a few efficacious agents have been identified. (
  • Cancer chemoprevention involves the use of artificial or naturally occurring substances aimed to arrest or reverse the process of carcinogenesis. (
  • The method, called chemoprevention, involves using low doses of targeted toxins to seek out and kill cells that have the potential of turning into mesothelioma. (
  • Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer involves the long-term use of pharmacologic agents that can prevent neoplasms from developing in the large bowel. (
  • If you've already been diagnosed with atypical hyperplasia or lobular carcinoma in situ and you have never taken risk-reducing chemoprevention drugs, you can see if you are eligible for the study by calling 786-527-8861. (
  • Part of the Recent Results in Cancer Research series, this multiauthored book examines the emerging role of anti-inflammatory drugs as chemoprevention for colorectal neoplasia. (
  • Chemoprevention can be defined as the use of non-cytotoxic drugs and natural agents to block the progression to invasive cancer. (
  • In considering the potential for and hurdles in the development of cancer chemoprevention drugs, Meyskens and colleagues, elsewhere in this issue of the journal ( 1 ), look somewhat longingly at the success of drug development efforts in the area of preventing cardiovascular disease. (
  • Chemoprevention is the use of certain drugs to keep cancer from forming. (
  • Although this is an important first step in improving access to chemoprevention, getting drugs for free removes only one potential barrier for women at high risk, explained - Claudine Isaacs, MD , in an interview with The ASCO Post . (
  • Health and economic outcomes of isoniazid (INH) chemoprevention versus no intervention were compared. (
  • To compare patient chemoprevention usage, adherence, and reasons for discontinuation of a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) or aromatase inhibitor (AI) annually for up to 5 years between the intervention and control arms. (
  • I. To assess the implementation of the decision support tools, RealRisks and BNAV, into clinic workflow, and to better understand barriers and facilitators to chemoprevention usage by conducting telephone/video-conference interviews of healthcare providers and high-risk women with AH or LCIS assigned to the active intervention. (
  • A two-drug combination destroys precancerous colon polyps with no effect on normal tissue, opening a new potential avenue for chemoprevention of colon cancer. (
  • The observations outlined above are the basis for our hypothesis that colon cancer chemoprevention by triterpenoids requires a TGF-b-dependent induction of 15- PGDH. (
  • 2017. (
  • One promising approach to reduce the incidence of CaP is through chemoprevention, which has been recognized as a plausible and cost-effective approach to reduce cancer morbidity and mortality by inhibiting precancerous events before the occurrence of clinical disease. (
  • Cancer chemoprevention is very attractive and has earned serious consideration as a potential means of controlling cancer incidence. (
  • Chemoprevention refers to the use of agents to inhibit, reverse or retard tumorigenesis. (
  • The use of this knowledge by transdisciplinary scientists to use natural, synthetic, or biologic agents and vaccines to inhibit or reverse pre-invasive or early stage carcinogenesis is called Cancer Chemoprevention . (
  • Of late medicinal plants and functional foods rich in bioactive phytochemicals have received growing attention as potential agents for cancer chemoprevention. (
  • (3) report that promoting proteasomal degradation of cyclin D1 and cyclin E, which results in cell cycle arrest at the G 1 phase, is a mechanism of cancer chemoprevention by all- trans- retinoic acid (RA) and some other structurally unrelated agents. (
  • Dr. Sivasubramanian suggested that a term other than "chemoprevention" be used in conversations with high-risk women, based on the perception among some participants that these agents would cause alopecia. (
  • Cancer chemoprevention, as first defined in 1976 by Sporn, is the use of natural, synthetic, or biologic chemical agents to reverse, suppress, or prevent carcinogenic progression. (
  • This review focuses on chemoprevention, which is defined as the use of natural or synthetic agents to reverse the process of carcinogenesis. (
  • R. Benamouzig, B. Uzzan, J. Little and S. Chaussade, " Low Dose Aspirin, COX-Inhibition and Chemoprevention of Colorectal Cancer", Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry (2005) 5: 493. (
  • A Canadian guideline, 3 although slightly older, similarly advises women whose five-year risk is greater than 1.67% to be counselled about the potential benefits of chemoprevention. (
  • Renewed commitment to chemoprevention has the potential to affect many Canadian women. (
  • These findings highlight the potential disparities in access to appropriate chemoprevention options," Dr. Hofstatter commented. (
  • These results support the potential use of PC‑NSAIDs for the chemoprevention of colorectal cancer. (
  • Selenium and Chemoprevention: What Did We Learn About Nutrient Status? (
  • A projection of the expected clinical and economic outcomes of applying chemoprevention to close contacts with LTBI was made. (
  • I searched the databases PubMed and CANCERLIT for the period from 1 January 1996 to 31 July 2001 using the key words "chemoprevention" and "neoplasms. (