The use of chemical compounds to prevent the development of a specific disease.
Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.
A sulfinylindene derivative prodrug whose sulfinyl moiety is converted in vivo to an active NSAID analgesic. Specifically, the prodrug is converted by liver enzymes to a sulfide which is excreted in the bile and then reabsorbed from the intestine. This helps to maintain constant blood levels with reduced gastrointestinal side effects.
Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Organic compounds with the general formula R-NCS.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
An inhibitor of ORNITHINE DECARBOXYLASE, the rate limiting enzyme of the polyamine biosynthetic pathway.
A topical dermatologic agent that is used in the treatment of ACNE VULGARIS and several other skin diseases. The drug has teratogenic and other adverse effects.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
An antioxidant flavonoid, occurring especially in woody plants as both (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin (cis) forms.
A potent carcinogen and neurotoxic compound. It is particularly effective in inducing colon carcinomas.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The infusion of leaves of CAMELLIA SINENSIS (formerly Thea sinensis) as a beverage, the familiar Asian tea, which contains CATECHIN (especially epigallocatechin gallate) and CAFFEINE.
A group of tetraterpenes, with four terpene units joined head-to-tail. Biologically active members of this class are used clinically in the treatment of severe cystic ACNE; PSORIASIS; and other disorders of keratinization.
A large class of organic compounds having more than one PHENOL group.
A subclass of cyclooxygenase inhibitors with specificity for CYCLOOXYGENASE-2.
An oral retinoid used in the treatment of keratotic genodermatosis, lichen planus, and psoriasis. Beneficial effects have also been claimed in the prophylaxis of epithelial neoplasia. The compound may be teratogenic.
A yellow-orange dye obtained from tumeric, the powdered root of CURCUMA longa. It is used in the preparation of curcuma paper and the detection of boron. Curcumin appears to possess a spectrum of pharmacological properties, due primarily to its inhibitory effects on metabolic enzymes.
A white patch lesion found on a MUCOUS MEMBRANE that cannot be scraped off. Leukoplakia is generally considered a precancerous condition, however its appearance may also result from a variety of HEREDITARY DISEASES.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Products of the hydrolysis of chlorophylls in which the phytic acid side chain has been removed and the carboxylic acids saponified.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.
A synthetic retinoid that is used orally as a chemopreventive against prostate cancer and in women at risk of developing contralateral breast cancer. It is also effective as an antineoplastic agent.
An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.
Organic compounds which contain selenium as an integral part of the molecule.
A cyclooxygenase inhibiting, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that is well established in treating rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis and used for musculoskeletal disorders, dysmenorrhea, and postoperative pain. Its long half-life enables it to be administered once daily.
Organic derivatives of thiocyanic acid which contain the general formula R-SCN.
Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.
A second generation selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) used to prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. It has estrogen agonist effects on bone and cholesterol metabolism but behaves as a complete estrogen antagonist on mammary gland and uterine tissue.
An orally active 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE inhibitor. It is used as a surgical alternative for treatment of benign PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA.
A structurally diverse group of compounds distinguished from ESTROGENS by their ability to bind and activate ESTROGEN RECEPTORS but act as either an agonist or antagonist depending on the tissue type and hormonal milieu. They are classified as either first generation because they demonstrate estrogen agonist properties in the ENDOMETRIUM or second generation based on their patterns of tissue specificity. (Horm Res 1997;48:155-63)
Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
A mixture of flavonoids extracted from seeds of the MILK THISTLE, Silybum marianum. It consists primarily of silybin and its isomers, silicristin and silidianin. Silymarin displays antioxidant and membrane stabilizing activity. It protects various tissues and organs against chemical injury, and shows potential as an antihepatoxic agent.
A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A plant family of the order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida that is a small family with a single genus.
7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in tobacco smoke that is a potent carcinogen.
A polyposis syndrome due to an autosomal dominant mutation of the APC genes (GENES, APC) on CHROMOSOME 5. The syndrome is characterized by the development of hundreds of ADENOMATOUS POLYPS in the COLON and RECTUM of affected individuals by early adulthood.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced mutations independently of the mechanism involved.
Inorganic compounds that contain selenium as an integral part of the molecule.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
F344 rats are an inbred strain of albino laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) that have been widely used in biomedical research due to their consistent and reliable genetic background, which facilitates the study of disease mechanisms and therapeutic interventions.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Drugs that inhibit 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE. They are commonly used to reduce the production of DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE.
Choleretic used to allay dry mouth and constipation due to tranquilizers.
A potent mutagen and carcinogen. This compound and its metabolite 4-HYDROXYAMINOQUINOLINE-1-OXIDE bind to nucleic acids. It inactivates bacteria but not bacteriophage.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
Compounds based on CHALCONE. They are important intermediates in the formation of FLAVONOIDS.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
A carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC). (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.)
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Steroidal compounds in which one or more carbon atoms in the steroid ring system have been substituted with nitrogen atoms.
Diagnostic aid in pancreas function determination.
Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
Discrete abnormal tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the INTESTINE. A polyp is attached to the intestinal wall either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
An element with the atomic symbol Se, atomic number 34, and atomic weight 78.96. It is an essential micronutrient for mammals and other animals but is toxic in large amounts. Selenium protects intracellular structures against oxidative damage. It is an essential component of GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE.
Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.
Measures aimed at providing appropriate supportive and rehabilitative services to minimize morbidity and maximize quality of life after a long-term disease or injury is present.
Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.
A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.
Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.
Respiratory Tract Neoplasms are defined as abnormal growths or tumors that develop within the respiratory system, including the nose, sinuses, throat (pharynx), voice box (larynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, and lungs, which can be benign or malignant, with the potential to cause significant morbidity and mortality.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
One of the Liliaceae used as a spice (SPICES) and traditional remedy. It contains alliin lyase and alliin, which is converted by alliin lyase to allicin, the pungent ingredient responsible for the aroma of fresh cut garlic.
Polyamines are organic compounds with more than one amino group, involved in various biological processes such as cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis, and found to be increased in certain diseases including cancer.
A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.
Clusters of colonic crypts that appear different from the surrounding mucosa when visualized after staining. They are of interest as putative precursors to colorectal adenomas and potential biomarkers for colorectal carcinoma.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Organic compounds that contain 1,2-diphenylethylene as a functional group.
A white patch seen on the oral mucosa. It is considered a premalignant condition and is often tobacco-induced. When evidence of Epstein-Barr virus is present, the condition is called hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).
The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.
A flavanone glycoside found in CITRUS fruit peels.
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein, believed to be the rate-limiting compound in the biosynthesis of polyamines. It catalyzes the decarboxylation of ornithine to form putrescine, which is then linked to a propylamine moiety of decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine to form spermidine.
Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.
A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.
The plant Silybum marianum in the family ASTERACEAE containing the bioflavonoid complex SILYMARIN. For centuries this has been used traditionally to treat liver disease. Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. = Carduus marianus L.
'Allyl compounds' are organic substances that contain the allyl group (CH2=CH-CH2-) as a functional component, which can be found in various forms such as allyl alcohol, allyl chloride, and allyl esters.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)
Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed meal, corn, and other grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites aflatoxin M1 and Q1.
Any horny growth such as a wart or callus.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Dimers (homo and hetero) of FLAVONOIDS.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
White or pink lesions on the arms, hands, face, or scalp that arise from sun-induced DNA DAMAGE to KERATINOCYTES in exposed areas. They are considered precursor lesions to superficial SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA.
Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.
A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that was originally described as a transcriptional regulator controlling expression of the BETA-GLOBIN gene. It may regulate the expression of a wide variety of genes that play a role in protecting cells from oxidative damage.
An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).
An oral retinoid effective in the treatment of psoriasis. It is the major metabolite of ETRETINATE with the advantage of a much shorter half-life when compared with etretinate.
Camellia sinensis L. (formerly Thea sinensis) is an evergreen Asiatic shrub of the THEACEAE family. The infusion of leaves of this plant is used as Oriental TEA which contains CAFFEINE; THEOPHYLLINE; and epigallocatechin gallate.
Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
Lining of the ORAL CAVITY, including mucosa on the GUMS; the PALATE; the LIP; the CHEEK; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations.
Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)
An anti-inflammatory agent, structurally related to the SALICYLATES, which is active in INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE. It is considered to be the active moiety of SULPHASALAZINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed)
A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.
Tumor suppressor genes located in the 5q21 region on the long arm of human chromosome 5. The mutation of these genes is associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI) and GARDNER SYNDROME, as well as some sporadic colorectal cancers.
A pentacyclic triterpene that occurs widely in many PLANTS as the free acid or the aglycone for many SAPONINS. It is biosynthesized from lupane. It can rearrange to the isomer, ursolic acid, or be oxidized to taraxasterol and amyrin.
Discrete tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the COLON. These POLYPS are connected to the wall of the colon either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.
A flavoprotein that reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of NADH or NADPH by various quinones and oxidation-reduction dyes. The enzyme is inhibited by dicoumarol, capsaicin, and caffeine.
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.
Inbred strain A mice are genetically identical descendants of a single founder mouse, produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, primarily used in biomedical research for their genetic uniformity and experimental reproducibility.
'Chalcone' is a term used in medicinal chemistry to describe a class of compounds that are synthesized as intermediates during the production of flavonoids, which have been studied for their potential anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and neuroprotective properties.
The cactus plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. Cacti are succulent perennial plants well adapted to dry regions.
The part of the face that is below the eye and to the side of the nose and mouth.
5,7,4'-trihydroxy-flavone, one of the FLAVONES.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.
An isoflavonoid derived from soy products. It inhibits PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE and topoisomerase-II (DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE II); activity and is used as an antineoplastic and antitumor agent. Experimentally, it has been shown to induce G2 PHASE arrest in human and murine cell lines and inhibits PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE.
Tumors or cancer of the TONGUE.
Material prepared from plants.
A bioflavonoid that strengthens vascular walls.
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.
Tumors or cancer of the BRONCHI.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A flavonol widely distributed in plants. It is an antioxidant, like many other phenolic heterocyclic compounds. Glycosylated forms include RUTIN and quercetrin.
A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE. Members contain TRITERPENES. Heal all is another common name.
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells such as the GOBLET CELLS.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Non-consumption of ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.
Triterpenes are a class of naturally occurring compounds consisting of six isoprene units arranged to form a 30-carbon skeleton, often found in plants and some animals, with various bioactivities including anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and cytotoxic properties.
Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.
Five-ring derivatives of dammarane having a chair-chair-chair-boat configuration. They include the lupanes, oleananes, amyrins, GLYCYRRHIZIC ACID, and soyasaponins.
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
A DNA alkylating agent that has been shown to be a potent carcinogen and is widely used to induce colon tumors in experimental animals.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
'Ocimum' is a genus of aromatic plants in the family Lamiaceae, which includes various species commonly known as basils, used for culinary, medicinal, and ornamental purposes, characterized by their opposite leaves and two-lipped flowers.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
Programs of study which span the traditional boundaries of academic scholarship.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The rose plant family in the order ROSALES and class Magnoliopsida. They are generally woody plants. A number of the species of this family contain cyanogenic compounds.
Substances that possess antiestrogenic actions but can also produce estrogenic effects as well. They act as complete or partial agonist or as antagonist. They can be either steroidal or nonsteroidal in structure.
Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
The conjugation of exogenous substances with various hydrophilic substituents to form water soluble products that are excretable in URINE. Phase II modifications include GLUTATHIONE conjugation; ACYLATION; and AMINATION. Phase II enzymes include GLUTATHIONE TRANSFERASE and GLUCURONOSYLTRANSFERASE. In a sense these reactions detoxify phase I reaction products.
The disodium salt of selenious acid. It is used therapeutically to supply the trace element selenium and is prepared by the reaction of SELENIUM DIOXIDE with SODIUM HYDROXIDE.
A class of chemicals that contain an anthracene ring with a naphthalene ring attached to it.
An epimer of chenodeoxycholic acid. It is a mammalian bile acid found first in the bear and is apparently either a precursor or a product of chenodeoxycholate. Its administration changes the composition of bile and may dissolve gallstones. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.
The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.
A condition in which there is a change of one adult cell type to another similar adult cell type.
A plant genus of the family MELIACEAE. Members contain azadirachtin A (a limonoid commonly referred to as azadirachtin) and other TRITERPENES. They have been used in PESTICIDES. The old name of Melia azadirachta is very similar to a related plant, MELIA AZEDARACH.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A condition with damage to the lining of the lower ESOPHAGUS resulting from chronic acid reflux (ESOPHAGITIS, REFLUX). Through the process of metaplasia, the squamous cells are replaced by a columnar epithelium with cells resembling those of the INTESTINE or the salmon-pink mucosa of the STOMACH. Barrett's columnar epithelium is a marker for severe reflux and precursor to ADENOCARCINOMA of the esophagus.
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
A low-molecular-weight protein (minimum molecular weight 8000) which has the ability to inhibit trypsin as well as chymotrypsin at independent binding sites. It is characterized by a high cystine content and the absence of glycine.
Pyrazines are heterocyclic organic compounds containing a six-membered ring with two nitrogen atoms at opposite positions, often responsible for the characteristic flavors and aromas found in various foods, beverages, and some biological systems, but they do not have a direct medical definition as they are not a drug, treatment, or a significant component of human physiology or pathology.
Compounds that inhibit AROMATASE in order to reduce production of estrogenic steroid hormones.
Benign neoplasms derived from glandular epithelium. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Specific practices for the prevention of disease or mental disorders in susceptible individuals or populations. These include HEALTH PROMOTION, including mental health; protective procedures, such as COMMUNICABLE DISEASE CONTROL; and monitoring and regulation of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS. Primary prevention is to be distinguished from SECONDARY PREVENTION and TERTIARY PREVENTION.
Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.
Protein of the annexin family originally isolated from the electric organ of the electric ray Torpedo marmorata. It has been found in a wide range of mammalian tissue where it is localized to the apical membrane of polarized EPITHELIAL CELLS.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.
Organic salts of cyanic acid containing the -OCN radical.
3-Phenylchromones. Isomeric form of FLAVONOIDS in which the benzene group is attached to the 3 position of the benzopyran ring instead of the 2 position.
Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the action or biosynthesis of estrogenic compounds.
Proteins in the nucleus or cytoplasm that specifically bind RETINOIC ACID or RETINOL and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Retinoic acid receptors, like steroid receptors, are ligand-activated transcription regulators. Several types have been recognized.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain ACONITINE and other diterpenoid alkaloids.
Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
Tumors or cancer of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)

Differential responses of normal, premalignant, and malignant human bronchial epithelial cells to receptor-selective retinoids. (1/1034)

Using an in vitro lung carcinogenesis model consisting of normal, premalignant, and malignant human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells, we analyzed the growth inhibitory effects of 26 novel synthetic retinoic acid receptor (RAR)- and retinoid X receptor (RXR)-selective retinoids. RAR-selective retinoids such as CD271, CD437, CD2325, and SR11364 showed potent activity in inhibiting the growth of either normal or premalignant and malignant HBE cells (IC50s mostly <1 microM) and were much more potent than RXR-selective retinoids. Nonetheless, the combination of RAR- and RXR-selective retinoids exhibited additive effects in HBE cells. As the HBE cells became progressively more malignant, they exhibited decreased or lost sensitivity to many retinoids. The activity of the RAR-selective retinoids, with the exception of the most potent retinoid, CD437, could be suppressed by an RAR panantagonist. These results suggest that: (a) RAR/RXR heterodimers play an important role in mediating the growth inhibitory effects of most retinoids in HBE cells; (b) CD437 may act through an RAR-independent pathway; (c) some of the RAR-selective retinoids may have the potential to be used in the clinic as chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents for lung cancer; and (d) early stages of lung carcinogenesis may be responsive targets for chemoprevention by retinoids, as opposed to later stages.  (+info)

KRAS mutations predict progression of preneoplastic gastric lesions. (2/1034)

Eight hundred sixty-three subjects with atrophic gastritis were recruited to participate in an ongoing chemoprevention trial in Narino, Colombia. The participants were randomly assigned to intervention therapies, which included treatment to eradicate Helicobacter pylori infection followed by daily dietary supplementation with antioxidant micronutrients in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design. A series of biopsies of gastric mucosa were obtained according to a specified protocol from designated locations in the stomach for each participant at baseline (before intervention therapy) and at year three. A systematic sample of 160 participants was selected from each of the eight treatment combinations. DNA was isolated from each of these biopsies (n = 320), and the first exon of KRAS was amplified using PCR. Mutations in the KRAS gene were detected using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and confirmed by sequence analysis. Of all baseline biopsies, 14.4% (23 of 160) contained KRAS mutations. Among those participants with atrophic gastritis without metaplasia, 19.4% (6 of 25) contained KRAS mutations, indicating that mutation of this important gene is likely an early event in the etiology of gastric carcinoma. An important association was found between the presence of KRAS mutations in baseline biopsies and the progression of preneoplastic lesions. Only 14.6% (20 of 137) of participants without baseline KRAS mutations progressed from atrophic gastritis to intestinal metaplasia or from small intestinal metaplasia to colonic metaplasia; however, 39.1% (9 of 23) with baseline KRAS mutations progressed to a more advanced lesion after 3 years [univariate odds ratio (OR), 3.76 (P = 0.05); multivariate OR adjusted for treatment, 3.74 (P = 0.04)]. In addition, the specificity of the KRAS mutation predicted progression. For those participants with G-->T transversions at position 1 of codon 12 (GGT-->TGT), 19.4% (5 of 17) progressed (univariate OR, 2.4); however, 60.0% (3 of 5) of participants with G-->A transitions at position 1 of codon 12 (GGT-->AGT) progressed (univariate OR, 8.7; P = 0.004 using chi2 test).  (+info)

Disorders in cell circuitry associated with multistage carcinogenesis: exploitable targets for cancer prevention and therapy. (3/1034)

The development of a malignant tumor involves the progressive acquisition of mutations and epigenetic abnormalities in multiple genes that have highly diverse functions. Some of these genes code for pathways of signal transduction that mediate the action of growth factors. The enzyme protein kinase C plays an important role in these events and in the process of tumor promotion. Therefore, we examined the effects of three inhibitors of protein kinase C, CGP 41251, RO 31-8220, and calphostin C, on human glioblastoma cells. These compounds inhibited growth and induced apoptosis; these activities were associated with a decrease in the level of CDC2 and cyclin B1/CDC2-associated kinase activity. This may explain why the treated cells accumulated in G2-M. In a separate series of studies, we examined abnormalities in cell cycle control genes in human cancer. We have found that cyclin D1 is frequently overexpressed in a variety of human cancers. Mechanistic studies indicate that cyclin D1 can play a critical role in carcinogenesis because: overexpression enhances cell transformation and tumorigenesis; introduction of an antisense cyclin D1 cDNA into either human esophageal or colon cancer cells reverts their malignant phenotype; and overexpression of cyclin D1 can enhance the amplification of other genes. The latter finding suggests that cyclin D1 can enhance genomic instability and, thereby, the process of tumor progression. Therefore, inhibitors of the function of cyclin D1 may be useful in both cancer chemoprevention and therapy. We obtained evidence for the existence of homeostatic feedback loops between cyclins D1 or E and the cell cycle inhibitory protein p27Kip1. On the basis of these and other findings, we hypothesize that, because of their disordered circuitry, cancer cells suffer from "gene addiction" and "gene hypersensitivity," disorders that might be exploited in both cancer prevention and therapy.  (+info)

Determination of an optimal dosing regimen for aspirin chemoprevention of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon tumours in rats. (4/1034)

In order to establish an optimal timing and duration of aspirin treatment in the chemoprevention of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon cancer in rats, colon tumours were induced using an established protocol and aspirin was given in the diet at 500 p.p.m. during various stages of colon carcinogenesis. Results indicate that only aspirin treatment throughout the entire carcinogenic period significantly reduced tumour incidence and volume whereas intermittent aspirin dosing increased tumour number and/or volume, suggesting that aspirin must be used for an extended period in order to gain any chemopreventive benefit.  (+info)

Evaluation of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) for cancer chemoprevention: lack of efficacy against nascent adenomatous polyps in the Apc(Min) mouse. (5/1034)

Recent experimental and epidemiological evidence suggests that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are effective in the prevention of colorectal cancer. However, the toxicity associated with the long-term use of most classical NSAIDs has limited their usefulness for the purpose of cancer chemoprevention. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, in particular, are sensitive to the adverse side effects of NSAIDs, and these patients also have an increased risk for the development of intestinal cancer. 5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is an anti-inflammatory drug commonly used in the treatment of IBD and may provide protection against the development of colorectal cancer in these patients. To directly evaluate the ability of 5-ASA to suppress intestinal tumors, we studied several formulations of 5-ASA (free acid, sulfasalazine, and Pentasa) at multiple oral dosage levels [500, 2400, 4800, and 9600 parts/million (ppm)] in the adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) mouse model of multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min). Although the ApcMin mouse is not a model of colitis-associated neoplasia, it is, nonetheless, a useful model for assessing the ability of anti-inflammatory agents to prevent tumor formation in a genetically preinitiated population of cells. We used a study design in which drug was provided ad libitum through the diet beginning at the time of weaning (28 days of age) until 100 days of age. We included 200 ppm of piroxicam and 160 ppm of sulindac as positive controls, and the negative control was AIN-93G diet alone. Treatment with either piroxicam or sulindac produced statistically significant reductions in intestinal tumor multiplicity (95% and 83% reductions in tumor number, respectively; P < 0.001 versus controls). By contrast, none of the 5-ASA drug formulations or dosage levels produced consistent dose-progressive changes in polyp number, distribution, or size, despite high luminal and serum concentrations of 5-ASA and its primary metabolite N-acetyl-5-ASA. Thus, 5-ASA does not seem to possess direct chemosuppressive activity against the development of nascent intestinal adenomas in the ApcMin mouse. However, because intestinal tumor development in the ApcMin mouse is driven by a germline mutation in the Apc gene rather than by chronic inflammation, we caution that these findings do not definitively exclude the possibility that 5-ASA may exert a chemopreventive effect in human IBD patients.  (+info)

Should we be doing more to prevent Group C meningococcal infection in school age children? How can we decide? (6/1034)

Meningococcal Group C infections are potentially preventable by vaccination in most cases. Population immunization has not been adopted because the disease is rare and the vaccine effective for only about three years. However, the recent rise in cases in school age children has prompted an assessment of the cost-effectiveness of alternative strategies for management of a case of Group C infection. Chemoprophylaxis and vaccination of close contacts is the most cost-effective strategy but will prevent relatively few cases. Population vaccination prevents considerably more cases, but at a much higher total and marginal cost. An intermediate strategy of giving antibiotics to and vaccinating the school population following a single case, in addition to contact tracing, has intermediate cost-effectiveness. Policy decisions will take into account other important factors but the approach we have taken makes explicit key assumptions so that wider debate including profession and public can be developed.  (+info)

Chemoprevention of tobacco smoke-induced lung tumors in A/J strain mice with dietary myo-inositol and dexamethasone. (7/1034)

Male A/J strain mice were fed AIN-76A diet supplemented with myo-inositol/dexamethasone (10 g and 0.5 mg/kg diet) or acetylsalicylic acid (300 mg/kg) and exposed for 5 months to a mixture of sidestream and mainstream cigarette smoke at a concentration of 132 mg total suspended particulates/m3. After tobacco smoke exposure, they were allowed to recover for another 4 months in filtered air. In the animals fed AIN-75A diet alone or acetylsalicylic acid, the average number of tumors/lung was 2.1, whereas in the animals given the myo-inositol/dexamethasone diet, the average lung tumor multiplicity was 1.0 (P < 0.05). In animals exposed to filtered air, lung tumor multiplicities were 0.6 for animals fed AIN-76A or myo-inositol/dexamethasone and 1.2 for animals fed acetylsalicylic acid. It was concluded that the combination of myo-inositol and dexamethasone constitutes an effective chemopreventive regimen against tobacco smoke-induced lung tumorigenesis.  (+info)

Retinoids: present role and future potential. (8/1034)

Vitamin A and its biologically active derivatives, retinal and retinoic acid (RA), together with a large repertoire of synthetic analogues are collectively referred to as retinoids. Naturally occurring retinoids regulate the growth and differentiation of a wide variety of cell types and play a crucial role in the physiology of vision and as morphogenic agents during embryonic development. Retinoids and their analogues have been evaluated as chemoprevention agents, and also in the management of acute promyelocytic leukaemia. Retinoids exert most of their effects by binding to specific receptors and modulating gene expression. The development of new active retinoids and the identification of two distinct families of retinoid receptors has led to an increased understanding of the cellular effects of activation of these receptors. In this article we review the use of retinoids in chemoprevention strategies, discuss the cellular consequences of activated retinoid receptors, and speculate on how our increasing understanding of retinoid-induced signalling pathways may contribute to future therapeutic strategies in the management of malignant disease.  (+info)

Chemoprevention is a medical term that refers to the use of chemical agents, usually in the form of drugs or dietary supplements, to prevent or delay the development of cancer. These agents are typically designed to interfere with the molecular processes involved in cancer initiation, promotion, or progression.

There are several different approaches to chemoprevention, depending on the specific type of cancer and the individual patient's risk factors. Some chemopreventive agents work by blocking the action of hormones that can promote cancer growth, while others may inhibit the activity of enzymes involved in DNA damage or repair.

Chemoprevention is often used in individuals who are at high risk of developing cancer due to inherited genetic mutations, a history of precancerous lesions, or other factors. However, it is important to note that chemopreventive agents can have side effects and may not be appropriate for everyone. Therefore, they should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Anticarcinogenic agents are substances that prevent, inhibit or reduce the development of cancer. They can be natural or synthetic compounds that interfere with the process of carcinogenesis at various stages, such as initiation, promotion, and progression. Anticarcinogenic agents may work by preventing DNA damage, promoting DNA repair, reducing inflammation, inhibiting cell proliferation, inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death), or modulating immune responses.

Examples of anticarcinogenic agents include chemopreventive agents, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and retinoids; phytochemicals found in fruits, vegetables, and other plant-based foods; and medications used to treat cancer, such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and targeted therapies.

It is important to note that while some anticarcinogenic agents have been shown to be effective in preventing or reducing the risk of certain types of cancer, they may also have potential side effects and risks. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare professional before using any anticarcinogenic agent for cancer prevention or treatment purposes.

Sulindac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is used to treat pain, inflammation, and fever. It works by inhibiting the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, which are involved in the production of prostaglandins, chemicals that contribute to inflammation and pain.

Sulindac is a prodrug, meaning that it is converted into its active form, sulindac sulfide, in the body. Sulindac sulfide has both analgesic (pain-relieving) and anti-inflammatory effects, making it useful for treating conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.

Like other NSAIDs, sulindac can cause side effects such as stomach ulcers, bleeding, and kidney damage, especially when taken at high doses or for long periods of time. It should be used with caution in people with a history of gastrointestinal (GI) problems, kidney disease, or liver disease.

It is important to note that this information is intended to supplement, not substitute for, the expertise and judgment of healthcare professionals. It is always recommended to consult with a doctor or pharmacist for medical advice.

A precancerous condition, also known as a premalignant condition, is a state of abnormal cellular growth and development that has a higher-than-normal potential to progress into cancer. These conditions are characterized by the presence of certain anomalies in the cells, such as dysplasia (abnormal changes in cell shape or size), which can indicate an increased risk for malignant transformation.

It is important to note that not all precancerous conditions will eventually develop into cancer, and some may even regress on their own. However, individuals with precancerous conditions are often at a higher risk of developing cancer compared to the general population. Regular monitoring and appropriate medical interventions, if necessary, can help manage this risk and potentially prevent or detect cancer at an early stage when it is more treatable.

Examples of precancerous conditions include:

1. Dysplasia in the cervix (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or CIN)
2. Atypical ductal hyperplasia or lobular hyperplasia in the breast
3. Actinic keratosis on the skin
4. Leukoplakia in the mouth
5. Barrett's esophagus in the digestive tract

Regular medical check-ups, screenings, and lifestyle modifications are crucial for individuals with precancerous conditions to monitor their health and reduce the risk of cancer development.

Isothiocyanates are organic compounds that contain a functional group made up of a carbon atom, a nitrogen atom, and a sulfur atom, with the formula RN=C=S (where R can be an alkyl or aryl group). They are commonly found in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, brussels sprouts, and wasabi. Isothiocyanates have been studied for their potential health benefits, including their anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. However, they can also be toxic in high concentrations.

Carcinogens are agents (substances or mixtures of substances) that can cause cancer. They may be naturally occurring or man-made. Carcinogens can increase the risk of cancer by altering cellular DNA, disrupting cellular function, or promoting cell growth. Examples of carcinogens include certain chemicals found in tobacco smoke, asbestos, UV radiation from the sun, and some viruses.

It's important to note that not all exposures to carcinogens will result in cancer, and the risk typically depends on factors such as the level and duration of exposure, individual genetic susceptibility, and lifestyle choices. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies carcinogens into different groups based on the strength of evidence linking them to cancer:

Group 1: Carcinogenic to humans
Group 2A: Probably carcinogenic to humans
Group 2B: Possibly carcinogenic to humans
Group 3: Not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans
Group 4: Probably not carcinogenic to humans

This information is based on medical research and may be subject to change as new studies become available. Always consult a healthcare professional for medical advice.

Eflornithine is a antiprotozoal medication, which is used to treat sleeping sickness (human African trypanosomiasis) caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in adults and children. It works by inhibiting the enzyme ornithine decarboxylase, which is needed for the growth of the parasite. By doing so, it helps to control the infection and prevent further complications.

Eflornithine is also used as a topical cream to slow down excessive hair growth in women due to a condition called hirsutism. It works by interfering with the growth of hair follicles.

It's important to note that Eflornithine should be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional, and it may have side effects or interactions with other medications.

Isotretinoin is a derivative of vitamin A, used in the treatment of severe recalcitrant nodular acne that has not responded to other therapies. It is a potent inhibitor of sebaceous gland function and keratinization. Isotretinoin is also known to have anti-inflammatory properties. It is taken orally in the form of capsules and its use requires careful monitoring due to potential teratogenic effects and other side effects, such as dryness of the skin and mucous membranes, mood changes, and liver enzyme abnormalities.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) are a class of medications that reduce pain, inflammation, and fever. They work by inhibiting the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, which are involved in the production of prostaglandins, chemicals that contribute to inflammation and cause blood vessels to dilate and become more permeable, leading to symptoms such as pain, redness, warmth, and swelling.

NSAIDs are commonly used to treat a variety of conditions, including arthritis, muscle strains and sprains, menstrual cramps, headaches, and fever. Some examples of NSAIDs include aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and celecoxib.

While NSAIDs are generally safe and effective when used as directed, they can have side effects, particularly when taken in large doses or for long periods of time. Common side effects include stomach ulcers, gastrointestinal bleeding, and increased risk of heart attack and stroke. It is important to follow the recommended dosage and consult with a healthcare provider if you have any concerns about using NSAIDs.

A catechin is a type of plant phenol and antioxidant found in various foods and beverages, such as tea, cocoa, and certain fruits and vegetables. Chemically, catechins are flavan-3-ols, which are a subclass of flavonoids. They have several potential health benefits, including reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Catechins are known to have anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, and antidiabetic properties. They can also help improve oral health by inhibiting the growth of harmful bacteria in the mouth. The most well-known catechin is epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), which is found in high concentrations in green tea and has been extensively studied for its potential health benefits.

In summary, a catechin is a type of antioxidant compound found in various plant-based foods and beverages that may have several health benefits, including reducing the risk of chronic diseases and improving oral health.

Azoxymethane is a chemical compound that is used primarily in laboratory research. It is an organodihydroazoxy compound, and it is known to cause colon cancer in experimental animals, particularly rats and mice. As such, it is often used as a tool in studies of carcinogenesis and chemically induced colon tumors.

In scientific studies, azoxymethane is typically administered to laboratory animals in order to induce colon tumors. This allows researchers to study the mechanisms of cancer development and test potential therapies or preventive measures. It is important to note that while azoxymethane has been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals, it does not necessarily mean that it poses the same risk to humans.

The use of azoxymethane in research is subject to strict regulations and guidelines, as with any potentially hazardous chemical. Researchers are required to follow safety protocols and take appropriate precautions when handling this compound to minimize risks to themselves and the environment.

Neoplasms are abnormal growths of cells or tissues in the body that serve no physiological function. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are typically slow growing and do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant neoplasms are aggressive, invasive, and can metastasize to distant sites.

Neoplasms occur when there is a dysregulation in the normal process of cell division and differentiation, leading to uncontrolled growth and accumulation of cells. This can result from genetic mutations or other factors such as viral infections, environmental exposures, or hormonal imbalances.

Neoplasms can develop in any organ or tissue of the body and can cause various symptoms depending on their size, location, and type. Treatment options for neoplasms include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy, among others.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Tea" is not a medical term. It generally refers to a hot beverage made by infusing the leaves of the tea plant (Camellia sinensis) in hot water. There are various types of tea including black, green, white, oolong, and herbal teas, but these are not medical terms. If you have any medical concerns or questions, I'd be happy to try to help if I can, but it would be helpful if you could provide more context or clarify what you're asking about.

Retinoids are a class of chemical compounds that are derivatives of vitamin A. They are widely used in dermatology for the treatment of various skin conditions, including acne, psoriasis, and photoaging. Retinoids can help to reduce inflammation, improve skin texture and tone, and stimulate collagen production.

Retinoids work by binding to specific receptors in the skin cells, which triggers a series of biochemical reactions that regulate gene expression and promote cell differentiation and turnover. This can help to unclog pores, reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles, and improve the overall health and appearance of the skin.

There are several different types of retinoids used in skincare products, including retinoic acid, retinaldehyde, and retinol. Retinoic acid is the most potent form of retinoid and is available by prescription only. Retinaldehyde and retinol are weaker forms of retinoid that can be found in over-the-counter skincare products.

While retinoids can be highly effective for treating various skin conditions, they can also cause side effects such as dryness, irritation, and sensitivity to the sun. It is important to use retinoids as directed by a healthcare professional and to follow proper sun protection measures when using these products.

Polyphenols are a type of phytochemical, which are naturally occurring compounds found in plant-based foods. They contain multiple phenol units and can be classified into several subgroups, including flavonoids, stilbenes, tannins, and lignans. These compounds have been studied for their potential health benefits due to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immune-modulating properties. They are found in a wide variety of foods such as fruits, vegetables, tea, wine, chocolate, and cereals.

Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitors are a class of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that specifically target and inhibit the COX-2 enzyme. This enzyme is responsible for the production of prostaglandins, which are hormone-like substances that play a role in inflammation, pain, and fever.

COX-2 inhibitors were developed to provide the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of NSAIDs without the gastrointestinal side effects associated with non-selective NSAIDs that inhibit both COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes. However, some studies have suggested an increased risk of cardiovascular events with long-term use of COX-2 inhibitors, leading to restrictions on their use in certain populations.

Examples of COX-2 inhibitors include celecoxib (Celebrex), rofecoxib (Vioxx, withdrawn from the market in 2004 due to cardiovascular risks), and valdecoxib (Bextra, withdrawn from the market in 2005 due to cardiovascular and skin reactions).

Etretinate is a oral retinoid medication that is primarily used in the treatment of severe forms of acne, such as recalcitrant cystic acne or nodular acne. It works by decreasing the production of sebum (oil) and promoting the shedding of skin cells, which helps to prevent the formation of comedones (blackheads and whiteheads) and reduce inflammation in the skin.

Etretinate is a derivative of vitamin A and is known for its long-term persistence in the body, with a half-life of approximately 120 days. This means that it can take several months for the drug to be completely eliminated from the body after stopping treatment. As a result, etretinate is usually considered a second-line treatment option for acne and is typically reserved for cases that have not responded to other therapies.

It's important to note that etretinate is a teratogenic medication, which means that it can cause birth defects if taken during pregnancy. Therefore, it should not be used by women who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant, and effective contraception must be used during treatment and for several months after stopping the drug.

Other potential side effects of etretinate include dry skin, dry mouth, nosebleeds, hair loss, muscle aches, and elevated liver enzymes. It may also increase the risk of bone fractures and can interact with other medications, such as tetracyclines, that can increase the risk of intracranial hypertension.

Curcumin is a polyphenolic compound that is responsible for the yellow color of turmeric, a spice derived from the plant Curcuma longa. It has been used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine for centuries due to its potential health benefits.

Curcumin has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, which have been studied for their potential therapeutic effects in various medical conditions such as cancer, Alzheimer's disease, arthritis, and diabetes. It works by inhibiting the activity of several enzymes and proteins that play a role in inflammation and oxidative stress.

However, it is important to note that while curcumin has shown promise in laboratory and animal studies, its effectiveness in humans is still being researched. Moreover, curcumin has low bioavailability, which means that it is poorly absorbed and rapidly eliminated from the body, limiting its potential therapeutic use. To overcome this limitation, researchers are exploring various formulations and delivery systems to improve curcumin's absorption and stability in the body.

Leukoplakia is a medical term used to describe a white or gray patch that develops on the mucous membranes lining the inside of the mouth. These patches are typically caused by excessive cell growth and cannot be easily scraped off. Leukoplakia is often associated with long-term tobacco use, including smoking and chewing tobacco, as well as alcohol consumption. While most cases of leukoplakia are benign, a small percentage can develop into oral cancer, so it's essential to have any suspicious patches evaluated by a healthcare professional.

Colonic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the large intestine, also known as the colon. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). The two most common types of colonic neoplasms are adenomas and carcinomas.

Adenomas are benign tumors that can develop into cancer over time if left untreated. They are often found during routine colonoscopies and can be removed during the procedure.

Carcinomas, on the other hand, are malignant tumors that invade surrounding tissues and can spread to other parts of the body. Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, and colonic neoplasms are a significant risk factor for developing this type of cancer.

Regular screenings for colonic neoplasms are recommended for individuals over the age of 50 or those with a family history of colorectal cancer or other risk factors. Early detection and removal of colonic neoplasms can significantly reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer.

Antineoplastic agents are a class of drugs used to treat malignant neoplasms or cancer. These agents work by inhibiting the growth and proliferation of cancer cells, either by killing them or preventing their division and replication. Antineoplastic agents can be classified based on their mechanism of action, such as alkylating agents, antimetabolites, topoisomerase inhibitors, mitotic inhibitors, and targeted therapy agents.

Alkylating agents work by adding alkyl groups to DNA, which can cause cross-linking of DNA strands and ultimately lead to cell death. Antimetabolites interfere with the metabolic processes necessary for DNA synthesis and replication, while topoisomerase inhibitors prevent the relaxation of supercoiled DNA during replication. Mitotic inhibitors disrupt the normal functioning of the mitotic spindle, which is essential for cell division. Targeted therapy agents are designed to target specific molecular abnormalities in cancer cells, such as mutated oncogenes or dysregulated signaling pathways.

It's important to note that antineoplastic agents can also affect normal cells and tissues, leading to various side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and myelosuppression (suppression of bone marrow function). Therefore, the use of these drugs requires careful monitoring and management of their potential adverse effects.

Chlorophyllides are the breakdown products of chlorophyll, which is the green pigment found in plants and algae that is essential for photosynthesis. Chlorophyllides are formed when chlorophyll is broken down by enzymes or through other chemical processes. They differ from chlorophyll in that they lack a phytol tail, which is a long hydrocarbon chain that is attached to the chlorophyll molecule.

Chlorophyllides have been studied for their potential health benefits, as they are thought to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Some research has suggested that chlorophyllides may help protect against certain types of cancer, improve immune function, and reduce the risk of heart disease. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits and to determine the optimal dosages and methods for consuming chlorophyllides.

It's worth noting that chlorophyllides are not typically found in significant quantities in the diet, as they are primarily produced during the breakdown of chlorophyll in plants. However, some supplements and green superfood powders may contain chlorophyllides or chlorophyllin, which is a semi-synthetic form of chlorophyll that is more stable and easier to absorb than natural chlorophyll.

A plant extract is a preparation containing chemical constituents that have been extracted from a plant using a solvent. The resulting extract may contain a single compound or a mixture of several compounds, depending on the extraction process and the specific plant material used. These extracts are often used in various industries including pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, and food and beverage, due to their potential therapeutic or beneficial properties. The composition of plant extracts can vary widely, and it is important to ensure their quality, safety, and efficacy before use in any application.

Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) medication that is primarily used in the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. It works by blocking the action of estrogen in the body, particularly in breast tissue. This can help to stop or slow the growth of hormone-sensitive tumors.

Tamoxifen has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in both men and women. It is often used as a part of adjuvant therapy, which is treatment given after surgery to reduce the risk of cancer recurrence. Tamoxifen may also be used to treat metastatic breast cancer that has spread to other parts of the body.

Common side effects of tamoxifen include hot flashes, vaginal discharge, and changes in mood or vision. Less commonly, tamoxifen can increase the risk of blood clots, stroke, and endometrial cancer (cancer of the lining of the uterus). However, for many women with breast cancer, the benefits of taking tamoxifen outweigh the risks.

It's important to note that while tamoxifen can be an effective treatment option for some types of breast cancer, it is not appropriate for all patients. A healthcare professional will consider a variety of factors when determining whether tamoxifen is the right choice for an individual patient.

Fenretinide is a synthetic retinoid, which is a class of compounds related to vitamin A. It is a medication that has been studied in clinical trials for the prevention and treatment of various types of cancer. Fenretinide works by interfering with the way that cancer cells grow and multiply.

Fenretinide has been shown to have anti-cancer effects in laboratory studies, and it has been tested in several clinical trials as a potential cancer treatment. However, the results of these studies have been mixed, and fenretinide is not currently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of any type of cancer.

Like other retinoids, fenretinide can cause side effects such as dry skin, dry eyes, and changes in vision. It may also cause more serious side effects, such as liver damage and increased pressure in the brain. Fenretinide should be used with caution and under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an enzyme involved in the synthesis of prostaglandins, which are hormone-like substances that play a role in inflammation, pain, and fever. COX-2 is primarily expressed in response to stimuli such as cytokines and growth factors, and its expression is associated with the development of inflammation.

COX-2 inhibitors are a class of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that selectively block the activity of COX-2, reducing the production of prostaglandins and providing analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic effects. These medications are often used to treat pain and inflammation associated with conditions such as arthritis, menstrual cramps, and headaches.

It's important to note that while COX-2 inhibitors can be effective in managing pain and inflammation, they may also increase the risk of cardiovascular events such as heart attack and stroke, particularly when used at high doses or for extended periods. Therefore, it's essential to use these medications under the guidance of a healthcare provider and to follow their instructions carefully.

Organoselenium compounds are organic chemicals that contain selenium, a naturally occurring non-metal element, in their structure. Selenium is chemically related to sulfur and can replace it in many organic molecules. Organoselenium compounds have been studied for their potential therapeutic benefits, including antioxidant, anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory effects. They are also used as catalysts in chemical reactions. These compounds contain at least one carbon atom bonded to selenium, which can take the form of a variety of functional groups such as selenoethers, selenols, and selenoesters.

Piroxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is used to treat pain, inflammation, and fever. It works by inhibiting the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, which are involved in the production of prostaglandins, chemicals that contribute to inflammation and pain.

Piroxicam is available as a prescription medication and is used to treat conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis. It is typically taken orally in the form of tablets or capsules, and its effects can last for up to 12 hours.

Like other NSAIDs, piroxicam can cause side effects such as stomach ulcers, bleeding, and kidney problems, especially when used at high doses or for long periods of time. It is important to use piroxicam only as directed by a healthcare provider and to follow any recommended precautions.

Thiocyanates are chemical compounds that contain the thiocyanate ion (SCN-), which consists of a sulfur atom, a carbon atom, and a nitrogen atom. The thiocyanate ion is formed by the removal of a hydrogen ion from thiocyanic acid (HSCN). Thiocyanates are used in various applications, including pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and industrial chemicals. In medicine, thiocyanates have been studied for their potential effects on the thyroid gland and their use as a treatment for cyanide poisoning. However, excessive exposure to thiocyanates can be harmful and may cause symptoms such as irritation of the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract, as well as potential impacts on thyroid function.

Pyrazoles are heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds that contain a six-membered ring with two nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 2. The chemical structure of pyrazoles consists of a pair of nitrogen atoms adjacent to each other in the ring, which makes them unique from other azole heterocycles such as imidazoles or triazoles.

Pyrazoles have significant biological activities and are found in various pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and natural products. Some pyrazole derivatives exhibit anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, antimicrobial, antiviral, antifungal, and anticancer properties.

In the medical field, pyrazoles are used in various drugs to treat different conditions. For example, celecoxib (Celebrex) is a selective COX-2 inhibitor used for pain relief and inflammation reduction in arthritis patients. It contains a pyrazole ring as its core structure. Similarly, febuxostat (Uloric) is a medication used to treat gout, which also has a pyrazole moiety.

Overall, pyrazoles are essential compounds with significant medical applications and potential for further development in drug discovery and design.

Raloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) that is used in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. It works by mimicking the effects of estrogen on some tissues, such as bones, while blocking its effects on others, such as breast tissue. This can help to reduce the risk of fractures and breast cancer in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

Raloxifene is available in tablet form and is typically taken once a day. Common side effects include hot flashes, leg cramps, and sweating. It may also increase the risk of blood clots, so it is important to discuss any history of blood clots or other medical conditions with your healthcare provider before starting treatment with raloxifene.

It's important to note that Raloxifene should not be used in premenopausal women or in men, and it should not be taken during pregnancy or while breastfeeding. It is also important to follow the dosage instructions carefully and to discuss any concerns with your healthcare provider before taking this medication.

Finasteride is a synthetic 4-azasteroid compound that acts as a specific inhibitor of Type II 5α-reductase, an intracellular enzyme that converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). DHT is a hormonal byproduct thought to be responsible for the development and worsening of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and androgenetic alopecia (AGA), also known as male pattern baldness.

Finasteride is available in two formulations: finasteride 1 mg (Proscar) and finasteride 5 mg (Propecia). Finasteride 1 mg is used to treat BPH, while finasteride 5 mg is used for the treatment of AGA in men. The drug works by reducing the production of DHT, which in turn slows down the progression of BPH and AGA.

It's important to note that finasteride is not approved for use in women or children, and it should be used with caution in men due to potential side effects such as decreased sexual desire, difficulty in achieving an erection, and a decrease in the amount of semen produced.

Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are a class of medications that act as either agonists or antagonists on the estrogen receptors in different tissues of the body. They selectively bind to estrogen receptors and can have opposite effects depending on the target tissue. In some tissues, such as bone and liver, SERMs behave like estrogens and stimulate estrogen receptors, promoting bone formation and reducing cholesterol levels. In contrast, in other tissues, such as breast and uterus, SERMs block the effects of estrogen, acting as estrogen antagonists and preventing the growth of hormone-sensitive tumors.

Examples of SERMs include:

* Tamoxifen: used for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer in both pre- and postmenopausal women.
* Raloxifene: used for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, as well as for reducing the risk of invasive breast cancer in high-risk postmenopausal women.
* Toremifene: used for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer in postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive tumors.
* Lasofoxifene: used for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, as well as reducing the risk of invasive breast cancer in high-risk postmenopausal women.

It is important to note that SERMs can have side effects, including hot flashes, vaginal dryness, and an increased risk of blood clots. The choice of a specific SERM depends on the individual patient's needs, medical history, and potential risks.

Cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors are a class of drugs that work by blocking the activity of cyclooxygenase enzymes, which are involved in the production of prostaglandins. Prostaglandins are hormone-like substances that play a role in inflammation, pain, and fever.

There are two main types of COX enzymes: COX-1 and COX-2. COX-1 is produced continuously in various tissues throughout the body and helps maintain the normal function of the stomach and kidneys, among other things. COX-2, on the other hand, is produced in response to inflammation and is involved in the production of prostaglandins that contribute to pain, fever, and inflammation.

COX inhibitors can be non-selective, meaning they block both COX-1 and COX-2, or selective, meaning they primarily block COX-2. Non-selective COX inhibitors include drugs such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen, while selective COX inhibitors are often referred to as coxibs and include celecoxib (Celebrex) and rofecoxib (Vioxx).

COX inhibitors are commonly used to treat pain, inflammation, and fever. However, long-term use of non-selective COX inhibitors can increase the risk of gastrointestinal side effects such as ulcers and bleeding, while selective COX inhibitors may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events such as heart attack and stroke. It is important to talk to a healthcare provider about the potential risks and benefits of COX inhibitors before using them.

Prostatic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the prostate gland, which can be benign or malignant. The term "neoplasm" simply means new or abnormal tissue growth. When it comes to the prostate, neoplasms are often referred to as tumors.

Benign prostatic neoplasms, such as prostate adenomas, are non-cancerous overgrowths of prostate tissue. They usually grow slowly and do not spread to other parts of the body. While they can cause uncomfortable symptoms like difficulty urinating, they are generally not life-threatening.

Malignant prostatic neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous growths. The most common type of prostate cancer is adenocarcinoma, which arises from the glandular cells in the prostate. Prostate cancer often grows slowly and may not cause any symptoms for many years. However, some types of prostate cancer can be aggressive and spread quickly to other parts of the body, such as the bones or lymph nodes.

It's important to note that while prostate neoplasms can be concerning, early detection and treatment can significantly improve outcomes for many men. Regular check-ups with a healthcare provider are key to monitoring prostate health and catching any potential issues early on.

Silymarin is not a medical term itself, but it's the active compound found in the milk thistle plant (Silybum marianum). Medically, silymarin is often referred to as a standardized extract from the seeds of the milk thistle plant. It is a complex mixture of flavonolignans, mainly consisting of silybin, isosilybin, silychristin, and silydianin.

Silymarin has been reported to have various biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hepatoprotective effects. It is commonly used in complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of liver diseases such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, and toxic liver damage due to alcohol or drug abuse. However, its clinical efficacy remains a subject of ongoing research and debate among medical professionals.

Methylnitrosourea (MNU) is not a medical term per se, but it is a chemical compound that has been widely used in biomedical research, particularly in cancer studies. Therefore, I will provide you with a scientific definition of this compound.

Methylnitrosourea (MNU) is an alkylating agent and a nitrosourea compound. It is known to be highly mutagenic and carcinogenic. MNU acts by transferring its methyl group (-CH3) to DNA, RNA, and proteins, causing damage to these macromolecules. This methylation can lead to point mutations, chromosomal aberrations, and DNA strand breaks, which contribute to genomic instability and cancer initiation and progression.

In research settings, MNU has been used as a model carcinogen to induce tumors in various animal models, primarily rodents, to study the mechanisms of carcinogenesis and evaluate potential chemopreventive or therapeutic agents. However, due to its high toxicity and mutagenicity, handling and use of MNU require strict safety measures and precautions.

Apoptosis is a programmed and controlled cell death process that occurs in multicellular organisms. It is a natural process that helps maintain tissue homeostasis by eliminating damaged, infected, or unwanted cells. During apoptosis, the cell undergoes a series of morphological changes, including cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, and fragmentation into membrane-bound vesicles called apoptotic bodies. These bodies are then recognized and engulfed by neighboring cells or phagocytic cells, preventing an inflammatory response. Apoptosis is regulated by a complex network of intracellular signaling pathways that involve proteins such as caspases, Bcl-2 family members, and inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs).

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Punicaceae" is not a recognized term in modern medicine or medical botany. It is possible that you may be referring to "Punica granatum," which is the scientific name for the pomegranate tree and its fruit. The pomegranate has been studied for its potential medicinal properties, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer effects. However, I would need more context to provide a more specific definition or explanation.

9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA) is a synthetic, aromatic hydrocarbon that is commonly used in research as a carcinogenic compound. It is a potent tumor initiator and has been widely used to study chemical carcinogenesis in laboratory animals.

DMBA is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) with two benzene rings fused together, and two methyl groups attached at the 9 and 10 positions. This structure allows DMBA to intercalate into DNA, causing mutations that can lead to cancer.

Exposure to DMBA has been shown to cause a variety of tumors in different organs, depending on the route of administration and dose. In animal models, DMBA is often applied to the skin or administered orally to induce tumors in the mammary glands, lungs, or digestive tract.

It's important to note that DMBA is not a natural compound found in the environment and is used primarily for research purposes only. It should be handled with care and appropriate safety precautions due to its carcinogenic properties.

Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) is a genetic disorder characterized by the development of numerous adenomatous polyps in the colon and rectum. APC is caused by mutations in the APC gene, which is a tumor suppressor gene that helps regulate cell growth and division. When the APC gene is mutated, it can lead to uncontrolled cell growth and the development of polyps, which can eventually become cancerous.

Individuals with APC typically develop hundreds to thousands of polyps in their colon and rectum, usually beginning in adolescence or early adulthood. If left untreated, APC can lead to colorectal cancer in nearly all affected individuals by the age of 40.

APC is an autosomal dominant disorder, which means that a person has a 50% chance of inheriting the mutated gene from an affected parent. However, some cases of APC may also occur spontaneously due to new mutations in the APC gene. Treatment for APC typically involves surgical removal of the colon and rectum (colectomy) to prevent the development of colorectal cancer. Regular surveillance with colonoscopy is also recommended to monitor for the development of new polyps.

Antioxidants are substances that can prevent or slow damage to cells caused by free radicals, which are unstable molecules that the body produces as a reaction to environmental and other pressures. Antioxidants are able to neutralize free radicals by donating an electron to them, thus stabilizing them and preventing them from causing further damage to the cells.

Antioxidants can be found in a variety of foods, including fruits, vegetables, nuts, and grains. Some common antioxidants include vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, and selenium. Antioxidants are also available as dietary supplements.

In addition to their role in protecting cells from damage, antioxidants have been studied for their potential to prevent or treat a number of health conditions, including cancer, heart disease, and age-related macular degeneration. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks of using antioxidant supplements.

Lung neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the lung tissue. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant lung neoplasms are further classified into two main types: small cell lung carcinoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma. Lung neoplasms can cause symptoms such as cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, and weight loss. They are often caused by smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke, but can also occur due to genetic factors, radiation exposure, and other environmental carcinogens. Early detection and treatment of lung neoplasms is crucial for improving outcomes and survival rates.

Sulfonamides are a group of synthetic antibacterial drugs that contain the sulfonamide group (SO2NH2) in their chemical structure. They are bacteriostatic agents, meaning they inhibit bacterial growth rather than killing them outright. Sulfonamides work by preventing the bacteria from synthesizing folic acid, which is essential for their survival.

The first sulfonamide drug was introduced in the 1930s and since then, many different sulfonamides have been developed with varying chemical structures and pharmacological properties. They are used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections, including urinary tract infections, respiratory tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, and ear infections.

Some common sulfonamide drugs include sulfisoxazole, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (a combination of a sulfonamide and another antibiotic called trimethoprim). While sulfonamides are generally safe and effective when used as directed, they can cause side effects such as rash, nausea, and allergic reactions. It is important to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

Antimutagenic agents are substances that prevent or reduce the frequency of mutations in DNA, which can be caused by various factors such as radiation, chemicals, and free radicals. These agents work by preventing the formation of mutations or by repairing the damage already done to the DNA. They can be found naturally in foods, such as antioxidants, or they can be synthesized in a laboratory. Antimutagenic agents have potential use in cancer prevention and treatment, as well as in reducing the negative effects of environmental mutagens.

Selenium compounds refer to chemical substances that contain the metalloid element selenium (Se) in its various oxidation states, combined with other elements. These compounds can be organic or inorganic and can exist in different forms, such as selenides, selenites, and selenates. Selenium is an essential trace element for human health, playing a crucial role in several biological processes, including antioxidant defense, immune function, and thyroid hormone metabolism. However, excessive exposure to certain selenium compounds can be toxic and cause serious health effects.

Colorectal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the colon or rectum, which can be benign or malignant. These growths can arise from the inner lining (mucosa) of the colon or rectum and can take various forms such as polyps, adenomas, or carcinomas.

Benign neoplasms, such as hyperplastic polyps and inflammatory polyps, are not cancerous but may need to be removed to prevent the development of malignant tumors. Adenomas, on the other hand, are precancerous lesions that can develop into colorectal cancer if left untreated.

Colorectal cancer is a malignant neoplasm that arises from the uncontrolled growth and division of cells in the colon or rectum. It is one of the most common types of cancer worldwide and can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system.

Regular screening for colorectal neoplasms is recommended for individuals over the age of 50, as early detection and removal of precancerous lesions can significantly reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer.

Clinical trials are research studies that involve human participants and are designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of new medical treatments, drugs, devices, or behavioral interventions. The purpose of clinical trials is to determine whether a new intervention is safe, effective, and beneficial for patients, as well as to compare it with currently available treatments. Clinical trials follow a series of phases, each with specific goals and criteria, before a new intervention can be approved by regulatory authorities for widespread use.

Clinical trials are conducted according to a protocol, which is a detailed plan that outlines the study's objectives, design, methodology, statistical analysis, and ethical considerations. The protocol is developed and reviewed by a team of medical experts, statisticians, and ethicists, and it must be approved by an institutional review board (IRB) before the trial can begin.

Participation in clinical trials is voluntary, and participants must provide informed consent before enrolling in the study. Informed consent involves providing potential participants with detailed information about the study's purpose, procedures, risks, benefits, and alternatives, as well as their rights as research subjects. Participants can withdraw from the study at any time without penalty or loss of benefits to which they are entitled.

Clinical trials are essential for advancing medical knowledge and improving patient care. They help researchers identify new treatments, diagnostic tools, and prevention strategies that can benefit patients and improve public health. However, clinical trials also pose potential risks to participants, including adverse effects from experimental interventions, time commitment, and inconvenience. Therefore, it is important for researchers to carefully design and conduct clinical trials to minimize risks and ensure that the benefits outweigh the risks.

F344 is a strain code used to designate an outbred stock of rats that has been inbreeded for over 100 generations. The F344 rats, also known as Fischer 344 rats, were originally developed at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and are now widely used in biomedical research due to their consistent and reliable genetic background.

Inbred strains, like the F344, are created by mating genetically identical individuals (siblings or parents and offspring) for many generations until a state of complete homozygosity is reached, meaning that all members of the strain have identical genomes. This genetic uniformity makes inbred strains ideal for use in studies where consistent and reproducible results are important.

F344 rats are known for their longevity, with a median lifespan of around 27-31 months, making them useful for aging research. They also have a relatively low incidence of spontaneous tumors compared to other rat strains. However, they may be more susceptible to certain types of cancer and other diseases due to their inbred status.

It's important to note that while F344 rats are often used as a standard laboratory rat strain, there can still be some genetic variation between individual animals within the same strain, particularly if they come from different suppliers or breeding colonies. Therefore, it's always important to consider the source and history of any animal model when designing experiments and interpreting results.

Breast neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the breast tissue that can be benign or malignant. Benign breast neoplasms are non-cancerous tumors or growths, while malignant breast neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body.

Breast neoplasms can arise from different types of cells in the breast, including milk ducts, milk sacs (lobules), or connective tissue. The most common type of breast cancer is ductal carcinoma, which starts in the milk ducts and can spread to other parts of the breast and nearby structures.

Breast neoplasms are usually detected through screening methods such as mammography, ultrasound, or MRI, or through self-examination or clinical examination. Treatment options for breast neoplasms depend on several factors, including the type and stage of the tumor, the patient's age and overall health, and personal preferences. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, or targeted therapy.

5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors are a class of drugs that block the action of the enzyme 5-alpha reductase, which is responsible for converting testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). DHT is a more potent form of testosterone that plays a key role in the development and maintenance of male sexual characteristics and is involved in the pathogenesis of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and androgenetic alopecia (male pattern baldness).

By inhibiting the action of 5-alpha reductase, these drugs reduce the levels of DHT in the body, which can help to shrink the prostate gland and improve symptoms of BPH such as difficulty urinating, frequent urination, and weak urine stream. They are also used off-label to treat hair loss in men.

Examples of 5-alpha reductase inhibitors include finasteride (Proscar, Propecia) and dutasteride (Avodart). Common side effects of these drugs may include decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, and breast tenderness or enlargement.

Anethole trithione is not a medical term, but a chemical compound. It's a synthetic compound that has been used in the past as a medication to treat certain types of cancer, specifically germ cell tumors and ovarian cancer. However, its use in medicine is no longer common due to the development of other more effective and less toxic treatments.

Anethole trithione works by damaging the DNA of cancer cells, which can lead to their death. It was often used in combination with other chemotherapy drugs to increase its effectiveness.

It's important to note that anethole trithione is not approved for use in many countries and should only be administered under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional.

4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide is a chemical compound that is often used in laboratory research as a carcinogenic agent. Its molecular formula is C6H4N2O3, and it is known to cause DNA damage and mutations, which can lead to the development of cancer. It is primarily used in scientific research to study the mechanisms of carcinogenesis and to test the effectiveness of potential cancer treatments.

It is important to note that 4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide is not a medication or a treatment for any medical condition, and it should only be handled by trained professionals in a controlled laboratory setting.

Skin neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the skin that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). They result from uncontrolled multiplication of skin cells, which can form various types of lesions. These growths may appear as lumps, bumps, sores, patches, or discolored areas on the skin.

Benign skin neoplasms include conditions such as moles, warts, and seborrheic keratoses, while malignant skin neoplasms are primarily classified into melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma. These three types of cancerous skin growths are collectively known as non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs). Melanoma is the most aggressive and dangerous form of skin cancer, while NMSCs tend to be less invasive but more common.

It's essential to monitor any changes in existing skin lesions or the appearance of new growths and consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and treatment if needed.

Chalcones are a class of compounds that have a chemical structure consisting of two aromatic rings connected by a three-carbon α,β-unsaturated carbonyl system. The name "chalcone" is derived from the Greek word "chalcos," meaning copper, due to the yellow color that many chalcones exhibit.

Chalcones are synthesized through a reaction known as the Claisen-Schmidt condensation between an aldehyde and a ketone. They are important intermediates in the biosynthesis of flavonoids, which are a large group of plant pigments that have various biological activities, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties.

Chalcones themselves have been studied for their potential medicinal properties, including their ability to inhibit the growth of cancer cells, bacteria, and fungi. However, more research is needed to fully understand their mechanisms of action and safety profiles before they can be developed into drugs.

Phytotherapy is the use of extracts of natural origin, especially plants or plant parts, for therapeutic purposes. It is also known as herbal medicine and is a traditional practice in many cultures. The active compounds in these plant extracts are believed to have various medicinal properties, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, or sedative effects. Practitioners of phytotherapy may use the whole plant, dried parts, or concentrated extracts to prepare teas, capsules, tinctures, or ointments for therapeutic use. It is important to note that the effectiveness and safety of phytotherapy are not always supported by scientific evidence, and it should be used with caution and preferably under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Beta-carotene is a type of carotenoid, which is a pigment found in plants that gives them their vibrant colors. It is commonly found in fruits and vegetables, such as carrots, sweet potatoes, and spinach.

Beta-carotene is converted into vitamin A in the body, which is an essential nutrient for maintaining healthy vision, immune function, and cell growth. It acts as an antioxidant, helping to protect cells from damage caused by free radicals.

According to the medical definition, beta-carotene is a provitamin A carotenoid that is converted into vitamin A in the body. It has a variety of health benefits, including supporting eye health, boosting the immune system, and reducing the risk of certain types of cancer. However, it is important to note that excessive consumption of beta-carotene supplements can lead to a condition called carotenemia, which causes the skin to turn yellow or orange.

An adenoma is a benign (noncancerous) tumor that develops from glandular epithelial cells. These types of cells are responsible for producing and releasing fluids, such as hormones or digestive enzymes, into the surrounding tissues. Adenomas can occur in various organs and glands throughout the body, including the thyroid, pituitary, adrenal, and digestive systems.

Depending on their location, adenomas may cause different symptoms or remain asymptomatic. Some common examples of adenomas include:

1. Colorectal adenoma (also known as a polyp): These growths occur in the lining of the colon or rectum and can develop into colorectal cancer if left untreated. Regular screenings, such as colonoscopies, are essential for early detection and removal of these polyps.
2. Thyroid adenoma: This type of adenoma affects the thyroid gland and may result in an overproduction or underproduction of hormones, leading to conditions like hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) or hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid).
3. Pituitary adenoma: These growths occur in the pituitary gland, which is located at the base of the brain and controls various hormonal functions. Depending on their size and location, pituitary adenomas can cause vision problems, headaches, or hormonal imbalances that affect growth, reproduction, and metabolism.
4. Liver adenoma: These rare benign tumors develop in the liver and may not cause any symptoms unless they become large enough to press on surrounding organs or structures. In some cases, liver adenomas can rupture and cause internal bleeding.
5. Adrenal adenoma: These growths occur in the adrenal glands, which are located above the kidneys and produce hormones that regulate stress responses, metabolism, and blood pressure. Most adrenal adenomas are nonfunctioning, meaning they do not secrete excess hormones. However, functioning adrenal adenomas can lead to conditions like Cushing's syndrome or Conn's syndrome, depending on the type of hormone being overproduced.

It is essential to monitor and manage benign tumors like adenomas to prevent potential complications, such as rupture, bleeding, or hormonal imbalances. Treatment options may include surveillance with imaging studies, medication to manage hormonal issues, or surgical removal of the tumor in certain cases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Azasteroids" is not a medical term or concept. The term "azasteroids" is used in the field of chemistry to refer to a class of compounds that are structurally similar to steroids but have an aziridine ring (a three-membered ring containing two carbon atoms and one nitrogen atom) instead of the usual four-membered ring in the steroid structure.

These compounds may have potential applications in various fields, including medicinal chemistry, but they are not a medical concept or diagnosis. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, I would be happy to help you with those!

Selenomethionine is an organic form of selenium, which is an essential trace element in human nutrition. It is incorporated into proteins in place of methionine, one of the 20 standard amino acids, and functions as an antioxidant by helping to prevent cellular damage from free radicals. Selenomethionine can be found in a variety of foods, including brazil nuts, fish, meat, and whole grains, and is also available as a dietary supplement.

A mouth neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth or tumor in the oral cavity, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant mouth neoplasms are also known as oral cancer. They can develop on the lips, gums, tongue, roof and floor of the mouth, inside the cheeks, and in the oropharynx (the middle part of the throat at the back of the mouth).

Mouth neoplasms can have various causes, including genetic factors, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV). Symptoms may include a lump or thickening in the oral soft tissues, white or red patches, persistent mouth sores, difficulty swallowing or speaking, and numbness in the mouth. Early detection and treatment of mouth neoplasms are crucial for improving outcomes and preventing complications.

A diet, in medical terms, refers to the planned and regular consumption of food and drinks. It is a balanced selection of nutrient-rich foods that an individual eats on a daily or periodic basis to meet their energy needs and maintain good health. A well-balanced diet typically includes a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and low-fat dairy products.

A diet may also be prescribed for therapeutic purposes, such as in the management of certain medical conditions like diabetes, hypertension, or obesity. In these cases, a healthcare professional may recommend specific restrictions or modifications to an individual's regular diet to help manage their condition and improve their overall health.

It is important to note that a healthy and balanced diet should be tailored to an individual's age, gender, body size, activity level, and any underlying medical conditions. Consulting with a healthcare professional, such as a registered dietitian or nutritionist, can help ensure that an individual's dietary needs are being met in a safe and effective way.

Aspirin is the common name for acetylsalicylic acid, which is a medication used to relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and lower fever. It works by inhibiting the activity of an enzyme called cyclooxygenase (COX), which is involved in the production of prostaglandins, hormone-like substances that cause inflammation and pain. Aspirin also has an antiplatelet effect, which means it can help prevent blood clots from forming. This makes it useful for preventing heart attacks and strokes.

Aspirin is available over-the-counter in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and chewable tablets. It is also available in prescription strengths for certain medical conditions. As with any medication, aspirin should be taken as directed by a healthcare provider, and its use should be avoided in children and teenagers with viral infections due to the risk of Reye's syndrome, a rare but serious condition that can affect the liver and brain.

Phenols, also known as phenolic acids or phenol derivatives, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to an aromatic hydrocarbon ring. In the context of medicine and biology, phenols are often referred to as a type of antioxidant that can be found in various foods and plants.

Phenols have the ability to neutralize free radicals, which are unstable molecules that can cause damage to cells and contribute to the development of chronic diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. Some common examples of phenolic compounds include gallic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and ellagic acid, among many others.

Phenols can also have various pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and analgesic effects. However, some phenolic compounds can also be toxic or irritating to the body in high concentrations, so their use as therapeutic agents must be carefully monitored and controlled.

Intestinal polyps are abnormal growths that protrude from the lining of the intestines. They can occur in any part of the digestive tract, including the colon and rectum (colorectal polyps), small intestine, or stomach. These growths vary in size, shape, and number. Most intestinal polyps are benign, meaning they are not cancerous. However, some types of polyps, such as adenomatous polyps, can become cancerous over time if left untreated.

Intestinal polyps can be asymptomatic or cause symptoms like rectal bleeding, abdominal pain, changes in bowel habits, or anemia (in cases where there is chronic, slow bleeding). The exact cause of intestinal polyps is not fully understood, but factors such as age, family history, and certain genetic conditions can increase the risk of developing them. Regular screening exams, like colonoscopies, are essential for early detection and removal of polyps to prevent potential complications, including colorectal cancer.

Neoplastic cell transformation is a process in which a normal cell undergoes genetic alterations that cause it to become cancerous or malignant. This process involves changes in the cell's DNA that result in uncontrolled cell growth and division, loss of contact inhibition, and the ability to invade surrounding tissues and metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body.

Neoplastic transformation can occur as a result of various factors, including genetic mutations, exposure to carcinogens, viral infections, chronic inflammation, and aging. These changes can lead to the activation of oncogenes or the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, which regulate cell growth and division.

The transformation of normal cells into cancerous cells is a complex and multi-step process that involves multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations. It is characterized by several hallmarks, including sustained proliferative signaling, evasion of growth suppressors, resistance to cell death, enabling replicative immortality, induction of angiogenesis, activation of invasion and metastasis, reprogramming of energy metabolism, and evading immune destruction.

Neoplastic cell transformation is a fundamental concept in cancer biology and is critical for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer development and progression. It also has important implications for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment, as identifying the specific genetic alterations that underlie neoplastic transformation can help guide targeted therapies and personalized medicine approaches.

Selenium is a trace element that is essential for the proper functioning of the human body. According to the medical definitions provided by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), selenium is a component of several major metabolic pathways, including thyroid hormone metabolism, antioxidant defense systems, and immune function.

Selenium is found in a variety of foods, including nuts (particularly Brazil nuts), cereals, fish, and meat. It exists in several forms, with selenomethionine being the most common form found in food. Other forms include selenocysteine, which is incorporated into proteins, and selenite and selenate, which are inorganic forms of selenium.

The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for selenium is 55 micrograms per day for adults. While selenium deficiency is rare, chronic selenium deficiency can lead to conditions such as Keshan disease, a type of cardiomyopathy, and Kaschin-Beck disease, which affects the bones and joints.

It's important to note that while selenium is essential for health, excessive intake can be harmful. High levels of selenium can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and neurological damage. The tolerable upper intake level (UL) for selenium is 400 micrograms per day for adults.

'Mammary neoplasms, experimental' is not a recognized medical term. However, I can provide definitions for the individual terms:

1. Mammary: Pertaining to the breast or mammary glands in females, which are responsible for milk production.
2. Neoplasms: Abnormal growths of tissue, also known as tumors or masses, that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).
3. Experimental: Relating to a scientific experiment or study, typically conducted in a controlled setting to test hypotheses and gather data.

In the context of medical research, 'experimental mammary neoplasms' may refer to artificially induced breast tumors in laboratory animals (such as rats or mice) for the purpose of studying the development, progression, treatment, and prevention of breast cancer. These studies can help researchers better understand the biology of breast cancer and develop new therapies and strategies for its diagnosis and management.

Tertiary prevention in a medical context refers to measures aimed at managing or reducing the negative impact of an existing disease or disorder, with the goal of improving the patient's quality of life and preventing further complications or disability. It involves rehabilitation, long-term supportive care, and management of symptoms or complications associated with chronic conditions.

Tertiary prevention strategies may include:

1. Rehabilitation programs to help patients regain lost function, mobility, or skills.
2. Symptom management through medications, therapies, or surgical interventions.
3. Education and counseling on lifestyle modifications to minimize the risk of complications.
4. Regular monitoring and follow-up care to detect and address any new issues early.
5. Supportive care to help patients cope with chronic conditions and maintain their independence.

Examples of tertiary prevention include physical therapy for someone recovering from a stroke, pain management strategies for individuals with chronic pain, or regular monitoring and treatment of complications in people with diabetes.

Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases (PTGS), also known as Cyclooxygenases (COX), are a group of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of arachidonic acid into prostaglandin G2 and H2, which are further metabolized to produce various prostaglandins and thromboxanes. These lipid mediators play crucial roles in several physiological processes such as inflammation, pain, fever, and blood clotting. There are two major isoforms of PTGS: PTGS-1 (COX-1) and PTGS-2 (COX-2). While COX-1 is constitutively expressed in most tissues and involved in homeostatic functions, COX-2 is usually induced during inflammation and tissue injury. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) exert their therapeutic effects by inhibiting these enzymes, thereby reducing the production of prostaglandins and thromboxanes.

Nitrosamines are a type of chemical compound that are formed by the reaction between nitrous acid (or any nitrogen oxide) and secondary amines. They are often found in certain types of food, such as cured meats and cheeses, as well as in tobacco products and cosmetics.

Nitrosamines have been classified as probable human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Exposure to high levels of nitrosamines has been linked to an increased risk of cancer, particularly in the digestive tract. They can also cause DNA damage and interfere with the normal functioning of cells.

In the medical field, nitrosamines have been a topic of concern due to their potential presence as contaminants in certain medications. For example, some drugs that contain nitrofurantoin, a medication used to treat urinary tract infections, have been found to contain low levels of nitrosamines. While the risk associated with these low levels is not well understood, efforts are underway to minimize the presence of nitrosamines in medications and other products.

Intestinal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the tissues of the intestines, which can be benign or malignant. These growths are called neoplasms and they result from uncontrolled cell division. In the case of intestinal neoplasms, these growths occur in the small intestine, large intestine (colon), rectum, or appendix.

Benign intestinal neoplasms are not cancerous and often do not invade surrounding tissues or spread to other parts of the body. However, they can still cause problems if they grow large enough to obstruct the intestines or cause bleeding. Common types of benign intestinal neoplasms include polyps, leiomyomas, and lipomas.

Malignant intestinal neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous and can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body. The most common type of malignant intestinal neoplasm is adenocarcinoma, which arises from the glandular cells lining the inside of the intestines. Other types of malignant intestinal neoplasms include lymphomas, sarcomas, and carcinoid tumors.

Symptoms of intestinal neoplasms can vary depending on their size, location, and type. Common symptoms include abdominal pain, bloating, changes in bowel habits, rectal bleeding, weight loss, and fatigue. If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention promptly.

Respiratory tract neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that occur in the respiratory system, which includes the nose, throat (pharynx), voice box (larynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, and lungs. These growths can be benign or malignant (cancerous). Malignant neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade nearby tissues, spread to other parts of the body, and interfere with normal respiratory function, leading to serious health consequences.

Respiratory tract neoplasms can have various causes, including genetic factors, exposure to environmental carcinogens such as tobacco smoke, asbestos, and radon, and certain viral infections. Symptoms of respiratory tract neoplasms may include coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, chest pain, hoarseness, or blood in the sputum. Diagnosis typically involves imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or PET scans, as well as biopsies to determine the type and extent of the tumor. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Cell proliferation is the process by which cells increase in number, typically through the process of cell division. In the context of biology and medicine, it refers to the reproduction of cells that makes up living tissue, allowing growth, maintenance, and repair. It involves several stages including the transition from a phase of quiescence (G0 phase) to an active phase (G1 phase), DNA replication in the S phase, and mitosis or M phase, where the cell divides into two daughter cells.

Abnormal or uncontrolled cell proliferation is a characteristic feature of many diseases, including cancer, where deregulated cell cycle control leads to excessive and unregulated growth of cells, forming tumors that can invade surrounding tissues and metastasize to distant sites in the body.

Garlic (Allium sativum) is not a medical term, but rather a species of plant that belongs to the onion family. It is a widely used culinary ingredient and traditional medicine. The medicinal properties are believed to come from the sulfur-containing compounds, such as allicin, which are formed when garlic is crushed or chopped.

While garlic is not a medical treatment itself, it has been studied for its potential health benefits in various areas, including cardiovascular disease, cancer prevention, and immune function support. However, more research is needed to confirm these effects and establish recommended dosages. It's important to consult with healthcare professionals before starting any new supplement regimen, including garlic.

Polyamines are organic compounds with more than one amino group (-NH2) and at least one carbon atom bonded to two or more amino groups. They are found in various tissues and fluids of living organisms and play important roles in many biological processes, such as cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). Polyamines are also involved in the regulation of ion channels and transporters, DNA replication and gene expression. The most common polyamines found in mammalian cells are putrescine, spermidine, and spermine. They are derived from the decarboxylation of amino acids such as ornithine and methionine. Abnormal levels of polyamines have been associated with various pathological conditions, including cancer and neurodegenerative diseases.

Flavonoids are a type of plant compounds with antioxidant properties that are beneficial to health. They are found in various fruits, vegetables, grains, and wine. Flavonoids have been studied for their potential to prevent chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer due to their ability to reduce inflammation and oxidative stress.

There are several subclasses of flavonoids, including:

1. Flavanols: Found in tea, chocolate, grapes, and berries. They have been shown to improve blood flow and lower blood pressure.
2. Flavones: Found in parsley, celery, and citrus fruits. They have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.
3. Flavanonols: Found in citrus fruits, onions, and tea. They have been shown to improve blood flow and reduce inflammation.
4. Isoflavones: Found in soybeans and legumes. They have estrogen-like effects and may help prevent hormone-related cancers.
5. Anthocyanidins: Found in berries, grapes, and other fruits. They have antioxidant properties and may help improve vision and memory.

It is important to note that while flavonoids have potential health benefits, they should not be used as a substitute for medical treatment or a healthy lifestyle. It is always best to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any new supplement regimen.

Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) are abnormal, enlarged and dysplastic (abnormally developing) crypts in the lining of the colon or rectum. They are considered to be early preneoplastic lesions, meaning they have the potential to develop into colon cancer. ACF can be detected through a microscopic examination of tissue samples taken during a colonoscopy.

The presence and number of ACF have been associated with an increased risk for developing colorectal cancer. They are often found in individuals with inflammatory bowel disease, particularly those with long-standing ulcerative colitis or Crohn's colitis. The identification and removal of ACF during a colonoscopy may help prevent the development of colorectal cancer.

Tumor markers are substances that can be found in the body and their presence can indicate the presence of certain types of cancer or other conditions. Biological tumor markers refer to those substances that are produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to cancer or certain benign (non-cancerous) conditions. These markers can be found in various bodily fluids such as blood, urine, or tissue samples.

Examples of biological tumor markers include:

1. Proteins: Some tumor markers are proteins that are produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to the presence of cancer. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by normal prostate cells and in higher amounts by prostate cancer cells.
2. Genetic material: Tumor markers can also include genetic material such as DNA, RNA, or microRNA that are shed by cancer cells into bodily fluids. For example, circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is genetic material from cancer cells that can be found in the bloodstream.
3. Metabolites: Tumor markers can also include metabolic products produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to cancer. For example, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme that is released into the bloodstream when cancer cells break down glucose for energy.

It's important to note that tumor markers are not specific to cancer and can be elevated in non-cancerous conditions as well. Therefore, they should not be used alone to diagnose cancer but rather as a tool in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical evaluations.

Stilbenes are a type of chemical compound that consists of a 1,2-diphenylethylene backbone. They are phenolic compounds and can be found in various plants, where they play a role in the defense against pathogens and stress conditions. Some stilbenes have been studied for their potential health benefits, including their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. One well-known example of a stilbene is resveratrol, which is found in the skin of grapes and in red wine.

It's important to note that while some stilbenes have been shown to have potential health benefits in laboratory studies, more research is needed to determine their safety and effectiveness in humans. It's always a good idea to talk to a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen.

Leukoplakia, oral is a predominantly white patch or plaque that cannot be characterized clinically or pathologically as any other disease. It is an oral potentially malignant disorder (OPMD) and represents a significant risk for the development of squamous cell carcinoma. The lesions are typically caused by chronic irritation, such as smoking or smokeless tobacco use, and are most commonly found on the tongue, floor of the mouth, and buccal mucosa. The diagnosis is confirmed through a biopsy, and management includes removal of causative factors and close monitoring for any signs of malignant transformation.

Carotenoids are a class of pigments that are naturally occurring in various plants and fruits. They are responsible for the vibrant colors of many vegetables and fruits, such as carrots, pumpkins, tomatoes, and leafy greens. There are over 600 different types of carotenoids, with beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin being some of the most well-known.

Carotenoids have antioxidant properties, which means they can help protect the body's cells from damage caused by free radicals. Some carotenoids, such as beta-carotene, can be converted into vitamin A in the body, which is important for maintaining healthy vision, skin, and immune function. Other carotenoids, such as lycopene and lutein, have been studied for their potential role in preventing chronic diseases, including cancer and heart disease.

In addition to being found in plant-based foods, carotenoids can also be taken as dietary supplements. However, it is generally recommended to obtain nutrients from whole foods rather than supplements whenever possible, as food provides a variety of other beneficial compounds that work together to support health.

Hesperidin is a flavonoid, specifically a type of flavanone glycoside, that is commonly found in citrus fruits such as oranges, lemons, and grapefruits. It is particularly abundant in the peel and membranes of these fruits. Hesperidin has been studied for its potential health benefits, including its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cardiovascular protective properties. However, more research is needed to fully understand its effects and potential therapeutic uses.

Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is a medical/biochemical term that refers to an enzyme (EC 4.1.1.17) involved in the metabolism of amino acids, particularly ornithine. This enzyme catalyzes the decarboxylation of ornithine to form putrescine, which is a precursor for the synthesis of polyamines, such as spermidine and spermine. Polyamines play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and gene expression.

Ornithine decarboxylase is a rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, meaning that its activity regulates the overall production of these molecules. The regulation of ODC activity is tightly controlled at multiple levels, including transcription, translation, and post-translational modifications. Dysregulation of ODC activity has been implicated in several pathological conditions, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and inflammatory diseases.

Inhibitors of ornithine decarboxylase have been explored as potential therapeutic agents for various diseases, including cancer, due to their ability to suppress polyamine synthesis and cell proliferation. However, the use of ODC inhibitors in clinical settings has faced challenges related to toxicity and limited efficacy.

A placebo is a substance or treatment that has no inherent therapeutic effect. It is often used in clinical trials as a control against which the effects of a new drug or therapy can be compared. Placebos are typically made to resemble the active treatment, such as a sugar pill for a medication trial, so that participants cannot tell the difference between what they are receiving and the actual treatment.

The placebo effect refers to the phenomenon where patients experience real improvements in their symptoms or conditions even when given a placebo. This may be due to psychological factors such as belief in the effectiveness of the treatment, suggestion, or conditioning. The placebo effect is often used as a comparison group in clinical trials to help determine if the active treatment has a greater effect than no treatment at all.

Medical Definition of Milk Thistle:

Milk thistle, also known as Silybum marianum, is a plant that has been used for medicinal purposes for centuries. It belongs to the Asteraceae family and is native to Mediterranean regions. The active compound in milk thistle is silymarin, which is found in the seeds of the plant. Silymarin is a flavonoid complex that contains several components, including silybin, silydianin, and silychristin.

Milk thistle has been traditionally used for its potential benefits in supporting liver health and function. It is believed to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-fibrotic properties that may help protect the liver from damage caused by toxins, viruses, and free radicals. Some studies suggest that milk thistle may also help improve insulin resistance, reduce cholesterol levels, and support brain health.

However, it is important to note that while some research suggests potential benefits of milk thistle for liver health and other conditions, more high-quality studies are needed to confirm these effects and establish recommended dosages. As with any supplement or medication, milk thistle should be used under the guidance of a healthcare provider.

Allyl compounds are organic compounds that contain the allyl group, which is a functional group with the formula CH2=CH-CH2-. The allyl group consists of a methylene bridge (CH2-) flanked by a carbon-carbon double bond (-CH=). Allyl compounds can be derived from allyl alcohol, allyl chloride, or other allyl halides and can participate in various chemical reactions due to the reactivity of the double bond. They are used in organic synthesis, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals.

A cell line that is derived from tumor cells and has been adapted to grow in culture. These cell lines are often used in research to study the characteristics of cancer cells, including their growth patterns, genetic changes, and responses to various treatments. They can be established from many different types of tumors, such as carcinomas, sarcomas, and leukemias. Once established, these cell lines can be grown and maintained indefinitely in the laboratory, allowing researchers to conduct experiments and studies that would not be feasible using primary tumor cells. It is important to note that tumor cell lines may not always accurately represent the behavior of the original tumor, as they can undergo genetic changes during their time in culture.

Carcinoma, basal cell is a type of skin cancer that arises from the basal cells, which are located in the lower part of the epidermis (the outermost layer of the skin). It is also known as basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and is the most common form of skin cancer.

BCC typically appears as a small, shiny, pearly bump or nodule on the skin, often in sun-exposed areas such as the face, ears, neck, hands, and arms. It may also appear as a scar-like area that is white, yellow, or waxy. BCCs are usually slow growing and rarely spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body. However, they can be locally invasive and destroy surrounding tissue if left untreated.

The exact cause of BCC is not known, but it is thought to be related to a combination of genetic and environmental factors, including exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or tanning beds. People with fair skin, light hair, and blue or green eyes are at increased risk of developing BCC.

Treatment for BCC typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, along with a margin of healthy tissue. Other treatment options may include radiation therapy, topical chemotherapy, or photodynamic therapy. Prevention measures include protecting your skin from UV radiation by wearing protective clothing, using sunscreen, and avoiding tanning beds.

Urethane is not a term typically used in medical definitions. However, in the field of chemistry and pharmacology, urethane is an ethyl carbamate ester which has been used as a general anesthetic. It is rarely used today due to its potential carcinogenic properties and the availability of safer alternatives.

In the context of materials science, polyurethanes are a class of polymers that contain urethane linkages (-NH-CO-O-) in their main chain. They are widely used in various applications such as foam insulation, coatings, adhesives, and medical devices due to their versatile properties like flexibility, durability, and resistance to abrasion.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Aflatoxin B1 is a toxic metabolite produced by certain strains of the fungus Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. It is a potent carcinogen and is classified as a Group 1 carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Aflatoxin B1 contamination can occur in a variety of agricultural products, including grains, nuts, spices, and dried fruits, and is a particular concern in regions with hot and humid climates. Exposure to aflatoxin B1 can occur through the consumption of contaminated food and has been linked to various health effects, including liver cancer, immune suppression, and stunted growth in children.

Keratosis, in general, refers to a skin condition characterized by the abnormal growth or development of keratin, a protein that forms part of the outer layer of the skin (epidermis). There are several types of keratosis, including:

1. Seborrheic Keratosis: benign, often pigmented, rough, and scaly growths that can appear anywhere on the body. They tend to increase in number with age.
2. Actinic Keratosis: rough, scaly patches or spots on the skin that are caused by long-term exposure to sunlight or artificial UV light. These have the potential to develop into squamous cell carcinoma, a type of skin cancer.
3. Solar Keratosis: another term for actinic keratosis, as it is primarily caused by sun damage.
4. Keratosis Pilaris: a common condition where small, rough bumps appear on the skin, often on the arms, thighs, or cheeks. These are caused by excess keratin blocking hair follicles.
5. Follicular Keratosis: a disorder characterized by the formation of horny plugs within the hair follicles, leading to rough, sandpaper-like bumps on the skin.
6. Intraepidermal Keratosis: a term used to describe the abnormal accumulation of keratin in the epidermis, which can lead to various skin conditions.

It's important to consult with a healthcare professional or dermatologist for proper diagnosis and treatment if you suspect having any form of keratosis.

Squamous cell carcinoma is a type of skin cancer that begins in the squamous cells, which are flat, thin cells that form the outer layer of the skin (epidermis). It commonly occurs on sun-exposed areas such as the face, ears, lips, and backs of the hands. Squamous cell carcinoma can also develop in other areas of the body including the mouth, lungs, and cervix.

This type of cancer usually develops slowly and may appear as a rough or scaly patch of skin, a red, firm nodule, or a sore or ulcer that doesn't heal. While squamous cell carcinoma is not as aggressive as some other types of cancer, it can metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body if left untreated, making early detection and treatment important.

Risk factors for developing squamous cell carcinoma include prolonged exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or tanning beds, fair skin, a history of sunburns, a weakened immune system, and older age. Prevention measures include protecting your skin from the sun by wearing protective clothing, using a broad-spectrum sunscreen with an SPF of at least 30, avoiding tanning beds, and getting regular skin examinations.

Biflavonoids are a type of flavonoid, which are plant-based compounds with antioxidant properties. Biflavonoids are unique because they consist of two flavonoid molecules joined together. They can be found in various plants, including fruits, vegetables, and herbs. Some research suggests that biflavonoids may have potential health benefits, such as reducing inflammation and protecting against oxidative stress. However, more research is needed to confirm these effects and determine the optimal dosages for human consumption.

Adenocarcinoma is a type of cancer that arises from glandular epithelial cells. These cells line the inside of many internal organs, including the breasts, prostate, colon, and lungs. Adenocarcinomas can occur in any of these organs, as well as in other locations where glands are present.

The term "adenocarcinoma" is used to describe a cancer that has features of glandular tissue, such as mucus-secreting cells or cells that produce hormones. These cancers often form glandular structures within the tumor mass and may produce mucus or other substances.

Adenocarcinomas are typically slow-growing and tend to spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or bloodstream. They can be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these treatments. The prognosis for adenocarcinoma depends on several factors, including the location and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and age.

Actinic keratosis, also known as solar keratosis, is a precancerous skin condition that typically develops in areas exposed to excessive sun damage over the years. It presents as rough, scaly, or crusty patches of skin, often with a pink, red, or brownish tint. These lesions usually appear on the face, ears, scalp, neck, back of the hands, and forearms.

Actinic keratosis is caused by the prolonged exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunlight or artificial sources like tanning beds. The UV rays damage the skin's DNA, leading to abnormal skin cell growth and the formation of these precancerous lesions.

While most actinic keratoses remain benign, a small percentage can progress into squamous cell carcinoma, a type of skin cancer. Therefore, it is essential to have any suspicious or changing lesions evaluated by a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment. Prevention measures include protecting the skin from excessive sun exposure, wearing protective clothing, using broad-spectrum sunscreen with an SPF of at least 30, and avoiding tanning beds.

Medical Definition of Vitamin A:

Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin that is essential for normal vision, immune function, and cell growth. It is also an antioxidant that helps protect the body's cells from damage caused by free radicals. Vitamin A can be found in two main forms: preformed vitamin A, which is found in animal products such as dairy, fish, and meat, particularly liver; and provitamin A carotenoids, which are found in plant-based foods such as fruits, vegetables, and vegetable oils.

The most active form of vitamin A is retinoic acid, which plays a critical role in the development and maintenance of the heart, lungs, kidneys, and other organs. Vitamin A deficiency can lead to night blindness, dry skin, and increased susceptibility to infections. Chronic vitamin A toxicity can cause nausea, dizziness, headaches, coma, and even death.

Nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (NFE2L2), also known as NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2), is a protein that plays a crucial role in the regulation of cellular responses to oxidative stress and electrophilic substances. It is a transcription factor that binds to the antioxidant response element (ARE) in the promoter region of various genes, inducing their expression and promoting cellular defense against harmful stimuli.

Under normal conditions, NRF2 is bound to its inhibitor, Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1), in the cytoplasm, where it is targeted for degradation by the proteasome. However, upon exposure to oxidative stress or electrophilic substances, KEAP1 undergoes conformational changes, leading to the release and stabilization of NRF2. Subsequently, NRF2 translocates to the nucleus, forms a complex with small Maf proteins, and binds to AREs, inducing the expression of genes involved in antioxidant response, detoxification, and cellular protection.

Genetic variations or dysregulation of the NFE2L2/KEAP1 pathway have been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and pulmonary fibrosis, highlighting its importance in maintaining cellular homeostasis and preventing disease progression.

Tretinoin is a form of vitamin A that is used in the treatment of acne vulgaris, fine wrinkles, and dark spots caused by aging or sun damage. It works by increasing the turnover of skin cells, helping to unclog pores and promote the growth of new skin cells. Tretinoin is available as a cream, gel, or liquid, and is usually applied to the affected area once a day in the evening. Common side effects include redness, dryness, and peeling of the skin. It is important to avoid sunlight and use sunscreen while using tretinoin, as it can make the skin more sensitive to the sun.

Acitretin is a synthetic form of retinoic acid, which is a type of vitamin A. It is used to treat severe psoriasis and other skin conditions. Acitretin works by slowing down the rapid growth of skin cells that cause the symptoms of psoriasis. It comes in the form of a capsule and is taken orally.

Common side effects of acitretin include dryness of the skin, lips, and mouth, itching, peeling, redness, or stickiness of the palms and soles, hair loss, and changes in nail growth. Less common but more serious side effects can include liver damage, increased levels of lipids in the blood, and birth defects if taken during pregnancy.

It is important to note that acitretin can cause birth defects, so women who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant should not take this medication. Additionally, because acitretin can remain in the body for a long time, it is recommended that women of childbearing age use effective contraception while taking this medication and for at least three years after stopping it.

'Camellia sinensis' is the scientific name for the plant that is used to produce tea. It is an evergreen shrub native to East Asia, particularly China and India, and has been cultivated for thousands of years for its leaves, which are used to make various types of tea, including black, green, oolong, and white teas.

The leaves of 'Camellia sinensis' contain a number of bioactive compounds, including caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine, as well as polyphenols such as flavonoids and catechins, which are believed to have various health benefits. The processing method used on the leaves determines the type of tea produced and its color, flavor, and chemical composition.

Head and neck neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the head and neck region, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These tumors can develop in various sites, including the oral cavity, nasopharynx, oropharynx, larynx, hypopharynx, paranasal sinuses, salivary glands, and thyroid gland.

Benign neoplasms are slow-growing and generally do not spread to other parts of the body. However, they can still cause problems if they grow large enough to press on surrounding tissues or structures. Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, can invade nearby tissues and organs and may also metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body.

Head and neck neoplasms can have various symptoms depending on their location and size. Common symptoms include difficulty swallowing, speaking, or breathing; pain in the mouth, throat, or ears; persistent coughing or hoarseness; and swelling or lumps in the neck or face. Early detection and treatment of head and neck neoplasms are crucial for improving outcomes and reducing the risk of complications.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

DNA adducts are chemical modifications or alterations that occur when DNA molecules become attached to or bound with certain harmful substances, such as toxic chemicals or carcinogens. These attachments can disrupt the normal structure and function of the DNA, potentially leading to mutations, genetic damage, and an increased risk of cancer and other diseases.

DNA adducts are formed when a reactive molecule from a chemical agent binds covalently to a base in the DNA molecule. This process can occur either spontaneously or as a result of exposure to environmental toxins, such as those found in tobacco smoke, certain industrial chemicals, and some medications.

The formation of DNA adducts is often used as a biomarker for exposure to harmful substances, as well as an indicator of potential health risks associated with that exposure. Researchers can measure the levels of specific DNA adducts in biological samples, such as blood or urine, to assess the extent and duration of exposure to certain chemicals or toxins.

It's important to note that not all DNA adducts are necessarily harmful, and some may even play a role in normal cellular processes. However, high levels of certain DNA adducts have been linked to an increased risk of cancer and other diseases, making them a focus of ongoing research and investigation.

The mouth mucosa refers to the mucous membrane that lines the inside of the mouth, also known as the oral mucosa. It covers the tongue, gums, inner cheeks, palate, and floor of the mouth. This moist tissue is made up of epithelial cells, connective tissue, blood vessels, and nerve endings. Its functions include protecting the underlying tissues from physical trauma, chemical irritation, and microbial infections; aiding in food digestion by producing enzymes; and providing sensory information about taste, temperature, and texture.

Antineoplastic agents, hormonal, are a class of drugs used to treat cancers that are sensitive to hormones. These agents work by interfering with the production or action of hormones in the body. They can be used to slow down or stop the growth of cancer cells and may also help to relieve symptoms caused by the spread of cancer.

Hormonal therapies can work in one of two ways: they can either block the production of hormones or prevent their action on cancer cells. For example, some hormonal therapies work by blocking the action of estrogen or testosterone, which are hormones that can stimulate the growth of certain types of cancer cells.

Examples of hormonal agents used to treat cancer include:

* Aromatase inhibitors (such as letrozole, anastrozole, and exemestane), which block the production of estrogen in postmenopausal women
* Selective estrogen receptor modulators (such as tamoxifen and raloxifene), which block the action of estrogen on cancer cells
* Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists (such as leuprolide, goserelin, and triptorelin), which block the production of testosterone in men
* Antiandrogens (such as bicalutamide, flutamide, and enzalutamide), which block the action of testosterone on cancer cells

Hormonal therapies are often used in combination with other treatments, such as surgery or radiation therapy. They may be used to shrink tumors before surgery, to kill any remaining cancer cells after surgery, or to help control the spread of cancer that cannot be removed by surgery. Hormonal therapies can also be used to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life in people with advanced cancer.

It's important to note that hormonal therapies are not effective for all types of cancer. They are most commonly used to treat breast, prostate, and endometrial cancers, which are known to be sensitive to hormones. Hormonal therapies may also be used to treat other types of cancer in certain situations.

Like all medications, hormonal therapies can have side effects. These can vary depending on the specific drug and the individual person. Common side effects of hormonal therapies include hot flashes, fatigue, mood changes, and sexual dysfunction. Some hormonal therapies can also cause more serious side effects, such as an increased risk of osteoporosis or blood clots. It's important to discuss the potential risks and benefits of hormonal therapy with a healthcare provider before starting treatment.

Mesalamine is an anti-inflammatory drug that is primarily used to treat inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. It works by reducing inflammation in the intestines, which can help alleviate symptoms like diarrhea, abdominal pain, and rectal bleeding.

Mesalamine is available in various forms, including oral tablets, capsules, suppositories, and enemas. The specific formulation and dosage may vary depending on the severity and location of the inflammation in the gut.

The drug's anti-inflammatory effects are thought to be mediated by its ability to inhibit the activity of certain enzymes involved in the inflammatory response, such as cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase. By reducing inflammation, mesalamine can help promote healing and prevent recurrences of IBD symptoms.

It's important to note that mesalamine may cause side effects, including headache, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. In rare cases, it may also cause more serious side effects like kidney damage or allergic reactions. Patients should talk to their healthcare provider about the potential risks and benefits of taking mesalamine.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Markov Chains" is a term from the field of mathematics and probability theory, not medicine. Markov Chains are mathematical systems that undergo transitions from one state to another according to certain probabilistic rules. They are named after Russian mathematician Andrey Markov. These chains are used in various fields, including computer science, physics, economics, and engineering, but not commonly in medical definitions or contexts.

APC (Adenomatous Polyposis Coli) gene is a tumor suppressor gene that provides instructions for making a protein called adenomatous polyposis coli. This protein plays a crucial role in regulating the growth and division of cells in the colon and rectum. Specifically, it helps to maintain the stability of the cell's genetic material (DNA) by controlling the process of beta-catenin degradation.

When the APC gene is mutated or altered, it can lead to an accumulation of beta-catenin in the cell, which can result in uncontrolled cell growth and division. This can ultimately lead to the development of colon polyps, which are benign growths that can become cancerous over time if left untreated.

Mutations in the APC gene are associated with several inherited cancer syndromes, including familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and attenuated FAP (AFAP). These conditions are characterized by the development of numerous colon polyps at a young age, which can increase the risk of developing colorectal cancer.

Oleanolic Acid is not a medical term, but a chemical compound. It is a triterpenoid, a type of organic compound that is widely distributed in the plant kingdom and has been found to have various biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer properties.

Oleanolic Acid can be found in various plants such as olive leaves, eucalyptus, and some fruits and vegetables. It is a white crystalline powder that is soluble in alcohol, ether, and chloroform but insoluble in water. In the medical field, Oleanolic Acid has been studied for its potential therapeutic effects, particularly in the treatment of liver diseases, cancer, and bacterial infections. However, more research is needed to fully understand its mechanisms of action and safety profile before it can be used as a standard therapy.

Colonic polyps are abnormal growths that protrude from the inner wall of the colon (large intestine). They can vary in size, shape, and number. Most colonic polyps are benign, meaning they are not cancerous. However, some types of polyps, such as adenomas, have a higher risk of becoming cancerous over time if left untreated.

Colonic polyps often do not cause any symptoms, especially if they are small. Larger polyps may lead to symptoms like rectal bleeding, changes in bowel habits, abdominal pain, or iron deficiency anemia. The exact cause of colonic polyps is not known, but factors such as age, family history, and certain medical conditions (like inflammatory bowel disease) can increase the risk of developing them.

Regular screening exams, such as colonoscopies, are recommended for individuals over the age of 50 to detect and remove polyps before they become cancerous. If you have a family history of colonic polyps or colorectal cancer, your doctor may recommend earlier or more frequent screenings.

Drug screening assays for antitumor agents are laboratory tests used to identify and evaluate the effectiveness of potential drugs or compounds that can inhibit the growth of tumor cells or induce their death. These assays are typically performed in vitro (in a test tube or petri dish) using cell cultures of various types of cancer cells.

The assays measure different parameters such as cell viability, proliferation, apoptosis (programmed cell death), and cytotoxicity to determine the ability of the drug to kill or inhibit the growth of tumor cells. The results of these assays can help researchers identify promising antitumor agents that can be further developed for clinical use in cancer treatment.

There are different types of drug screening assays for antitumor agents, including high-throughput screening (HTS) assays, which allow for the rapid and automated testing of a large number of compounds against various cancer cell lines. Other types of assays include phenotypic screening assays, target-based screening assays, and functional screening assays, each with its own advantages and limitations.

Overall, drug screening assays for antitumor agents play a critical role in the development of new cancer therapies by providing valuable information on the activity and safety of potential drugs, helping to identify effective treatments and reduce the time and cost associated with bringing new drugs to market.

Inbred A mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings. This results in a high degree of genetic similarity among individuals within the strain, making them useful for research purposes where a consistent genetic background is desired. The Inbred A strain is maintained through continued brother-sister mating. It's important to note that while these mice are called "Inbred A," the designation does not refer to any specific medical condition or characteristic. Instead, it refers to the breeding practices used to create and maintain this particular strain of laboratory mice.

A chalcone is a type of organic compound that is characterized by a chemical structure consisting of two aromatic rings connected by a three-carbon α,β-unsaturated carbonyl system. Chalcones are important intermediates in the synthesis of various flavonoids and isoflavonoids, which are classes of compounds found in many plants and have been studied for their potential medicinal properties.

Chalcones themselves have also been investigated for their biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer effects. However, it is important to note that while some chalcone derivatives have shown promising results in preclinical studies, more research is needed to establish their safety and efficacy in humans.

Cactaceae is the scientific name for the family of plants that includes cacti. Cacti are a type of succulent plant that are adapted to arid environments, with features such as thick stems and the ability to store water. They are native to the Americas, ranging from Canada to Argentina, with the greatest diversity found in Mexico. Many cacti have spines or are covered in glochids, small hair-like structures that can be very sharp and barbed. Cacti come in a wide variety of shapes, sizes, and colors, and some species produce flowers and fruit. Some common examples of cacti include the saguaro, prickly pear, and santa rita.

A "cheek" is the fleshy, muscular area of the face that forms the side of the face below the eye and above the jaw. It contains the buccinator muscle, which helps with chewing by moving food to the back teeth for grinding and also assists in speaking and forming facial expressions. The cheek also contains several sensory receptors that allow us to perceive touch, temperature, and pain in this area of the face. Additionally, there is a mucous membrane lining inside the mouth cavity called the buccal mucosa which covers the inner surface of the cheek.

Apigenin is a flavonoid, which is a type of plant pigment that is responsible for the color of many fruits and vegetables. It is found in various plants such as chamomile, parsley, celery, and citrus fruits. Apigenin has been studied for its potential health benefits, including anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits and determine the safe and effective dosage for human use.

A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a type of clinical study in which participants are randomly assigned to receive either the experimental intervention or the control condition, which may be a standard of care, placebo, or no treatment. The goal of an RCT is to minimize bias and ensure that the results are due to the intervention being tested rather than other factors. This design allows for a comparison between the two groups to determine if there is a significant difference in outcomes. RCTs are often considered the gold standard for evaluating the safety and efficacy of medical interventions, as they provide a high level of evidence for causal relationships between the intervention and health outcomes.

A dietary supplement is a product that contains nutrients, such as vitamins, minerals, amino acids, herbs or other botanicals, and is intended to be taken by mouth, to supplement the diet. Dietary supplements can include a wide range of products, such as vitamin and mineral supplements, herbal supplements, and sports nutrition products.

Dietary supplements are not intended to treat, diagnose, cure, or alleviate the effects of diseases. They are intended to be used as a way to add extra nutrients to the diet or to support specific health functions. It is important to note that dietary supplements are not subject to the same rigorous testing and regulations as drugs, so it is important to choose products carefully and consult with a healthcare provider if you have any questions or concerns about using them.

Antineoplastic agents, phytogenic, also known as plant-derived anticancer drugs, are medications that are derived from plants and used to treat cancer. These agents have natural origins and work by interfering with the growth and multiplication of cancer cells, helping to slow or stop the spread of the disease. Some examples of antineoplastic agents, phytogenic include paclitaxel (Taxol), vincristine, vinblastine, and etoposide. These drugs are often used in combination with other treatments such as surgery, radiation therapy, and other medications to provide a comprehensive approach to cancer care.

Genistein is defined as a type of isoflavone, which is a plant-derived compound with estrogen-like properties. It is found in soybeans and other legumes. Genistein acts as a phytoestrogen, meaning it can bind to estrogen receptors and have both weak estrogenic and anti-estrogenic effects in the body.

In addition to its estrogenic activity, genistein has been found to have various biological activities, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. It has been studied for its potential role in preventing or treating a variety of health conditions, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and menopausal symptoms. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks of genistein supplementation.

Tongue neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the tongue tissue. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign tongue neoplasms may include entities such as papillomas, fibromas, or granular cell tumors. They are typically slow growing and less likely to spread to other parts of the body.

Malignant tongue neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancers that can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body. The most common type of malignant tongue neoplasm is squamous cell carcinoma, which arises from the thin, flat cells (squamous cells) that line the surface of the tongue.

Tongue neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as a lump or thickening on the tongue, pain or burning sensation in the mouth, difficulty swallowing or speaking, and unexplained bleeding from the mouth. Early detection and treatment are crucial for improving outcomes and preventing complications.

"Plant preparations" is not a term with a specific medical definition in the field of medicine or pharmacology. However, it is commonly used to refer to various forms of plant material that have been prepared for medicinal use. This can include dried and powdered plant parts, such as leaves, roots, or flowers, as well as extracts or concentrates made from plants. These preparations may be used in traditional medicine or as the basis for modern pharmaceuticals. It is important to note that the safety, effectiveness, and quality of plant preparations can vary widely, and they should only be used under the guidance of a qualified healthcare provider.

Diosmin is a type of flavonoid, which is a class of plant pigments that are known for their antioxidant properties. It is found naturally in various plants, including citrus fruits, and is often extracted and concentrated for use as a dietary supplement or medication. Diosmin has been studied for its potential benefits in treating conditions such as venous insufficiency, hemorrhoids, and lymphedema.

In medical terms, diosmin is often prescribed to improve the symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency, a condition in which the veins in the legs have difficulty returning blood to the heart. Diosmin has been shown to help improve the tone of the veins and reduce inflammation, which can help alleviate symptoms such as swelling, pain, and fatigue in the legs.

Diosmin is typically taken orally in the form of a tablet or capsule, and may be prescribed alone or in combination with other medications. As with any medication or supplement, it's important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when taking diosmin.

Topical administration refers to a route of administering a medication or treatment directly to a specific area of the body, such as the skin, mucous membranes, or eyes. This method allows the drug to be applied directly to the site where it is needed, which can increase its effectiveness and reduce potential side effects compared to systemic administration (taking the medication by mouth or injecting it into a vein or muscle).

Topical medications come in various forms, including creams, ointments, gels, lotions, solutions, sprays, and patches. They may be used to treat localized conditions such as skin infections, rashes, inflammation, or pain, or to deliver medication to the eyes or mucous membranes for local or systemic effects.

When applying topical medications, it is important to follow the instructions carefully to ensure proper absorption and avoid irritation or other adverse reactions. This may include cleaning the area before application, covering the treated area with a dressing, or avoiding exposure to sunlight or water after application, depending on the specific medication and its intended use.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Terpenes are a large and diverse class of organic compounds produced by a variety of plants, including cannabis. They are responsible for the distinctive aromas and flavors found in different strains of cannabis. Terpenes have been found to have various therapeutic benefits, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antimicrobial properties. Some terpenes may also enhance the psychoactive effects of THC, the main psychoactive compound in cannabis. It's important to note that more research is needed to fully understand the potential medical benefits and risks associated with terpenes.

A papilloma is a benign (noncancerous) tumor that grows on a stalk, often appearing as a small cauliflower-like growth. It can develop in various parts of the body, but when it occurs in the mucous membranes lining the respiratory, digestive, or genitourinary tracts, they are called squamous papillomas. The most common type is the skin papilloma, which includes warts. They are usually caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and can be removed through various medical procedures if they become problematic or unsightly.

Medical Definition of Vitamin E:

Vitamin E is a fat-soluble antioxidant that plays a crucial role in protecting your body's cells from damage caused by free radicals, which are unstable molecules produced when your body breaks down food or is exposed to environmental toxins like cigarette smoke and radiation. Vitamin E is also involved in immune function, DNA repair, and other metabolic processes.

It is a collective name for a group of eight fat-soluble compounds that include four tocopherols and four tocotrienols. Alpha-tocopherol is the most biologically active form of vitamin E in humans and is the one most commonly found in supplements.

Vitamin E deficiency is rare but can occur in people with certain genetic disorders or who cannot absorb fat properly. Symptoms of deficiency include nerve and muscle damage, loss of feeling in the arms and legs, muscle weakness, and vision problems.

Food sources of vitamin E include vegetable oils (such as sunflower, safflower, and wheat germ oil), nuts and seeds (like almonds, peanuts, and sunflower seeds), and fortified foods (such as cereals and some fruit juices).

Bronchial neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the bronchi, which are the large airways that lead into the lungs. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant bronchial neoplasms are often referred to as lung cancer and can be further classified into small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer, depending on the type of cells involved.

Benign bronchial neoplasms are less common than malignant ones and may include growths such as papillomas, hamartomas, or chondromas. While benign neoplasms are not cancerous, they can still cause symptoms and complications if they grow large enough to obstruct the airways or if they become infected.

Treatment for bronchial neoplasms depends on several factors, including the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health and medical history. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Neoplastic gene expression regulation refers to the processes that control the production of proteins and other molecules from genes in neoplastic cells, or cells that are part of a tumor or cancer. In a normal cell, gene expression is tightly regulated to ensure that the right genes are turned on or off at the right time. However, in cancer cells, this regulation can be disrupted, leading to the overexpression or underexpression of certain genes.

Neoplastic gene expression regulation can be affected by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, epigenetic changes, and signals from the tumor microenvironment. These changes can lead to the activation of oncogenes (genes that promote cancer growth and development) or the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes (genes that prevent cancer).

Understanding neoplastic gene expression regulation is important for developing new therapies for cancer, as targeting specific genes or pathways involved in this process can help to inhibit cancer growth and progression.

Anti-inflammatory agents are a class of drugs or substances that reduce inflammation in the body. They work by inhibiting the production of inflammatory mediators, such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes, which are released during an immune response and contribute to symptoms like pain, swelling, redness, and warmth.

There are two main types of anti-inflammatory agents: steroidal and nonsteroidal. Steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (SAIDs) include corticosteroids, which mimic the effects of hormones produced by the adrenal gland. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a larger group that includes both prescription and over-the-counter medications, such as aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and celecoxib.

While both types of anti-inflammatory agents can be effective in reducing inflammation and relieving symptoms, they differ in their mechanisms of action, side effects, and potential risks. Long-term use of NSAIDs, for example, can increase the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding, kidney damage, and cardiovascular events. Corticosteroids can have significant side effects as well, particularly with long-term use, including weight gain, mood changes, and increased susceptibility to infections.

It's important to use anti-inflammatory agents only as directed by a healthcare provider, and to be aware of potential risks and interactions with other medications or health conditions.

Experimental neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that are induced and studied in a controlled laboratory setting, typically in animals or cell cultures. These studies are conducted to understand the fundamental mechanisms of cancer development, progression, and potential treatment strategies. By manipulating various factors such as genetic mutations, environmental exposures, and pharmacological interventions, researchers can gain valuable insights into the complex processes underlying neoplasm formation and identify novel targets for cancer therapy. It is important to note that experimental neoplasms may not always accurately represent human cancers, and further research is needed to translate these findings into clinically relevant applications.

The colon, also known as the large intestine, is a part of the digestive system in humans and other vertebrates. It is an organ that eliminates waste from the body and is located between the small intestine and the rectum. The main function of the colon is to absorb water and electrolytes from digested food, forming and storing feces until they are eliminated through the anus.

The colon is divided into several regions, including the cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, and anus. The walls of the colon contain a layer of muscle that helps to move waste material through the organ by a process called peristalsis.

The inner surface of the colon is lined with mucous membrane, which secretes mucus to lubricate the passage of feces. The colon also contains a large population of bacteria, known as the gut microbiota, which play an important role in digestion and immunity.

The double-blind method is a study design commonly used in research, including clinical trials, to minimize bias and ensure the objectivity of results. In this approach, both the participants and the researchers are unaware of which group the participants are assigned to, whether it be the experimental group or the control group. This means that neither the participants nor the researchers know who is receiving a particular treatment or placebo, thus reducing the potential for bias in the evaluation of outcomes. The assignment of participants to groups is typically done by a third party not involved in the study, and the codes are only revealed after all data have been collected and analyzed.

Oral administration is a route of giving medications or other substances by mouth. This can be in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids, pastes, or other forms that can be swallowed. Once ingested, the substance is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract and enters the bloodstream to reach its intended target site in the body. Oral administration is a common and convenient route of medication delivery, but it may not be appropriate for all substances or in certain situations, such as when rapid onset of action is required or when the patient has difficulty swallowing.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Quercetin is a type of flavonoid antioxidant that is found in plant foods, including leafy greens, tomatoes, berries, and broccoli. It has been studied for its potential health benefits, such as reducing inflammation, protecting against damage to cells, and helping to reduce the risk of heart disease and cancer. Quercetin is also known for its ability to stabilize mast cells and prevent the release of histamine, making it a popular natural remedy for allergies. It is available in supplement form, but it is always recommended to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen.

I apologize for the confusion, but "Prunella" is not a recognized medical term in English. It might be referring to "Prunella vulgaris," which is a common name for a type of plant also known as self-heal or heal-all. This plant has been used in traditional medicine, but there's limited scientific evidence supporting its effectiveness.

However, if you meant "prunella" as a colloquial term for a small sore or pimple on the lip, it is still not considered a medical term. It might be more accurate to refer to such a condition as "fever blister" or "cold sore," which are caused by the herpes simplex virus.

Please let me know if you had something else in mind, and I'd be happy to help further!

Dinoprostone is a prostaglandin E2 analog used in medical practice for the induction of labor and ripening of the cervix in pregnant women. It is available in various forms, including vaginal suppositories, gel, and tablets. Dinoprostone works by stimulating the contraction of uterine muscles and promoting cervical dilation, which helps in facilitating a successful delivery.

It's important to note that dinoprostone should only be administered under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as its use is associated with certain risks and side effects, including uterine hyperstimulation, fetal distress, and maternal infection. The dosage and duration of treatment are carefully monitored to minimize these risks and ensure the safety of both the mother and the baby.

The cell cycle is a series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication. It consists of four main phases: G1 phase, S phase, G2 phase, and M phase.

During the G1 phase, the cell grows in size and synthesizes mRNA and proteins in preparation for DNA replication. In the S phase, the cell's DNA is copied, resulting in two complete sets of chromosomes. During the G2 phase, the cell continues to grow and produces more proteins and organelles necessary for cell division.

The M phase is the final stage of the cell cycle and consists of mitosis (nuclear division) and cytokinesis (cytoplasmic division). Mitosis results in two genetically identical daughter nuclei, while cytokinesis divides the cytoplasm and creates two separate daughter cells.

The cell cycle is regulated by various checkpoints that ensure the proper completion of each phase before progressing to the next. These checkpoints help prevent errors in DNA replication and division, which can lead to mutations and cancer.

HT-29 is a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line that is commonly used in research. These cells are derived from a colorectal cancer tumor and have the ability to differentiate into various cell types found in the intestinal mucosa, such as absorptive enterocytes and mucus-secreting goblet cells. HT-29 cells are often used to study the biology of colon cancer, including the effects of drugs on cancer cell growth and survival, as well as the role of various genes and signaling pathways in colorectal tumorigenesis.

It is important to note that when working with cell lines like HT-29, it is essential to use proper laboratory techniques and follow established protocols to ensure the integrity and reproducibility of experimental results. Additionally, researchers should regularly authenticate their cell lines to confirm their identity and verify that they are free from contamination with other cell types.

Smoking is not a medical condition, but it's a significant health risk behavior. Here is the definition from a public health perspective:

Smoking is the act of inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning tobacco that is commonly consumed through cigarettes, pipes, and cigars. The smoke contains over 7,000 chemicals, including nicotine, tar, carbon monoxide, and numerous toxic and carcinogenic substances. These toxins contribute to a wide range of diseases and health conditions, such as lung cancer, heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and various other cancers, as well as adverse reproductive outcomes and negative impacts on the developing fetus during pregnancy. Smoking is highly addictive due to the nicotine content, which makes quitting smoking a significant challenge for many individuals.

Alcohol abstinence is the deliberate choice to refrain from consuming alcoholic beverages. This can be a personal choice, or it may be recommended by a healthcare professional for individuals who have alcohol use disorder, are pregnant, have certain medical conditions, or are taking medications that interact negatively with alcohol. Abstinence is often an important part of treatment and recovery for people struggling with alcohol addiction.

Cyclin D1 is a type of cyclin protein that plays a crucial role in the regulation of the cell cycle, which is the process by which cells divide and grow. Specifically, Cyclin D1 is involved in the transition from the G1 phase to the S phase of the cell cycle. It does this by forming a complex with and acting as a regulatory subunit of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) or CDK6, which phosphorylates and inactivates the retinoblastoma protein (pRb). This allows the E2F transcription factors to be released and activate the transcription of genes required for DNA replication and cell cycle progression.

Overexpression of Cyclin D1 has been implicated in the development of various types of cancer, as it can lead to uncontrolled cell growth and division. Therefore, Cyclin D1 is an important target for cancer therapy, and inhibitors of CDK4/6 have been developed to treat certain types of cancer that overexpress Cyclin D1.

Triterpenes are a type of natural compound that are composed of six isoprene units and have the molecular formula C30H48. They are synthesized through the mevalonate pathway in plants, fungi, and some insects, and can be found in a wide variety of natural sources, including fruits, vegetables, and medicinal plants.

Triterpenes have diverse structures and biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and cytotoxic effects. Some triterpenes are also used in traditional medicine, such as glycyrrhizin from licorice root and betulinic acid from the bark of birch trees.

Triterpenes can be further classified into various subgroups based on their carbon skeletons, including squalene, lanostane, dammarane, and ursane derivatives. Some triterpenes are also modified through various biochemical reactions to form saponins, steroids, and other compounds with important biological activities.

Esophageal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the tissue of the esophagus, which is the muscular tube that connects the throat to the stomach. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant esophageal neoplasms are typically classified as either squamous cell carcinomas or adenocarcinomas, depending on the type of cell from which they originate.

Esophageal cancer is a serious and often life-threatening condition that can cause symptoms such as difficulty swallowing, chest pain, weight loss, and coughing. Risk factors for esophageal neoplasms include smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and Barrett's esophagus. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Pentacyclic triterpenes are a type of natural compounds that are characterized by their structure, which consists of five cyclic rings made up of 30 carbon atoms. They are formed from squalene through a series of enzymatic reactions and can be found in various plants, as well as some animals and marine organisms.

Pentacyclic triterpenes have been studied for their potential medicinal properties, including anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antitumor activities. Some examples of pentacyclic triterpenes include oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, and betulinic acid, which are found in a variety of fruits, vegetables, and herbs.

It's worth noting that while there is a growing body of research on the potential health benefits of pentacyclic triterpenes, more studies are needed to fully understand their mechanisms of action and therapeutic potential.

According to the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), biological products are "products that are made from or contain a living organism or its derivatives, such as vaccines, blood and blood components, cells, genes, tissues, and proteins." These products can be composed of sugars, proteins, nucleic acids, or complex combinations of these substances, and they can come from many sources, including humans, animals, microorganisms, or plants.

Biological products are often used to diagnose, prevent, or treat a wide range of medical conditions, and they can be administered in various ways, such as through injection, inhalation, or topical application. Because biological products are derived from living organisms, their manufacturing processes can be complex and must be tightly controlled to ensure the safety, purity, and potency of the final product.

It's important to note that biological products are not the same as drugs, which are chemically synthesized compounds. While drugs are designed to interact with specific targets in the body, such as enzymes or receptors, biological products can have more complex and varied mechanisms of action, making them potentially more difficult to characterize and regulate.

1,2-Dimethylhydrazine is a chemical compound with the formula (CH3)2N-NH2. It is a colorless liquid with an ammonia-like odor. It is used in research and industry as a reducing agent and a rocket fuel component. It is also a potent carcinogen and is harmful if swallowed, inhaled, or comes into contact with the skin. Long-term exposure can lead to cancer, particularly of the liver and digestive system.

Isoenzymes, also known as isoforms, are multiple forms of an enzyme that catalyze the same chemical reaction but differ in their amino acid sequence, structure, and/or kinetic properties. They are encoded by different genes or alternative splicing of the same gene. Isoenzymes can be found in various tissues and organs, and they play a crucial role in biological processes such as metabolism, detoxification, and cell signaling. Measurement of isoenzyme levels in body fluids (such as blood) can provide valuable diagnostic information for certain medical conditions, including tissue damage, inflammation, and various diseases.

Beta-catenin is a protein that plays a crucial role in gene transcription and cell-cell adhesion. It is a key component of the Wnt signaling pathway, which regulates various processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration during embryonic development and tissue homeostasis in adults.

In the absence of Wnt signals, beta-catenin forms a complex with other proteins, including adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and axin, which targets it for degradation by the proteasome. When Wnt ligands bind to their receptors, this complex is disrupted, allowing beta-catenin to accumulate in the cytoplasm and translocate to the nucleus. In the nucleus, beta-catenin interacts with T cell factor/lymphoid enhancer-binding factor (TCF/LEF) transcription factors to activate the transcription of target genes involved in cell fate determination, survival, and proliferation.

Mutations in the genes encoding components of the Wnt signaling pathway, including beta-catenin, have been implicated in various human diseases, such as cancer, developmental disorders, and degenerative conditions.

"Ocimum" is the scientific name for a genus of plants that includes sweet basil, holy basil, and other varieties of basil. These herbs are part of the mint family (Lamiaceae) and are native to tropical regions of Africa and Asia. They are widely used in cooking for their aromatic leaves, which have a strong, pungent flavor. Holy basil, also known as tulsi, is considered sacred in Hinduism and has been used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine for its potential health benefits. However, it's important to note that while some herbs and plants can have medicinal properties, they should not be used as a substitute for professional medical advice or treatment.

Disease progression is the worsening or advancement of a medical condition over time. It refers to the natural course of a disease, including its development, the severity of symptoms and complications, and the impact on the patient's overall health and quality of life. Understanding disease progression is important for developing appropriate treatment plans, monitoring response to therapy, and predicting outcomes.

The rate of disease progression can vary widely depending on the type of medical condition, individual patient factors, and the effectiveness of treatment. Some diseases may progress rapidly over a short period of time, while others may progress more slowly over many years. In some cases, disease progression may be slowed or even halted with appropriate medical interventions, while in other cases, the progression may be inevitable and irreversible.

In clinical practice, healthcare providers closely monitor disease progression through regular assessments, imaging studies, and laboratory tests. This information is used to guide treatment decisions and adjust care plans as needed to optimize patient outcomes and improve quality of life.

"Bronchi" are a pair of airways in the respiratory system that branch off from the trachea (windpipe) and lead to the lungs. They are responsible for delivering oxygen-rich air to the lungs and removing carbon dioxide during exhalation. The right bronchus is slightly larger and more vertical than the left, and they further divide into smaller branches called bronchioles within the lungs. Any abnormalities or diseases affecting the bronchi can impact lung function and overall respiratory health.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Interdisciplinary Studies" is not a medical term. It is a term used in education and research to describe the approach that involves two or more academic disciplines in order to broaden understanding, improve problem-solving, and enhance innovation. This approach is used in various fields including social sciences, humanities, natural sciences, and engineering.

In a medical context, interdisciplinary studies might refer to a collaborative approach to patient care that involves healthcare professionals from different disciplines (such as doctors, nurses, pharmacists, social workers, etc.) working together to provide comprehensive and coordinated care for patients with complex medical conditions. This type of collaboration can lead to improved patient outcomes, increased patient satisfaction, and more efficient use of healthcare resources.

Cell division is the process by which a single eukaryotic cell (a cell with a true nucleus) divides into two identical daughter cells. This complex process involves several stages, including replication of DNA, separation of chromosomes, and division of the cytoplasm. There are two main types of cell division: mitosis and meiosis.

Mitosis is the type of cell division that results in two genetically identical daughter cells. It is a fundamental process for growth, development, and tissue repair in multicellular organisms. The stages of mitosis include prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase, followed by cytokinesis, which divides the cytoplasm.

Meiosis, on the other hand, is a type of cell division that occurs in the gonads (ovaries and testes) during the production of gametes (sex cells). Meiosis results in four genetically unique daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. This process is essential for sexual reproduction and genetic diversity. The stages of meiosis include meiosis I and meiosis II, which are further divided into prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

In summary, cell division is the process by which a single cell divides into two daughter cells, either through mitosis or meiosis. This process is critical for growth, development, tissue repair, and sexual reproduction in multicellular organisms.

Rosaceae is not a medical term but a taxonomic category in biology, specifically an family of flowering plants. However, many physicians and dermatologists are familiar with some members of this family because they cause several common skin conditions.

Rosaceae refers to a family of plants that include roses, strawberries, blackberries, and many other ornamental and edible plants. Some genera within this family contain species known to cause various dermatologic conditions in humans, particularly affecting the face.

The most well-known skin disorders associated with Rosaceae are:

1. Acne rosacea (or rosacea): A chronic inflammatory skin condition primarily affecting the central face, characterized by flushing, persistent erythema (redness), telangiectasia (dilated blood vessels), papules, pustules, and sometimes rhinophyma (enlarged, bulbous nose).
2. Erythematotelangiectatic rosacea: A subtype of rosacea characterized by persistent central facial erythema, flushing, and telangiectasia without papules or pustules.
3. Phymatous rosacea: A subtype of rosacea characterized by thickening skin, irregular surface nodularities, and enlargement, particularly of the nose (rhinophyma).
4. Ocular rosacea: Inflammation of the eyes and eyelids associated with rosacea, causing symptoms like dryness, grittiness, foreign body sensation, burning, stinging, itching, watering, redness, and occasional blurry vision.

While not a medical term itself, Rosaceae is an essential concept in dermatology due to the skin conditions it encompasses.

Estrogen receptor modulators (ERMs) are a class of medications that act on the estrogen receptors in the body. They can have mixed estrogenic and anti-estrogenic effects, depending on the target tissue. In some tissues, ERMs behave as estrogen agonists, activating the estrogen receptor and mimicking the effects of estrogen. In other tissues, they act as estrogen antagonists, blocking the effects of estrogen.

ERMs are often used in hormone replacement therapy and to treat certain types of breast cancer. Tamoxifen is a well-known example of an ERM that is commonly used to treat estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer. It works by blocking the effects of estrogen on cancer cells, thereby slowing or stopping the growth of the tumor. Other examples of ERMs include raloxifene and toremifene.

While ERMs can be effective in treating certain conditions, they can also have side effects, including an increased risk of blood clots, hot flashes, and mood changes. It is important for individuals taking ERMs to be monitored by a healthcare provider to manage any potential side effects and ensure that the medication is working effectively.

A "second primary neoplasm" is a distinct, new cancer or malignancy that develops in a person who has already had a previous cancer. It is not a recurrence or metastasis of the original tumor, but rather an independent cancer that arises in a different location or organ system. The development of second primary neoplasms can be influenced by various factors such as genetic predisposition, environmental exposures, and previous treatments like chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

It is important to note that the definition of "second primary neoplasm" may vary slightly depending on the specific source or context. In general medical usage, it refers to a new, separate cancer; however, in some research or clinical settings, there might be more precise criteria for defining and diagnosing second primary neoplasms.

Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) is a protein that plays an essential role in the process of DNA replication and repair in eukaryotic cells. It functions as a cofactor for DNA polymerase delta, enhancing its activity during DNA synthesis. PCNA forms a sliding clamp around DNA, allowing it to move along the template and coordinate the actions of various enzymes involved in DNA metabolism.

PCNA is often used as a marker for cell proliferation because its levels increase in cells that are actively dividing or have been stimulated to enter the cell cycle. Immunostaining techniques can be used to detect PCNA and determine the proliferative status of tissues or cultures. In this context, 'proliferating' refers to the rapid multiplication of cells through cell division.

In the context of medicine and toxicology, sulfides refer to inorganic or organic compounds containing the sulfide ion (S2-). Sulfides can be found in various forms such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), metal sulfides, and organic sulfides (also known as thioethers).

Hydrogen sulfide is a toxic gas with a characteristic rotten egg smell. It can cause various adverse health effects, including respiratory irritation, headaches, nausea, and, at high concentrations, loss of consciousness or even death. Metal sulfides, such as those found in some minerals, can also be toxic and may release hazardous sulfur dioxide (SO2) when heated or reacted with acidic substances.

Organic sulfides, on the other hand, are a class of organic compounds containing a sulfur atom bonded to two carbon atoms. They can occur naturally in some plants and animals or be synthesized in laboratories. Some organic sulfides have medicinal uses, while others may pose health risks depending on their concentration and route of exposure.

It is important to note that the term "sulfide" has different meanings in various scientific contexts, so it is essential to consider the specific context when interpreting this term.

Metabolic Detoxification, Phase II, also known as conjugation, is the second step in the body's process of neutralizing and eliminating potentially harmful substances. During this phase, the liver cells add a molecule, such as glucuronic acid, sulfuric acid, glycine, or glutathione, to the substance, which has been previously modified during Phase I. This conjugation makes the substance water-soluble, allowing it to be excreted from the body through urine or bile.

In this process, various enzymes, such as UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), sulfotransferases (SULTs), N-acetyltransferases (NATs), glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), and methyltransferases, play a crucial role in the transfer of these molecules to the substrate. Proper functioning of Phase II detoxification is essential for the effective elimination of drugs, environmental toxins, endogenous waste products, and other harmful substances from the body.

Sodium Selenite is not a medical term per se, but it is a chemical compound with the formula Na2SeO3. It is used in medicine as a dietary supplement and also in veterinary medicine. Medically, it is used to treat selenium deficiency, which is rare.

Selenium is an essential trace element for human health, playing a crucial role in various physiological processes, such as antioxidant defense systems, thyroid hormone metabolism, and DNA synthesis. Sodium Selenite serves as a source of selenium in these medical applications.

Please note that supplementation with sodium selenite should be under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as excessive selenium intake can lead to selenosis, a condition characterized by symptoms like nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and neurological damage.

Benzopyrene is a chemical compound that belongs to the class of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). It is formed from the incomplete combustion of organic materials, such as tobacco, coal, and gasoline. Benzopyrene is a potent carcinogen, meaning it has the ability to cause cancer in living tissue.

Benzopyrene is able to induce genetic mutations by interacting with DNA and forming bulky adducts that interfere with normal DNA replication. This can lead to the development of various types of cancer, including lung, skin, and bladder cancer. Benzopyrene has also been linked to an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease.

In the medical field, benzopyrene is often used as a model compound for studying the mechanisms of chemical carcinogenesis. It is also used in research to investigate the effects of PAHs on human health and to develop strategies for reducing exposure to these harmful substances.

Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is a naturally occurring bile acid that is used medically as a therapeutic agent. It is commonly used to treat gallstones, particularly cholesterol gallstones, and other conditions associated with abnormal liver function, such as primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). UDCA works by decreasing the amount of cholesterol in bile and protecting liver cells from damage. It is also known as ursodiol or Ursotan.

Acetylcysteine is a medication that is used for its antioxidant effects and to help loosen thick mucus in the lungs. It is commonly used to treat conditions such as chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and cystic fibrosis. Acetylcysteine is also known by the brand names Mucomyst and Accolate. It works by thinning and breaking down mucus in the airways, making it easier to cough up and clear the airways. Additionally, acetylcysteine is an antioxidant that helps to protect cells from damage caused by free radicals. It is available as a oral tablet, liquid, or inhaled medication.

Metaplasia is a term used in pathology to describe the replacement of one differentiated cell type with another differentiated cell type within a tissue or organ. It is an adaptive response of epithelial cells to chronic irritation, inflammation, or injury and can be reversible if the damaging stimulus is removed. Metaplastic changes are often associated with an increased risk of cancer development in the affected area.

For example, in the case of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), chronic exposure to stomach acid can lead to metaplasia of the esophageal squamous epithelium into columnar epithelium, a condition known as Barrett's esophagus. This metaplastic change is associated with an increased risk of developing esophageal adenocarcinoma.

'Azadirachta' is a genus of trees in the mahogany family, Meliaceae. The most well-known species in this genus is Azadirachta indica, commonly known as neem or Indian lilac. This tree is native to India and has been used for centuries in traditional Ayurvedic medicine due to its medicinal properties.

The leaves, seeds, bark, and fruits of the neem tree contain compounds with various biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and insecticidal properties. The active ingredient in neem is azadirachtin, a limonoid compound that has been shown to have potent insecticidal and pesticidal effects.

Neem products are used in a variety of applications, including oral hygiene products, cosmetics, natural pest control, and traditional medicine. In modern medicine, neem extracts are being studied for their potential therapeutic benefits in various conditions, such as diabetes, cancer, and infectious diseases.

'Tumor cells, cultured' refers to the process of removing cancerous cells from a tumor and growing them in controlled laboratory conditions. This is typically done by isolating the tumor cells from a patient's tissue sample, then placing them in a nutrient-rich environment that promotes their growth and multiplication.

The resulting cultured tumor cells can be used for various research purposes, including the study of cancer biology, drug development, and toxicity testing. They provide a valuable tool for researchers to better understand the behavior and characteristics of cancer cells outside of the human body, which can lead to the development of more effective cancer treatments.

It is important to note that cultured tumor cells may not always behave exactly the same way as they do in the human body, so findings from cell culture studies must be validated through further research, such as animal models or clinical trials.

Barrett esophagus is a condition in which the tissue lining of the lower esophagus changes, becoming more like the tissue that lines the intestines (intestinal metaplasia). This change can increase the risk of developing esophageal adenocarcinoma, a type of cancer. The exact cause of Barrett esophagus is not known, but it is often associated with long-term gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), also known as chronic acid reflux.

In Barrett esophagus, the normal squamous cells that line the lower esophagus are replaced by columnar epithelial cells. This change is usually detected during an upper endoscopy and biopsy. The diagnosis of Barrett esophagus is confirmed when the biopsy shows intestinal metaplasia in the lower esophagus.

It's important to note that not everyone with GERD will develop Barrett esophagus, and not everyone with Barrett esophagus will develop esophageal cancer. However, if you have been diagnosed with Barrett esophagus, your healthcare provider may recommend regular endoscopies and biopsies to monitor the condition and reduce the risk of cancer. Treatment options for Barrett esophagus include medications to control acid reflux, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, surgery.

Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is a systematic process used to compare the costs and benefits of different options to determine which one provides the greatest net benefit. In a medical context, CBA can be used to evaluate the value of medical interventions, treatments, or policies by estimating and monetizing all the relevant costs and benefits associated with each option.

The costs included in a CBA may include direct costs such as the cost of the intervention or treatment itself, as well as indirect costs such as lost productivity or time away from work. Benefits may include improved health outcomes, reduced morbidity or mortality, and increased quality of life.

Once all the relevant costs and benefits have been identified and quantified, they are typically expressed in monetary terms to allow for a direct comparison. The option with the highest net benefit (i.e., the difference between total benefits and total costs) is considered the most cost-effective.

It's important to note that CBA has some limitations and can be subject to various biases and assumptions, so it should be used in conjunction with other evaluation methods to ensure a comprehensive understanding of the value of medical interventions or policies.

The Trypsin Inhibitor, Bowman-Birk Soybean is a type of protease inhibitor that is found in soybeans. It is named after its discoverer, Henry B. Bowman, and the location where it was first discovered, the Birk farm in Ohio. This protein inhibits the activity of trypsin, an enzyme that helps digest proteins in the body.

The Bowman-Birk Trypsin Inhibitor (BBTI) is a small protein with a molecular weight of approximately 8000 Da and consists of two inhibitory domains, each containing a reactive site for trypsin. This dual inhibitory property allows BBTI to inhibit both trypsin and chymotrypsin, another proteolytic enzyme.

BBTI has been studied extensively due to its potential health benefits. It has been shown to have anti-cancer properties, as it can inhibit the growth of cancer cells and induce apoptosis (programmed cell death). Additionally, BBTI may also have anti-inflammatory effects and has been shown to protect against oxidative stress.

However, it is important to note that excessive consumption of BBTI may interfere with protein digestion and absorption in the body, as it inhibits trypsin activity. Therefore, soybeans and soybean-derived products should be consumed in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "pyrazines" is not a term commonly used in medical definitions. Pyrazines are actually a class of organic compounds that contain a ring made up of two nitrogen atoms and three carbon atoms. They are found in various foods and contribute to their flavors. If you have any questions about organic chemistry or food science, I'd be happy to try to help!

Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are a class of drugs that are primarily used in the treatment of hormone-sensitive breast cancer in postmenopausal women. They work by inhibiting the enzyme aromatase, which is responsible for converting androgens into estrogens. By blocking this conversion, AIs decrease the amount of estrogen in the body, thereby depriving hormone-sensitive breast cancer cells of the estrogen they need to grow and multiply.

There are three main types of aromatase inhibitors:

1. Letrozole (Femara) - a non-steroidal AI that is taken orally once a day.
2. Anastrozole (Arimidex) - another non-steroidal AI that is also taken orally once a day.
3. Exemestane (Aromasin) - a steroidal AI that is taken orally once a day.

In addition to their use in breast cancer treatment, AIs are also sometimes used off-label for the treatment of estrogen-dependent conditions such as endometriosis and uterine fibroids. However, it's important to note that the use of aromatase inhibitors can have significant side effects, including hot flashes, joint pain, and bone loss, so they should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Adenomatous polyps, also known as adenomas, are benign (noncancerous) growths that develop in the lining of the glandular tissue of certain organs, most commonly occurring in the colon and rectum. These polyps are composed of abnormal glandular cells that can grow excessively and form a mass.

Adenomatous polyps can vary in size, ranging from a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter. They may be flat or have a stalk (pedunculated). While adenomas are generally benign, they can potentially undergo malignant transformation and develop into colorectal cancer over time if left untreated. The risk of malignancy increases with the size of the polyp and the presence of certain histological features, such as dysplasia (abnormal cell growth).

Regular screening for adenomatous polyps is essential to detect and remove them early, reducing the risk of colorectal cancer. Screening methods include colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, and stool-based tests.

Primary prevention in a medical context refers to actions taken to prevent the development of a disease or injury before it occurs. This is typically achieved through measures such as public health education, lifestyle modifications, and vaccinations. The goal of primary prevention is to reduce the risk of a disease or injury by addressing its underlying causes. Examples of primary prevention strategies include smoking cessation programs to prevent lung cancer, immunizations to prevent infectious diseases, and safety regulations to prevent accidents and injuries.

Experimental liver neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the liver that are intentionally created or manipulated in a laboratory setting for the purpose of studying their development, progression, and potential treatment options. These experimental models can be established using various methods such as chemical induction, genetic modification, or transplantation of cancerous cells or tissues. The goal of this research is to advance our understanding of liver cancer biology and develop novel therapies for liver neoplasms in humans. It's important to note that these experiments are conducted under strict ethical guidelines and regulations to minimize harm and ensure the humane treatment of animals involved in such studies.

Annexin A4 is a type of protein that belongs to the annexin family, which are characterized by their ability to bind to calcium ions and membranes. Specifically, Annexin A4 is known to play roles in various cellular processes such as exocytosis, endocytosis, and regulation of ion channels. It has also been implicated in the development and progression of certain diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

In the medical field, the study of Annexin A4 is important for understanding its functions and potential therapeutic applications. For example, research has suggested that targeting Annexin A4 may be a useful strategy for developing new treatments for cancer or other diseases. However, more studies are needed to fully elucidate the role of this protein in various biological processes and disease states.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Carcinoma in situ is a medical term used to describe the earliest stage of cancer, specifically a type of cancer that begins in the epithelial tissue, which is the tissue that lines the outer surfaces of organs and body structures. In this stage, the cancer cells are confined to the layer of cells where they first developed and have not spread beyond that layer into the surrounding tissues or organs.

Carcinoma in situ can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, cervix, breast, lung, prostate, bladder, and other areas. It is often detected through routine screening tests, such as Pap smears for cervical cancer or mammograms for breast cancer.

While carcinoma in situ is not invasive, it can still be a serious condition because it has the potential to develop into an invasive cancer if left untreated. Treatment options for carcinoma in situ may include surgery, radiation therapy, or other forms of treatment, depending on the location and type of cancer. It is important to consult with a healthcare provider to determine the best course of action for each individual case.

Cyanates are a class of chemical compounds that contain the functional group -O-C≡N, which consists of a carbon atom triple-bonded to a nitrogen atom and double-bonded to an oxygen atom. In medical terms, cyanates are not commonly used, but potassium cyanate has been studied in the past as a possible treatment for certain conditions such as angina and cyanide poisoning. However, its use is limited due to potential side effects and the availability of safer and more effective treatments. It's important to note that cyanides are highly toxic substances, and exposure to them can be life-threatening.

Isoflavones are a type of plant-derived compounds called phytoestrogens, which have a chemical structure similar to human estrogen. They are found in various plants, particularly in soybeans and soy products. Isoflavones can act as weak estrogens or anti-estrogens in the body, depending on the levels of natural hormones present. These compounds have been studied for their potential health benefits, including reducing menopausal symptoms, improving cardiovascular health, and preventing certain types of cancer. However, more research is needed to fully understand their effects and safety.

Monoterpenes are a class of terpenes that consist of two isoprene units and have the molecular formula C10H16. They are major components of many essential oils found in plants, giving them their characteristic fragrances and flavors. Monoterpenes can be further classified into various subgroups based on their structural features, such as acyclic (e.g., myrcene), monocyclic (e.g., limonene), and bicyclic (e.g., pinene) compounds. In the medical field, monoterpenes have been studied for their potential therapeutic properties, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities. However, more research is needed to fully understand their mechanisms of action and clinical applications.

Estrogen antagonists, also known as antiestrogens, are a class of drugs that block the effects of estrogen in the body. They work by binding to estrogen receptors and preventing the natural estrogen from attaching to them. This results in the inhibition of estrogen-mediated activities in various tissues, including breast and uterine tissue.

There are two main types of estrogen antagonists: selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and pure estrogen receptor downregulators (PERDS), also known as estrogen receptor downregulators (ERDs). SERMs, such as tamoxifen and raloxifene, can act as estrogen agonists or antagonists depending on the tissue type. For example, they may block the effects of estrogen in breast tissue while acting as an estrogen agonist in bone tissue, helping to prevent osteoporosis.

PERDS, such as fulvestrant, are pure estrogen receptor antagonists and do not have any estrogen-like activity. They are used primarily for the treatment of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer in postmenopausal women.

Overall, estrogen antagonists play an important role in the management of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer and other conditions where inhibiting estrogen activity is beneficial.

Retinoic acid receptors (RARs) are a type of nuclear receptor proteins that play crucial roles in the regulation of gene transcription. They are activated by retinoic acid, which is a metabolite of vitamin A. There are three subtypes of RARs, namely RARα, RARβ, and RARγ, each encoded by different genes.

Once retinoic acid binds to RARs, they form heterodimers with another type of nuclear receptor called retinoid X receptors (RXRs). The RAR-RXR complex then binds to specific DNA sequences called retinoic acid response elements (RAREs) in the promoter regions of target genes. This binding event leads to the recruitment of coactivator proteins and the modification of chromatin structure, ultimately resulting in the activation or repression of gene transcription.

Retinoic acid and its receptors play essential roles in various biological processes, including embryonic development, cell differentiation, apoptosis, and immune function. In addition, RARs have been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, where they can act as tumor suppressors or oncogenes depending on the context. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of RAR signaling has important implications for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for various diseases.

Western blotting is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to detect and quantify specific proteins in a mixture of many different proteins. This technique is commonly used to confirm the expression of a protein of interest, determine its size, and investigate its post-translational modifications. The name "Western" blotting distinguishes this technique from Southern blotting (for DNA) and Northern blotting (for RNA).

The Western blotting procedure involves several steps:

1. Protein extraction: The sample containing the proteins of interest is first extracted, often by breaking open cells or tissues and using a buffer to extract the proteins.
2. Separation of proteins by electrophoresis: The extracted proteins are then separated based on their size by loading them onto a polyacrylamide gel and running an electric current through the gel (a process called sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or SDS-PAGE). This separates the proteins according to their molecular weight, with smaller proteins migrating faster than larger ones.
3. Transfer of proteins to a membrane: After separation, the proteins are transferred from the gel onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane using an electric current in a process called blotting. This creates a replica of the protein pattern on the gel but now immobilized on the membrane for further analysis.
4. Blocking: The membrane is then blocked with a blocking agent, such as non-fat dry milk or bovine serum albumin (BSA), to prevent non-specific binding of antibodies in subsequent steps.
5. Primary antibody incubation: A primary antibody that specifically recognizes the protein of interest is added and allowed to bind to its target protein on the membrane. This step may be performed at room temperature or 4°C overnight, depending on the antibody's properties.
6. Washing: The membrane is washed with a buffer to remove unbound primary antibodies.
7. Secondary antibody incubation: A secondary antibody that recognizes the primary antibody (often coupled to an enzyme or fluorophore) is added and allowed to bind to the primary antibody. This step may involve using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated or alkaline phosphatase (AP)-conjugated secondary antibody, depending on the detection method used later.
8. Washing: The membrane is washed again to remove unbound secondary antibodies.
9. Detection: A detection reagent is added to visualize the protein of interest by detecting the signal generated from the enzyme-conjugated or fluorophore-conjugated secondary antibody. This can be done using chemiluminescent, colorimetric, or fluorescent methods.
10. Analysis: The resulting image is analyzed to determine the presence and quantity of the protein of interest in the sample.

Western blotting is a powerful technique for identifying and quantifying specific proteins within complex mixtures. It can be used to study protein expression, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and more. However, it requires careful optimization and validation to ensure accurate and reproducible results.

Liver neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the liver that can be benign or malignant. Benign liver neoplasms are non-cancerous tumors that do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant liver neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade and destroy surrounding tissue and spread to other organs.

Liver neoplasms can be primary, meaning they originate in the liver, or secondary, meaning they have metastasized (spread) to the liver from another part of the body. Primary liver neoplasms can be further classified into different types based on their cell of origin and behavior, including hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, and hepatic hemangioma.

The diagnosis of liver neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging studies, such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, and biopsy to confirm the type and stage of the tumor. Treatment options depend on the type and extent of the neoplasm and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or liver transplantation.

Preclinical drug evaluation refers to a series of laboratory tests and studies conducted to determine the safety and effectiveness of a new drug before it is tested in humans. These studies typically involve experiments on cells and animals to evaluate the pharmacological properties, toxicity, and potential interactions with other substances. The goal of preclinical evaluation is to establish a reasonable level of safety and understanding of how the drug works, which helps inform the design and conduct of subsequent clinical trials in humans. It's important to note that while preclinical studies provide valuable information, they may not always predict how a drug will behave in human subjects.

Delphinium is a genus of perennial flowering plants in the family Ranunculaceae, also known as larkspur. It includes over 300 species that are native to the Northern Hemisphere, with the greatest diversity found in the mountainous regions of western North America and southern Europe.

Delphiniums are herbaceous plants that can grow up to several feet tall, depending on the species. They have palmately compound leaves that are divided into several lobes. The flowers are borne in dense spikes or racemes and have five distinct sepals, four of which are often brightly colored and petal-like, while the fifth is small and leaflike. The flowers also have numerous stamens and a single pistil.

Delphiniums are popular ornamental plants due to their showy flowers, which come in a variety of colors including blue, purple, pink, white, and yellow. However, some species contain toxic alkaloids that can be harmful or fatal if ingested by humans or animals. It is important to handle delphiniums with care and keep them out of reach of children and pets.

Radiation-induced neoplasms are a type of cancer or tumor that develops as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation is radiation with enough energy to remove tightly bound electrons from atoms or molecules, leading to the formation of ions. This type of radiation can damage DNA and other cellular structures, which can lead to mutations and uncontrolled cell growth, resulting in the development of a neoplasm.

Radiation-induced neoplasms can occur after exposure to high levels of ionizing radiation, such as that received during radiation therapy for cancer treatment or from nuclear accidents. The risk of developing a radiation-induced neoplasm depends on several factors, including the dose and duration of radiation exposure, the type of radiation, and the individual's genetic susceptibility to radiation-induced damage.

Radiation-induced neoplasms can take many years to develop after initial exposure to ionizing radiation, and they often occur at the site of previous radiation therapy. Common types of radiation-induced neoplasms include sarcomas, carcinomas, and thyroid cancer. It is important to note that while ionizing radiation can increase the risk of developing cancer, the overall risk is still relatively low, especially when compared to other well-established cancer risk factors such as smoking and exposure to certain chemicals.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "fruit" is not a medical term per se. It is a common term used to describe the part of a plant that develops from the ovary after flowering and contains seeds. However, in a nutritional or dietary context, "fruits" are often referred to as foods that are typically sweet and juicy, and come from plants' flowers. They are rich in fiber, vitamins, and minerals, making them an essential part of a healthy diet. But in a strict medical sense, there isn't a specific definition for "fruit."

'Digestive System Neoplasms' refer to new and abnormal growths of tissue in the digestive system that can be benign or malignant. These growths are also known as tumors, and they can occur in any part of the digestive system, including the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine (colon and rectum), liver, bile ducts, pancreas, and gallbladder. Neoplasms in the digestive system can interfere with normal digestion and absorption of nutrients, cause bleeding, obstruct the digestive tract, and spread to other parts of the body (metastasis) if they are malignant.

Benign neoplasms are not cancerous and do not usually spread to other parts of the body. They can often be removed surgically and may not require further treatment. Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous and can invade nearby tissues and organs and spread to other parts of the body. Treatment for malignant neoplasms in the digestive system typically involves a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.

The causes of digestive system neoplasms are varied and include genetic factors, environmental exposures, lifestyle factors (such as diet and smoking), and infectious agents. Prevention strategies may include maintaining a healthy diet, avoiding tobacco and excessive alcohol consumption, practicing safe sex, getting vaccinated against certain viral infections, and undergoing regular screenings for certain types of neoplasms (such as colonoscopies for colorectal cancer).

Polyglycolic acid (PGA) is a synthetic polymer of glycolic acid, which is commonly used in surgical sutures. It is a biodegradable material that degrades in the body through hydrolysis into glycolic acid, which can be metabolized and eliminated from the body. PGA sutures are often used for approximating tissue during surgical procedures due to their strength, handling properties, and predictable rate of absorption. The degradation time of PGA sutures is typically around 60-90 days, depending on factors such as the size and location of the suture.

Enzyme induction is a process by which the activity or expression of an enzyme is increased in response to some stimulus, such as a drug, hormone, or other environmental factor. This can occur through several mechanisms, including increasing the transcription of the enzyme's gene, stabilizing the mRNA that encodes the enzyme, or increasing the translation of the mRNA into protein.

In some cases, enzyme induction can be a beneficial process, such as when it helps the body to metabolize and clear drugs more quickly. However, in other cases, enzyme induction can have negative consequences, such as when it leads to the increased metabolism of important endogenous compounds or the activation of harmful procarcinogens.

Enzyme induction is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology, as it can affect the efficacy and safety of drugs and other xenobiotics. It is also relevant to the study of drug interactions, as the induction of one enzyme by a drug can lead to altered metabolism and effects of another drug that is metabolized by the same enzyme.

Enzyme inhibitors are substances that bind to an enzyme and decrease its activity, preventing it from catalyzing a chemical reaction in the body. They can work by several mechanisms, including blocking the active site where the substrate binds, or binding to another site on the enzyme to change its shape and prevent substrate binding. Enzyme inhibitors are often used as drugs to treat various medical conditions, such as high blood pressure, abnormal heart rhythms, and bacterial infections. They can also be found naturally in some foods and plants, and can be used in research to understand enzyme function and regulation.

The intestinal mucosa is the innermost layer of the intestines, which comes into direct contact with digested food and microbes. It is a specialized epithelial tissue that plays crucial roles in nutrient absorption, barrier function, and immune defense. The intestinal mucosa is composed of several cell types, including absorptive enterocytes, mucus-secreting goblet cells, hormone-producing enteroendocrine cells, and immune cells such as lymphocytes and macrophages.

The surface of the intestinal mucosa is covered by a single layer of epithelial cells, which are joined together by tight junctions to form a protective barrier against harmful substances and microorganisms. This barrier also allows for the selective absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream. The intestinal mucosa also contains numerous lymphoid follicles, known as Peyer's patches, which are involved in immune surveillance and defense against pathogens.

In addition to its role in absorption and immunity, the intestinal mucosa is also capable of producing hormones that regulate digestion and metabolism. Dysfunction of the intestinal mucosa can lead to various gastrointestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and food allergies.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Risk assessment in the medical context refers to the process of identifying, evaluating, and prioritizing risks to patients, healthcare workers, or the community related to healthcare delivery. It involves determining the likelihood and potential impact of adverse events or hazards, such as infectious diseases, medication errors, or medical devices failures, and implementing measures to mitigate or manage those risks. The goal of risk assessment is to promote safe and high-quality care by identifying areas for improvement and taking action to minimize harm.

"Panax" is a term used in the field of botany and medicine, particularly in the study of traditional Chinese medicine. It specifically refers to the genus of plants that includes ginseng, which is known scientifically as "Panax ginseng." This plant has been used in traditional medicine for centuries due to its perceived ability to boost energy levels, reduce stress, and improve overall health. The term "Panax" itself comes from the Greek words "pan," meaning all or everything, and "akos," meaning cure or remedy, reflecting the belief in its wide-ranging healing properties. It's important to note that while some studies suggest potential health benefits of Panax ginseng, more research is needed to fully understand its effects and safety.

Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT) is a synthetic organic compound that is commonly used as a food additive and preservative. Its chemical formula is C15H24O. BHT is an antioxidant, which means it helps to prevent the oxidation of fats and oils, thereby extending the shelf life of foods and cosmetics.

In medical terms, BHT is sometimes used as a preservative in pharmaceuticals and medical devices. It has been shown to have some antimicrobial properties, which can help to prevent the growth of bacteria, fungi, and other microorganisms. However, its use in medical applications is relatively limited compared to its widespread use in food and cosmetic products.

It's worth noting that while BHT is generally recognized as safe by regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), some studies have suggested that it may have potential health risks, including liver toxicity and possible carcinogenic effects. Therefore, its use in food and other products is subject to certain limits and regulations.

Tetrahydronaphthalenes are organic compounds that consist of a naphthalene ring with two hydrogens replaced by saturated carbon chains. It is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) with a chemical formula C10H12. Tetrahydronaphthalenes can be found in various natural sources, including coal tar and some essential oils. They also have potential applications in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals and other organic compounds.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer in adults. It originates from the hepatocytes, which are the main functional cells of the liver. This type of cancer is often associated with chronic liver diseases such as cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B or C virus infection, alcohol abuse, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and aflatoxin exposure.

The symptoms of HCC can vary but may include unexplained weight loss, lack of appetite, abdominal pain or swelling, jaundice, and fatigue. The diagnosis of HCC typically involves imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, as well as blood tests to measure alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels. Treatment options for Hepatocellular carcinoma depend on the stage and extent of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and liver function. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or liver transplantation.

Aflatoxins are toxic compounds produced by certain types of mold (Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus) that grow on crops such as grains, nuts, and spices. These toxins can contaminate food and animal feed, posing a serious health risk to both humans and animals. Aflatoxin exposure has been linked to various health problems, including liver damage, cancer, immune system suppression, and growth impairment in children. Regular monitoring and control measures are necessary to prevent aflatoxin contamination in food and feed supplies.

Cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) is a type of enzyme belonging to the cyclooxygenase family, which is responsible for the production of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and prostacyclins. These are important signaling molecules that play a role in various physiological processes such as inflammation, pain perception, blood clotting, and gastric acid secretion.

COX-1 is constitutively expressed in most tissues, including the stomach, kidneys, and platelets, where it performs housekeeping functions. For example, in the stomach, COX-1 produces prostaglandins that protect the stomach lining from acid and digestive enzymes. In the kidneys, COX-1 helps regulate blood flow and sodium balance. In platelets, COX-1 produces thromboxane A2, which promotes blood clotting.

COX-1 is a target of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen. These medications work by inhibiting the activity of COX enzymes, reducing the production of prostaglandins and thromboxanes, and thereby alleviating pain, inflammation, and fever. However, long-term use of NSAIDs can lead to side effects such as stomach ulcers and bleeding due to the inhibition of COX-1 in the stomach lining.

Cyproterone acetate is a synthetic steroid hormone with anti-androgen and progestogenic properties. It works by blocking the action of androgens (male sex hormones) in the body, which helps to reduce symptoms associated with excessive androgen production such as severe acne or hirsutism (excessive hair growth).

Cyproterone acetate is used in the treatment of conditions such as prostate cancer, where it can help to slow the growth of cancer cells by reducing the levels of androgens in the body. It is also used in the treatment of sexual deviations, such as pedophilia or exhibitionism, as it can reduce sexual desire.

In addition, cyproterone acetate is sometimes used in combination with estrogen in hormone replacement therapy for transgender women to suppress the production of testosterone and promote feminization.

It's important to note that cyproterone acetate can have significant side effects and its use should be under the close supervision of a healthcare professional.

SENCAR (skin tumor-prone, cancer-prone) mice are an inbred strain of laboratory mice that were developed through selective breeding for their high susceptibility to developing skin tumors when exposed to certain chemical carcinogens. They are particularly sensitive to two-stage chemical carcinogenesis, making them a valuable tool in cancer research.

The SENCAR mouse strain was developed at the Southern Research Institute (SRI) in Birmingham, Alabama, by crossing various strains of mice and then selectively breeding the offspring for high tumor susceptibility. The resulting SENCAR mice are highly sensitive to both initiation and promotion stages of carcinogenesis, displaying rapid tumor development when exposed to tumor-promoting agents.

These mice have been widely used in dermatology and oncology research to study the mechanisms of chemical carcinogenesis, skin tumor development, and potential chemopreventive agents. They are also used to investigate the genetic factors contributing to cancer susceptibility and the role of the immune system in tumor development.

It is important to note that SENCAR mice are specifically bred for research purposes and should not be confused with wild mice or other strains of laboratory mice.

Deoxyguanosine is a chemical compound that is a component of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), one of the nucleic acids. It is a nucleoside, which is a molecule consisting of a sugar (in this case, deoxyribose) and a nitrogenous base (in this case, guanine). Deoxyguanosine plays a crucial role in the structure and function of DNA, as it pairs with deoxycytidine through hydrogen bonding to form a rung in the DNA double helix. It is involved in the storage and transmission of genetic information.

A colonoscopy is a medical procedure used to examine the large intestine, also known as the colon and rectum. It is performed using a flexible tube with a tiny camera on the end, called a colonoscope, which is inserted into the rectum and gently guided through the entire length of the colon.

The procedure allows doctors to visually inspect the lining of the colon for any abnormalities such as polyps, ulcers, inflammation, or cancer. If any polyps are found during the procedure, they can be removed immediately using special tools passed through the colonoscope. Colonoscopy is an important tool in the prevention and early detection of colorectal cancer, which is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide.

Patients are usually given a sedative to help them relax during the procedure, which is typically performed on an outpatient basis in a hospital or clinic setting. The entire procedure usually takes about 30-60 minutes to complete, although patients should plan to spend several hours at the medical facility for preparation and recovery.

The prostate is a small gland that is part of the male reproductive system. Its main function is to produce a fluid that, together with sperm cells from the testicles and fluids from other glands, makes up semen. This fluid nourishes and protects the sperm, helping it to survive and facilitating its movement.

The prostate is located below the bladder and in front of the rectum. It surrounds part of the urethra, the tube that carries urine and semen out of the body. This means that prostate problems can affect urination and sexual function. The prostate gland is about the size of a walnut in adult men.

Prostate health is an important aspect of male health, particularly as men age. Common prostate issues include benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), which is an enlarged prostate not caused by cancer, and prostate cancer, which is one of the most common types of cancer in men. Regular check-ups with a healthcare provider can help to detect any potential problems early and improve outcomes.

Epithelial cells are types of cells that cover the outer surfaces of the body, line the inner surfaces of organs and glands, and form the lining of blood vessels and body cavities. They provide a protective barrier against the external environment, regulate the movement of materials between the internal and external environments, and are involved in the sense of touch, temperature, and pain. Epithelial cells can be squamous (flat and thin), cuboidal (square-shaped and of equal height), or columnar (tall and narrow) in shape and are classified based on their location and function.

Hyperplasia is a medical term that refers to an abnormal increase in the number of cells in an organ or tissue, leading to an enlargement of the affected area. It's a response to various stimuli such as hormones, chronic irritation, or inflammation. Hyperplasia can be physiological, like the growth of breast tissue during pregnancy, or pathological, like in the case of benign or malignant tumors. The process is generally reversible if the stimulus is removed. It's important to note that hyperplasia itself is not cancerous, but some forms of hyperplasia can increase the risk of developing cancer over time.

The breast is the upper ventral region of the human body in females, which contains the mammary gland. The main function of the breast is to provide nutrition to infants through the production and secretion of milk, a process known as lactation. The breast is composed of fibrous connective tissue, adipose (fatty) tissue, and the mammary gland, which is made up of 15-20 lobes that are arranged in a radial pattern. Each lobe contains many smaller lobules, where milk is produced during lactation. The milk is then transported through a network of ducts to the nipple, where it can be expressed by the infant.

In addition to its role in lactation, the breast also has important endocrine and psychological functions. It contains receptors for hormones such as estrogen and progesterone, which play a key role in sexual development and reproduction. The breast is also a source of sexual pleasure and can be an important symbol of femininity and motherhood.

It's worth noting that males also have breast tissue, although it is usually less developed than in females. Male breast tissue consists mainly of adipose tissue and does not typically contain functional mammary glands. However, some men may develop enlarged breast tissue due to conditions such as gynecomastia, which can be caused by hormonal imbalances or certain medications.

A biopsy is a medical procedure in which a small sample of tissue is taken from the body to be examined under a microscope for the presence of disease. This can help doctors diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as cancer, infections, or autoimmune disorders. The type of biopsy performed will depend on the location and nature of the suspected condition. Some common types of biopsies include:

1. Incisional biopsy: In this procedure, a surgeon removes a piece of tissue from an abnormal area using a scalpel or other surgical instrument. This type of biopsy is often used when the lesion is too large to be removed entirely during the initial biopsy.

2. Excisional biopsy: An excisional biopsy involves removing the entire abnormal area, along with a margin of healthy tissue surrounding it. This technique is typically employed for smaller lesions or when cancer is suspected.

3. Needle biopsy: A needle biopsy uses a thin, hollow needle to extract cells or fluid from the body. There are two main types of needle biopsies: fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy. FNA extracts loose cells, while a core needle biopsy removes a small piece of tissue.

4. Punch biopsy: In a punch biopsy, a round, sharp tool is used to remove a small cylindrical sample of skin tissue. This type of biopsy is often used for evaluating rashes or other skin abnormalities.

5. Shave biopsy: During a shave biopsy, a thin slice of tissue is removed from the surface of the skin using a sharp razor-like instrument. This technique is typically used for superficial lesions or growths on the skin.

After the biopsy sample has been collected, it is sent to a laboratory where a pathologist will examine the tissue under a microscope and provide a diagnosis based on their findings. The results of the biopsy can help guide further treatment decisions and determine the best course of action for managing the patient's condition.

Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are a group of enzymes involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. They facilitate the conjugation of these compounds with glutathione, a tripeptide consisting of cysteine, glutamic acid, and glycine, which results in more water-soluble products that can be easily excreted from the body.

GSTs play a crucial role in protecting cells against oxidative stress and chemical injury by neutralizing reactive electrophilic species and peroxides. They are found in various tissues, including the liver, kidneys, lungs, and intestines, and are classified into several families based on their structure and function.

Abnormalities in GST activity have been associated with increased susceptibility to certain diseases, such as cancer, neurological disorders, and respiratory diseases. Therefore, GSTs have become a subject of interest in toxicology, pharmacology, and clinical research.

Abietanes are a subclass of diterpenes, which are a type of organic compound consisting of four isoprene units and having the chemical formula C20H32. Diterpenes are synthesized by a wide variety of plants and some animals, and they have diverse biological activities.

Abietanes are characterized by a distinctive carbon skeleton that contains three six-membered rings arranged in a linear fashion, with the fourth ring being a five-membered ring. This particular structure is derived from geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP), a precursor to many diterpenes.

Abietanes are found in various natural sources, including pine resin, where they exist as resin acids such as abietic acid, pimaric acid, and isopimaric acid. These compounds have been studied for their potential medicinal properties, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities. However, more research is needed to fully understand the therapeutic potential of abietanes and to develop safe and effective treatments based on these compounds.

Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia (PIN) is a term used in pathology to describe the abnormal growth of cells within the lining of the prostate gland's ducts and acini (small sacs that produce and store fluids). PIN is not considered a cancer, but it can be a precursor to prostate cancer.

There are two types of PIN: low-grade and high-grade. Low-grade PIN shows mild to moderate atypia (abnormalities in the cells), while high-grade PIN displays more significant atypia, which resembles prostate cancer. High-grade PIN is often found close to or within areas of prostate cancer, making it a potential indicator of malignancy.

However, not all cases of high-grade PIN progress to cancer, and some men with high-grade PIN may never develop prostate cancer. Nonetheless, the presence of high-grade PIN might prompt further investigation or monitoring to ensure early detection and treatment of any potential cancer development.

Urinary Bladder Neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors in the urinary bladder, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant neoplasms can be further classified into various types of bladder cancer, such as urothelial carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma. These malignant tumors often invade surrounding tissues and organs, potentially spreading to other parts of the body (metastasis), which can lead to serious health consequences if not detected and treated promptly and effectively.

Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, is a form of vitamin B3 (B-complex vitamin) that is used by the body to turn food into energy. It is found in various foods including meat, fish, milk, eggs, green vegetables, and cereal grains. Niacin is also available as a dietary supplement and prescription medication.

As a medication, niacin is primarily used to treat high cholesterol levels. It works by reducing the production of LDL (bad) cholesterol in the body and increasing the levels of HDL (good) cholesterol. Niacin can also help lower triglycerides, another type of fat found in the blood.

Niacin is available in immediate-release, sustained-release, and extended-release forms. The immediate-release form can cause flushing of the skin, itching, tingling, and headaches, which can be uncomfortable but are not usually serious. The sustained-release and extended-release forms may have fewer side effects, but they can also increase the risk of liver damage and other serious side effects.

It is important to note that niacin should only be taken under the supervision of a healthcare provider, as it can interact with other medications and have potentially serious side effects.

Dimethylnitrosamine is a chemical compound with the formula (CH3)2NNO. It is a potent carcinogen, and is classified as a Class 1 carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). It is known to cause cancer in various organs, including the liver, kidney, and lungs.

Dimethylnitrosamine is formed when nitrogen oxides react with secondary amines under conditions that are commonly encountered in industrial processes or in certain food preservation methods. It can also be found as a contaminant in some foods and cosmetics.

Exposure to dimethylnitrosamine can occur through inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact. The toxic effects of this compound are due to its ability to form DNA adducts, which can lead to mutations and cancer. It is important to minimize exposure to this compound and to take appropriate safety measures when working with it.

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal glands. It serves as a precursor to other hormones, including androgens such as testosterone and estrogens such as estradiol. DHEA levels typically peak during early adulthood and then gradually decline with age.

DHEA has been studied for its potential effects on various health conditions, including aging, cognitive function, sexual dysfunction, and certain chronic diseases. However, the evidence supporting its use for these purposes is generally limited and inconclusive. As with any supplement or medication, it's important to consult with a healthcare provider before taking DHEA to ensure safety and effectiveness.

Butylhydroxybutylnitrosamine (OH-BBN or BBN) is a chemical compound that is primarily used in laboratory research as a potent carcinogenic agent. It is known to induce tumors in various organs, particularly in the urinary bladder and liver, when administered to experimental animals.

The IUPAC name for Butylhydroxybutylnitrosamine is N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine. Its molecular formula is C8H19NO3. It is a white to off-white crystalline powder, soluble in water and alcohol.

It is important to note that Butylhydroxybutylnitrosamine is not used in human medicine or therapy due to its carcinogenic properties. Its use is restricted to research purposes only, under controlled conditions and with appropriate safety measures in place.

Phase II clinical trials are a type of medical research study that aims to assess the safety and effectiveness of a new drug or intervention in a specific patient population. These studies typically follow successful completion of Phase I clinical trials, which focus primarily on evaluating the safety and dosage of the treatment in a small group of healthy volunteers.

In Phase II clinical trials, the treatment is tested in a larger group of patients (usually several hundred) who have the condition or disease that the treatment is intended to treat. The main goals of these studies are to:

1. Determine the optimal dosage range for the treatment
2. Evaluate the safety and side effects of the treatment at different doses
3. Assess how well the treatment works in treating the target condition or disease

Phase II clinical trials are typically randomized, controlled studies, meaning that participants are randomly assigned to receive either the new treatment or a comparison group, such as a placebo or standard of care. The study is also often blinded, meaning that neither the participants nor the researchers know who is receiving which treatment. This helps to minimize bias and ensure that the results are due to the treatment itself rather than other factors.

Overall, Phase II clinical trials play an important role in determining whether a new drug or intervention is safe and effective enough to move on to larger, more expensive Phase III clinical trials, which involve even larger groups of patients and are designed to confirm and expand upon the results of Phase II studies.

In the context of medicine, risk is the probability or likelihood of an adverse health effect or the occurrence of a negative event related to treatment or exposure to certain hazards. It is usually expressed as a ratio or percentage and can be influenced by various factors such as age, gender, lifestyle, genetics, and environmental conditions. Risk assessment involves identifying, quantifying, and prioritizing risks to make informed decisions about prevention, mitigation, or treatment strategies.

Indole is not strictly a medical term, but it is a chemical compound that can be found in the human body and has relevance to medical and biological research. Indoles are organic compounds that contain a bicyclic structure consisting of a six-membered benzene ring fused to a five-membered pyrrole ring.

In the context of medicine, indoles are particularly relevant due to their presence in certain hormones and other biologically active molecules. For example, the neurotransmitter serotonin contains an indole ring, as does the hormone melatonin. Indoles can also be found in various plant-based foods, such as cruciferous vegetables (e.g., broccoli, kale), and have been studied for their potential health benefits.

Some indoles, like indole-3-carbinol and diindolylmethane, are found in these vegetables and can have anti-cancer properties by modulating estrogen metabolism, reducing inflammation, and promoting cell death (apoptosis) in cancer cells. However, it is essential to note that further research is needed to fully understand the potential health benefits and risks associated with indoles.

Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenases (HPGDs) are a group of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of prostaglandins, which are hormone-like lipid compounds with various physiological effects in the body. The oxidation reaction catalyzed by HPGDs involves the removal of hydrogen atoms from the prostaglandin molecule and the addition of a ketone group in its place.

The HPGD family includes several isoforms, each with distinct tissue distributions and substrate specificities. The most well-known isoform is 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH), which preferentially oxidizes PGE2 and PGF2α at the 15-hydroxyl position, thereby inactivating these prostaglandins.

The regulation of HPGD activity is critical for maintaining prostaglandin homeostasis, as imbalances in prostaglandin levels have been linked to various pathological conditions, including inflammation, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. For example, decreased 15-PGDH expression has been observed in several types of cancer, leading to increased PGE2 levels and promoting tumor growth and progression.

Overall, Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenases play a crucial role in regulating prostaglandin signaling and have important implications for human health and disease.

Biological availability is a term used in pharmacology and toxicology that refers to the degree and rate at which a drug or other substance is absorbed into the bloodstream and becomes available at the site of action in the body. It is a measure of the amount of the substance that reaches the systemic circulation unchanged, after administration by any route (such as oral, intravenous, etc.).

The biological availability (F) of a drug can be calculated using the area under the curve (AUC) of the plasma concentration-time profile after extravascular and intravenous dosing, according to the following formula:

F = (AUCex/AUCiv) x (Doseiv/Doseex)

where AUCex is the AUC after extravascular dosing, AUCiv is the AUC after intravenous dosing, Doseiv is the intravenous dose, and Doseex is the extravascular dose.

Biological availability is an important consideration in drug development and therapy, as it can affect the drug's efficacy, safety, and dosage regimen. Drugs with low biological availability may require higher doses to achieve the desired therapeutic effect, while drugs with high biological availability may have a more rapid onset of action and require lower doses to avoid toxicity.

According to the medical definition, ultraviolet (UV) rays are invisible radiations that fall in the range of the electromagnetic spectrum between 100-400 nanometers. UV rays are further divided into three categories: UVA (320-400 nm), UVB (280-320 nm), and UVC (100-280 nm).

UV rays have various sources, including the sun and artificial sources like tanning beds. Prolonged exposure to UV rays can cause damage to the skin, leading to premature aging, eye damage, and an increased risk of skin cancer. UVA rays penetrate deeper into the skin and are associated with skin aging, while UVB rays primarily affect the outer layer of the skin and are linked to sunburns and skin cancer. UVC rays are the most harmful but fortunately, they are absorbed by the Earth's atmosphere and do not reach the surface.

Healthcare professionals recommend limiting exposure to UV rays, wearing protective clothing, using broad-spectrum sunscreen with an SPF of at least 30, and avoiding tanning beds to reduce the risk of UV-related health problems.

DNA damage refers to any alteration in the structure or composition of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), which is the genetic material present in cells. DNA damage can result from various internal and external factors, including environmental exposures such as ultraviolet radiation, tobacco smoke, and certain chemicals, as well as normal cellular processes such as replication and oxidative metabolism.

Examples of DNA damage include base modifications, base deletions or insertions, single-strand breaks, double-strand breaks, and crosslinks between the two strands of the DNA helix. These types of damage can lead to mutations, genomic instability, and chromosomal aberrations, which can contribute to the development of diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and aging-related conditions.

The body has several mechanisms for repairing DNA damage, including base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair, and double-strand break repair. However, if the damage is too extensive or the repair mechanisms are impaired, the cell may undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death) to prevent the propagation of potentially harmful mutations.

Pathologic neovascularization is the abnormal growth of new blood vessels in previously avascular tissue or excessive growth within existing vasculature, which occurs as a result of hypoxia, inflammation, or angiogenic stimuli. These newly formed vessels are often disorganized, fragile, and lack proper vessel hierarchy, leading to impaired blood flow and increased vascular permeability. Pathologic neovascularization can be observed in various diseases such as cancer, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and chronic inflammation. This process contributes to disease progression by promoting tumor growth, metastasis, and edema formation, ultimately leading to tissue damage and organ dysfunction.

Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) is a measure of health outcomes that combines both the quality and quantity of life lived in a single metric. It is often used in economic evaluations of healthcare interventions to estimate their value for money. QALYs are calculated by multiplying the number of years of life gained by a weighting factor that reflects the quality of life experienced during those years, typically on a scale from 0 (representing death) to 1 (representing perfect health). For example, if a healthcare intervention extends a person's life by an additional five years but they experience only 80% of full health during that time, the QALY gain would be 4 (5 x 0.8). This measure allows for comparisons to be made between different interventions and their impact on both length and quality of life.

Phase III clinical trials are a type of medical research study that involves testing the safety and efficacy of a new drug, device, or treatment in a large group of people. These studies typically enroll hundreds to thousands of participants, who are randomly assigned to receive either the experimental treatment or a standard of care comparison group.

The primary goal of Phase III clinical trials is to determine whether the new treatment works better than existing treatments and to assess its safety and side effects in a larger population. The data collected from these studies can help regulatory agencies like the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) decide whether to approve the new treatment for use in the general population.

Phase III clinical trials are usually conducted at multiple centers, often across different countries, to ensure that the results are generalizable to a wide range of patients. Participants may be followed for several years to assess long-term safety and efficacy outcomes.

Overall, Phase III clinical trials play a critical role in ensuring that new treatments are safe and effective before they become widely available to patients.

Ellagic acid is a type of polyphenol, which is a class of organic compounds characterized by the presence of multiple phenol units. It is found in various fruits and vegetables, including raspberries, strawberries, pomegranates, and walnuts. Ellagic acid has been studied for its potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and chemopreventive properties. However, more research is needed to confirm these effects and establish a clear medical definition of ellagic acid. It is not considered a medication or a treatment for any specific medical condition.

Drug synergism is a pharmacological concept that refers to the interaction between two or more drugs, where the combined effect of the drugs is greater than the sum of their individual effects. This means that when these drugs are administered together, they produce an enhanced therapeutic response compared to when they are given separately.

Drug synergism can occur through various mechanisms, such as:

1. Pharmacodynamic synergism - When two or more drugs interact with the same target site in the body and enhance each other's effects.
2. Pharmacokinetic synergism - When one drug affects the metabolism, absorption, distribution, or excretion of another drug, leading to an increased concentration of the second drug in the body and enhanced therapeutic effect.
3. Physiochemical synergism - When two drugs interact physically, such as when one drug enhances the solubility or permeability of another drug, leading to improved absorption and bioavailability.

It is important to note that while drug synergism can result in enhanced therapeutic effects, it can also increase the risk of adverse reactions and toxicity. Therefore, healthcare providers must carefully consider the potential benefits and risks when prescribing combinations of drugs with known or potential synergistic effects.

Tumor suppressor protein p53, also known as p53 or tumor protein p53, is a nuclear phosphoprotein that plays a crucial role in preventing cancer development and maintaining genomic stability. It does so by regulating the cell cycle and acting as a transcription factor for various genes involved in apoptosis (programmed cell death), DNA repair, and cell senescence (permanent cell growth arrest).

In response to cellular stress, such as DNA damage or oncogene activation, p53 becomes activated and accumulates in the nucleus. Activated p53 can then bind to specific DNA sequences and promote the transcription of target genes that help prevent the proliferation of potentially cancerous cells. These targets include genes involved in cell cycle arrest (e.g., CDKN1A/p21), apoptosis (e.g., BAX, PUMA), and DNA repair (e.g., GADD45).

Mutations in the TP53 gene, which encodes p53, are among the most common genetic alterations found in human cancers. These mutations often lead to a loss or reduction of p53's tumor suppressive functions, allowing cancer cells to proliferate uncontrollably and evade apoptosis. As a result, p53 has been referred to as "the guardian of the genome" due to its essential role in preventing tumorigenesis.

Grape seed extract is not a medical term, but I can provide you with a general description and uses based on scientific and medical understanding.

Grape seed extract (GSE) is a dietary supplement derived from the ground-up seeds of grapes. It contains several bioactive compounds, including proanthocyanidins, which are potent antioxidants. GSE has been studied for its potential health benefits, such as:

1. Anti-inflammatory effects: GSE may help reduce inflammation by inhibiting the production of certain inflammatory molecules.
2. Cardiovascular health: Some research suggests that GSE could improve cardiovascular health by reducing blood pressure, increasing blood flow, and preventing platelet aggregation.
3. Antioxidant properties: The high antioxidant content in GSE helps protect cells from damage caused by free radicals.
4. Skin health: Topical application of GSE has been shown to improve skin hydration, elasticity, and reduce the appearance of wrinkles.
5. Neuroprotection: Preclinical studies indicate that GSE may have neuroprotective effects, potentially helping protect against age-related cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's.

However, it is essential to note that while some research shows promising results, more high-quality clinical trials are needed to confirm these potential health benefits and establish appropriate dosages. Always consult a healthcare professional before starting any new supplement regimen.

Putrescine is an organic compound with the chemical formula NH2(CH2)4NH2. It is a colorless, viscous liquid that is produced by the breakdown of amino acids in living organisms and is often associated with putrefaction, hence its name. Putrescine is a type of polyamine, which is a class of organic compounds that contain multiple amino groups.

Putrescine is produced in the body through the decarboxylation of the amino acid ornithine by the enzyme ornithine decarboxylase. It is involved in various cellular processes, including the regulation of gene expression and cell growth. However, at high concentrations, putrescine can be toxic to cells and has been implicated in the development of certain diseases, such as cancer.

Putrescine is also found in various foods, including meats, fish, and some fruits and vegetables. It contributes to the unpleasant odor that develops during spoilage, which is why putrescine is often used as an indicator of food quality and safety.

Phase I clinical trials are the first stage of testing a new medical treatment or intervention in human subjects. The primary goal of a Phase I trial is to evaluate the safety and tolerability of the experimental treatment, as well as to determine an appropriate dosage range. These studies typically involve a small number of healthy volunteers or patients with the condition of interest, and are designed to assess the pharmacokinetics (how the body absorbs, distributes, metabolizes, and excretes the drug) and pharmacodynamics (the biological effects of the drug on the body) of the experimental treatment. Phase I trials may also provide initial evidence of efficacy, but this is not their primary objective. Overall, the data from Phase I trials help researchers determine whether it is safe to proceed to larger-scale testing in Phase II clinical trials.

BRCA1 (BReast CAncer gene 1) is a tumor suppressor gene that produces a protein involved in repairing damaged DNA and maintaining genetic stability. Mutations in the BRCA1 gene are associated with an increased risk of developing hereditary breast and ovarian cancers. Inherited mutations in this gene account for about 5% of all breast cancers and about 10-15% of ovarian cancers. Women who have a mutation in the BRCA1 gene have a significantly higher risk of developing breast cancer and ovarian cancer compared to women without mutations. The protein produced by the BRCA1 gene also interacts with other proteins to regulate cell growth and division, so its disruption can lead to uncontrolled cell growth and tumor formation.

The Nucleolus Organizer Region (NOR) is a specific region within the chromosomes, primarily in the short arm of the acrocentric chromosomes (chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21, and 22). It consists of clusters of repetitive DNA sequences that encode ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. During interphase, these regions form the nucleolus, a distinct structure within the nucleus where rRNA transcription, processing, and ribosome assembly occur. The number of NORs in an individual can vary, which has implications in certain genetic conditions and aging processes.

... chemoprevention strategies; multimodality therapy; and integration of various approaches. The journal publishes editorials, ...
... chemoprevention strategies; multimodality therapy; and integration of various approaches. Clinical Colorectal Cancer is indexed ...
"Chemoprevention of Colorectal Cancer". Chemoprevention Database. Archived from the original on 23 November 2005. Retrieved 30 ... The Chemoprevention Database shows macrogol is the most effective known agent for the suppression of chemical carcinogenesis in ...
Cancer Chemoprevention. Methods in Molecular Biology. Vol. 1379. pp. 201-211. doi:10.1007/978-1-4939-3191-0_18. ISBN 978-1-4939 ...
Workman, Paul (2004). "Pharmacological Intervention With Multistep Oncogenesis". Cancer Chemoprevention. Humana Press, Totowa, ...
Cancer Chemoprevention. Vol. 1. pp. 259-274. doi:10.1007/978-1-59259-767-3_17. ISBN 978-1-61737-342-8. O'Neill, Paul M.; Posner ...
Chemotherapy and chemoprevention. Phagocytosis. Immunity. Erythema multiforme. Infectious rheumatism. Irradiated ergosterol] ( ...
Saba N, Jain S, Khuri F (2004). "Chemoprevention in lung cancer". Curr Probl Cancer. 28 (5): 287-306. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Carriers of these mutations may then undergo enhanced surveillance, chemoprevention, or preventative surgery to reduce their ... Thomsen A, Kolesar JM (December 2008). "Chemoprevention of breast cancer". American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy. 65 (23 ... "Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer: systematic review and economic evaluation". Health Technology Assessment. 14 (32): 1-206 ...
"Chemoprevention of prostate cancer". The New England Journal of Medicine. 362 (13): 1237-8. doi:10.1056/NEJMe1001045. PMID ... "5-α-Reductase inhibitors for prostate cancer chemoprevention: an updated Cochrane systematic review". BJU Int. 106 (10): 1444- ...
Saba N, Jain S, Khuri F (2004). "Chemoprevention in lung cancer". Current Problems in Cancer. 28 (5): 287-306. doi:10.1016/j. ...
They also support seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) campaigns, and are the largest organization running SMC campaigns in ... ISBN 9781733672719.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link) "WHO , Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC)". ... "Malaria Consortium - Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention". GiveWell. Retrieved 2021-02-09. "Malaria Consortium - Trustees' Report ... Continues Support for Malaria Consortium's Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention Programme". allAfrica.com. 2021-01-05. Retrieved ...
Chaturvedi PK, Bhui K, Shukla Y (2008). "Lupeol: connotations for chemoprevention". Cancer Lett. 263 (1): 1-13. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Thomsen A, Kolesar JM (December 2008). "Chemoprevention of breast cancer". Am J Health Syst Pharm. 65 (23): 2221-2228. doi: ... "Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer: systematic review and economic evaluation". Health Technol Assess. 14 (32): 1-206. doi: ...
Walsh PC (April 2010). "Chemoprevention of prostate cancer". The New England Journal of Medicine. 362 (13): 1237-1238. doi: ... reduction in the risk of developing prostate cancer with 5α-reductase inhibitor chemoprevention. Dutasteride is approved for ... "5-α-Reductase inhibitors for prostate cancer chemoprevention: an updated Cochrane systematic review". BJU International. 106 ( ...
Chemoprevention or chemoprophylaxis refers to the administration of a medication for the purpose of preventing disease or ... "WHO , Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC)". Archived from the original on May 3, 2014. "Malaria Consortium - Seasonal ... This technique is called Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC). The charity evaluator GiveWell lists the Malaria Consortium's ... The World Health Organization recommends chemoprevention to prevent Malaria in the Sahel region of Sub-Saharan Africa through ...
ISBN 978-1-60327-829-4. Rittmaster RS (2011). "Chemoprevention of prostate cancer". Acta Oncol. 50 (Suppl 1): 127-36. doi: ... Lieberman R (2001). "Androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer chemoprevention: current status and future directions for ...
"Medicinal Plants and Cancer Chemoprevention". Current Drug Metabolism. 9 (7): 581-591. doi:10.2174/138920008785821657. ISSN ...
Surh, Y.-J. (2003). "Cancer chemoprevention with dietary phytochemicals". Nature Reviews Cancer. 3: 768-780. Hertog, M.G.; ...
Ip C, Dong Y, Ganther HE (2002). "New Concepts in Selenium Chemoprevention". Cancer and Metastasis Reviews. 21 (3-4): 281-289. ...
Chemoprevention; Molecular Epidemiology & the Environment; Early Detection & Risk Prediction of Cancer; Cancer Health ...
Ip, C.; Dong, Y.; Ganther, H. E. (2002). "New concepts in selenium chemoprevention". Cancer Metastasis Rev. 21 (3-4): 281-289. ... evidence that a monomethylated selenium metabolite is critical for cancer chemoprevention". Cancer Res. 60 (11): 2882-2886. ...
The "chemoprevention database" shows the results of all published scientific studies of chemopreventive agents, in people and ... "Colorectal Cancer Prevention: Chemoprevention Database". "ACF-MDF-BCAC". Resveratrol From Transgenic Alfalfa for Prevention of ...
Cohen V, Khuri FR (2003). "Progress in lung cancer chemoprevention". Cancer Control. 10 (4): 315-324. doi:10.1177/ ...
Huang, YW; Kuo, Stoner; Huang, Wang (2011). "An overview of epigenetics and chemoprevention". FEBS Lett. 585 (13): 2129-2136. ...
Sudbø J. [Chemoprevention of oral cancer]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2003 May 29;123(11):1518-21. Review. Retraction: Haug C. ...
Bellamy, Jann (2015-12-24). "Guess who pioneered chemoprevention through diet?". Science-Based Medicine. Retrieved 2017-01-16 ...
DuPont HL (April 2005). "Travelers' diarrhea: antimicrobial therapy and chemoprevention". Nature Clinical Practice. ...
PEITC has been studied for its potential for chemoprevention of cancers, such as prostate cancer. In terms of biosynthesis, ... Disease Progression and Chemoprevention: 109-126. Wang, LG; Chiao, JW (2010). "Prostate cancer chemopreventive activity of ... "Molecular targets of dietary phenethyl isothiocyanate and sulforaphane for cancer chemoprevention". The AAPS Journal. 12 (1): ...
Kinsinger LS, Harris R, Woolf SH, Sox HC, Lohr KN (July 2002). "Chemoprevention of breast cancer: a summary of the evidence for ... Hormonal therapy has been used for chemoprevention in individuals at high risk for breast cancer. Overall it is recommended ... U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (July 2002). "Chemoprevention of breast cancer: recommendations and rationale". Annals of ... discuss chemoprevention with women at high risk for breast cancer and at low risk for adverse effects of chemoprevention" with ...
Chemoprevention of breast cancer with tamoxifen and raloxifene is recommended for women in England and Wales who have a high ... So far, there has been little use of chemoprevention for breast cancer, with few women who could benefit from this intervention ... The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) has now issued final recommendations on chemoprevention for women at high risk ... Recently, the American Society of Clinical Oncology also issued guidelines on chemoprevention for breast cancer, and ...
The technical storage or access that is used exclusively for statistical purposes. The technical storage or access that is used exclusively for anonymous statistical purposes. Without a subpoena, voluntary compliance on the part of your Internet Service Provider, or additional records from a third party, information stored or retrieved for this purpose alone cannot usually be used to identify you. ...
Perennial malaria chemoprevention , Malaria Consortium Blog , The Malaria Consortium Blog ...
With a cancer chemoprevention agent, you cannot measure success except with the absence of cancer, which you werent expecting ... Study shows physicians reluctant to use chemoprevention for prostate cancer. Aug 10, 2010 06:15 PM. By ... In fact, 64 percent of urologists and 80 percent of primary care physicians never prescribe finasteride for chemoprevention. ... "The concept of chemoprevention is a difficult one for patients and physicians." ...
CHEMOPREVENTION OF TOBACCO-RELATED CANCERS IN FORMER SMOKERS: CLINICAL STUDIES RFA-CA-03-006. NCI ... CHEMOPREVENTION OF TOBACCO-RELATED CANCERS IN FORMER SMOKERS: CLINICAL STUDIES Release Date: March 28, 2002 RFA: CA-03-006 ... Several promising agents are already available for chemoprevention studies in lung, head and neck, bladder, and other tobacco- ... For example, preclinical studies support the use of both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitors for chemoprevention in ...
The success of several clinical trials in cancer prevention in high-risk populations suggests that chemoprevention is a ... Cancer chemoprevention, as first defined in 1976 by Sporn, is the use of natural, synthetic, or biologic chemical agents to ... Chemoprevention can be categorized as either primary chemoprevention or secondary chemoprevention. Primary chemoprevention is ... Chemoprevention Agents. Agents used in head and neck cancer chemoprevention include the following:. * Retinoids and vitamin A ( ...
Prostate cancer chemoprevention study: an investigative randomized control study using purified isoflavones in men with rising ...
BACKGROUND: Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) is a new strategy recommended by WHO in areas of highly seasonal ... Measuring the impact of seasonal malaria chemoprevention as part of routine malaria control in Kita, Mali ... Measuring the impact of seasonal malaria chemoprevention as part of routine malaria control in Kita, Mali. ... Measuring the impact of seasonal malaria chemoprevention as part of routine malaria control in Kita, Mali. Malaria Journal, 16( ...
Chemoprevention is for people who have been assessed by a family history or genetics specialist and have a confirmed increased ... Deciding to have chemoprevention. Chemoprevention is for people who have been assessed by a family history or genetics ... Chemoprevention is considered for people who have not developed cancer but have an increased risk of getting the disease due to ... The benefit of chemoprevention is significantly less than if you choose to have surgery to reduce your risk of developing ...
Chemoprevention refers to the use of medication, vitamins, or supplements to stop the incidence of cancer, especially in people ... Chemoprevention refers to the use of medication, vitamins, or supplements to stop the incidence of cancer, especially in people ... However, low-dose aspirin was ranked as the safest chemoprevention agent (0.78). High-dose aspirin had an efficacy (1.12) ... The trials conducted on adults with pervious colorectal neoplasia whore treated with candidate chemoprevention drugs and ...
Malaria Consortium Assessing the usability of a geospatial platform for seasonal malaria chemoprevention - One of the worlds ... Assessing the usability of a geospatial platform for seasonal malaria chemoprevention. Publication Date:. 26/11/2020. Type:. ... Since 2013, Malaria Consortium has led the distribution of seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) - a safe, feasible, effective ...
The WHO recommends chemoprevention of malaria in vulnerable sub-populations as strategy to reduce the regionally stagnating ... Postdischarge malaria chemoprevention (PDMC) comprises household-based oral antimalarial treatment of preschool children in ... Postdischarge malaria chemo-prevention (PDMC) består av husholdningsbasert oral antimalariabehandling for førskolebarn i ... Verdens helseorganisasjon (WHO) anbefaler chemoprevention av malaria for sårbare under-grupper som en strategi for å redusere ...
Author(s): Childers, J M; Chu, J; Voigt, L F; Feigl, P; Tamimi, H K; Franklin, E W; Alberts, D S; Meyskens, F L, Jr | Abstract: Several epidemiological reports and experimental investigations have suggested a preventive role for folic acid in the etiology of cervical cancer. The effect of p.o. folic acid supplementation on the natural history of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) was evaluated in a multiinstitutional prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Three hundred thirty-one women with biopsy-proven koilocytic atypia, mild CIN, or moderate CIN were randomized to receive oral folic acid (5 mg) or a similar-appearing placebo daily for 6 months following a 1-month run-in placebo period. Colposcopy, Papanicolaou smear, and serum vitamin levels (folate, retinol, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, and retinyl palmitate) were monitored every 3 months. Demographic, medical, dietary, and sexual history data were obtained from personal interviews. The primary end point of the
Expression in Human Endometrial Carcinoma and Precursor Lesions and its Possible Use in Cancer Chemoprevention and Therapy. A. ... Expression in Human Endometrial Carcinoma and Precursor Lesions and its Possible Use in Cancer Chemoprevention and Therapy ... Expression in Human Endometrial Carcinoma and Precursor Lesions and its Possible Use in Cancer Chemoprevention and Therapy ... Expression in Human Endometrial Carcinoma and Precursor Lesions and its Possible Use in Cancer Chemoprevention and Therapy ...
Greenwald, P "Epidemiology: A Step Forward In The Scientific Approach To Preventing Cancer Through Chemoprevention" 99, no. 3 ( ... Greenwald, P "Epidemiology: A Step Forward In The Scientific Approach To Preventing Cancer Through Chemoprevention" vol. 99, no ... Epidemiology: A Step Forward In The Scientific Approach To Preventing Cancer Through Chemoprevention. ... Title : Epidemiology: A Step Forward In The Scientific Approach To Preventing Cancer Through Chemoprevention Personal Author(s ...
Chemoprevention in Lynch Syndrome - evidence and education - FAPvoice ...
A series of studies conducted in Sahelian and sub-Sahelian Africa have shown that seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC), ... Estimating the potential public health impact of seasonal malaria chemoprevention in African children. Nat. Commun. 3:881 doi: ... Seasonal malaria chemoprevention can lower the incidence of malaria in areas where transmission is highly periodical. Combining ... Seasonal malaria chemoprevention, previously known as intermittent preventive treatment in children, is highly effective in ...
... - (11-21-05). Pomegranate fruit juice for chemoprevention and chemotherapy ...
Intermediate biomarkers for chemoprevention of prostate cancer. The role of molecular genetics in chemoprevention studies of ... Exposure biomarkers in chemoprevention studies of liver cancer. Significance of hepatic preneoplasia for cancer chemoprevention ... Carcinogen biomarkers for lung or oral cancer chemoprevention trials. Lung cancer: chemoprevention and intermediate effect ... You are here: Home / Book and Report Series / IARC Scientific Publications / Biomarkers in Cancer Chemoprevention ...
Potential biomarkers have been identified whichthat may be able to predict response to celecoxib when used as chemoprevention ... Data show that chemoprevention with selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors, particularly celecoxib (Celebrex, GD Searle ... However, there has been some hesitation over the use of celecoxib and related agents for chemoprevention because of concern ... Cite this: Biomarkers Identified for Celecoxib Chemoprevention in CRC - Medscape - Jan 26, 2017. ...
... Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer- ... RESEARCH TITLE: Pomegranate exerts chemoprevention of experimentally induced mammary tumorigenesis by suppression of cell ... Pomegranate exerts chemoprevention of experimentally induced mammary. Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer- ... Thus, Pomegranate emulsion exerts chemoprevention of mammary carcinogenesis by suppressing cell proliferation and inducing ...
Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) is a relatively new and highly effective method of preventing malaria in children under ...
Randomized Clinical Trial of Lung Cancer Chemoprevention with Sulforaphane in Former Smokers. Complete Title: Randomized ... Randomized Clinical Trial of Lung Cancer Chemoprevention with Sulforaphane in Former Smokers ... Randomized Clinical Trial of Lung Cancer Chemoprevention with Sulforaphane in Former Smokers ...
Co-implementation of long lasting insecticide treated nets (LLIN) Distribution with seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) ...
Areas in Ghana eligible for SMC and areas where SMC is implemented, monitoring of coverage and compliance, successes, challenges and research priorities.
... wards for drugs administration Oyo state government has flagged off the second round of seasonal malaria chemoprevention ... The Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention will hold in six local governments with the highest malaria burden; Irepo, Olorunsogo and ... Dr Adeyanju said children within the age bracket are expected to take chemoprevention drugs on monthly basis for five months. ... Oyo Govt Flags off Malaria Chemoprevention Distribution Campaign. Princewill Press June 17, 2023. ...
Stanford Health Care delivers the highest levels of care and compassion. SHC treats cancer, heart disease, brain disorders, primary care issues, and many more.
Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer with ursodeoxycholic acid: Cons. / Carey, Elizabeth J.; Lindor, Keith. In: Clinics and ... Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer with ursodeoxycholic acid : Cons. In: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and ... title = "Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer with ursodeoxycholic acid: Cons",. abstract = "Animal and human data suggest a ... Carey EJ, Lindor K. Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer with ursodeoxycholic acid: Cons. Clinics and Research in Hepatology ...
  • BACKGROUND: Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) is a new strategy recommended by WHO in areas of highly seasonal transmission in March 2012. (rti.org)
  • Since 2013, Malaria Consortium has led the distribution of seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) - a safe, feasible, effective and cost-effective intervention for preventing malaria among children under five - in Nigeria. (malariaconsortium.org)
  • Seasonal malaria chemoprevention, previously known as intermittent preventive treatment in children, is highly effective in areas with a short malaria transmission season. (scienceopen.com)
  • We then use spatial rainfall, malaria endemicity and population data to identify areas likely to have highly seasonal malaria incidence, and estimate the population at risk and malaria burden in areas where seasonal malaria chemoprevention would be appropriate. (scienceopen.com)
  • We estimate that in areas suitable for seasonal malaria chemoprevention, there are 39 million children under 5 years of age, who experience 33.7 million malaria episodes and 152,000 childhood deaths from malaria each year. (scienceopen.com)
  • Our data suggest that seasonal malaria chemoprevention has the potential to avert several million malaria cases and tens of thousands of childhood deaths each year if successfully delivered to the populations at risk. (scienceopen.com)
  • Seasonal malaria chemoprevention can lower the incidence of malaria in areas where transmission is highly periodical. (scienceopen.com)
  • Seasonal malaria chemoprevention. (who.int)
  • Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) is a relatively new and highly effective method of preventing malaria in children under five. (who.int)
  • Oyo state government has flagged off the second round of seasonal malaria chemoprevention distribution campaign in Saki west local government area of the state. (factualtimesng.com)
  • The second round of Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention distribution will commence on Friday June 16th, 2023 and last till Monday 19th June, 2023. (factualtimesng.com)
  • On the Day of the African Child, Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) reflects on what 10 years of seasonal malaria chemoprevention has meant for young children in the Sahel, and how to protect more children going forward. (healthpolicy-watch.news)
  • The Day of the African Child is an opportunity to celebrate 10 years of seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) and to draw attention to the fact that, despite the progress made against the disease, children in sub-Saharan Africa still bear the majority of the global burden. (healthpolicy-watch.news)
  • Seasonal malaria chemoprevention has saved thousands of lives of children under the age of five. (healthpolicy-watch.news)
  • Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) is effective to prevent malaria in children 3 to 59 months in the Sahel region. (bvsalud.org)
  • Mother 's seasonal malaria chemoprevention related knowledge and attitudes and the coverage of the strategy among targeted children were assessed. (bvsalud.org)
  • Mother's seasonal malaria chemoprevention related knowledge and attitudes and the coverage of the strategy among targeted children were assessed. (who.int)
  • Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) is a strategy medications to children aged 3 to 59 months during the which administers therapeutic doses of antimalarial period of high malaria transmission, to prevent them from *Corresponding author. (who.int)
  • It comprises an expert report on the current state of the art on use of biomarkers in cancer chemoprevention, introductory sections covering general topics in cancer chemoprevention, and contributions directed to biomarkers of exposure, intermediate effect and susceptibility relating to six major cancer sites: skin, colorectum, breast, prostate, liver and upper aerodigestive tract. (who.int)
  • Because prostate cancer has a long latency period and is typically diagnosed in elderly men, it represents an ideal candidate disease for chemoprevention. (umn.edu)
  • Chemoprevention of prostate cancer by tea polyphenols appears to occur through the modulation of various molecular targets. (umn.edu)
  • This article attempts to address the issue of the possible use of tea, especially green tea, for the chemoprevention of prostate cancer. (umn.edu)
  • Chemoprevention with finasteride and dutasteride reduces the incidence of prostate cancer, but the evidence is inadequate to determine whether chemoprevention with finasteride or dutasteride reduces mortality from prostate cancer. (cigna.com)
  • This volume is the product of an attempt to assess our current knowledge and experience with the use of biomarkers in cancer chemoprevention. (who.int)
  • 1Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé (IRSS), Burkina Faso. (who.int)
  • Chemoprevention of cervical cancer with folic acid: a phase III Southwest Oncology Group Intergroup study. (escholarship.org)
  • The trials conducted on adults with pervious colorectal neoplasia whore treated with candidate chemoprevention drugs and placebo were selected. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Carey, EJ & Lindor, K 2012, ' Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer with ursodeoxycholic acid: Cons ', Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology , vol. 36, no. (elsevierpure.com)
  • To compare patient chemoprevention usage, adherence, and reasons for discontinuation of a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) or aromatase inhibitor (AI) annually for up to 5 years between the intervention and control arms. (uci.edu)
  • MA145 trade name] is also indicated for perennial malaria chemoprevention of children at high risk of severe malaria in areas of moderate to high perennial malaria transmission, where sulfadoxine- pyrimethamine is effective. (who.int)
  • The current package of core interventions - namely, vector control, chemoprevention, diagnostic testing and treatment - has proved to be highly cost-effective and needs to be further expanded in order to save more lives. (who.int)
  • CHEMOPREVENTION OF TOBACCO-RELATED CANCERS IN FORMER SMOKERS: CLINICAL STUDIES Release Date: March 28, 2002 RFA: CA-03-006 National Cancer Institute (NCI) ( http://www.nci.nih.gov/ ) LETTER OF INTENT RECEIPT DATE: June 21, 2002 APPLICATION RECEIPT DATE: July 26, 2002 This RFA is a reissue of RFA-CA-02-009 , which was published in the NIH Guide on 04/20/2001. (nih.gov)
  • It is important to identify those at high risk, as there are now effective preventive strategies, such as chemoprevention therapy and risk-reduction surgery. (unito.it)
  • [ 1 ] The success of several clinical trials in cancer prevention in high-risk populations suggests that chemoprevention is a rational and appealing strategy. (medscape.com)
  • The basic cancer-related chemical and biologic sciences, pathology, and epidemiology have contributed to (1) the understanding that antimutagenesis and antiproliferation are the important general mechanisms of chemoprevention and (2) the development of antimutagenic and antiproliferative agents as potential chemopreventive drugs. (medscape.com)
  • Chemoprevention in LS with aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has also translated into clinical cancer, however the efficacy of such agents in FAP remains elusive when cancer is applied as an endpoint in trials rather than the use of 'indirect' endpoints such as polyp burden, and requires further elucidation of biological mechanisms in FAP. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Primary chemoprevention is directed at patients with premalignant lesions (mucosal keratosis with atypia and erythroplakia). (medscape.com)
  • Oral keratosis with atypia is an ideal model for the study of head and neck cancer development and chemoprevention because the lesions are readily accessible to visual examination, diagnostic sampling, and evaluation of response to treatment. (medscape.com)
  • Data show that chemoprevention with selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors, particularly celecoxib ( Celebrex , GD Searle), can reduce the incidence of these lesions. (medscape.com)
  • Projected health impact of post-discharge malaria chemoprevention among children with severe malarial anaemia in Africa. (bvsalud.org)
  • Datakilder: Data fra en efficacy trial i Kenya og Uganda (n=1040) og en delivery trial i Malawi (n=375), gjennomført fra 2016 til 2018 ble brukt til de tre analysene og komplimentert med data fra litteraturen. (uib.no)
  • Recently, the American Society of Clinical Oncology also issued guidelines on chemoprevention for breast cancer, and recommended that tamoxifen and raloxifene "should be discussed as an option. (medscape.com)
  • Chemoprevention of breast cancer with tamoxifen and raloxifene is recommended for women in England and Wales who have a high risk for breast cancer in an updated guideline from the National Institute of Clinical Excellence. (medscape.com)
  • Tamoxifen is licensed for the purpose of chemoprevention at a dose of 20mg daily for 5 years, for people at a moderate to high risk of breast cancer. (guysandstthomas.nhs.uk)
  • This review will present the available data for standardized green tea polyphenols in regard to PCa chemoprevention that will include epidemiological, mechanism based studies, safety, pharmacokinetics, and applicable clinical trials. (breakawaymatcha.com)
  • Chemoprevention is an appealing strategy with proven success in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and breast cancer. (medscape.com)
  • If you have been assessed as having an increased familial breast cancer risk (moderate, high or very high) you should continue with breast screening plans, even if you have chosen chemoprevention. (guysandstthomas.nhs.uk)
  • To explore the joint toxicity and bio-accumulation of multi-heavy metals and potential chemoprevention strategies, Male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats (n = 30) were treated orally once a week for six months with 500mg/kg.bw of eight heavy metals which were commonly identified in aquatic products in the Ningbo area including chromium, manganese , nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, mercury, and lead. (cdc.gov)
  • However, low-dose aspirin was ranked as the safest chemoprevention agent (0.78). (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Identify PCPs' awareness of breast cancer risk assessment and breast cancer chemoprevention knowledge, and identify perceived barriers and clinic solutions. (sutterhealth.org)
  • To assess the implementation of the decision support tools, RealRisks and BNAV, into clinic workflow, and to better understand barriers and facilitators to chemoprevention usage by conducting telephone/video-conference interviews of healthcare providers and high-risk women with AH or LCIS assigned to the active intervention. (uci.edu)
  • Anastrozole and raloxifene are currently not licensed for the purpose of chemoprevention in the UK, but can be prescribed on an unlicensed basis for this purpose. (guysandstthomas.nhs.uk)
  • Secondary chemoprevention is targeted at patients with cancer who, in order to prevent recurrent disease or to prevent metachronous primary diseases, have undergone potentially curative therapy. (medscape.com)
  • Cancer chemoprevention has earned serious consideration as a potential means of controlling cancer incidence, having become a top research priority of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). (medscape.com)
  • Chemoprevention refers to the use of medication, vitamins, or supplements to stop the incidence of cancer, especially in people with a high risk of developing cancer. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Cancer chemoprevention is very attractive and has earned serious consideration as a potential means of controlling cancer incidence. (medscape.com)
  • People who have a family history of breast cancer may consider chemoprevention to reduce their own risk of developing it. (guysandstthomas.nhs.uk)
  • Chemoprevention uses medicine to lower the risk of getting cancer, or the risk of it returning, in healthy people. (guysandstthomas.nhs.uk)
  • Chemoprevention is considered for people who have not developed cancer but have an increased risk of getting the disease due to their family history. (guysandstthomas.nhs.uk)
  • Chemoprevention is for people who have been assessed by a family history or genetics specialist and have a confirmed increased risk of developing breast cancer than in the general population. (guysandstthomas.nhs.uk)
  • Chemoprevention can reduce the risk of oestrogen positive cancers happening. (guysandstthomas.nhs.uk)
  • People with BRCA or PALB2 mutations who have already had breast surgery (with or without reconstruction) to reduce the risk of cancer developing, are not eligible for chemoprevention. (guysandstthomas.nhs.uk)
  • The benefit of chemoprevention is significantly less than if you choose to have surgery to reduce your risk of developing breast cancer. (guysandstthomas.nhs.uk)
  • The data that has been collected so far suggests that green tea may be a promising agent for PCa chemoprevention and further clinical trials of participants at risk of PCa or early stage PCa are warranted. (breakawaymatcha.com)
  • To compare the frequency of chemoprevention informed choice at 6 months after registration among women with atypical hyperplasia (AH) or lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) between the intervention (RealRisks decision aid/breast cancer risk navigation [BNAV] + standard educational materials) and control (standard educational materials alone) arms. (uci.edu)
  • To assess patient chemoprevention knowledge, chemoprevention intention/decision, perceived breast cancer risk and worry, accuracy of breast cancer risk perception, decision conflict and decision regret at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months in the intervention and control arms. (uci.edu)
  • GROUP I (CONTROL): Patients receive standard educational materials about breast cancer risk and chemoprevention in RealRisks via the patient portal or website. (uci.edu)
  • Patients receive patient-centered decision support within the patient portal via an action plan summarizing their breast cancer risk profile, their risks and benefits of SERMs and AIs, and personal preferences for chemoprevention. (uci.edu)
  • However, a recent trial found that post-discharge malaria chemoprevention (PDMC) with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine reduces this risk . (bvsalud.org)
  • Chemoprevention can be categorized as either primary chemoprevention or secondary chemoprevention. (medscape.com)
  • Dr Adeyanju said children within the age bracket are expected to take chemoprevention drugs on monthly basis for five months. (factualtimesng.com)
  • So far, there has been little use of chemoprevention for breast cancer, with few women who could benefit from this intervention choosing to take these drugs. (medscape.com)
  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have a variety of potential indications that include management of pain and inflammation as well as chemoprevention and/or treatment of cancer. (nih.gov)
  • But now a potential biomarker that identifies individuals who would derive most benefit has been found, which would personalize use of such chemoprevention. (medscape.com)
  • EGCG, TCD or GSH all showed certain chemoprevention effects against the joint toxicity induced by the multi-heavy metal mixture and indicated alleviation and the potential mechanism that also included the promotion of excretion of metals to which animals were exposed. (cdc.gov)
  • He urged stakeholders in concerned communities to ensure successes of the Chemoprevention Distribution Campaign. (factualtimesng.com)
  • Cancer chemoprevention, as first defined in 1976 by Sporn, is the use of natural, synthetic, or biologic chemical agents to reverse, suppress, or prevent carcinogenic progression. (medscape.com)
  • However, there has been some hesitation over the use of celecoxib and related agents for chemoprevention because of concern over cardiovascular risks, as well as other possible side effects. (medscape.com)
  • The benefit of chemoprevention in people with BRCA or PALB2 mutations is uncertain. (guysandstthomas.nhs.uk)
  • I en value of information analyse (VOI, artikkel 3) kalkulerte vi per-decision net monetary benefit (NMB) for Kenya, Uganda og Malawi av perfekt og delvis perfekt informasjon for inputvariablene av CEA. (uib.no)