Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Chemokines, CXC: Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.Chemokines, CC: Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.Receptors, Chemokine: Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Chemokine CXCL1: A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.Chemokine CXCL10: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemokine CXCL9: An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Receptors, Interleukin-8B: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.Chemokine CXCL5: A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.Chemokine CCL5: A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.Chemokine CXCL11: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemokine CXCL2: A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokines, C: Group of chemokines without adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes only.Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins: Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.Chemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CCL4: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Chemokine CCL3: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Receptors, CXCR3: CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Receptors, Interleukin-8A: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.Chemokine CCL7: A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Chemokine CXCL12: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.Monocyte Chemoattractant Proteins: Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.Chemokine CXCL6: A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokines, CX3C: Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.Receptors, CXCR4: CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Monokines: Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.Duffy Blood-Group System: A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.Chemokine CCL21: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL19: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Chemokine CCL8: A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.Neutrophil Infiltration: The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.Receptors, CCR2: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.beta-Thromboglobulin: A platelet-specific protein which is released when platelets aggregate. Elevated plasma levels have been reported after deep venous thrombosis, pre-eclampsia, myocardial infarction with mural thrombosis, and myeloproliferative disorders. Measurement of beta-thromboglobulin in biological fluids by radioimmunoassay is used for the diagnosis and assessment of progress of thromboembolic disorders.Chemokine CXCL13: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Chemotactic Factors: Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.Mice, Inbred C57BLCells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Chemokine CCL17: A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Receptors, CCR1: CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Chemokine CCL11: A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Chemokine CCL22: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.Receptors, CCR5: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Receptors, CCR3: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.Receptors, Cytokine: Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Chemokine CCL1: A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Chemokine CCL24: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Platelet Factor 4: A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.Chemokine CX3CL1: A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Mice, Inbred BALB CChemokine CCL20: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Receptors, CCR10: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Receptors, CCR7: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.Receptors, CCR4: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Cell Migration Inhibition: Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Receptors, Interleukin: Cell surface proteins that bind interleukins and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Neutrophil Activation: The process in which the neutrophil is stimulated by diverse substances, resulting in degranulation and/or generation of reactive oxygen products, and culminating in the destruction of invading pathogens. The stimulatory substances, including opsonized particles, immune complexes, and chemotactic factors, bind to specific cell-surface receptors on the neutrophil.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Receptors, CCR6: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Chemotactic Factors, Eosinophil: Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Receptors, CCR8: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Angiostatic Proteins: Proteins that specifically inhibit the growth of new blood vessels (ANGIOGENESIS, PHYSIOLOGIC).Receptors, CXCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1: A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Receptors, CXCR5: CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.Chemokine CCL27: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Macrophages, Alveolar: Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Leukocyte Rolling: Movement of tethered, spherical LEUKOCYTES along the endothelial surface of the microvasculature. The tethering and rolling involves interaction with SELECTINS and other adhesion molecules in both the ENDOTHELIUM and leukocyte. The rolling leukocyte then becomes activated by CHEMOKINES, flattens out, and firmly adheres to the endothelial surface in preparation for transmigration through the interendothelial cell junction. (From Abbas, Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 3rd ed)Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Heterocyclic Compounds: Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Receptors, CCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Receptors, HIV: Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Receptors, Interleukin-17: Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-17. Several subtypes of receptors have been found, each with its own in specificity for interleukin-17 subtype.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Culture Media, Conditioned: Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1: Cytokine-induced cell adhesion molecule present on activated endothelial cells, tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, bone marrow fibroblasts, myoblasts, and myotubes. It is important for the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, p154)Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Interleukin-17: A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Receptors, Scavenger: A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Toll-Like Receptors: A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Antibodies, Blocking: Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Respiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Toll-Like Receptor 4: A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.Microglia: The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.Coronavirus, Rat: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing pneumonia in newborn rats but a clinically inapparent infection in adults. It is separate but antigenically related to MURINE HEPATITIS VIRUS.Toll-Like Receptor 2: A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.Synovial Membrane: The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Peritonitis: INFLAMMATION of the PERITONEUM lining the ABDOMINAL CAVITY as the result of infectious, autoimmune, or chemical processes. Primary peritonitis is due to infection of the PERITONEAL CAVITY via hematogenous or lymphatic spread and without intra-abdominal source. Secondary peritonitis arises from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY itself through RUPTURE or ABSCESS of intra-abdominal organs.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Peroxidase: A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 1.11.1.7.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Ligusticum: A plant genus of the family APIACEAE.Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Interleukins: Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.Models, Immunological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Endotoxemia: A condition characterized by the presence of ENDOTOXINS in the blood. On lysis, the outer cell wall of gram-negative bacteria enters the systemic circulation and initiates a pathophysiologic cascade of pro-inflammatory mediators.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Lung Injury: Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Angiogenic Proteins: Intercellular signaling peptides and proteins that regulate the proliferation of new blood vessels under normal physiological conditions (ANGIOGENESIS, PHYSIOLOGICAL). Aberrant expression of angiogenic proteins during disease states such as tumorigenesis can also result in PATHOLOGICAL ANGIOGENESIS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Diffusion Chambers, Culture: Devices used in a technique by which cells or tissues are grown in vitro or, by implantation, in vivo within chambers permeable to diffusion of solutes across the chamber walls. The chambers are used for studies of drug effects, osmotic responses, cytogenic and immunologic phenomena, metabolism, etc., and include tissue cages.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Macrophage Activation: The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Lymphotoxin-beta: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on LYMPHOCYTES. It can form a heterotrimer (LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA1, BETA2 HETEROTRIMER) with the soluble ligand LYMPHOTOXIN-ALPHA and anchor it to the cell surface. The membrane-bound complex is specific for the LYMPHOTOXIN BETA receptor.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Integrin alpha4beta1: Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Interleukin-12: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.

Isolation of novel GRO genes and a phylogenetic analysis of the CXC chemokine subfamily in mammals. (1/2535)

Approximately 15 different alpha, or CXC, chemokines have thus far been isolated from 11 species of mammals. Among the best studied chemokines are the 12 human proteins that are encoded by 11 paralogous genes. In order to better understand the evolution and function of this group of genes, we isolated and characterized six novel GRO and GRO-related cDNA sequences from the cow (Bos taurus), the sheep (Ovis aries), the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), and the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus). The amino acid sequence of the diverged guinea pig GRO or KC gene is only 50%-60% similar to presumed orthologs from other species, while the sheep and cow GRO proteins are 90%-99% similar to each other. The presence of multiple GRO genes in the cow, the rabbit, and the sheep is consistent with what has been observed for humans. Phylogenetic analyses of amino acid sequences from 44 proteins indicate that genes orthologous to many of the 11 known from humans exist in other species. One such gene, interleukin 8, or IL8, has been isolated from nine species, including the rodent guinea pig; however, this gene is absent in the rat and the mouse, indicating a unique gene loss event in the rat/mouse (muroid rodent) lineage. The KC (or MIP2) gene of rodents appears to be orthologous to the GRO gene found in other taxonomic orders. Combined evidence from different sources suggests that IP10 and MIG share sister taxon relationships on the evolutionary tree, while the remaining paralogous genes represent independent lineages, with limited evidence for kinship between them. This observation indicates that these genes originated nearly contemporaneously via a series of gene duplication events. Relative-rate tests for synonymous and nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions in the KC and IL8 genes did not detect rate heterogeneity; however, there are several notable features regarding the IL8 genes. For example, the IL8 proteins from two Old World monkeys are as similar to one another as they are to the IL8 protein from humans, and all observed nucleotide differences between the IL8 genes of the two monkeys cause amino acid changes; in other words, there are no synonymous differences between them.  (+info)

Chemokine and chemokine receptor gene variants and risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected individuals. (2/2535)

Normal B-lymphocyte maturation and proliferation are regulated by chemotactic cytokines (chemokines), and genetic polymorphisms in chemokines and chemokine receptors modify progression of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection. Therefore, 746 HIV-1-infected persons were examined for associations of previously described stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) chemokine and CCR5 and CCR2 chemokine receptor gene variants with the risk of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The SDF1-3'A chemokine variant, which is carried by 37% of whites and 11% of blacks, was associated with approximate doubling of the NHL risk in heterozygotes and roughly a fourfold increase in homozygotes. After a median follow-up of 11.7 years, NHL developed in 6 (19%) of 30 SDF1-3'A/3'A homozygotes and 22 (10%) of 202 SDF1-+/3'A heterozygotes, compared with 24 (5%) of 514 wild-type subjects. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-protective chemokine receptor variant CCR5-triangle up32 was highly protective against NHL, whereas the AIDS-protective variant CCR2-64I had no significant effect. Racial differences in SDF1-3'A frequency may contribute to the lower risk of HIV-1-associated NHL in blacks compared with whites. SDF-1 genotyping of HIV-1-infected patients may identify subgroups warranting enhanced monitoring and targeted interventions to reduce the risk of NHL.  (+info)

Cutting edge: clustered AU-rich elements are the target of IL-10-mediated mRNA destabilization in mouse macrophages. (3/2535)

In the present study we show that IL-10-mediated inhibition of inflammatory gene expression can be mediated by an AU-rich element (ARE) cluster present in the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of sensitive genes. A series of chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) reporter gene constructs were prepared in which different fragments from the IL-10-sensitive KC mRNA 3'UTR were placed downstream of the coding region of the reporter gene CAT. CAT mRNA containing the KC 3'UTR was markedly destabilized as compared with the control CAT mRNA, and the decay rate was further increased in cells stimulated with IL-10. The KC 3'UTR contains an ARE cluster and three isolated ARE motifs. The ARE cluster spanning nucleotides 378-399 appeared to be both necessary and sufficient to mediate sensitivity to IL-10 because a 116-nucleotide fragment that contains the cluster conferred sensitivity, while mutation of the sequence between positions 378 and 399 eliminated sensitivity. The destabilizing effect of IL-10 was relatively selective, as the stability of chimeric CAT mRNAs was not modulated in cells treated with IFN-gamma or IL-4.  (+info)

Identification of CXCR4 domains that support coreceptor and chemokine receptor functions. (4/2535)

The interaction of the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) with its receptor CXCR4 is vital for cell trafficking during development, is capable of inhibiting human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) utilization of CXCR4 as a coreceptor, and has been implicated in delaying disease progression to AIDS in vivo. Because of the importance of this chemokine-chemokine receptor pair to both development and disease, we investigated the molecular basis of the interaction between CXCR4 and its ligands SDF-1 and HIV-1 envelope. Using CXCR4 chimeras and mutants, we determined that SDF-1 requires the CXCR4 amino terminus for binding and activates downstream signaling pathways by interacting with the second extracellular loop of CXCR4. SDF-1-mediated activation of CXCR4 required the Asp-Arg-Tyr motif in the second intracellular loop of CXCR4, was pertussis toxin sensitive, and did not require the distal C-terminal tail of CXCR4. Several CXCR4 mutants that were not capable of binding SDF-1 or signaling still supported HIV-1 infection, indicating that the ability of CXCR4 to function as a coreceptor is independent of its ability to signal. Direct binding studies using the X4 gp120s HXB, BH8, and MN demonstrated the ability of HIV-1 gp120 to bind directly and specifically to the chemokine receptor CXCR4 in a CD4-dependent manner, using a conformationally complex structure on CXCR4. Several CXCR4 variants that did not support binding of soluble gp120 could still function as viral coreceptors, indicating that detectable binding of monomeric gp120 is not always predictive of coreceptor function.  (+info)

Expression of specific chemokines and chemokine receptors in the central nervous system of multiple sclerosis patients. (5/2535)

Chemokines direct tissue invasion by specific leukocyte populations. Thus, chemokines may play a role in multiple sclerosis (MS), an idiopathic disorder in which the central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory reaction is largely restricted to mononuclear phagocytes and T cells. We asked whether specific chemokines were expressed in the CNS during acute demyelinating events by analyzing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), whose composition reflects the CNS extracellular space. During MS attacks, we found elevated CSF levels of three chemokines that act toward T cells and mononuclear phagocytes: interferon-gamma-inducible protein of 10 kDa (IP-10); monokine induced by interferon-gamma (Mig); and regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES). We then investigated whether specific chemokine receptors were expressed by infiltrating cells in demyelinating MS brain lesions and in CSF. CXCR3, an IP-10/Mig receptor, was expressed on lymphocytic cells in virtually every perivascular inflammatory infiltrate in active MS lesions. CCR5, a RANTES receptor, was detected on lymphocytic cells, macrophages, and microglia in actively demyelinating MS brain lesions. Compared with circulating T cells, CSF T cells were significantly enriched for cells expressing CXCR3 or CCR5. Our results imply pathogenic roles for specific chemokine-chemokine receptor interactions in MS and suggest new molecular targets for therapeutic intervention.  (+info)

The T cell-specific CXC chemokines IP-10, Mig, and I-TAC are expressed by activated human bronchial epithelial cells. (6/2535)

Recruitment of activated T cells to mucosal surfaces, such as the airway epithelium, is important in host defense and for the development of inflammatory diseases at these sites. We therefore asked whether the CXC chemokines IFN-induced protein of 10 kDa (IP-10), monokine induced by IFN-gamma (Mig), and IFN-inducible T-cell alpha-chemoattractant (I-TAC), which specifically chemoattract activated T cells by signaling through the chemokine receptor CXCR3, were inducible in respiratory epithelial cells. The effects of proinflammatory cytokines, including IFN-gamma (Th1-type cytokine), Th2-type cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13), and dexamethasone were studied in normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBEC) and in two human respiratory epithelial cell lines, A549 and BEAS-2B. We found that IFN-gamma, but not TNF-alpha or IL-1 beta, strongly induced IP-10, Mig, and I-TAC mRNA accumulation mainly in NHBEC and that TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta synergized with IFN-gamma induction in all three cell types. High levels of IP-10 protein (> 800 ng/ml) were detected in supernatants of IFN-gamma/TNF-alpha-stimulated NHBEC. Neither dexamethasone nor Th2 cytokines modulated IP-10, Mig, or I-TAC expression. Since IFN-gamma is up-regulated in tuberculosis (TB), using in situ hybridization we studied the expression of IP-10 in the airways of TB patients and found that IP-10 mRNA was expressed in the bronchial epithelium. In addition, IP-10-positive cells obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage were significantly increased in TB patients compared with normal controls. These results show that activated bronchial epithelium is an important source of IP-10, Mig, and I-TAC, which may, in pulmonary diseases such as TB (in which IFN-gamma is highly expressed) play an important role in the recruitment of activated T cells.  (+info)

Isolation of the CXC chemokines ENA-78, GRO alpha and GRO gamma from tumor cells and leukocytes reveals NH2-terminal heterogeneity. Functional comparison of different natural isoforms. (7/2535)

Chemokines are a family of chemotactic peptides affecting leukocyte migration during the inflammatory response. Post-translational modification of chemokines has been shown to affect their biological potency. Here, the isolation and identification of natural isoforms of the neutrophil chemoattractants GRO alpha and GRO gamma and the epithelial-cell-derived neutrophil attractant-78 (ENA-78), is reported. Cultured tumor cells produced predominantly intact chemokine forms, whereas peripheral blood monocytes secreted mainly NH2-terminally truncated forms. The order of neutrophil chemotactic potency of these CXC chemokines was GRO alpha > GRO gamma > ENA-78 both for intact and truncated forms. However, truncated GRO alpha (4,5,6-73), GRO gamma (5-73) and ENA-78(8,9-78) were 30-fold, fivefold and threefold more active than the corresponding intact chemokine. As a consequence, truncated GRO alpha (4,5,6-73) was 300-fold more potent than intact ENA-78 indicating that both the type of chemokine and its mode of processing determine the chemotactic potency. Similar observations were made when intact and truncated GRO alpha, GRO gamma and ENA-78 were compared for their capacity to induce an increase in the intracellular calcium concentration in neutrophilic granulocytes, and to desensitize the calcium response towards the CXC chemokine granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 (GCP-2). It must be concluded that physiological proteolytic cleavage of CXC chemokines in general enhances the inflammatory response, whereas for CC chemokines NH2-terminal processing mostly results in reduced chemotactic potency.  (+info)

Elevated constitutive IkappaB kinase activity and IkappaB-alpha phosphorylation in Hs294T melanoma cells lead to increased basal MGSA/GRO-alpha transcription. (8/2535)

The basal transcription of the CXC chemokine, melanocyte growth stimulatory activity (MGSA)/growth-regulated protein (GRO)-alpha, is up-regulated in Hs294T melanoma cells compared with the normal retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Previous studies characterized a cytokine-inducible, functional nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB consensus element in the immediate 5' regulatory region of the MGSA/GRO-alpha gene at -78 bp. Although the cytokine-inducible mechanisms for transcription of this gene are fairly well delineated, the mechanisms involved in its basal up-regulation of transcription in Hs294T melanoma cells are poorly understood. Recently, we demonstrated an increased rate of IkappaB-alpha degradation in Hs294T cells, which leads to an increased nuclear localization of NF-kappaB (R. L. Shattuck-Brandt and A. Richmond. Cancer Res., 57: 3032-3039, 1997). Here we demonstrate that Hs294T melanoma cells have elevated basal IkappaB kinase (IKK) activity relative to RPE cells, causing an increased constitutive IkappaB-alpha phosphorylation and degradation. We also show here that the resultant elevated nuclear NF-kappaB (p50/p65) in these cells is responsible for the increased basal transcription of MGSA/GRO-alpha. Pretreatment of Hs294T or RPE cells with proteasome inhibitors MG115 or MG132 captures the slower migrating, constitutively phosphorylated form of IkappaB-alpha in Hs294T melanoma cells, but not in RPE cells. In addition, a phospho-specific antibody that specifically recognizes the inhibitory form of IkappaB that is phosphorylated at Ser-32 reacted with IkappaB-alpha in Hs294T cell, but not in unstimulated RPE cells. Although the basal level of protein expression of IKK-alpha or IKK-beta are the same in both Hs294T and RPE cells, immunoprecipitation with IKK-alpha antibody combined with activity assay reveal a constitutively active IKK complex in Hs294T melanoma cells. Cotransfection of a 350-bp MGSA/GRO-alpha promoter-luciferase reporter construct with either the dominant negative IKK-alpha or the repressors of NF-kappaB, the IkappaB-alpha wild type or mutants lacking the inducible phosphorylation sites, demonstrates that the increased basal MGSA/GRO-alpha transcription in the Hs294T cells is due to the enhanced nuclear activation of NF-kappaB.  (+info)

*CXC chemokine receptors

... are integral membrane proteins that specifically bind and respond to cytokines of the CXC chemokine ... However, CXCR6 is more closely related in structure to CC chemokine receptors than to other CXC chemokine receptors. CXCR7 was ... Legler D.F., Loetscher M., Stuber Roos R., Clark-Lewis I., Baggiolini M., Moser B.; B cell-attracting chemokine 1, a human CXC ... CXCR1 and CXCR2 are closely related receptors that recognize CXC chemokines that possess an E-L-R amino acid motif immediately ...

*Stromal cell-derived factor 1

This protein belongs to the intercrine alpha (chemokine CXC) family. SDF-1 is produced in two forms, SDF-1α/CXCL12a and SDF-1β/ ... The CXCL12 proteins belong to the group of CXC chemokines, whose initial pair of cysteines are separated by one intervening ... The stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF1), also known as C-X-C motif chemokine 12 (CXCL12), is a chemokine protein that in ... "The CXC chemokine SDF-1 is the ligand for LESTR/fusin and prevents infection by T-cell-line-adapted HIV-1". Nature. 382 (6594 ...

*Colostrum

"ELR+ CXC chemokines in human milk". Cytokine. 24 (3): 91-102. doi:10.1016/j.cyto.2003.07.002. PMID 14581003. CS1 maint: ... chemokines, and others. Colostrum also contains a number of growth factors, such as insulin-like growth factors I (IGF-1), and ...

*Interleukin 8 receptor, beta

Brandt E, Ludwig A, Petersen F, Flad HD (Oct 2000). "Platelet-derived CXC chemokines: old players in new games". Immunological ... Ahuja SK, Lee JC, Murphy PM (Jan 1996). "CXC chemokines bind to unique sets of selectivity determinants that can function ... Ahuja SK, Murphy PM (Aug 1996). "The CXC chemokines growth-regulated oncogene (GRO) alpha, GRObeta, GROgamma, neutrophil- ... Interleukin 8 receptor, beta is a chemokine receptor. IL8RB is also known as CXCR2, and CXCR2 is now the IUPHAR Committee on ...

*CXCL10

C-X-C motif chemokine 10 is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family. The gene for CXCL10 is located on human ... O'Donovan N, Galvin M, Morgan JG (1999). "Physical mapping of the CXC chemokine locus on human chromosome 4". Cytogenetics and ... Farber JM (March 1997). "Mig and IP-10: CXC chemokines that target lymphocytes". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 61 (3): 246-57. ... This chemokine elicits its effects by binding to the cell surface chemokine receptor CXCR3. The three-dimensional crystal ...

*Chemotaxis

CC chemokines act on monocytes (e.g., RANTES), and CXC chemokines are neutrophil granulocyte-specific (e.g., IL-8).[citation ... Chemokines belong to a special class of cytokines; not only do their groups (C, CC, CXC, CX3C chemokines) represent ... chemokines - chemokine receptors (CCR or CXCR), and leukotrienes - leukotriene receptors (BLT).[citation needed] However, ... Formation of dimers and their increased biological activity was demonstrated by crystallography of several chemokines, e.g. IL- ...

*Platelet factor 4

... (PF4) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also known as chemokine (C-X-C motif ... O'Donovan N, Galvin M, Morgan J (1999). "Physical mapping of the CXC chemokine locus on human chromosome 4". Cytogenet Cell ... "Entrez Gene: PF4 platelet factor 4 (chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 4)". Lasagni L, Francalanci M, Annunziato F, Lazzeri E, ... PF4 is chemotactic for neutrophils, fibroblasts and monocytes, and interacts with a splice variant of the chemokine receptor ...

*Thiamazole

October 2007). "Methimazole inhibits CXC chemokine ligand 10 secretion in human thyrocytes". J. Endocrinol. 195 (1): 145-55. ...

*Foam cell

... chemokines ligand 2, CCL5, CXC-chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL1); as well as macrophage retention factors. Macrophages within the ... The maintenance of foam cells and the subsequent progression of plaque build-up is caused by the secretion of chemokines and ... Foam cells secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukins: IL-1, IL-6; tumour necrosis factor (TNF); chemokines: ... chemokines, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and growth factors that stimulate modified lipoprotein uptake and vascular smooth ...

*CXCL5

2003). "Chemokine-cytokine cross-talk. The ELR+ CXC chemokine LIX (CXCL5) amplifies a proinflammatory cytokine response via a ... The protein encoded by this gene, CXCL5 is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also known as ... The gene for CXCL5 is encoded on four exons and is located on human chromosome 4 amongst several other CXC chemokine genes. ... Walz A, Schmutz P, Mueller C, Schnyder-Candrian S (1997). "Regulation and function of the CXC chemokine ENA-78 in monocytes and ...

*CXCR6

"Cell surface-anchored SR-PSOX/CXC chemokine ligand 16 mediates firm adhesion of CXC chemokine receptor 6-expressing cells". ... Matloubian M, David A, Engel S, Ryan JE, Cyster JG (October 2000). "A transmembrane CXC chemokine is a ligand for HIV- ... CXC, and CX3C chemokines". Journal of Immunology. 166 (8): 5145-54. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.166.8.5145. PMID 11290797. Lee B, ... C-X-C chemokine receptor type 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CXCR6 gene. CXCR6 has also recently been ...

*CXCL11

C-X-C motif chemokine 11 is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also called Interferon-inducible T- ... Luo Y, Kim R, Gabuzda D, Mi S, Collins-Racie LA, Lu Z, Jacobs KA, Dorf ME (December 1998). "The CXC-chemokine, H174: expression ... Satish L, Yager D, Wells A (June 2003). "Glu-Leu-Arg-negative CXC chemokine interferon gamma inducible protein-9 as a mediator ... Its gene is located on human chromosome 4 along with many other members of the CXC chemokine family. CXCL9, -10, -11 have ...

*CXCL3

Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 3 (CXCL3) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also known as GRO3 ... O'Donovan N, Galvin M, Morgan JG (1999). "Physical mapping of the CXC chemokine locus on human chromosome 4". Cytogenet. Cell ... Ahuja SK, Murphy PM (August 1996). "The CXC chemokines growth-regulated oncogene (GRO) alpha, GRObeta, GROgamma, neutrophil- ... Cxcl3 is directly regulated transcriptionally by BTG2 The gene for CXCL3 is located on chromosome 4 in a cluster of other CXC ...

*CXCL16

Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 16 (CXCL16) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family. Larger than other ... Matloubian M, David A, Engel S, Ryan J, Cyster J (2000). "A transmembrane CXC chemokine is a ligand for HIV-coreceptor Bonzo". ... chemokines (with 254 amino acids), CXCL16 is composed of a CXC chemokine domain, a mucin-like stalk, a transmembrane domain and ... "The transmembrane CXC-chemokine ligand 16 is induced by IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha and shed by the activity of the disintegrin- ...

*CXCL15

This chemokine is also known under the name lungkine. CXCL15 is an ELR+ CXC chemokine (it contains the amino acid sequence E-L- ... Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 15 (CXCL15) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that has been described in ... a novel CXC chemokine, specifically expressed by lung bronchoepithelial cells". J Immunol. 162 (9): 5490-7. PMID 10228029. ... R immediately before its CXC motif) that recruits neutrophils during inflammation of the lungs. It is highly abundant in ...

*CXCL6

Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6 (CXCL6) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also known as ... The gene for CXCL6 is located on human chromosome 4 in a cluster with other CXC chemokine genes. Proost P, Wuyts A, Conings R, ... Modi W, Chen Z (1998). "Localization of the human CXC chemokine subfamily on the long arm of chromosome 4 using radiation ... O'Donovan N, Galvin M, Morgan J (1999). "Physical mapping of the CXC chemokine locus on human chromosome 4". Cytogenet Cell ...

*CXCL13

... is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family. As its name suggests, this chemokine is selectively ... "B cell-attracting chemokine 1, a human CXC chemokine expressed in lymphoid tissues, selectively attracts B lymphocytes via BLR1 ... The gene for CXCL13 is located on human chromosome 4 in a cluster of other CXC chemokines. In T lymphocytes, CXCL13 expression ... chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 13 (CXCL13), also known as B lymphocyte chemoattractant (BLC) or B cell-attracting chemokine 1 ( ...

*CXCR4

Saini V, Marchese A, Majetschak M (May 2010). "CXC chemokine receptor 4 is a cell surface receptor for extracellular ubiquitin ... "MIF is a noncognate ligand of CXC chemokine receptors in inflammatory and atherogenic cell recruitment". Nature Medicine. 13 (5 ... "The promiscuous chemokine binding profile of the Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines is primarily localized to sequences in ... C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR-4) also known as fusin or CD184 (cluster of differentiation 184) is a protein that in ...

*CXCR3

Chemokine receptor CXCR3 is a Gαi protein-coupled receptor in the CXC chemokine receptor family. Other names for CXCR3 are G ... Chemokine receptors Chemokine Cluster of differentiation GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000186810 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38 ... CXCR3-A binds to the CXC chemokines CXCL9 (MIG), CXCL10 (IP-10), and CXCL11 (I-TAC) whereas CXCR3-B can also bind to CXCL4 in ... "Delayed and deficient dermal maturation in mice lacking the CXCR3 ELR-negative CXC chemokine receptor". The American Journal of ...

*Streptococcus pyogenes

"A streptococcal protease that degrades CXC chemokines and impairs bacterial clearance from infected tissues". EMBO J. 25 (19): ... "Effect of a bacterial pheromone peptide on host chemokine degradation in group A streptococcal necrotising soft-tissue ...

*Interleukin 3

"CXC chemokines suppress proliferation of myeloid progenitor cells by activation of the CXC chemokine receptor 2". J. Immunol. ...

*Hematopoietic stem cell

It may be mediated by interaction through CXCR4 (CD184) the receptor for CXC Chemokines (e.g., SDF1) and α4β1 integrins. HSCs ... Burger JA, Spoo A, Dwenger A, Burger M, Behringer D. CXCR4 chemokine receptors (CD184) and alpha4beta1 integrins mediate ...

*CXCL1

The chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that was previously ... The gene for CXCL1 is located on human chromosome 4 amongst genes for other CXC chemokines. An initial study in mice showed ... This chemokine elicits its effects by signaling through the chemokine receptor CXCR2. ... Tsai HH, Frost E, To V, Robinson S, Ffrench-Constant C, Geertman R, Ransohoff RM, Miller RH (August 2002). "The chemokine ...

*Enumeral

"Single cells from human primary colorectal tumors exhibit polyfunctional heterogeneity in secretions of ELR+ CXC chemokines". ... paper from the Love lab reported the use of microengraving in evaluating the expression of pro-angiogenic ELR+ CXC chemokines ...

*CXCL9

Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 (CXCL9) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also known as ... species specificity of the CC chemokine 6Ckine signaling through the CXC chemokine receptor CXCR3: human 6Ckine is not a ligand ... It is closely related to two other CXC chemokines called CXCL10 and CXCL11, whose genes are located near the gene for CXCL9 on ... O'Donovan N, Galvin M, Morgan JG (1999). "Physical mapping of the CXC chemokine locus on human chromosome 4". Cytogenetics and ...

*CD278

"Follicular B helper T cells express CXC chemokine receptor 5, localize to B cell follicles, and support immunoglobulin ...
Background Ulcerative colitis is characterized by relapsing mucosal inflammation where the lesions include tissue-damaging granulocytes. In addition, T cells and natural killer (NK) cells play important pathophysiologic roles. Chemokines are a large family of peptides that play key roles in the regulation of inflammation. The CXC-chemokines, growth-related oncogene (GRO)-α/CXCL1 and interleukin (IL)-8/CXCL8, both recruit neutrophils and possess mitogenic properties, whereas the interferon-dependent CXC-chemokines monokine induced by gamma-interferon (MIG)/CXCL9, interferon-γ inducible protein of 10 kD/CXCL10, and IFN-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant/CXCL11 recruit and activate T cells and NK cells. Materials and methods The expression of CXC-chemokines was studied in eight controls and in 11 patients suffering from ulcerative colitis in the distal part of the colon, before and during topical treatment with corticosteroids. Perfusates (obtained before, after 7 days, and after 28 days of ...
CXC chemokine receptors are integral membrane proteins that specifically bind and respond to cytokines of the CXC chemokine family. They represent one subfamily of chemokine receptors, a large family of G protein-linked receptors that are known as seven transmembrane (7-TM) proteins, since they span the cell membrane seven times. There are currently seven known CXC chemokine receptors in mammals, named CXCR1 through CXCR7. CXCR1 and CXCR2 are closely related receptors that recognize CXC chemokines that possess an E-L-R amino acid motif immediately adjacent to their CXC motif. CXCL8 (otherwise known as interleukin-8) and CXCL6 can both bind CXCR1 in humans, while all other ELR-positive chemokines, such as CXCL1 to CXCL7 bind only CXCR2. They are both expressed on the surface of neutrophils in mammals. CXCR3 is expressed predominantly on T cells (T lymphocytes), and also on other lymphocytes [some B cells (B lymphocytes) and NK cells] and is highly induced following cell activation. There are two ...
All three isoforms of GRO are CXC chemokines that can signal through the CXCR1 or CXCR2 receptors. The GRO proteins chemoattract and activate neutrophils and basophils. Recombinant mouse MIP-2 is a 7.8 kDa protein consisting of 73 amino acids including the ELR motif common to the CXC chemokine family that bind to CXCR1 or CXCR2 ...
Chemokine ligand 5 is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also known as epithelial-derived neutrophil-activating peptide 78.
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Transmembrane signaling of the CXC chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) is mediated by CXCR4, a G protein-coupled receptor initially identified in leukocytes and shown to serve as a coreceptor for the entry of HIV into lymphocytes. Characterization of SDF-1- and CXCR4-deficient mice has revealed that SDF-1 and CXCR4 are of vital developmental importance. To study the role of the SDF-1/CXCR4-chemokine/receptor system as a regulator of vertebrate development, we isolated and characterized a cDNA encoding SDF-1 of the lower vertebrate Xenopus laevis (xSDF-1). Recombinant xSDF-1 was produced in insect cells, purified, and functionally characterized. Although xSDF-1 is only 64-66% identical with its mammalian counterparts, it is indistinguishable from human (h)SDF-1alpha in terms of activating both X. laevis CXCR4 and hCXCR4. Thus, both xSDF-1 and hSDF-1alpha promoted CXCR4-mediated activation of heterotrimeric G(i2) in a cell-free system and induced release of intracellular calcium ions ...
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The ELR+ CXC chemokines play an important role in tumor growth and progression in a number of tumor model systems. IL-8/CXCL8 was the first described angiogenic, mitogenic, and motogenic chemokine in various cancer models and is the prototype of ELR+ CXC chemokines [8, 10-13]. This chemokine was initially discovered on the basis of its ability to induce mobilization of neutrophils and lymphocytes in vivo [9]. Like the basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), it is a strong angiogenesis inducer. IL-8 mediates endothelial cell chemotaxis and proliferation in vitro and in vivo [36].. The fact that all ELR+CXC chemokines mediate angiogenesis highlights the importance of identifying a common receptor that mediates their biological functions in promoting angiogenesis. The candidate CXC chemokine receptors are CXCR1 and CXCR2. Only CXCL-8/IL-8 and CXCL-6 specifically bind to CXCR1 whereas all ELR+CXC chemokines bind to CXCR2. There is evidence that CXCR2 ...
C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10) also known as Interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10) or small-inducible cytokine B10 is an 8.7 kDa protein that in humans is encoded by the CXCL10 gene. C-X-C motif chemokine 10 is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family. The gene for CXCL10 is located on human chromosome 4 in a cluster among several other CXC chemokines. CXCL10 is secreted by several cell types in response to IFN-γ. These cell types include monocytes, endothelial cells and fibroblasts. CXCL10 has been attributed to several roles, such as chemoattraction for monocytes/macrophages, T cells, NK cells, and dendritic cells, promotion of T cell adhesion to endothelial cells, antitumor activity, and inhibition of bone marrow colony formation and angiogenesis. This chemokine elicits its effects by binding to the cell surface chemokine receptor CXCR3. The three-dimensional crystal structure of this chemokine has been determined under 3 different conditions to a resolution of up to ...
Chemokines are a large group of chemotactic cytokines that play an important pathogenic role in inflammatory diseases and autoimmune disorders by enhancement of leukocyte recruitment and activation at inflammatory sites [3-6]. ENA-78 is a CXC chemokine that attracts neutrophils during inflammation [7].. In this work, serum levels of ENA-78 were significantly higher in autistic children than healthy control children (P , 0.001). In addition, 69.35% of autistic children had increased serum levels of ENA-78. This study was the first to investigate serum levels of ENA-78 in autistic children. ENA-78 is an inflammatory C-X-C chemokine that is encoded by the CXCL5 gene [28]. Its levels are elevated in myriad inflammatory conditions [29-32].. ENA-78 is an α chemokine which is produced concomitantly with IL-8 and melanoma growth stimulating activity [7]. The main stimuli for secretion of chemokines, including ENA-78, are the early signals elicited during innate immune response such as bacterial ...
IP-10 has been detected in the CSF and brain parenchyma of patients with a variety of neuroinflammatory diseases (15, 26, 43, 44) and is a potent chemoattractant for activated T lymphocytes and NK cells (11). In EAE, an animal model for MS, IP-10 levels in the CNS have been correlated with the development of clinical disease and the recruitment of CXCR3-expressing pathogenic T cells (19, 20, 45). Treatment of SJL mice with Abs to IP-10 before adoptive transfer of encephalitogenic T cells or immunizing mice with naked IP-10 DNA decreased the severity of EAE (29). Based on these observations, IP-10 is thought to be essential for the development of CNS mononuclear infiltrates, and its receptor CXCR3, is considered a putative therapeutic target for diseases involving the trafficking of inflammatory T cells. However, the absolute requirement for IP-10 in EAE has never been directly examined.. In this study, we sought to determine whether IP-10 is required for the development of EAE by analyzing ...
GRO (Growth Related Oncogene) belonging to IL-8 family is polypeptide which has three isoforms α, β and γ, and it inhibits proliferation of endothelial cells. GRO/CINC-1 (cytokine-induced neutrophil chemo attractant 1) was originally purified from media conditioned by IL-1β stimulated rat kidney epithelioid cells (NRK-52E.) Amino acid sequence that encodes rat CINC-1 was identified in 1989 by Watanabes group at Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University. CINC-1 is a member of the alpha (CXC) subfamily of chemokines. Three additional rat CXC chemokines (CINC-2α, CINC-2β, CINC-3/MIP-2) have been identified. The protein sequence of CINC-1 is 63 - 67% identical to that of CINC-2α, CINC-2β and CINC-3/MIP-2. In addition, each of GROα, GROβ and GROγ is sharing 68%, 71% and 69% identity with CINC-1. This has been suggested that CINCs are the rat counterparts of human GROs. GROα/MGSA has a high homology with IL-8 in amino acid sequences. It has been reported that it also has a similar ...
Polyclonal antibody for GRO alpha/CXCL1 detection. Host: Rabbit.Size: 100μg/vial. Tested applications: WB. Reactive species: Human. GRO alpha/CXCL1 information: Molecular Weight: 11301 MW; Subcellular Localization: Secreted.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chemokines in ischemia and reperfusion. AU - Frangogiannis, Nikolaos G.. PY - 2007/5. Y1 - 2007/5. N2 - Chemokine signaling plays an important role in the post-ischemic inflammatory response. Overlapping pathways involving reactive oxygen intermediates, Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation, the complement cascade and the nuclear factor (NF)-κB system induce both CXC and CC chemokines in ischemic tissues. Reperfusion accentuates chemokine expression promoting an intense inflammatory reaction. ELR-containing CXC chemokines regulate neutrophil infiltration in the ischemic area, whereas CXCR3 ligands may mediate recruitment of ThI cells. CC chemokines, on the other hand, induce mononuclear cell infiltration and macrophage activation. Evidence suggests that chemokine signaling mediates actions beyond leukocyte chemotaxis and activation, regulating angiogenesis and fibrous tissue deposition. Effective repair of ischemic tissue is dependent on a well-orchestrated cellular response and ...
Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that was previously called GRO1 oncogene, GROα, KC, Neutrophil-activating protein 3 (NAP-3) and melanoma growth stimulating activity, alpha (MSGA-α). In humans, this protein is encoded by the CXCL1 gene.
Recombinant Murine Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1 alpha (rMu SDF-1 alpha) is a recently discovered protein belonging to the alpha-chemokine (C-X-C) family of cytokines. Creative Bioarrays recombinant murine SDF-1 alpha is a 7.9 kDa protein containing 68 amino acid residues ...
|p|Recombinant Rat CXCL12/SDF-1 beta is a single non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 72 amino acids.|/p| |p|Background: SDF-1 alpha and beta are stromal derived CXC chemokines, and signal through the CXCR4 receptor. SDF-1 alpha and beta chemoat
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GILT antibody (interferon, gamma-inducible protein 30) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-GILT pAb (GTX103967) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Recombinant protein of human interferon, gamma-inducible protein 16 (IFI16), 20 ug available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
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Recombinant Human CXCL5 (ENA-78) (ELISA Std.) - CXCL5 is a member of the CXC family of chemokines, also known as epithelial activated peptide 78 (ENA-78).
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Chemokines comprise a family of about 40 low-molecular-weight cytokines (see , Cytokines) with important roles in the immune system, as well as functions beyond it. The name chemokine, a contraction of
Chemokines comprise a family of about 40 low-molecular-weight cytokines (see , Cytokines) with important roles in the immune system, as well as functions beyond it. The name chemokine, a contraction of
Study Flashcards On micro2 - chemokines at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
Stromal-Cell Derived Factor Is Expressed by Dendritic Cells and Endothelium in Human Skin: Stromal-cell derived factor or SDF-1 is a CXC chemokine constitutivel
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CXCR4 is the Gi protein-linked seven-transmembrane receptor for the alpha chemokine stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1), a chemoattractant for lymphocytes. This receptor is highly conserved between human and rodent. CXCR4 is also a coreceptor for entry of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in T cells and is expressed in the CNS. To investigate how these CXCR4 ligands influence CNS development and/or function, we have examined the expression and signalling of this chemokine receptor in rat neurons and astrocytes in vitro. CXCR4 transcripts and protein are synthesized by both cell types and in E15 brain neuronal progenitors. In these progenitors, SDF-1, but not gp120 (the HIV glycoprotein), induced activation of extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERKs) 1/2 and a dose-dependent chemotactic response. This chemotaxis was inhibited by Pertussis toxin, which uncouples Gi proteins and the bicyclam AMD3100, a highly selective CXCR4 antagonist, as well as by an inhibitor of the MAP kinase pathway. In
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential regulation of the expression of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant by mouse macrophages. AU - Crippen, Tawni L.. AU - Riches, David W H. AU - Hyde, Dallas M.. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - The production of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC) by functionally diverse mouse bone-marrow-derived macrophages was determined. Studies showed that β1,3-glucan, IL-1β, TNFα and IFNγ/TNFα induced expression and production of CINC in macrophages while neither IFNγ nor TGFβ alone induced detectable CINC expression. Pretreatment or simultaneous treatment of macrophages with TGFβ resulted in suppression of CINC protein production. These studies demonstrate that IFNγ and TNFα, found early during the inflammatory response, induce production of CINC, as well as induce macrophages into a cytocidal state that are capable of killing transformed cells, parasites and bacteria, and recruiting neutrophils. In contrast, TGFβ, found during reparative stages of ...
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has a striking tendency to invade to bone. The chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) is constitutively secreted by osteoblasts and plays a key role in homing of hematopoietic cells to the bone marrow. Interleukin (IL)-6 plays an important role in osteoclastogenesis. Herein, we found that SDF-1α increased the secretion of IL-6 in cultured human SCC cells, as shown by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. SDF-1α also increased the surface expression of chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) in SCC cells. CXCR4-neutralizing antibody, CXCR4-specific inhibitor (AMD3100) or small interfering RNA against CXCR4 inhibited SDF-1α-induced increase IL-6 production. The transcriptional regulation of IL-6 by SDF-1α was mediated by phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) components p65 and p50. The binding of p65 and p50 to the NF-κB element on ...
Particular populations of stem cells in the bone marrow harbors the membrane receptor CXCR4 which is a specific receptor for chemokine stromal cell-derived factor (SDF-1). In addition, the presence of CXCR4 identifies cells showing expression of early cardiac, muscle and endothelial markers. In mice experiments it was shown that bone marrow contains pools of cells that express early cardiac lineage markers (Nkx2.5/Csx, GATA-4, and MEF2C) and the population can be mobilised by inducing the myocardial infarction. This is the first proof that postnatal bone marrow contains nonhematopoietic population of cells that express markers for cardiac differentiation [4-6]. The peak expression of cardiac markers was found at the same time as most significant increase of stem cells number was measured [12]. A Similar phenomenon seems to occur in humans in the setting of AMI [10]. The SDF-1/CXCR-4 axis seems particularly important in stem/progenitor cell homing, chemotaxis, engrafment and retention in ...
Relatively little is known about the biological significance or cellular target of ELR+ CXC chemokines in the development and/or maintenance of autoimmune demyelinating disease, in which infiltrates are dominated by lymphocytes and monocytes. Although PMN have been detected entering the CNS during the preclinical phase of EAE (17), their relative paucity in mature EAE and MS lesions has led some investigators to question their importance (8). With regard to more populous myeloid subsets in EAE and MS lesions, activated macrophages are recruited to the CNS by a CCL2-dependent pathway across several EAE models (18). Perhaps because of such observations, the role of ELR+ CXC chemokines in the pathophysiology of autoimmune demyelination has not been previously investigated in depth. However, a growing body of data indicates that they merit attention. For example, IL-17, a potent inducer of ELR+ CXC chemokines, was recently implicated in the pathogenesis of both EAE and MS (19-21). In addition, ...
Novel Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1 Polypeptides, Polynucleotides, Modulators Thereof and Methods of Use - diagram, schematic, and image 01 ...
|p|Recombinant Rat CXCL1/GRO alpha/KC is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 72 amino acids.|/p| |p|Background: Rat CXCL1, also known as CINC-1, belongs to the CXC chemokine family. It is encoded by the GRO gene now designated CXCL1.
Objective To assess whether serum levels of CC and CXC chemokines correlate with disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to determine whether these effects predict clinical response. Methods Serum levels of the chemokines CC (CCL2, CCL5) and CXC (CXCL8, CXCL9, CXCL10) were quantified at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs or biologic agents in 28 patients using flow cytometry. Serum from 40 healthy individuals was collected for comparison at baseline. Response to treatment was classified according to the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response criteria. Remission of disease was defined as a Disease Activity Score , 2.6. Results The baseline serum concentrations of CC and CXC chemokines were significantly elevated in patients with active RA compared to healthy controls (p , 0.05) except for CCL2. Significant improvement in all disease activity measurements was observed after 12 weeks of treatment. Seventeen ...
5098 CXCL-8, a member of the CXC chemokine family, is constitutively expressed in malignant melanoma and functions as an autocrine/paracrine growth, invasive and angiogenic factor. Two high affinity receptors of CXCL-8, CXCR1 and CXCR2, are differentially expressed on melanoma cells as well as on endothelial cells. We have demonstrated that CXCR1 is constitutively expressed in all the melanoma cases irrespective of stage and grade, however, CXCR2 expression is restricted to aggressive melanoma tumors, with higher metastatic potential. The precise functional role of these receptors in melanoma growth and angiogenesis remains unclear. To gain insight into their functional role, we stably overexpressed CXCR1 or CXCR2 in A375P (tumorigenic, low metastatic) and A375SM (tumorigenic and highly metastatic) melanoma cells. Cells over-expressing CXCR1 or CXCR2 exhibited significant increase in CXCL-8-mediated proliferation and survival as compared to control (vector-transfected) cells. Moreover, we ...
Abbkine Scientific has announced the launch of its new product, the EliKine™ Human IL-8 ELISA Kit. The scientific research giant released the product to enhance research processes and help scientific researchers get results faster and easier.. The protein encoded by IL-8 gene is a member of the CXC chemokine family. As one of the major mediators of the inflammatory response, the chemokine is secreted by several cell types. It functions as a chemoattractant as well as a potent angiogenic factor.. The IL 8 Elisa kit employs a two-site sandwich ELISA to quantitate IL-8 in samples. The kit also employs a colorimetric detection method, with sample type including Cell culture supernatants, other biological fluids, Plasma, Serum.. Otherwise known as NAF Elisa kit, the kits assay type is Sandwich ELISA (quantitative) and assay duration of multiple steps standard sandwich ELISA assay with a working time of between 3 and 5 hours depending on the experience of the operation person.. The IL8 Elisa kit ...
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This gene encodes a CXC chemokine receptor specific for stromal cell-derived factor-1. The protein has 7 transmembrane regions and is located on the cell surface. It acts
Chemokines, adhesion molecules, cytokines and proteases regulate the extravasation of leucocytes during acute and chronic inflammation and leucocyte homing. Chemokines are produced after transcriptional activation by inflammatory mediators such as cytokines or microbial Toll-like receptor ligands and their effect depends on the expression of chemokine receptors on specific cell types. More and more evidence points towards a role for post-translational modifications in the fine-tuning of chemokine activity. Although both glycosylation and proteolytic processing of the C- and/or N-terminus of chemokines has been reported, mainly proteolytic processing of the N-terminus appears to affect the receptor specificity, chemotactic property and signalling potency of these low-molecular-mass proteins. N-terminal processing of chemokines by aminopeptidases or endoproteases may alter the receptor specificity and may result in up- or down-regulation of their chemotactic, antiviral or angiogenic activity. ...
CD184, also known as CXCR4 or fusin, is a receptor for the C-X-C chemokine SDF-1. It is expressed mainly in hematopoietic cells, vascular endothelium, and neural tissue. CD184 is a G-protein coupled receptor containing extracellular N-terminal, seven transmembrane domains and intracellular C-terminal domain. It transduces signal by increasing the intracellular calcium level. CD184 plays an essential role in vascularization of the gastrointestinal tract, and is involved in cerebellar development and in hematopoiesis. It is also a coreceptor (with CD4) for HIV-1 X4 virus and a primary receptor for some HIV-2 isolates ...
The experiments described in this study suggest that the chemokine SDF-1 acts as a neurotransmitter in the DG. The evidence supporting this supposition is similar to that available for GABA, certainly a well-established neurotransmitter. Thus, both GABA and SDF-1 are localized in synaptic vesicles within DG nerve terminals. Both GABA and SDF-1 produce similar electrophysiological effects on nestin-EGFP and DCX-EGFP-expressing cells in the SGZ. Moreover, it appears that both GABA and SDF-1 are tonically released in the DG. Thus, addition of both GABAA and CXCR4 receptor blockers elicited an outward current, suggesting that GABA and SDF-1 normally exert a tonic influence on type 2 progenitor cells. It also appears that the effects of GABA and SDF-1 are linked in some way because the observed effects of SDF-1 are sensitive to both GABAA and CXCR4 blockers.. SDF-1 and its receptor CXCR4 have been shown to be widely expressed throughout the developing and adult nervous systems (Stumm et al., 2002; ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
The research interest of my group remains focused on Chemokine activities in physiology and pathology, with an emphasis on the mechanisms governing fine-tuning modulation of their expression and activity. Chemokines are secreted proteins and have emerged as key controllers of integrin function and cell locomotion. The effects of chemokines are mediated by seven transmembrane domain receptors coupled to GTP-binding proteins, which are differentially expressed in a wide range of cell types. The resulting combinatorial diversity in responsiveness to chemokines guarantees the proper tissue distribution of distinct leukocyte subsets under normal and inflammatory/pathological conditions. A vast range of in situ experiments, aimed at understanding which chemokines are produced in specific circumstances, has revealed that a variety of chemokines can be concomitantly produced at target sites of leukocyte trafficking and homing. This renders the chemokine system a good target for therapy, and has ...
Researchers found that fibromyalgia patients have higher concentrations of inflammatory chemokines, a biomarker which could help diagnose FM.
MacArthur, John W. et al "Sustained Release of Engineered Stromal Cell-Derived Factor 1-α From Injectable Hydrogels Effectively Recruits Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Preserves Ventricular Function After Myocardial Infarction." Circulation 128.11 suppl 1 (2013): S79-S86. Web. 22 Jan. 2018. ...
Abcams GRO alpha ELISA Kit suitable for Cell culture supernatant, Serum, Plasma in mouse. Reliably quantify 1 pg/ml of GRO alpha.
CXCL10 / IP10 antibody [15J7] (chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10) for Neut, WB. Anti-CXCL10 / IP10 mAb (GTX53293) is tested in Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Asthma affects almost 20 million people in the United States and more than 300 million people worldwide. Of these, 10-15% have severe asthma, which is refractory to commonly available drugs. New drugs are needed because those that are currently available cannot control symptoms and exacerbations in all patients and can cause adverse reactions. In the past 10 years, there have been substantial advances in the understanding of asthma genetics, airway biology, and immune cell signaling. These advances have led to the development of small molecule therapeutics and biologic agents that may improve asthma care in the future. Several new classes of asthma drugs-including ultra long acting β agonists and modulators of the interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-13, and IL-17 pathways-have been evaluated in randomized controlled trials. Other new drug classes-including dissociated corticosteroids, CXC chemokine receptor 2 antagonists, toll-like receptor 9 agonists, and tyrosine kinase inhibitors-remain in ...
Commensal Bacteria and Expression of Two Major Intestinal Chemokines, TECK-CCL25 and MEC-CCL28, and Their Receptors. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Over the last several years there has been a great deal of progress in characterizing the role of dendritic cells (DCs) in the activation and modulation of B cells. DC-secreted chemokines can induce B cell trafficking to ...
Over the last several years there has been a great deal of progress in characterizing the role of dendritic cells (DCs) in the activation and modulation of B cells. DC-secreted chemokines can induce B cell trafficking to ...
Hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) normally reside in the bone marrow (BM) but can be mobilized into the peripheral blood (PB) after treatment with GCSF or chemotherapy. In previous studies, we showed that granulocyte precursors accumulate in the BM during mobilization induced by either GCSF or cyclophosphamide (CY), leading to the accumulation of active neutrophil proteases in this tissue. We now report that mobilization of HPCs by GCSF coincides in vivo with the cleavage of the N-terminus of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 on HPCs resident in the BM and mobilized into the PB. This cleavage of CXCR4 on mobilized HPCs results in the loss of chemotaxis in response to the CXCR4 ligand, the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1/CXCL12). Furthermore, the concentration of SDF-1 decreased in vivo in the BM of mobilized mice, and this decrease coincided with the accumulation of serine proteases able to directly cleave and inactivate SDF-1. Since both SDF-1 and its receptor, CXCR4, are ...
During development, Hedgehog (Hh) signaling controls both cell fate and proliferation, but how cells decide whether to divide or differentiate in response to signaling is not clear. Stückemann et al. report that, in the zebrafish gastrula, Hh signaling promoted proliferation of endoderm and inhibited proliferation of nonendodermal cells (mesoderm and ectoderm). Because the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) has been implicated in Hh-induced proliferation in other cell types, and because the SDF-1-activated G protein-coupled receptor CXCR4a is present in the endoderm, the authors investigated the role of CXCR4a in the context of early endoderm development. Hh signaling is induced when Hh binds to its transmembrane receptor Patched (Ptc), thus relieving Ptc-mediated repression of the transmembrane protein Smoothened (Smo), which initiates intracellular signal transduction. Knocking down Ptc, therefore, activates Hh signaling. In endodermal cells, morpholino-mediated knockdown of ...
The major goal of this study was to investigate the effect of severe sepsis on the expression and function of the two CXC chemokine receptors on circulating PMN. We found that CXCR2 expression was reduced by 50% in septic patients, whereas CXCR1 expression was preserved. Similarly, we found that the chemotactic responses to the CXC chemokines which bind with high affinity to only CXCR2 (GRO-α, -β, and -γ and ENA-78) were markedly suppressed in PMN from septic patients, whereas the chemotactic response to IL-8, which binds with high affinity to either CXCR, was preserved. Finally, specific blockade of CXCR1 had a more pronounced suppressive effect on the chemotactic function of PMN from septic patients than on that of PMN from normal donors. Taken together, these observations indicate that CXCR2 is functionally down-regulated in severe sepsis, leaving CXCR1 as the dominant receptor for mediating the effects of the CXC chemokines in PMN from these patients.. Previous reports 13, 21, 30 ...
CXCL13 is a small chemokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family. As its name suggests, this chemokine is selectively chemotactic for B cells belonging to both the B-1 and B-2 subsets, and elicits its effects by interacting with chemokine receptor CXCR5.[1][3] CXCL13 and its receptor CXCR5 control the organization of B cells within follicles of lymphoid tissues.[4] and is expressed highly in the liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and gut of humans.[1] The gene for CXCL13 is located on human chromosome 4 in a cluster of other CXC chemokines.[2] In T lymphocytes, CXCL13 expression is thought to reflect a germinal center origin of the T cell, particularly a subset of T cells called follicular B helper T cells (or TFH cells). Hence, expression of CXCL13 in T-cell lymphomas, such as Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma, is thought to reflect a germinal center origin of the neoplastic T-cells.[5] ...
Leukocyte recruitment is a key feature in ischemiaâ€"reperfusion (I/R)-induced tissue injury. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Rho-kinase inhibition on I/R-provoked leukocyte recruitment in the colon. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to 30 min of ischemia by clamping of the superior mesenteric artery followed by 120 min of reperfusion. Intraperitoneal pretreatment with the selective Rho-kinase inhibitors fasudil (4â€"40 mg/kg) and Y-27632 (1â€"10 mg/kg) was administered prior to induction of colonic I/R. Leukocyteâ€"endothelium interactions were analyzed by intravital fluorescence microscopy. Colonic content of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and the CXC chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (KC) were determined by ELISA. Additionally, colonic activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO), a marker of leukocyte infiltration, and malondialdehyde (MDA), were quantified. Fasudil and Y-27632 pretreatment ...
Successful curative treatment of severe pulmonary arterial hypertension with luminal obliteration will require a thorough understanding of the mechanism underlying the development and progression of pulmonary vascular lesions. But the cells that obliterate the pulmonary arterial lumen in severe pulmonary arterial hypertension are incompletely characterized. The goal of our study was to evaluate whether inhibition of CXC chemokine receptor 4 will prevent the accumulation of c-kit+ cells and severe pulmonary arterial hypertension. We detected c-kit+- cells expressing endothelial (von Willebrand Factor) or smooth muscle cell/myofibroblast (α-smooth muscle actin) markers in pulmonary arterial lesions of SU5416/chronic hypoxia rats. We found increased expression of CXC chemokine ligand 12 in the lung tissue of SU5416/chronic hypoxia rats. In our prevention study, AMD3100, an inhibitor of the CXC chemokine ligand 12 receptor, CXC chemokine receptor 4, only moderately decreased pulmonary arterial obliteration
Title:Cytokine Network: New Targeted Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer. VOLUME: 18 ISSUE: 17. Author(s):Yoichi Matsuo, Hiromitsu Takeyama and Sushovan Guha. Affiliation:Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kawasumi 1, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, 4678601, Japan.. Keywords:Pancreatic cancer, cytokine, angiogenesis, targeted therapy. Abstract:Increasing evidence has shown that cytokines have a role in tumor biology. The role of chemokines in tumor biology is important because these peptides may influence tumor growth, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. In this review, we demonstrated the role of cytokines (Interleukin-1α, hepatocyte growth factor, Interleukin-8, stromal cell-derived factor-1 and CXC-chemokines/CXCR2 biological axis) in pancreatic cancer angiogenesis, especially from the standpoint of the interaction between tumor and its microenvironments. The cytokines are intimately related with cancer angiogenesis. Blocking ...
Regulated recruitment and clearance of neutrophils (PMN) is the hallmark of competent host defense and resolution of inflammation. We now report that IFN-gamma controls PMN infiltration and modulates IL-6 signaling through its soluble receptor (sIL-6R) to promote their apoptosis and clearance. Induction of peritoneal inflammation in IFN-gamma-deficient (IFN-gamma-/-) mice emphasized that the initial rate of PMN recruitment was impaired. This defect in PMN recruitment was also associated with the suppressed intraperitoneal expression of IL-1beta and IL-6. Reconstitution of IFN-gamma signaling restored the rate of PMN infiltration and IL-6 levels and was accompanied by normalization of PMN-activating CXC chemokine expression. To test whether local IL-6 signaling modulated PMN recruitment, inflammation was induced in IFN-gamma-/- and IL-6-/- mice and cytokine signaling adapted by intraperitoneal sIL-6R-IL-6 fusion protein (HYPER-IL-6) or IFN-gamma. Although HYPER-IL-6 attenuated PMN influx in ...
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Chemokines, or chemotactic cytokines, are a large family of small (6 14 kDa), structurally related proteins that mediate a wide range of biological activities. As a part of normal immune system functions, chemokines are a critical component of basal leukocyte trafficking essential for immune system architecture and development, and immune surveillance. Chemokines also participate in the growth, differentiation, and activation of leukocytes as well as stimulate various effector functions of these cells, such as integrin activation, chemotaxis, superoxide radical production and granule enzyme release. Four classes of chemokines have been defined by the arrangement of the conserved cysteine (C) residues of the mature proteins: the CXC chemokines the CC chemokines in which the first two conserved cysteines residues are adjacent; the C chemokines that lack two (the first and third) of the four conserved cysteine residues; and the CX3C chemokines which have three intervening AA residues between the ...
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Catalog Number: 200-67 Alternate Names: CXCL12, PBSF Accession Number: P40224-2 Description: Stromal cell-derived factor-1 beta (SDF-1 β), also called CXCL12b, is one of two SDF-1 splice variants made by a wide variety of cells upon stimulation by inflammatory cytokines such as TNF, IL-1, and LPS. SDF-1 β signals through the G protein-coupled receptor CXCR4 to recruit activated leukocytes. Source: Genetically modified E.coli. Predicted MW: Monomer, 8.5 kDa (72 aa) ***Under non-reducing conditions, samples prepared at higher working concentrations are shown to produce a band of approximately 16 kDa on an SDS PAGE gel, which may represent dimer formation.AA Sequence: KPVSLSYRCP CRFFESHIAR ANVKHLKILN TPNCALQIVA RLKNNNRQVC IDPKLKWIQE YLEKALNKRL KM Formulation: Lyophilized from a sterile (0.2 micron) filtered aqueous solution containing 0.1% Trifluoroacetic Acid (TFA) Product Specifications**Lot-specific values for the following specifications are supplied with each product on its
In this study, we show that the chemokine SDF-1 and its cognate receptor CXCR4 are expressed in breast cancer in vivo and analyze the effects of manipulating these proteins in a coculture model of mammary carcinoma and vascular endothelial cells. The evidence presented suggests that activation of the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis in a growing tumor contributes to angiogenesis and the initial steps of metastasis. CXCR4 activation had surprisingly similar effects on tumor and endothelial cells: it induced proliferation and migration. In addition, SDF-1 binding to CXCR4 led to specific effects on endothelial and tumor cells: in endothelial cells, CXCR4 stimulated tube formation which may point to proangiogenic activity in vivo, whereas in the tumor cells activation of this receptor resulted in adhesion to endothelial cells and transendothelial migration.. In addition to their hematopoietic activities, SDF-1 and CXCR4 have been implicated in the regulation of angiogenesis in a number of (patho)physiological ...
CXCL5 protein is expressed in E. coli, processed, refolded and purified to yield the native, secreted form of the mature chemokine. C-X-C motif chemokine 5 (CXCL5) or epithelial-derived neutrophil-activating peptide 78 (ENA-78) is a protein that in humans
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Ray Biotech \ Recombinant Human GRO-alpha _ CXCL1, His-tagged \ 228-10571-1 for more molecular products just contact us
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DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
Antocijanini imaju tendenciju da budu glavni polifenoli u rozom grožđu dok su flavan-3-oli (i.e. katehini) zastupljeniji fenoli u belim varijetetima.[17] Ukupni fenolni sadržaj, laboratorijski indeks antioksidantske jačine, je veći u rozim varijetetima prevashodno usled antocijaninske gustine u ljusci crnog grožđa, u poređenju sa odsustvom antocijanina u ljusci belog grožđa.[17] Ovi antocijanini privlače napore naučnika da definišu njihove osobine u pogledu ljudskog zdravlja.[18] Fenolni sadržaj ljuske grožđa varira sa kultivarom, kompozicijom zemljišta, klimom, geografskim poreklom, i praksom kultivacije ili izloženosti bolestima, kao što su gljivične infekcije.. Crno vina mogu da ponude zdravstvene beneficije koje su veće od belog vina, zbog potencijalno korisnih jedinjenja koja su prisutna u ljusci grožđa, a samo crveno vino se fermentira sa ljuskom. Dužina fermentacionog perioda koje vino provede u kontaktu sa ljuskom grožđa je važna odrednica njegovog ...
人组织因子途径抑制物-2(TFPI-2)ELISAKitHumanTissuefactorpathwayinhibitor2,TFPI-2ELISAKit大鼠微管相关蛋白2(MAP-2)ELISAKitRatmicrotubule-associatedprotein2,MAP-2ELISAKit绵羊白介素10(IL-10)ELISAKitSheepInterleukin10,IL-10ELISAK
Kemokiinid (ka kemotaktsed tsütokiinid; inglise keeles chemokines) on selgroogsete loomade mitmete tuumaga rakkude poolt (eosinofiilid, basofiilid, neutrofiilid, makrofaagid, endoteelirakud, keratinotsüüdid, fibroblastid jt) komplekteeritavate ja vabastatavate selliste väikesemolekuliliste looduslike valkude perekond, mis vahendavad lühiajaliselt ja lokaalselt erinevaid bioloogilisi toimeid ja rakkudevahelist informatsiooni seondudes G-valguga seotud retseptoreid omavate rakkude membraaniga ja aktiveerides ensüümi fosfolipaas C. Kemokiinide sarnaseid valke on tuvastatud teatud bakteritel ja viirustel. Kemokiinide funktsiooniks on mitmete rakkude sundviimine nakkus- või põletikukoldesse, lisaks reguleerivad kemokiinid lümfikudede ja närvisüsteemi arengut ja leukotsüütide migratsiooni, küpsemist, aktivatsiooni jm. Varem on neid liigitatud α,β,γ ja δ- rühma, tänapäeval liigitatakse aga sellisteks perekondadeks nagu CC- (β-kemokiinid), CXC- (α-kemokiinid), CX3C- (δ- ...
Once youve got a good sense of content and organization, you are ready to focus on usage and punctuation. Only then will your tutor help you to identify patterns of error. Most writers make the same types of errors when they write. Once patterns of error are identified, you will learn how to proofread for and correct that error. The tutor will guide you through the first examples to clarify the rules and then encourage you to proofread the rest of the text. ...
Rat CXCL5/ENA-78 ELISA Kit assay has a sensitivity of 9.375pg/ml.. Measure Rat CXCL5/ENA-78 in serum, blood, plasma, cell supernatant samples.
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internetinės parduotuvės - Grožio, kosmetikos, higienos prekės - Parfumerija vyrams , Parfumerija moterims , Kosmetika, higiena , Natūrali kosmetika , ~Kita , Sveikatinimo priemonės , Kontaktiniai lęšiai Make Up For Ever Hydrating primer drėkinanti
Laryngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (LHSCCs) are common head and neck cancers with a high propensity for lymph node (LN) and lung metastasis. Here, we report that LHSCCs express high levels of functional CXCR4 receptors, native for chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1/CXCL12). Primary tumor immunohistochemistry from LHSCC patients has revealed significant expression of CXCR4 and CXCL12. Greater expression of CXCR4 but not that of CXCL12 is correlated with LN and distant metastasis. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blots have demonstrated that CXCR4 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein were expressed in LHSCC cell lines as well, but failed to detect CXCL12 mRNA expression. CXCL12 treatment enhanced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway activation and the motility/invasiveness of LHSCC cell lines, which were blocked by treatment with a CXCR4 antagonist (AMD3100) and a specific MEK inhibitor (U0126). Results show that the mRNA and ...
Our studies demonstrate that H. pylori LPS stimulates the release of both neutrophil-activating, C-X-C chemokines (IL-8 and ENA-78) and the monocyte-activating C-C chemokine MCP-1 from human monocytes. These chemokines are potent leukocyte chemoattractants and may play an important role in regulating inflammatory cell infiltration of H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa (7, 11, 14, 15,20, 21, 23, 27, 37, 40, 48). We found that H. pyloriLPS is less potent than Salmonella lipid A in inducing monocyte chemokine production. This finding agrees with previous studies showing low potency for H. pylori LPS in the induction of a wide variety of host inflammatory responses (9, 18,19, 34, 36, 38, 39, 42). However, when the actions of H. pylori LPS were specifically inhibited by using either an LPS antagonist or CD14 receptor blockade, the monocyte-activating potential of H. pylori water extract was almost completely abolished. These findings suggest that H. pylori LPS may be the primary monocyte-activating ...
Although many regenerative cell therapies are being developed to replace or regenerate ischaemic muscle, the lack of vasculature and poor persistence of the therapeutic cells represent major limiting factors to successful tissue restoration. In response to ischaemia, stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) is up-regulated by the affected tissue to stimulate stem cell-mediated regenerative responses. Therefore, we encapsulated SDF-1 into alginate microspheres and further incorporated these into an injectable collagen-based matrix in order to improve local delivery. Microsphere-matrix impregnation reduced the time for matrix thermogelation, and also increased the viscosity reached. This double-incorporation prolonged the release of SDF-1, which maintained adhesive and migratory bioactivity, attributed to chemotaxis in response to SDF-1. In vivo, treatment of ischaemic hindlimb muscle with microsphere-matrix led to increased mobilisation of bone marrow-derived progenitor cells, and also improved ...
Human ANGIE ELISA Kit;Human b cell-attracting chemokine 1 ELISA Kit;Human BCA-1 ELISA Kit;Human b lymphocyte chemoattractant ELISA Kit;Human CXC chemokine BLC ELISA Kit;Human small-inducible cytokine B13 ELISA Kit;Human BCA1 ELISA Kit;Human BLC ELISA Kit;Human SCYB13 ELISA Kit;Human ANGIE2 ELISA Kit;Human BLR1L ELISA Kit;Human C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 13 ELISA Kit;Human C-X-C motif chemokine 13 ELISA Kit;Human B-cell chemoattractant ELISA Kit;Human B-cell-attracting chemokine 1 ELISA Kit;Human B-cell-homing chemokine (ligand for Burkitts lymphoma receptor-1) ELISA Kit;Human B-lymphocyte chemoattractant ELISA Kit;Human chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 13 (B-cell chemoattractant) ELISA Kit;Human small inducible cytokine B subfamily (Cys-X-Cys motif), member 13 (B-cell chemoattractant) ELISA Kit ...
CXC chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12), or stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF1), is the only known natural ligand for the HIV-1 coreceptor, CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4). A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the CXCL12 gene (SDF1-3A) has been associated with disease progression to AIDS in some studies, but not others. Mutations in the CXCR4 gene are generally rare and have not been implicated in HIV-1/AIDS pathogenesis. This study analyzed the SDF1-3A SNP and performed mutation screening for polymorphic markers in the CXCR4 gene to determine the presence or absence of significant associations with susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. The study consisted of 257 HIV-1-seropositive patients and 113 HIV-1-seronegative controls representing a sub-Saharan African population belonging to the Xhosa ethnic group of South Africa. The SDF1-3A SNP was associated with an increased risk for HIV-1 infection (P = 0.0319) whereas no significant association was observed between the occurrence of the SDF1-3A SNP and
Among CXC chemokines, CXCL10 has been identified to play an important role in several endocrine eautoimmune diseases such as Hashimotos thyroiditis, Graves disease and Type 1 diabetes mellitus. The chemokine IP-10 (interferon-inducible protein of 10 kDa, CXCL10) is a chemoattractant for CXCR3+ T cells, binds to the G protein-coupled receptor CXCR3, which is found mainly on activated T cells and NK cells, and plays an important role in Th1-type inflammatory diseases. IP-10 also binds to glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), an interaction thought to be important for its sequestration on endothelial and other cells. Recombinant Mouse IP-10 produced in E. coli is a single non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 77 amino acids with a MW of 8,701 Da ...
[45 Pages Report] Check for Discount on C-X-C Chemokine Receptor Type 1 (CDw128a or High Affinity Interleukin 8 Receptor A or IL8 Receptor Type 1 or CD181 or CXCR1) - Pipeline Review, H2 2017 report by Global Markets Direct. According to the recently published report C-X-C Chemokine...
Chemokines are small immune system proteins mediating leukocyte migration and activation, and are important in many aspects of health and diseases. Some chemokines also have the ability to block HIV-1 infection by binding to the HIV-1 co-receptors CCR5 (CC chemokine receptor 5) and CXCR4 (CXC chemokine receptor 4). The first part of this work is to determine the mechanism of action of a human herpesvirus-8 encoded viral chemokine analog vMIP-II (viral macrophage inflammatory protein-II) by characterizing its interactions with endothelial surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and cell surface receptors. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), mutagenesis and molecular-docking were conducted and results show that vMIP-II tightly binds glycosaminoglycans using residues distributed along one face of the protein, such as R18, R46 and R48, and that there is a shift in the GAG binding site between the monomer and dimer form of vMIP-II where the N-terminus is involved in GAG binding for the dimer. This study, for ...
Video articles in JoVE about protein subunits include Combining Chemical Cross-linking and Mass Spectrometry of Intact Protein Complexes to Study the Architecture of Multi-subunit Protein Assemblies, Generation and Purification of Human INO80 Chromatin Remodeling Complexes and Subcomplexes, Atomic Scale Structural Studies of Macromolecular Assemblies by Solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, The MultiBac Protein Complex Production Platform at the EMBL, High-resolution Imaging and Analysis of Individual Astral Microtubule Dynamics in Budding Yeast, Tandem Affinity Purification of Protein Complexes from Eukaryotic Cells, Simple and Robust in vivo and in vitro Approach for Studying Virus Assembly, Purification of Native Complexes for Structural Study Using a Tandem Affinity Tag Method, A Flow Cytometry-Based Assay to Identify Compounds That Disrupt Binding of Fluorescently-Labeled CXC Chemokine Ligand 12 to CXC Chemokine Receptor 4, Visualization of ATP Synthase Dimers in
Background: Massague et al have shown that breast cancer cell line subpopulations with elevated bone metastatic activity overexpress chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), interleukin 11 (IL11), osteopontin (OPN) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) (Cancer Cell 3:537, 2003). CXCR4 overexpression results in bone-homing and extravasation of tumor cells in bone. In MA.14, we found that serum β-CTx was associated with bone-only relapse while Basik et.al showed that higher serum stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) (ligand for CXCR-4) levels were associated with worse overall event-free survival (EFS) (ASCO 2010). In this study, we examined concurrently the association of both β-CTx and serum SDF-1 with bone relapse.. Methods: Serum β-CTx (Serum CrossLaps, Nordic Biosciences, Copenhagen, DN) was determined in pretreatment sera from 621 of 667 NCIC CTG MA.14 patients. SDF-1 (CXCL12) (R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN) levels were successfully determined in the 4 month post-treatment serum (SDF-1) for 508 ...
Exposure of PC-3 cells to UNBS5162 (1 µM for 5 successive days) dramatically decreases the expression of the proangiogenic CXCL chemokines. UNBS5162 displays weak in vitro antiproliferative activity with IC50 values of 17.3 μM, 16 μM, 4.7 μM, 8.5 μM, 28.8 μM, 8.9 μM, 46.5 μM, 21.2 μM, 9.1 μM in PC-3, DU-145, U373-MG, Hs683, HCT-15, LoVo, MCF-7, A549 and Bx-PC-3 cells. At 10 µM UNBS5162 markedly impairs PC-3 tumor cell growth kinetics, without inducing senescence, whereas the reverse feature is observed with respect to DU-145 cells. This difference might result from their respective p53 status and/or the extent of p16 expression. At 1 µM, UNBS5162 induces no such antitumor effects. UNBS5162 at 10 µM markedly increased the levels of heterochromatin in PC-3 cells through an increase in number of histones, at least at the mRNA levels[1]. UNBS5162 has been identified to decrease levels of CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL) chemokines, including CXCL1, CXCL5 and CXCL8, in experimental prostate ...
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Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play an important role in ischemic stroke. However, there are few studies on the relationship between EPC and nondisabling ischemic cerebrovascular events. Our aim was to investigate the association of EPCs and SDF-1 (serum stromal cell-derived factor-1) with NICE (nondisabling ischemic cerebrovascular events). TIA (transient ischemic attack) and minor stroke patients (153 in total) who had an onset of symptoms within 1 day were consecutively collected. 83 of the patients were categorized into the HR-NICE (high-risk nondisabling ischemic cerebrovascular event) group, and 70 of the patients were in the NHR-NICE (non-high-risk nondisabling ischemic cerebrovascular events) group. Adopted FCM (flow cytometry) was used to measure EPCs, taking double-positive CD34/KDR as EPCs. ELISA was used to measure the concentrations of serum SDF-1 and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor). By the sequence of admission time, 15 patients were selected separately from the HR-NICE
The development of this CXCR4 antibody was featured by Fisher et al. in the article "Reassessment of CXCR4 Chemokine Receptor Expression in Human Normal and Neoplastic Tissues Using the Novel Rabbit Monoclonal Antibody UMB-2" (1). CXCR4 is a CXC chemokine receptor specific for stromal cell-derived factor-1. The protein has 7 transmembrane regions and is located on the cell surface. It acts with the CD4 protein to support HIV entry into cells and is also highly expressed in breast cancer cells. Mutations in CXCR4 have been associated with WHIM (warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections, and myelokathexis) syndrome ...
Platelet-derived SDF-1α (stromal cell derived factor-α) mediates inflammation, immune defence and repair mechanisms at site of tissue injury. This review summarizes the relative expression of CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and CXCR7 in platelets, their dynamic trafficking in presence of ligands like chemokine C-X-C-motif ligand 11 (CXCL11), CXCL12 and MIF (macrophage migration inhibitory factor); how these receptors differentially mediate the functional and survival response to the chemokines CXCL11, CXCL12 and MIF. We further elaborate and emphasize the prognostic significance of platelet surface expression of CXCR4-CXCR7 in the context of coronary artery disease (CAD). SDF-1α/CXCL12, CXCL11, MIF effects mediated through CXCR4 and CXCR7 may play a regulatory role at the site of vascular and tissue inflammation, immune defence and repair where activated platelets reach as forerunners and function as critical players. ...
Chemokines are a family of cytokines involved in the extravasation of leukocytes to the site of inflammation. 4 CCL2/monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), which is chemotactic for monocytes, 5 and CXCL8/IL-8, which chemoattracts neutrophils, 6 have been reported to be elevated in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) or serum of patients with active pulmonary sarcoidosis. 7 8 9 10 CCL3/macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), CCL4/MIP-1β, and CCL5/regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) also have been shown to be elevated in the BALF of patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis. 11 12 13 As a result of the findings that CCL3 and CCL5 share the same CC chemokine receptor (CCR5) that is expressed abundantly on Th1-type cells and that CCR5 mRNA expression is upregulated in BALF of patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis, these chemokines have been suggested to be involved in the recruitment of Th1 cells 14 from the circulation to the granulomas in pulmonary ...
Chemokines mediate diverse fundamental biological processes, including combating infection. Multiple chemokines are expressed at the site of infection; thus chemokine synergy by heterodimer formation may play a role in determining function. Chemokine function involves interactions with G-protein-coupled receptors and sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAG). However, very little is known regarding heterodimer structural features and receptor and GAG interactions. Solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and molecular dynamics characterization of platelet-derived chemokine CXCL7 heterodimerization with chemokines CXCL1, CXCL4, and CXCL8 indicated that packing interactions promote CXCL7-CXCL1 and CXCL7-CXCL4 heterodimers, and electrostatic repulsive interactions disfavor the CXCL7-CXCL8 heterodimer. As characterizing the native heterodimer is challenging due to interference from monomers and homodimers, we engineered a

Chemokine CXC Receptors | Tocris BioscienceChemokine CXC Receptors | Tocris Bioscience

View and buy high purity products active at Chemokine CXC Receptors from Tocris Bioscience. ... Chemokine CXC Receptors. Chemokine CXC receptors (CXCRs) predominantly recognize CXC chemokines. CXC chemokines are ... Chemokine CXC receptors (CXCRs) predominantly recognize CXC chemokines. CXC chemokines are distinguished by having four ... Literature for Chemokine CXC Receptors. Tocris offers the following scientific literature for Chemokine CXC Receptors to ...
more infohttps://www.tocris.com/pharmacology/chemokine-cxc-receptors

The role of CXC chemokines in pulmonary fibrosis.  - PubMed - NCBIThe role of CXC chemokines in pulmonary fibrosis. - PubMed - NCBI

CXCL8 is an ELR+ member of the CXC chemokine family. The ELR+ members of this chemokine family promote angiogenesis in a direct ... The role of CXC chemokines in pulmonary fibrosis.. Strieter RM1, Gomperts BN, Keane MP. ... The CXC chemokine family is a pleiotropic family of cytokines that are involved in promoting the trafficking of various ... These functions of CXC chemokines are important in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis and other fibroproliferative ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17332882?dopt=Abstract

Literature: CXC chemokine receptor 3 (IPR004070) | InterPro | EMBL-EBILiterature: CXC chemokine receptor 3 (IPR004070) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI

Literature: CXC chemokine receptor 3 (IPR004070). References used in this entry. The following publications were referred to in ... Recent advances in chemokines and chemokine receptors.. Zlotnik A, Morales J, Hedrick JA.. Crit. Rev. Immunol. 19 1-47 1999 ... Human IP-9: A keratinocyte-derived high affinity CXC-chemokine ligand for the IP-10/Mig receptor (CXCR3).. Tensen CP, Flier J, ... The functional role of the ELR motif in CXC chemokine-mediated angiogenesis.. Strieter RM, Polverini PJ, Kunkel SL, Arenberg DA ...
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/entry/IPR004070/literature

CXC chemokine receptors - WikipediaCXC chemokine receptors - Wikipedia

CXC chemokine receptors are integral membrane proteins that specifically bind and respond to cytokines of the CXC chemokine ... However, CXCR6 is more closely related in structure to CC chemokine receptors than to other CXC chemokine receptors. CXCR7 was ... Legler D.F., Loetscher M., Stuber Roos R., Clark-Lewis I., Baggiolini M., Moser B.; B cell-attracting chemokine 1, a human CXC ... CXCR1 and CXCR2 are closely related receptors that recognize CXC chemokines that possess an E-L-R amino acid motif immediately ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CXC_chemokine_receptors

The CXC-chemokine CXCL4 interacts with integrins implicated in angiogenesis.  - PubMed - NCBIThe CXC-chemokine CXCL4 interacts with integrins implicated in angiogenesis. - PubMed - NCBI

The CXC-chemokine CXCL4 interacts with integrins implicated in angiogenesis.. Aidoudi S1, Bujakowska K, Kieffer N, Bikfalvi A. ... The human CXC-chemokine CXCL4 is a potent inhibitor of tumor-induced angiogenesis. Considering that CXCL4 is sequestered in ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18648521?dopt=Abstract

CXC chemokine receptor type 4 - Proteopedia, life in 3DCXC chemokine receptor type 4 - Proteopedia, life in 3D

CXC chemokine receptors bind to cytokines of the CXC chemokine family. CXCR4 is specific for Stromal Derived Factor 1 (SDF-1α, ... CXCR1 recognizes CXC chemokines with ELR amino acids adjacent to the C-terminal CXC motif.[2] ... 3D Structures of CXC chemokine receptor type 4 Updated on 24-July-2018 ... Structure of the chemokine receptor CXCR1 in phospholipid bilayers. Nature. 2012 Nov 29;491(7426):779-83. doi: 10.1038/ ...
more infohttp://proteopedia.org/wiki/index.php/CXC_chemokine_receptor_type_4

Extremely Low Dose Ionizing Radiation Up-regulates CXC Chemokines in Normal Human Fibroblasts | Cancer ResearchExtremely Low Dose Ionizing Radiation Up-regulates CXC Chemokines in Normal Human Fibroblasts | Cancer Research

The genes for CXC chemokines are located in a cluster in the chromosomal region of 4q12-13. In the same region, AREG, a member ... Because three of the CXC chemokines were up-regulated by low doses of X-rays, we wanted to test if cells with a high number of ... Extremely Low Dose Ionizing Radiation Up-regulates CXC Chemokines in Normal Human Fibroblasts. Akira Fujimori, Ryuichi Okayasu ... AP003554) followed by three genes coding CXC motif chemokines (CXCL2, CXCL6, and CXCL1) and IL-6. Other named genes were SCG2, ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/65/22/10159

Differential expression of three T lymphocyte-activating CXC chemokines by human atheroma-associated cellsDifferential expression of three T lymphocyte-activating CXC chemokines by human atheroma-associated cells

The present study demonstrates the differential expression of the 3 IFN-gamma-inducible CXC chemokines--IFN-inducible protein ... Differential expression of three T lymphocyte-activating CXC chemokines by human atheroma-associated cells. DSpace/Manakin ... "Differential Expression of Three T Lymphocyte-Activating CXC Chemokines by Human Atheroma-Associated Cells." J. Clin. Invest. ... Differential expression of three T lymphocyte-activating CXC chemokines by human atheroma-associated cells. ...
more infohttps://dash.harvard.edu/handle/1/13506492

UL147 - Putative viral CXC chemokine 2 - Human cytomegalovirus (strain Towne) (HHV-5) - UL147 gene & proteinUL147 - Putative viral CXC chemokine 2 - Human cytomegalovirus (strain Towne) (HHV-5) - UL147 gene & protein

cd00273 Chemokine_CXC, 1 hit. InterProi. View protein in InterPro. IPR001811 Chemokine_IL8-like_dom. IPR033899 CXC_Chemokine_ ... IPR001811 Chemokine_IL8-like_dom. IPR033899 CXC_Chemokine_domain. IPR036048 Interleukin_8-like_sf. ... Putative viral CXC chemokine 2Add BLAST. 159. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical ... sp,Q6SWN9,UL147_HCMVT Putative viral CXC chemokine 2 OS=Human cytomegalovirus (strain Towne) OX=10363 GN=UL147 PE=3 SV=1 ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q6SWN9

Rho-kinase signalling regulates CXC chemokine formation and leukocyte recruitment in colonic ischemiaâ€reperfusionRho-kinase signalling regulates CXC chemokine formation and leukocyte recruitment in colonic ischemiaâ€"reperfusion

Colonic content of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and the CXC chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and ... Moreover, these findings show that Rho-kinase signalling regulates TNF-α and CXC chemokine formation as well as lipid ... Home » Rho-kinase signalling regulates CXC chemokine formation and leukocyte recruitment in colonic ischemiaâ€"reperfusion ... Rho-kinase signalling regulates CXC chemokine formation and leukocyte recruitment in colonic ischemiaâ€"reperfusion. ...
more infohttp://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/52576038/rho-kinase-signalling-regulates-cxc-chemokine-formation-leukocyte-recruitment-colonic-ischemia-reperfusion

Cxc Chemokine Receptor 5 Expression Defines Follicular Homing T Cells with B Cell Helper Function | JEMCxc Chemokine Receptor 5 Expression Defines Follicular Homing T Cells with B Cell Helper Function | JEM

Abbreviations used in this paper: BCA-1, B cell-attracting chemokine 1; CCR7, CC chemokine receptor 7; CXCR5, CXC chemokine ... 1999) In vivo-activated CD4 T cells upregulate CXC chemokine receptor 5 and reprogram their response to lymphoid chemokines. J ... 1998) B cell-attracting chemokine 1, a human CXC chemokine expressed in lymphoid tissues, selectively attracts B lymphocytes ... Cxc Chemokine Receptor 5 Expression Defines Follicular Homing T Cells with B Cell Helper Function. Patrick Schaerli, Katharina ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/192/11/1553?ijkey=4ea45e023ea2c8f76d989c3a3df181ab9b07c3a1&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Identification of the Receptor and Cellular Ortholog of the Mareks Disease Virus (MDV) CXC ChemokineIdentification of the Receptor and Cellular Ortholog of the Marek's Disease Virus (MDV) CXC Chemokine

One factor that plays a crucial role in MDV pathogenesis is the viral CXC chemokine vIL-8 that was originally named after ... Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of all chicken CXC chemokines present in the recently published chicken genome revealed that ... In addition, the chemokines not only bound the target cells but also induced chemotaxis. Finally, we identified CXCR5 as the ... CXC Chemokine. In: Frontiers in Microbiology, Vol. 8, 2543 ... on the origin and function of the MDV-encoded vIL-8 chemokine, ...
more infohttps://epub.ub.uni-muenchen.de/53030/

Impairment in Postischemic Neovascularization in Mice Lacking the CXC Chemokine Receptor 3 | Circulation ResearchImpairment in Postischemic Neovascularization in Mice Lacking the CXC Chemokine Receptor 3 | Circulation Research

Impairment in Postischemic Neovascularization in Mice Lacking the CXC Chemokine Receptor 3. Ludovic Waeckel, Ziad Mallat, ... The T cell-specific CXC chemokines IP-10, Mig, and I-TAC are expressed by activated human bronchial epithelial cells. J Immunol ... CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) is expressed on monocytes and activated memory Th1 lymphocytes. Furthermore, eosinophils and ... We hypothesized that the CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) may contribute to leukocyte accumulation and subsequently to blood ...
more infohttp://circres.ahajournals.org/content/96/5/576

IFN-Inducible Protein 10/CXC Chemokine Ligand 10-Independent Induction of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis | The...IFN-Inducible Protein 10/CXC Chemokine Ligand 10-Independent Induction of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis | The...

CXC chemokine ligand; Mig, monokine induced by IFN-γ; CCL, CC chemokine ligand; I-TAC, IFN-inducible T cell α-chemoattractant; ... IFN-Inducible Protein 10/CXC Chemokine Ligand 10-Independent Induction of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis. Robyn S. ... A total of 3 × 105 cpm/μl [α-32P]UTP (3000 Ci/mmol, NEN, Boston, MA) labeled-cytokine, -chemokine, and -chemokine receptor and ... Expression of specific chemokines and chemokine receptors in the central nervous system of multiple sclerosis patients. J. Clin ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/172/1/550.long

Synergy between Coproduced CC and CXC Chemokines in Monocyte Chemotaxis through Receptor-Mediated Events | Molecular...Synergy between Coproduced CC and CXC Chemokines in Monocyte Chemotaxis through Receptor-Mediated Events | Molecular...

CC and CXC Chemokines Synergize in Calcium Signaling in Monocytes. Many chemokines induce a rapid elevation of the cytosolic ... In contrast, the combination of two CC chemokines (i.e., CCL2 and CCL7) or two CXC chemokines (i.e., CXCL8 and CXCL12) did not ... CC and CXC Chemokines Synergize in Signal Transduction Pathways in Normal Monocytes but Not in Chemokine Receptor Double- ... In contrast, the combination of two CC chemokines (CCL2 plus CCL7) or two CXC chemokines (CXCL8 plus CXCL12) did not provide ...
more infohttp://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/content/74/2/485

WO2007005403 5,6-DI-SUBSTITUTED OXADIAZOLOPYRAZINES AND THIADIAZOLOPYRAZINES AS CXC-CHEMOKINE RECEPTOR LIGANDSWO2007005403 5,6-DI-SUBSTITUTED OXADIAZOLOPYRAZINES AND THIADIAZOLOPYRAZINES AS CXC-CHEMOKINE RECEPTOR LIGANDS

The compounds are useful for the treatment of chemokine-mediated diseases such as COPD. ... 1. WO2007005403 - 5,6-DI-SUBSTITUTED OXADIAZOLOPYRAZINES AND THIADIAZOLOPYRAZINES AS CXC-CHEMOKINE RECEPTOR LIGANDS ...
more infohttps://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2007005403&tab=NATIONALPHASE

Macrophage-specific metalloelastase (MMP-12) truncates and inactivates ELR+ CXC chemokines and generates CCL2, -7, -8, and -13...Macrophage-specific metalloelastase (MMP-12) truncates and inactivates ELR+ CXC chemokines and generates CCL2, -7, -8, and -13...

MMP-12 processing of human ELR+ CXC chemokines. All 7 of the human ELR+ CXC chemokines tested were processed by human MMP-12 ... MMP-1 and -9 processing of human ELR+ CXC chemokines. The ELR motif in ELR+ CXC chemokines is crucial in cognate receptor ... MMP-12 processing of murine ELR+ CXC chemokines. Proteolytic screening of the 3 other murine ELR+ CXC chemokines mCXCL1, -2, ... Second, unlike human ELR+CXC chemokines, mCXCL5 (LPS-induced CXC chemokine [LIX]) was not inactivated. Rather, mMMP-12 cleavage ...
more infohttp://www.bloodjournal.org/content/112/8/3455?sso-checked=true

A Synthetic M Protein Peptide Synergizes with a CXC Chemokine Protease To Induce Vaccine-Mediated Protection against Virulent...A Synthetic M Protein Peptide Synergizes with a CXC Chemokine Protease To Induce Vaccine-Mediated Protection against Virulent...

A Synthetic M Protein Peptide Synergizes with a CXC Chemokine Protease To Induce Vaccine-Mediated Protection against Virulent ... A Synthetic M Protein Peptide Synergizes with a CXC Chemokine Protease To Induce Vaccine-Mediated Protection against Virulent ... A Synthetic M Protein Peptide Synergizes with a CXC Chemokine Protease To Induce Vaccine-Mediated Protection against Virulent ... A Synthetic M Protein Peptide Synergizes with a CXC Chemokine Protease To Induce Vaccine-Mediated Protection against Virulent ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/early/2015/05/15/jimmunol.1500157

EP1907399 5,6-DI-SUBSTITUTED OXADIAZOLOPYRAZINES AND THIADIAZOLOPYRAZINES AS CXC-CHEMOKINE RECEPTOR LIGANDSEP1907399 5,6-DI-SUBSTITUTED OXADIAZOLOPYRAZINES AND THIADIAZOLOPYRAZINES AS CXC-CHEMOKINE RECEPTOR LIGANDS

The compounds are useful for the treatment of chemokine-mediated diseases such as COPD. ... EN) 5,6-DI-SUBSTITUTED OXADIAZOLOPYRAZINES AND THIADIAZOLOPYRAZINES AS CXC-CHEMOKINE RECEPTOR LIGANDS. (FR) OXADIAZOLOPYRAZINES ... 1. (EP1907399) 5,6-DI-SUBSTITUTED OXADIAZOLOPYRAZINES AND THIADIAZOLOPYRAZINES AS CXC-CHEMOKINE RECEPTOR LIGANDS ... The compounds are useful for the treatment of chemokine-mediated diseases such as COPD.. (FR) La présente invention concerne ...
more infohttps://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=EP14898404

The Combined Performance of ADC, CSF CXC Chemokine Ligand 13, and CSF Interleukin 10 in the Diagnosis of Central Nervous System...The Combined Performance of ADC, CSF CXC Chemokine Ligand 13, and CSF Interleukin 10 in the Diagnosis of Central Nervous System...

CXC chemokine ligand 13. IL-10. interleukin 10. ROC. receiver operating characteristic. AUC. area under the curve. ... CXC chemokine ligand 13 (CXCL-13), a mediator of B-cell migration, and interleukin 10 (IL-10), an anti-inflammatory cytokine, ... RESULTS: The average ADC was lower and CSF CXC chemokine ligand 13 and interleukin 10 values were higher in CNS lymphoma (P , . ... BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: CXC chemokine ligand 13 and interleukin 10 have emerged as CSF biomarkers for the diagnosis of CNS ...
more infohttp://www.ajnr.org/content/37/1/74

Atypical Chemokine Receptor 3 CXC Chemokine Receptor Type 7 or Chemokine Orphan Receptor 1 or G Protein Coupled Receptor 159 or...Atypical Chemokine Receptor 3 CXC Chemokine Receptor Type 7 or Chemokine Orphan Receptor 1 or G Protein Coupled Receptor 159 or...

Atypical Chemokine Receptor 3 CXC Chemokine Receptor Type 7 or Chemokine Orphan Receptor 1 or G Protein Coupled Receptor 159 or ... Chemokine Receptor 3 CXC Chemokine Receptor Type 7 or Chemokine Orphan Receptor 1 or G Protein Coupled Receptor 159 or G ... Atypical Chemokine Receptor 3 CXC Chemokine Receptor Type 7 or Chemokine Orphan Receptor 1 or G Protein Coupled Receptor 159 or ... Atypical Chemokine Receptor 3 CXC Chemokine Receptor Type 7 or Chemokine Orphan Receptor 1 or G Protein Coupled Receptor 159 or ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/news/article/3412105/Atypical-Chemokine-Receptor-3-CXC-Chemokine-Receptor-Type-7-or-Chemokine-Orphan.html

Interferon-inducible T Cell Alpha Chemoattractant (I-TAC): A Novel Non-ELR CXC Chemokine with Potent Activity on Activated T...Interferon-inducible T Cell Alpha Chemoattractant (I-TAC): A Novel Non-ELR CXC Chemokine with Potent Activity on Activated T...

... four CXC chemokine receptors (CXCR1-4) and eight CC chemokine receptors (CCR1-8) have been identified ((21)-(32)). The CXC ... The CXC subfamily is subdivided into ELR1 and non-ELR CXC chemokines based on the presence or absence of this Glu-Leu-Arg ... The CXC chemokines are primarily active on neutrophils, whereas the CC chemokines are active on monocytes and other leukocytes ... I-TAC has greater similarity (∼40%) to the non-ELR CXC chemokines, IP-10 and HuMig, than to any other known chemokines. The ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/187/12/2009?ijkey=dbc8d307a2574173bda2f89f7f29a0fb3dc09258&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

A Flow Cytometry-based Assay to Identify Compounds That Disrupt Binding of Fluorescently-labeled CXC Chemokine Ligand 12 to CXC...A Flow Cytometry-based Assay to Identify Compounds That Disrupt Binding of Fluorescently-labeled CXC Chemokine Ligand 12 to CXC...

... 에 붙일 레이블된 CXC chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12)의 바인딩을 억제 하는 화합물을 식별 하는 검사 도구로 ... ... "한 흐름 cytometry 기반 셀룰러 바인딩 분석 결과 설명 CXC chemokine 수용 체 4 (CXCR4) ... CXC Chemokine 수용 체 4에 붙일 레이블 CXC Chemokine Ligand 12의 바인딩 중단 하는 화합물을 식별 하는 흐름 Cytometry 기반 시험. Geert Schoofs1, Anneleen Van ... 임상 관련 GPCR의 주목할 만한 보기는 CXC chemokine 수용 체 4 (CXCR4) CXC chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12)11유일한 자연 리간드에 의해 활성화 될 수 있는 이다. 때문에 인간 면역 ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/video/57271/cxc-chemokine-4-cxc-chemokine-ligand-12-cytometry-?language=Korean

This study investigated the role of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)/CXC chemokine - Aurora Kinases as Druggable Targets...This study investigated the role of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)/CXC chemokine - Aurora Kinases as Druggable Targets...

This study investigated the role of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)/CXC chemokine. October 2, 2018. General Calcium ... This study investigated the role of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)/CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) axis in brain and ... The stromal cell-derived element-1 (SDF-1)/CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) axis can be believed to perform an important part ...
more infohttp://www.exposed-skin-care.net/2018/10/02/this-study-investigated-the-role-of-stromal-cell-derived-factor-1-sdf-1cxc-chemokine/

A Flow Cytometry-based Assay to Identify Compounds That Disrupt Binding of Fluorescently-labeled CXC Chemokine Ligand 12 to CXC...A Flow Cytometry-based Assay to Identify Compounds That Disrupt Binding of Fluorescently-labeled CXC Chemokine Ligand 12 to CXC...

Ligand/reseptor paret CXC chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12) / CXC chemokine reseptor 4 (CXCR4) har reist klinisk interesse, for ... å identifisere forbindelser som hemmer binding av en fluorescently merket CXC chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12) til CXC chemokine ... Assay to Identify Compounds That Disrupt Binding of Fluorescently-labeled CXC Chemokine Ligand 12 to CXC Chemokine Receptor 4. ... analysen identifisere forbindelser som forstyrrer Binding av Fluorescently-merket CXC Chemokine Ligand 12 til CXC Chemokine ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/video/57271/en-flyt-cytometri-baserte-analysen-identifisere-forbindelser-som?language=Norwegian
  • IP-10-deficient mice immunized with MOGp35-55 demonstrated increased levels of IFN-inducible T cell α-chemokine/CXCL11 mRNA in the CNS and decreased levels of monokine induced by IFN-γ/CXCL9 mRNA in draining lymph nodes, suggesting differential compensation for loss of IP-10 in lymphoid vs parenchymal tissue compartments. (jimmunol.org)
  • In addition, several typical inflammatory chemokines are upregulated in inflamed rather than resting LNs, which may reflect an enhanced T cell activation status. (rupress.org)
  • Using this novel technology, we did comparative analyses of gene expression for ∼23,000 transcripts in normal human fibroblasts and found that low-dose X-rays up-regulated a distinct set of chemokines that have not been shown to be associated with radiation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This novel chemokine, referred to as I-TAC (interferon-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant), is regulated by interferon (IFN) and has potent chemoattractant activity for interleukin (IL)-2-activated T cells, but not for freshly isolated unstimulated T cells, neutrophils, or monocytes. (rupress.org)
  • By combining J8-DT with an inactive form of the streptococcal CXC protease, S. pyogenes cell envelope proteinase, we developed a combination vaccine that is highly effective in blocking CXC chemokine degradation and permits opsonic Abs to kill the bacteria. (jimmunol.org)
  • It controls chemokine levels and localization via highaffinity chemokine binding that is uncoupled from classic liganddriven signal transduction cascades, resulting instead in chemokine sequestration, degradation, or transcytosis. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We propose that the macrophage, specifically through MMP-12, assists in orchestrating the regulation of acute inflammatory responses by precise proteolysis of ELR + CXC and CC chemokines. (bloodjournal.org)
  • There is no information publicly available to confirm whether this designation has been accepted by the IUIS/WHO Subcommittee on Chemokine Nomenclature at this time. (wikipedia.org)
  • The role of CXC chemokines in pulmonary fibrosis. (nih.gov)
  • These functions of CXC chemokines are important in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis and other fibroproliferative disorders. (nih.gov)
  • In this Review, we discuss the biology of CXC chemokine family members, specifically as it relates to their role in regulating vascular remodeling and trafficking of circulating mesenchymal progenitor cells (also known as fibrocytes) in pulmonary fibrosis. (nih.gov)
  • Rather, mMMP-12 cleavage at Ser4-Val5 activated the chemokine, promoting enhanced PMN early infiltration in wild-type mice compared with Mmp12 −/− mice 8 hours after LPS challenge in air pouches. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Moreover, these findings show that Rho-kinase signalling regulates TNF-α and CXC chemokine formation as well as lipid peroxidation in the reperfused colon. (ebscohost.com)
  • Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of all chicken CXC chemokines present in the recently published chicken genome revealed that vIL-8 shares the highest amino acid similarity with the CXCL13L1 variant. (uni-muenchen.de)