Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.
Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.
A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.
Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.
Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
Group of chemokines without adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes only.
Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A 43-kDa peptide which is a member of the connexin family of gap junction proteins. Connexin 43 is a product of a gene in the alpha class of connexin genes (the alpha-1 gene). It was first isolated from mammalian heart, but is widespread in the body including the brain.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A group of homologous proteins which form the intermembrane channels of GAP JUNCTIONS. The connexins are the products of an identified gene family which has both highly conserved and highly divergent regions. The variety contributes to the wide range of functional properties of gap junctions.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.
A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.
A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.
Connections between cells which allow passage of small molecules and electric current. Gap junctions were first described anatomically as regions of close apposition between cells with a narrow (1-2 nm) gap between cell membranes. The variety in the properties of gap junctions is reflected in the number of CONNEXINS, the family of proteins which form the junctions.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.
Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.
A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.
Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.
A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
A platelet-specific protein which is released when platelets aggregate. Elevated plasma levels have been reported after deep venous thrombosis, pre-eclampsia, myocardial infarction with mural thrombosis, and myeloproliferative disorders. Measurement of beta-thromboglobulin in biological fluids by radioimmunoassay is used for the diagnosis and assessment of progress of thromboembolic disorders.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.
Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.
The process in which the neutrophil is stimulated by diverse substances, resulting in degranulation and/or generation of reactive oxygen products, and culminating in the destruction of invading pathogens. The stimulatory substances, including opsonized particles, immune complexes, and chemotactic factors, bind to specific cell-surface receptors on the neutrophil.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Cell surface proteins that bind interleukins and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Movement of tethered, spherical LEUKOCYTES along the endothelial surface of the microvasculature. The tethering and rolling involves interaction with SELECTINS and other adhesion molecules in both the ENDOTHELIUM and leukocyte. The rolling leukocyte then becomes activated by CHEMOKINES, flattens out, and firmly adheres to the endothelial surface in preparation for transmigration through the interendothelial cell junction. (From Abbas, Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 3rd ed)
Proteins that specifically inhibit the growth of new blood vessels (ANGIOGENESIS, PHYSIOLOGIC).
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Cytokine-induced cell adhesion molecule present on activated endothelial cells, tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, bone marrow fibroblasts, myoblasts, and myotubes. It is important for the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, p154)
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.
Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on LYMPHOCYTES. It can form a heterotrimer (LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA1, BETA2 HETEROTRIMER) with the soluble ligand LYMPHOTOXIN-ALPHA and anchor it to the cell surface. The membrane-bound complex is specific for the LYMPHOTOXIN BETA receptor.
The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.
Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-17. Several subtypes of receptors have been found, each with its own in specificity for interleukin-17 subtype.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.
A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.
An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
A pattern recognition receptor that binds DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA. It mediates cellular responses to certain viral pathogens.
Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
The minute vessels that collect blood from the capillary plexuses and join together to form veins.

Molecular uncoupling of fractalkine-mediated cell adhesion and signal transduction. Rapid flow arrest of CX3CR1-expressing cells is independent of G-protein activation. (1/163)

Fractalkine is a novel multidomain protein expressed on the surface of activated endothelial cells. Cells expressing the chemokine receptor CX3CR1 adhere to fractalkine with high affinity, but it is not known if adherence requires G-protein activation and signal transduction. To investigate the cell adhesion properties of fractalkine, we created mutated forms of CX3CR1 that have little or no ability to transduce intracellular signals. Cells expressing signaling-incompetent forms of CX3CR1 bound rapidly and with high affinity to immobilized fractalkine in both static and flow assays. Video microscopy revealed that CX3CR1-expressing cells bound more rapidly to fractalkine than to VCAM-1 (60 versus 190 ms). Unlike VCAM-1, fractalkine did not mediate cell rolling, and after capture on fractalkine, cells did not dislodge. Finally, soluble fractalkine induced intracellular calcium fluxes and chemotaxis, but it did not activate integrins. Taken together these data provide strong evidence that CX3CR1, a seven-transmembrane domain receptor, mediates robust cell adhesion to fractalkine in the absence of G-protein activation and suggest a novel role for this receptor as an adhesion molecule.  (+info)

Characterization of fractalkine in rat brain cells: migratory and activation signals for CX3CR-1-expressing microglia. (2/163)

Molecular analyses of the chemokine fractalkine and its receptor CX3C-R1 in the rat brain have revealed a striking polarization: fractalkine is expressed constitutively in neurons and is up-regulated by TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in astrocytes. Expression of its specific receptor, CX3C-R1, is restricted to astrocytes and microglia. We have analyzed the functional correlates of this expression and demonstrate that fractalkine induces microglial cell migration and activation. However, the activity of this chemokine on astrocytes may also be highly relevant in inducing astrocyte-microglia cell interactions through cytokine/mediator release leading to microglial activation.  (+info)

Inflammatory agents regulate in vivo expression of fractalkine in endothelial cells of the rat heart. (3/163)

Fractalkine is distinguished structurally from other chemokines in that it contains a mucin-like stalk that tethers a CX3C chemokine module to a transmembrane-spanning region; its expression in cultured endothelial cells has been shown to be up-regulated by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 (IL-1). The purpose of this study was to determine whether fractalkine is expressed, in a proinflammatory agent-regulated manner, by cardiac endothelial cells in vivo. Steady state levels of fractalkine mRNA were increased in rat cardiac tissues after in vivo treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), IL-1, or TNF-alpha. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analysis revealed that endothelial cells of the coronary vasculature and endocardium were the principal source of proinflammatory agent-inducible fractalkine, although some fractalkine immunoreactivity was also found on the myocytes. These data are the first demonstration of in vivo cardiac endothelial cell fractalkine expression and regulation by proinflammatory agents such as LPS, IL-1, or TNF-alpha. Cardiac endothelial cell-expressed fractalkine may contribute to the influx of leukocytes into the heart during inflammation.  (+info)

Neuronal fractalkine expression in HIV-1 encephalitis: roles for macrophage recruitment and neuroprotection in the central nervous system. (4/163)

HIV-1 infection of the brain results in chronic inflammation, contributing to the neuropathogenesis of HIV-1 associated neurologic disease. HIV-1-infected mononuclear phagocytes (MP) present in inflammatory infiltrates produce neurotoxins that mediate inflammation, dysfunction, and neuronal apoptosis. Neurologic disease is correlated with the relative number of MP in and around inflammatory infiltrates and not viral burden. It is unclear whether these cells also play a neuroprotective role. We show that the chemokine, fractalkine (FKN), is markedly up-regulated in neurons and neuropil in brain tissue from pediatric patients with HIV-1 encephalitis (HIVE) compared with those without HIVE, or that were HIV-1 seronegative. FKN receptors are expressed on both neurons and microglia in patients with HIVE. These receptors are localized to cytoplasmic structures which are characterized by a vesicular appearance in neurons which may be in cell-to-cell contact with MPs. FKN colocalizes with glutamate in these neurons. Similar findings are observed in brain tissue from an adult patient with HIVE. FKN is able to potently induce the migration of primary human monocytes across an endothelial cell/primary human fetal astrocyte trans-well bilayer, and is neuroprotective to cultured neurons when coadministered with either the HIV-1 neurotoxin platelet activating factor (PAF) or the regulatory HIV-1 gene product Tat. Thus focal inflammation in brain tissue with HIVE may up-regulate neuronal FKN levels, which in turn may be a neuroimmune modulator recruiting peripheral macrophages into the brain, and in a paracrine fashion protecting glutamatergic neurons.  (+info)

Ultrastructure and function of the fractalkine mucin domain in CX(3)C chemokine domain presentation. (5/163)

Fractalkine (FKN), a CX(3)C chemokine/mucin hybrid molecule on endothelium, functions as an adhesion molecule to capture and induce firm adhesion of a subset of leukocytes in a selectin- and integrin-independent manner. We hypothesized that the FKN mucin domain may be important for its function in adhesion, and tested the ability of secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) fusion proteins containing the entire extracellular region (FKN-SEAP), the chemokine domain (CX3C-SEAP), or the mucin domain (mucin-SEAP) to support firm adhesion under flow. CX3C-SEAP induced suboptimal firm adhesion of resting peripheral blood mononuclear cells, compared with FKN-SEAP, and mucin-SEAP induced no firm adhesion. CX3C-SEAP and FKN-SEAP bound to CX(3)CR1 with similar affinities. By electron microscopy, fractalkine was 29 nm in length with a long stalk (mucin domain), and a globular head (CX(3)C). To test the function of the mucin domain, a chimeric protein replacing the mucin domain with a rod-like segment of E-selectin was constructed. This chimeric protein gave the same adhesion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells as intact FKN, both when immobilized on glass and when expressed on the cell surface. This implies that the function of the mucin domain is to provide a stalk, extending the chemokine domain away from the endothelial cell surface to present it to flowing leukocytes.  (+info)

Fractalkine is an epithelial and endothelial cell-derived chemoattractant for intraepithelial lymphocytes in the small intestinal mucosa. (6/163)

Fractalkine is a unique chemokine that combines properties of both chemoattractants and adhesion molecules. Fractalkine mRNA expression has been observed in the intestine. However, the role of fractalkine in the healthy intestine and during inflammatory mucosal responses is not known. Studies were undertaken to determine the expression and function of fractalkine and the fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 in the human small intestinal mucosa. We identified intestinal epithelial cells as a novel source of fractalkine. The basal expression of fractalkine mRNA and protein in the intestinal epithelial cell line T-84 was under the control of the inflammatory mediator IL-1beta. Fractalkine was shed from intestinal epithelial cell surface upon stimulation with IL-1beta. Fractalkine localized with caveolin-1 in detergent-insoluble glycolipid-enriched membrane microdomains in T-84 cells. Cellular distribution of fractalkine was regulated during polarization of T-84 cells. A subpopulation of isolated human intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes expressed the fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 and migrated specifically along fractalkine gradients after activation with IL-2. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated fractalkine expression in intestinal epithelial cells and endothelial cells in normal small intestine and in active Crohn's disease mucosa. Furthermore, fractalkine mRNA expression was significantly up-regulated in the intestine during active Crohn's disease. This study demonstrates that fractalkine-CX3CR1-mediated mechanism may direct lymphocyte chemoattraction and adhesion within the healthy and diseased human small intestinal mucosa.  (+info)

Rapid progression to AIDS in HIV+ individuals with a structural variant of the chemokine receptor CX3CR1. (7/163)

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) enters cells in vitro via CD4 and a coreceptor. Which of 15 known coreceptors are important in vivo is poorly defined but may be inferred from disease-modifying mutations, as for CCR5. Here two single nucleotide polymorphisms are described in Caucasians in CX3CR1, an HIV coreceptor and leukocyte chemotactic/adhesion receptor for the chemokine fractalkine. HIV-infected patients homozygous for CX3CR1-I249 M280, a variant haplotype affecting two amino acids (isoleucine-249 and methionine-280), progressed to AIDS more rapidly than those with other haplotypes. Functional CX3CR1 analysis showed that fractalkine binding is reduced among patients homozygous for this particular haplotype. Thus, CX3CR1-I249 M280 is a recessive genetic risk factor in HIV/AIDS.  (+info)

Fractalkine-mediated endothelial cell injury by NK cells. (8/163)

Endothelial cells (ECs) are primary targets of immunological attack, and their injury can lead to vasculopathy and organ dysfunction in vascular leak syndrome and in rejection of allografts or xenografts. A newly identified CX3C-chemokine, fractalkine, expressed on activated ECs plays an important role in leukocyte adhesion and migration. In this study we examined the functional roles of fractalkine on NK cell activity and NK cell-mediated endothelial cell injury. Freshly separated NK cells expressed the fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) determined by FACS analysis and efficiently adhered to immobilized full-length fractalkine, but not to the truncated forms of the chemokine domain or mucin domain, suggesting that fractalkine functions as an adhesion molecule on the interaction between NK cells and ECs. Soluble fractalkine enhanced NK cell cytolytic activity against K562 target cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This enhancement correlated well with increased granular exocytosis from NK cells, which was completely inhibited by the G protein inhibitor, pertussis toxin. Transfection of fractalkine cDNA into ECV304 cells or HUVECs resulted in increased adhesion of NK cells and susceptibility to NK cell-mediated cytolysis compared with control transfection. Moreover, both enhanced adhesion and susceptibility of fractalkine-transfected cells were markedly suppressed by soluble fractalkine or anti-CX3CR1 Ab. Our results suggest that fractalkine plays an important role not only in the binding of NK cells to endothelial cells, but also in NK cell-mediated endothelium damage, which may result in vascular injury.  (+info)

There are several key features of inflammation:

1. Increased blood flow: Blood vessels in the affected area dilate, allowing more blood to flow into the tissue and bringing with it immune cells, nutrients, and other signaling molecules.
2. Leukocyte migration: White blood cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes, migrate towards the site of inflammation in response to chemical signals.
3. Release of mediators: Inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines, are released by immune cells and other cells in the affected tissue. These molecules help to coordinate the immune response and attract more immune cells to the site of inflammation.
4. Activation of immune cells: Immune cells, such as macrophages and T cells, become activated and start to phagocytose (engulf) pathogens or damaged tissue.
5. Increased heat production: Inflammation can cause an increase in metabolic activity in the affected tissue, leading to increased heat production.
6. Redness and swelling: Increased blood flow and leakiness of blood vessels can cause redness and swelling in the affected area.
7. Pain: Inflammation can cause pain through the activation of nociceptors (pain-sensing neurons) and the release of pro-inflammatory mediators.

Inflammation can be acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is a short-term response to injury or infection, which helps to resolve the issue quickly. Chronic inflammation is a long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases such as arthritis, asthma, and cancer.

There are several types of inflammation, including:

1. Acute inflammation: A short-term response to injury or infection.
2. Chronic inflammation: A long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases.
3. Autoimmune inflammation: An inappropriate immune response against the body's own tissues.
4. Allergic inflammation: An immune response to a harmless substance, such as pollen or dust mites.
5. Parasitic inflammation: An immune response to parasites, such as worms or fungi.
6. Bacterial inflammation: An immune response to bacteria.
7. Viral inflammation: An immune response to viruses.
8. Fungal inflammation: An immune response to fungi.

There are several ways to reduce inflammation, including:

1. Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs).
2. Lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management, and getting enough sleep.
3. Alternative therapies, such as acupuncture, herbal supplements, and mind-body practices.
4. Addressing underlying conditions, such as hormonal imbalances, gut health issues, and chronic infections.
5. Using anti-inflammatory compounds found in certain foods, such as omega-3 fatty acids, turmeric, and ginger.

It's important to note that chronic inflammation can lead to a range of health problems, including:

1. Arthritis
2. Diabetes
3. Heart disease
4. Cancer
5. Alzheimer's disease
6. Parkinson's disease
7. Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.

Therefore, it's important to manage inflammation effectively to prevent these complications and improve overall health and well-being.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

Pathologic neovascularization can be seen in a variety of conditions, including cancer, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration. In cancer, for example, the formation of new blood vessels can help the tumor grow and spread to other parts of the body. In diabetic retinopathy, the growth of new blood vessels in the retina can cause vision loss and other complications.

There are several different types of pathologic neovascularization, including:

* Angiosarcoma: a type of cancer that arises from the cells lining blood vessels
* Hemangiomas: benign tumors that are composed of blood vessels
* Cavernous malformations: abnormal collections of blood vessels in the brain or other parts of the body
* Pyogenic granulomas: inflammatory lesions that can form in response to trauma or infection.

The diagnosis of pathologic neovascularization is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging studies (such as ultrasound, CT scans, or MRI), and biopsy. Treatment options vary depending on the underlying cause of the condition, but may include medications, surgery, or radiation therapy.

In summary, pathologic neovascularization is a process that occurs in response to injury or disease, and it can lead to serious complications. It is important for healthcare professionals to be aware of this condition and its various forms in order to provide appropriate diagnosis and treatment.

Symptoms of pneumonia may include cough, fever, chills, difficulty breathing, and chest pain. In severe cases, pneumonia can lead to respiratory failure, sepsis, and even death.

There are several types of pneumonia, including:

1. Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP): This type of pneumonia is caused by bacteria or viruses and typically affects healthy people outside of hospitals.
2. Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP): This type of pneumonia is caused by bacteria or fungi and typically affects people who are hospitalized for other illnesses or injuries.
3. Aspiration pneumonia: This type of pneumonia is caused by food, liquids, or other foreign matter being inhaled into the lungs.
4. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP): This type of pneumonia is caused by a fungus and typically affects people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS.
5. Viral pneumonia: This type of pneumonia is caused by viruses and can be more common in children and young adults.

Pneumonia is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays or blood tests. Treatment may involve antibiotics, oxygen therapy, and supportive care to manage symptoms and help the patient recover. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide more intensive care and monitoring.

Prevention of pneumonia includes vaccination against certain types of bacteria and viruses, good hygiene practices such as frequent handwashing, and avoiding close contact with people who are sick. Early detection and treatment can help reduce the risk of complications and improve outcomes for those affected by pneumonia.

There are several symptoms of RA, including:

1. Joint pain and stiffness, especially in the hands and feet
2. Swollen and warm joints
3. Redness and tenderness in the affected areas
4. Fatigue, fever, and loss of appetite
5. Loss of range of motion in the affected joints
6. Firm bumps of tissue under the skin (rheumatoid nodules)

RA can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, blood tests, and imaging studies such as X-rays or ultrasound. Treatment typically involves a combination of medications, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), and biologic agents. Lifestyle modifications such as exercise and physical therapy can also be helpful in managing symptoms and improving quality of life.

There is no cure for RA, but early diagnosis and aggressive treatment can help to slow the progression of the disease and reduce symptoms. With proper management, many people with RA are able to lead active and fulfilling lives.

Disease progression can be classified into several types based on the pattern of worsening:

1. Chronic progressive disease: In this type, the disease worsens steadily over time, with a gradual increase in symptoms and decline in function. Examples include rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and Parkinson's disease.
2. Acute progressive disease: This type of disease worsens rapidly over a short period, often followed by periods of stability. Examples include sepsis, acute myocardial infarction (heart attack), and stroke.
3. Cyclical disease: In this type, the disease follows a cycle of worsening and improvement, with periodic exacerbations and remissions. Examples include multiple sclerosis, lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Recurrent disease: This type is characterized by episodes of worsening followed by periods of recovery. Examples include migraine headaches, asthma, and appendicitis.
5. Catastrophic disease: In this type, the disease progresses rapidly and unpredictably, with a poor prognosis. Examples include cancer, AIDS, and organ failure.

Disease progression can be influenced by various factors, including:

1. Genetics: Some diseases are inherited and may have a predetermined course of progression.
2. Lifestyle: Factors such as smoking, lack of exercise, and poor diet can contribute to disease progression.
3. Environmental factors: Exposure to toxins, allergens, and other environmental stressors can influence disease progression.
4. Medical treatment: The effectiveness of medical treatment can impact disease progression, either by slowing or halting the disease process or by causing unintended side effects.
5. Co-morbidities: The presence of multiple diseases or conditions can interact and affect each other's progression.

Understanding the type and factors influencing disease progression is essential for developing effective treatment plans and improving patient outcomes.

The disease begins with endothelial dysfunction, which allows lipid accumulation in the artery wall. Macrophages take up oxidized lipids and become foam cells, which die and release their contents, including inflammatory cytokines, leading to further inflammation and recruitment of more immune cells.

The atherosclerotic plaque can rupture or ulcerate, leading to the formation of a thrombus that can occlude the blood vessel, causing ischemia or infarction of downstream tissues. This can lead to various cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction (heart attack), stroke, and peripheral artery disease.

Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease that is influenced by genetic and environmental factors such as smoking, hypertension, diabetes, high cholesterol levels, and obesity. It is diagnosed by imaging techniques such as angiography, ultrasound, or computed tomography (CT) scans.

Treatment options for atherosclerosis include lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, dietary changes, and exercise, as well as medications such as statins, beta blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. In severe cases, surgical interventions such as bypass surgery or angioplasty may be necessary.

In conclusion, atherosclerosis is a complex and multifactorial disease that affects the arteries and can lead to various cardiovascular diseases. Early detection and treatment can help prevent or slow down its progression, reducing the risk of complications and improving patient outcomes.

CXCR that bind CXC chemokines, CCR that bind CC chemokines, CX3CR1 that binds the sole CX3C chemokine (CX3CL1), and XCR1 that ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines in that it has ... or d-chemokines). The only CX3C chemokine discovered to date is called fractalkine (or CX3CL1). It is both secreted and ...
Chemokines are divided into four main subfamilies: C, CC, CXC, and CX3C. Microglial cells are sources of some chemokines and ... The chemokines CCL5/RANTES, CCL3/MIP-1α, CCL4/MIP-1β, all of which bind to CCR5, are inhibitory to HIV-1 replication in ... The chemokine receptor, CX3CR1, is expressed by microglia in the central nervous system. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is the exclusive ... Chemokines are cytokines that stimulate directional migration of inflammatory cells in vitro and in vivo. ...
A chemotactic receptor for the human CX3C chemokine fractalkine and a fusion coreceptor for HIV-1". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (37): ... Mizoue LS, Bazan JF, Johnson EC, Handel TM (1999). "Solution structure and dynamics of the CX3C chemokine domain of fractalkine ... a CX3C chemokine, is expressed by dendritic cells and is up-regulated upon dendritic cell maturation". Eur. J. Immunol. 29 (8 ... it contains multiple domains and is the only known member of the CX3C chemokine family. It is also commonly known under the ...
... and CX3C chemokines". Journal of Immunology. 166 (8): 5145-54. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.166.8.5145. PMID 11290797. Lee B, Leslie G ... "Cell surface-anchored SR-PSOX/CXC chemokine ligand 16 mediates firm adhesion of CXC chemokine receptor 6-expressing cells". ... C-X-C chemokine receptor type 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CXCR6 gene. CXCR6 has also recently been ... "Entrez Gene: CXCR6 chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 6". Elliott ST, Wetzel KS, Francella N, Bryan S, Romero DC, Riddick NE, ...
... and CX3C chemokines". J Immunol. 166 (8): 5145-54. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.166.8.5145. PMID 11290797. Olszak T, An D, Zeissig S, ... Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 16 (CXCL16) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family. Larger than other ... These are unusual features for a chemokine, and allow CXCL16 to be expressed as a cell surface bound molecule, as well as a ... Matloubian M, David A, Engel S, Ryan J, Cyster J (2000). "A transmembrane CXC chemokine is a ligand for HIV-coreceptor Bonzo". ...
CX3C motif chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1), also known as the fractalkine receptor or G-protein coupled receptor 13 (GPR13), is a ... A chemotactic receptor for the human CX3C chemokine fractalkine and a fusion coreceptor for HIV-1". The Journal of Biological ... Mizoue LS, Bazan JF, Johnson EC, Handel TM (February 1999). "Solution structure and dynamics of the CX3C chemokine domain of ... family and the only known member of the CX3C chemokine receptor subfamily. As the name suggests, this receptor binds the ...
AND CX3C families of chemokines". Cytokine. 18 (3): 140-8. doi:10.1006/cyto.2002.0875. PMID 12126650. Salmaggi A, Gelati M, ... C-X-C motif chemokine 11 (CXCL11) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CXCL11 gene. C-X-C motif chemokine 11 is a ... This chemokine elicits its effects on its target cells by interacting with the cell surface chemokine receptor CXCR3, with a ... "Entrez Gene: CXCL11 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11". Cole KE, Strick CA, Paradis TJ, Ogborne KT, Loetscher M, Gladue RP, Lin ...
AND CX3C families of chemokines". Cytokine. 18 (3): 140-148. doi:10.1006/cyto.2002.0875. PMID 12126650. D'Ambrosio D, Albanesi ... "The assignment of chemokine-chemokine receptor pairs: TARC and MIP-1 beta are not ligands for human CC-chemokine receptor 8". ... CCL17 is one of the few chemokines that are not stored in the body, except in the thymus; these chemokines are made when needed ... CCL17 as well as its partner chemokine CCL22 induce chemotaxis in T-helper cells. They do this by binding to CCR4, a chemokine ...
G protein also contains a CX3C fractalkine-like motif that binds to the CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1) on the surface of ...
Chemokines belong to a special class of cytokines; not only do their groups (C, CC, CXC, CX3C chemokines) represent ... CC chemokines act on monocytes (e.g., RANTES), and CXC chemokines are neutrophil granulocyte-specific (e.g., IL-8).[citation ... Chemokines - chemokine receptors (CCR or CXCR), and Leukotrienes - leukotriene receptors (BLT). However, induction of a wide ... Formation of dimers and their increased biological activity was demonstrated by crystallography of several chemokines, e.g. IL- ...
... chemokines, cc MeSH D12.776.467.374.200.120 - chemokines, cxc MeSH D12.776.467.374.200.130 - chemokines, cx3c MeSH D12.776. ...
... s are divided into different families, CXC chemokine receptors, CC chemokine receptors, CX3C chemokine ... CXC chemokine receptors (six members) CC chemokine receptors (ten/eleven members) C chemokine receptors (one member, XCR1) CX3C ... Two types of chemokines that bind to these receptors are inflammatory chemokines and homeostatic chemokines. Inflammatory ... Chemokine receptors are redundant in their function as more than one chemokine is able to bind to a single receptor. ...
... chemokines, cc MeSH D23.125.300.120 - chemokines, cxc MeSH D23.125.300.130 - chemokines, cx3c MeSH D23.125.300.508 - ... chemokines, cc MeSH D23.469.200.120 - chemokines, cxc MeSH D23.469.200.130 - chemokines, cx3c MeSH D23.469.200.508 - ...
Cytokine Chemokines CC chemokines CXC chemokines C chemokines XCL1 XCL2 CX3C chemokines CX3CL1 (Fractalkine, Neurotactin) ... CXC chemokine receptors (CXCRs) C chemokine receptors (XCRs) XCR1 CX3C chemokine receptors (CX3CRs) CX3CR1 (Fractalkine ... Trimeric cytokine receptors Chemokine receptors - 7-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors CC chemokine receptors (CCRs) ...
... chemokines, cc MeSH D12.644. - chemokines, cxc MeSH D12.644. - chemokines, cx3c MeSH D12.644. ... chemokines MeSH D12.644. - beta-thromboglobulin MeSH D12.644. - chemokines, c MeSH D12.644. ...
The 2014 Ju-Jitsu World Championship were the 12th edition of the Ju-Jitsu World Championships, and were held in Paris, France from November 28 to November 30, 2014. 28.11.2014 - Men's and Women's Fighting System, Men's and Women's Jiu-Jitsu (ne-waza), Men's Duo System - Classic 29.11.2014 - Men's and Women's Fighting System, Men's and Women's Jiu-Jitsu (ne-waza), Women's Duo System - Classic 30.11.2014 - Men's Jiu-Jitsu (ne-waza), Mixed Duo System - Classic, Team event Vincent MATCZAK (2014-09-30). "4TH INVITAION TO WORLD CHAMPIONSHIP 2014" (PDF). Retrieved 2019-11-28.[dead link] Online results Official results (PDF) Mixed team event results (PDF) (All articles with dead external links, Articles with dead external links from April 2022, Ju-Jitsu World Championships, 2014 in French sport ...
Bolley L. "Bo" Johnson (born November 15, 1951) is an American politician from the state of Florida. A member of the Democratic Party, Johnson was a member of the Florida House of Representatives, and served as the Speaker of the Florida House of Representatives. Johnson is from Milton, Florida. His father and grandfather served as county commissioners for Santa Rosa County, Florida. Johnson graduated from Milton High School, and became the first member of his family to attend college. He received his bachelor's degree from Florida State University. Johnson volunteered for Mallory Horne when Horne served as the president of the Florida Senate. At the age of 22, Johnson met Lawton Chiles, then a member of the United States Senate, who hired him as a legislative aide in 1973. Johnson was elected to the Florida House of Representatives, representing the 4th district from November 7, 1978 to November 3, 1992. He also served the 1st district from November 3, 1992 to November 8, 1994. He became the ...
... may refer to: Don't Say No (Billy Squier album), a 1981 album by American rock singer Billy Squier, and its title track Don't Say No (Seohyun EP), a 2016 extended play by South Korean pop singer Seohyun, and its title track "Don't Say No" (Tom Tom Club song), from the 1988 album Boom Boom Chi Boom Boom "Don't Say No", by Robbie Williams from the 2005 album Intensive Care "Don't Say No Tonight", a 1985 single by Eugene Wilde This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Don't Say No. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. (Disambiguation pages with short descriptions, Short description is different from Wikidata, All article disambiguation pages, All disambiguation pages, Disambiguation pages ...
The Dewoitine 37 was the first of a family of 1930s French-built monoplane fighter aircraft. The D.37 was a single-seat aircraft of conventional configuration. Its fixed landing gear used a tailskid. The open cockpit was located slightly aft of the parasol wing. The radial engine allowed for a comparatively wide fuselage and cockpit. Design of this machine was by SAF-Avions Dewoitine but owing to over work at that companies plant at the time, manufacture of the D.37/01 was transferred to Lioré et Olivier. They were high-wing monoplanes of all-metal construction with valve head blisters on their engine cowlings. The first prototype flew in October 1931. Flight testing resulted in the need for multiple revisions in both engine and airframe, so it was February 1934 before the second prototype flew. Its performance prompted the French government to order for 28 for the Armée de l'Air and Aéronavale. The Lithuanian government ordered 14 that remained in service with their Air Force until 1936, ...
The Noor-ul-Ain (Persian: نور العين, lit. 'the light of the eye') is one of the largest pink diamonds in the world, and the centre piece of the tiara of the same name. The diamond is believed to have been recovered from the mines of Golconda, Hyderabad in India. It was first in possession with the nizam Abul Hasan Qutb Shah, later it was given as a peace offering to the Mughal emperor Aurangazeb when he defeated him in a siege. It was brought into the Iranian Imperial collection after the Persian king Nader Shah Afshar looted Delhi in the 18th century.[citation needed] The Noor-ul-Ain is believed to have once formed part of an even larger gem called the Great Table diamond. That larger diamond is thought to have been cut in two, with one section becoming the Noor-ul-Ain and the other the Daria-i-Noor diamond. Both of these pieces are currently part of the Iranian Crown Jewels. The Noor-ul-Ain is the principal diamond mounted in a tiara of the same name made for Iranian Empress Farah ...
The Benoist Land Tractor Type XII was one of the first enclosed cockpit, tractor configuration aircraft built. Benoist used "Model XII" to several aircraft that shared the same basic engine and wing design, but differed in fuselage and control surfaces. The Type XII was a tractor-engined conversion of the model XII headless pusher aircraft that resembled the Curtiss pusher aircraft. Demonstration pilots used Benoist aircraft to demonstrate the first parachute jumps, and the tractor configuration was considered much more suitable for the task. The first example named the "Military Plane" had a small box frame covered fuselage that left the occupants mostly exposed to the wind. The later model XII "Cross Country Plane" had a full fuselage that occupants sat inside of. The first tractor biplane used a wooden fuselage with a small seat on top. The wings were covered with a Goodyear rubberized cloth. The first model XII was built in the spring of 1912. On 1 March 1912, Albert Berry used a headless ...
... (also known as Yalmotx in Qʼanjobʼal) is a town, with a population of 17,166 (2018 census), and a municipality in the Guatemalan department of Huehuetenango. It is situated at 1450 metres above sea level. It covers a terrain of 1,174 km². The annual festival is April 29-May 4. Barillas has a tropical rainforest climate (Af) with heavy to very heavy rainfall year-round and extremely heavy rainfall from June to August. Population of departments and municipalities in Guatemala Population of cities & towns in Guatemala "Climate: Barillas". Retrieved July 26, 2020. Muni in Spanish Website of Santa Cruz Barillas Coordinates: 15°48′05″N 91°18′45″W / 15.8014°N 91.3125°W / 15.8014; -91.3125 v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox settlement with no coordinates, Articles containing Q'anjob'al-language text, Coordinates on Wikidata, ...
Maria Margaret La Primaudaye Pollen (10 April 1838 - c. 1919), known as Minnie, was a decorative arts collector. As Mrs John Hungerford Pollen, she became known during the early-twentieth century as an authority on the history of textiles, publishing Seven Centuries of Lace in 1908. Maria Margaret La Primaudaye was born into a Huguenot family on 10 April 1838, the third child of the Revd Charles John La Primaudaye, a descendant of Pierre de La Primaudaye. She was educated in Italy. Her family converted to Catholicism in 1851, and it was in Rome that her father met another recent English convert, John Hungerford Pollen, previously an Anglican priest and a decorative artist. She became engaged to Pollen, who was then seventeen years her senior, in the summer of 1854, and was married in the church of Woodchester monastery, near Stroud, Gloucester, on 18 September 1855. The Pollens initially settled in Dublin, where John Hungerford Pollen had been offered the professorship of fine arts at the ...
Ronald Robert Fogleman (born January 27, 1942) is a retired United States Air Force general who served as the 15th Chief of Staff of the Air Force from 1994 to 1997 and as Commanding General of the United States Transportation Command from 1992 to 1994. A 1963 graduate from the United States Air Force Academy, he holds a master's degree in military history and political science from Duke University. A command pilot and a parachutist, he amassed more than 6,800 flying hours in fighter, transport, tanker and rotary wing aircraft. He flew 315 combat missions and logged 806 hours of combat flying in fighter aircraft. Eighty of his missions during the Vietnam War were as a "Misty FAC" in the F-100F Super Sabre at Phù Cát Air Base, South Vietnam between 25 December 1968 and 23 April 1969. Fogleman was shot down in Vietnam in 1968, while piloting an F-100. He was rescued by clinging to an AH-1 Cobra attack helicopter that landed at the crash site. In early assignments he instructed student pilots, ...
Peachtree Street" is a 1950 song co-written and recorded by Frank Sinatra in a duet with Rosemary Clooney. The song was released as a Columbia Records single. Frank Sinatra co-wrote the song with Leni Mason and Jimmy Saunders. Mason composed the music while Sinatra and Saunders wrote the lyrics. The song was arranged by George Siravo The song was released as an A side Columbia 10" 78 single, Catalog Number 38853, Matrix Number CO-43100-1 and as a 7" 33, 1-669. The B side was the re-issued "This Is the Night." Neither of the songs charted. The subject of the song is a stroll down the street in Atlanta, Georgia of the same name. Sinatra originally intended Dinah Shore to sing the duet with him. When Shore declined, Clooney was asked. The song was recorded on April 8, 1950. The song features spoken asides by Sinatra and Clooney. Rosemary Clooney asks: "Say, Frank, you wanna take a walk?" Frank Sinatra replies: "Sure, sweetie, just pick a street." He noted how there were no peach trees on the ...
... is a painting by American illustrator Norman Rockwell that depicts a Boy Scout in full uniform standing in front of a waving American flag. It was originally created by Rockwell in 1942 for the 1944 Brown & Bigelow Boy Scout Calendar. The model, Bob Hamilton, won a contest to be in the painting and personally delivered a print to the Vice President of the United States at the time, Henry A. Wallace. The painting was created to encourage Scouts to participate in the war effort during World War II. The name of the painting, We, Too, Have a Job to Do, comes from a slogan that the Boy Scouts of America used in 1942 to rally scouts to support the troops by collecting metal and planting victory gardens. The model, Bob Hamilton, won a contest with his local council in Albany, New York, to be depicted in the painting. He traveled to Rockwell's studio in Arlington, Vermont, to model for Rockwell. Since Hamilton was a scout, the uniform shown in the painting was his, unlike some ...
At least 33[failed verification] people were killed by a fuel tanker explosion in Tleil, Akkar District, Lebanon on 15 August 2021. The disaster was reportedly exacerbated by the ongoing Lebanese liquidity crisis; in which the Lebanese pound has plummeted and fuel has been in short supply. The survivors were evacuated by the Lebanese Red Cross. An investigation is underway. The fuel tanker had been confiscated by the Lebanese Armed Forces from black marketeers, the fuel was then distributed/taken by the locals. The son of the man whose land the fuel tanker was located on, was later arrested, accused of deliberately causing the explosion. Agencies (2021-08-15). "At least 20 killed and 79 injured in fuel tank explosion in Lebanon". the Guardian. Retrieved 2021-08-15. "Lebanon fuel explosion kills 22 and injures dozens more". The Independent. 2021-08-15. Archived from the original on 2021-08-15. Retrieved 2021-08-15. "Lebanon: At least 20 dead and dozens injured after fuel tank explodes as ...
The Straubing Tigers are a professional men's ice hockey team, based in Straubing, Germany, that competes in the Deutsche Eishockey Liga. Straubing plays its home games at the Eisstadion am Pulverturm, which has a capacity of 5,800 spectators. Promoted to the DEL in 2006, and operating with one of the league's smallest budgets, the team could finish no better than twelfth before the 2011-12 DEL season, when it reached the semi-finals of the playoffs. Their greatest success so far is the qualification for the season 2020-21 of the Champions Hockey League. In 1941, the then 14-year-old Max Pielmaier and his friends Max Pellkofer and Harry Poiger founded the first hockey team in Straubing. The first official game took place on the first of February 1942 in Hof and was lost by a score of 0:1. In the following year there were several games against other Bavarian teams. The game against Landshut on 31 January. 1943 was the last game during the second World War, because the young players also had to ...
Leina is a village in Saaremaa Parish, Saare County in western Estonia. Before the administrative reform in 2017, the village was in Pihtla Parish. "Lisa. Asustusüksuste nimistu" (PDF). (in Estonian). Rahandusministeerium. Retrieved 5 December 2017. "Saaremaa külad endiste valdade piires". (in Estonian). Archived from the original on 3 December 2017. Retrieved 5 December 2017. Coordinates: 58°17′10″N 22°46′26″E / 58.28611°N 22.77389°E / 58.28611; 22.77389 v t e (CS1 Estonian-language sources (et), Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox settlement with no map, Pages using infobox settlement with no coordinates, Saaremaa Parish, Coordinates on Wikidata, Villages in Saare County, All stub articles, Saare County geography stubs ...
A sestiere (plural: sestieri) is a subdivision of certain Italian towns and cities. The word is from sesto ('sixth'), so it is thus used only for towns divided into six districts. The best-known example is the sestieri of Venice, but Ascoli Piceno, Genoa, Milan and Rapallo, for example, were also divided into sestieri. The medieval Lordship of Negroponte, on the island of Euboea, was also at times divided into six districts, each with a separate ruler, through the arbitration of Venice, which were known as sestieri. The island of Crete, a Venetian colony (the "Kingdom of Candia") from the Fourth Crusade, was also divided into six parts, named after the sestieri of Venice herself, while the capital Candia retained the status of a comune of Venice. The island of Burano north of Venice is also subdivided into sestieri. A variation of the word is occasionally found: the comune of Leonessa, for example, is divided into sesti or sixths. Other Italian towns with fewer than six official districts are ...
CX3C Chemokine Receptor 1 * Chemokine CX3CL1* * Endothelial Cells * Flow Cytometry * Humans * Lung Diseases, Interstitial* ...
Fractalkine (CX3C). RDI-3031. 10ug. 2ug. $2,800.00. antibodies. Galectin-1. RDI-4539. 50ug. 10ug. $1,600.00. ... Human Cytokines, Growth Factors & Chemokines from RDI:. (Click for additional Background information on our products , ... chemokines , and research into cytokine & sepsis .) see new article on chemokines and their receptors (updated Jan 6, 1999) ... Research Diagnostics Inc (RDI) offers a wide line of recombinant growth factors, cytokines and chemokines (new products added ...
CX3C Chemokine Receptor 1 Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Blood coagulation protein fibrinogen promotes autoimmunity and demyelination via chemokine release and antigen presentation Jae ... Blood coagulation protein fibrinogen promotes autoimmunity and demyelination via chemokine release and antigen presentation Jae ... Figure 8. Inhibition of CD11b blocks fibrinogen-induced local T-cell activation, chemokine gene expression and peripheral… ...
MeSH Terms: Animals; CX3C Chemokine Receptor 1/metabolism; Cell Proliferation/physiology*; Chemokine CX3CL1/metabolism; Disease ...
CX3C Chemokine Receptor 1 / genetics Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH ...
Fractalkine, a CX3C chemokine, as a mediator of ocular angiogenesis.. You JJ; Yang CH; Huang JS; Chen MS; Yang CM. Invest ...
Chemokines, CXC [D12.644.276.374.200.120] * Chemokines, CX3C [D12.644.276.374.200.130] * Chemokine CX3CL1 [D12.644.276.374. ... Chemokines, CXC [D12.776.467.374.200.120] * Chemokines, CX3C [D12.776.467.374.200.130] * Chemokine CX3CL1 [D12.776.467.374. ... CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.. Terms. Chemokines, CX3C Preferred ... CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.. Entry Term(s). CX3C Chemokines ...
These include a large family of chemokine receptors and a smaller group of classical chemoattractant receptors, which together ... Identification of the first CXC, CC, and CX3C chemokine receptor subtypes, as well as numerous other members of the chemokine ... Genetic deletion of chemokine receptor Ccr6 decreases atherogenesis in ApoE-deficient mice. Circ Res. 2011 Aug 5;109(4):374-81. ... Lionakis MS, Fischer BG, Lim JK, Swamydas M, Wan W, Richard Lee CC, Cohen JI, Scheinberg P, Gao JL, Murphy PM.Chemokine ...
L.A. is a co-inventor on several CDC patents on the HRSV G protein and its CX3C chemokine motif relative to immune therapy and ...
A RANTES-antibody fusion protein retains antigen specificity and chemokine function. Challita-Eid, P. M., Abboud, C. N., ...
Chemokines, CXC [D12.644.276.374.200.120] * Chemokines, CX3C [D12.644.276.374.200.130] * Chemokine CX3CL1 [D12.644.276.374. ... Chemokines, CXC [D12.776.467.374.200.120] * Chemokines, CX3C [D12.776.467.374.200.130] * Chemokine CX3CL1 [D12.776.467.374. ... CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.. Terms. Chemokines, CX3C Preferred ... CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.. Entry Term(s). CX3C Chemokines ...
CX3CL1 and CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1), the receptor for CX3CL1, were both expressed in the fibroblastic foci of lung ... CX3C Motif Chemokine Ligand 1 (CX3CL1; fractalkine) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ...
Chemokines, CX3C - Preferred Concept UI. M0328439. Scope note. Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by ... Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural ... CX3C Chemokines. Tree number(s):. D12.644.276.374.200.130. D12.776.467.374.200.130. D23.125.300.130. D23.469.200.130. D23.529. ... CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells. ...
Fractalkine is a transmembrane protein and chemokine involved in the adhesion and migration of leukocytes. The protein encoded ... Receptor for the CX3C chemokine fractalkine (CX3CL1); binds to CX3CL1 and mediates both its adhesive and migratory functions ( ... Receptor for the CX3C chemokine fractalkine (CX3CL1); binds to CX3CL1 and mediates both its adhesive and migratory functions ( ... Fractalkine is a transmembrane protein and chemokine involved in the adhesion and migration of leukocytes. The protein encoded ...
Chemokines: C, CC, CXC, CX3C. Proinflammatory cytokines: TNF alpha, IL-1, IL-6: producing cells, stimuli, biological role, ...
Chemokines (CXC, CC, CX3C, XC). Direct cell adhesion, migration and activation. Haematopoietins/ Colony stimulating factors (G ... 6. Turner, M. D., Nedjai, B., Hurst, T. & Pennington, D. J. Cytokines and chemokines: At the crossroads of cell signalling and ... For instance, interleukin 8 (IL-8) is also considered a pro-inflammatory chemokine and is often designated as CXCL8. Cytokines ... chemokines, and transforming growth factors. This is a generic classification, but in reality, there is a lot of overlap. ...
In vivo structure/function and expression analysis of the CX3C chemokine fractalkine. ... Molecular determinants of receptor binding and signaling by the CX3C chemokine fractalkine. ... In addition to their chemokine domain (called CD), these two chemokines possess three other domains: a mucin-like stalk, a ... Chemokines and chemokine receptors: standing at the crossroads of immunobiology and neurobiology. ...
C N0000171249 Chemokines, CC N0000171242 Chemokines, CX3C N0000171245 Chemokines, CXC N0000171238 Chemotactic Factors ... Chemokine CCL1 N0000178629 Chemokine CCL11 N0000178818 Chemokine CCL17 N0000178670 Chemokine CCL19 N0000171247 Chemokine CCL2 ... Chemokine CCL21 N0000178711 Chemokine CCL22 N0000178667 Chemokine CCL24 N0000178820 Chemokine CCL27 N0000178616 Chemokine CCL3 ... Chemokine CCL4 N0000171240 Chemokine CCL5 N0000178647 Chemokine CCL7 N0000178648 Chemokine CCL8 N0000178661 Chemokine CX3CL1 ...
... which type a cysteine noose including a CX3C theme (10). This theme is comparable to the only real known CX3C chemokine, known ...
chemokines are a large family of molecules that direct cell trafficking to sites of inflammation and through lymphatic organs. ... the pvnz-cbps were analyzed by surface plasmon resonance against a broad spectrum of cxc, cc, xc and cx3c chemokin .... 2019. ... chemokine-binding proteins encoded by parapoxvirus of red deer of new zealand display evidence of gene duplication and ... we identified a cluster of genes in pvnz that encode three unique chemokine-binding proteins (cbps) namely orf112.0, orf112.3 ...
... and CX3C). The largest families are the CC and the CXC chemokines. The CXC chemokine family is a pleiotropic family of ... These CXCR3-agonistic chemokines play an important role in inflammation through their T-cell chemotactic and adhesion-promoting ... These examples provide evidence that the chemokines, CXCL9 and CXCL10, attract T cells to the site of infection and may provide ... These interferon-gamma inducible chemokines (CXCL9/Mig, CXCL10/IP-10, CXCL11/I-TAC) belong to the CXC sub-family. They ...
CC (also known as β-chemokines; n= 28), CXC (also known as α-chemokines; n= 17) and CX3C (n= 1) chemokines all have four ... C chemokines (n= 2) have only the second and fourth cysteines found in other chemokines. Chemokines can also be classified by ... Chemokine receptors. Chemokine receptors comprise a large subfamily of 7TM proteins that bind one or more chemokines, a large ... Endogenous and microbial non-chemokine ligands have also been identified for chemokine receptors. Many chemokine receptors ...
Identification of the first CXC, CC, and CX3C chemokine receptor subtypes, as well as numerous other members of the chemokine ... Chemokines act as phosphatidylserine-bound "find-me" signals in apoptotic cell clearance. PLoS Biol. 2021;19(5):e3001259. ... These include a large family of chemokine receptors and a smaller group of classical chemoattractant receptors, which together ... Characterization of the first viral mimics of chemokine receptors. *Discovery of novel genetic risk factors in atherosclerosis ...
A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be ... CCL3 Chemokine BX - CCL3L1 Chemokine BX - CCL3L2 Chemokine BX - CCL3L3 Chemokine BX - Chemokine CCL3L1 BX - Chemokine CCL3L2 BX ... CCL4L1 Chemokine BX - CCL4L2 Chemokine BX - Chemokine CCL4L1 BX - Chemokine CCL4L2 MH - Chemokine CCL7 UI - D054410 MN - ... Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. HN - 2008(1993) BX - CCL8 Chemokine MH - Chemokine CX3CL1 ...
CX3C) or not (CC, C) by an intervening amino acid (28). Chemokine receptors are named according to the family of their ligands ... in addition to the crucial role of chemokines in cell trafficking, chemokine messengers initiate signal transduction events ... Chemokines in oral inflammatory diseases: apical periodontitis and periodontal disease. J Dent Res 2007;86:306-19. [ Links ]. ... KC chemokine expression by TGF-beta in C3H10T1/2 cells induced towards osteoblasts. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2005;326:364-70 ...
  • Deficiency of various chemokines, chemokine receptors and leukocyte adhesion molecules that are known to participate in mononuclear leukocyte emigration, such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and its receptor chemokine (CC motif) receptor 2, CX3C chemokine receptor 1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, results in decreased formation of atherosclerotic lesions. (
  • CX3CR1 is a G-protein-coupled seven-transmembrane chemokine receptor, also called GPR13 or V28. (
  • Due to continuous recycling of many chemokine receptors, it may be worthwhile to consider staining at room temperature or at 37°C if the staining at lower temperature (which can potentially reduce receptor turnover) is not optimal. (
  • They represent an exception among chemokines in that they specifically interact with a single type of receptor, named CXCR3. (
  • Reporter cells were transfected with either the expression plasmid for mouse chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 10 (Ccr10) or the mock plasmid and treated with various concentrations of the reference agonist. (
  • Most chemokine receptors are able to bind multiple high-affinity chemokine ligands, but the ligands for a given receptor are almost always restricted to the same structural subclass. (
  • Most chemokines bind to more than one receptor subtype. (
  • The tables include both standard chemokine receptor names [3] and aliases. (
  • An atypical addition to the chemokine receptor nomenclature: IUPHAR Review 15. (
  • This was not due to detectable APOE-specific differences in expression of microglial major histocompatibility complex class II, C-C chemokine receptor (CCR) type 1, CCR2, CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1), or C5a anaphylatoxin chemotactic receptor (C5aR). (
  • T280M variation of the CX3C receptor gene is associated with increased risk for severe respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. (
  • Associations of chemokine receptor polymorphisms With HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission in sub-Saharan Africa: possible modulation of genetic effects by antiretrovirals. (
  • Sequence variants of chemokine receptor genes and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. (
  • Association of chemokine receptor gene variants with HIV-1 genotype predicted tropism. (
  • Chemotaxis elicited by Recombinant Human CX3CL1/Fractalkine (100 ng/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Mouse Anti-Human CX3CL1/Fractalkine Chemokine Domain Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB3652). (
  • CX3CL1, also known as Fractalkine, is a type I membrane protein in which a chemokine domain possessing a unique C-X3-C cysteine motif is tethered on a long mucin-like stalk. (
  • CX3CL1 is a unique transmembrane molecule with a CX3C-motif chemokine domain and a mucin-like stalk. (
  • For example, insights may be gained to distinguish the contribution of chemokines, chemokine receptors and adhesion molecules to the recruitment, survival or proliferation of different leukocyte types in atherosclerotic lesions. (
  • Does staining at room temperature or even at 37°C help for checking chemokine receptors expression? (
  • These include a large family of chemokine receptors and a smaller group of classical chemoattractant receptors, which together differentially regulate specific leukocyte trafficking in support of innate and adaptive immune responses. (
  • Chemokine receptors comprise a large subfamily of 7TM proteins that bind one or more chemokines, a large family of small cytokines typically possessing chemotactic activity for leukocytes. (
  • Chemokine receptors can be divided by function into two main groups: G protein-coupled chemokine receptors, which mediate leukocyte trafficking, and "Atypical chemokine receptors", which may signal through non-G protein-coupled mechanisms and act as chemokine scavengers to downregulate inflammation or shape chemokine gradients [1]. (
  • Receptors for inflammatory chemokines are typically highly promiscuous with regard to ligand specificity, and may lack a selective endogenous ligand. (
  • G protein-coupled chemokine receptors are named acccording to the class of chemokines bound, whereas ACKR is the root acronym for atypical chemokine receptors [2]. (
  • There can be substantial cross-species differences in the sequences of both chemokines and chemokine receptors, and in the pharmacology and biology of chemokine receptors. (
  • Endogenous and microbial non-chemokine ligands have also been identified for chemokine receptors. (
  • Many chemokine receptors function as HIV co-receptors, but CCR5 is the only one demonstrated to play an essential role in HIV/AIDS pathogenesis. (
  • Update on the extended family of chemokine receptors and introducing a new nomenclature for atypical chemokine receptors. (
  • The integration of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) from microorganisms with their surface receptors in the immune cells, induces the production of several cytokines and chemokines that presents either a pro- and/or anti-inflammatory role by stimulating the secretion of a great variety of antibody subtypes and the activation of mechanisms of controlling the disease, such as the regulatory T cells. (
  • shift interactions are composed into micelle-like acids, CXC contraction receptors, CC composition receptors, CX3C cleavage nucleosides and 1292dupG system associates that have to the 4 human regions of channels they have. (
  • 1 Although CXC chemokines with an N-terminal ELR (Glu-Leu-Arg) motif, such as IL-8, are specific chemoattractants for neutrophils, those lacking the N-terminal ELR motif, such as monokine induced by interferon- (IFN ) (CXCL9/Mig), CXCL10/IP-10, and IFN -inducible T-cell -chemoattractant (CXCL11/I-TAC), do not act as chemoattractants for neutrophils, but attract T helper (Th) 1 cells. (
  • Monokines induced by interferon-gamma/Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 (MIG/CXCL9), thymus and activation-regulated chemokine/Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 17 (TARC/CCL17) are chemotactic factors that specifically collect and activate leukocytes, which are considered as chemoattractants of T helper cells. (
  • However, little is known in KD patients about the chemotactic factors of T helper type-1 cells (Th1) and T helper type-2 cells (Th2), plasma monokines induced by interferon-gamma/Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 (MIG/CXCL9) and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine/Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 17 (TARC/CCL17). (
  • 7. Retinoic acid-inducible gene-I is induced by double-stranded RNA and regulates the expression of CC chemokine ligand (CCL) 5 in human mesangial cells. (
  • CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells. (
  • BACKGROUND The chemoattractant cytokines (chemokines) are ubiquitous chemotactic molecules that play major roles in acute and chronic inflammatory conditions. (
  • These CXCR3-agonistic chemokines play an important role in inflammation through their T-cell chemotactic and adhesion-promoting activities. (
  • Research Diagnostics Inc (RDI) offers a wide line of recombinant growth factors, cytokines and chemokines (new products added throughout year, please inquire if not listed below). (
  • An assumption is often made that leukocyte recruitment is diminished if a reduction in lesions is found in chemokine- or adhesion molecule-deficient animals. (
  • The CXC chemokine family is a pleiotropic family of molecules that are involved in the trafficking of various leukocyte subsets, angiogenesis, and vascular remodeling. (
  • These interferon-gamma inducible chemokines (CXCL9/Mig, CXCL10/IP-10, CXCL11/I-TAC) belong to the CXC sub-family. (
  • Fractalkine is a transmembrane protein and chemokine involved in the adhesion and migration of leukocytes. (
  • Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. (
  • They are divided into 4 families defined by the number of amino acids between the N-terminal cysteine residues (CC, CXC, CCX, and CX3C). (
  • n = 17) and CX3C ( n = 1) chemokines all have four conserved cysteines, with zero, one and three amino acids separating the first two cysteines respectively. (
  • 11. Melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 regulates the expression of a chemokine CXCL10 in human mesangial cells: implications for chronic inflammatory renal diseases. (
  • These examples provide evidence that the chemokines, CXCL9 and CXCL10, attract T cells to the site of infection and may provide in some cases, optimal defense against microbial pathogens. (
  • 2 CXCL9 is highly expressed in skin lichen planus compared with other chemokines, such as CCL2, CCL20, and CXCL8. (
  • Chemokines in turn can be divided by structure into four subclasses by the number and arrangement of conserved cysteines. (
  • C chemokines ( n = 2) have only the second and fourth cysteines found in other chemokines. (
  • ... [read more] non-hematopoietic roles have been identified for many chemokines in the areas of embryonic development, immune cell proliferation, activation and death, viral infection, and as antibiotics, among others. (
  • For instance, interleukin 8 (IL-8) is also considered a pro-inflammatory chemokine and is often designated as CXCL8. (
  • Zlotnik A, Yoshie O. Chemokines: a new classification system and their role in immunity. (
  • Dr. Murphy's research interests include immunoregulation by chemokines and related chemoattractants. (
  • 3. Cutting edge: profile of chemokine receptor expression on human plasma cells accounts for their efficient recruitment to target tissues. (
  • 17. [Effects of chemokine receptor and its ligand on migration of ovarian cancer cells]. (
  • 11. Expression cloning of the STRL33/BONZO/TYMSTRligand reveals elements of CC, CXC, and CX3C chemokines. (
  • The name and number of human members in each class of chemokines are on the right. (

No images available that match "chemokines cx3c"