Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.
Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.
A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.
Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.
Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
Group of chemokines without adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes only.
Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A 43-kDa peptide which is a member of the connexin family of gap junction proteins. Connexin 43 is a product of a gene in the alpha class of connexin genes (the alpha-1 gene). It was first isolated from mammalian heart, but is widespread in the body including the brain.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A group of homologous proteins which form the intermembrane channels of GAP JUNCTIONS. The connexins are the products of an identified gene family which has both highly conserved and highly divergent regions. The variety contributes to the wide range of functional properties of gap junctions.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.
A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.
A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.
Connections between cells which allow passage of small molecules and electric current. Gap junctions were first described anatomically as regions of close apposition between cells with a narrow (1-2 nm) gap between cell membranes. The variety in the properties of gap junctions is reflected in the number of CONNEXINS, the family of proteins which form the junctions.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.
Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.
A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.
Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.
A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
A platelet-specific protein which is released when platelets aggregate. Elevated plasma levels have been reported after deep venous thrombosis, pre-eclampsia, myocardial infarction with mural thrombosis, and myeloproliferative disorders. Measurement of beta-thromboglobulin in biological fluids by radioimmunoassay is used for the diagnosis and assessment of progress of thromboembolic disorders.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.
Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.
The process in which the neutrophil is stimulated by diverse substances, resulting in degranulation and/or generation of reactive oxygen products, and culminating in the destruction of invading pathogens. The stimulatory substances, including opsonized particles, immune complexes, and chemotactic factors, bind to specific cell-surface receptors on the neutrophil.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Cell surface proteins that bind interleukins and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Movement of tethered, spherical LEUKOCYTES along the endothelial surface of the microvasculature. The tethering and rolling involves interaction with SELECTINS and other adhesion molecules in both the ENDOTHELIUM and leukocyte. The rolling leukocyte then becomes activated by CHEMOKINES, flattens out, and firmly adheres to the endothelial surface in preparation for transmigration through the interendothelial cell junction. (From Abbas, Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 3rd ed)
Proteins that specifically inhibit the growth of new blood vessels (ANGIOGENESIS, PHYSIOLOGIC).
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Cytokine-induced cell adhesion molecule present on activated endothelial cells, tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, bone marrow fibroblasts, myoblasts, and myotubes. It is important for the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, p154)
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.
Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on LYMPHOCYTES. It can form a heterotrimer (LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA1, BETA2 HETEROTRIMER) with the soluble ligand LYMPHOTOXIN-ALPHA and anchor it to the cell surface. The membrane-bound complex is specific for the LYMPHOTOXIN BETA receptor.
The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.
Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-17. Several subtypes of receptors have been found, each with its own in specificity for interleukin-17 subtype.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.
A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.
An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
A pattern recognition receptor that binds DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA. It mediates cellular responses to certain viral pathogens.
Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
The minute vessels that collect blood from the capillary plexuses and join together to form veins.

Molecular uncoupling of fractalkine-mediated cell adhesion and signal transduction. Rapid flow arrest of CX3CR1-expressing cells is independent of G-protein activation. (1/163)

Fractalkine is a novel multidomain protein expressed on the surface of activated endothelial cells. Cells expressing the chemokine receptor CX3CR1 adhere to fractalkine with high affinity, but it is not known if adherence requires G-protein activation and signal transduction. To investigate the cell adhesion properties of fractalkine, we created mutated forms of CX3CR1 that have little or no ability to transduce intracellular signals. Cells expressing signaling-incompetent forms of CX3CR1 bound rapidly and with high affinity to immobilized fractalkine in both static and flow assays. Video microscopy revealed that CX3CR1-expressing cells bound more rapidly to fractalkine than to VCAM-1 (60 versus 190 ms). Unlike VCAM-1, fractalkine did not mediate cell rolling, and after capture on fractalkine, cells did not dislodge. Finally, soluble fractalkine induced intracellular calcium fluxes and chemotaxis, but it did not activate integrins. Taken together these data provide strong evidence that CX3CR1, a seven-transmembrane domain receptor, mediates robust cell adhesion to fractalkine in the absence of G-protein activation and suggest a novel role for this receptor as an adhesion molecule.  (+info)

Characterization of fractalkine in rat brain cells: migratory and activation signals for CX3CR-1-expressing microglia. (2/163)

Molecular analyses of the chemokine fractalkine and its receptor CX3C-R1 in the rat brain have revealed a striking polarization: fractalkine is expressed constitutively in neurons and is up-regulated by TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in astrocytes. Expression of its specific receptor, CX3C-R1, is restricted to astrocytes and microglia. We have analyzed the functional correlates of this expression and demonstrate that fractalkine induces microglial cell migration and activation. However, the activity of this chemokine on astrocytes may also be highly relevant in inducing astrocyte-microglia cell interactions through cytokine/mediator release leading to microglial activation.  (+info)

Inflammatory agents regulate in vivo expression of fractalkine in endothelial cells of the rat heart. (3/163)

Fractalkine is distinguished structurally from other chemokines in that it contains a mucin-like stalk that tethers a CX3C chemokine module to a transmembrane-spanning region; its expression in cultured endothelial cells has been shown to be up-regulated by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 (IL-1). The purpose of this study was to determine whether fractalkine is expressed, in a proinflammatory agent-regulated manner, by cardiac endothelial cells in vivo. Steady state levels of fractalkine mRNA were increased in rat cardiac tissues after in vivo treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), IL-1, or TNF-alpha. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analysis revealed that endothelial cells of the coronary vasculature and endocardium were the principal source of proinflammatory agent-inducible fractalkine, although some fractalkine immunoreactivity was also found on the myocytes. These data are the first demonstration of in vivo cardiac endothelial cell fractalkine expression and regulation by proinflammatory agents such as LPS, IL-1, or TNF-alpha. Cardiac endothelial cell-expressed fractalkine may contribute to the influx of leukocytes into the heart during inflammation.  (+info)

Neuronal fractalkine expression in HIV-1 encephalitis: roles for macrophage recruitment and neuroprotection in the central nervous system. (4/163)

HIV-1 infection of the brain results in chronic inflammation, contributing to the neuropathogenesis of HIV-1 associated neurologic disease. HIV-1-infected mononuclear phagocytes (MP) present in inflammatory infiltrates produce neurotoxins that mediate inflammation, dysfunction, and neuronal apoptosis. Neurologic disease is correlated with the relative number of MP in and around inflammatory infiltrates and not viral burden. It is unclear whether these cells also play a neuroprotective role. We show that the chemokine, fractalkine (FKN), is markedly up-regulated in neurons and neuropil in brain tissue from pediatric patients with HIV-1 encephalitis (HIVE) compared with those without HIVE, or that were HIV-1 seronegative. FKN receptors are expressed on both neurons and microglia in patients with HIVE. These receptors are localized to cytoplasmic structures which are characterized by a vesicular appearance in neurons which may be in cell-to-cell contact with MPs. FKN colocalizes with glutamate in these neurons. Similar findings are observed in brain tissue from an adult patient with HIVE. FKN is able to potently induce the migration of primary human monocytes across an endothelial cell/primary human fetal astrocyte trans-well bilayer, and is neuroprotective to cultured neurons when coadministered with either the HIV-1 neurotoxin platelet activating factor (PAF) or the regulatory HIV-1 gene product Tat. Thus focal inflammation in brain tissue with HIVE may up-regulate neuronal FKN levels, which in turn may be a neuroimmune modulator recruiting peripheral macrophages into the brain, and in a paracrine fashion protecting glutamatergic neurons.  (+info)

Ultrastructure and function of the fractalkine mucin domain in CX(3)C chemokine domain presentation. (5/163)

Fractalkine (FKN), a CX(3)C chemokine/mucin hybrid molecule on endothelium, functions as an adhesion molecule to capture and induce firm adhesion of a subset of leukocytes in a selectin- and integrin-independent manner. We hypothesized that the FKN mucin domain may be important for its function in adhesion, and tested the ability of secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) fusion proteins containing the entire extracellular region (FKN-SEAP), the chemokine domain (CX3C-SEAP), or the mucin domain (mucin-SEAP) to support firm adhesion under flow. CX3C-SEAP induced suboptimal firm adhesion of resting peripheral blood mononuclear cells, compared with FKN-SEAP, and mucin-SEAP induced no firm adhesion. CX3C-SEAP and FKN-SEAP bound to CX(3)CR1 with similar affinities. By electron microscopy, fractalkine was 29 nm in length with a long stalk (mucin domain), and a globular head (CX(3)C). To test the function of the mucin domain, a chimeric protein replacing the mucin domain with a rod-like segment of E-selectin was constructed. This chimeric protein gave the same adhesion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells as intact FKN, both when immobilized on glass and when expressed on the cell surface. This implies that the function of the mucin domain is to provide a stalk, extending the chemokine domain away from the endothelial cell surface to present it to flowing leukocytes.  (+info)

Fractalkine is an epithelial and endothelial cell-derived chemoattractant for intraepithelial lymphocytes in the small intestinal mucosa. (6/163)

Fractalkine is a unique chemokine that combines properties of both chemoattractants and adhesion molecules. Fractalkine mRNA expression has been observed in the intestine. However, the role of fractalkine in the healthy intestine and during inflammatory mucosal responses is not known. Studies were undertaken to determine the expression and function of fractalkine and the fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 in the human small intestinal mucosa. We identified intestinal epithelial cells as a novel source of fractalkine. The basal expression of fractalkine mRNA and protein in the intestinal epithelial cell line T-84 was under the control of the inflammatory mediator IL-1beta. Fractalkine was shed from intestinal epithelial cell surface upon stimulation with IL-1beta. Fractalkine localized with caveolin-1 in detergent-insoluble glycolipid-enriched membrane microdomains in T-84 cells. Cellular distribution of fractalkine was regulated during polarization of T-84 cells. A subpopulation of isolated human intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes expressed the fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 and migrated specifically along fractalkine gradients after activation with IL-2. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated fractalkine expression in intestinal epithelial cells and endothelial cells in normal small intestine and in active Crohn's disease mucosa. Furthermore, fractalkine mRNA expression was significantly up-regulated in the intestine during active Crohn's disease. This study demonstrates that fractalkine-CX3CR1-mediated mechanism may direct lymphocyte chemoattraction and adhesion within the healthy and diseased human small intestinal mucosa.  (+info)

Rapid progression to AIDS in HIV+ individuals with a structural variant of the chemokine receptor CX3CR1. (7/163)

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) enters cells in vitro via CD4 and a coreceptor. Which of 15 known coreceptors are important in vivo is poorly defined but may be inferred from disease-modifying mutations, as for CCR5. Here two single nucleotide polymorphisms are described in Caucasians in CX3CR1, an HIV coreceptor and leukocyte chemotactic/adhesion receptor for the chemokine fractalkine. HIV-infected patients homozygous for CX3CR1-I249 M280, a variant haplotype affecting two amino acids (isoleucine-249 and methionine-280), progressed to AIDS more rapidly than those with other haplotypes. Functional CX3CR1 analysis showed that fractalkine binding is reduced among patients homozygous for this particular haplotype. Thus, CX3CR1-I249 M280 is a recessive genetic risk factor in HIV/AIDS.  (+info)

Fractalkine-mediated endothelial cell injury by NK cells. (8/163)

Endothelial cells (ECs) are primary targets of immunological attack, and their injury can lead to vasculopathy and organ dysfunction in vascular leak syndrome and in rejection of allografts or xenografts. A newly identified CX3C-chemokine, fractalkine, expressed on activated ECs plays an important role in leukocyte adhesion and migration. In this study we examined the functional roles of fractalkine on NK cell activity and NK cell-mediated endothelial cell injury. Freshly separated NK cells expressed the fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) determined by FACS analysis and efficiently adhered to immobilized full-length fractalkine, but not to the truncated forms of the chemokine domain or mucin domain, suggesting that fractalkine functions as an adhesion molecule on the interaction between NK cells and ECs. Soluble fractalkine enhanced NK cell cytolytic activity against K562 target cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This enhancement correlated well with increased granular exocytosis from NK cells, which was completely inhibited by the G protein inhibitor, pertussis toxin. Transfection of fractalkine cDNA into ECV304 cells or HUVECs resulted in increased adhesion of NK cells and susceptibility to NK cell-mediated cytolysis compared with control transfection. Moreover, both enhanced adhesion and susceptibility of fractalkine-transfected cells were markedly suppressed by soluble fractalkine or anti-CX3CR1 Ab. Our results suggest that fractalkine plays an important role not only in the binding of NK cells to endothelial cells, but also in NK cell-mediated endothelium damage, which may result in vascular injury.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Integrins αvβ3 and α 4β1 act as coreceptors for fractalkine, and the integrin-binding defective mutant of fractalkine is an antagonist of CX3CR1. AU - Fujita, Masaaki. AU - Takada, Yoko K.. AU - Takada, Yoshikazu. PY - 2012/12/15. Y1 - 2012/12/15. N2 - The membrane-bound chemokine fractalkine (FKN, CX3CL1) on endothelial cells plays a role in leukocyte trafficking. The chemokine domain (FKN-CD) is sufficient for inducing FKN signaling (e.g., integrin activation), and FKN-CD binds to its receptor CX3CR1 on leukocytes. Whereas previous studies suggest that FKN-CD does not directly bind to integrins, our docking simulation studies predicted that FKN-CD directly interacts with integrin αvβ 3. Consistent with this prediction, we demonstrated that FKNCD directly bound to αvβ3 and α 4β1 at a very high affinity (KD of 3.0 × 10-10 M to αvβ3 in 1 mM Mn2+). Also, membrane-bound FKN bound to integrins αvβ3 and α4β1, suggesting that the FKN-CD/integrin interaction is ...
We aimed to investigate fractalkine (CX3CL1) protein expression in wild type (wt) retina and its alterations during retinal degeneration in mouse model (rd10) of retinitis pigmentosa. Forms of retinal protein CX3CL1, total protein and mRNA levels of CX3CL1 were analyzed at postnatal days (P) 5, 10, 14, 22, 30, 45, and 60 by Western blotting and real-time PCR. Cellular sources of CX3CL1 were investigated by in situ hybridization histochemistry (ISH) and using transgenic (CX3CL1cherry) mice. The immunoblots revealed that in both, wt and rd10 retinas, a membrane integrated approximately 100 kDa CX3CL1 form and a cleaved approximately 85 kDa CX3CL1 form were present at P5. At P10, accumulation of another presumably intra-neuronal approximately 95 kDa form and a decrease in the approximately 85-kDa form were observed. From P14, a approximately 95 kDa form became principal in wt retina, while in rd10 retinas a soluble approximately 85 kDa form increased at P45 and P60. In comparison, retinas of rd10 mice had
Chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1 (CX3CL1) is a large cytokine protein of 373 amino acids. It contains multiple domains and is the only known member of the CX3C chemokine family. It is also commonly known under the names fractalkine (in humans) and neurotactin (in mice). The polypeptide structur...
Fractalkine (Fkn) is expressed on injured endothelial cells and is a membrane-bound chemokine that attracts cells expressing its receptor, CX3CR1, including CD16(+) monocytes (CD16(+) Mos). To clarify the role played by Fkn in the development of glomerular lesions in lupus nephritis, we examined Fkn …
The mechanisms underlying peritoneal dissemination of ovarian carcinoma are poorly understood. Ovarian carcinoma is a malignancy with an exceptionally high mortality rate (1), largely due to the lack of effective antimetastatic treatment approaches. A more detailed understanding of the mechanisms underlying the formation and development of EOC metastases could offer insights into how late stages of this disease might be effectively targeted. Proteins that are presented on the cell surface have consistently been considered attractive molecular targets for disease treatment. Our data suggest that a member of GPCR family, the chemokine fractalkine receptor, functions to support the prometastatic properties of EOC cells, which include migration, peritoneal adhesion, and proliferation. In addition, the fractalkine chemokine can support cell proliferation through another receptor, EGFR. Our data support the hypothesis that multiple types of ovarian carcinoma rely on fractalkine signaling for disease ...
BioMed Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects in life sciences and medicine. The journal is divided into 55 subject-specific sections.
N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play fundamental roles in basic brain functions such as excitatory neurotransmission and learning and memory processes. Their function is largely regulated by factors released by glial cells, including the coagonist d-serine. We investigated whether the activation of microglial CX3CR1 induces the release of factors that modulate NMDAR functions. We recorded the NMDAR component of the field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (NMDA-fEPSPs) elicited in the CA1 stratum radiatum of mouse hippocampal slices by Shaffer collateral stimulation and evaluated d-serine content in the extracellular medium of glial primary cultures by mass spectrometry analysis. We demonstrated that CX3CL1 increases NMDA-fEPSPs by a mechanism involving the activity of the adenosine receptor type A2 (A2AR) and the release of the NMDAR coagonist d-serine. Specifically (1) the selective A2AR blocker 7-(2-phenylethyl)-5-amino-2-(2-furyl)-pyrazolo-[4,3-e]-1,2,4-triazolo[1
Fractalkine is a large cytokine protein of 373 amino acids, it contains multiple domains and is the only known member of the CX3C chemokine family. It is also commonly known under the names fractalkine (in humans) and neurotactin (in mice).[1][2] The polypeptide structure of CX3CL1 differs from the typical structure of other chemokines. For example, the spacing of the characteristic N-terminal cysteines differs; there are three amino acids separating the initial pair of cysteines in CX3CL1, with none in CC chemokines and only one intervening amino acid in CXC chemokines. CX3CL1 is produced as a long protein (with 373-amino acid in humans) with an extended mucin-like stalk and a chemokine domain on top. The mucin-like stalk permits it to bind to the surface of certain cells. However a soluble (90 kD) version of this chemokine has also been observed. Soluble CX3CL1 potently chemoattracts T cells and monocytes, while the cell-bound chemokine promotes strong adhesion of leukocytes to activated ...
The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes has risen dramatically in the United States and globally for the past few decades and has now reached epidemic proportions. Th...
Fractalkine is a transmembrane protein and chemokine involved in the adhesion and migration of leukocytes. The protein encoded by this gene is a receptor for fractalkine. The encoded protein also is a coreceptor for HIV-1, and some variations in this gene lead to increased susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and rapid progression to AIDS. Four transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010] ...
This ancient jewelry format is being revived today for the exploration of personal narrative, history, and social issues. Many contemporary jewelers have created cameos at some point in their careers, especially when approaching themes of memory and loss. While some artists reserve the form to honor personal memories, others seek to evoke public recollections. The …. REINVENTING MEMORY CONTEMPORARY CAMEOS Read More ». ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The disintegrin-like metalloproteinase ADAM 10 is involved in coinstitutive cleavage of CX3CL1 (fractalkine) and regulates CX3CL1-mediated cell-cell adhesion. AU - Hundhausen, C.. AU - Misztela, D.. AU - Berkhout, Theo. AU - Broadway, N.. AU - Saftig, P.. AU - Reiss, K.. AU - Hartmann, D.. AU - Fahrenholz, F.. AU - Postina, R.. AU - Matthews, J.. AU - Kallen, K.J.. AU - Rose-John, S.. AU - Ludwig, A.. PY - 2003/8/15. Y1 - 2003/8/15. N2 - The CX3C chemokine fractalkine (CX3CL1) exists as a membrane-expressed protein promoting cell-cell adhesion and as a soluble molecule inducing chemotaxis. Transmembrane CX3CL1 is converted into its soluble form by defined proteolytic cleavage (shedding), which can be enhanced by stimulation withphorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). PMA-induced CX3CL1 shedding has been shown to involve the tumor necrosis factor-alpha-converting enzyme (TACE), whereas the constitutive cleavage in unstimulated cells remains elusive. Here we demonstrate a role of ...
Induction and maintenance of tumor-protective immunity are the major goals of neuroblastoma immunotherapy. Enhancing the amount of tumor infiltrating leukocytes might be a way to achieve these goals since they may be associated with residual evidence of the ineffective immune response. Fractalkine is a unique TH1 CX3C chemokine known to induce both adhesion and migration of leukocytes mediated by a membrane-bound and a soluble form, respectively. Targeted IL-2 (ch14.18-IL-2) was constructed by anti-GD2 antibody fused with IL-2 so that IL-2 can be directed into the microenvironment of neuroblastoma tumor. Here, I tested the hypothesis that chemokine gene therapy with fractalkine (FKN) induces an effective anti-neuroblastoma immune response amplified by targeted IL-2. NXS2 cells were engineered to stably produce murine FKN (NXS2-FKN). Transcrip- tion and expression of the mFKN gene in NXS2-FKN cells and tumor tissue were demonstrated. The chemotactic activity of FKN expressed by NXS2 cells was ...
Maintenance and restoration of endothelial integrity are critical for blood vessel function. Endothelial cells (EC) form a monolayer in the inner surfaces of blood vessels that controls exchange of metabolites and regulates coagulation and cell trafficking. Cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis, vascular interventions, or bypass surgery, cause EC damage or overt defects in the endothelial monolayer, which triggers vascular inflammation, neointima formation, and ultimately vessel obstruction if endothelial integrity is not restored (Gimbrone & Garcia‐Cardena, 2016).. Under physiological conditions, EC replication is inhibited by cell contact and laminar flow (Akimoto et al, 2000; Chen et al, 2000). The loss of few cells is repaired rapidly by extension and spreading of adjacent EC without the need for proliferation (Reidy & Schwartz, 1981). However, larger EC lesions require proliferation to regenerate the endothelial monolayer and prevent neointima formation (Haudenschild & ...
Fractalkine is a proinflammatory chemokine that participates in atherosclerotic process mediating the interactions of vascular cells and leukocytes and selective recruitment of Th1 lymphocytes, through interaction with CX3CR1 receptor. The polymorphism of the fractalkine receptor 280M-containing haplotype, which codifies for a receptor with minor expression and with a reduced binding capability, represents a novel protective factor of atherosclerotic disease. We investigated the association among CX3CR1 genotype, the inflammatory infiltrate subpopulations recruited in the plaque, and the in situ expression of fractalkine and its receptor, in patients who died of myocardial infarction (AMI) compared with subjects who died of noncardiac causes. Patients with nonlethal AMI (AMI survivors) were also investigated to correlate the CX3CR1 polymorphisms and the incidence of lethal AMI. A strong T cells
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a large, double-stranded DNA virus that causes significant human disease, particularly in the congenital setting and in solid-organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. A prominent feature of HCMV is the wide range of viral gene products that it encodes wh …
The multi-domain CX3CL1 transmembrane chemokine triggers leukocyte adherence without rolling and migration by presentingits chemokine domain (CD) to its receptor CX3CR1. Through the combination of functional adhesion assays with structural analysis using FRAP, we investigated the functional role of the other domains of CX3CL1, i.e., its mucin stalk, transmembrane domain and cytosolic domain. Our results indicate that the CX3CL1 molecular structure is finely adapted to capture CX3CR1 incirculating cells and that each domain has a specific purpose: the mucin stalk is stiffened by its high glycosylation to present the CD away from the membrane, the transmembrane domain generates the permanent aggregation of an adequate amount of monomers to guarantee adhesion and prevent rolling, and the cytosolic domain ensures adhesive robustness by interacting with the cytoskeleton. We propose a model in which quasi-immobile CX3CL1 bundles are organized to quickly generate adhesive patches with sufficiently high
|p|CX3CL1 is the unique member of the CX3C chemokine subfamily. The membrane-anchored protein, which is primarily expressed on the inflamed endothelium, serves as an adhesion protein promoting the retention of monocytes and T cells in inflamed tissue. The soluble form resembles more a conventional chemokine and strongly induces chemotaxis. Both chemotaxis and adhesion are mediated by the G protein-coupled receptor CX3CR1. CX3CL1 has been thought to play an important role in inflammation, and indeed, accumulating evidence indicates that CX3CL1/CX3CR1 are involved in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory disorders such as glomerulonephritis, rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).|/p|
Epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) is the deadliest gynecologic malignancy largely due to the metastatic disease. EOC metastases spread by shedding the malignant cells off of the ovarian surface and seeding tissues and organs of the peritoneal cavity. Currently used therapies, a combination of chemotherapy and surgery, fail to keep most patients in the remission. Mechanistic understanding of the biology of EOC metastasis will facilitate development of new therapeutic approaches. Our previous data demonstrated that fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) is expressed by EOC cells and can support cell migration and proliferation. Moreover, our previous data suggested that CX3CR1-positive EOC cells can adhere to the CX3CL1-postive peritoneal mesothelial cells in in vitro assay. Thus, we hypothesized that CX3CL1/CX3CR1 axis could be important for peritoneal dissemination of metastatic EOC. To test this hypothesis, we performed short-term ex vivo and in vivo adhesion assay, as well as long-term metastasis ...
cell surface, extracellular region, integral component of membrane, positive regulation of calcium-independent cell-cell adhesion, positive regulation of inflammatory response
CX3CR1 is a G-protein-coupled seven-transmembrane chemokine receptor, also called GPR13 or V28. It is expressed on NK cells, T cell subset, monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells, and some malignant epithelial cells. CX3CL1 (known also as fractalkine and neurotactin) is the ligand of CX3CR1. CX3CL1
Alzheimers disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, is now the seventh major cause of death in the United States. AD is characterized an...
CX3CR1 Chemokine (C-X3-C motif) receptor 1 Identifiers Symbol(s) CX3CR1; CCRL1; CMKBRL1; CMKDR1; GPR13; GPRV28; V28 External IDs OMIM: 601470
Expression of Cx43 protein in the 1321N1 cells. Cx43 protein levels were normalized to that of β-actin protein. Data are expressed as means ± S.E.M. Each immu
Cisco Cable Guard for the 3560-CX and 2960-CX Compact Switches הנחה 45%. CMPCT-CBLE-GRD - המחיר שלנו (לפני מעמ): 87.30 ₪.
Cisco MAGNETIC MOUNTING TRAY FOR 3560-CX & 2960-CX COMPACT SWITCH הנחה 45%. CMPCT-MGNT-TRAY - המחיר שלנו (לפני מעמ): 87.69 ₪.
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KIOTI publicly debuted two new series -- the CS20 series and the CX series -- and a new edition to the CK 10SE series at the 2020 NFMS.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis-induced cellular aggregation is essential for granuloma formation and may assist establishment and early spread of M. tuberculosis infection. The M. tuberculosis ESX1 mutant, which has a non-functional type VII secretion system, induced significantly less production of the host macrophage-derived chemokine fractalkine (CX3CL1). Upon infection of human macrophages ESX1-dependent fractalkine production mediated selective recruitment of CD11b+ monocytic cells and increased infection of neighbouring cells consistent with early local spread of infection. Fractalkine levels were raised in vivo at tuberculous disease sites in humans and were significantly associated with increased CD11b+ monocytic cellular recruitment and extent of granulomatous disease. These findings suggest a novel fractalkine-dependent ESX1-mediated mechanism in early tuberculous disease pathogenesis in humans. Modulation of M. tuberculosis-mediated fractalkine induction may represent a potential ...
Surveillant parenchymal microglial cells are extremely plastic and provide the first line of defense within the CNS. Resident microglial cells are morphologically and functionally distinct from other mononuclear CNS populations, such as perivascular macrophages, supraependymal macrophages, epiplexus cells of the choroids plexus, and meningeal macrophages (24, 25). In the naive brain, microglia display small cell bodies with thin, long, and branched processes (1). Although microglial functions are intended to be protective, it is documented that dysregulated microglial responses lead to neurotoxicity in vitro and in vivo (12). Recent data have clearly shown that activation of microglia might be beneficial in some pathological settings. More specifically, absence of CX3CR1 in two different models of Alzheimers disease correlated to reduced β-amyloid deposition because of enhanced phagocytosis by activated microglia (26, 27). Upon activation, because of inflammation of neuronal damage, microglial ...
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InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
AequoScreen® Double Transfected Cell Lines: Chemokine, CX3CR1 subtype. Human Recombinant, in CHO-K1 host cell. Two vials of cryopreserved cells are shipped per order. A detailed technical dossier includes sequence, culture conditions and pharmacological properties of the recombinant receptor. All cell lines are tested for the absence of mycoplasma. Terms and conditions apply. Some products are not available in some countries. Please inquire at your local sales office for more information.. Features:. ...
PATCH] eeprom_93cx6: shorten pulse timing to match spec 93cx6 datasheet available here: Figure 1-1 and Table 1-2 on pages 4-5 indicate that both Clock High Time and Clock Low Time have largest minimum times of 450ns. Signed-off-by: John W. Linville ,[EMAIL PROTECTED], --- drivers/misc/eeprom_93cx6.c , 6 +++--- 1 files changed, 3 insertions(+), 3 deletions(-) diff --git a/drivers/misc/eeprom_93cx6.c b/drivers/misc/eeprom_93cx6.c index 0d6d742..ac515b0 100644 --- a/drivers/misc/eeprom_93cx6.c +++ b/drivers/misc/eeprom_93cx6.c @@ -42,10 +42,10 @@ static inline void eeprom_93cx6_pulse_high(struct eeprom_93cx6 *eeprom) /* * Add a short delay for the pulse to work. - * According to the specifications the minimal time - * should be 450ns so a 1us delay is sufficient. + * According to the specifications the maximum minimum + * time should be 450ns. */ - udelay(1); + ndelay(450); } static inline void eeprom_93cx6_pulse_low(struct eeprom_93cx6 ...
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More and more, customer experience (CX) is overtaking price and product as the key brand differentiator. But what constitutes great CX? Timely response. Whether its an answer, apology, assurance, or anything […]
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Titanium is the mean biocompatible metal found in dental titanium alloys (Ti-6Al-4V). The safety of certain dental biomaterial amalgams has been questioned in patients. The levels of several systemic cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-4: pg/mL) and chemokines (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), soluble fractalkine (CX3CL1: pg/mL) were determined using ELISA and compared between these study groups. The study included 30 controls without dental materials (cont), 57 patients with long-term titanium dental implants plus amalgams (A + I group) as well as 55 patients with long-term dental amalgam alone (A group). All patients (except controls) have had dental titanium implants (Ti-6Al-4V) and/or amalgams for at least 10 years (average: 15 years). We evaluated whether systemic levels of cytokines/chemokines, kyn/L-trp ratio and aromatic amino acid levels (HPLC: mM/L, Phe, L-Trp, His, Treo) could be altered in patients with long-term dental titanium and/or amalgams. These systemic markers were
Major players of the cancer-related inflammation are chemokines and their receptors. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is a peculiar chemokine, existing both as a soluble and a membrane-anchored protein. Its unique receptor, CX3CR1, is expressed on monocytes, NK, and T cells. In this study we provide evidence that CX3CL1 is expressed in human colorectal carcinoma and may modulate tumor malignant behaviour. CX3CL1 mRNA expression, evaluated in 30. CRC samples Selleckchem Bafilomycin A1 was strongly up-regulated in tumor tissues in comparison to normal colonic mucosa. CX3CL1 Serine/threonin kinase inhibitor protein expression has been evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 172 CRC samples, classified by tumor stage, confirming a strong positivity by tumor cells. On the same series of samples, the expression of CD3 and CD68 is being investigated by immunohistochemistry and the density of tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes and macrophages will be associated with the expression score of CX3CL1, as well as with ...
Results There were no significant differences were observed in the mean age, gender ratio, dosages of predonisolone and methotraxate between ADA and TCZ groups. In ADA group, baseline DAS28 for the 15 patients was 4.8±0.3 (2.5-7.2). On the other hands, baseline DAS28 for the 20 patients was 4.8±0.3 (2.5-6.8) in TCZ group. There were no differences between ADA and TCZ groups. RA patients with an insufficient response to ADA or TCZ showed highly significant improvement of DAS28 after 12 weeks (2.9±0.3 and 2.2±0.4, respectively), and 24 weeks (2.5±0.4 to 2.2±0.2, respectively). ADAM-10 highly correlates with CDAI, and fractalkine/CX3CL1. Serum ADAM-10 levels were no remarkable change after treatment with ADA despite decrease of disease activity of RA. On the other hand, serum ADAM-10 levels in patients who were treated with TCZ were significantly diminished following successful treatment and clinical improvement (baseline 408±88 pg/ml and 54 weeks 138±51 pg/ml, p,0.05). Univariate logistic ...
Anti-Mouse Lymphotactin/XCL1 polyclonal antibody reacts with mouse lymphotactin. |br| Background: Lymphotactin is the only C chemokine so far identified which has a single cysteine residue near the amino terminus. It has 114 amino acids with a 22 amino a
Rabbit anti Human Lymphotactin antibody recognizes human Lymphotactin, otherwise known as XCL1, the only member of the C-chemokine family
Expression of CX3CL1 (ABCD-3, C3Xkine, CXC3, CXC3C, fractalkine, neurotactin, NTN, SCYD1) in cervix, uterine tissue. Antibody staining with HPA040361 and CAB026192 in immunohistochemistry.
Expression of CX3CL1 (ABCD-3, C3Xkine, CXC3, CXC3C, fractalkine, neurotactin, NTN, SCYD1) in endometrium 1 tissue. Antibody staining with HPA040361 and CAB026192 in immunohistochemistry.
Mouse monoclonal CX3CL1 antibody [MM0207-8J23] validated for WB, IHC and tested in Human. Referenced in 1 publication. Immunogen corresponding to recombinant…
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Chemokines are divided into four main subfamilies: C, CC, CXC, and CX3C. Microglial cells are sources of some chemokines and ... The chemokines CCL5/RANTES, CCL3/MIP-1α, CCL4/MIP-1β, all of which bind to CCR5, are inhibitory to HIV-1 replication in ... The chemokine receptor, CX3CR1, is expressed by microglia in the central nervous system. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is the exclusive ... Chemokines are cytokines that stimulate directional migration of inflammatory cells in vitro and in vivo. ...
A chemotactic receptor for the human CX3C chemokine fractalkine and a fusion coreceptor for HIV-1". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (37): ... Mizoue LS, Bazan JF, Johnson EC, Handel TM (1999). "Solution structure and dynamics of the CX3C chemokine domain of fractalkine ... a CX3C chemokine, is expressed by dendritic cells and is up-regulated upon dendritic cell maturation". Eur. J. Immunol. 29 (8 ... it contains multiple domains and is the only known member of the CX3C chemokine family. It is also commonly known under the ...
... and CX3C chemokines". Journal of Immunology. 166 (8): 5145-54. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.166.8.5145. PMID 11290797. Lee B, Leslie G ... "Cell surface-anchored SR-PSOX/CXC chemokine ligand 16 mediates firm adhesion of CXC chemokine receptor 6-expressing cells". ... C-X-C chemokine receptor type 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CXCR6 gene. CXCR6 has also recently been ... "Entrez Gene: CXCR6 chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 6". Elliott ST, Wetzel KS, Francella N, Bryan S, Romero DC, Riddick NE, ...
... and CX3C chemokines". J Immunol. 166 (8): 5145-54. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.166.8.5145. PMID 11290797. Olszak T, An D, Zeissig S, ... Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 16 (CXCL16) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family. Larger than other ... These are unusual features for a chemokine, and allow CXCL16 to be expressed as a cell surface bound molecule, as well as a ... Matloubian M, David A, Engel S, Ryan J, Cyster J (2000). "A transmembrane CXC chemokine is a ligand for HIV-coreceptor Bonzo". ...
CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1) also known as the fractalkine receptor or G-protein coupled receptor 13 (GPR13) is a protein ... A chemotactic receptor for the human CX3C chemokine fractalkine and a fusion coreceptor for HIV-1". The Journal of Biological ... Mizoue LS, Bazan JF, Johnson EC, Handel TM (February 1999). "Solution structure and dynamics of the CX3C chemokine domain of ... "Entrez Gene: chemokine (C-X3-C motif) receptor 1". Imai T, Hieshima K, Haskell C, Baba M, Nagira M, Nishimura M, Kakizaki M, ...
AND CX3C families of chemokines". Cytokine. 18 (3): 140-8. doi:10.1006/cyto.2002.0875. PMID 12126650. Salmaggi A, Gelati M, ... C-X-C motif chemokine 11 (CXCL11) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CXCL11 gene. C-X-C motif chemokine 11 is a ... This chemokine elicits its effects on its target cells by interacting with the cell surface chemokine receptor CXCR3, with a ... "Entrez Gene: CXCL11 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11". Cole KE, Strick CA, Paradis TJ, Ogborne KT, Loetscher M, Gladue RP, Lin ...
AND CX3C families of chemokines". Cytokine. 18 (3): 140-8. doi:10.1006/cyto.2002.0875. PMID 12126650. D'Ambrosio D, Albanesi C ... "The assignment of chemokine-chemokine receptor pairs: TARC and MIP-1 beta are not ligands for human CC-chemokine receptor 8". ... They do this by binding to CCR4, a chemokine receptor. CCL17 is one of the few chemokines that are not stored in the body, ... CCL17 (CC chemokine ligand 17) was initially named TARC (thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine) when first isolated in ...
G protein also contains a CX3C fractalkine-like motif that binds to the CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1) on the surface of ...
C-X-C chemokine receptor activity. • interleukin-8 binding. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. • chemokine receptor ... This name and the corresponding gene symbol IL8RA have been replaced by the HGNC approved name C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 1 ... "Chemokine Receptors: CXCR1". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... chemokine-mediated signaling pathway. • interleukin-8-mediated signaling pathway. • neutrophil degranulation. • chemotaxis. ...
... and CX3C chemokines". J Immunol 166 (8): 5145-54. PMID 11290797. *↑ Mire-Sluis, Anthony R.; Thorpe, Robin, ur. (1998). ... 1,0 1,1 1,2 1,3 1,4 Matloubian M, David A, Engel S, Ryan J, Cyster J (2000). "A transmembrane CXC chemokine is a ligand for HIV ... "The transmembrane CXC-chemokine ligand 16 is induced by IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha and shed by the activity of the disintegrin- ...
... chemokines, cc MeSH D12.776.467.374.200.120 - chemokines, cxc MeSH D12.776.467.374.200.130 - chemokines, cx3c MeSH D12.776. ...
... chemokines, cc MeSH D23.125.300.120 - chemokines, cxc MeSH D23.125.300.130 - chemokines, cx3c MeSH D23.125.300.508 - ... chemokines, cc MeSH D23.469.200.120 - chemokines, cxc MeSH D23.469.200.130 - chemokines, cx3c MeSH D23.469.200.508 - ...
Cytokine Chemokines CC chemokines CXC chemokines C chemokines XCL1 XCL2 CX3C chemokines CX3CL1 (Fractalkine, Neurotactin) ... CXC chemokine receptors (CXCRs) C chemokine receptors (XCRs) XCR1 CX3C chemokine receptors (CX3CRs) CX3CR1 (Fractalkine ... Trimeric cytokine receptors Chemokine receptors - 7-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors CC chemokine receptors (CCRs) ...
... chemokines, cc MeSH D12.644. - chemokines, cxc MeSH D12.644. - chemokines, cx3c MeSH D12.644. ... chemokines MeSH D12.644. - beta-thromboglobulin MeSH D12.644. - chemokines, c MeSH D12.644. ...
CXCR that bind CXC chemokines, CCR that bind CC chemokines, CX3CR1 that binds the sole CX3C chemokine (CX3CL1), and XCR1 that ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines in that it has ... or d-chemokines). The only CX3C chemokine discovered to date is called fractalkine (or CX3CL1). It is both secreted and ...
chemokine receptor activity. • receptor activity. • protein binding. • C-C chemokine receptor activity. • C-C chemokine binding ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene.[5] CCR6 ... "Entrez Gene: CCR6 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6".. *^ Wang K, Zhang H, Kugathasan S, Annese V, Bradfield JP, Russell RK, ... "Chemokine Receptors: CCR6". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
CXCR that bind CXC chemokines, CCR that bind CC chemokines, CX3CR1 that binds the sole CX3C chemokine (CX3CL1), and XCR1 that ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ...
Kemokiinid (ka kemotaktsed tsütokiinid; inglise keeles chemokines) on selgroogsete loomade mitmete tuumaga rakkude poolt ( ... CX3C- (δ- kemokiinid) ja C- (γ-kemokiinid) perekond. ... Cytokine and Chemokine Expression in Humans Infected with Sudan ... Alzheimeri tõbi : Azizi G, Khannazer N, Mirshafiey A., The Potential Role of Chemokines in Alzheimer's Disease Pathogenesis. ... Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Induced Cytokine and Chemokine Expression by Human Microglia and Astrocytes: Effects of ...
... s are divided into different families, CXC chemokine receptors, CC chemokine receptors, CX3C chemokine ... Two types of chemokines that bind to these receptors are inflammatory chemokines and homeostatic chemokines. Inflammatory ... CX3C chemokine receptors (one member, CX3CR1). Fifty chemokines have been discovered so far, and most bind onto CXC and CC ... The N-terminal end of a chemokine receptor binds to chemokine(s) and is important for ligand specificity. G-proteins couple to ...
Activation of various innate immune signaling pathways (TLR3, TLR4, TLR7, TLR8, TLR9, cGAS, RIG-I, MDA-5) leads to the rapid induction of type I IFNs due to their (mostly) intronless gene structure.[3][4] The regulatory elements upstream of type I IFN genes differ, allowing differential transcription of type I IFNs in response to stimuli.[5] In particular, IFNβ contains a κB regulatory site, whereas IFNα subtypes do not. Production of specific type I IFNs is usually limited to a small number of type I IFN subtypes.[5] Once secreted, type I IFNs signal through IFNAR in a paracrine and autocrine manner.[6] IFNAR is a heteromeric cell surface receptor composed of two subunits, referred to as the low affinity subunit, IFNAR1, and the high affinity subunit, IFNAR2.[7][8] Upon binding of type I interferons, IFNAR activates the JAK-STAT signalling pathway, along with MAPK, PI3K, and Akt signaling pathways.[2] IFNAR agonism results in transcriptional changes, with the potential to increase or ...
This receptor is expressed by activated, but not by resting, T and B cells. TRAF2 and TRAF5 can interact with this receptor, and mediate the signal transduction that leads to the activation of NF-kappaB. It is a positive regulator of apoptosis, and also has been shown to limit the proliferative potential of autoreactive CD8 effector T cells and protect the body against autoimmunity. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene encoding distinct isoforms have been reported.[5] ...
The interleukin-3 receptor (CD123) is a molecule found on cells which helps transmit the signal of interleukin-3, a soluble cytokine important in the immune system. The gene coding for the receptor is located in the pseudoautosomal region of the X and Y chromosomes. The receptor belongs to the type I cytokine receptor family and is a heterodimer with a unique alpha chain paired with the common beta (beta c or CD131) subunit. The gene for the alpha subunit is 40 kilobases long and has 12 exons. ...
Interleukin-1 receptor-like 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL1RL2 gene.[5][6][7][8] The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the interleukin 1 receptor family. An experiment with transient gene expression demonstrated that this receptor was incapable of binding to interleukin 1 alpha and interleukin 1 beta with high affinity. This gene and four other interleukin 1 receptor family genes, including interleukin 1 receptor, type I (IL1R1), interleukin 1 receptor, type II (IL1R2), interleukin 1 receptor-like 1 (IL1RL1), and interleukin 18 receptor 1 (IL18R1), form a cytokine receptor gene cluster in a region mapped to chromosome 2q12.[8] ...
Xie MH, Aggarwal S, Ho WH, Foster J, Zhang Z, Stinson J, Wood WI, Goddard AD, Gurney AL (2000). "Interleukin (IL)-22, a novel human cytokine that signals through the interferon receptor-related proteins CRF2-4 and IL-22R". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (40): 31335-9. doi:10.1074/jbc.M005304200. PMID 10875937 ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GHR gene.[5] GHR orthologs [6] have been identified in most mammals.. This gene encodes a protein that is a transmembrane receptor for growth hormone. Binding of growth hormone to the receptor leads to receptor dimerization (the receptor may however also exist as a pre-assembled non-functional dimer [7]) and the activation of an intra- and intercellular signal transduction pathway leading to growth. A common alternate allele of this gene, called GHRd3, lacks exon three and has been well-characterized. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Laron syndrome, also known as the growth hormone insensitivity syndrome (GHIS), a disorder characterized by short stature (proportional dwarfism). Other splice variants, including one encoding a soluble form of the protein (GHRtr), have been observed but have not been thoroughly characterized.[5] Laron mice (that is mice genetically engineered to carry defective Ghr), have a ...
Update on chemokine receptor nomenclature". Pharmacol. Rev. 54 (2): 227-9. DOI:10.1124/pr.54.2.227. PMID 12037138. ... Hemokinski receptori se dele u različite familije, CXC hemokinski receptori, CC hemokinski receptori, CX3C hemokinski receptori ... Chemokine Receptors". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. ... Murdoch C, Finn A (2000). "Chemokine receptors and their role in inflammation and infectious diseases". Blood 95 (10): 3032-43 ...
G protein also contains a CX3C fractalkine-like motif that binds to the CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1) on the surface of ...
1997) A new class of membrane-bound chemokine with a CX3C motif. Nature 385:640-644, pmid:9024663.. ... In addition to CC chemokines, we found that the CX3C chemokine, fractalkine, was also induced in the glomeruli of anti-GBM GN ... and the key chemokine may vary from disease to disease. Moreover, the key chemokine may vary with the progression of an ... broad-spectrum chemokine antagonist, vMIP-II could interfere with the activities of these chemokines in vivo, and thus prevent ...
Fractalkine (FKN), the sole member of the CX3C chemokine family, is named for its fractal geometry. The CX3C motif, with three ... chemokines can be grouped into four families: C, CC, CXC, and CX3C. Studies have shown that chemokines not only function as ... Fractalkine, a CX3C Chemokine, as a Mediator of Ocular Angiogenesis Jian-Jang You; Chang-Hao Yang; Jen-Shang Huang; Muh-Shy ... Fractalkine, a CX3C Chemokine, as a Mediator of Ocular Angiogenesis You will receive an email whenever this article is ...
Also suspected to play a role in nociceptive pain and also act tonically as an anti-inflammatory chemokine in cerebral tissue ... Fractalkine has also been found to play a role in nociceptive pain might act tonically as an anti-inflammatory chemokine in ...
6. CX3C Chemokines and Thyroid Hormone Analogues. 6.1. CX3CL1. The resident macrophages of the CNS, microglia, have both ... 5. C Chemokines. The C chemokines are XCL1 (lymphotactin-α) and XCL2 (lymphotactin-β). The single receptor to which these ... S. Goda, T. Imai, O. Yoshie et al., "CX3C-chemokine, fractalkine-enhanced adhesion of THP-1 cells to endothelial cells through ... 3. CC Chemokines and Thyroid Hormone Analogues. 3.1. CCL20. Among the homeostatic chemokines in the CNS that contribute to ...
chemokine receptor activity. • receptor activity. • protein binding. • C-C chemokine receptor activity. • C-C chemokine binding ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene.[5] CCR6 ... "Entrez Gene: CCR6 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6".. *^ Wang K, Zhang H, Kugathasan S, Annese V, Bradfield JP, Russell RK, ... "Chemokine Receptors: CCR6". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
The fractalkine/CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1) pathway has been identified to play an essential role in the chemotaxis of ... From: CX3C chemokine receptor 1 deficiency modulates microglia morphology but does not affect lesion size and short-term ...
CX3C Chemokine Receptor 1 Chemokines, CX3C Disease Models, Animal Humans Macrophages Mice Mice, Knockout Monocytes Myocytes, ... The CX3C chemokine receptor CX3CR1 is expressed on monocytes as well as tissue resident cells, such as smooth muscle cells ( ... Role of the CX3C chemokine receptor CX3CR1 in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis after aortic transplantation. PloS one. 2017; ... Role of the CX3C chemokine receptor CX3CR1 in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis after aortic transplantation. Zuzanna ...
CX3C chemokine receptor 1. CX3CL1. Chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1 (Fraktalkine) ... Tatrai E, Brozik M, Kovacikova Z, Horvath M (2005) The effect of asbestos and stone-wool fibres on some chemokines and redox ... Naert G, Rivest S (2011) CC chemokine receptor 2 deficiency aggravates cognitive impairments and amyloid pathology in a ...
cd00274 Chemokine_CX3C, 1 hit. InterProi. View protein in InterPro. IPR039809 Chemokine_b/g/d. IPR034127 Chemokine_CX3C. ... IPR039809 Chemokine_b/g/d. IPR034127 Chemokine_CX3C. IPR001811 Chemokine_IL8-like_dom. IPR008097 CX3CL1. IPR036048 Interleukin_ ... Chemokine CX3CL1/FRACTALKINEImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures ... IPR001811 Chemokine_IL8-like_dom. IPR008097 CX3CL1. IPR036048 Interleukin_8-like_sf. ...
... cells in human atherosclerotic plaques express the fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 and undergo chemotaxis to the CX3C chemokine ... cells in human atherosclerotic plaques express the fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 and undergo chemotaxis to the CX3C chemokine ... cells in human atherosclerotic plaques express the fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 and undergo chemotaxis to the CX3C chemokine ... Targeting cardiac inflammation in post-infarction myocardial injury using novel chemokine-ligand traps derived from tick saliva ...
US28 binds different CC chemokines and the CX3C chemokine CX3CL1. Membrane-anchored CX3CL1 is expressed by immune-activated … ... US28 binds different CC chemokines and the CX3C chemokine CX3CL1. Membrane-anchored CX3CL1 is expressed by immune-activated ... Human cytomegalovirus chemokine receptor US28 induces migration of cells on a CX3CL1-presenting surface J Gen Virol. 2013 May; ... with soluble chemokines affecting the final migration. ...
CXCR that bind CXC chemokines, CCR that bind CC chemokines, CX3CR1 that binds the sole CX3C chemokine (CX3CL1), and XCR1 that ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ...
Matching the dynamic mucosal landscape, CX3C chemokine receptor (CX3CR)1-expressing macrophages are relatively short live … ... Matching the dynamic mucosal landscape, CX3C chemokine receptor (CX3CR)1-expressing macrophages are relatively short lived, and ...
CX3C chemokine receptor 1. EMP. erythromyeloid progenitor. ENS. enteric nervous system. HSC. hematopoietic stem cell. MM. ...
CXCL10 and CX3C motif chemokine ligand 1 (CX3CL1)/CX3C motif chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1) can serve as favorable or ... CX3C. As the only member of the CX3C chemokine subfamily, CX3CL1 is a transmembrane glycoprotein that exists in two forms: ... Among the four types of chemokines, there are two highly homologous XC chemokines: XC motif chemokine ligand 1 (XCL1) and XCL2 ... Chemokine receptors. Chemokines. Functions. Signaling pathways. Role in HCC. (Refs.). CXCR1. CXCL6,. Chemotactic neutrophils. - ...
CX3C chemokine mimicry by respiratory syncytial virus G glycoprotein. Ralph A. Tripp, Les P. Jones, Lia M. Haynes, HaoQiang ... Effects of Alterations to the CX3C Motif and Secreted Form of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) G Protein on Immune ...
A new class of membrane-bound chemokine with a CX3C motif. Gluud LL, editor. J Immunol [Internet]. 2008 [cited 2017 Nov 28];19( ... Nibbs R, Graham G, Rot A. Chemokines on the move: control by the chemokine "interceptors" Duffy blood group antigen and D6. ... Chemokine and chemokine receptor structure and interactions: implications for therapeutic strategies. Immunol Cell Biol [ ... The Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines transports chemokines and supports their promigratory activity. Nat Immunol [Internet ...
View our interactive Chemokine Superfamily Pathway: Human/Mouse Ligand-Receptor Interactions. ... Four chemokine subfamilies (CXC, CC, C, and CX3C) have been defined based upon the placement of the first two cysteine residues ... While chemokine receptors generally bind only one subfamily of chemokines, within those subfamilies, most chemokines display ... The CX3C chemokine subfamily is defined by two cysteine residues separated by three amino acids. Cell surface-localized CX3CL1/ ...
... and CX3C chemokines (3). To date, at least 46 chemokine ligands have been identified in humans. There are also 18 functionally ... Chemotactic cytokines, namely chemokines, are known as the center of cell migration. Chemokines are a family of small (8-14 kDa ... CXCL12 (also called stromal-derived factor-1α, SDF-1α) is a CXC chemokine which has unique properties in chemokines. ... Recently, it has been shown that various types of cancer cells express chemokine receptors, suggesting that chemokines may play ...
The role CX3C chemokine axis in intercellular communication.. Contributions of Dendritic cell, Macrophages and Monocytes ...
In vivo structure/function and expression analysis of the CX3C chemokine fractalkine. Blood 118, e156-e167 (2011). ...
1997) A new class of membrane-bound chemokine with a CX3C motif. Nature 385(6617):640-644. ... 2005) CC and CX3C chemokines differentially interact with the N terminus of the human cytomegalovirus-encoded US28 receptor. J ... 1998) Selective recognition of the membrane-bound CX3C chemokine, fractalkine, by the human cytomegalovirus-encoded broad- ... The globular chemokine body interacts with the receptor N terminus and extracellular loops, and the chemokine N terminus enters ...
Chemokine Receptors and Disease, Volume 55 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780121533557, 9780080917207 ... The Molecular and Cellular Biology of C and CX3C Chemokines and Their Receptors. Chemokines and Their Receptors in ... Chemokines and Chemokine Receptors in Pulmonary Disease. Chemokines, Chemokine Receptors and Atherosclerosis. CXC Chemokines in ... Chemokines and Chemokine Receptors in Infectious Disease. New Therapies Targeting Chemokine Receptors: Can Changing the Way ...
0 (CX3C Chemokine Receptor 1); 0 (Cx3cr1 protein, mouse); 0 (Cytokines); 0 (Lipopeptides); 0 (Luminescent Proteins); 0 (MRC1 ... Receptor 1 de Quimiocina CX3C. Citocinas/metabolismo. Modelos Animais de Doen as. Regula o da Express o G nica/gen tica. ... Chemokine); 0 (Thy-1 Antigens); EC 3.1.4.- (2,3-Cyclic-Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases). ...
CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1). Summary and prospect. As a rapidly growing health care problem, diabetes has been ...
0 (Antigens, Ly); 0 (CD11c Antigen); 0 (CX3C Chemokine Receptor 1); 0 (Chemokines); 0 (Cx3cr1 protein, mouse); 0 (Cytokines); 0 ... Receptor 1 de Quimiocina CX3C. Movimento Celular. Quimiocinas/imunologia. T cnicas de Cocultura. Citocinas/imunologia. C lulas ... The cytokine/chemokine profile of these renal-infiltrating CD11c cells suggests their roles in promoting LN, which was ... a chemokine receptor expressed highly on these CD11c cells. However, CX CR1 was dispensable for the homing of CD11c cells into ...
The CX3C chemokine CX3CL1 (fractalkine, also called as neurotactin), which has been identified as two forms, soluble or ... C. Savarin-Vuaillat and R. M. Ransohoff, "Chemokines and chemokine receptors in neurological disease: raise, retain, or reduce ... the CX3C chemokine fractalkine receptor CX3CR1, is almost exclusively expressed in microglia throughout the CNS, which is ... CX3CR1 is the sole receptor of CX3C chemokine CX3CL1 (fractalkine). The roles of CX3CL1-CX3CR1 signaling on AD pathology are ...
GenScript offers a broad range of active chemokine proteins with excellent lot-to-lot consistency, superior activity and ... CX3C chemokines. Cat. No.. Product Name. Quantity. Price. Z02828-20. Fractalkine/CX3CL1, Human - 20 μg $159.00 ... Chemokines. Chemokines are a family of small cytokines, or proteins secreted by cells, with a molecular mass between 8 and 10 ... Members of the chemokine family are divided into four groups depending on the location of their first two cysteine residues. ...
  • Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is a chemokine relevant to inflammatory processes in the CNS that are microglia-dependent but also important to normal brain development. (
  • US28 binds different CC chemokines and the CX3C chemokine CX3CL1. (
  • Overall, this indicates that infected cells probably move more than uninfected cells in inflamed tissues with high CX3CL1 expression, with soluble chemokines affecting the final migration. (
  • Smooth muscle cells in human atherosclerotic plaques express the fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 and undergo chemotaxis to the CX3C chemokine fractalkine (CX3CL1). (
  • CX3CL1 (C-X3-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 1) is a Protein Coding gene. (
  • Notably, several recent studies from our groups and others suggest that neuron-microglia signaling via the chemokine fractalkine (CX3CL1) and its cognate receptor CX3CR1 plays a unique role in AD pathogenesis. (
  • CX3CL1 is a CX3C chemokine known to induce adhesion and migration of leukocytes mediated by a membrane-bound and soluble form respectively. (
  • Fractalkine also known as chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CX3CL1 gene . (
  • [1] [2] The polypeptide structure of CX3CL1 differs from the typical structure of other chemokines. (
  • there are three amino acids separating the initial pair of cysteines in CX3CL1, with none in CC chemokines and only one intervening amino acid in CXC chemokines . (
  • CX3CL1 is produced as a long protein (with 373-amino acid in humans) with an extended mucin -like stalk and a chemokine domain on top. (
  • Soluble CX3CL1 potently chemoattracts T cells and monocytes , while the cell-bound chemokine promotes strong adhesion of leukocytes to activated endothelial cells, where it is primarily expressed. (
  • [2] CX3CL1 elicits its adhesive and migratory functions by interacting with the chemokine receptor CX3CR1 . (
  • It is alsocommonly known under the names fractalkine (in humans) and neurotactin (in mice).The polypeptide structure of Cx3cl1 differs from thetypical structure of other chemokines. (
  • 1, 2 In addition, there are two C chemokines, Ltn-α/XCL1 and Ltn-β/XCL2, in which two out of the four conserved Cys residues are missing, and a single CX3C chemokine, called fractalkine/CX3CL1, with three amino acids separating the two NH 2 terminal Cys residues. (
  • OBJECTIVE: Fractalkine (CX3CL1) represents the sole member of the so-called CX3C chemokines. (
  • Chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1 (CX3CL1) is a large cytokine protein of 373 amino acids. (
  • CX3CL1 can signal through the chemokine receptor CX3CR1. (
  • [1] [2] As the name suggests, this receptor binds the chemokine CX3CL1 (also called neurotactin or fractalkine). (
  • The fractalkine ligand CX3CL1 is a transmembrane protein and chemokine involved in the adhesion and migration of leukocytes . (
  • Nevertheless, ACKR1 plus some vGPCRs combination this boundary because they bind CC, CXC, and CX3CL1 chemokines. (
  • CX3CL1 is a unique transmembrane molecule with a CX3C-motif chemokine domain and a mucin-like stalk. (
  • Role of the CX3C chemokine receptor CX3CR1 in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis after aortic transplantation. (
  • Another surface receptor, the CX3C chemokine fractalkine receptor CX3CR1, is almost exclusively expressed in microglia throughout the CNS, which is involved in progression of neurodegenerative disease by altering microglial activities [ 16 , 17 ] (Figure 2 ). (
  • However, very little is known of the role of RSV CX3C-CX3CR1 interactions in human disease. (
  • Treatment of CX3C virus-infected cells with the F(ab′) 2 form of an anti-G monoclonal antibody (MAb) that blocks binding to CX3CR1 gave results similar to those with the CX4C virus. (
  • Interacts with host CX3CR1, the receptor for the CX3C chemokine fractalkine, to modulate the immune response and facilitate infection. (
  • We further show that isolated RSV G CCD activates the chemokine receptor CX3CR1 and that antibodies block this activity. (
  • Specifically, RSV G CCD contains a CX3C chemokine motif that facilitates binding to the human chemokine receptor CX3CR1, a critical step for RSV infection in human airway epithelial cells ( 10 - 13 ). (
  • The sole ligand for CX3CR1, fractalkine, is an unusual chemokine that is expressed as a transmembrane molecule with a CX3C domain and a mucin domain. (
  • CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1) also known as the fractalkine receptor or G-protein coupled receptor 13 (GPR13) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CX3CR1 gene . (
  • CX3CR1 is a G-protein-coupled seven-transmembrane chemokine receptor, also called GPR13 or V28. (
  • Here we describe a novel, rationally designed fusion toxin protein (FTP)-based strategy to target HCMV on the basis of its virally expressed G protein-coupled receptor (US28) and cognate chemokine ligand. (
  • Two nomenclature systems are used in the current literature, the traditional abbreviations dating back to the time of chemokine discovery, such as interleukin (IL)-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and a systematic nomenclature that combines structural motifs (CXC, CC, XC, CX3C) with L for ligand and the number of the respective gene ( gives access to recent updates 3 ). (
  • CCL28, also known as Chemokine ligand 28, and known in addition as a mucosae-associated epithelial chemokine (MEC), is a chemokine. (
  • Platelet factor 4 (PF4) is a cytokine that belongs to the CXC chemokine family and is also known as a chemokine (C-X-C motif) and ligand 4 - CXCL4. (
  • C-C motif chemokine receptor (CCR)2 and its ligand, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, are pivotal for adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) recruitment and the development of insulin resistance. (
  • ATM accumulation occurs when C-C motif chemokine receptor (CCR)2 interacts with its ligand, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, also known as CCL2. (
  • Most chemokines bind to more than one receptor, while most receptors also display overlapping ligand specificity [ 5 ]. (
  • During ligand binding, chemokine receptors associate with G-proteins, facilitating the exchange of GDP (Guanosine Diphosphate) for GTP (Guanosine Triphosphate). (
  • To define the basis for sulfotyrosine recognition in a chemokine-receptor signaling complex, we solved the structures of the extracellular N-terminal domain of CXCR4 in its unmodified, singly sulfated and fully sulfated forms when bound to its ligand SDF-1. (
  • The chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its ligand, stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), play important roles in hematopoiesis regulation, lymphocyte activation, and trafficking, as well as in developmental processes, including organogenesis, vascularization, and embryogenesis. (
  • CXCL12) is a member of the CXC chemokine subfamily, and it seems to be the only ligand for chemokine receptor CXCR4. (
  • The CC chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 has been identified as an inducer of endothelial cell (EC) chemotaxis in vitro 7 and as a mediator of inflammatory angiogenesis in vivo. (
  • In addition to being known for mediating chemotaxis, chemokines are all approximately 8-10 kilodaltons in mass and have four cysteine residues in conserved locations that are key to forming their 3-dimensional shape. (
  • In addition, the potential application of chemokines in chemotaxis of exosomes as drug vehicles is discussed. (
  • Exosomes containing chemokines or expressing receptors for chemokines may improve chemotaxis to HCC and may thus be exploited for targeted drug delivery. (
  • chemokines in monocytes: implications for transendothelial chemotaxis. (
  • Chemokines (chemotactic cytokines) are low-molecular-weight, secreted proteins that are defined by their ability to induce directed migration (chemotaxis) of cells expressing an appropriate chemokine receptor(s) ( 28 ). (
  • Both aspects, cell adhesion and chemotaxis, are regulated by members of the family of chemotactic cytokines (chemokines) comprising structurally related and secreted proteins of 67-127 amino acids in length. (
  • Chemokines induce chemotaxis through the activation of G-protein-coupled receptors, and the receptors that a given leukocyte expresses determines the chemokines to which it will respond. (
  • In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), functional studies suggest a role for this chemokine in monocyte chemotaxis and angiogenesis in the rheumatoid synovium. (
  • Also known for mediating chemotaxis, chemokines are around 8-10 kilodaltons in mass and usually have four cysteine residues kept in conserved locations, it's these that allow them to form their three dimensional shape. (
  • CCL28 is known for regulating the chemotaxis of cells that express the chemokine receptors CCR3 and CCR10. (
  • What CCL28 does within the body is regulate chemotaxis of cells that express the chemokine receptors CCR3 and CCR10, making it a vital gene. (
  • Activated chemokine receptors primarily transmission through Gi/o proteins to mediate chemotaxis (Neptune and Bourne, 1997). (
  • For example, in addition to chemotaxis, chemokines modulate lymphocyte development, priming and effector function [ 2 ] and play a critical role in immune surveillance. (
  • Chemokines also participate in the growth, differentiation, and activation of leukocytes as well as stimulate various effector functions of these cells, such as integrin activation, chemotaxis, superoxide radical production and granule enzyme release. (
  • Chemokines (Greek -kinos , movement) are a family of small cytokines , or signaling proteins secreted by cells . (
  • Cytokine proteins are classified as chemokines according to behavior and structural characteristics. (
  • All of these proteins exert their biological effects by interacting with G protein -linked transmembrane receptors called chemokine receptors , that are selectively found on the surfaces of their target cells. (
  • Chemokines are a class of small molecular proteins with similar structures, functions and chemotactic properties, and their molecular weights are ~10 kDa, and chemokines represent the largest member of the cytokine family ( 9 ). (
  • Chemokines are small proteins that are important in normal immune responses. (
  • Chemokines are a family of small cytokines, or proteins secreted by cells, with a molecular mass between 8 and 10 kDa. (
  • GenScript offers a comprehensive catalog of chemokine proteins with excellent lot-to-lot consistency, superior activity and significantly low endotoxin levels. (
  • Many chemokines consist of four cysteine residues that type disulfide bridges, which stabilize the tertiary framework of the proteins. (
  • Chemokines include a quality flexible NH2-terminal area around 6C10 proteins that is usually important for transmission transduction. (
  • Chemokines are a family of proteins associated with the trafficking of leukocytes in immune surveillance and inflammatory cell recruitment. (
  • iv) The chemokine receptor pUS28 is a coreceptor for several human immunodeficiency virus strains ( 27 , 32 ) and can elicit cell-to-cell fusion upon interaction with several types of viral envelope proteins ( 33 ). (
  • Viral chemokine-binding proteins inhibit inflammatory responses and aortic allograft transplant vasculopathy in rat models. (
  • We have assessed the effects of three viral chemokine-binding proteins with differing ranges of chemokine inhibition on plaque growth in rats after aortic allograft transplant. (
  • One of two myxomaviral chemokine binding proteins, (1). (
  • Viral chemokine-modulating proteins effectively reduce aortic allograft vasculopathy, acting predominantly through inhibition of a CC chemokine-mediated response. (
  • Chemokine receptors belong to the large family of seven transmembrane domain receptors which couple to heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (G-proteins) (fig 1). (
  • In this review, we summarize roles of the chemokines, a family of small secreted proteins that selectively recruit monocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes to sites of vascular injury, inflammation, and developing atherosclerosis. (
  • Chemokines ( chemo tactic cyto kines ) are small heparin-binding proteins that direct the migration of circulating leukocytes to sites of inflammation or injury. (
  • Chemokines are a group of small cytokines - signalling proteins that are secreted by the cells. (
  • Cytokine proteins are classified as chemokines due to their behaviour and the structural characteristics that they hold. (
  • Each of these proteins take their proteins from biological effects by interacting with g-protein linked transmembrane receptors known as chemokine receptors - these are found on the surface of target cells. (
  • These observations implicate certain chemokines and endoplasmic reticulum proteins in AMD pathogenesis. (
  • This fluid is a rich source of growth factors, extracellular matrix proteins, chemokines, and other factors that may support and promote peritoneal metastasis ( 11-13 ). (
  • Chemokines are small proteins that direct the trafficking of immune cells to sites of inflammation. (
  • Furthermore, chemokine receptors activate mitogen-activated proteins (MAP) kinases such as for example extracellular-signal-regulated kinases ERK1/2, p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) but also Rho GTPases (e.g. (
  • Chemokines, or chemotactic cytokines, are a large family of small (6 14 kDa), structurally related proteins that mediate a wide range of biological activities. (
  • There is increasing evidence that chemokine receptors can also activate several different intracellular effectors downstream of G-alphaI coupling, including the low-molecular-weight proteins Ras and Rho, PLA2 (Phospholipase-A2), PI3K (Phosphatidylinositol-3 Kinase), tyrosine kinases and the MAPK (Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase) pathway (Ref.2). (
  • Chemokines are divided into four subfamilies (C, CC, CXC, and CX3C) on the basis of their genetically conserved cysteine motif, important for the structure and function of the proteins. (
  • Chemokines are multifunctional mediators mainly responsible for leukocyte recruitment to inflamed tissues. (
  • 5 6 Although chemokines are generally thought to function as leukocyte attractants, further studies have shown that they also can induce angiogenesis. (
  • that is, rapid normal leukocyte trafficking is controlled strictly by chemokines and their receptors (1, 2). (
  • Endothelial stores of chemokines and their function in leukocyte extravasation. (
  • Chemokine activation of leukocyte integrins at endothelial contacts under shear stress. (
  • Chemokines are chemoattractants that mediate leukocyte attraction and recruitment at the site of inflammation. (
  • Chemokines are functionally divided into two groups: Homeostatic: are constitutively produced in certain tissues and are responsible for basal leukocyte migration. (
  • Chemokines are little, chemotactic protein that play an essential part in leukocyte migration and so are, therefore, needed for proper working of the disease fighting capability. (
  • Chemokines are essential mediators of normal leukocyte trafficking as well as of leukocyte recruitment during inflammation. (
  • In adult vertebrates, chemokines are essential for proper lymphoid organ architecture and for leukocyte trafficking ( 1 ). (
  • Fourth, following local production, chemokines induce leukocyte cytoskeletal changes, for example, actin polymerization, optimizing cell migration to areas of microbial infection or degeneration. (
  • As a part of normal immune system functions, chemokines are a critical component of basal leukocyte trafficking essential for immune system architecture and development, and immune surveillance. (
  • Chemokines are a family of structurally related glycoproteins with potent leukocyte activation and/or chemotactic activity. (
  • They are classified by structure into four groups, designated C, CC, CXC, and CX3C, depending on the number and spacing of the cysteine residues in the mature protein. (
  • To date, >50 chemokines have been found, which can be divided into four families: CXC, CX3C, CC and XC, according to the different positions of the conserved N‑terminal cysteine residues. (
  • 50 chemokines have been identified, which can be divided into four families: CXC, CX3C, CC and XC, based on the different positions of the conserved N-terminal cysteine residues ( 9 ). (
  • Members of the chemokine family are divided into four groups depending on the location of their first two cysteine residues. (
  • This gene belongs to the CX3C subgroup of chemokines, characterized by the number of amino acids located between the conserved cysteine residues. (
  • This is the only member of the CX3C subgroup, which contains three amino acids between cysteine residues, resulting in a Cys-X-X-X-Cys configuration. (
  • Chemokines are classified according to their conserved N-terminal cysteine residues (C) that form the first disulfide bond. (
  • The largest family is known as the CC chemokines because the first two of the four conserved cysteine residues that are characteristic of chemokines are adjacent to each other. (
  • Chemokines are split into four family members based on the quantity and spatial business of conserved cysteine residues within their N-terminus. (
  • These molecules are classified into four families (CC, CXC, C, and CX3C) based on the way the first two conserved cysteine residues are arranged, creating a structural motif [ 6 ]. (
  • and the CX3C chemokines which have three intervening AA residues between the first two conserved cysteine residues. (
  • They are divided into four subfamilies (C, CC, CXC, and CX3C) based on the arrangement of their first two conserved cysteine residues at the amino terminus ( 1 ). (
  • The encoded protein contains an extended mucin-like stalk with a chemokine domain on top, and exists in both a membrane-anchored form where it acts as a binding molecule, or, in soluble form, as a chemotactic cytokine. (
  • A third mechanism of chemokine action was immediately suggested by the discovery of fractalkine ( 1 ), a multidomain molecule that includes a chemokine region, a mucin-like stalk, and an 18-amino-acid stretch of hydrophobic residues that is predicted to span the cell membrane. (
  • FK consists of a soluble chemokine domain fused to a mucin-like stalk and a transmembrane domain. (
  • The major role of chemokines is to act as a chemoattractant to guide the migration of cells. (
  • To decipher the role of chemokines in TB infection and disease, we measured the levels of chemokines in PTB, LTB and HC individuals. (
  • Here, we discuss recent views on the role of chemokines in controlling tissue localisation of human memory T cells under steady state (non-inflamed) conditions. (
  • These receptors usually do not induce migration upon chemokine binding or activate G protein-dependent signaling, but recruit -arrestin (Galliera et al. (
  • After binding to their specific receptors, chemokines may also induce receptor homodimerization and subsequently activate the receptor-associated JAK (Janus Kinases), possibly by transphosphorylation on tyrosine residues. (
  • Chemokines direct homeostatic and proinflammatory immune responses by activating specific guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to induce cell migration along a gradient of increasing concentration of chemokine. (
  • Consequently, it may be difficult to control inflammation with an agent designed to neutralize the activity of a single chemokine. (
  • Thus, modulation of EAE with C-C chemokine DNA vaccines is dependent on targeting chemokines that are highly transcribed at the site of inflammation at the onset of disease. (
  • The chemokines are a family of potent chemotactic cytokines that regulate the trafficking of leukocytes and are rapidly upregulated at sites of vascular inflammation. (
  • CC chemokines tend to attract mononuclear cells and are found at sites of chronic inflammation. (
  • The CXC family of chemokines, of which IL-8 (CXCL8) is the prototypical member, attract polymorphonuclear leukocytes and have been implicated in acute pulmonary inflammation. (
  • In addition, surface molecules on platelets can interact with other cells and chemokines in activated platelets and cause inflammation thrombosis events and CVD. (
  • Chemokines form a superfamily of small (8-10 kDa), inducible, secreted chemotactic cytokines that play a crucial role in inflammation, infection, and immunity ( 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ). (
  • RT-PCR verified by Southern blotting and sequencing of PCR products of four different C-C chemokines, macrophage-inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), monocyte-chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), MIP-1β, and RANTES, were performed on brain samples from EAE rats to evaluate mRNA transcription at different stages of disease. (
  • Microglial cells are sources of some chemokines and express the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) chemokine in particular. (
  • a human monocyte and thymus receptor for the CC chemokine 1-309. (
  • Both CC and CXC chemokines direct monocyte and T-cell migration and activation at sites of vascular injury, but the relative contributions of each chemokine class to transplant vasculopathy development have not been defined. (
  • Coinfusion of the CC chemokines macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 and macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha neutralized M-T1 and M-T7 inhibition of monocyte invasion, respectively, suggesting a key role for CC chemokine-mediated cellular influx. (
  • Because of their critical roles in monocyte recruitment in vascular and nonvascular diseases, MCP-1 and CCR2 have become important therapeutic targets, and efforts are underway to develop potent and specific antagonists of these and related chemokines. (
  • Here, we review the role of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and related chemokines in regulating the recruitment of monocyte/macrophages to the vessel wall and discuss how these chemokines contribute to the pathophysiology of vascular disease, with an emphasis on atherosclerosis. (
  • Finally, the finding that MCP-1 appears constitutively present in normal human islet β-cells (immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization), in the absence of an inflammatory infiltrate, suggests that this chemokine could have functions other than monocyte recruitment and opens a new link between the endocrine and immune systems. (
  • In particular, chemokine CXCL12 and its receptors CXCR4 are now known to play an important role in cancer progression. (
  • In this review, we focus on the biological functions of chemokine receptors, particularly CXCR4 expressed on gastric cancer cells, and the therapeutic strategies targeting CXCR4-mediating signaling pathways in peritoneal carcinomatosis. (
  • With regard to CXC chemokine receptors, CXCR4 has been shown to be overexpressed in many human cancers, including breast cancer, ovarian cancer, melanoma, and prostate cancer, and is recognized as the dominant chemokine receptor controlling metastasis (13). (
  • The homeostatic microenvironment chemokine CXCL12 binds the CXCR4 and CXCR7 receptors, activating divergent signals on multiple pathways, such as ERK1/2, p38, SAPK/JNK, AKT, mTOR, and the Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK). (
  • When the chemokine receptor CXCR4 is engaged by SDF1 (Stromal Cell-Derived Factor1) alpha, it triggers cells to chemotax, and in some cell types such as neurons, causes cell death. (
  • Stem cell homing and breast cancer metastasis are orchestrated by the chemokine SDF-1 and its receptor CXCR4. (
  • CXCR4 bridged the SDF-1 dimer interface so that sulfotyrosines sTyr 7 and sTyr 12 of CXCR4 occupied positively charged clefts on opposing chemokine subunits. (
  • Our work elucidates the structural basis for sulfotyrosine recognition in the chemokine-receptor interaction and suggests a novel strategy for CXCR4-targeted drug development. (
  • For example, the CXC chemokine stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1, also known as CXCL12) and its receptor CXCR4 are essential for proper fetal development. (
  • Our nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies revealed a symmetric 2:2 complex in which the binding of CXCR4 stabilized dimeric SDF-1 and each receptor sulfotyrosine occupied a unique site on the chemokine. (
  • These results provide the first view of sulfotyrosine recognition in a chemokine-receptor complex at atomic resolution and suggest a novel strategy for inhibition of CXCR4 signaling with oligomeric ligands. (
  • Also, in humans there are 19 known chemokine receptors which activate the same chemokine signaling pathway but some of these have highly specific receptor binding ligands whereas others may bind multiple ligands [ 20 ]. (
  • Evidence suggests that the CXC-chemokine receptor-4 pathway plays a role in cancer cell homing and metastasis, and thus represents a potential target for cancer therapy. (
  • Chemokines mediate their effects through interactions with seven-transmembrane-spanning glyco-protein receptors coupled to a G-protein signaling pathway. (
  • A conserved CX3C chemokine-like motif in G likely contributes to the pathogenesis of disease. (
  • Mounting evidence suggests that chemokines affect the pathogenesis of HAND. (
  • We previously demonstrated a role for chemokines in acute and relapsing EAE pathogenesis. (
  • Chemokines are involved in the inflammatory response, tumor immune response, proliferation, invasion and metastasis via modulation of various signaling pathways. (
  • Several of these chemokine signaling pathways influence the inflammatory cascade early on in healing and the later growth and regression of neovasculature, re-epithelializaiton of the wound area, and ultimately are essential for providing cues when the repair process should halt the process is complete. (
  • Click on one of the chemokine subfamilies shown in the Explore Pathways box below to see the specific chemokines that belong to each group, their receptors, and the different immune cell types that have been shown to express the chemokine receptors. (
  • Specifically, the immune-related differentially expressed genes (IRDEGs), which belong to the KEGG (Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes) pathways, such as the complement and coagulation cascades, chemokine signalling pathways and toll-like receptor signalling pathways were mainly observed at 24 h post-infection. (
  • Many chemokine signaling pathways are also vital for cell migration in normal development or in abnormal conditions such as tumor metastasis. (
  • To date, at least 46 chemokine ligands have been identified in humans. (
  • [5] This chemokine elicits its effects on its target cells by interacting with the cell surface chemokine receptor CXCR3 , with a higher affinity than do the other ligands for this receptor, CXCL9 and CXCL10 . (
  • Interestingly, some viruses produce mimics of chemokine receptor binding ligands, or may encode their own chemokines and chemokine receptors [ 21 ]. (
  • The most recent chemokine binding protein is a structural variant of CXCR3, termed CXCR3-B, which binds the classical CXCR3 ligands: monokine induced by interferon γ (Mig)/CXCL9, interferon α inducible protein 10 (IP10)/CXCL10, and interferon inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC)/CXCL11 as well as platelet factor 4/CXCL4. (
  • Peptides derived from the N-terminal domains of chemokine receptors bind specifically to their respective chemokine ligands ( 10 , 11 ). (
  • Some chemokines are considered pro- inflammatory and can be induced during an immune response to recruit cells of the immune system to a site of infection , while others are considered homeostatic and are involved in controlling the migration of cells during normal processes of tissue maintenance or development . (
  • After binding to the receptors, chemokines primarily serve a role in migration of leukocytes, such as monocytes, eosinophils and dendritic cells (DCs) ( 11 ). (
  • At present, similar proprieties of chemokines between trafficking of leukocytes during immune and inflammatory reactions and organ selective migration of cancer cells during metastasis are widely recognized. (
  • Chemotactic cytokines, namely chemokines, are known as the center of cell migration. (
  • When neuronal damage occurs, microglia exert diversified functions, including migration, phagocytosis, and production of various cytokines and chemokines. (
  • Appropriate migration of microglia to damaged area is controlled by chemokines and nucleotide ATP [ 2 , 3 ]. (
  • The main function of chemokines is to manage the migration of leukocytes (homing) in the respective anatomical locations in inflammatory and homeostatic processes. (
  • Inflammatory: inflammatory chemokines are produced in high concentrations during infection or injury and determine the migration of inflammatory leukocytes into the damaged area. (
  • Chemokines are cytokines that stimulate directional migration of inflammatory cells in vitro and in vivo. (
  • To avoid harmful consequences that derive from improper immunological reactions, directional migration of leukocytes in healthful individuals is usually a dynamic extremely controlled process that's controlled by adhesion substances and chemotactic cytokines or chemokines. (
  • Chemokines travel migration inside a focus- and site-dependent way (13C18). (
  • The ability of individual chemokines to effect cell migration in vivo is well established (reviewed in reference 28 ), and recent data suggest that different chemokines have different functions in vivo. (
  • Second, chemokines are thought to participate in directing the migration of cells once they exit the vasculature, perhaps by establishing a concentration gradient within that tissue. (
  • However, other chemokines are considered homeostatic and focus on controlling the migration of cells during normal processes of tissue development and maintenance. (
  • Third, chemokines (chemotactic cytokines) and chemokine receptors are an important part of the immune response that affects cell migration, activation, and tissue homeostasis. (
  • Transendothelial migration of monocytes into the nervous system is affected by chemokines produced by activated microglia and astrocytes. (
  • Degenerated neurons releases several signaling molecules, including nucleotides, cytokines, and chemokines, to recruit microglia and enhance their activities [ 8 , 9 ]. (
  • An important step forward in revealing the role of central sensitization in widespread chronic pain is to demonstrate direct involvement of cytokines and chemokines (small cytokines) in the induction and maintenance of central sensitization. (
  • The seven-transmembrane receptor CX 3 CR1 is a specific receptor for the novel CX 3 C chemokine fractalkine (FKN) (neurotactin). (
  • Recently a novel chemokine named fractalkine (FKN) (neurotactin [NTN]) was identified ( 1 , 15 ) and shown to have unique properties. (
  • Inflammatory chemokines function mainly as chemoattractants for leukocytes , recruiting monocytes , neutrophils and other effector cells from the blood to sites of infection or tissue damage. (
  • Matching the dynamic mucosal landscape, CX3C chemokine receptor (CX3CR)1-expressing macrophages are relatively short lived, and as opposed to most other tissue macrophages, are continuously replaced from blood monocytes that acquire in the healthy tissue context a robust noninflammatory gene expression signature. (
  • This novel chemokine, referred to as I-TAC (interferon-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant), is regulated by interferon (IFN) and has potent chemoattractant activity for interleukin (IL)-2-activated T cells, but not for freshly isolated unstimulated T cells, neutrophils, or monocytes. (
  • The CXC chemokines are primarily active on neutrophils, whereas the CC chemokines are active on monocytes and other leukocytes, including lymphocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. (
  • Fractalkine (FKN) is a transmembrane mucin-chemokine hybrid molecule expressed on activated endothelium that mediates attachment and firm adhesion of T cells, monocytes and NK cells. (
  • The most thoroughly characterized CC chemokine is MCP-1 (also known as CCL2), a potent agonist for monocytes, memory T cells, and basophils. (
  • CXCL4 is chemotactic for neutrophilis, fibroblasts and monocytes, and interacts with a splice variant of the chemokine receptor CXCR3, which is known as CXCR3B. (
  • Chemokines have been classified into four main subfamilies: CXC, CC, CX3C and XC. (
  • The ~50 known chemokines share a conserved tertiary fold and are grouped into four subfamilies (C, CC, CXC, and CX 3 C) according to the spacing of conserved cysteines near the N-terminus. (
  • C-X-C motif chemokine 11 is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also called Interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC) and Interferon-gamma-inducible protein 9 (IP-9). (
  • Chemokines are small chemoattractant cytokines that are expressed in discrete anatomical locations. (
  • Chemokines are a group of related chemoattractant peptides that are essential regulators of the immune system, both during homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. (
  • Chemokines are proinflammatory and therefore contribute to the neuroinflammation process. (
  • Upregulation of MMP-2 production in synovial fibroblasts upon fractalkine stimulation in vitro supports the hypothesis of a proinflammatory role of this chemokine in RA. (
  • A series of investigations on ovarian neoplasms have improved our understanding of proinflammatory microenvironment including unfavorable cytokines, chemokines and imbalanced hormone production. (
  • The MG149 IC50 NH2-terminal residues and N loop include determinants for binding from the chemokine to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and so are accompanied by a three stranded -sheet and a COOH-terminal helix (15). (
  • Chemokine receptors encompass a subclass of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), which in turn represent a preferred class of drug targets ( 14 ). (
  • In addition, chemokines activate the production and secretion of inflammatory cytokines through specific G protein-coupled receptors ( 12 , 13 ). (
  • Certain inflammatory chemokines activate cells to initiate an immune response or promote wound healing . (
  • Some inflammatory chemokines have proven essential in memory T cell generation [ 3 ]. (
  • Chemokines, Chemokine Receptors and Atherosclerosis. (
  • Based on the positions of the first two cysteines, the chemokines can be divided into four highly conserved but distinct supergene families C-C, C-X-C, C, and the newly discovered C-X3-C ( 18 , 19 ). (
  • The CXC, CC, and CX 3 C chemokines are distinguished by the presence of one, none, or three amino acids, respectively, between the first two cysteines. (
  • FKN has a CX 3 C chemokine domain and thus constitutes, according to the current chemokine nomenclature based on the spacing of N-terminal cysteines, its own CX 3 C family. (
  • 8-10 CXC chemokines have a single amino acid residue between the first two canonical cysteines. (
  • Molecules that have the capacity to bind and antagonize multiple types of chemokine receptors may provide a rational approach to overcome difficulties associated with this potential redundancy. (
  • Chemokines bind to a variety of different receptors, which belong to the G-protein-binding receptor family, and there are ~23 types of chemokine receptors that have been discovered ( 10 ). (
  • Several mediators are involved in the angiogenic process, including basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF), 2 3 4 and chemokines. (
  • Fractalkine (CX 3 CL1) is the first described chemokine that can exist either as a soluble protein or as a membrane-bound molecule. (
  • 4- 6 Chemokine receptors are designated according to the type of chemokine(s) they bind (CXC, CC, XC, CX3C), followed by R for receptor and a number indicating the order of discovery. (
  • To day, 23 chemokine receptors have already been identified, that are categorized based on the particular subclass of chemokines that they bind. (
  • The chemokine/chemokine receptor program is rather complicated as much receptors can bind multiple chemokines and vice versa (Physique ?Physique44). (
  • Individual chemokine receptors (horizontal) are categorized based on the chemokines they bind as well as the a-typical chemokine receptors-5 (ACKR1-5) may also be included. (
  • One receptor can bind multiple chemokines and vice versa. (
  • No receptor provides hitherto been discovered for CXCL14 as well as the vGPCRs BILF1, Triapine US27, UL33, and UL78 are categorized as orphan receptors as no chemokines have already been discovered to bind these receptors. (
  • The distribution from the shaded dots implies that individual chemokine receptors just bind chemokines of their very own class. (
  • The ability of fractalkine to be presented on the cell surface suggests that this chemokine might directly mediate cell-cell interactions. (
  • Appreciation of the existence of a plasma membrane receptor for thyroid hormone analogues on the extracellular domains of a structural plasma membrane protein, integrin α v β 3 [ 1 - 3 ], has permitted recognition of new control mechanisms for the release of cytokines, including chemotactic cytokines or chemokines [ 4 ]. (
  • It has been found that chemokine networks may serve pivotal roles in inducing organ-specific metastasis ( 8 ). (
  • Recently, it has been shown that various types of cancer cells express chemokine receptors, suggesting that chemokines may play a role in cancer progression and/or organ-selective metastasis (6) (7) (8) (9). (
  • Furthermore, chemokine receptors also are likely involved in oncogenesis by inducing proliferation and metastasis (Koizumi et al. (
  • Thus, chemokines and their receptors directly or indirectly shape the tumor cell microenvironment, and regulate the biological behavior of the tumor. (
  • Attracted cells move through the gradient towards the higher concentration of chemokine. (
  • There are also 18 functionally signaling chemokine receptors and two 'decoy' or 'scavenger' receptors (4). (
  • Not only are multiple chemokines with overlapping activities frequently induced in inflammatory diseases, but often many different chemokine receptors are expressed by the activated leukocytes. (
  • Among other homeostatic chemokine receptors include: CCR9, CCR10, and CXCR5, which are important as part of the cell addresses for tissue-specific homing of leukocytes. (
  • Next, conversation of leukocytes with chemokines strengthens bonding between integrins on leukocytes and their counter-receptors on endothelial cells, leading to anchorage of leukocytes towards the endothelium. (
  • The trafficking of blood leukocytes is mediated primarily by two major classes of molecules: cell adhesion molecules, including selectins and integrins, and chemotactic factors, such as the chemokines ( 4 ). (
  • First, some chemokines can activate integrins on the surface of leukocytes, resulting in the firm adhesion of these cells to the vascular endothelium ( 6 ). (
  • 2013). The ACKRs are thought to serves as decoy receptors that scavenge chemokines in the extracellular environment to limit the recruitment of leukocytes (Bonecchi et al. (
  • 2013). Dysregulation of chemokines and their receptors may bring about an extreme infiltration of leukocytes into tissues. (
  • Other chemokines are inflammatory and are released from a wide variety of cells in response to bacterial infection, viruses and agents that cause physical damage such as silica or the urate crystals that occur in gout . (
  • Chemokines are felt to play a major role latent TB infection (LTB) as they appear to be critical in the formation and maintenance of quiescent granulomas 4 and in the recruitment of cells from the periphery for positioning within the granuloma 5 . (
  • For example, some chemokines are required for constitutive trafficking of immune cells through lymphoid tissues ( 11 , 12 ), whereas others recruit effector cells to sites of infection ( 7 ) or regulate immune responses ( 15 ). (
  • In this study, we use an in vitro model of human RSV infection comprised of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) separated by a permeable membrane from human airway epithelial cells (A549) infected with RSV with either an intact CX3C motif (CX3C) or a mutated motif (CX4C). (
  • Many chemokines are pro-inflammatory and can be induced during an immune response to recruit cells of the immune system to the site of an infection. (
  • Chemokine receptors are critical for the infection of perivascular macrophages and microglia. (
  • It has also been shown that chemokines and their receptors play a more direct role in the neuropathogenesis of HIV-1 infection. (
  • Chemokines and the Neuropathogenesis of HIV-1 Infection, p 151-171. (
  • A proposed pathophysiological mechanism for how chemokines and their receptors influence the neuropathogenesis of HIV-1 infection. (
  • Recently, chemokine receptors have also been identified as an essential component for the infection of host cells by HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus). (
  • Chemokine receptors thus present an attractive therapeutic target for inflammatory disorders and HIV infection. (
  • CXCL12 (also called stromal-derived factor-1α, SDF-1α) is a CXC chemokine which has unique properties in chemokines. (
  • Chemokines act on chemokine receptors (CKR), members of the seven-transmembrane domain G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily. (
  • 1997). "Cloning and characterization of a specific receptor for the novel CC chemokine MIP-3alpha from lung dendritic cells" . (
  • 1997). "CCR6, a CC chemokine receptor that interacts with macrophage inflammatory protein 3alpha and is highly expressed in human dendritic cells" . (
  • Via G subunits, chemokine receptors activate PI3K and PLC, the second option resulting in an elevated Ca2+ flux (Thelen, 2001). (
  • For example, in Japan, CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) is regarded as the most promising molecular target for cancer immunotherapy (10, 11). (
  • The Molecular and Cellular Biology of CC Chemokines and Their Receptors. (
  • Chemokines Description and Classification of Chemokines Chemokines are little, chemotactic molecules having a molecular excess weight around 7C12?kDa. (
  • In order to establish novel molecular forensic diagnosis, we focus on cytokines/chemokines as the marker of systemic vital reactions, and examined the systemic dynamics of cytokines/chemokines in the various models of diseases, drug intoxication, and injuries, which are often encountered in forensic practices. (
  • Our data suggest that the RSV G protein CX3C motif impairs innate and adaptive human immune responses and may be important to vaccine and antiviral drug development. (
  • While a function of chemokines is to regulate lymphocyte trafficking, the view that chemokines act simply as "chemotactic cytokines" has evolved to include the many critical roles they play in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses. (
  • On the other hand, the chemokine system also plays a crucial role in the induction of antitumor immune responses and optimal effector function regulation of immune cells [ 1 , 4 , 5 ]. (
  • Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene . (
  • C-X-C motif chemokine 11 (CXCL11) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CXCL11 gene. (
  • After an initial, predominantly selectin-mediated "rolling" step, engagement of G-protein-coupled chemokine receptors leads to activation of integrins and the establishment of firm arrest, followed by diapedesis ( 2 , 3 ). (
  • Upon interaction with the CC chemokines, pUS28 induces Ca 2+ mobilization and extracellular signal-related kinase 2 activation ( 2 , 10 , 21 , 26 ). (