Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Chemokines, CXC: Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.Chemokines, CC: Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.Chemokine CX3CL1: A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.Chemokines, CX3C: Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.Receptors, Chemokine: Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Chemokine CCL5: A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.Chemokine CXCL10: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemokine CXCL9: An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemokines, C: Group of chemokines without adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes only.Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins: Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.Chemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CXCL1: A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.Chemokine CCL4: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Chemokine CCL3: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Connexin 43: A 43-kDa peptide which is a member of the connexin family of gap junction proteins. Connexin 43 is a product of a gene in the alpha class of connexin genes (the alpha-1 gene). It was first isolated from mammalian heart, but is widespread in the body including the brain.Chemokine CXCL11: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Connexins: A group of homologous proteins which form the intermembrane channels of GAP JUNCTIONS. The connexins are the products of an identified gene family which has both highly conserved and highly divergent regions. The variety contributes to the wide range of functional properties of gap junctions.Chemokine CCL7: A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.Monocyte Chemoattractant Proteins: Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Chemokine CXCL2: A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Receptors, Interleukin-8B: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.Chemokine CXCL5: A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Receptors, CXCR3: CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.Duffy Blood-Group System: A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.Gap Junctions: Connections between cells which allow passage of small molecules and electric current. Gap junctions were first described anatomically as regions of close apposition between cells with a narrow (1-2 nm) gap between cell membranes. The variety in the properties of gap junctions is reflected in the number of CONNEXINS, the family of proteins which form the junctions.Chemokine CCL21: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL19: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.Receptors, CCR2: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.Chemotactic Factors: Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.Chemokine CCL17: A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Chemokine CCL8: A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.Receptors, CCR1: CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Chemokine CCL11: A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Mice, Inbred C57BLChemokine CXCL12: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.Monokines: Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Receptors, Interleukin-8A: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.Chemokine CCL22: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Receptors, CCR5: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.Chemokine CCL1: A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CCL24: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Chemokine CXCL6: A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Receptors, CCR3: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Receptors, Cytokine: Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Receptors, CXCR4: CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Neutrophil Infiltration: The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Receptors, CCR10: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Chemokine CXCL13: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Chemokine CCL20: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Mice, Inbred BALB CT-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Receptors, CCR7: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.beta-Thromboglobulin: A platelet-specific protein which is released when platelets aggregate. Elevated plasma levels have been reported after deep venous thrombosis, pre-eclampsia, myocardial infarction with mural thrombosis, and myeloproliferative disorders. Measurement of beta-thromboglobulin in biological fluids by radioimmunoassay is used for the diagnosis and assessment of progress of thromboembolic disorders.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Receptors, CCR4: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Receptors, CCR8: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Platelet Factor 4: A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.Receptors, CCR6: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Receptors, CXCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Chemotactic Factors, Eosinophil: Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Receptors, CXCR5: CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.Receptors, HIV: Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Chemokine CCL27: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Cell Migration Inhibition: Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Microglia: The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1: A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.Neutrophil Activation: The process in which the neutrophil is stimulated by diverse substances, resulting in degranulation and/or generation of reactive oxygen products, and culminating in the destruction of invading pathogens. The stimulatory substances, including opsonized particles, immune complexes, and chemotactic factors, bind to specific cell-surface receptors on the neutrophil.Receptors, CCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Receptors, Interleukin: Cell surface proteins that bind interleukins and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Toll-Like Receptors: A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Leukocyte Rolling: Movement of tethered, spherical LEUKOCYTES along the endothelial surface of the microvasculature. The tethering and rolling involves interaction with SELECTINS and other adhesion molecules in both the ENDOTHELIUM and leukocyte. The rolling leukocyte then becomes activated by CHEMOKINES, flattens out, and firmly adheres to the endothelial surface in preparation for transmigration through the interendothelial cell junction. (From Abbas, Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 3rd ed)Angiostatic Proteins: Proteins that specifically inhibit the growth of new blood vessels (ANGIOGENESIS, PHYSIOLOGIC).Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Culex: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1: Cytokine-induced cell adhesion molecule present on activated endothelial cells, tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, bone marrow fibroblasts, myoblasts, and myotubes. It is important for the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, p154)Culture Media, Conditioned: Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Macrophages, Alveolar: Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Interleukins: Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.Models, Immunological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Macrophage Activation: The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Interleukin-17: A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Toll-Like Receptor 4: A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.Integrin alpha4beta1: Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Lymphotoxin-beta: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on LYMPHOCYTES. It can form a heterotrimer (LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA1, BETA2 HETEROTRIMER) with the soluble ligand LYMPHOTOXIN-ALPHA and anchor it to the cell surface. The membrane-bound complex is specific for the LYMPHOTOXIN BETA receptor.Synovial Membrane: The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.Receptors, Interleukin-17: Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-17. Several subtypes of receptors have been found, each with its own in specificity for interleukin-17 subtype.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Respiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Mast Cells: Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Endothelium, Lymphatic: Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.Toll-Like Receptor 2: A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Interleukin-1alpha: An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Toll-Like Receptor 3: A pattern recognition receptor that binds DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA. It mediates cellular responses to certain viral pathogens.Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Venules: The minute vessels that collect blood from the capillary plexuses and join together to form veins.

Molecular uncoupling of fractalkine-mediated cell adhesion and signal transduction. Rapid flow arrest of CX3CR1-expressing cells is independent of G-protein activation. (1/163)

Fractalkine is a novel multidomain protein expressed on the surface of activated endothelial cells. Cells expressing the chemokine receptor CX3CR1 adhere to fractalkine with high affinity, but it is not known if adherence requires G-protein activation and signal transduction. To investigate the cell adhesion properties of fractalkine, we created mutated forms of CX3CR1 that have little or no ability to transduce intracellular signals. Cells expressing signaling-incompetent forms of CX3CR1 bound rapidly and with high affinity to immobilized fractalkine in both static and flow assays. Video microscopy revealed that CX3CR1-expressing cells bound more rapidly to fractalkine than to VCAM-1 (60 versus 190 ms). Unlike VCAM-1, fractalkine did not mediate cell rolling, and after capture on fractalkine, cells did not dislodge. Finally, soluble fractalkine induced intracellular calcium fluxes and chemotaxis, but it did not activate integrins. Taken together these data provide strong evidence that CX3CR1, a seven-transmembrane domain receptor, mediates robust cell adhesion to fractalkine in the absence of G-protein activation and suggest a novel role for this receptor as an adhesion molecule.  (+info)

Characterization of fractalkine in rat brain cells: migratory and activation signals for CX3CR-1-expressing microglia. (2/163)

Molecular analyses of the chemokine fractalkine and its receptor CX3C-R1 in the rat brain have revealed a striking polarization: fractalkine is expressed constitutively in neurons and is up-regulated by TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in astrocytes. Expression of its specific receptor, CX3C-R1, is restricted to astrocytes and microglia. We have analyzed the functional correlates of this expression and demonstrate that fractalkine induces microglial cell migration and activation. However, the activity of this chemokine on astrocytes may also be highly relevant in inducing astrocyte-microglia cell interactions through cytokine/mediator release leading to microglial activation.  (+info)

Inflammatory agents regulate in vivo expression of fractalkine in endothelial cells of the rat heart. (3/163)

Fractalkine is distinguished structurally from other chemokines in that it contains a mucin-like stalk that tethers a CX3C chemokine module to a transmembrane-spanning region; its expression in cultured endothelial cells has been shown to be up-regulated by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 (IL-1). The purpose of this study was to determine whether fractalkine is expressed, in a proinflammatory agent-regulated manner, by cardiac endothelial cells in vivo. Steady state levels of fractalkine mRNA were increased in rat cardiac tissues after in vivo treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), IL-1, or TNF-alpha. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analysis revealed that endothelial cells of the coronary vasculature and endocardium were the principal source of proinflammatory agent-inducible fractalkine, although some fractalkine immunoreactivity was also found on the myocytes. These data are the first demonstration of in vivo cardiac endothelial cell fractalkine expression and regulation by proinflammatory agents such as LPS, IL-1, or TNF-alpha. Cardiac endothelial cell-expressed fractalkine may contribute to the influx of leukocytes into the heart during inflammation.  (+info)

Neuronal fractalkine expression in HIV-1 encephalitis: roles for macrophage recruitment and neuroprotection in the central nervous system. (4/163)

HIV-1 infection of the brain results in chronic inflammation, contributing to the neuropathogenesis of HIV-1 associated neurologic disease. HIV-1-infected mononuclear phagocytes (MP) present in inflammatory infiltrates produce neurotoxins that mediate inflammation, dysfunction, and neuronal apoptosis. Neurologic disease is correlated with the relative number of MP in and around inflammatory infiltrates and not viral burden. It is unclear whether these cells also play a neuroprotective role. We show that the chemokine, fractalkine (FKN), is markedly up-regulated in neurons and neuropil in brain tissue from pediatric patients with HIV-1 encephalitis (HIVE) compared with those without HIVE, or that were HIV-1 seronegative. FKN receptors are expressed on both neurons and microglia in patients with HIVE. These receptors are localized to cytoplasmic structures which are characterized by a vesicular appearance in neurons which may be in cell-to-cell contact with MPs. FKN colocalizes with glutamate in these neurons. Similar findings are observed in brain tissue from an adult patient with HIVE. FKN is able to potently induce the migration of primary human monocytes across an endothelial cell/primary human fetal astrocyte trans-well bilayer, and is neuroprotective to cultured neurons when coadministered with either the HIV-1 neurotoxin platelet activating factor (PAF) or the regulatory HIV-1 gene product Tat. Thus focal inflammation in brain tissue with HIVE may up-regulate neuronal FKN levels, which in turn may be a neuroimmune modulator recruiting peripheral macrophages into the brain, and in a paracrine fashion protecting glutamatergic neurons.  (+info)

Ultrastructure and function of the fractalkine mucin domain in CX(3)C chemokine domain presentation. (5/163)

Fractalkine (FKN), a CX(3)C chemokine/mucin hybrid molecule on endothelium, functions as an adhesion molecule to capture and induce firm adhesion of a subset of leukocytes in a selectin- and integrin-independent manner. We hypothesized that the FKN mucin domain may be important for its function in adhesion, and tested the ability of secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) fusion proteins containing the entire extracellular region (FKN-SEAP), the chemokine domain (CX3C-SEAP), or the mucin domain (mucin-SEAP) to support firm adhesion under flow. CX3C-SEAP induced suboptimal firm adhesion of resting peripheral blood mononuclear cells, compared with FKN-SEAP, and mucin-SEAP induced no firm adhesion. CX3C-SEAP and FKN-SEAP bound to CX(3)CR1 with similar affinities. By electron microscopy, fractalkine was 29 nm in length with a long stalk (mucin domain), and a globular head (CX(3)C). To test the function of the mucin domain, a chimeric protein replacing the mucin domain with a rod-like segment of E-selectin was constructed. This chimeric protein gave the same adhesion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells as intact FKN, both when immobilized on glass and when expressed on the cell surface. This implies that the function of the mucin domain is to provide a stalk, extending the chemokine domain away from the endothelial cell surface to present it to flowing leukocytes.  (+info)

Fractalkine is an epithelial and endothelial cell-derived chemoattractant for intraepithelial lymphocytes in the small intestinal mucosa. (6/163)

Fractalkine is a unique chemokine that combines properties of both chemoattractants and adhesion molecules. Fractalkine mRNA expression has been observed in the intestine. However, the role of fractalkine in the healthy intestine and during inflammatory mucosal responses is not known. Studies were undertaken to determine the expression and function of fractalkine and the fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 in the human small intestinal mucosa. We identified intestinal epithelial cells as a novel source of fractalkine. The basal expression of fractalkine mRNA and protein in the intestinal epithelial cell line T-84 was under the control of the inflammatory mediator IL-1beta. Fractalkine was shed from intestinal epithelial cell surface upon stimulation with IL-1beta. Fractalkine localized with caveolin-1 in detergent-insoluble glycolipid-enriched membrane microdomains in T-84 cells. Cellular distribution of fractalkine was regulated during polarization of T-84 cells. A subpopulation of isolated human intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes expressed the fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 and migrated specifically along fractalkine gradients after activation with IL-2. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated fractalkine expression in intestinal epithelial cells and endothelial cells in normal small intestine and in active Crohn's disease mucosa. Furthermore, fractalkine mRNA expression was significantly up-regulated in the intestine during active Crohn's disease. This study demonstrates that fractalkine-CX3CR1-mediated mechanism may direct lymphocyte chemoattraction and adhesion within the healthy and diseased human small intestinal mucosa.  (+info)

Rapid progression to AIDS in HIV+ individuals with a structural variant of the chemokine receptor CX3CR1. (7/163)

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) enters cells in vitro via CD4 and a coreceptor. Which of 15 known coreceptors are important in vivo is poorly defined but may be inferred from disease-modifying mutations, as for CCR5. Here two single nucleotide polymorphisms are described in Caucasians in CX3CR1, an HIV coreceptor and leukocyte chemotactic/adhesion receptor for the chemokine fractalkine. HIV-infected patients homozygous for CX3CR1-I249 M280, a variant haplotype affecting two amino acids (isoleucine-249 and methionine-280), progressed to AIDS more rapidly than those with other haplotypes. Functional CX3CR1 analysis showed that fractalkine binding is reduced among patients homozygous for this particular haplotype. Thus, CX3CR1-I249 M280 is a recessive genetic risk factor in HIV/AIDS.  (+info)

Fractalkine-mediated endothelial cell injury by NK cells. (8/163)

Endothelial cells (ECs) are primary targets of immunological attack, and their injury can lead to vasculopathy and organ dysfunction in vascular leak syndrome and in rejection of allografts or xenografts. A newly identified CX3C-chemokine, fractalkine, expressed on activated ECs plays an important role in leukocyte adhesion and migration. In this study we examined the functional roles of fractalkine on NK cell activity and NK cell-mediated endothelial cell injury. Freshly separated NK cells expressed the fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) determined by FACS analysis and efficiently adhered to immobilized full-length fractalkine, but not to the truncated forms of the chemokine domain or mucin domain, suggesting that fractalkine functions as an adhesion molecule on the interaction between NK cells and ECs. Soluble fractalkine enhanced NK cell cytolytic activity against K562 target cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This enhancement correlated well with increased granular exocytosis from NK cells, which was completely inhibited by the G protein inhibitor, pertussis toxin. Transfection of fractalkine cDNA into ECV304 cells or HUVECs resulted in increased adhesion of NK cells and susceptibility to NK cell-mediated cytolysis compared with control transfection. Moreover, both enhanced adhesion and susceptibility of fractalkine-transfected cells were markedly suppressed by soluble fractalkine or anti-CX3CR1 Ab. Our results suggest that fractalkine plays an important role not only in the binding of NK cells to endothelial cells, but also in NK cell-mediated endothelium damage, which may result in vascular injury.  (+info)

*CXCR6

... and CX3C chemokines". Journal of Immunology. 166 (8): 5145-54. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.166.8.5145. PMID 11290797. Lee B, Leslie G ... "Cell surface-anchored SR-PSOX/CXC chemokine ligand 16 mediates firm adhesion of CXC chemokine receptor 6-expressing cells". ... C-X-C chemokine receptor type 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CXCR6 gene. CXCR6 has also recently been ... "Entrez Gene: CXCR6 chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 6". Elliott ST, Wetzel KS, Francella N, Bryan S, Romero DC, Riddick NE, ...

*CXCL16

... and CX3C chemokines". J Immunol. 166 (8): 5145-54. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.166.8.5145. PMID 11290797. Olszak T, An D, Zeissig S, ... Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 16 (CXCL16) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family. Larger than other ... These are unusual features for a chemokine, and allow CXCL16 to be expressed as a cell surface bound molecule, as well as a ... Matloubian M, David A, Engel S, Ryan J, Cyster J (2000). "A transmembrane CXC chemokine is a ligand for HIV-coreceptor Bonzo". ...

*CX3CL1

A chemotactic receptor for the human CX3C chemokine fractalkine and a fusion coreceptor for HIV-1". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (37): ... Mizoue LS, Bazan JF, Johnson EC, Handel TM (1999). "Solution structure and dynamics of the CX3C chemokine domain of fractalkine ... a CX3C chemokine, is expressed by dendritic cells and is up-regulated upon dendritic cell maturation". Eur. J. Immunol. 29 (8 ... it contains multiple domains and is the only known member of the CX3C chemokine family. It is also commonly known under the ...

*CX3CR1

CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1) also known as the fractalkine receptor or G-protein coupled receptor 13 (GPR13) is a protein ... A chemotactic receptor for the human CX3C chemokine fractalkine and a fusion coreceptor for HIV-1". The Journal of Biological ... Mizoue LS, Bazan JF, Johnson EC, Handel TM (February 1999). "Solution structure and dynamics of the CX3C chemokine domain of ... "Entrez Gene: chemokine (C-X3-C motif) receptor 1". Imai T, Hieshima K, Haskell C, Baba M, Nagira M, Nishimura M, Kakizaki M, ...

*Chemokine

CXCR that bind CXC chemokines, CCR that bind CC chemokines, CX3CR1 that binds the sole CX3C chemokine (CX3CL1), and XCR1 that ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines in that it has ... or d-chemokines). The only CX3C chemokine discovered to date is called fractalkine (or CX3CL1). It is both secreted and ...

*Chemotaxis

Chemokines belong to a special class of cytokines; not only do their groups (C, CC, CXC, CX3C chemokines) represent ... CC chemokines act on monocytes (e.g., RANTES), and CXC chemokines are neutrophil granulocyte-specific (e.g., IL-8).[citation ... chemokines - chemokine receptors (CCR or CXCR), and leukotrienes - leukotriene receptors (BLT).[citation needed] However, ... Formation of dimers and their increased biological activity was demonstrated by crystallography of several chemokines, e.g. IL- ...

*CXCL11

AND CX3C families of chemokines". Cytokine. 18 (3): 140-8. doi:10.1006/cyto.2002.0875. PMID 12126650. Salmaggi A, Gelati M, ... C-X-C motif chemokine 11 (CXCL11) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CXCL11 gene. C-X-C motif chemokine 11 is a ... This chemokine elicits its effects on its target cells by interacting with the cell surface chemokine receptor CXCR3, with a ... Luo Y, Kim R, Gabuzda D, Mi S, Collins-Racie LA, Lu Z, Jacobs KA, Dorf ME (December 1998). "The CXC-chemokine, H174: expression ...

*CCL17

AND CX3C families of chemokines". Cytokine. 18 (3): 140-8. doi:10.1006/cyto.2002.0875. PMID 12126650. D'Ambrosio D, Albanesi C ... 1999). "The assignment of chemokine-chemokine receptor pairs: TARC and MIP-1 beta are not ligands for human CC-chemokine ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 17 (CCL17) (also known as TARC) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family is also ... This chemokine specifically binds and induces chemotaxis in T cells and elicits its effects by interacting with the chemokine ...

*Outline of immunology

Cytokine Chemokines CC chemokines CXC chemokines C chemokines XCL1 XCL2 CX3C chemokines CX3CL1 (Fractalkine, Neurotactin) ... CXC chemokine receptors (CXCRs) C chemokine receptors (XCRs) XCR1 CX3C chemokine receptors (CX3CRs) CX3CR1 (Fractalkine ... Chemokine receptors - 7-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors CC chemokine receptors (CCRs) ...

*Role of microglia in disease

Chemokines are divided into four main subfamilies: C, CC, CXC, and CX3C. Microglial cells are sources of some chemokines and ... The chemokines CCL5/RANTES, CCL3/MIP-1α, CCL4/MIP-1β, all of which bind to CCR5, are inhibitory to HIV-1 replication in ... The chemokine receptor, CX3CR1, is expressed by microglia in the central nervous system. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is the exclusive ... Chemokines are cytokines that stimulate directional migration of inflammatory cells in vitro and in vivo. ...

*List of MeSH codes (D23)

... chemokines, cc MeSH D23.125.300.120 --- chemokines, cxc MeSH D23.125.300.130 --- chemokines, cx3c MeSH D23.125.300.508 --- ... chemokines, cc MeSH D23.469.200.120 --- chemokines, cxc MeSH D23.469.200.130 --- chemokines, cx3c MeSH D23.469.200.508 --- ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776)

... chemokines, cc MeSH D12.776.467.374.200.120 - chemokines, cxc MeSH D12.776.467.374.200.130 - chemokines, cx3c MeSH D12.776. ...

*Chemokine receptor

... s are divided into different families, CXC chemokine receptors, CC chemokine receptors, CX3C chemokine ... C chemokine receptors (one member, XCR1) CX3C chemokine receptors (one member, CX3CR1) Fifty chemokines have been discovered so ... Two types of chemokines that bind to these receptors are inflammatory chemokines and homeostatic chemokines. Inflammatory ... Chemokine receptors are redundant in their function as more than one chemokine is able to bind to a single receptor. ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.644)

... chemokines, cc MeSH D12.644.276.174.200.120 --- chemokines, cxc MeSH D12.644.276.174.200.130 --- chemokines, cx3c MeSH D12.644. ... chemokines MeSH D12.644.276.174.200.070 --- beta-thromboglobulin MeSH D12.644.276.174.200.100 --- chemokines, c MeSH D12.644. ...
We aimed to investigate fractalkine (CX3CL1) protein expression in wild type (wt) retina and its alterations during retinal degeneration in mouse model (rd10) of retinitis pigmentosa. Forms of retinal protein CX3CL1, total protein and mRNA levels of CX3CL1 were analyzed at postnatal days (P) 5, 10, 14, 22, 30, 45, and 60 by Western blotting and real-time PCR. Cellular sources of CX3CL1 were investigated by in situ hybridization histochemistry (ISH) and using transgenic (CX3CL1cherry) mice. The immunoblots revealed that in both, wt and rd10 retinas, a membrane integrated approximately 100 kDa CX3CL1 form and a cleaved approximately 85 kDa CX3CL1 form were present at P5. At P10, accumulation of another presumably intra-neuronal approximately 95 kDa form and a decrease in the approximately 85-kDa form were observed. From P14, a approximately 95 kDa form became principal in wt retina, while in rd10 retinas a soluble approximately 85 kDa form increased at P45 and P60. In comparison, retinas of rd10 mice had
Chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1 (CX3CL1) is a large cytokine protein of 373 amino acids. It contains multiple domains and is the only known member of the CX3C chemokine family. It is also commonly known under the names fractalkine (in humans) and neurotactin (in mice). The polypeptide structur...
The mechanisms underlying peritoneal dissemination of ovarian carcinoma are poorly understood. Ovarian carcinoma is a malignancy with an exceptionally high mortality rate (1), largely due to the lack of effective antimetastatic treatment approaches. A more detailed understanding of the mechanisms underlying the formation and development of EOC metastases could offer insights into how late stages of this disease might be effectively targeted. Proteins that are presented on the cell surface have consistently been considered attractive molecular targets for disease treatment. Our data suggest that a member of GPCR family, the chemokine fractalkine receptor, functions to support the prometastatic properties of EOC cells, which include migration, peritoneal adhesion, and proliferation. In addition, the fractalkine chemokine can support cell proliferation through another receptor, EGFR. Our data support the hypothesis that multiple types of ovarian carcinoma rely on fractalkine signaling for disease ...
BioMed Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects in life sciences and medicine. The journal is divided into 55 subject-specific sections.
N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play fundamental roles in basic brain functions such as excitatory neurotransmission and learning and memory processes. Their function is largely regulated by factors released by glial cells, including the coagonist d-serine. We investigated whether the activation of microglial CX3CR1 induces the release of factors that modulate NMDAR functions. We recorded the NMDAR component of the field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (NMDA-fEPSPs) elicited in the CA1 stratum radiatum of mouse hippocampal slices by Shaffer collateral stimulation and evaluated d-serine content in the extracellular medium of glial primary cultures by mass spectrometry analysis. We demonstrated that CX3CL1 increases NMDA-fEPSPs by a mechanism involving the activity of the adenosine receptor type A2 (A2AR) and the release of the NMDAR coagonist d-serine. Specifically (1) the selective A2AR blocker 7-(2-phenylethyl)-5-amino-2-(2-furyl)-pyrazolo-[4,3-e]-1,2,4-triazolo[1
The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes has risen dramatically in the United States and globally for the past few decades and has now reached epidemic proportions. Th...
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28 76 * * Cx46 HUMAN -GDWSFLGRLLENAQEHSTVIGKVWLTVLFIFRILVLGAAAEDVWGDEQSDFTCNTQQPGCENVCYDRAFPISHIRFWAL Cx46 RAT -GDWSFLGRLLENAQEHSTVIGKVWLTVLFIFRILVLGAAAEEVWGDEQSDFTCNTQQPGCENVCYDRAFPISHIRFWAL Cx46 MOUSE -GDWSFLGRLLENAQEHSTVIGKVWLTVLFIFRILVLGAAAEEVWGDEQSDFTCNTQQPGCENVCYDRAFPISHIRFWAL Cx46 BOVINE -GDWSFLGRLLENAQEHSTVIGKVWLTVLFIFRILVLGAAAEEVWGDEQSDFTCNTQQPGCENVCYDRAFPISHIRFWVL Cx50 RAT MGDWSFLGNILEEVNEHSTVIGRVWLTVLFIFRILILGTAAEFVWGDEQSDFVCNTQQPGCENVCYDEAFPISHIRLWVL Cx50 SHEEP -GDWSFLGNILEEVNEHSTVIGRVWLTVLFIFRILILGTAAEFVWGDEQSDFVCNTQQPGCENVCYDEAFPISHIRLWVL Cx50 HUMAN -GDWSFLGNILEEVNEHSTVIGRVWLTVLFIFRILILGTAAEFVWGDEQSDFVCNTQQPGCENVCYDEAFPISHIRLWVL Cx50 MOUSE -GDWSFLGNILEEVNEHSTVIGRVWLTVLFIFRILILGTAAEFVWGDEQSDFVCNTQQPGCENVCYDEAFPISHIRLWVL Cx42 MOUSE -GDWSFLGEFLEEVHKHSTVIGKVWLTVLFIFRMLVLGTAAESSWGDEQADFRCDTIQPGCQNVCYDQAFPISHIRYWVL Cx42 HUMAN -GDWSFLGNFLEEVHKHSTVVGKVWLTVLFIFRMLVLGTAAESSWGDEQADFRCDTIQPGCQNVCYDQAFPISHIRYWVL Cx37 RAT ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The disintegrin-like metalloproteinase ADAM 10 is involved in coinstitutive cleavage of CX3CL1 (fractalkine) and regulates CX3CL1-mediated cell-cell adhesion. AU - Hundhausen, C.. AU - Misztela, D.. AU - Berkhout, Theo. AU - Broadway, N.. AU - Saftig, P.. AU - Reiss, K.. AU - Hartmann, D.. AU - Fahrenholz, F.. AU - Postina, R.. AU - Matthews, J.. AU - Kallen, K.J.. AU - Rose-John, S.. AU - Ludwig, A.. PY - 2003/8/15. Y1 - 2003/8/15. N2 - The CX3C chemokine fractalkine (CX3CL1) exists as a membrane-expressed protein promoting cell-cell adhesion and as a soluble molecule inducing chemotaxis. Transmembrane CX3CL1 is converted into its soluble form by defined proteolytic cleavage (shedding), which can be enhanced by stimulation withphorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). PMA-induced CX3CL1 shedding has been shown to involve the tumor necrosis factor-alpha-converting enzyme (TACE), whereas the constitutive cleavage in unstimulated cells remains elusive. Here we demonstrate a role of ...
Induction and maintenance of tumor-protective immunity are the major goals of neuroblastoma immunotherapy. Enhancing the amount of tumor infiltrating leukocytes might be a way to achieve these goals since they may be associated with residual evidence of the ineffective immune response. Fractalkine is a unique TH1 CX3C chemokine known to induce both adhesion and migration of leukocytes mediated by a membrane-bound and a soluble form, respectively. Targeted IL-2 (ch14.18-IL-2) was constructed by anti-GD2 antibody fused with IL-2 so that IL-2 can be directed into the microenvironment of neuroblastoma tumor. Here, I tested the hypothesis that chemokine gene therapy with fractalkine (FKN) induces an effective anti-neuroblastoma immune response amplified by targeted IL-2. NXS2 cells were engineered to stably produce murine FKN (NXS2-FKN). Transcrip- tion and expression of the mFKN gene in NXS2-FKN cells and tumor tissue were demonstrated. The chemotactic activity of FKN expressed by NXS2 cells was ...
Maintenance and restoration of endothelial integrity are critical for blood vessel function. Endothelial cells (EC) form a monolayer in the inner surfaces of blood vessels that controls exchange of metabolites and regulates coagulation and cell trafficking. Cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis, vascular interventions, or bypass surgery, cause EC damage or overt defects in the endothelial monolayer, which triggers vascular inflammation, neointima formation, and ultimately vessel obstruction if endothelial integrity is not restored (Gimbrone & Garcia‐Cardena, 2016).. Under physiological conditions, EC replication is inhibited by cell contact and laminar flow (Akimoto et al, 2000; Chen et al, 2000). The loss of few cells is repaired rapidly by extension and spreading of adjacent EC without the need for proliferation (Reidy & Schwartz, 1981). However, larger EC lesions require proliferation to regenerate the endothelial monolayer and prevent neointima formation (Haudenschild & ...
Fractalkine is a proinflammatory chemokine that participates in atherosclerotic process mediating the interactions of vascular cells and leukocytes and selective recruitment of Th1 lymphocytes, through interaction with CX3CR1 receptor. The polymorphism of the fractalkine receptor 280M-containing haplotype, which codifies for a receptor with minor expression and with a reduced binding capability, represents a novel protective factor of atherosclerotic disease. We investigated the association among CX3CR1 genotype, the inflammatory infiltrate subpopulations recruited in the plaque, and the in situ expression of fractalkine and its receptor, in patients who died of myocardial infarction (AMI) compared with subjects who died of noncardiac causes. Patients with nonlethal AMI (AMI survivors) were also investigated to correlate the CX3CR1 polymorphisms and the incidence of lethal AMI. A strong T cells
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a large, double-stranded DNA virus that causes significant human disease, particularly in the congenital setting and in solid-organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. A prominent feature of HCMV is the wide range of viral gene products that it encodes wh …
|p|CX3CL1 is the unique member of the CX3C chemokine subfamily. The membrane-anchored protein, which is primarily expressed on the inflamed endothelium, serves as an adhesion protein promoting the retention of monocytes and T cells in inflamed tissue. The soluble form resembles more a conventional chemokine and strongly induces chemotaxis. Both chemotaxis and adhesion are mediated by the G protein-coupled receptor CX3CR1. CX3CL1 has been thought to play an important role in inflammation, and indeed, accumulating evidence indicates that CX3CL1/CX3CR1 are involved in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory disorders such as glomerulonephritis, rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).|/p|
Epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) is the deadliest gynecologic malignancy largely due to the metastatic disease. EOC metastases spread by shedding the malignant cells off of the ovarian surface and seeding tissues and organs of the peritoneal cavity. Currently used therapies, a combination of chemotherapy and surgery, fail to keep most patients in the remission. Mechanistic understanding of the biology of EOC metastasis will facilitate development of new therapeutic approaches. Our previous data demonstrated that fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) is expressed by EOC cells and can support cell migration and proliferation. Moreover, our previous data suggested that CX3CR1-positive EOC cells can adhere to the CX3CL1-postive peritoneal mesothelial cells in in vitro assay. Thus, we hypothesized that CX3CL1/CX3CR1 axis could be important for peritoneal dissemination of metastatic EOC. To test this hypothesis, we performed short-term ex vivo and in vivo adhesion assay, as well as long-term metastasis ...
cell surface, extracellular region, integral component of membrane, positive regulation of calcium-independent cell-cell adhesion, positive regulation of inflammatory response
CX3CR1 is a G-protein-coupled seven-transmembrane chemokine receptor, also called GPR13 or V28. It is expressed on NK cells, T cell subset, monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells, and some malignant epithelial cells. CX3CL1 (known also as fractalkine and neurotactin) is the ligand of CX3CR1. CX3CL1
Alzheimers disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, is now the seventh major cause of death in the United States. AD is characterized an...
Expression of Cx43 protein in the 1321N1 cells. Cx43 protein levels were normalized to that of β-actin protein. Data are expressed as means ± S.E.M. Each immu
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Mycobacterium tuberculosis-induced cellular aggregation is essential for granuloma formation and may assist establishment and early spread of M. tuberculosis infection. The M. tuberculosis ESX1 mutant, which has a non-functional type VII secretion system, induced significantly less production of the host macrophage-derived chemokine fractalkine (CX3CL1). Upon infection of human macrophages ESX1-dependent fractalkine production mediated selective recruitment of CD11b+ monocytic cells and increased infection of neighbouring cells consistent with early local spread of infection. Fractalkine levels were raised in vivo at tuberculous disease sites in humans and were significantly associated with increased CD11b+ monocytic cellular recruitment and extent of granulomatous disease. These findings suggest a novel fractalkine-dependent ESX1-mediated mechanism in early tuberculous disease pathogenesis in humans. Modulation of M. tuberculosis-mediated fractalkine induction may represent a potential ...
Surveillant parenchymal microglial cells are extremely plastic and provide the first line of defense within the CNS. Resident microglial cells are morphologically and functionally distinct from other mononuclear CNS populations, such as perivascular macrophages, supraependymal macrophages, epiplexus cells of the choroids plexus, and meningeal macrophages (24, 25). In the naive brain, microglia display small cell bodies with thin, long, and branched processes (1). Although microglial functions are intended to be protective, it is documented that dysregulated microglial responses lead to neurotoxicity in vitro and in vivo (12). Recent data have clearly shown that activation of microglia might be beneficial in some pathological settings. More specifically, absence of CX3CR1 in two different models of Alzheimers disease correlated to reduced β-amyloid deposition because of enhanced phagocytosis by activated microglia (26, 27). Upon activation, because of inflammation of neuronal damage, microglial ...
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I called FSA and they said I could order just the cap from them through my local FSA dealer (FSA is their own wholesaler, and dealers apparently order direct from them ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
AequoScreen® Double Transfected Cell Lines: Chemokine, CX3CR1 subtype. Human Recombinant, in CHO-K1 host cell. Two vials of cryopreserved cells are shipped per order. A detailed technical dossier includes sequence, culture conditions and pharmacological properties of the recombinant receptor. All cell lines are tested for the absence of mycoplasma. Terms and conditions apply. Some products are not available in some countries. Please inquire at your local sales office for more information.. Features:. ...
PATCH] eeprom_93cx6: shorten pulse timing to match spec 93cx6 datasheet available here: http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/DeviceDoc/21749F.pdf Figure 1-1 and Table 1-2 on pages 4-5 indicate that both Clock High Time and Clock Low Time have largest minimum times of 450ns. Signed-off-by: John W. Linville ,[EMAIL PROTECTED], --- drivers/misc/eeprom_93cx6.c , 6 +++--- 1 files changed, 3 insertions(+), 3 deletions(-) diff --git a/drivers/misc/eeprom_93cx6.c b/drivers/misc/eeprom_93cx6.c index 0d6d742..ac515b0 100644 --- a/drivers/misc/eeprom_93cx6.c +++ b/drivers/misc/eeprom_93cx6.c @@ -42,10 +42,10 @@ static inline void eeprom_93cx6_pulse_high(struct eeprom_93cx6 *eeprom) /* * Add a short delay for the pulse to work. - * According to the specifications the minimal time - * should be 450ns so a 1us delay is sufficient. + * According to the specifications the maximum minimum + * time should be 450ns. */ - udelay(1); + ndelay(450); } static inline void eeprom_93cx6_pulse_low(struct eeprom_93cx6 ...
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Results There were no significant differences were observed in the mean age, gender ratio, dosages of predonisolone and methotraxate between ADA and TCZ groups. In ADA group, baseline DAS28 for the 15 patients was 4.8±0.3 (2.5-7.2). On the other hands, baseline DAS28 for the 20 patients was 4.8±0.3 (2.5-6.8) in TCZ group. There were no differences between ADA and TCZ groups. RA patients with an insufficient response to ADA or TCZ showed highly significant improvement of DAS28 after 12 weeks (2.9±0.3 and 2.2±0.4, respectively), and 24 weeks (2.5±0.4 to 2.2±0.2, respectively). ADAM-10 highly correlates with CDAI, and fractalkine/CX3CL1. Serum ADAM-10 levels were no remarkable change after treatment with ADA despite decrease of disease activity of RA. On the other hand, serum ADAM-10 levels in patients who were treated with TCZ were significantly diminished following successful treatment and clinical improvement (baseline 408±88 pg/ml and 54 weeks 138±51 pg/ml, p,0.05). Univariate logistic ...
Anti-Mouse Lymphotactin/XCL1 polyclonal antibody reacts with mouse lymphotactin. |br| Background: Lymphotactin is the only C chemokine so far identified which has a single cysteine residue near the amino terminus. It has 114 amino acids with a 22 amino a
Rabbit anti Human Lymphotactin antibody recognizes human Lymphotactin, otherwise known as XCL1, the only member of the C-chemokine family
Expression of CX3CL1 (ABCD-3, C3Xkine, CXC3, CXC3C, fractalkine, neurotactin, NTN, SCYD1) in endometrium 1 tissue. Antibody staining with HPA040361 and CAB026192 in immunohistochemistry.
Expression of CX3CL1 (ABCD-3, C3Xkine, CXC3, CXC3C, fractalkine, neurotactin, NTN, SCYD1) in cervix, uterine tissue. Antibody staining with HPA040361 and CAB026192 in immunohistochemistry.
Mouse monoclonal CX3CL1 antibody [MM0207-8J23] validated for WB, IHC and tested in Human. Referenced in 1 publication. Immunogen corresponding to recombinant…
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As a consequence of aging, the brain is subject to chronic neuroinflammatory conditions. The resident immune cells of the brain, microglia, act similarly to peripheral macrophages to protect the brain from insults, infection, and physical trauma. However, without proper regulation of their respective host defense mechanisms, these actions can become neurotoxic. In the healthy brain neurons have several signaling systems that directly interact with microglia in order to maintain a calming influence upon their actions, one of particular interest is the chemokine CX3CL1. This chemokine is found predominantly on neurons, while its cognate receptor CX3CR1 is found exclusively on microglia. There has been a recent surge in literature as to the exact role CX3CL1 signaling plays various physiological and neuropathological animal models, with still no well-defined role. In an attempt to address the current discordance regarding the role of CX3CL1 signaling we have used three different models. The first examines
Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have identified a previously unknown biological mechanism involved in the regulation of pancreatic islet beta cells, whose role is to produce and release ...
Complete information for CX3CL1 gene (Protein Coding), C-X3-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
View what was discussed at the CX Challenges Update in 2019. As part of our three-year cycle we will be discussing consensus in 2020. Early Bird prices now!
View what was discussed at the CX Challenges Update in 2019. As part of our three-year cycle we will be discussing consensus in 2020. Early Bird prices now!
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Polycom CX600 is an IP phone optimized for Microsoft Lync 2013 and 2010, featuring Polycom HD Voice and 2 Gigabit Ethernet ports.
Microglia are phagocytic cells that infiltrate the brain during development and have a role in the elimination of synapses during brain maturation. Changes in microglial morphology and gene expression have been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. However, it remains unknown whether these changes are a primary cause or a secondary consequence of neuronal deficits. Here we tested whether a primary deficit in microglia was sufficient to induce some autism-related behavioral and functional connectivity deficits. Mice lacking the chemokine receptor Cx3cr1 exhibit a transient reduction of microglia during the early postnatal period and a consequent deficit in synaptic pruning. We show that deficient synaptic pruning is associated with weak synaptic transmission, decreased functional brain connectivity, deficits in social interaction and increased repetitive-behavior phenotypes that have been previously associated with autism and other neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. These ...
APA040Ra01, NTN; ABCD3; C3Xkine; CXC3; CXC3C; NTT; SCYD1; ABCD3; FKN; Neurotactin; Fractalkine; Small Inducible Cytokine Subfamily D(Cys-X3-Cys)Member 1 | Products for research use only!
And now ladies & gentlemen?…"Johnny come FKn lately"! SMHPLMBAO! Get a LOAD of this weak muthafkah HEEah!! SMH! Look…"caped crusader", instead of "swooping in/"attempting to attack" me personally?, WTF dont YO nosey ass come with some fkn FACTS that correctly, DIrectly dispute what I posted? Why show how fkn immature, limited & UNitelligent YO ass "is" for jumping jnto a pool, yo bamma ass cant "swim in"!? Again …"facts on the muthaFKn "subject" bytch! But see?, its YO ass reflecting stereotypic tendencies, emotionally opening to STUpid ass mouth, without recognizing you dont have an intelligent relevant….retort. You?, like so many OTHER cadavers Ive disposed of, are as dead as a fkn…."8 track/Beta/cassette player…."dont NObawdy wanna hear yo shyt", son!! And as preDICTabke as a fkn…."lying ass Republican". See…youre mad that tha facts dont favor yo punk ass!, & and so?, your weak ass tryyyyyyys to divert FROM the facts. Yarn!! Look….just STFU & go lay yo dumb ass down ...
Results] Tau binding to CX3CR1 triggers the internalization of the former by microglia, whereas S396 Tau phosphorylation decreases the binding affinity of this protein to CX3CR1. Of note, the progressive increase in the levels of phosho-Tau occurred in parallel with an increase in CX3CR1. In addition, our studies suggest that the phagocytic capacity of microglia in brain tissue samples from AD patients is decreased. Furthermore, the CX3CR1/CX3CL1 axis may be impaired in late stages of the disease ...
Complete information for CX3CL1 gene (Protein Coding), C-X3-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
A CX audit that encompasses the entire organization, with multiple team involvement and ownership, is a necessary step to ensuring a strong customer experience engine.
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Purpose: Inflammation plays a substantial role in the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Fenofibrate, a lipid reducing drug is known to decrease inflammation and improve insulin sensitivity, and reduce the risk of DR. We aim to determine the effectiveness of fenofibrate in the treatment of diabetes by detecting the levels of downstream inflammatory mediators (IM) in hyperglycemic mice retina.. Methods: Wild type mice were fed with high fat diet (HFD), HFD with fenofibrate (30mg/kg) and normal diet for 10 weeks. Akita (Ins2Akita) mice received a dose of 50mg/kg fenofibrate and saline weekly via oral medication for 10 weeks (n=20 mice per group). Pre and post-treatment blood glucose level (BGL) measurements and retinal assessments were conducted weekly. To determine the effectiveness of fenofibrate, 11 IM levels, namely atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), Fractalkine (CX3CR1), ICAM-1, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), MCP-1, NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2), NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), ...
Olympus’ ergonomic CX43 and CX33 microscopes are designed to deliver superior comfort and reduce fatigue during long periods of routine microscopy.
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IBM Tealeaf offers customer experience analytics that help businesses optimize customer experience on sites and apps through actionable, AI-powered insight.
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Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-encoded G protein-coupled-receptor US28 is believed to participate in virus dissemination through modulation of cell migration and immune evasion. US28 binds different CC chemokines and the CX3C chemokine CX3CL1. Membrane-anchored CX3CL1 is expressed by immune-activated endothelial cells, causing redirection of CX3CR1-expressing leukocytes in the blood to sites of infection. Here, we used stable transfected cell lines to examine how US28 expression affects cell migration on immobilized full-length CX3CL1, to model how HCMV-infected leukocytes interact with inflamed endothelium. We observed that US28-expressing cells migrated more than CX3CR1-expressing cells when adhering to immobilized CX3CL1. US28-induced migration was G protein-signalling dependent and was blocked by the phospholipase Cβ inhibitor U73122 and the intracellular calcium chelator BAPTA-AM. In addition, migration was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by competition from CCL2 and CCL5, whereas CCL3 ...
This post is part of a wider series about all the 6 CX disciplines that represent the CXPA Framework around which the CCXP exam is structured and that we cover in the CX Masterclass. Follow Nienke Bloem and Rosaria Cirillo to be notified as soon as a new blog post is published.. Find here the complete list of the other posts in this series:. 1. CX Strategy. 2. Customer Understanding. 3. Design, Improvement and Innovation. 4. Measurement. 5. Governance. 6. Culture (will be published on the 4th of December). Extra: CXPA exam & Becoming CCXP (will be published on the 11th of December). About this series. This post was originally posted on Wow Now and is part of the CX Framework series by Rosaria Cirillo and Nienke Bloem.. The foundations for these blogposts are written by Milou van Kerkhof following the June 2017 CX Masterclass given by Nienke Bloem and Rosaria Cirillo. Milou attended this as a newcomer in Customer Experience. These blogposts have been slightly edited and reflect only the ...
Phosphorylation of wt or mutant Cx43 in v-Src-expressing cells. (A) Immunoprecipitation of Cx43. Confluent cells were metabolically labeled with 32Pi. Cx43 wa
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Chemokines, or chemotactic cytokines, are a large family of small (6 14 kDa), structurally related proteins that mediate a wide range of biological activities. As a part of normal immune system functions, chemokines are a critical component of basal leukocyte trafficking essential for immune system architecture and development, and immune surveillance. Chemokines also participate in the growth, differentiation, and activation of leukocytes as well as stimulate various effector functions of these cells, such as integrin activation, chemotaxis, superoxide radical production and granule enzyme release. Four classes of chemokines have been defined by the arrangement of the conserved cysteine (C) residues of the mature proteins: the CXC chemokines the CC chemokines in which the first two conserved cysteines residues are adjacent; the C chemokines that lack two (the first and third) of the four conserved cysteine residues; and the CX3C chemokines which have three intervening AA residues between the ...
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Fractalkine, a CX3C Chemokine, as a Mediator of Ocular Angiogenesis | IOVS | ARVO JournalsFractalkine, a CX3C Chemokine, as a Mediator of Ocular Angiogenesis | IOVS | ARVO Journals

Fractalkine (FKN), the sole member of the CX3C chemokine family, is named for its fractal geometry. The CX3C motif, with three ... chemokines can be grouped into four families: C, CC, CXC, and CX3C. Studies have shown that chemokines not only function as ... Fractalkine, a CX3C Chemokine, as a Mediator of Ocular Angiogenesis Jian-Jang You; Chang-Hao Yang; Jen-Shang Huang; Muh-Shy ... Fractalkine, a CX3C Chemokine, as a Mediator of Ocular Angiogenesis You will receive an email whenever this article is ...
more infohttps://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2183255

In Vivo Inhibition of CC and CX3C Chemokine-induced Leukocyte Infiltration and Attenuation of Glomerulonephritis in Wistar...In Vivo Inhibition of CC and CX3C Chemokine-induced Leukocyte Infiltration and Attenuation of Glomerulonephritis in Wistar...

1997) A new class of membrane-bound chemokine with a CX3C motif. Nature 385:640-644, pmid:9024663.. ... In addition to CC chemokines, we found that the CX3C chemokine, fractalkine, was also induced in the glomeruli of anti-GBM GN ... and the key chemokine may vary from disease to disease. Moreover, the key chemokine may vary with the progression of an ... broad-spectrum chemokine antagonist, vMIP-II could interfere with the activities of these chemokines in vivo, and thus prevent ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/188/1/193?ijkey=c38ce77db747fb01064ee8599370fce88cf60388&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Actions of Thyroid Hormone Analogues on ChemokinesActions of Thyroid Hormone Analogues on Chemokines

6. CX3C Chemokines and Thyroid Hormone Analogues. 6.1. CX3CL1. The resident macrophages of the CNS, microglia, have both ... 5. C Chemokines. The C chemokines are XCL1 (lymphotactin-α) and XCL2 (lymphotactin-β). The single receptor to which these ... S. Goda, T. Imai, O. Yoshie et al., "CX3C-chemokine, fractalkine-enhanced adhesion of THP-1 cells to endothelial cells through ... 3. CC Chemokines and Thyroid Hormone Analogues. 3.1. CCL20. Among the homeostatic chemokines in the CNS that contribute to ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2016/3147671/

Microglia actions in Alzheimers disease | SpringerLinkMicroglia actions in Alzheimer's disease | SpringerLink

CX3C chemokine receptor 1. CX3CL1. Chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1 (Fraktalkine) ... Tatrai E, Brozik M, Kovacikova Z, Horvath M (2005) The effect of asbestos and stone-wool fibres on some chemokines and redox ... Naert G, Rivest S (2011) CC chemokine receptor 2 deficiency aggravates cognitive impairments and amyloid pathology in a ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00401-013-1182-x

Origin and Differentiation of Nerve-Associated Macrophages | The Journal of ImmunologyOrigin and Differentiation of Nerve-Associated Macrophages | The Journal of Immunology

CX3C chemokine receptor 1. EMP. erythromyeloid progenitor. ENS. enteric nervous system. HSC. hematopoietic stem cell. MM. ...
more infohttps://www.jimmunol.org/content/204/2/271

Chemokine CX3CL1/FRACTALKINE - Macaca mulatta (Rhesus macaque)Chemokine CX3CL1/FRACTALKINE - Macaca mulatta (Rhesus macaque)

cd00274 Chemokine_CX3C, 1 hit. InterProi. View protein in InterPro. IPR039809 Chemokine_b/g/d. IPR034127 Chemokine_CX3C. ... IPR039809 Chemokine_b/g/d. IPR034127 Chemokine_CX3C. IPR001811 Chemokine_IL8-like_dom. IPR008097 CX3CL1. IPR036048 Interleukin_ ... Chemokine CX3CL1/FRACTALKINEImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures ... IPR001811 Chemokine_IL8-like_dom. IPR008097 CX3CL1. IPR036048 Interleukin_8-like_sf. ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q8HXZ1

Product Details for Cytokine Reference A Compendium of Cytokines and Other Mediators of Host Defense by Marc FeldmannProduct Details for Cytokine Reference A Compendium of Cytokines and Other Mediators of Host Defense by Marc Feldmann

CXC chemokines; CC, C and CX3C chemokines; related proinflammatory factors; neuropeptides and hormones. Volume 2, Receptors, ... CXC chemokines; CC, C and CX3C chemokines; related proinflammatory factors; neuropeptides and hormones. Volume 2, Receptors, ... CXC chemokine receptors; CC, C, and CX3C chemokine receptors; miscellaneous proinflammatory ractor receptors; appendix; index. ... CXC chemokine receptors; CC, C, and CX3C chemokine receptors; miscellaneous proinflammatory ractor receptors; appendix; index. ...
more infohttps://www.textbookx.com/book/Cytokine-Reference-A-Compendium-of-Cytokines-and-Other-Mediators-of-Host-Defense/9780122526701/

CXCR6 - WikipediaCXCR6 - Wikipedia

... and CX3C chemokines". Journal of Immunology. 166 (8): 5145-54. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.166.8.5145. PMID 11290797. Lee B, Leslie G ... "Cell surface-anchored SR-PSOX/CXC chemokine ligand 16 mediates firm adhesion of CXC chemokine receptor 6-expressing cells". ... C-X-C chemokine receptor type 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CXCR6 gene. CXCR6 has also recently been ... "Entrez Gene: CXCR6 chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 6". Elliott ST, Wetzel KS, Francella N, Bryan S, Romero DC, Riddick NE, ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CXCR6

CXCL16 - WikipediaCXCL16 - Wikipedia

... and CX3C chemokines". J Immunol. 166 (8): 5145-54. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.166.8.5145. PMID 11290797. Olszak T, An D, Zeissig S, ... Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 16 (CXCL16) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family. Larger than other ... These are unusual features for a chemokine, and allow CXCL16 to be expressed as a cell surface bound molecule, as well as a ... Matloubian M, David A, Engel S, Ryan J, Cyster J (2000). "A transmembrane CXC chemokine is a ligand for HIV-coreceptor Bonzo". ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CXCL16

Immunology | Weizmann Institute of ScienceImmunology | Weizmann Institute of Science

The role CX3C chemokine axis in intercellular communication.. Contributions of Dendritic cell, Macrophages and Monocytes ...
more infohttp://www.weizmann.ac.il/pages/research-activities-current-research-activities/faculty-biology/immunology

Fractalkine Activates a Signal Transduction Pathway Similar to P2Y12 and Is Associated With Impaired Clopidogrel Responsiveness...Fractalkine Activates a Signal Transduction Pathway Similar to P2Y12 and Is Associated With Impaired Clopidogrel Responsiveness...

Role of CX3C-chemokine CX3C-L/fractalkine expression in a model of slowly progressive renal failure. Nephrol Dial Transplant. ... Linked chromosome 16q13 chemokines, macrophage-derived chemokine, fractalkine, and thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine, ... The CX3C chemokine fractalkine enhances vascular dysfunction and aggravates platelet activation in rats with chronic heart ... A new class of membrane-bound chemokine with a CX3C motif. Nature. 1997;385:640-644. ...
more infohttp://atvb.ahajournals.org/content/32/8/1832

Apoptotic Cell Clearance in Gut Tissue: Role of Intestinal Regeneration | Springer for Research & DevelopmentApoptotic Cell Clearance in Gut Tissue: Role of Intestinal Regeneration | Springer for Research & Development

Chemokine, CX3C motif, ligand 1. EGF. Epidermal growth factor. GTPase. Guanosinetriphosphatase. GWAS. Genome-wide association ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-319-98146-8_6

Sweepers in the CNS: Microglial Migration and Phagocytosis in the Alzheimer Disease PathogenesisSweepers in the CNS: Microglial Migration and Phagocytosis in the Alzheimer Disease Pathogenesis

The CX3C chemokine CX3CL1 (fractalkine, also called as neurotactin), which has been identified as two forms, soluble or ... C. Savarin-Vuaillat and R. M. Ransohoff, "Chemokines and chemokine receptors in neurological disease: raise, retain, or reduce ... the CX3C chemokine fractalkine receptor CX3CR1, is almost exclusively expressed in microglia throughout the CNS, which is ... CX3CR1 is the sole receptor of CX3C chemokine CX3CL1 (fractalkine). The roles of CX3CL1-CX3CR1 signaling on AD pathology are ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijad/2012/891087/

Mouse Chemokines & Receptors PCR ArrayMouse Chemokines & Receptors PCR Array

γ Chemokine (C Motif): Xcl1.. δ Chemokine (CX3C Motif): Cx3cl1.. Chemokine Receptors:. a Chemokine (CXC Motif): Cxcr1, Cxcr2, ... γ Chemokine (C Motif): Xcr1.. δ Chemokine (CX3C Motif): Cx3cr1.. Atypical: Ackr2, Ackr4, Ccrl2, Ackr3, Darc. ... Home > Products > PCR Home > PCR Array > Array List > Mouse Chemokines & Receptors Chemokines & Receptors PCR Array. NOTE: To ... Mouse Chemokines & Receptors PCR Array. The Mouse Chemokines & Receptors RT² Profiler™ PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 ...
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artificial lymph nodes [Lymphedema People]artificial lymph nodes [Lymphedema People]

CXC chemokine receptor; CX3CR1, CX3C chemokine receptor 1; EGFP, enhanced green fluorescent protein; ELISPOT, enzyme-linked ... The expression of CCR5, CXCR6, and CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1) in cells of aLNs of SCID recipient mice was slightly but ... After the first immunization, expression of CC chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) and CXC chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5) decreased in ... Real-time PCR for S1P or chemokine receptor mRNA quantitation. Total RNA was purified from spleen cells of SCID or naive mice ...
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JCI -
Exclusive CX3CR1 dependence of kidney DCs impacts glomerulonephritis progressionJCI - Exclusive CX3CR1 dependence of kidney DCs impacts glomerulonephritis progression

In vivo structure/function and expression analysis of the CX3C chemokine fractalkine. Blood. 2011;118(22):e156-e167.. View this ... The C-C chemokine receptors CCR4 and CCR8 identify airway T cells of allergen-challenged atopic asthmatics. J Clin Invest. 2001 ... C-C chemokine receptor 6-regulated entry of TH-17 cells into the CNS through the choroid plexus is required for the initiation ... The chemokine receptor CX3CR1, also known as the fractalkine receptor, is expressed by monocytes, DCs, and MPs and on some ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/70143

CX3CL1/CX3CR1 Axis Contributes to Angiotensin II-Induced Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Inflammatory Cytokine...CX3CL1/CX3CR1 Axis Contributes to Angiotensin II-Induced Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Inflammatory Cytokine...

Role of CX3C-chemokine CX3C-L/fractalkine expression in a model of slowly progressive renal failure ... High expression of CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1) in human carotid plaques is associated with vulnerability of the lesions ... cells in human atherosclerotic plaques express the fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 and undergo chemotaxis to the CX3C chemokine ...
more infohttps://www.deepdyve.com/lp/springer_journal/cx3cl1-cx3cr1-axis-contributes-to-angiotensin-ii-induced-vascular-08950LzDvW

Chemokine: Human/Mouse Ligand-Receptor Interactions: R&D SystemsChemokine: Human/Mouse Ligand-Receptor Interactions: R&D Systems

View our interactive Chemokine Superfamily Pathway: Human/Mouse Ligand-Receptor Interactions. ... Four chemokine subfamilies (CXC, CC, C, and CX3C) have been defined based upon the placement of the first two cysteine residues ... While chemokine receptors generally bind only one subfamily of chemokines, within those subfamilies, most chemokines display ... The CX3C chemokine subfamily is defined by two cysteine residues separated by three amino acids. Cell surface-localized CX3CL1/ ...
more infohttps://www.rndsystems.com/pathways/chemokine-superfamily-pathway-human-mouse-lig-recept-interactions

人可溶性转铁蛋白受体(sTfR)ELISA试剂盒 中国人可溶性转铁蛋白受体(sTfR)ELISA试剂盒 中国

Human thymus activation regulated chemokine,TAFA ELISA kit EK0268 人CX3C趋化因子受体1(CX3CR1)ELISA试剂盒 Human CX3C-chemokine receptor 1, ... Human CXC-chemokine ligand 16,CXCL16 ELISA kit EK0192 人CXC趋化因子受体3(CXCR3)ELISA试剂盒 Human CXC-chemokine receptor 3,CXCR3 ELISA kit ... Human pulmonary activation regulated chemokine,PAFA ELISA kit EK0270 人黏膜地址素细胞黏附分子(MAdCAM-1)ELISA试剂盒 Human mucosal addressin ... Human mucosae associated epithelia chemokine,MEC ELISA kit
more infohttp://www.caigou.com.cn/product/20160506663.shtml

Plus itPlus it

1997) A new class of membrane-bound chemokine with a CX3C motif. Nature 385:640-644, doi:10.1038/385640a0, pmid:9024663. ... 2011) In vivo structure/function and expression analysis of the CX3C chemokine fractalkine. Blood 118:e156-e167, doi:10.1182/ ... CX3CL1 is a unique chemokine in that it can signal in both a membrane-anchored form and a soluble form when released by ADAM10/ ... CX3CL1 is a type I transmembrane protein with an extracellular chemokine domain that is anchored to the membrane by a mucin- ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/34/37/12538

Expression of CX3CR1 in cancer - Summary - The Human Protein AtlasExpression of CX3CR1 in cancer - Summary - The Human Protein Atlas

CX3C chemokine receptor 1 Show all. G-protein coupled receptors. GPCRs excl olfactory receptors. Chemokines and chemotactic ... GO:0016495 [C-X3-C chemokine receptor activity]. GO:0019960 [C-X3-C chemokine binding]. GO:0070098 [chemokine-mediated ... GO:0016495 [C-X3-C chemokine receptor activity]. GO:0019960 [C-X3-C chemokine binding]. GO:0070098 [chemokine-mediated ... GO:0016495 [C-X3-C chemokine receptor activity]. GO:0019960 [C-X3-C chemokine binding]. GO:0070098 [chemokine-mediated ...
more infohttps://www.proteinatlas.org/ENSG00000168329-CX3CR1/pathology

Frontiers | Leaky Gut As a Danger Signal for Autoimmune Diseases | ImmunologyFrontiers | Leaky Gut As a Danger Signal for Autoimmune Diseases | Immunology

In vivo structure/function and expression analysis of the CX3C chemokine fractalkine. Blood (2011) 118(22):e156-67. doi:10.1182 ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2017.00598/full

WikiGenes - ALRH - Allergic rhinitisWikiGenes - ALRH - Allergic rhinitis

The CX3C chemokine fractalkine in allergic asthma and rhinitis. Rimaniol, A.C., Till, S.J., Garcia, G., Capel, F., Godot, V., ... Regulatory effect of histamine H1 receptor antagonist on the expression of messenger RNA encoding CC chemokines in the human ... Functional expression of the C-X-C chemokine receptor CXCR4 by human bronchial epithelial cells: regulation by proinflammatory ... CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that histamine may induce CC chemokine production in the nasal mucosa of patients with allergic ...
more infohttps://www.wikigenes.org/e/gene/e/260328.html

Patrolling monocytes control tumor metastasis to the lung | SciencePatrolling monocytes control tumor metastasis to the lung | Science

In vivo structure/function and expression analysis of the CX3C chemokine fractalkine. Blood 118, e156-e167 (2011). doi:10.1182/ ... Role of chemokines in the biology of natural killer cells. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 341, 37-58 (2010). doi:10.1007/82_ ... Role of chemokines in the biology of natural killer cells. J. Leukoc. Biol. 71, 173-183 (2002). pmid:11818437. ... G) Relative chemokine mRNA expression in Ly6C+ or Ly6C− monocytes isolated from lungs by fluorescence-activated cell sorting 24 ...
more infohttp://science.sciencemag.org/content/350/6263/985.full
  • Molecules that have the capacity to bind and antagonize multiple types of chemokine receptors may provide a rational approach to overcome difficulties associated with this potential redundancy. (rupress.org)
  • Some chemokines control cells of the immune system during processes of immune surveillance, such as directing lymphocytes to the lymph nodes so they can screen for invasion of pathogens by interacting with antigen-presenting cells residing in these tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regarding the dynamic procedure for chemokine rules, it became increasingly more obvious that also posttranslational adjustments play a significant part (19). (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • These are known as homeostatic chemokines and are produced and secreted without any need to stimulate their source cell(s). (wikipedia.org)
  • Although, the shared series homology of chemokines varies between significantly less than 20% to over 90%, the tertiary MG149 IC50 framework of chemokines, generally, is quite comparable (15C17). (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • However, the approach of antichemokine therapy has been hampered by the pleiotropy and redundancy of the chemokine system. (rupress.org)
  • Chemokines are found in all vertebrates , some viruses and some bacteria , but none have been described for other invertebrates . (wikipedia.org)