Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Chemokines, CXC: Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.Chemokines, CC: Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.Receptors, Chemokine: Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Chemokine CCL5: A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.Chemokine CXCL10: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemokines, C: Group of chemokines without adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes only.Chemokine CXCL9: An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CCL4: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Chemokine CCL3: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins: Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.Chemokine CXCL1: A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.Chemokines, CX3C: Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.Chemokine CCL7: A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Chemokine CXCL11: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Monocyte Chemoattractant Proteins: Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Chemokine CXCL2: A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Receptors, Interleukin-8B: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.Chemokine CXCL5: A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Receptors, CXCR3: CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.Duffy Blood-Group System: A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.Receptors, CCR2: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.Chemokine CCL17: A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Receptors, CCR1: CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.Chemokine CCL19: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.Chemotactic Factors: Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.Chemokine CCL21: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL8: A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CCL11: A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Chemokine CCL22: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.Monokines: Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.Chemokine CXCL12: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Chemokine CCL1: A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.Receptors, CCR5: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.Receptors, Interleukin-8A: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Receptors, CCR3: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.Mice, Inbred C57BLChemokine CCL24: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Chemokine CXCL6: A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Chemokine CX3CL1: A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.Receptors, CCR10: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Receptors, CXCR4: CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Neutrophil Infiltration: The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.Receptors, Cytokine: Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Chemokine CXCL13: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Chemokine CCL20: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.Receptors, CCR4: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Receptors, CCR7: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Mice, Inbred BALB CT-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Receptors, CCR8: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.beta-Thromboglobulin: A platelet-specific protein which is released when platelets aggregate. Elevated plasma levels have been reported after deep venous thrombosis, pre-eclampsia, myocardial infarction with mural thrombosis, and myeloproliferative disorders. Measurement of beta-thromboglobulin in biological fluids by radioimmunoassay is used for the diagnosis and assessment of progress of thromboembolic disorders.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Chemotactic Factors, Eosinophil: Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Platelet Factor 4: A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.Receptors, CCR6: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Receptors, CXCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Receptors, CCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Receptors, CXCR5: CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cell Migration Inhibition: Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.Chemokine CCL27: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Neutrophil Activation: The process in which the neutrophil is stimulated by diverse substances, resulting in degranulation and/or generation of reactive oxygen products, and culminating in the destruction of invading pathogens. The stimulatory substances, including opsonized particles, immune complexes, and chemotactic factors, bind to specific cell-surface receptors on the neutrophil.Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1: A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Receptors, Interleukin: Cell surface proteins that bind interleukins and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Toll-Like Receptors: A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Microglia: The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.Interleukins: Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.Leukocyte Rolling: Movement of tethered, spherical LEUKOCYTES along the endothelial surface of the microvasculature. The tethering and rolling involves interaction with SELECTINS and other adhesion molecules in both the ENDOTHELIUM and leukocyte. The rolling leukocyte then becomes activated by CHEMOKINES, flattens out, and firmly adheres to the endothelial surface in preparation for transmigration through the interendothelial cell junction. (From Abbas, Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 3rd ed)Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1: Cytokine-induced cell adhesion molecule present on activated endothelial cells, tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, bone marrow fibroblasts, myoblasts, and myotubes. It is important for the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, p154)Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Culture Media, Conditioned: Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Macrophages, Alveolar: Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Models, Immunological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.Receptors, HIV: Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Respiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Uteroglobin: A steroid-inducible protein that was originally identified in uterine fluid. It is a secreted homodimeric protein with identical 70-amino acid subunits that are joined in an antiparallel orientation by two disulfide bridges. A variety of activities are associated with uteroglobin including the sequestering of hydrophobic ligands and the inhibition of SECRETORY PHOSPHOLIPASE A2.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Interleukin-17: A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.Angiostatic Proteins: Proteins that specifically inhibit the growth of new blood vessels (ANGIOGENESIS, PHYSIOLOGIC).Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Macrophage Activation: The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.Toll-Like Receptor 4: A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Lymphotoxin-beta: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on LYMPHOCYTES. It can form a heterotrimer (LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA1, BETA2 HETEROTRIMER) with the soluble ligand LYMPHOTOXIN-ALPHA and anchor it to the cell surface. The membrane-bound complex is specific for the LYMPHOTOXIN BETA receptor.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.Receptors, Interleukin-17: Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-17. Several subtypes of receptors have been found, each with its own in specificity for interleukin-17 subtype.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Integrin alpha4beta1: Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Synovial Membrane: The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Endothelium, Lymphatic: Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.Toll-Like Receptor 2: A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.Mast Cells: Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Interleukin-13: A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Interleukin-1alpha: An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Toll-Like Receptor 3: A pattern recognition receptor that binds DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA. It mediates cellular responses to certain viral pathogens.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Hypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.

Expression and cellular localization of the CC chemokines PARC and ELC in human atherosclerotic plaques. (1/1708)

Local immune responses are thought to play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. Histological studies have shown that human atherosclerotic lesions contain T lymphocytes throughout all stages of development, many of which are in an activated state. A number of novel CC chemokines have been described recently, which are potent chemoattractants for lymphocytes: PARC (pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine), ELC (EBI1-ligand chemokine), LARC (liver and activation-regulated chemokine), and SLC (secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine). Using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization, we have found gene expression for PARC and ELC but not for LARC or SLC in human atherosclerotic plaques. Immunohistochemical staining of serial plaque sections with specific cell markers revealed highly different expression patterns of PARC and ELC. PARC mRNA was restricted to CD68+ macrophages (n = 14 of 18), whereas ELC mRNA was widely expressed by macrophages and intimal smooth muscle cells (SMC) in nearly all of the lesions examined (n = 12 of 14). ELC mRNA was also found to be expressed in the medial SMC wall of highly calcified plaques (n = 4). Very low levels of ELC mRNA expression could also be detected in normal mammary arteries but no mRNA expression for PARC was detected in these vessels (n = 4). In vitro, ELC mRNA was found to be up-regulated in aortic SMC stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-a and interferon-gamma but not in SMC stimulated with serum. Both PARC and ELC mRNA were expressed by monocyte-derived macrophages but not monocytes. The expression patterns of PARC and ELC mRNA in human atherosclerotic lesions suggest a potential role for these two recently described CC chemokines in attracting T lymphocytes into atherosclerotic lesions.  (+info)

Selective eosinophil transendothelial migration triggered by eotaxin via modulation of Mac-1/ICAM-1 and VLA-4/VCAM-1 interactions. (2/1708)

We have recently cloned eotaxin, a highly efficacious eosinophilic chemokine involved in the development of lung eosinophilia during allergic inflammatory reactions. To understand more precisely how eotaxin facilitates the specific migration of eosinophils, we have studied which adhesion receptors are essential for eotaxin action both in vivo and in vitro. Experiments using mice genetically deficient in adhesion receptors demonstrated that molecules previously reported to be involved in both leukocyte tethering/rolling (P-selectin and E-selectin) and in sticking/ transmigration (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) are required for eotaxin action in vivo. To further elucidate the mechanism(s) involved in this process, we have used an in vitro transendothelial chemotaxis model. mAb neutralization studies performed in this system suggest that the integrins Mac-1 (CD11b/18), VLA-4 (alpha4beta1) and LFA-1 (CD11a/18) are involved in the transendothelial chemotaxis of eosinophils to eotaxin. Accordingly, the expression of these integrins on eosinophils is elevated by direct action of this chemokine in a concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, our results suggest that eotaxin-induced eosinophil transendothelial migration in vivo and in vitro relies on Mac-1/ICAM-1 and VLA-4NCAM-1 interactions, the latter ones becoming more relevant at later time points of the eotaxin-induced recruitment process.  (+info)

Selective recruitment of CCR4-bearing Th2 cells toward antigen-presenting cells by the CC chemokines thymus and activation-regulated chemokine and macrophage-derived chemokine. (3/1708)

Helper T cells are classified into Th1 and Th2 subsets based on their profiles of cytokine production. Th1 cells are involved in cell-mediated immunity, whereas Th2 cells induce humoral responses. Selective recruitment of these two subsets depends on specific adhesion molecules and specific chemoattractants. Here, we demonstrate that the T cell-directed CC chemokine thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) was abundantly produced by monocytes treated with granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or IL-3, especially in the presence of IL-4 and by dendritic cells derived from monocytes cultured with GM-CSF + IL-4. The receptor for TARC and another macrophage/dendritic cell-derived CC chemokine macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) is CCR4, a G protein-coupled receptor. CCR4 was found to be expressed on approximately 20% of adult peripheral blood effector/memory CD4+ T cells. T cells attracted by TARC and MDC generated cell lines predominantly producing Th2-type cytokines, IL-4 and IL-5. Fractionated CCR4+ cells but not CCR4- cells also selectively gave rise to Th2-type cell lines. When naive CD4+ T cells from adult peripheral blood were polarized in vitro, Th2-type cells selectively expressed CCR4 and vigorously migrated toward TARC and MDC. Taken together, CCR4 is selectively expressed on Th2-type T cells and antigen-presenting cells may recruit Th2 cells expressing CCR4 by producing TARC and MDC in Th2-dominant conditions.  (+info)

Eotaxin contributes to renal interstitial eosinophilia. (4/1708)

BACKGROUND: A potent eosinophil chemotactic cytokine, human eotaxin, is directly chemotactic for eosinophils. Therefore, the specific expression of eotaxin in tissue might play a crucial role in tissue eosinophilia. However, the precise molecular mechanism of the recruitment and activation of eosinophils in human renal diseases remains to be investigated. We evaluated the role of eotaxin in the pathogenesis of human diffuse interstitial nephritis with marked infiltration of eosinophils. METHODS: In this study, we examined 20 healthy volunteers. 56 patients with primary or secondary glomerular diseases and two hypereosinophilic syndrome patients without renal involvement. Urinary and serum eotaxin levels were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We also detected the presence of eotaxin protein immunohistochemically. RESULTS: On the one hand, urinary levels of eotaxin were significantly higher before the initiation of glucocorticoid administration in the patient with interstitial nephritis with marked infiltration of eosinophils. On the other hand, urinary eotaxin levels were not detected in any patients with nephrotic syndrome, interstitial nephritis without eosinophils, hypereosinophilic syndrome without renal involvement or other renal diseases. Serum eotaxin levels were not detected in any of the patients. Therefore, the detection of eotaxin in the urine was specific for renal interstitial eosinophilia. Moreover, endothelial cells, infiltrating mononuclear cells and renal epithelial cells in the tubulointerstitial lesions were immunostained with specific anti-eotaxin antibodies. Furthermore, the elevated urinary levels of eotaxin decreased dramatically during glucocorticoid-induced convalescence. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesize that in situ expression of eotaxin may provide a new mechanism to explain the renal interstitial eosinophil infiltration.  (+info)

Induction of macrophage C-C chemokine expression by titanium alloy and bone cement particles. (5/1708)

Particulate wear debris is associated with periprosthetic inflammation and loosening in total joint arthroplasty. We tested the effects of titanium alloy (Ti-alloy) and PMMA particles on monocyte/macrophage expression of the C-C chemokines, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), monocyte inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1alpha), and regulated upon activation normal T expressed and secreted protein (RANTES). Periprosthetic granulomatous tissue was analysed for expression of macrophage chemokines by immunohistochemistry. Chemokine expression in human monocytes/macrophages exposed to Ti-alloy and PMMA particles in vitro was determined by RT-PCR, ELISA and monocyte migration. We observed MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha expression in all tissue samples from failed arthroplasties. Ti-alloy and PMMA particles increased expression of MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha in macrophages in vitro in a dose- and time-dependent manner whereas RANTES was not detected. mRNA signal levels for MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha were also observed in cells after exposure to particles. Monocyte migration was stimulated by culture medium collected from macrophages exposed to Ti-alloy and PMMA particles. Antibodies to MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha inhibited chemotactic activity of the culture medium samples. Release of C-C chemokines by macrophages in response to wear particles may contribute to chronic inflammation at the bone-implant interface in total joint arthroplasty.  (+info)

Presence of P210bcrabl is associated with decreased expression of a beta chemokine C10 gene in a P210bcrabl-positive myeloid leukemia cell line. (6/1708)

BACKGROUND: Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is thought to start with the acquisition of the t(9;22) chromosomal translocation that codes for the P210bcrabl tyrosine-specific protein kinase. The CML cells exhibit anchorage-independent cell growth and genetic instability. After the initial phase, the cells acquire the phenotype of growth factor-independent growth. After the chronic phase, the disease evolves into the accelerated and blastic phases through the process of sequential random mutation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To identify some of the genetic changes that contribute to the phenotype of blastic and accelerated phase cells, we used differential display PCR to compare levels of cDNA reverse transcripts of mRNA in 32Dc13 cells and 32Dc13 cells that were stably transfected with a bcrabl cDNA plasmid in a constitutively expressed transcription unit. These cells were designated 32Dc13P210bcrabl. For these studies, we used the 32D myeloid leukemia cell line, which depends on IL-3 for growth. RESULTS: Following introduction of the bcr-abl cDNA through transfection, the cell line became growth factor independent, mimicking the change in phenotype that occurs during the later phases of CML. These differential display screening assays detected altered levels of transcripts for 28 genes. Of interest to the biology of growth factor-independent growth in the bcrabl-positive 32D cells was the fact that the C10 beta chemokine gene was expressed at higher levels in the 32Dc13 cells than in the 32Dc13P210bcrabl cells. CONCLUSIONS: These studies show that a C10 beta chemokine gene was expressed at different levels with or without P210bcrabl.  (+info)

Cutting edge: secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine (SLC) and CC chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) participate in the emigration pathway of mature dendritic cells from the skin to regional lymph nodes. (7/1708)

Dendritic cells (DCs) emigrate to regional lymph nodes (LNs) during immune responses via afferent lymphatic channels. Secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine (SLC), a CC chemokine, is expressed in secondary lymphoid organs and mediates the chemotaxis of lymphocytes and DCs via its receptor, CC chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7). By dual-label fluorescence confocal microscopy, we showed MHC class II-positive cells within SLC-staining lymphatic channels in the mouse dermis. SLC was a potent in vitro chemoattractant for cultured, migratory skin DCs, and it enhanced the emigration of MHC class II-positive DCs from mouse skin explants by an average of 2.5-fold. Mature or cytokine-activated, but not resting, Langerhans cells expressed CCR7 mRNA by RT-PCR. Anti-SLC Abs, but not control or anti-eotaxin Abs, blocked the in vivo migration of 51Cr-labeled, skin-derived DCs from footpads to draining LNs by 50% (n = 9, p < 0. 005). Thus, we provide direct evidence that SLC and CCR7 participate in the emigration of DCs from peripheral tissue to LNs via lymphatics.  (+info)

Effects of Th2 cytokines on chemokine expression in the lung: IL-13 potently induces eotaxin expression by airway epithelial cells. (8/1708)

Airway inflammation associated with asthma is characterized by massive infiltration of eosinophils, mediated in part by specific chemoattractant factors produced in the lung. Allergen-specific Th2 cells appear to play a central role in asthma; for example, adoptively transferred Th2 cells induced lung eosinophilia associated with induction of specific chemokines. Interestingly, Th2 supernatant alone administered intranasally to naive mice induced eotaxin, RANTES, monocyte-chemotactic protein-1, and KC expression along with lung eosinophilia. We tested the major cytokines individually and found that IL-4 and IL-5 induced higher levels of macrophage-inflammatory protein-1alpha and KC; IL-4 also increased the production of monocyte-chemotactic protein-1; IL-13 and IL-4 induced eotaxin. IL-13 was by far the most potent inducer of eotaxin; indeed, a neutralizing anti-IL-13 Ab removed most of the eotaxin-inducing activity from Th2 supernatants, although it did not entirely block the recruitment of eosinophils. While TNF-alpha did not stimulate eotaxin production by itself, it markedly augmented eotaxin induction by IL-13. IL-13 was able to induce eotaxin in the lung of JAK3-deficient mice, suggesting that JAK3 is not required for IL-13 signaling in airway epithelial cells; however, eosinophilia was not induced in this situation, suggesting that JAK3 transduces other IL-13-mediated mechanisms critical for eosinophil recruitment. Our study suggests that IL-13 is an important mediator in the pathogenesis of asthma and therefore a potential target for asthma therapy.  (+info)

Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 26 (CCL26) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family that is also called Eotaxin-3, Macrophage inflammatory protein 4-alpha (MIP-4-alpha), Thymic stroma chemokine-1 (TSC-1), and IMAC. It is expressed by several tissues including heart, lung and ovary, and in endothelial cells that have been stimulated with the cytokine interleukin 4. CCL26 is chemotactic for eosinophils and basophils and elicits its effects by binding to the cell surface chemokine receptor CCR3. This gene for chemokine is located on human chromosome 7. Shinkai et al. A novel human CC chemokine, eotaxin-3, which is expressed in IL-4-stimulated vascular endothelial cells, exhibits potent activity toward eosinophils. J. Immunol. 163:1602-1610, 1999. Guo et al. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel human CC chemokine, SCYA26. Genomics 58:313-317, 1999. Kitaura et al. Molecular cloning of a novel human CC chemokine (Eotaxin-3) that is a functional ligand of CC chemokine receptor ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 13 (CCL13) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. Its gene is located on human chromosome 17 within a large cluster of other CC chemokines. CCL13 induces chemotaxis in monocytes, eosinophils, T lymphocytes, and basophils by binding cell surface G-protein linked chemokine receptors such as CCR2, CCR3 and CCR5. Activity of this chemokine has been implicated in allergic reactions such as asthma. CCL13 can be induced by the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 and TNF-α. Garcia-Zepeda EA, et al.. Human monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-4 is a novel CC chemokine with activities on monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils induced in allergic and no allergic inflammation that signals through the CC chemokine receptors (CCR)-2 and -3. J Immunol. 1996;157:5613-5626 Naruse et al., A YAC contig of the human CC chemokine genes clustered on chromosome 17q11.2. Genomics. 1996, 34(2):236-40. Blanpain et al., CCR5 binds multiple CC-chemokines: MCP-3 acts as a ...
Abbkine Scientific has officially announced the release of its EliKine™ Human CCL2 ELISA Kit. The product also is known as the Human MCP1 ELISA Kit which is unique for its high sensitivity and excellent specificity.. The chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) is also referred to as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) and small inducible cytokine A2. Other alternative names include MCP-1, HC11, MCAF, HSMCR30, SMC-CF, GDCF-2, SCYA2, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, monocyte secretory protein JE. CCL2 is a small cytokine that belongs to the CC chemokine family. CCL2 recruits monocytes, memory T cells, and dendritic cells to the sites of inflammation produced by either tissue injury or infection. Abbkine newly launched EliKine™ Human CCL2/MCP-1 ELISA Kit exerts high sensibility and specificity for the quantification of Human CCL2/MCP-1 in various samples to CCL2 level determination.. The Human MCP1 ELISA Kit comes with different features and benefits that stand it out from its ...
Abbkine Scientific has officially announced the release of its EliKine™ Human CCL2 ELISA Kit. The product also is known as the Human MCP1 ELISA Kit which is unique for its high sensitivity and excellent specificity.. The chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) is also referred to as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) and small inducible cytokine A2. Other alternative names include MCP-1, HC11, MCAF, HSMCR30, SMC-CF, GDCF-2, SCYA2, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, monocyte secretory protein JE. CCL2 is a small cytokine that belongs to the CC chemokine family. CCL2 recruits monocytes, memory T cells, and dendritic cells to the sites of inflammation produced by either tissue injury or infection. Abbkine newly launched EliKine™ Human CCL2/MCP-1 ELISA Kit exerts high sensibility and specificity for the quantification of Human CCL2/MCP-1 in various samples to CCL2 level determination.. The Human MCP1 ELISA Kit comes with different features and benefits that stand it out from its ...
Human CCL24/Eotaxin-2/MPIF-2 ELISA Kit (Colorimetric). High sensitivity ELISA kit for detection of CCL24/Eotaxin-2/MPIF-2. Backed by our 100% Guarantee.
White JR, Imburgia C, Dul E, Appelbaum E, ODonnell K, OShannessy DJ, Brawner M, Fornwald J, Adamou J, Elshourbagy NA, Kaiser K, Foley JJ, Schmidt DB, Johanson K, Macphee C, Moores K, McNulty D, Scott GF, Schleimer RP, Sarau HM (1997). „Cloning and functional characterization of a novel human CC chemokine that binds to the CCR3 receptor and activates human eosinophils". J. Leukoc. Biol. 62 (5): 667-75. PMID 9365122 ...
Purified Recombinant Human CCL24 Protein, GST-Tagged from Creative Biomart. Recombinant Human CCL24 Protein, GST-Tagged can be used for research.
Chemoattractant for eosinophils and basophils (PubMed:10415065, PubMed:10488147). Acts as a ligand for C-C chemokine receptor CCR3 which triggers Ca(2+) mobilization in eosinophils (PubMed:10415065, PubMed:10488147, PubMed:11425309).
Human CCL25/TECK ELISA Kit assay has a sensitivity of |37.5pg/ml. Measure CCL25/TECK in serum, blood, plasma, cell supernatant samples.
White JR, Imburgia C, Dul E, Appelbaum E, ODonnell K, OShannessy DJ, Brawner M, Fornwald J, Adamou J, Elshourbagy NA, Kaiser K, Foley JJ, Schmidt DB, Johanson K, Macphee C, Moores K, McNulty D, Scott GF, Schleimer RP, Sarau HM (November 1997). "Cloning and functional characterization of a novel human CC chemokine that binds to the CCR3 receptor and activates human eosinophils". J. Leukoc. Biol. 62 (5): 667-75. PMID 9365122. Cite uses deprecated parameter ...
Recombinant human CCL22/MDC, fused to His-tag at N-terminus, was expressed as insoluble protein aggregate inE.coliand purified by conventional chromatography, after refolding of the isolated inclusion bodies in a renaturation buffer. MW =10.3 kDa (90aa).
CCL19 (Human) ELISA Kit is an in vitro enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantitative measurement of human CCL19. (KA1749) - Products - Abnova
CCL23 (Human) ELISA Kit is an in vitro enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantitative measurement of human CCL23. (KA1751) - Products - Abnova
XX, -X, -X, -2, -5, -5, -5, +7, -9, +10, -11, -13, -13, -14, -15, -16, -17, -17, +18, +19, -20, -20, -20, -21, -22, -22, -22, +27-30mar, del(X)(q23), add(1)(p36)x2, der(1;3)(q10;q10 ...
We have characterized previously the expression of the chemokines eotaxin, MCP-5, RANTES, and MCP-1 (mRNA and/or protein), and correlated this with the leukocytes migrating to the lung during a murine model of lung inflammation ((5), (16)). From these experiments, we concluded that MCP-1 mRNA expression paralleled the accumulation of monocytes/macrophages in this organ, both events occurring predominantly at early stages of the response (day 15). Also, eotaxin mRNA expression paralleled lung eosinophilia predominantly at late stages (day 21). In contrast, other chemokines, such as RANTES or MCP-5, were expressed throughout the inflammatory reaction. This underlines the contribution of chemokines at different stages of the response.. From the work presented here, we first conclude that eosinophil recruitment and development of BHR in this model system involve the action of both eosinophilic (eotaxin, RANTES, MCP-5, and MIP-1α) and noneosinophilic chemokines (MCP-1). This indicates the absence of ...
Background: Patients with severe asthma are less sensitive to oral or inhaled corticosteroids. Relative corticosteroid insensitivity has been shown in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and alveolar macrophages in these patients.. Aims and objectives: Determine the response of corticosteroids in airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) of severe asthma, in terms of suppression of cytokine-induced chemokine release and mRNA expression, and investigate the underlying mechanisms.. Methods: ASMCs of non-asthmatics (NA; 12), patients with non-severe (NSA; 10) or severe asthma (SA; 10) were pretreated with dexamethasone (Dex; 10-10-10-6 M) followed by stimulation with TNF-α at 10 ng/mL. IL-8 and eotaxin release determined by ELISA; mRNA quantified by RT-PCR. p65 NF-κB recruitment to gene promoters measured by ChIP assay; p38, JNK, and ERK expression measured by Western blot.. Results: Baseline and TNF-α induced eotaxin release and mRNA were higher in NSA, but not SA, compared to NA, while no differences ...
|p|Recombinant Human Eotaxin-2/CCL24 is a single non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 78 amino acids.|/p| |p|Background: Eotaxin-2 (CCL24) is a novel CC chemokine recently identified. It is produced by activated monocytes and T lymphocytes. Eota
References for Abcams Recombinant human Eotaxin 2 protein (ab54405). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
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Baggiolini M, Dahinden CA. CC chemokines in allergic inflammation. Immunol. Today (1994) 15:127-133.. Baggiolini M, Dewald B, Moser B. Interleukin-8 and related chemotactic cytokines-CXC and CC chemokines. Adv. Immunol. (1994) 55:97-179.. Barnes DA, Huston M, Holmes R, Benveniste EN, Yong VW, Scholz P, Perez HD. Induction of RANTES expression by astrocytes and astrocytoma cell lines. J. Neuroimmunol. (1996) 71: 207-214.. Beck LA, Dalke S, Leiferman KM, Bickel CA, Hamilton R, Rosen H, Bochner BS, Schleimer RP. Cutaneous injection of RANTES causes eosinophil recruitment: comparison of nonallergic and allergic human subjects. J Immunol. (1997) 159:2962-2972.. Bevilacqua MP, Gimbrone MA Jr. Inducible endothelial functions in inflammation and coagulation. Semin Thromb Hemost. (1987) 13:425-433.. Black RA, Rauch CT, Kozlosky CJ, Peschon JJ, Slack JL, Wolfson MF, Castner BJ, Stocking KL, Reddy P, Srinivasan S, Nelson N, Boiani N, Schooley KA, Gerhart M, Davis R, Fitzner, Johnson RS, Paxton RJ, March ...
Polyclonal antibody for TARC/CCL17 detection. Host: Rabbit.Size: 100μg/vial. Tested applications: ELISA. Reactive species: Mouse. TARC/CCL17 information: Molecular Weight: 10467 MW; Subcellular Localization: Secreted .
GPR-9-6 is a chemokine receptor for TECK. (A) GPR-9-6 transfectants were examined for chemotactic responses to various concentrations of TECK and I-TAC ranging
MIP-3 alpha is a CC chemokine that is expressed in the liver, lymph nodes, appendix, PBL and lung and signals through the CCR6 receptor. MIP-3 alpha is chemotactic towards lymphocytes and dendritic cells. Additionally, it promotes the adhesion of memory CD4+ T cells and inhibits colony formation of bone marrow myeloid immature progenitors. Recombinant murine MIP-3 alpha is a 7.9 kDa protein containing 70 amino acid residues, including the four highly conserved cysteine residues present in CC chemokines ...
RayBio|sup|®|/sup| C-Series Human Chemokine Antibody Array 1 Kit. Detects 38 Human Chemokines. Suitable for all liquid sample types.
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Expression of ELC mRNA is decreased in the LNs and spleens of plt mice. Tissues from +/+ (A and C) and plt (B and D) mice were analyzed as described in the
I recently had a parasitic resonance develop in my door panel so I took it off to address the issue. The Anarchy is a pretty potent driver. One thing Ive noticed lately
Kemokiinid (ka kemotaktsed tsütokiinid; inglise keeles chemokines) on selgroogsete loomade mitmete tuumaga rakkude poolt (eosinofiilid, basofiilid, neutrofiilid, makrofaagid, endoteelirakud, keratinotsüüdid, fibroblastid jt) komplekteeritavate ja vabastatavate selliste väikesemolekuliliste looduslike valkude perekond, mis vahendavad lühiajaliselt ja lokaalselt erinevaid bioloogilisi toimeid ja rakkudevahelist informatsiooni seondudes G-valguga seotud retseptoreid omavate rakkude membraaniga ja aktiveerides ensüümi fosfolipaas C. Kemokiinide sarnaseid valke on tuvastatud teatud bakteritel ja viirustel. Kemokiinide funktsiooniks on mitmete rakkude sundviimine nakkus- või põletikukoldesse, lisaks reguleerivad kemokiinid lümfikudede ja närvisüsteemi arengut ja leukotsüütide migratsiooni, küpsemist, aktivatsiooni jm. Varem on neid liigitatud α,β,γ ja δ- rühma, tänapäeval liigitatakse aga sellisteks perekondadeks nagu CC- (β-kemokiinid), CXC- (α-kemokiinid), CX3C- (δ- ...
The question why CD4+/CD25+ T cells are reduced in asthmatic patients has not been answered yet; however, it has been observed that these cells reveal a reduced response to the chemokines CCL1 and CXCL1 suggesting an impaired recruitment to the lung [137, 138 ...
MDC, human recombinant protein, C-C motif chemokine 22, Small-inducible cytokine A22, Macrophage-derived chemokine, MDC (1-69), Stim validated in (PBV10332r-20), Abcepta
Human and murine CCR8 are homologous G protein-coupled receptors whose reported ligands include human I-309, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1β, TCA3, and liver-expressed chemokine (LEC; references (34)(35)(36)(37)). In addition, the virally encoded chemokines, vMIP-I and vMIP-II, can also bind CCR8 (38)(39)(40). The selective expression of CCR8 in Th2 T cells (11)(12) suggests that it may have an important role in the function of these cells. However, there are currently no experimental data demonstrating such a role. To investigate this possibility, and to study other potential functions of CCR8, we have generated and analyzed CCR8-deficient mice. Using models of Th2 (schistosomal) cell-mediated immune responses as well as two models of Th2-mediated allergic airway disease, we show impairment of Th2 type cytokine expression and eosinophil mobilization in CCR8−/− mice. This defect was specific to the in vivo Th2 type response, as the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chemokines in ischemia and reperfusion. AU - Frangogiannis, Nikolaos G.. PY - 2007/5. Y1 - 2007/5. N2 - Chemokine signaling plays an important role in the post-ischemic inflammatory response. Overlapping pathways involving reactive oxygen intermediates, Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation, the complement cascade and the nuclear factor (NF)-κB system induce both CXC and CC chemokines in ischemic tissues. Reperfusion accentuates chemokine expression promoting an intense inflammatory reaction. ELR-containing CXC chemokines regulate neutrophil infiltration in the ischemic area, whereas CXCR3 ligands may mediate recruitment of ThI cells. CC chemokines, on the other hand, induce mononuclear cell infiltration and macrophage activation. Evidence suggests that chemokine signaling mediates actions beyond leukocyte chemotaxis and activation, regulating angiogenesis and fibrous tissue deposition. Effective repair of ischemic tissue is dependent on a well-orchestrated cellular response and ...
Leukotactin-1 (Lkn-1)/CCL15 is a CC chemokine that binds to the CCR1 and CCR3. Lkn-1 functions as an essential factor in the migration of monocytes, lymphocytes, and neutrophils. Although eosinophils
The purpose of this study was to determine whether certain chemokines, which are highly expressed in injured skeletal muscle, are involved in the repair and functional recovery of the muscle after traumatic injury. In wild-type control mice, mRNA transcripts of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 as well as their major receptors, CC
Read Exodus 10 commentary using John Gills Exposition of the Bible. Study the bible online using commentary on Exodus 10 and more!
Emeson, E E., "Bcg and c. Parvum enhance selective recruitment of specifically reactive t-lymphocytes. Abstr." (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 2521 ...
This antimicrobial gene is one of several CC cytokine genes clustered on the p-arm of chromosome 9. Cytokines are a family of secreted proteins involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. The CC cytokines are proteins characterized by two adjacent cysteines. Similar to other chemokines the protein encoded by this gene inhibits hemopoiesis and stimulates chemotaxis. This protein is chemotactic in vitro for thymocytes and activated T cells, but not for B cells, macrophages, or neutrophils. The cytokine encoded by this gene may also play a role in mediating homing of lymphocytes to secondary lymphoid organs. It is a high affinity functional ligand for chemokine receptor 7 that is expressed on T and B lymphocytes and a known receptor for another member of the cytokine family (small inducible cytokine A19). [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014 ...
Exodus 16:13 And it came to pass in the evening, that quails came up, and covered the camp; and in the morning the dew lay round the camp. Read verse in The Darby Translation
Polyclonal antibody for PARC/CCL18 detection. Host: Rabbit.Size: 100μg/vial. Tested applications: ELISA. Reactive species: Human. PARC/CCL18 information: Molecular Weight: 9849 MW; Subcellular Localization: Secreted; Tissue Specificity: Expressed at high
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Canadian mining company Teck Resources Ltd. said Thursday that it appointed Ian Kilgour as executive vice president and chief operating officer. Kilgour worked most recently as the senior vice president ...
Chemokines comprise a family of about 40 low-molecular-weight cytokines (see , Cytokines) with important roles in the immune system, as well as functions beyond it. The name chemokine, a contraction of
Chemokines comprise a family of about 40 low-molecular-weight cytokines (see , Cytokines) with important roles in the immune system, as well as functions beyond it. The name chemokine, a contraction of
We all have perceptions of what our opponents, friends or other Conquer Club users look like. Theyre almost always wrong. Sometimes we think of them as being their avatar or signature. But you cant actually believe Luapie looks like that, can you? And you cant really believe youre playing Montgomery Burns when you play MeanestBossEver. So what do you think other CC users look like ...
Commensal Bacteria and Expression of Two Major Intestinal Chemokines, TECK-CCL25 and MEC-CCL28, and Their Receptors. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Study Flashcards On micro2 - chemokines at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
After years of money flowing in, in the past year the trend has been reversing: cash is beginning to flow out of China. The Wall Street Journal estimates that $225 billion left China in the 12 months leading up to September.
TARC小鼠单克隆抗体[MM0141-6J30](ab89463)可与人样本反应并经WB实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
Helots Run Chapter 2|continued from Chapter 2 The family walked wearily|exodus but quickly south down the road. Teres kept glancing off to her right at ...
Over the last several years there has been a great deal of progress in characterizing the role of dendritic cells (DCs) in the activation and modulation of B cells. DC-secreted chemokines can induce B cell trafficking to ...
Over the last several years there has been a great deal of progress in characterizing the role of dendritic cells (DCs) in the activation and modulation of B cells. DC-secreted chemokines can induce B cell trafficking to ...
Previous investigations have demonstrated a link between elevated levels of eosinophils, eosinophil activation, and adult IBD. However, there have been conflicting data regarding the individual contribution of the eosinophil-selective chemokines eotaxin-1 and eotaxin-2 in eosinophil recruitment in IBD. In the present study we demonstrate the following: 1) that eosinophil numbers are elevated in pediatric UC and that their level correlates with disease severity; 2) eotaxin-1 and not eotaxin-2 or eotaxin-3 is up-regulated in lesional colonic biopsy samples of pediatric UC patients; and 3) eotaxin-1 mRNA expression correlates with colonic eosinophil levels in pediatric UC. Using a chemical-induced colonic injury model, we define that eotaxin-1, and not eotaxin-2, is critical for eosinophil recruitment and that eotaxin-1 is predominantly derived from intestinal macrophages. Consistent with our experimental analysis, we show that eotaxin-1 is predominantly expressed by intestinal macrophages; ...
Dendritic cells are believed to be crititcal in both initiating and modulating immune responses (32). Central to their role as immune sentinels is their ability to capture, process, and transport Ag to secondary lymphoid tissues where they serve as potent APCs capable of stimulating T cells in T cell areas. Trafficking of both T cells and dendritic cells to lymphoid organs followed by precise microenvironmental localization is necessary for efficient immune surveillance and is thought to be directed by chemokines (12). 6Ckine, a recently discovered CC chemokine (13, 14, 15), has been shown to be expressed by HEV in lymph nodes (16, 17), is capable of rapidly triggering integrin binding to vascular ligands (18), and is a potent chemoattractant for T lymphocytes (14, 15, 16, 17, 19), making it a leading candidate for mediating T cell homing. 6Ckine is also expressed by endothelial cells in lymphatic venules (17), the major route of dendritic cell entry into lymph nodes (33), suggesting that it may ...
Certain viruses have the ability to subvert the mammalian immune response, including interference in the chemokine system. Poxviruses produce the chemokine binding protein vCCI (viral CC chemokine inhibitor; also called 35K), which tightly binds to CC chemokines. To facilitate the study of vCCI, we first provide a protocol to produce folded vCCI from Escherichia coli (E. coli.) It is shown here that vCCI binds with unusually high affinity to viral Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-II (vMIP-II), a chemokine analog produced by the virus, human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8). Fluorescence anisotropy was used to investigate the vCCI:vMIP-II complex and shows that vCCI binds to vMIP-II with a higher affinity than most other chemokines, having a Kd of 0.06 ± 0.006 nM. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shift perturbation experiments indicate that key amino acids used for binding in the complex are similar to those found in previous work. Molecular dynamics were then used to compare the vCCI:vMIP-II ...
Looking for online definition of MPIF-1 in the Medical Dictionary? MPIF-1 explanation free. What is MPIF-1? Meaning of MPIF-1 medical term. What does MPIF-1 mean?
The aim of this study was to evaluate some patterns in expression of CC-chemokines (MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, MCP-1, RANTES) and their receptors (CCR1, CCR2, CCR3, CCR5) in peripheral blood leukocytes and liver biopsy samples from 21 patients with chronic hepatitis C. 10 healthy subjects were included in the control group. In patients with chronic HCV-infection significant increase of MCP-1 mRNA in liver tissue was observed as the disease progressed. Moreover, content of MCP-1 mRNA was significantly higher in liver as compared with blood. Level of MCP-1 mRNA in liver was directly related with histological changes. Levels of mRNA of CCR1, CCR2, CCR3, and CCR5 in blood of patients with minimal histological manifestations of chronic HCV-infection were significantly lower than in patients with more marked lesions. Expression of CCR1 and CCR5 mRNA in blood was directly correlated with histological activity index and degree of fibrosis. Conducted study demonstrates that progression of chronic hepatitis C is
Chemokines promote leukocyte migration through the activation of dedicated G-protein coupled receptors. Beyond conventional chemokine receptors, which directly induce cell migration through heterotrimeric Gαi-mediated signalling events, a set of atypical chemokine receptors (ACKRs) have been described. ACKRs do not activate Gαi-mediated signalling activity, but they are mainly involved in shaping the chemokine gradient. The best characterized member of this family is ACKR2. ACKR2, previously referred to as D6, is a scavenger receptor that binds with high affinity to 13 inflammatory CC chemokines. The scavenging activity of ACKR2 relies on its intracellular traffic properties. Under homeostatic conditions, ACKR2 is mainly localized in intracellular stores associated with both early Rab4/5-positive and recycling Rab11-positive endosomes. At increasing levels of chemokines, ACKR2 increases plasma membrane abundance through an acceleration in the rate of Rab11-depedent recycling pathway, in order ...
Purified Rabbit Anti-Mouse MDC polyclonal antibody generated using |i|E. coli|/i|-expressed mouse MDC. |br| MDC (macrophage-derived chemokine) is a 69-amino acid CC chemokine with a NH2-terminal sequence of 24 residues as a signal sequence. It was origin
Rat CCL2 is a member of the β (CC) subfamily of chemokines that is a chemoattractant for monocytes and basophils but not eosinophils or neutrophils. Rat CCL2 is secreted as a 14 kDa glycoprotein monomer but noncovalent dimers probably occur. The first five amino acids of the mature protein are essential for activity; deletion of the N-terminal glutamine, which is pyrrolidone carboxylic acid modified, dramatically decreases activity on basophils and, surprisingly, stimulates eosinophil chemotaxis. The rat CCL2 propeptide shares 82% amino acid (a.a.) identity with mouse CCL2 over the 148 a.a. sequence and 57%, 52%, 52%, 52% and 52% a.a. identity with equine, human, porcine, canine and guinea pig CCL2, respectively, over the first 100 aa. Rat and mouse CCL2 have a 49 aa extension at the C-terminus as compared to human CCL2. Fibroblasts, tumor cells, smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, and mononuclear phagocytes can produce CCL2 either constitutively or upon mitogenic stimulation. CCL2 is best ...
CCL21 antibody (Biotin) (chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21C (leucine)) for ELISA, WB. Anti-CCL21 pAb (GTX74049) is tested in Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Cytokine or chemokine encoded by a viral vector is currently regarded as a promising way of cancer gene immunotherapy. Researchers have paid attention to chemotactic activity of chemokines for immune cells and expected that they may be able to play an important role in cancer treatment, because the basis and premise of immunotherapy is the accumulation of immune cells in tumor tissues.. The CC chemokine ILC, also called cutaneous T cell-attracting chemokine or CCL27, was reported to recruit T cells to the site of its injection (27) . The CX3C family chemokine FKN (also called CX3CL1) could also attract a variety of cytotoxic lymphocytes (13 , 14 , 28) and enhance the cytotoxicity of NK cells (29) . In the present study, we hypothesized that the transfer of the mILC or mFKN gene to tumor cells, by using recombinant adenovirus in vitro, could render the tumor to express the chemokine in vivo. The chemokine would consequently induce the accumulation of immune cells in the tumor tissue and initiate ...
The research interest of my group remains focused on Chemokine activities in physiology and pathology, with an emphasis on the mechanisms governing fine-tuning modulation of their expression and activity. Chemokines are secreted proteins and have emerged as key controllers of integrin function and cell locomotion. The effects of chemokines are mediated by seven transmembrane domain receptors coupled to GTP-binding proteins, which are differentially expressed in a wide range of cell types. The resulting combinatorial diversity in responsiveness to chemokines guarantees the proper tissue distribution of distinct leukocyte subsets under normal and inflammatory/pathological conditions. A vast range of in situ experiments, aimed at understanding which chemokines are produced in specific circumstances, has revealed that a variety of chemokines can be concomitantly produced at target sites of leukocyte trafficking and homing. This renders the chemokine system a good target for therapy, and has ...
Hi I have just booked this trip and am really looking forward to it. It would be great to hear from anyone else going on this trip too. This will be my third African adventure with Exodus. Best wishes Andrea
Read more about Rohingya exodus to Bangladesh reaches 389,000: UN on Business Standard. The number of Muslim Rohingya who have crossed into Bangladesh to escape ethnic unrest in Myanmar since August 25 hit 389,000 today, a UN spokesman said. The figure rose 10,000 in 24 hours, indicating the Rohingya crisis remains acute. UN refugee
Chapter five of the book of Exodus, we left Moses in great despair. He did what he thought God was calling him to do. He went to the Pharaoh and demanded the
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LEGEND MAX™ Mouse CCL11 ELISA Kit with Pre-coated Plates - CCL11, also known as Eotaxin, is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family.
It seems astonishing that more people are now leaving Northern Ireland than at any time in the last 30 years. Three decades ago the province was still in the Troubles grip. It was a vi
Working Preacher is a ministry brought to you by Luther Seminary. The Working Preacher team believes that God uses good biblical preaching to change lives. We have enlisted hundreds of friends -- biblical scholars, theologians, homileticians and pastors dedicated to the craft of biblical preaching -- to provide you timely, compelling and trustworthy content.
Fast, simple luminescent calcium flux assays using an AequoScreen cell line stably-transfected with human chemokine XCR1 receptor.
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Background: MCP-1 (CCL2), MCP-3 (CCL7), and eotaxin (CCL11) are genes for CC chemokines clustered on the long arm of chromosome 17. Previous studies have implicated these chemokines in monocyte recruitment, viral replication, and anti-HIV cytotoxic T cell responses. An epidemiological analysis identified genetic variants influencing HIV-1 transmission and disease progression. Methods: Genomic DNA from over 3000 participants enrolled in five natural history cohorts in the United States were analyzed. Nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) covering 33 kb containing these three genes were genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction. Distortions in allele, genotype, and haplotype frequencies were assessed with respect to HIV-1 transmission and rates of disease progression using categorical and survival analyses. Results: Extensive linkage disequilibrium was observed. Three SNP (−2136T located in theMCP-1 promoter region, 767G in intron 1 of MCP-1, and −1385A in the Eotaxin promoter) were nearly
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic and relapsing inflammatory skin disease characterized by the predominant infiltration of TH2-type cells in lesional skin. Thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17) is a chemokine that attracts CC chemokine receptor 4-positive (CCR4+) or CCR8+ cells. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the participation of TARC in AD. Methods: We measured serum TARC levels in 40 patients with AD, 20 healthy control subjects, and 20 patients with psoriasis. We also examined disease activity by using SCORAD score; serum soluble E-selectin, soluble IL-2 receptor, IgE, and GM-CSF levels; and eosinophil numbers in peripheral blood, as well as correlations between TARC levels and these factors. The positivity of CCR4 of CD4+CD45RO+ cells in PBMCs was examined by using FACS analysis. Immunohistochemical staining of TARC and GM-CSF was performed in the lesional skin of patients with AD. Results: The serum TARC levels of patients with AD were ...
Reagents. Natural human CXCL8 and CCL2 were purified to homogeneity from monocyte-derived, conditioned medium (Van Damme et al., 1989, 1997). Recombinant human CXCL12 and human CXCL8(6-77), used in the ERK phosphorylation assay, were obtained from Peprotech (Rocky Hill, NJ). Synthetic CXCL12(1-68) and CXCL12(3-68) and the CC chemokine CCL7 were synthesized by solid-phase peptide synthesis using fluorenylmethoxy-carbonyl (Fmoc) chemistry and were purified as described previously (Struyf et al., 2001). The bacterial chemotactic peptide fMLP was obtained from Sigma (St. Louis, MO). To measure chemokine production by fibroblasts, THP-1 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) cells were stimulated with a diverse set of inducers: recombinant human IFN-γ and IL-1β (both from Peprotech), concanavalin A (ConA; Calbiochem, La Jolla, CA), LPS from Escherichia coli (0111:B4; Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI), the double-stranded RNA polyriboinosinic:polyribocytidylic acid (polyrI:rC or PIC) and ...
This study focuses upon three chemokines, namely CCL5, CXCL10 and CCL3, which are potential novel therapeutic targets in arthritis. The aim of the study was to analyse the expression and production of these three chemokines within the joints of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) of the oligoarticular and polyarticular subtypes. All three of these chemokines are highly expressed at the level of mRNA, with the most significant increase in mRNA levels being demonstrated for CCL5 when compared with matched peripheral blood samples and controls. We show that high levels of all three chemokines are present in synovial fluid of children with JIA. We investigate the major source of CCL5 from inflammatory synovial cells, which we show to be CD8+ T cells. This CD8+ synovial T cell population has an unexpected phenotype that has not been described previously, being CCR7- yet predominantly CD28+ and CD45RA-. These cells contain high levels of stored intracellular CCL5, and rapid release of CCL5 takes
The role of leukocytes in deep vein thrombosis (DVT) resolution is incompletely understood. We determined how depletion of lysozyme positive (LysM + ) cells and a switched-off type 1 immune response influences thrombus resolution. DVT was induced in 12-week-old male mice by inferior vena cava (IVC) stenosis. Toxin mediated depletion of myeloid cells improved thrombus resolution in mice with Cre-inducible expression of the diphtheria toxin receptor in LysM + cells. This correlated with decreased CD45 + cells, a population shift of Gr-1 + to Gr-1 - CD11b + myelomonocytic cells (flow cytometry) and an increase in CC-chemokine ligand 2, interleukin-4 and interleukin-10 mRNA expressions ...
He actually talks about both the Joseph segments of Genesis and the account of the Exodus during his lectures. Apart from disagreeing about the number of Israelites who fled Egypt, he actually endorses the stories as pretty reliable firsthand accounts. He says that while we dont find any real physical evidence of these events, we shouldnt expect to given a number of factors and actually tells people that they shouldnt discount the biblical narratives because of that. Also points out that the customs and geographical markers from the biblical narratives could only have come from someone personally familiar with Egypt during the time period of the Exodus. He even specifically rules out the idea that the Exodus narrative is the creation of Jews living in the exilic/post-exilic period, saying that theyd have given incorrect place names and geographic markers. Pretty amazing to hear someone who seems to be a straight secularist with impressive academic credentials admit all this ...
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Chemokines are small immune system proteins mediating leukocyte migration and activation, and are important in many aspects of health and diseases. Some chemokines also have the ability to block HIV-1 infection by binding to the HIV-1 co-receptors CCR5 (CC chemokine receptor 5) and CXCR4 (CXC chemokine receptor 4). The first part of this work is to determine the mechanism of action of a human herpesvirus-8 encoded viral chemokine analog vMIP-II (viral macrophage inflammatory protein-II) by characterizing its interactions with endothelial surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and cell surface receptors. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), mutagenesis and molecular-docking were conducted and results show that vMIP-II tightly binds glycosaminoglycans using residues distributed along one face of the protein, such as R18, R46 and R48, and that there is a shift in the GAG binding site between the monomer and dimer form of vMIP-II where the N-terminus is involved in GAG binding for the dimer. This study, for ...
Chemokines, adhesion molecules, cytokines and proteases regulate the extravasation of leucocytes during acute and chronic inflammation and leucocyte homing. Chemokines are produced after transcriptional activation by inflammatory mediators such as cytokines or microbial Toll-like receptor ligands and their effect depends on the expression of chemokine receptors on specific cell types. More and more evidence points towards a role for post-translational modifications in the fine-tuning of chemokine activity. Although both glycosylation and proteolytic processing of the C- and/or N-terminus of chemokines has been reported, mainly proteolytic processing of the N-terminus appears to affect the receptor specificity, chemotactic property and signalling potency of these low-molecular-mass proteins. N-terminal processing of chemokines by aminopeptidases or endoproteases may alter the receptor specificity and may result in up- or down-regulation of their chemotactic, antiviral or angiogenic activity. ...
Khoo Teck Puat Hospital (KTPH) is located at 90 Yishun Central, Singapore 768828; +65 6555 8000; https://www.ktph.com.sg/main/home; watch their 6:12 Khoo Teck Puat Hospital corporate video English on YouTube. Dont miss the excellent 9:07 singapore: biophilic city chapter 3 by Linda Blagg where healing power of greenery Prof Tim Beatley interviews Khoo Teck Puat Hospital CEO Liak Teng Lit, architect Jerry Ong of CGP Consultants and Rosalind Tan, Operation Administrative and the garden coordinator at KTPH, also on YouTube. And watch the 1:52 video Khoo Teck Puat Hospital - Project of the Week 2/24/14 from Greenroofs.com on the greenroofsTV channel on YouTube. See the project profile from the Singapore Institute of Architects (SIA); CPG Consultants; and ALPOLIC Materials. See beautiful photos of KTPH from WorldArchitectureNews.com ...
In vitro replication of SIVcpz is suppressed by beta-chemokines and CD8+ T cells but not by natural killer cells of infected chimpanzees ...
Researchers found that fibromyalgia patients have higher concentrations of inflammatory chemokines, a biomarker which could help diagnose FM.
2017-11-24 - Accra Hearts of Oak defender, Inusah Musah, says the current player exodus which has hit the club will have no significant negative effect on their performance next season, tagging the situation as a regular phenomenon.
Alan Chambers, president of Exodus International, talks about his past and his longing for male love and attention which eventually lead him to seek fulfillment in a homosexual lifestyle. ...
A mystery fever that has claimed more than hundred lives in past four weeks in Kanpur, is forcing mass exodus from the villages in its vicinity.
Exodus Cry exists to break the cycle of commercial sexual exploitation and help those who have been sold for sex, because every person should be free. Learn ...
Make poles of acacia wood and overlay them with gold. Insert the poles into the rings on the sides of the ark in order to carry the ark with them.
LEAF™ |!Low Endotoxin, Azide-Free|Purified anti-human MCP-1 Antibody - Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) also known as monocyte chemotactic and activating factor (MCAF) was identified based on its ability to chemoattract monocytes.
Mouse monoclonal CCL21 antibody [MM0146-2H26] validated for WB and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to recombinant full length protein
Modern humans left Africa over 60,000 years ago in a migration that many believe was responsible for nearly all of the human population that exist outside Africa today.
Could the chemicals and toxins around us be the cause for the sudden surge of human diseases and illnesses? Is our environment really safe for us to live in?. Everyday Roots program discusses about the shocking truth about the numerous toxic chemicals and additives used regularly - in our cosmetics to foods. Learn more about it here!. ...
UPDATE: Research In Motion has denied an analysts report Thursday that the company has seized production of its PlayBook tablet PC.
Theres more bad news for the cable television business, courtesy of a new report from MoffettNathanson analyst Michael Nathanson. He says cable networks saw a total viewership decline of almost
This blog was created as an online diary to capture some of the things I love or experience in life. Anyway, I hope we will all learn to appreciate the simple things in life, cherish our loved ones and make the most of our lives ...
The Big If The fourth commandment Exodus 20.8; Deuteronomy 5.12 Remember, observe the Sabbath day, to keep it holy. Isaiah 58.13, 14 If you turn back your
EK2891小鼠巨噬细胞来源的趋化因子(MDC/CCL22)ELISA试剂盒MouseMacrophage-DerivedChemokine,MDCELISAkitEK2892小鼠巨噬细胞集落刺激因子(M-CSF)ELISA试剂盒MouseMacrophageColony-StimulatingFactor,M-CSFELISAkitEK2893小鼠L选择素(L-Selectin/CD62L)EL
C-C-CKR-1, CD128, CD181, CDw128a, CKR-1, CMKAR1, IL8R1, IL8RA, IL8RBA, Interleukin 8 receptor, C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 1 ... C-X-C chemokine receptor activity. • interleukin-8 binding. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. • chemokine receptor ... This name and the corresponding gene symbol IL8RA have been replaced by the HGNC approved name C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 1 ... "Chemokine Receptors: CXCR1". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
Several CC chemokines: CCL1, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL7, CCL8, CCL11, CCL13, CCL14, CCL15, CCL16, CCL18, and CCL23 ...
CC, CXC, AND CX3C families of chemokines". Cytokine. 18 (3): 140-8. doi:10.1006/cyto.2002.0875. PMID 12126650.. ... chemokine activity. • cytokine activity. • heparin binding. • protein binding. • CXCR3 chemokine receptor binding. ... C-X-C motif chemokine 11 is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also called Interferon-inducible T- ... "Entrez Gene: CXCL11 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11".. *^ a b Cole KE, Strick CA, Paradis TJ, Ogborne KT, Loetscher M, Gladue ...
The eotaxins are a CC chemokine subfamily of eosinophil chemotactic proteins. In humans, there are three family members: CCL11 ... "The MCP/eotaxin subfamily of CC chemokines". Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 10 (1): 61-86. doi:10.1016/s1359-6101(99)00005-2. PMID ...
Chemokines, chemokine receptors and hematopoiesis. „Immunol Rev". 177, s. 150-74, Oct 2000. PMID: 11138773. ... CC. Kumar. Genetic abnormalities and challenges in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia. „Genes Cancer". 2 (2), s. 95-107, ... Chemokine expression in human erythroid leukemia cell line AS-E2: macrophage inflammatory protein-3alpha/CCL20 is induced by ...
CC chemokines act on monocytes (e.g., RANTES), and CXC chemokines are neutrophil granulocyte-specific (e.g., IL-8).[citation ... Chemokines belong to a special class of cytokines; not only do their groups (C, CC, CXC, CX3C chemokines) represent ... chemokines - chemokine receptors (CCR or CXCR), and leukotrienes - leukotriene receptors (BLT).[citation needed] However, ... Formation of dimers and their increased biological activity was demonstrated by crystallography of several chemokines, e.g. IL- ...
... the 2 cysteines are separated by a single amino acid in CXC chemokines and are adjacent in CC chemokines. CCR10 is a chemokine ... C-C chemokine receptor type 10 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCR10 gene. Chemokines are a group of small ( ... "Entrez Gene: CCR10 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 10". Balkwill F (July 2004). "Cancer and the chemokine network". Nat. Rev. ... Chemokines are divided into 2 major subfamilies, CXC and CC, based on the arrangement of the first 2 of the 4 conserved ...
FAM19A1: Family with sequence similarity 19 member A1, C-C motif chemokine like ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (also CCL5) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CCL5 gene. It is also known as RANTES ... It was subsequently determined to be a CC chemokine and expressed in more than 100 human diseases. RANTES expression is ... Maghazachi AA, Al-Aoukaty A, Schall TJ (February 1996). "CC chemokines induce the generation of killer cells from CD56+ cells ... CC-Chemokine-activated killer) cells. It is also an HIV-suppressive factor released from CD8+ T cells[citation needed]. This ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 8 (CCL8), also known as monocyte chemoattractant protein 2 (MCP2), is a protein that in humans is ... CCL8 is a CC chemokine that utilizes multiple cellular receptors to attract and activate human leukocytes. CCL8 is a potent ... The gene for CCL8 is encoded by 3 exons and is located within a large cluster of CC chemokines on chromosome 17q11.2 in humans ... CCL8 is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. The CCL8 protein is produced as a precursor containing 109 amino ...
Chemokines are divided into four main subfamilies: C, CC, CXC, and CX3C. Microglial cells are sources of some chemokines and ... The chemokines CCL5/RANTES, CCL3/MIP-1α, CCL4/MIP-1β, all of which bind to CCR5, are inhibitory to HIV-1 replication in ... The chemokine receptor, CX3CR1, is expressed by microglia in the central nervous system. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is the exclusive ... Chemokines are cytokines that stimulate directional migration of inflammatory cells in vitro and in vivo. ...
... an eosinophil-selective CC chemokine, and identification of a specific eosinophil eotaxin receptor, CC chemokine receptor 3". ... an eosinophil-selective CC chemokine, and identification of a specific eosinophil eotaxin receptor, CC chemokine receptor 3". ... C-C motif chemokine 11 also known as eosinophil chemotactic protein and eotaxin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... CCL11 is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. CCL11 selectively recruits eosinophils by inducing their ...
"The genes encoding the human CC-chemokine receptors CC-CKR1 to CC-CKR5 (CMKBR1-CMKBR5) are clustered in the p21.3-p24 region of ... C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2 or CD192 (cluster of differentiation 192) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... CCR2 is a chemokine receptor. This CCR2 gene is located in the chemokine receptor gene cluster region. Two alternatively ... CCR2 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2". El Khoury J, Toft M, Hickman SE, Means TK, Terada K, Geula C, Luster AD (April 2007). " ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3 (CCL3) also known as macrophage inflammatory protein 1-alpha (MIP-1-alpha) is a protein that in ... CCL3 is a cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family that is involved in the acute inflammatory state in the recruitment and ... CCL3 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3". Wolpe SD, Davatelis G, Sherry B, Beutler B, Hesse DG, Nguyen HT, Moldawer LL, Nathan CF, ...
Samson M, Soularue P, Vassart G, Parmentier M (Feb 1997). "The genes encoding the human CC-chemokine receptors CC-CKR1 to CC- ... "The T cell-directed CC chemokine TARC is a highly specific biological ligand for CC chemokine receptor 4". J. Biol. Chem. 272 ( ... "Macrophage-derived chemokine is a functional ligand for the CC chemokine receptor 4". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (3): 1764-8. doi: ... C-C chemokine receptor type 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCR4 gene. CCR4 has also recently been designated ...
1998). "Macrophage-derived chemokine is a functional ligand for the CC chemokine receptor 4". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (3): 1764-8. ... C-C motif chemokine 22 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCL22 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is secreted ... "Entrez Gene: CCL22 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 22". Vulcano M, Albanesi C, Stoppacciaro A, Bagnati R, D'Amico G, Struyf S, ... 1997). "Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a novel CC chemokine, stimulated T cell chemotactic protein (STCP- ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19 (CCL19) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family that is also known as EBI1 ... 1997). "Molecular cloning of a novel human CC chemokine secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine that is a potent chemoattractant ... "Molecular cloning of a novel human CC chemokine EBI1-ligand chemokine that is a specific functional ligand for EBI1, CCR7". J ... "Molecular cloning of a novel human CC chemokine EBI1-ligand chemokine that is a specific functional ligand for EBI1, CCR7". J. ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 7 (CCL7) is a small cytokine known as a chemokine that was previously called monocyte-chemotactic ... This chemokine is located on chromosome 17 in humans, in a large cluster containing many other CC chemokines and is most ... it is classified among the subfamily of chemokines known as CC chemokines. CCL7 specifically attracts monocytes, and regulates ... 1994). "The human MCP-3 gene (SCYA7): cloning, sequence analysis, and assignment to the C-C chemokine gene cluster on ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 28 (CCL28), also known as mucosae-associated epithelial chemokine (MEC), CCK1 and SCYA28, is a ... Sequence analysis has revealed CCL28 to be most similar to another CC chemokine called CCL27. The gene C5orf34 is found ... "CCL28 C-C motif chemokine ligand 28 [Homo sapiens (human)]". Gene - NCBI. ... This chemokine is constitutively expressed in the colon, but its levels can be increased by pro-inflammatory cytokines and ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 25 (CCL25) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family that is also known as TECK ( ... and T cell-active chemokines including ELC, SLC, and TECK. J Immunol. 2000, 164:2851-6. Nomiyama et al., The human CC chemokine ... Vacari et al., TECK: a novel CC chemokine specifically expressed by thymic dendritic cells and potentially involved in T cell ... Zaballos et al., Identification of the orphan chemokine receptor GPR-9-6 as CCR9, the receptor for the chemokine TECK. J. ...
... and is a receptor for C-C type chemokines. This receptor has been shown to bind dendritic cell- and T cell-activated chemokines ... C-C chemokine receptor type 11 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCRL1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... "Entrez Gene: CCRL1 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor-like 1". Human ACKR4 genome location and ACKR4 gene details page in the UCSC ... 2000). "Cutting edge: identification of a novel chemokine receptor that binds dendritic cell- and T cell-active chemokines ...
"Entrez Gene: CCRL2 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor-like 2". Zabel BA, Nakae S, Zúñiga L, Kim JY, Ohyama T, Alt C, Pan J, Suto H ... C-C chemokine receptor-like 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCRL2 gene. Recently it was found that CCRL2 also ... Chemokines and their receptors mediated signal transduction are critical for the recruitment of effector immune cells to the ... This gene encodes a chemokine receptor like protein, which is predicted to be a seven transmembrane protein and most closely ...
This chemokine resides in a large cluster of CC chemokines on human chromosome 17. Miller MD, Krangel MS (April 1992). "The ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 1 (CCL1) is a small glycoprotein secreted by activated T cells that belongs to a family ... the receptor for the human CC chemokine I-309". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (28): 17251-4. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.28.17251. PMID 9211859. ... CCL1 attracts monocytes, NK cells, and immature B cells and dendritic cells by interacting with a cell surface chemokine ...
... (USAN; trade name Poteligeo) is a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4). It was ...
Samson M, Soularue P, Vassart G, Parmentier M (1997). "The genes encoding the human CC-chemokine receptors CC-CKR1 to CC-CKR5 ( ... an eosinophil-selective CC chemokine, and identification of a specific eosinophil eotaxin receptor, CC chemokine receptor 3". J ... a novel CC chemokine that is selective for the chemokine receptor CCR3, and acts like eotaxin on human eosinophil and basophil ... C-C chemokine receptor type 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCR3 gene. CCR3 has also recently been designated ...
... induced proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 288 (7): 4878-90. doi:10.1074/ ... Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0 unless otherwise noted.. *Terms of Use ...
... or chemokine-scavenging receptor or chemokine decoy receptor. Acts as a receptor for chemokines CXCL11 and CXCL12/SDF1. ... Chemokine binding does not activate G-protein-mediated signal transduction but instead induces beta-arrestin recruitment, ... Required for regulation of CXCR4 protein levels in migrating interneurons, thereby adapting their chemokine responsiveness. In ... resulting instead in chemokine sequestration, degradation, or transcytosis. Also known as interceptor (internalizing receptor) ...
... or chemokine-scavenging receptor or chemokine decoy receptor. Acts as a receptor for chemokines including CCL2, CCL3, CCL3L1, ... increasing its efficiency in chemokine uptake and degradation. By scavenging chemokines in tissues, on the surfaces of ... resulting instead in chemokine sequestration, degradation, or transcytosis. Also known as interceptor (internalizing receptor) ... Atypical chemokine receptor that controls chemokine levels and localization via high-affinity chemokine binding that is ...
chemokine receptor activity. • receptor activity. • protein binding. • C-C chemokine receptor activity. • C-C chemokine binding ... CCR6, BN-1, C-C CKR-6, CC-CKR-6, CCR-6, CD196, CKR-L3, CKRL3, CMKBR6, DCR2, DRY6, GPR29, GPRCY4, STRL22, C-C motif chemokine ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene.[5] CCR6 ... "Entrez Gene: CCR6 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6".. *^ Wang K, Zhang H, Kugathasan S, Annese V, Bradfield JP, Russell RK, ...
The CC chemokine receptors all work by activating the G protein Gi. CCR1 was the first CC chemokine receptor identified and ... Molecular cloning of a novel human CC chemokine (Eotaxin-3) that is a functional ligand of CC chemokine receptor 3. J. Biol. ... The T cell-directed CC chemokine TARC is a highly specific biological ligand for CC chemokine receptor 4. J. Biol. Chem. 272: ... and a potent agonist at CC chemokine receptors 1 and 3. J. Immun. 159: 5201-5205, 1997. Nomiyama et al. Human CC chemokine ...
PREDICTED: c-C motif chemokine 13. M. mulatta. 94.9. 97. XP_003912650.1 * Conserved domains (CDD) * * Gene summary * * Protein ... Homo sapiens chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 13 (CCL13), mRNA. PA. CR450337.1. Homo sapiens full open reading frame cDNA clone ... H.sapiens mRNA for CC-chemokine (sequence variant). A. U59808.1. Human monocyte chemotactic protein-4 precursor (MCP-4) mRNA, ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 13 (CCL13). Human protein-coding gene CCL13. Represented by 21 ESTs from 14 cDNA libraries. ...
Interleukin-8 and related chemotactic cytokines--CXC and CC chemokines.. Baggiolini M1, Dewald B, Moser B. ...
CC-type_chemokine_FPV060_put (PD096294). Accession PD096294 Integration. Viral CC chemokine-like protein FPV060 (IPR020343) ...
Two ligands have been identified for this receptor: the chemokines (C-C motif) ligand 19 (CCL19/ELC) and (C-C motif) ligand 21 ... "Molecular cloning of a novel human CC chemokine EBI1-ligand chemokine that is a specific functional ligand for EBI1, CCR7". The ... "Secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine is a functional ligand for the CC chemokine receptor CCR7". The Journal of Biological ... C-C chemokine receptor type 7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCR7 gene. ...
The purpose of this study was to determine whether certain chemokines, which are highly expressed in injured skeletal muscle, ... The purpose of this study was to determine whether certain chemokines, which are highly expressed in injured skeletal muscle, ... To dissect the role of these chemokines, additional studies were conducted in CCR5- and CCR2-deficient mice. CCR5-/- mice ...
The protein encoded by this gene binds to several chemokine receptors, including chemokine binding protein 2 and chemokine (C-C ... C-C motif chemokine ligand 3 like 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCL3L3 gene. This gene is one of several ... C-C motif chemokine ligand 3 like 3". Retrieved 2017-09-16. Template:Gene-CHR HSCHR17 7 CTG4-stub This article incorporates ...
chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2. MCP-1 receptor. chemokine (C-C) receptor 2. monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 receptor. ... CCR2 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] CCR2 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2 [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID:1231 ... chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2provided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:1603 See related. MIM:601267 Gene type. protein ... CCR2 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ] Gene ID: 1231, discontinued on 27-Mar-2009 * This record was ...
CC chemokine receptor 3. CC-CKR-3. CCR-3. MIP-1 alpha RL2. MIP-1 alphaRL2. chemokine (C-C) receptor 1,-like 2. chemokine (C-C) ... Ccr3 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 3 [Mus musculus] Ccr3 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 3 [Mus musculus]. Gene ID:12771 ... Chemokine receptors bind chemokines, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME) Chemokine receptors bind chemokines, organism- ... probable C-C chemokine receptor type 3. Names. C-C CKR-3. ... C-C chemokine binding IBA Inferred from Biological aspect of ...
Previous Names: "small inducible cytokine A2 (monocyte chemotactic protein 1, homologous to mouse Sig-je)", "chemokine (C-C ...
C-C motif chemokine 3-like 1. Names. G0/G1 switch regulatory protein 19-2. chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3-like 1. small ... CCL3L1 C-C motif chemokine ligand 3 like 1 [Homo sapiens] CCL3L1 C-C motif chemokine ligand 3 like 1 [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID: ... The protein encoded by this gene binds to several chemokine receptors, including chemokine binding protein 2 and chemokine (C-C ... C-C motif chemokine ligand 3 like 1provided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:10628 See related. MIM:601395 Gene type. protein ...
Absence of CC chemokine receptor-2 reduces atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.. Dawson TC1, Kuziel WA, Osahar ... To determine whether the receptor for MCP-1, CC chemokine receptor CCR2, plays a role in atherogenesis, CCR2-deficient animals ...
Finally, C-C chemokines were shown to bind a C-C CKR-1-related gene product encoded by cytomegalovirus, suggesting a role for C ... that encodes a protein designated C-C CKR-1 that acts as a receptor for the C-C chemokines. Human and murine macrophage ... The immunoregulatory proteins C-C chemokines are potent chemoattractants of lymphocytes and monocytes, as well as activators ... Molecular cloning, functional expression, and signaling characteristics of a C-C chemokine receptor.. Neote K1, DiGregorio D, ...
... this new CC-chemokine receptor (CC-CKR) is tentatively designated CC-CKR5. ... The other CC-chemokines, MCP-1, MCP-2 and MCP-3, as well as CXC-chemokines (IL-8, GRO alpha) had no effect. ChemR13 receptor ... Molecular cloning and functional expression of a new human CC-chemokine receptor gene.. Samson M1, Labbe O, Mollereau C, ... In the present work, we describe the cloning of a human gene, named ChemR13, encoding a new CC-chemokine receptor. The gene ...
IPR000827. Chemokine_CC_CS. IPR001811. Chemokine_IL8-like_dom. IPR036048. Interleukin_8-like_sf. ... IPR000827. Chemokine_CC_CS. IPR001811. Chemokine_IL8-like_dom. IPR036048. Interleukin_8-like_sf. ... C-C motif chemokineUniRule annotation. ,p>Information which has been generated by the UniProtKB automatic annotation system, ... C-C motif chemokineUniRule annotation. ,p>Information which has been generated by the UniProtKB automatic annotation system, ...
"Entrez Gene: FAM19A1 family with sequence similarity 19 (chemokine (C-C motif)-like), member A1". Mehrle A, Rosenfelder H, ... a member of the CC-chemokine family. The TAFA proteins are predominantly expressed in specific regions of the brain, and are ... postulated to function as brain-specific chemokines or neurokines that act as regulators of immune and nervous cells. GRCh38: ...
Family with sequence similarity 19 member A4, C-C motif chemokine like is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FAM19A4 ... C-C motif chemokine like". Retrieved 2017-12-09. Oguri M, Kato K, Yokoi K, Yoshida T, Watanabe S, Metoki N, Yoshida H, Satoh K ... a member of the CC-chemokine family. The TAFA proteins are predominantly expressed in specific regions of the brain, and are ... postulated to function as brain-specific chemokines or neurokines, that act as regulators of immune and nervous cells. ...
Compare C-C motif chemokine 23 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews ... Your search returned 145 C-C motif chemokine 23 ELISA ELISA Kit across 23 suppliers. ... C6 beta-chemokine, Hmrp-2a, Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 3, Myeloid Progenitor Inhibitory Factor 1, Small In ... CCL23 (C-C Motif Chemokine 23) BioAssay™ ELISA Kit (Human) *Detection Target: CCL23 (C-C Motif Chemokine 23) ...
Receptor for a number of inflammatory CC-chemokines including CCL3/MIP-1-alpha, CCL4/MIP-1-beta and RANTES and subsequently ... Organism icons generated by flaticon.com under CC BY. The authors are: Freepik, Icons8, OCHA, Scott de Jonge. ...
Differential CCR7 Targeting in Dendritic Cells by Three Naturally Occurring CC-Chemokines ... Differential CCR7 Targeting in Dendritic Cells by Three Naturally Occurring CC-Chemokines. by Hjortø GM, Larsen O, Steen A, ... Corrigendum: Differential CCR7 Targeting in Dendritic Cells by Three Naturally Occurring CC-Chemokines. Gertrud M. Hjortø1, ... Differential CCR7 Targeting in Dendritic Cells by Three Naturally Occurring CC-Chemokines. Front. Immunol. 8:89. doi: 10.3389/ ...
Compare C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, ... CC-1, CC-3, CKb1, HCC-1, HCC-3, MCIF, NCC-2, NCC2, SCYA14, SCYL2, SY14, Chemokine CC-1, Chemokine CC-3, Small Inducible ... CC-1, CC-3, CKb1, HCC-1, HCC-3, MCIF, NCC-2, NCC2, SCYA14, SCYL2, SY14, Chemokine CC-1, Chemokine CC-3, Small Inducible ... C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established antibody-based ...
Compare C-C motif chemokine receptor 9 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations ... C-C motif chemokine receptor 9 ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established antibody-based ... Your search returned 19 C-C motif chemokine receptor 9 ELISA ELISA Kit across 3 suppliers. ...
  • By scavenging chemokines in tissues, on the surfaces of lymphatic vessels, and in placenta, plays an essential role in the resolution (termination) of the inflammatory response and in the regulation of adaptive immune responses. (uniprot.org)
  • CC and CXC chemokines induce airway smooth muscle proliferation and survival," Journal of Immunology , vol. 186, no. 7, pp. 4156-4163, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • This chemokine is also known as 6Ckine (because it has six conserved cysteine residues instead of the four cysteines typical to chemokines), exodus-2, and secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine (SLC). (wikipedia.org)