Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.
Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.
Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
Group of chemokines without adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes only.
An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.
A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.
Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.
A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.
A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.
A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.
Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.
Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.
Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
A platelet-specific protein which is released when platelets aggregate. Elevated plasma levels have been reported after deep venous thrombosis, pre-eclampsia, myocardial infarction with mural thrombosis, and myeloproliferative disorders. Measurement of beta-thromboglobulin in biological fluids by radioimmunoassay is used for the diagnosis and assessment of progress of thromboembolic disorders.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The process in which the neutrophil is stimulated by diverse substances, resulting in degranulation and/or generation of reactive oxygen products, and culminating in the destruction of invading pathogens. The stimulatory substances, including opsonized particles, immune complexes, and chemotactic factors, bind to specific cell-surface receptors on the neutrophil.
A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Cell surface proteins that bind interleukins and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.
Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.
Movement of tethered, spherical LEUKOCYTES along the endothelial surface of the microvasculature. The tethering and rolling involves interaction with SELECTINS and other adhesion molecules in both the ENDOTHELIUM and leukocyte. The rolling leukocyte then becomes activated by CHEMOKINES, flattens out, and firmly adheres to the endothelial surface in preparation for transmigration through the interendothelial cell junction. (From Abbas, Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 3rd ed)
Cytokine-induced cell adhesion molecule present on activated endothelial cells, tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, bone marrow fibroblasts, myoblasts, and myotubes. It is important for the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, p154)
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.
Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A steroid-inducible protein that was originally identified in uterine fluid. It is a secreted homodimeric protein with identical 70-amino acid subunits that are joined in an antiparallel orientation by two disulfide bridges. A variety of activities are associated with uteroglobin including the sequestering of hydrophobic ligands and the inhibition of SECRETORY PHOSPHOLIPASE A2.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.
Proteins that specifically inhibit the growth of new blood vessels (ANGIOGENESIS, PHYSIOLOGIC).
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.
A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on LYMPHOCYTES. It can form a heterotrimer (LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA1, BETA2 HETEROTRIMER) with the soluble ligand LYMPHOTOXIN-ALPHA and anchor it to the cell surface. The membrane-bound complex is specific for the LYMPHOTOXIN BETA receptor.
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-17. Several subtypes of receptors have been found, each with its own in specificity for interleukin-17 subtype.
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.
A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.
Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.
An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A pattern recognition receptor that binds DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA. It mediates cellular responses to certain viral pathogens.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.

Expression and cellular localization of the CC chemokines PARC and ELC in human atherosclerotic plaques. (1/1708)

Local immune responses are thought to play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. Histological studies have shown that human atherosclerotic lesions contain T lymphocytes throughout all stages of development, many of which are in an activated state. A number of novel CC chemokines have been described recently, which are potent chemoattractants for lymphocytes: PARC (pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine), ELC (EBI1-ligand chemokine), LARC (liver and activation-regulated chemokine), and SLC (secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine). Using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization, we have found gene expression for PARC and ELC but not for LARC or SLC in human atherosclerotic plaques. Immunohistochemical staining of serial plaque sections with specific cell markers revealed highly different expression patterns of PARC and ELC. PARC mRNA was restricted to CD68+ macrophages (n = 14 of 18), whereas ELC mRNA was widely expressed by macrophages and intimal smooth muscle cells (SMC) in nearly all of the lesions examined (n = 12 of 14). ELC mRNA was also found to be expressed in the medial SMC wall of highly calcified plaques (n = 4). Very low levels of ELC mRNA expression could also be detected in normal mammary arteries but no mRNA expression for PARC was detected in these vessels (n = 4). In vitro, ELC mRNA was found to be up-regulated in aortic SMC stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-a and interferon-gamma but not in SMC stimulated with serum. Both PARC and ELC mRNA were expressed by monocyte-derived macrophages but not monocytes. The expression patterns of PARC and ELC mRNA in human atherosclerotic lesions suggest a potential role for these two recently described CC chemokines in attracting T lymphocytes into atherosclerotic lesions.  (+info)

Selective eosinophil transendothelial migration triggered by eotaxin via modulation of Mac-1/ICAM-1 and VLA-4/VCAM-1 interactions. (2/1708)

We have recently cloned eotaxin, a highly efficacious eosinophilic chemokine involved in the development of lung eosinophilia during allergic inflammatory reactions. To understand more precisely how eotaxin facilitates the specific migration of eosinophils, we have studied which adhesion receptors are essential for eotaxin action both in vivo and in vitro. Experiments using mice genetically deficient in adhesion receptors demonstrated that molecules previously reported to be involved in both leukocyte tethering/rolling (P-selectin and E-selectin) and in sticking/ transmigration (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) are required for eotaxin action in vivo. To further elucidate the mechanism(s) involved in this process, we have used an in vitro transendothelial chemotaxis model. mAb neutralization studies performed in this system suggest that the integrins Mac-1 (CD11b/18), VLA-4 (alpha4beta1) and LFA-1 (CD11a/18) are involved in the transendothelial chemotaxis of eosinophils to eotaxin. Accordingly, the expression of these integrins on eosinophils is elevated by direct action of this chemokine in a concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, our results suggest that eotaxin-induced eosinophil transendothelial migration in vivo and in vitro relies on Mac-1/ICAM-1 and VLA-4NCAM-1 interactions, the latter ones becoming more relevant at later time points of the eotaxin-induced recruitment process.  (+info)

Selective recruitment of CCR4-bearing Th2 cells toward antigen-presenting cells by the CC chemokines thymus and activation-regulated chemokine and macrophage-derived chemokine. (3/1708)

Helper T cells are classified into Th1 and Th2 subsets based on their profiles of cytokine production. Th1 cells are involved in cell-mediated immunity, whereas Th2 cells induce humoral responses. Selective recruitment of these two subsets depends on specific adhesion molecules and specific chemoattractants. Here, we demonstrate that the T cell-directed CC chemokine thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) was abundantly produced by monocytes treated with granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or IL-3, especially in the presence of IL-4 and by dendritic cells derived from monocytes cultured with GM-CSF + IL-4. The receptor for TARC and another macrophage/dendritic cell-derived CC chemokine macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) is CCR4, a G protein-coupled receptor. CCR4 was found to be expressed on approximately 20% of adult peripheral blood effector/memory CD4+ T cells. T cells attracted by TARC and MDC generated cell lines predominantly producing Th2-type cytokines, IL-4 and IL-5. Fractionated CCR4+ cells but not CCR4- cells also selectively gave rise to Th2-type cell lines. When naive CD4+ T cells from adult peripheral blood were polarized in vitro, Th2-type cells selectively expressed CCR4 and vigorously migrated toward TARC and MDC. Taken together, CCR4 is selectively expressed on Th2-type T cells and antigen-presenting cells may recruit Th2 cells expressing CCR4 by producing TARC and MDC in Th2-dominant conditions.  (+info)

Eotaxin contributes to renal interstitial eosinophilia. (4/1708)

BACKGROUND: A potent eosinophil chemotactic cytokine, human eotaxin, is directly chemotactic for eosinophils. Therefore, the specific expression of eotaxin in tissue might play a crucial role in tissue eosinophilia. However, the precise molecular mechanism of the recruitment and activation of eosinophils in human renal diseases remains to be investigated. We evaluated the role of eotaxin in the pathogenesis of human diffuse interstitial nephritis with marked infiltration of eosinophils. METHODS: In this study, we examined 20 healthy volunteers. 56 patients with primary or secondary glomerular diseases and two hypereosinophilic syndrome patients without renal involvement. Urinary and serum eotaxin levels were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We also detected the presence of eotaxin protein immunohistochemically. RESULTS: On the one hand, urinary levels of eotaxin were significantly higher before the initiation of glucocorticoid administration in the patient with interstitial nephritis with marked infiltration of eosinophils. On the other hand, urinary eotaxin levels were not detected in any patients with nephrotic syndrome, interstitial nephritis without eosinophils, hypereosinophilic syndrome without renal involvement or other renal diseases. Serum eotaxin levels were not detected in any of the patients. Therefore, the detection of eotaxin in the urine was specific for renal interstitial eosinophilia. Moreover, endothelial cells, infiltrating mononuclear cells and renal epithelial cells in the tubulointerstitial lesions were immunostained with specific anti-eotaxin antibodies. Furthermore, the elevated urinary levels of eotaxin decreased dramatically during glucocorticoid-induced convalescence. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesize that in situ expression of eotaxin may provide a new mechanism to explain the renal interstitial eosinophil infiltration.  (+info)

Induction of macrophage C-C chemokine expression by titanium alloy and bone cement particles. (5/1708)

Particulate wear debris is associated with periprosthetic inflammation and loosening in total joint arthroplasty. We tested the effects of titanium alloy (Ti-alloy) and PMMA particles on monocyte/macrophage expression of the C-C chemokines, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), monocyte inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1alpha), and regulated upon activation normal T expressed and secreted protein (RANTES). Periprosthetic granulomatous tissue was analysed for expression of macrophage chemokines by immunohistochemistry. Chemokine expression in human monocytes/macrophages exposed to Ti-alloy and PMMA particles in vitro was determined by RT-PCR, ELISA and monocyte migration. We observed MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha expression in all tissue samples from failed arthroplasties. Ti-alloy and PMMA particles increased expression of MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha in macrophages in vitro in a dose- and time-dependent manner whereas RANTES was not detected. mRNA signal levels for MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha were also observed in cells after exposure to particles. Monocyte migration was stimulated by culture medium collected from macrophages exposed to Ti-alloy and PMMA particles. Antibodies to MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha inhibited chemotactic activity of the culture medium samples. Release of C-C chemokines by macrophages in response to wear particles may contribute to chronic inflammation at the bone-implant interface in total joint arthroplasty.  (+info)

Presence of P210bcrabl is associated with decreased expression of a beta chemokine C10 gene in a P210bcrabl-positive myeloid leukemia cell line. (6/1708)

BACKGROUND: Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is thought to start with the acquisition of the t(9;22) chromosomal translocation that codes for the P210bcrabl tyrosine-specific protein kinase. The CML cells exhibit anchorage-independent cell growth and genetic instability. After the initial phase, the cells acquire the phenotype of growth factor-independent growth. After the chronic phase, the disease evolves into the accelerated and blastic phases through the process of sequential random mutation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To identify some of the genetic changes that contribute to the phenotype of blastic and accelerated phase cells, we used differential display PCR to compare levels of cDNA reverse transcripts of mRNA in 32Dc13 cells and 32Dc13 cells that were stably transfected with a bcrabl cDNA plasmid in a constitutively expressed transcription unit. These cells were designated 32Dc13P210bcrabl. For these studies, we used the 32D myeloid leukemia cell line, which depends on IL-3 for growth. RESULTS: Following introduction of the bcr-abl cDNA through transfection, the cell line became growth factor independent, mimicking the change in phenotype that occurs during the later phases of CML. These differential display screening assays detected altered levels of transcripts for 28 genes. Of interest to the biology of growth factor-independent growth in the bcrabl-positive 32D cells was the fact that the C10 beta chemokine gene was expressed at higher levels in the 32Dc13 cells than in the 32Dc13P210bcrabl cells. CONCLUSIONS: These studies show that a C10 beta chemokine gene was expressed at different levels with or without P210bcrabl.  (+info)

Cutting edge: secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine (SLC) and CC chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) participate in the emigration pathway of mature dendritic cells from the skin to regional lymph nodes. (7/1708)

Dendritic cells (DCs) emigrate to regional lymph nodes (LNs) during immune responses via afferent lymphatic channels. Secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine (SLC), a CC chemokine, is expressed in secondary lymphoid organs and mediates the chemotaxis of lymphocytes and DCs via its receptor, CC chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7). By dual-label fluorescence confocal microscopy, we showed MHC class II-positive cells within SLC-staining lymphatic channels in the mouse dermis. SLC was a potent in vitro chemoattractant for cultured, migratory skin DCs, and it enhanced the emigration of MHC class II-positive DCs from mouse skin explants by an average of 2.5-fold. Mature or cytokine-activated, but not resting, Langerhans cells expressed CCR7 mRNA by RT-PCR. Anti-SLC Abs, but not control or anti-eotaxin Abs, blocked the in vivo migration of 51Cr-labeled, skin-derived DCs from footpads to draining LNs by 50% (n = 9, p < 0. 005). Thus, we provide direct evidence that SLC and CCR7 participate in the emigration of DCs from peripheral tissue to LNs via lymphatics.  (+info)

Effects of Th2 cytokines on chemokine expression in the lung: IL-13 potently induces eotaxin expression by airway epithelial cells. (8/1708)

Airway inflammation associated with asthma is characterized by massive infiltration of eosinophils, mediated in part by specific chemoattractant factors produced in the lung. Allergen-specific Th2 cells appear to play a central role in asthma; for example, adoptively transferred Th2 cells induced lung eosinophilia associated with induction of specific chemokines. Interestingly, Th2 supernatant alone administered intranasally to naive mice induced eotaxin, RANTES, monocyte-chemotactic protein-1, and KC expression along with lung eosinophilia. We tested the major cytokines individually and found that IL-4 and IL-5 induced higher levels of macrophage-inflammatory protein-1alpha and KC; IL-4 also increased the production of monocyte-chemotactic protein-1; IL-13 and IL-4 induced eotaxin. IL-13 was by far the most potent inducer of eotaxin; indeed, a neutralizing anti-IL-13 Ab removed most of the eotaxin-inducing activity from Th2 supernatants, although it did not entirely block the recruitment of eosinophils. While TNF-alpha did not stimulate eotaxin production by itself, it markedly augmented eotaxin induction by IL-13. IL-13 was able to induce eotaxin in the lung of JAK3-deficient mice, suggesting that JAK3 is not required for IL-13 signaling in airway epithelial cells; however, eosinophilia was not induced in this situation, suggesting that JAK3 transduces other IL-13-mediated mechanisms critical for eosinophil recruitment. Our study suggests that IL-13 is an important mediator in the pathogenesis of asthma and therefore a potential target for asthma therapy.  (+info)

Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 26 (CCL26) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family that is also called Eotaxin-3, Macrophage inflammatory protein 4-alpha (MIP-4-alpha), Thymic stroma chemokine-1 (TSC-1), and IMAC. It is expressed by several tissues including heart, lung and ovary, and in endothelial cells that have been stimulated with the cytokine interleukin 4. CCL26 is chemotactic for eosinophils and basophils and elicits its effects by binding to the cell surface chemokine receptor CCR3. This gene for chemokine is located on human chromosome 7. Shinkai et al. A novel human CC chemokine, eotaxin-3, which is expressed in IL-4-stimulated vascular endothelial cells, exhibits potent activity toward eosinophils. J. Immunol. 163:1602-1610, 1999. Guo et al. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel human CC chemokine, SCYA26. Genomics 58:313-317, 1999. Kitaura et al. Molecular cloning of a novel human CC chemokine (Eotaxin-3) that is a functional ligand of CC chemokine receptor ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 13 (CCL13) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. Its gene is located on human chromosome 17 within a large cluster of other CC chemokines. CCL13 induces chemotaxis in monocytes, eosinophils, T lymphocytes, and basophils by binding cell surface G-protein linked chemokine receptors such as CCR2, CCR3 and CCR5. Activity of this chemokine has been implicated in allergic reactions such as asthma. CCL13 can be induced by the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 and TNF-α. Garcia-Zepeda EA, et al.. Human monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-4 is a novel CC chemokine with activities on monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils induced in allergic and no allergic inflammation that signals through the CC chemokine receptors (CCR)-2 and -3. J Immunol. 1996;157:5613-5626 Naruse et al., A YAC contig of the human CC chemokine genes clustered on chromosome 17q11.2. Genomics. 1996, 34(2):236-40. Blanpain et al., CCR5 binds multiple CC-chemokines: MCP-3 acts as a ...
Abbkine Scientific has officially announced the release of its EliKine™ Human CCL2 ELISA Kit. The product also is known as the Human MCP1 ELISA Kit which is unique for its high sensitivity and excellent specificity.. The chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) is also referred to as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) and small inducible cytokine A2. Other alternative names include MCP-1, HC11, MCAF, HSMCR30, SMC-CF, GDCF-2, SCYA2, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, monocyte secretory protein JE. CCL2 is a small cytokine that belongs to the CC chemokine family. CCL2 recruits monocytes, memory T cells, and dendritic cells to the sites of inflammation produced by either tissue injury or infection. Abbkine newly launched EliKine™ Human CCL2/MCP-1 ELISA Kit exerts high sensibility and specificity for the quantification of Human CCL2/MCP-1 in various samples to CCL2 level determination.. The Human MCP1 ELISA Kit comes with different features and benefits that stand it out from its ...
Abbkine Scientific has officially announced the release of its EliKine™ Human CCL2 ELISA Kit. The product also is known as the Human MCP1 ELISA Kit which is unique for its high sensitivity and excellent specificity.. The chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) is also referred to as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) and small inducible cytokine A2. Other alternative names include MCP-1, HC11, MCAF, HSMCR30, SMC-CF, GDCF-2, SCYA2, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, monocyte secretory protein JE. CCL2 is a small cytokine that belongs to the CC chemokine family. CCL2 recruits monocytes, memory T cells, and dendritic cells to the sites of inflammation produced by either tissue injury or infection. Abbkine newly launched EliKine™ Human CCL2/MCP-1 ELISA Kit exerts high sensibility and specificity for the quantification of Human CCL2/MCP-1 in various samples to CCL2 level determination.. The Human MCP1 ELISA Kit comes with different features and benefits that stand it out from its ...
Human CCL24/Eotaxin-2/MPIF-2 ELISA Kit (Colorimetric). High sensitivity ELISA kit for detection of CCL24/Eotaxin-2/MPIF-2. Backed by our 100% Guarantee.
White JR, Imburgia C, Dul E, Appelbaum E, ODonnell K, OShannessy DJ, Brawner M, Fornwald J, Adamou J, Elshourbagy NA, Kaiser K, Foley JJ, Schmidt DB, Johanson K, Macphee C, Moores K, McNulty D, Scott GF, Schleimer RP, Sarau HM (1997). „Cloning and functional characterization of a novel human CC chemokine that binds to the CCR3 receptor and activates human eosinophils. J. Leukoc. Biol. 62 (5): 667-75. PMID 9365122 ...
Purified Recombinant Human CCL24 Protein, GST-Tagged from Creative Biomart. Recombinant Human CCL24 Protein, GST-Tagged can be used for research.
Recombinant Human CCL1 protein is an Escherichia coli Full length protein 24 to 96 aa range, | 85% purity and validated in SDS-PAGE, MS.
Chemoattractant for eosinophils and basophils (PubMed:10415065, PubMed:10488147). Acts as a ligand for C-C chemokine receptor CCR3 which triggers Ca(2+) mobilization in eosinophils (PubMed:10415065, PubMed:10488147, PubMed:11425309).
Human CCL25/TECK ELISA Kit assay has a sensitivity of |37.5pg/ml. Measure CCL25/TECK in serum, blood, plasma, cell supernatant samples.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chemokines in cardiac fibrosis. AU - Li, Ruoshui. AU - Frangogiannis, Nikolaos G.. N1 - Funding Information: Dr Frangogiannis laboratory is supported by National Institutes of Health grants R01 HL76246 , R01 HL85440 , and R01 HL149407 , and by U.S. Department of Defense grants PR151029 and PR181464 . Publisher Copyright: © 2020 Elsevier Ltd. PY - 2021/2. Y1 - 2021/2. N2 - Several members of the chemokine family are involved in regulation of fibrosis. This review manuscript discusses the role of the chemokines in the pathogenesis of myocardial fibrosis. The CC chemokine CCL2 exerts fibrogenic actions through recruitment and activation of monocytes and macrophages expressing its receptor, CCR2. Other CC chemokines may also contribute to fibrotic remodeling by recruiting subsets of fibrogenic macrophages. CXC chemokines containing the ELR motif may exert pro-fibrotic actions, through recruitment of activated neutrophils and subsequent formation of neutrophil extracellular traps ...
White JR, Imburgia C, Dul E, Appelbaum E, ODonnell K, OShannessy DJ, Brawner M, Fornwald J, Adamou J, Elshourbagy NA, Kaiser K, Foley JJ, Schmidt DB, Johanson K, Macphee C, Moores K, McNulty D, Scott GF, Schleimer RP, Sarau HM (November 1997). Cloning and functional characterization of a novel human CC chemokine that binds to the CCR3 receptor and activates human eosinophils. J. Leukoc. Biol. 62 (5): 667-75. PMID 9365122. Cite uses deprecated parameter ...
Recombinant Human CCL1 (I-309) (carrier-free) - CCL1 was initially identified as a secreted protein derived from activated T cells.
The chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) is also referred to as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) and small inducible cytokine A2. CCL2 is a small cytokine that belongs to the CC chemokine family. CCL2 recruits monocytes, memory T cells, and dendritic cells to the sites of inflammation produced by either tissue injury or infection ...
Recombinant human CCL22/MDC, fused to His-tag at N-terminus, was expressed as insoluble protein aggregate inE.coliand purified by conventional chromatography, after refolding of the isolated inclusion bodies in a renaturation buffer. MW =10.3 kDa (90aa).
CCL19 (Human) ELISA Kit is an in vitro enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantitative measurement of human CCL19. (KA1749) - Products - Abnova
CCL23 (Human) ELISA Kit is an in vitro enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantitative measurement of human CCL23. (KA1751) - Products - Abnova
Detect and quantitate human CCL18 in buffer, human serum, cell media, PBMC culture supernatant samples using AlphaLISA no-wash assays.
XX, -X, -X, -2, -5, -5, -5, +7, -9, +10, -11, -13, -13, -14, -15, -16, -17, -17, +18, +19, -20, -20, -20, -21, -22, -22, -22, +27-30mar, del(X)(q23), add(1)(p36)x2, der(1;3)(q10;q10 ...
We have characterized previously the expression of the chemokines eotaxin, MCP-5, RANTES, and MCP-1 (mRNA and/or protein), and correlated this with the leukocytes migrating to the lung during a murine model of lung inflammation ((5), (16)). From these experiments, we concluded that MCP-1 mRNA expression paralleled the accumulation of monocytes/macrophages in this organ, both events occurring predominantly at early stages of the response (day 15). Also, eotaxin mRNA expression paralleled lung eosinophilia predominantly at late stages (day 21). In contrast, other chemokines, such as RANTES or MCP-5, were expressed throughout the inflammatory reaction. This underlines the contribution of chemokines at different stages of the response.. From the work presented here, we first conclude that eosinophil recruitment and development of BHR in this model system involve the action of both eosinophilic (eotaxin, RANTES, MCP-5, and MIP-1α) and noneosinophilic chemokines (MCP-1). This indicates the absence of ...
Background: Patients with severe asthma are less sensitive to oral or inhaled corticosteroids. Relative corticosteroid insensitivity has been shown in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and alveolar macrophages in these patients.. Aims and objectives: Determine the response of corticosteroids in airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) of severe asthma, in terms of suppression of cytokine-induced chemokine release and mRNA expression, and investigate the underlying mechanisms.. Methods: ASMCs of non-asthmatics (NA; 12), patients with non-severe (NSA; 10) or severe asthma (SA; 10) were pretreated with dexamethasone (Dex; 10-10-10-6 M) followed by stimulation with TNF-α at 10 ng/mL. IL-8 and eotaxin release determined by ELISA; mRNA quantified by RT-PCR. p65 NF-κB recruitment to gene promoters measured by ChIP assay; p38, JNK, and ERK expression measured by Western blot.. Results: Baseline and TNF-α induced eotaxin release and mRNA were higher in NSA, but not SA, compared to NA, while no differences ...
|p|Recombinant Human Eotaxin-2/CCL24 is a single non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 78 amino acids.|/p| |p|Background: Eotaxin-2 (CCL24) is a novel CC chemokine recently identified. It is produced by activated monocytes and T lymphocytes. Eota
References for Abcams Recombinant human Eotaxin 2 protein (ab54405). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
UCL Discovery is UCLs open access repository, showcasing and providing access to UCL research outputs from all UCL disciplines.
Eotaxin His Tag Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 74 amino acids fragment (24-87).
Baggiolini M, Dahinden CA. CC chemokines in allergic inflammation. Immunol. Today (1994) 15:127-133.. Baggiolini M, Dewald B, Moser B. Interleukin-8 and related chemotactic cytokines-CXC and CC chemokines. Adv. Immunol. (1994) 55:97-179.. Barnes DA, Huston M, Holmes R, Benveniste EN, Yong VW, Scholz P, Perez HD. Induction of RANTES expression by astrocytes and astrocytoma cell lines. J. Neuroimmunol. (1996) 71: 207-214.. Beck LA, Dalke S, Leiferman KM, Bickel CA, Hamilton R, Rosen H, Bochner BS, Schleimer RP. Cutaneous injection of RANTES causes eosinophil recruitment: comparison of nonallergic and allergic human subjects. J Immunol. (1997) 159:2962-2972.. Bevilacqua MP, Gimbrone MA Jr. Inducible endothelial functions in inflammation and coagulation. Semin Thromb Hemost. (1987) 13:425-433.. Black RA, Rauch CT, Kozlosky CJ, Peschon JJ, Slack JL, Wolfson MF, Castner BJ, Stocking KL, Reddy P, Srinivasan S, Nelson N, Boiani N, Schooley KA, Gerhart M, Davis R, Fitzner, Johnson RS, Paxton RJ, March ...
Polyclonal antibody for TARC/CCL17 detection. Host: Rabbit.Size: 100μg/vial. Tested applications: ELISA. Reactive species: Mouse. TARC/CCL17 information: Molecular Weight: 10467 MW; Subcellular Localization: Secreted .
GeniePlex uses a unique mix of antibody-coated encoded microparticles providing an ultra-sensitive technology for the quantitation of analytes.. At ELISA Genie we understand the need for quantitative reproducible results! Therefore, we have developed a simplified protocol meaning you can easily quantify CCL28/SCYA28/MEC in as little as 15ul of sample all in 32-test or 96-test filter plate format for rapid analysis.. As our beads and standards come pre-mixed, simply add your pre-defined bead panel to the wells followed by the pre-mixed standards or samples. After an incubation and wash step, add Biotinylated detection antibodies and repeat incubation & wash. Next step is the addition of Streptavidin-PE which binds the Biotinylated detection antibody. After a final incubation & washing step, Reading buffer is added and the assay analysed on a flow cytometer with either a 488nm laser or 488nm and 633/640nm lasers. The concentration of the analytes in the samples is determined by comparing the ...
GPR-9-6 is a chemokine receptor for TECK. (A) GPR-9-6 transfectants were examined for chemotactic responses to various concentrations of TECK and I-TAC ranging
Eotaxin is a CC chemokine that signals through the CCR3 receptor. It is produced by IFN-γ-stimulated endothelial cells and TNF-activated
Human MIP-3 Alpha / CCL20 / MIP3a ELISA Kit PicoKine™ (96 Tests). Quantitate Human CCL20 in cell culture supernatants, cell lysates, serum and plasma (heparin, EDTA).. Sensitivity: 1pg/ml.
MIP-3 alpha is a CC chemokine that is expressed in the liver, lymph nodes, appendix, PBL and lung and signals through the CCR6 receptor. MIP-3 alpha is chemotactic towards lymphocytes and dendritic cells. Additionally, it promotes the adhesion of memory CD4+ T cells and inhibits colony formation of bone marrow myeloid immature progenitors. Recombinant murine MIP-3 alpha is a 7.9 kDa protein containing 70 amino acid residues, including the four highly conserved cysteine residues present in CC chemokines ...
The best 16 synonyms for chemokines, including: chemokine, chemoattractant, cytokines, , CD95, IL-10, interleukin-1, IL-3, IL-12, , integrins and more... Find another word for chemokines at YourDictionary.
RayBio|sup|®|/sup| C-Series Human Chemokine Antibody Array 1 Kit. Detects 38 Human Chemokines. Suitable for all liquid sample types.
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This graph shows the total number of publications written about Chemokines, CXC by people in this website by year, and whether Chemokines, CXC was a major or minor topic of these publications ...
Monoklonale und polyklonale CCL26 Antikörper für viele Methoden. Ausgesuchte Qualitäts-Hersteller für CCL26 Antikörper. Hier bestellen.
Site-specific AF647® Labelled Chemokines - Our premium products are the AF647®[1] labelled chemokines, which are unique to Almac. Click here for more info.
Expression of ELC mRNA is decreased in the LNs and spleens of plt mice. Tissues from +/+ (A and C) and plt (B and D) mice were analyzed as described in the
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Kemokiinid (ka kemotaktsed tsütokiinid; inglise keeles chemokines) on selgroogsete loomade mitmete tuumaga rakkude poolt (eosinofiilid, basofiilid, neutrofiilid, makrofaagid, endoteelirakud, keratinotsüüdid, fibroblastid jt) komplekteeritavate ja vabastatavate selliste väikesemolekuliliste looduslike valkude perekond, mis vahendavad lühiajaliselt ja lokaalselt erinevaid bioloogilisi toimeid ja rakkudevahelist informatsiooni seondudes G-valguga seotud retseptoreid omavate rakkude membraaniga ja aktiveerides ensüümi fosfolipaas C. Kemokiinide sarnaseid valke on tuvastatud teatud bakteritel ja viirustel. Kemokiinide funktsiooniks on mitmete rakkude sundviimine nakkus- või põletikukoldesse, lisaks reguleerivad kemokiinid lümfikudede ja närvisüsteemi arengut ja leukotsüütide migratsiooni, küpsemist, aktivatsiooni jm. Varem on neid liigitatud α,β,γ ja δ- rühma, tänapäeval liigitatakse aga sellisteks perekondadeks nagu CC- (β-kemokiinid), CXC- (α-kemokiinid), CX3C- (δ- ...
The question why CD4+/CD25+ T cells are reduced in asthmatic patients has not been answered yet; however, it has been observed that these cells reveal a reduced response to the chemokines CCL1 and CXCL1 suggesting an impaired recruitment to the lung [137, 138 ...
MDC, human recombinant protein, C-C motif chemokine 22, Small-inducible cytokine A22, Macrophage-derived chemokine, MDC (1-69), Stim validated in (PBV10332r-20), Abcepta
Human and murine CCR8 are homologous G protein-coupled receptors whose reported ligands include human I-309, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1β, TCA3, and liver-expressed chemokine (LEC; references (34)(35)(36)(37)). In addition, the virally encoded chemokines, vMIP-I and vMIP-II, can also bind CCR8 (38)(39)(40). The selective expression of CCR8 in Th2 T cells (11)(12) suggests that it may have an important role in the function of these cells. However, there are currently no experimental data demonstrating such a role. To investigate this possibility, and to study other potential functions of CCR8, we have generated and analyzed CCR8-deficient mice. Using models of Th2 (schistosomal) cell-mediated immune responses as well as two models of Th2-mediated allergic airway disease, we show impairment of Th2 type cytokine expression and eosinophil mobilization in CCR8−/− mice. This defect was specific to the in vivo Th2 type response, as the ...
The chemokines ELC2 (also called MIP-3β) and SLC (also called 6Ckine), and their cognate receptor, CCR7, have profound effects on the regulation of dendritic cells (DC) and T cells. ELC and SLC have been shown to be major attractants of mature (although not immature) DC, and they have been suggested to control the migration of the newly postulated T central memory lymphocytes. Natural or targeted genetic deletions of ELC, SLC, or CCR7 result in marked deficiencies in DC, T and B cell trafficking, as well as morphological disruption of secondary lymphoid organ architecture (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). CCR7 is related to another chemokine receptor, CCR9 (formerly the orphan clone GPR9.6), shown to be a receptor for the CC chemokine TECK (8, 9). The CCR9/TECK pairing has been reported to be important for the regulation of thymocytes, as well as lymphocytes with intestine-targeted homing patterns (10). To date, CCR9 has been the only reported TECK receptor and CCR7 the only credible receptor for ELC and ...
What is the definition of EXODUS? What is the meaning of EXODUS? How do you use EXODUS in a sentence? What are synonyms for EXODUS?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chemokines in ischemia and reperfusion. AU - Frangogiannis, Nikolaos G.. PY - 2007/5. Y1 - 2007/5. N2 - Chemokine signaling plays an important role in the post-ischemic inflammatory response. Overlapping pathways involving reactive oxygen intermediates, Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation, the complement cascade and the nuclear factor (NF)-κB system induce both CXC and CC chemokines in ischemic tissues. Reperfusion accentuates chemokine expression promoting an intense inflammatory reaction. ELR-containing CXC chemokines regulate neutrophil infiltration in the ischemic area, whereas CXCR3 ligands may mediate recruitment of ThI cells. CC chemokines, on the other hand, induce mononuclear cell infiltration and macrophage activation. Evidence suggests that chemokine signaling mediates actions beyond leukocyte chemotaxis and activation, regulating angiogenesis and fibrous tissue deposition. Effective repair of ischemic tissue is dependent on a well-orchestrated cellular response and ...
Leukotactin-1 (Lkn-1)/CCL15 is a CC chemokine that binds to the CCR1 and CCR3. Lkn-1 functions as an essential factor in the migration of monocytes, lymphocytes, and neutrophils. Although eosinophils
The purpose of this study was to determine whether certain chemokines, which are highly expressed in injured skeletal muscle, are involved in the repair and functional recovery of the muscle after traumatic injury. In wild-type control mice, mRNA transcripts of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 as well as their major receptors, CC
Eotaxin Mouse Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 74 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 8403.2 Dalton.
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August 22, 2021. A Place of Help :: Exodus - week 14 August 15, 2021. Gods People Fight :: Exodus - week 13 August 8, 2021. Meeting Grumbling with Grace :: Exodus - week 12 ...
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EXODUS CHEESE CBD E-LIQUID Exodus Cheese-also known as U.K. Cheese-is a seminal hybrid of almost mystical origin. This famous cannabis strain is rumoured to have originated with southern British breeders of the late 20th century, desired by enthusiasts for its distinctive cured cheese flavour. The characteristic terpen
Read Exodus 10 commentary using John Gills Exposition of the Bible. Study the bible online using commentary on Exodus 10 and more!
Emeson, E E., Bcg and c. Parvum enhance selective recruitment of specifically reactive t-lymphocytes. Abstr. (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 2521 ...
PE anti-mouse CCL5 (RANTES) Antibody - Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5), also known as regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), is a 10 kD protein primarily produced by CD8+ T cells.
This antimicrobial gene is one of several CC cytokine genes clustered on the p-arm of chromosome 9. Cytokines are a family of secreted proteins involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. The CC cytokines are proteins characterized by two adjacent cysteines. Similar to other chemokines the protein encoded by this gene inhibits hemopoiesis and stimulates chemotaxis. This protein is chemotactic in vitro for thymocytes and activated T cells, but not for B cells, macrophages, or neutrophils. The cytokine encoded by this gene may also play a role in mediating homing of lymphocytes to secondary lymphoid organs. It is a high affinity functional ligand for chemokine receptor 7 that is expressed on T and B lymphocytes and a known receptor for another member of the cytokine family (small inducible cytokine A19). [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014 ...
EXODUS and SLAYER guitarist Gary Holt has opened up about his decision to quit drinking alcohol. The 57-year-old musician, who resides in Northern...
It starts with a daring escape from a zombie-infested city; it ends at Zombie Exodus, when a horde of zombies swarms outlying settlements like locusts.
And it happened in the evening: the quail came up and covered the camp. And in the morning a layer of dew was around the camp. LITV Exodus 16:13
Its an Epic post-apocalyptic GPU Exodus The Guru of 3D took over two dozen cards on the Metro, with a focus on the DX12 render path with DX-R support which
Exodus 16:13 And it came to pass in the evening, that quails came up, and covered the camp; and in the morning the dew lay round the camp. Read verse in The Darby Translation
Cytokines and chemokines are key modulators of immune responses and play diverse roles in inflammatory diseases. Here, we discuss the role of specific cytokines and chemokines in cancer and tumor metastasis.
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Canadian mining company Teck Resources Ltd. said Thursday that it appointed Ian Kilgour as executive vice president and chief operating officer. Kilgour worked most recently as the senior vice president ...
Chemokines comprise a family of about 40 low-molecular-weight cytokines (see , Cytokines) with important roles in the immune system, as well as functions beyond it. The name chemokine, a contraction of
Chemokines comprise a family of about 40 low-molecular-weight cytokines (see , Cytokines) with important roles in the immune system, as well as functions beyond it. The name chemokine, a contraction of
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Commensal Bacteria and Expression of Two Major Intestinal Chemokines, TECK-CCL25 and MEC-CCL28, and Their Receptors. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
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After years of money flowing in, in the past year the trend has been reversing: cash is beginning to flow out of China. The Wall Street Journal estimates that $225 billion left China in the 12 months leading up to September.
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Helots Run Chapter 2|continued from Chapter 2 The family walked wearily|exodus but quickly south down the road. Teres kept glancing off to her right at ...
Over the last several years there has been a great deal of progress in characterizing the role of dendritic cells (DCs) in the activation and modulation of B cells. DC-secreted chemokines can induce B cell trafficking to ...
Over the last several years there has been a great deal of progress in characterizing the role of dendritic cells (DCs) in the activation and modulation of B cells. DC-secreted chemokines can induce B cell trafficking to ...
"The genes encoding the human CC-chemokine receptors CC-CKR1 to CC-CKR5 (CMKBR1-CMKBR5) are clustered in the p21.3-p24 region of ... CCR2 is a CC chemokine receptor. This CCR2 gene is located in the chemokine receptor gene cluster region. Two alternatively ... "Entrez Gene: CCR2 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2". El Khoury J, Toft M, Hickman SE, Means TK, Terada K, Geula C, Luster AD ( ... C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2 or CD192 (cluster of differentiation 192) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ...
"A non-glycosaminoglycan-binding variant of CC chemokine ligand 7 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-3) antagonizes chemokine- ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 7 (CCL7) is a small cytokine that was previously called monocyte-chemotactic protein 3 (MCP3). ... This region contains the gene for the MCP subset of CC chemokines. The CCL7 gene has been given the locus symbol SCYA7. The ... May 1994). "The human MCP-3 gene (SCYA7): cloning, sequence analysis, and assignment to the C-C chemokine gene cluster on ...
The eotaxins are a CC chemokine subfamily of eosinophil chemotactic proteins. In humans, there are three family members: CCL11 ... "The MCP/eotaxin subfamily of CC chemokines". Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 10 (1): 61-86. doi:10.1016/s1359-6101(99)00005-2. PMID ...
... the 2 cysteines are separated by a single amino acid in CXC chemokines and are adjacent in CC chemokines. CCR10 is a chemokine ... C-C chemokine receptor type 10 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCR10 gene. Chemokines are a group of small ( ... "Entrez Gene: CCR10 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 10". Balkwill F (July 2004). "Cancer and the chemokine network". Nat. Rev. ... Chemokines are divided into 2 major subfamilies, CXC and CC, based on the arrangement of the first 2 of the 4 conserved ...
Owais, M.; Arya, S. K. (September 1999). "Antiviral chemokines: intracellular life of recombinant C-C chemokine RANTES". ... His work on the antiviral chemokine, RANTES established that the amino-terminal domain of the chemokine was not essential for ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19 (CCL19) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family that is also known as EBI1 ... 1997). "Molecular cloning of a novel human CC chemokine secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine that is a potent chemoattractant ... "Molecular cloning of a novel human CC chemokine EBI1-ligand chemokine that is a specific functional ligand for EBI1, CCR7". J ... "Molecular cloning of a novel human CC chemokine EBI1-ligand chemokine that is a specific functional ligand for EBI1, CCR7". J. ...
CC-Chemokine-activated killer) cells. It is also an HIV-suppressive factor released from CD8+ T cells This chemokine has been ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (also CCL5) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CCL5 gene. It is also known as RANTES ... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: P13501 (C-C motif chemokine 5) at the PDBe-KB. ... It was subsequently determined to be a CC chemokine and expressed in more than 100 human diseases. RANTES expression is ...
"Entrez Gene: chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 8". Van Coillie E, Fiten P, Nomiyama H, Sakaki Y, Miura R, Yoshie O, Van Damme J, ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 8 (CCL8), also known as monocyte chemoattractant protein 2 (MCP2), is a protein that in humans is ... CCL8 is a CC chemokine that utilizes multiple cellular receptors to attract and activate human leukocytes. CCL8 is a potent ... The gene for CCL8 is encoded by 3 exons and is located within a large cluster of CC chemokines on chromosome 17q11.2 in humans ...
Chemokines are divided into four main subfamilies: C, CC, CXC, and CX3C. Microglial cells are sources of some chemokines and ... The chemokines CCL5/RANTES, CCL3/MIP-1α, CCL4/MIP-1β, all of which bind to CCR5, are inhibitory to HIV-1 replication in ... The chemokine receptor, CX3CR1, is expressed by microglia in the central nervous system. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is the exclusive ... Chemokines are cytokines that stimulate directional migration of inflammatory cells in vitro and in vivo. ...
... an eosinophil-selective CC chemokine, and identification of a specific eosinophil eotaxin receptor, CC chemokine receptor 3". ... an eosinophil-selective CC chemokine, and identification of a specific eosinophil eotaxin receptor, CC chemokine receptor 3". ... C-C motif chemokine 11 also known as eosinophil chemotactic protein and eotaxin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... CCL11 is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. CCL11 selectively recruits eosinophils by inducing their ...
Blanpain, C (1999). "CCR5 Binds Multiple CC-Chemokines: MCP-3 Acts as a Natural Antagonist". Blood. 94 (6): 1899-1905. doi: ... He was able to find the first chemokine antagonist to the receptor as well as antibodies that could mediate the oligomerization ...
"Entrez Gene: CCL3 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3". Wolpe SD, Davatelis G, Sherry B, Beutler B, Hesse DG, Nguyen HT, Moldawer LL ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3 (CCL3) also known as macrophage inflammatory protein 1-alpha (MIP-1-alpha) is a protein that in ... CCL3 is a cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family that is involved in the acute inflammatory state in the recruitment and ...
Samson M, Soularue P, Vassart G, Parmentier M (Feb 1997). "The genes encoding the human CC-chemokine receptors CC-CKR1 to CC- ... "The T cell-directed CC chemokine TARC is a highly specific biological ligand for CC chemokine receptor 4". J. Biol. Chem. 272 ( ... "Macrophage-derived chemokine is a functional ligand for the CC chemokine receptor 4". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (3): 1764-8. doi: ... C-C chemokine receptor type 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCR4 gene. CCR4 has also recently been designated ...
1998). "Macrophage-derived chemokine is a functional ligand for the CC chemokine receptor 4". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (3): 1764-8. ... C-C motif chemokine 22 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCL22 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is secreted ... "Entrez Gene: CCL22 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 22". Vulcano M, Albanesi C, Stoppacciaro A, Bagnati R, D'Amico G, Struyf S, ... 1997). "Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a novel CC chemokine, stimulated T cell chemotactic protein (STCP- ...
"Entrez Gene: CCRL2 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor-like 2". Zabel BA, Nakae S, Zúñiga L, Kim JY, Ohyama T, Alt C, Pan J, Suto H ... C-C chemokine receptor-like 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCRL2 gene. Recently it was found that CCRL2 also ... Fan P, Kyaw H, Su K, Zeng Z, Augustus M, Carter KC, Li Y (Mar 1998). "Cloning and characterization of a novel human chemokine ... Chemokines and their receptors mediated signal transduction are critical for the recruitment of effector immune cells to the ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 14 (CCL14) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. It is also commonly known as ... Human CCL14 is located on chromosome 17 within a cluster of other chemokines belonging to the CC family. Schulz-Knappe et al., ... Naruseet al., A YAC contig of the human CC chemokine genes clustered on chromosome 17q11.2. Genomics, 1996, 34: 236-240. v t e ... This chemokine is expressed in various tissues including spleen, bone marrow, liver, muscle, and gut. CCL14 activates monocytes ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 28 (CCL28), also known as mucosae-associated epithelial chemokine (MEC), CCK1 and SCYA28, is a ... Sequence analysis has revealed CCL28 to be most similar to another CC chemokine called CCL27. The gene C5orf34 is found ... "CCL28 C-C motif chemokine ligand 28 [Homo sapiens (human)]". Gene - NCBI.. ... This chemokine is constitutively expressed in the colon, but its levels can be increased by pro-inflammatory cytokines and ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 25 (CCL25) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family that is also known as TECK ( ... and T cell-active chemokines including ELC, SLC, and TECK. J Immunol. 2000, 164:2851-6. Nomiyama et al., The human CC chemokine ... Vacari et al., TECK: a novel CC chemokine specifically expressed by thymic dendritic cells and potentially involved in T cell ... Zaballos et al., Identification of the orphan chemokine receptor GPR-9-6 as CCR9, the receptor for the chemokine TECK. J. ...
... and is a receptor for C-C type chemokines. This receptor has been shown to bind dendritic cell- and T cell-activated chemokines ... C-C chemokine receptor type 11 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCRL1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... "Entrez Gene: CCRL1 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor-like 1". Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to ... 2000). "Cutting edge: identification of a novel chemokine receptor that binds dendritic cell- and T cell-active chemokines ...
C-C-CKR-1, CD128, CD181, CDw128a, CKR-1, CMKAR1, IL8R1, IL8RA, IL8RBA, Interleukin 8 receptor, C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 1 ... C-X-C chemokine receptor activity. • interleukin-8 binding. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. • chemokine receptor ... This name and the corresponding gene symbol IL8RA have been replaced by the HGNC approved name C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 1 ... "Chemokine Receptors: CXCR1". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
Several CC chemokines: CCL1, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL7, CCL8, CCL11, CCL13, CCL14, CCL15, CCL16, CCL18, and CCL23 ...
CC, CXC, AND CX3C families of chemokines". Cytokine. 18 (3): 140-8. doi:10.1006/cyto.2002.0875. PMID 12126650.. ... chemokine activity. • cytokine activity. • heparin binding. • protein binding. • CXCR3 chemokine receptor binding. ... C-X-C motif chemokine 11 is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also called Interferon-inducible T- ... "Entrez Gene: CXCL11 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11".. *^ a b Cole KE, Strick CA, Paradis TJ, Ogborne KT, Loetscher M, Gladue ...
Samson M, Soularue P, Vassart G, Parmentier M (1997). "The genes encoding the human CC-chemokine receptors CC-CKR1 to CC-CKR5 ( ... an eosinophil-selective CC chemokine, and identification of a specific eosinophil eotaxin receptor, CC chemokine receptor 3". J ... a novel CC chemokine that is selective for the chemokine receptor CCR3, and acts like eotaxin on human eosinophil and basophil ... C-C chemokine receptor type 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCR3 gene. CCR3 has also recently been designated ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligands 4, also known as CCL4, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CCL4 gene. CCL4, also known ... Combadiere C, Ahuja SK, Murphy PM (July 1995). "Cloning and functional expression of a human eosinophil CC chemokine receptor ... is a CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 receptors. It is a chemoattractant for natural killer cells, monocytes and a ... Concentration of this chemokine has been shown to be inversely related with MicroRNA-125b. Concentration of CCL4 within the ...
1999). "The assignment of chemokine-chemokine receptor pairs: TARC and MIP-1 beta are not ligands for human CC-chemokine ... C-C motif chemokine 4-like is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCL4L1 gene. This gene is one of several cytokine ... "Entrez Gene: CCL4L1 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4-like 1". Retrieved 8 February 2013. Human CCL4L2 genome location and CCL4L2 ... 1998). "Identification of the CC chemokines TARC and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta as novel functional ligands for the ...
... is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. CCL24 interacts with chemokine receptor CCR3 to induce ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 24 (CCL24) also known as myeloid progenitor inhibitory factor 2 (MPIF-2) or eosinophil chemotactic ... "Molecular and functional characterization of two novel human C-C chemokines as inhibitors of two distinct classes of myeloid ... "Cloning and functional characterization of a novel human CC chemokine that binds to the CCR3 receptor and activates human ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 26 (CCL26) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family that is also called Eotaxin-3 ... Molecular cloning of a novel human CC chemokine (Eotaxin-3) that is a functional ligand of CC chemokine receptor 3. J. Biol. ... This gene for chemokine is located on human chromosome 7. Shinkai et al. A novel human CC chemokine, eotaxin-3, which is ... Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel human CC chemokine, SCYA26. Genomics 58:313-317, 1999. Kitaura et al. ...
Chen CC, Krogsaeter E, Butz ES, Li Y, Puertollano R, Wahl-Schott C, et al. (November 2020). "TRPML2 is an osmo/mechanosensitive ... It has been used to demonstrate the role of TRPM2 in immune system function, both triggering release of the chemokine CCL2 from ... MK6-83 SN-2 Plesch E, Chen CC, Butz E, Scotto Rosato A, Krogsaeter EK, Yinan H, et al. (November 2018). "Selective agonist of ... TRPML2 reveals direct role in chemokine release from innate immune cells". eLife. 7. doi:10.7554/eLife.39720. PMC 6257821. PMID ...
"Expression cloning of the STRL33/BONZO/TYMSTRligand reveals elements of CC, CXC, and CX3C chemokines". Journal of Immunology. ... "Cell surface-anchored SR-PSOX/CXC chemokine ligand 16 mediates firm adhesion of CXC chemokine receptor 6-expressing cells". ... C-X-C chemokine receptor type 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CXCR6 gene. CXCR6 has also recently been ... "Entrez Gene: CXCR6 chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 6". Elliott ST, Wetzel KS, Francella N, Bryan S, Romero DC, Riddick NE, ...
and 3) C-C chemokine receptor type 6, which is the lymphocyte receptor for CCL20. Working together, these genomic abnormalities ... or C-C chemokine receptor type 6. MALT lymphoma differs from DFL by having: lesions which commonly lie in the stomach and other ... The highly express genes in both disorders include: 1) CCL20, a chemokine that is a chemoattractant for lymphocytes and 2) ...
... induced proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 288 (7): 4878-90. doi:10.1074/ ... Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0 unless otherwise noted.. *Terms of Use ...
... cytokines and chemokines).[4] ... Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0 unless otherwise noted. ...
"Expression cloning of the STRL33/BONZO/TYMSTRligand reveals elements of CC, CXC, and CX3C chemokines". J Immunol 166 (8): 5145- ... 1,0 1,1 1,2 1,3 1,4 Matloubian M, David A, Engel S, Ryan J, Cyster J (2000). "A transmembrane CXC chemokine is a ligand for HIV ... "The transmembrane CXC-chemokine ligand 16 is induced by IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha and shed by the activity of the disintegrin- ...
... use causes methylation of the lysine in position 4 of histone 3 located at the promoters of the c-fos and the C-C chemokine ...
... chemokines - chemoprophylaxis - chemotherapy - Chlamydia - chronic idiopathic demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIPD) - Circumoral ... Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0 unless otherwise noted.. *Terms of Use ...
Liao JF, Wang HH, Chen MC, Chen CC, Chen CF (1998). "Benzodiazepine binding site-interactive flavones from Scutellaria ... chemokine and growth factor production in macrophages.[15] Isolated chemical compounds including wogonin, wogonoside, and 3,5,7 ...
Activation of MDL-1 induces production of many cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-17A) and chemokines (MIP-1α, RANTES, ... Joyce-Shaikh B, Bigler ME, Chao CC, Murphy EE, Blumenschein WM, Adamopoulos IE, et al. (March 2010). "Myeloid DAP12-associating ...
Copeland KF (2006). Modulation of HIV-1 transcription by cytokines and chemokines. Mini reviews in medicinal chemistry 5 (12): ... De inhoud is beschikbaar onder de CC BY-SA 3.0 tenzij anders aangegeven. ...
Chemokine receptor. (GPCRs). CC. *CCR1 / CCRL1. *CCR2. *CCRL2. *CCR3. *CCR4. *CCR5. *CCR6 ...
Molecular cloning and functional expression of a new human CC-chemokine receptor gene". Biochemistry. 35 (11): 3362-7. PMID ... aktivnost C-C hemokinskog receptora. • C-C hemokinsko vezivanje. • vezivanje hemokinskog (C-C motiv) liganda 5. ... CCR5; CC-CKR-5; CCCKR5; CD195; CKR-5; CKR5; CMKBR5; IDDM22. Vanjski ID. OMIM: 601373 MGI: 107182 HomoloGene: 37325 IUPHAR: CCR5 ... CCR5 (C-C hemokinski receptor tip 5, CD195) je protein na površini belih krvnih zrnca. On je komponenta imunskog sistema koja ...
... and fatigue are the result of the huge amounts of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines (such as interferon or tumor ... Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0 unless otherwise noted.. *Terms of Use ...
Duffy protein - has been proposed to be associated with chemokine clearance;[31] ... Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0 unless otherwise noted.. *Terms of Use ...
Benoist CC, Kawas LH, Zhu M, Tyson KA, Stillmaker L, Appleyard SM, Wright JW, Wayman GA, Harding JW (November 2014). "The ... Growth Factor Receptor c-Met Instructs T Cell Cardiotropism and Promotes T Cell Migration to the Heart via Autocrine Chemokine ...
Eosinophils, which are located throughout the body, are guided to sites of inflammation by chemokines when the body is infested ... Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0 unless otherwise noted.. *Terms of Use ...
C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... CXCR that bind CXC chemokines, CCR that bind CC chemokines, CX3CR1 that binds the sole CX3C chemokine (CX3CL1), and XCR1 that ...
Maheshwari A, Christensen RD, Calhoun DA (November 2003). "ELR+ CXC chemokines in human milk". Cytokine. 24 (3): 91-102. doi: ... Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0 unless otherwise noted.. *Terms of Use ... chemokines,[23] and others. Colostrum also contains a number of growth factors, such as insulin-like growth factors I (IGF-1),[ ...
... s are divided into different families, CXC chemokine receptors, CC chemokine receptors, CX3C chemokine ... Fifty chemokines have been discovered so far, and most bind onto CXC and CC families.[4] Two types of chemokines that bind to ... The N-terminal end of a chemokine receptor binds to chemokine(s) and is important for ligand specificity. G-proteins couple to ... Inflammatory chemokines are expressed upon leukocyte activation, whereas homeostatic chemokines show continual expression.[3] ...
Zhernakova A, Elbers CC, Ferwerda B, Romanos J, Trynka G, Dubois PC, de Kovel CG, Franke L, Oosting M, Barisani D, Bardella MT ... "Gliadin induces an increase in intestinal permeability and zonulin release by binding to the chemokine receptor CXCR3" ... Michalski JP, McCombs CC, Arai T, Elston RC, Cao T, McCarthy CF, Stevens FM (1996). "HLA-DR, DQ genotypes of celiac disease ... de Souza MC, Deschênes ME, Laurencelle S, Godet P, Roy CC, Djilali-Saiah I (2016). "Pure Oats as Part of the Canadian Gluten- ...
positive regulation of chemokine production. • positive regulation of NF-kappaB import into nucleus. • innate immune system. • ... Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0 unless otherwise noted.. *Terms of Use ... and TLR4-mediated recognition of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and activation of chemokine genes". Journal of ...
5 (3): 242-5. doi:10.4161/cc.5.3.2410. PMID 16418578.. *^ Jakymiw A, Lian S, Eystathioy T, Li S, Satoh M, Hamel J, Fritzler M, ... Crowe S (2003). "Suppression of chemokine receptor expression by RNA interference allows for inhibition of HIV-1 replication, ... Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0 unless otherwise noted.. * This page was last edited on 10 August 2020, at 13:10 (UTC). ... Fire A, Xu S, Montgomery MK, Kostas SA, Driver SE, Mello CC (February 1998). "Potent and specific genetic interference by ...
doi:10.4161/cc.5.3.2410.. *↑ Jakymiw A, Lian S, Eystathioy T, Li S, Satoh M, Hamel J, Fritzler M, Chan E (2005). "Disruption of ... "Suppression of chemokine receptor expression by RNA interference allows for inhibition of HIV-1 replication, by Martínez et al ... doi:10.4161/cc.5.18.3192.. *↑ Takeshita F, Ochiya T (2006). "Therapeutic potential of RNA interference against cancer". Cancer ...
chemokine receptor activity. • receptor activity. • protein binding. • C-C chemokine receptor activity. • C-C chemokine binding ... CCR6, BN-1, C-C CKR-6, CC-CKR-6, CCR-6, CD196, CKR-L3, CKRL3, CMKBR6, DCR2, DRY6, GPR29, GPRCY4, STRL22, C-C motif chemokine ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene.[5] CCR6 ... "Entrez Gene: CCR6 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6".. *^ Wang K, Zhang H, Kugathasan S, Annese V, Bradfield JP, Russell RK, ...
FAM19A1: Family with sequence similarity 19 member A1, C-C motif chemokine like ...
Elevated serum levels of macrophage-derived chemokine and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine in autistic children, J ... Terszowski G, Müller SM, Bleul CC, Blum C, Schirmbeck R, Reimann J, Pasquier LD, Amagai T, Boehm T, Rodewald HR., Evidence for ... Terszowski G, Müller SM, Bleul CC, Blum C, Schirmbeck R, Reimann J, Pasquier LD, Amagai T, Boehm T, Rodewald HR., Evidence for ... Smolarchuk C, Zhu LF, Chan WF, Anderson CC., T cells generated in the absence of a thoracic thymus fail to establish ...
Levi, T; Kilpatrick, AM; Mangel, M; Wilmers, CC (2012). "Deer, predators, and the emergence of Lyme disease". PNAS. 109 (27): ... Researchers are studying these evasins with the goal of developing drugs to neutralise the chemokines that cause inflammation ... as they block the host's chemokines and prevent painful inflammation. ...
Update on chemokine receptor nomenclature". Pharmacol. Rev. 54 (2): 227-9. DOI:10.1124/pr.54.2.227. PMID 12037138. ... Hemokinski receptori se dele u različite familije, CXC hemokinski receptori, CC hemokinski receptori, CX3C hemokinski receptori ... Chemokine Receptors". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. ... Murdoch C, Finn A (2000). "Chemokine receptors and their role in inflammation and infectious diseases". Blood 95 (10): 3032-43 ...
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0 unless otherwise noted.. * This page was last edited on 5 November 2020, at 12:03 (UTC) ... macrophage stimulating chemokines, and pro-inflammatory cytokines, leading to the development of insulin resistance.[17] ...
Coakley, E., Petropoulos, C. J. and Whitcomb, J. M. (2005) Assessing chemokine co-receptor usage in HIV. Curr Opin Infect Dis. ... Konten tersedia di bawah CC BY-SA 3.0 kecuali dinyatakan lain.. * Halaman ini terakhir diubah pada 10 September 2020, pukul ...
Chemokine receptor. (GPCRs). CC. *CCR1 / CCRL1. *CCR2. *CCRL2. *CCR3. *CCR4. *CCR5. *CCR6 ...
chemokine receptor activity. • receptor activity. • protein binding. • C-C chemokine receptor activity. • C-C chemokine binding ... CCR6, BN-1, C-C CKR-6, CC-CKR-6, CCR-6, CD196, CKR-L3, CKRL3, CMKBR6, DCR2, DRY6, GPR29, GPRCY4, STRL22, C-C motif chemokine ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene.[5] CCR6 ... "Entrez Gene: CCR6 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6".. *^ Wang K, Zhang H, Kugathasan S, Annese V, Bradfield JP, Russell RK, ...
C-C motif chemokine ligand 24 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCL24 gene. This gene belongs to the subfamily of ... "Entrez Gene: C-C motif chemokine ligand 24". Retrieved 2018-05-09. Papadopoulos NG, Papi A, Meyer J, Stanciu LA, Salvi S, ... The CC cytokines are proteins characterized by two adjacent cysteines. The cytokine encoded by this gene displays chemotactic ... small cytokine CC genes. Cytokines are a family of secreted proteins involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. ...
The CC chemokine receptors all work by activating the G protein Gi. CCR1 was the first CC chemokine receptor identified and ... September 1999). "Molecular cloning of a novel human CC chemokine (Eotaxin-3) that is a functional ligand of CC chemokine ... "The T cell-directed CC chemokine TARC is a highly specific biological ligand for CC chemokine receptor 4". The Journal of ... an eosinophil-selective CC chemokine, and identification of a specific eosinophil eotaxin receptor, CC chemokine receptor 3". ...
PREDICTED: c-C motif chemokine 13. M. mulatta. 94.9. 97. XP_003912650.1 * Conserved domains (CDD) * * Gene summary * * Protein ... Homo sapiens chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 13 (CCL13), mRNA. PA. CR450337.1. Homo sapiens full open reading frame cDNA clone ... H.sapiens mRNA for CC-chemokine (sequence variant). A. U59808.1. Human monocyte chemotactic protein-4 precursor (MCP-4) mRNA, ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 13 (CCL13). Human protein-coding gene CCL13. Represented by 21 ESTs from 14 cDNA libraries. ...
Interleukin-8 and related chemotactic cytokines--CXC and CC chemokines.. Baggiolini M1, Dewald B, Moser B. ...
CC-type_chemokine_FPV060_put (PD096294). Accession PD096294 Integration. Viral CC chemokine-like protein FPV060 (IPR020343) ...
The purpose of this study was to determine whether certain chemokines, which are highly expressed in injured skeletal muscle, ... The purpose of this study was to determine whether certain chemokines, which are highly expressed in injured skeletal muscle, ... To dissect the role of these chemokines, additional studies were conducted in CCR5- and CCR2-deficient mice. CCR5-/- mice ...
Previous Names: "small inducible cytokine A3 (homologous to mouse Mip-1a)", "chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3" ...
Previous Names: "small inducible cytokine A2 (monocyte chemotactic protein 1, homologous to mouse Sig-je)", "chemokine (C-C ...
IPR000827. Chemokine_CC_CS. IPR001811. Chemokine_IL8-like_dom. IPR036048. Interleukin_8-like_sf. ... IPR000827. Chemokine_CC_CS. IPR001811. Chemokine_IL8-like_dom. IPR036048. Interleukin_8-like_sf. ... C-C motif chemokineUniRule annotation. ,p>Information which has been generated by the UniProtKB automatic annotation system, ... C-C motif chemokineUniRule annotation. ,p>Information which has been generated by the UniProtKB automatic annotation system, ...
Compare C-C motif chemokine 23 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews ... Your search returned 145 C-C motif chemokine 23 ELISA ELISA Kit across 23 suppliers. ... C6 beta-chemokine, Hmrp-2a, Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 3, Myeloid Progenitor Inhibitory Factor 1, Small In ... CCL23 (C-C Motif Chemokine 23) BioAssay™ ELISA Kit (Human) *Detection Target: CCL23 (C-C Motif Chemokine 23) ...
Compare C-C motif chemokine receptor 7 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations ... C-C motif chemokine receptor 7 ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a widely used application for ... Your search returned 147 C-C motif chemokine receptor 7 ELISA ELISA Kit across 10 suppliers. ...
Differential CCR7 Targeting in Dendritic Cells by Three Naturally Occurring CC-Chemokines ... Differential CCR7 Targeting in Dendritic Cells by Three Naturally Occurring CC-Chemokines. by Hjortø GM, Larsen O, Steen A, ... Corrigendum: Differential CCR7 Targeting in Dendritic Cells by Three Naturally Occurring CC-Chemokines. Gertrud M. Hjortø1, ... Differential CCR7 Targeting in Dendritic Cells by Three Naturally Occurring CC-Chemokines. Front. Immunol. 8:89. doi: 10.3389/ ...
CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) is a prominent receptor for the monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP) group of CC chemokines. ... CC chemokine receptor;. MCP,. monocyte chemoattractant protein;. ES cell,. embryonic stem cell;. NK,. natural killer. ... The CC chemokine receptors (CCRs) are structurally related, seven-transmembrane-spanning proteins that signal through ... Severe reduction in leukocyte adhesion and monocyte extravasation in mice deficient in CC chemokine receptor 2. William A. ...
C-C motif chemokine 27Add BLAST. 95. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical view. ... Belongs to the intercrine beta (chemokine CC) family.Curated. Keywords - Domaini. Signal. Phylogenomic databases. evolutionary ... chemokine activity Source: UniProtKBInferred from direct assayi*. "CCL28 has dual roles in mucosal immunity as a chemokine with ... sp,Q9Z1X0,CCL27_MOUSE C-C motif chemokine 27 OS=Mus musculus OX=10090 GN=Ccl27 PE=2 SV=2 ...
CCL, CC chemokine ligand; CCR, CC chemokine receptor; CXCR, CXC chemokine receptor; ELISPOT, enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot; ... Chemokines are important regulators in the development, differentiation, and anatomic location of leukocytes. CC chemokine ... CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is the receptor for the proinflammatory chemokines: RANTES (regulated on activation normal T- ... Schrum S, Probst P, Fleischer B, Zipfel PF: Synthesis of the CC-chemokines MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and RANTES is associated with ...
B-Lymphocytes, Cell Line, Transformed, Cell Separation, Chemokine CCL17, Chemokines, CC, Herpesvirus 4, Human, Hodgkin Disease ... High expression of the CC chemokine TARC in Reed-Sternberg cells: A possible explanation for the characteristic T-cell ... A frequently expressed tag in L428 corresponded to the T-cell-directed CC chemokine TARC. Reverse transcription polymerase ... and by RNA ISH these lymphocytes showed a positive signal for the chemokine receptor CCR4. The findings suggest that production ...
Find CC Viral Chemokine Homologs research area related information and CC Viral Chemokine Homologs research products from R&D ...
... J Med Chem. 2008 Feb 28;51(4):721 ...
... chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 9), Authors: Hisayuki Nomiyama, Osamu Yoshie. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol ... C-C chemokine receptor activity calcium-mediated signaling chemokine binding C-C chemokine binding cell chemotaxis chemokine- ... C-C chemokine receptor activity calcium-mediated signaling chemokine binding C-C chemokine binding cell chemotaxis chemokine- ... Lymphocyte CC chemokine receptor 9 and epithelial thymus-expressed chemokine (TECK) expression distinguish the small intestinal ...
CC" by people in this website by year, and whether "Chemokines, CC" was a major or minor topic of these publications. ... "Chemokines, CC" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Identification of the pharmacophore of the CC chemokine-binding proteins Evasin-1 and -4 using phage display. J Biol Chem. 2014 ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Chemokines, CC" by people in Profiles. ...
Lung Chemokine Expression after Chemokine Blockage.. The in vivo neutralization of eotaxin, MCP-1, or chemokines that bind ... 1994) Interleukin-8 and related chemotactic cytokines-CXC and CC chemokines. Adv Immunol 55:97-179, pmid:8304236.. ... The Coordinated Action of CC Chemokines in the Lung Orchestrates Allergic Inflammation and Airway Hyperresponsiveness. Jose- ... Chemokine expression after chemokine blockage. On day 21, total RNA from lungs of OVA plus Ab control-, OVA plus anti-Eot-, OVA ...
The immunoregulatory proteins C-C chemokines are potent chemoattractants of lymphocytes and monocytes, as well as activators ... Finally, C-C chemokines were shown to bind a C-C CKR-1-related gene product encoded by cytomegalovirus, suggesting a role for C ... that encodes a protein designated C-C CKR-1 that acts as a receptor for the C-C chemokines. Human and murine macrophage ... Molecular cloning, functional expression, and signaling characteristics of a C-C chemokine receptor Cell. 1993 Feb 12;72(3):415 ...
What is CC chemokine ligand 19? Meaning of CC chemokine ligand 19 medical term. What does CC chemokine ligand 19 mean? ... Looking for online definition of CC chemokine ligand 19 in the Medical Dictionary? CC chemokine ligand 19 explanation free. ... redirected from CC chemokine ligand 19) CCL19. A gene on chromosome 9p13 that encodes a CC-type cytokine, which is ... CC chemokine ligand 19 , definition of CC chemokine ligand 19 by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary. ...
Lymphocyte CC chemokine receptor 9 and epithelial thymus-expressed chemokine (TECK) expression distinguish the small intestinal ... Lymphocyte CC chemokine receptor 9 and epithelial thymus-expressed chemokine (TECK) expression distinguish the small intestinal ... Synonyms: C-C motif chemokine 25, Chemokine TECK, Ckb15, SCYA25, Small-inducible cytokine A25, ... ... CC chemokine ligand 25 enhances resistance to apoptosis in CD4+ T cells from patients with T-cell lineage acute and chronic ...
Synonyms: AM4-7, C-C CKR-5, C-C chemokine receptor type 5, CC-CKR-5, CCR-5, ... ... CCR and CC chemokine expression in relation to Flt3 ligand-induced renal dendritic cell mobilization. Coates, P.T., Colvin, B.L ... progressive fibrosis correlates with tubulointerstitial chemokine expression and accumulation of CC chemokine receptor 2- and 5 ... Defects in the generation of IFN-gamma are overcome to control infection with Leishmania donovani in CC chemokine receptor (CCR ...
Reaktivität: Hund, Pferd, Human and more. verschiedene CCL13 Antikörper vergleichen. Alle direkt auf antikörper-online bestellbar!
C-C Chemokines Secretion by PMBC from HIV-1-Infected Individuals.. C-C chemokine production by PBMC of infected persons varied ... Effect of IFNα and Tat on C-C Chemokine Secretion.. IFNα appears first to act as a costimulus for more C-C chemokine release by ... In our experience, assays of human sera and plasma for C-C chemokines are unreliable (because C-C chemokines aggregate, bind to ... Effect of IFNα and Tat on the regulation of C-C chemokines production. (a) Effect of IFNα on immune cells. (a1) Kinetics of MIP ...
... including the CC chemokines MCP-1 and RANTES. Expression of these chemokines has been confirmed as an early event during the ... J. Zhang, H. Chen, L. Liu et al., "Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2 mediates mast cell migration to abdominal aortic aneurysm ... The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential roles of CC chemokines in aneurysmal degeneration. Accordingly, we ... The results of our experiments would provide evidence that nicotine-induced production of CC chemokines within the aortic media ...
Target Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 8 (CCL8) * Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 8 (CCL8) ... Chemokine (C-C Motif) Receptor-Like 2 ELISA Kits * Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 1 (Melanoma Growth Stimulating Activity, ... Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 8 (CCL8) ELISA Kit ELISA Kit CCL8 Reaktivität: Human Colorimetric Sandwich ELISA 1.5-200 pg/mL ... Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 8 (CCL8) ELISA Kit ELISA Kit CCL8 Reaktivität: Maus Colorimetric Sandwich ELISA 6.25-400 pg/mL ...
  • CC chemokine receptors (or beta chemokine receptors) are integral membrane proteins that specifically bind and respond to cytokines of the CC chemokine family. (wikipedia.org)
  • They represent one subfamily of chemokine receptors, a large family of G protein-linked receptors that are known as seven transmembrane (7-TM) proteins since they span the cell membrane seven times. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CC chemokine receptors all work by activating the G protein Gi. (wikipedia.org)
  • This molecule was originally designated CCR11 due to its ability to bind several CC chemokines (including CCL19, CCL21 and CCL25) and its structural similarity to chemokine receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CC chemokine receptors (CCRs) are structurally related, seven-transmembrane-spanning proteins that signal through heterotrimeric G-protein complexes ( 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • Through activation of the G-protein-coupled cell-surface receptor on target cells, chemokines and their receptors play a major role in the process by which leukocytes are recruited from the bloodstream into sites of inflammation, and several have been implicated in allograft rejection ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • CCR9 is closely related to the chemokine receptors CCR6, CCR7, and CXCR6. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • We have isolated a cDNA that encodes a seven transmembrane-spanning receptor, with homology to other chemoattractant receptors, that encodes a protein designated C-C CKR-1 that acts as a receptor for the C-C chemokines. (nih.gov)
  • 33 ) that chemokine receptors are the second receptor for T-tropic HIV-1 initiated a series of studies to determine the role of these cytokines and their receptor in the prevention or control of HIV-1 infection ( 34 - 36 ). (pnas.org)
  • This thesis explores different avenues to develop insurmountable antagonists for CC Chemokine Receptors, such as CCR1, CCR2 and CCR5. (leidenuniv.nl)
  • Finally, with the identification of several selective or multitarget intracellular ligands for CCR1, CCR2 and CCR5, we are expanding the toolbox to further modulate chemokine receptors. (leidenuniv.nl)
  • Chemokine receptors are cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines . (biology-online.org)
  • And based on this classification, the chemokine receptors may in turn be grouped according to the cytokine family they respond to. (biology-online.org)
  • They may be classified into (1) CXC chemokine receptors, (2) CC chemokine receptors, (3) CX3C chemokine receptors, and (4) XC chemokine receptors. (biology-online.org)
  • Therefore, C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) belongs to CC chemokine receptors that respond to chemokines of CC family. (biology-online.org)
  • MCP-4 activated cell migration via either CCR2b or CCR3 in mouse lymphoma cells transfected with these chemokine receptors. (jci.org)
  • Chemokines and their receptors, which mediate signal transduction, are critical for the recruitment of effector immune cells to the site of inflammation. (cellsciences.com)
  • HIV-1 commonly uses chemokine receptors CCR5 and/or CXCR4 as co-receptors to enter target immunological cells. (cellsciences.com)
  • MIP-3alpha was unable to displace the binding of specific CC or CXC chemokines to stable cell lines expressing their respective high affinity receptors, namely CCR1-5 and CXCR1 and CXCR2, suggesting that MIP-3alpha acts through a novel CC chemokine receptor. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Interleukin-8/CXCL8 and stromal cell-derived factor-1/CXCL12 significantly and dose-dependently increased the migration of monocytes, expressing the corresponding CXC chemokine receptors CXCR2 and CXCR4, toward suboptimal concentrations of the monocyte chemotactic proteins CCL2 or CCL7. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These data show that chemokines competing for related receptors and using similar signaling pathways do not synergize. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These data indicate that for synergistic interaction between chemokines binding and signaling of the two chemokines via their proper receptors is necessary. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Chemokines and their receptors play a key role in the pathogenesis of sepsis. (physiology.org)
  • Chemokines bind to a family of seven-transmembrane-domain G protein-coupled receptors on the surface of leukocytes. (physiology.org)
  • Nearly 20 different types of chemokine receptors have been described. (physiology.org)
  • The innate immune system is the first line of defense for protecting the host against invading microbial pathogens and involves a number of host defense systems, including chemokine-directed movement of inflammatory cells and pathogen detection via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) [ 1 - 3 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Chemokines bind to chemokine receptors, which are cell-surface G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), leading to subsequent inflammatory signaling events involving various second messengers [ 4 , 5 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Clearly, similar signaling pathways are evoked by these two disparate groups of receptors, but the manner in which chemokine receptors and TLRs interact during innate immunity is poorly understood. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Chemokines and their receptors have been shown to be important for the recruitment of monocytes to sites of inflammation and have been widely studied for their role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions. (ahajournals.org)
  • Chemokine receptors for which CCL11 is a ligand include CCR2, CCR3 and CCR5. (creative-biogene.com)
  • CCL17 binds to chemokine receptors CCR4 and CCR8. (creativebiomart.net)
  • CCL8 acts through binding to several different cell surface chemokine receptors, including CCR1, CCR2B, and CCR5 (one of the major co-receptors for HIV-1). (clontech.com)
  • Human CCL3L1/LD78b binds and signals through chemokine receptors CCR1, CCR5. (neuromics.com)
  • However, other chemokine receptors have also been implicated in the recruitment of monocyte-derived inflammatory DCs into the lung as evidenced by observations with CCR5 and CCR6 knock-out mice in cigarette smoke inhalation models ( 8 , 9 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • However, in addition to chemokine receptors, the importance of a group of classical chemoattractant receptors named formylpeptide receptors (FPRs) in leukocyte trafficking has been increasingly recognized. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In agreement with the nomenclature rules for chemokine receptors, we propose the designation CCR-9 for GPR-9-6. (lu.se)
  • Furthermore, there is growing evidence implicating lymphatic-homing chemokine receptors, particularly C-C chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7), in lymph node metastasis. (epfl.ch)
  • For decades, chemokines and their receptors have received a great deal of attention for their multiple roles in controlling leukocyte functions during inflammation and immunity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chemokines and chemokine receptors are crucially involved in the mechanisms leading to septic shock after severe systemic infections. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Complementary DNA microarray analysis of chemokines and their receptors in allergic rhinitis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a member of the CC chemokine receptor family of seven transmembrane G protein coupled receptors. (tmc.edu)
  • These proteins exert their biological effects by interacting with G protein -linked transmembrane receptors called chemokine receptors , that are selectively found on the surfaces of their target cells. (wikidoc.org)
  • This superfamily includes the chemokine receptors. (jneurosci.org)
  • There are roughly 50 chemokines and 20 receptors identified to date. (jneurosci.org)
  • Chemotactic and growth signals initiated by chemokines are mediated by the activation of G-protein-coupled receptors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • With the aim of further understanding chemokine action in human ovarian cancer, we investigated CC chemokine receptors and their ligands in ascitic fluid samples. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This, to our knowledge, is the first detailed study of CC chemokines and their receptors in human ovarian cancer ascites. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Chemokine function involves interactions with G-protein-coupled receptors and sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAG). (mdpi.com)
  • The CC chemokine receptors CCR1, CCR2 and CCR5 are critical for the recruitment of mononuclear phagocytes to the central nervous system (CNS) in multiple sclerosis (MS) and other neuroinflammatory diseases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 6-10 Human monocytes express a wide variety of 7-transmembrane (STM), G-protein-coupled chemoattractant receptors including chemokine receptors and the receptors for classic chemotactic factors such as the bacterial chemotactic peptide N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLF), activated complement component 5 (C5a), and leukotriene B4 (LTB4). (bloodjournal.org)
  • Migration of leukemic cells might also depend on the expression of chemokine receptors. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The chemokine system includes at least three "silent" receptors, DARC, D6 and CCX CKR, with distinct specificity and tissue distribution. (elsevier.com)
  • To dissect the role of these chemokines, additional studies were conducted in CCR5- and CCR2-deficient mice. (cdc.gov)
  • CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is expressed preferentially by CD4 + T helper 1 (Th1) cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is the receptor for the proinflammatory chemokines: RANTES (regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted) (CC chemokine ligand 5 [CCL5]), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α (CCL3), and MIP-1β (CCL4) ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Th1 cells express CCR5 and CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) following activation, whereas activated T helper 2 (Th2) cells express CCR3, CCR4, and CCR8 ( 2 , 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In heart allografts, the early expression of some chemokines, including MIP-1α and MIP-1β, subsides by day 7-9 posttransplant and is replaced by a late expression of other chemokines such as inducible protein (IP)-10 (CXCL10), monokine induced by interferon-γ (Mig) (CXCL9) (ligands for CXCR3), and RANTES (a ligand for CCR5) ( 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • It binds to the chemokine receptor CCR5, and suppresses in vitro replication of R5 strains of HIV-1, which use CCR5 as a coreceptor. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We recently demonstrated that maraviroc binding to the HIV-1 coreceptor, CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5), prevents it from binding the chemokine CCL3 and the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120 by an allosteric mechanism. (chemaxon.com)
  • The chemokine G protein-coupled receptor CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is used as an entry gate by CCR5-tropic and dual- or CCR5/CXC chemokine receptor 4-tropic strains of HIV to enter the human host cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Although this protective effect has been demonstrated clearly with natural CCR5 ligands, the chemoattractant properties of these chemokines have precluded them from further consideration in terms of drug development. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Indeed, the CCR5 agonists described herein were found to induce profound down-modulation of CCR5 (and not CXC chemokine receptor 4) from the cell surface and its sustained sequestration in the intracellular compartment without inducing chemotaxis in vitro. (aspetjournals.org)
  • There are natural mutations in the coding and noncoding regions of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) CC-chemokine coreceptor 5 (CCR5) and in the related CCR2 protein (the CCR2-64I mutation). (asm.org)
  • The CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is the major coreceptor for the most commonly transmitted (R5) strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) ( 1 , 5 , 8 , 10 , 11 ). (asm.org)
  • C-C Chemokine Receptor Type 5 (CHEMR13 or HIV 1 Fusion Coreceptor or CD195 or CCR5) pipeline Target constitutes close to 10 molecules. (reportsnreports.com)
  • C-C Chemokine Receptor Type 5 (CHEMR13 or HIV 1 Fusion Coreceptor or CD195 or CCR5) - C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) also known as CD195, is a surface protein located on the plasma membrane of white blood cells and is encoded by CCR5 gene. (reportsnreports.com)
  • It also reviews key players involved in C-C Chemokine Receptor Type 5 (CHEMR13 or HIV 1 Fusion Coreceptor or CD195 or CCR5) targeted therapeutics development with respective active and dormant or discontinued projects. (reportsnreports.com)
  • CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a G protein-coupled receptor that governs migration of leukocytes and serves as a coreceptor for the R5 tropic strains of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (39kf.com)
  • CCR5-mediated signaling in response to CC chemokines relies on G protein activation. (39kf.com)
  • CCR5 is a G protein-coupled heptahelical receptor (GPCR) that initiates intracellular signaling in response to CC chemokines, including CCL3/MIP-1, CCL4/MIP-1, CCL5/RANTES, and CCL8/monocyte chemoattractant protein 2. (39kf.com)
  • The CC-chemokines RANTES, macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha (MIP-1alpha), and MIP-1beta are natural ligands for the CC-chemokine receptor CCR5. (kuleuven.be)
  • BACKGROUND: The importance of the C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) in HIV infection and disease progression was recognized with the discovery of the Δ32 allele. (up.ac.za)
  • Cystein-Cystein Chemokine Receptor 5 (CCR5) is a co-receptor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (scirp.org)
  • CCR2 is another chemokine receptor located close to the CCR5 gene region in chromosome 3 ( Figure 1 ). (scirp.org)
  • In this study, it is shown that a classic chemotactic factor, the bacterial chemotactic peptide N-formyl-methionyl-leucylphenyl-alanine (fMLF), rapidly induced a protein-kinase-C-mediated serine phosphorylation and down-regulation of the chemokine receptor CCR5, which serves as a major human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 coreceptor. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The chemokine receptor CCR5 is a major fusion cofactor used by most of the primary isolates of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). (bloodjournal.org)
  • Chemokine ligands specific for CCR5 and antibodies recognizing this receptor have been shown to inhibit HIV-1 entry and replication. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 1997). "Cloning and characterization of a specific receptor for the novel CC chemokine MIP-3alpha from lung dendritic cells" . (wikipedia.org)
  • 1997). "CCR6, a CC chemokine receptor that interacts with macrophage inflammatory protein 3alpha and is highly expressed in human dendritic cells" . (wikipedia.org)
  • Hjortø GM, Larsen O, Steen A, Daugvilaite V, Berg C, Fares S, Hansen M, Ali S and Rosenkilde MM (2017) Corrigendum: Differential CCR7 Targeting in Dendritic Cells by Three Naturally Occurring CC-Chemokines. (frontiersin.org)
  • Selective recruitment of immature and mature dendritic cells by distinct chemokines expressed in different anatomic sites. (springermedizin.de)
  • Macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) is a CC chemokine that causes chemotaxis of dendritic cells, monocytes, and activated natural killer cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine (SLC/CCL21) regulates the homing of naive T cells and dendritic cells that express CC-chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) from distant sites to lymphoid tissue such as lymph nodes. (creative-bioarray.com)
  • MIP-1 alpha (macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha) is a member of the CC or beta chemokine subfamily that was originally purified from the conditioned media of an LPS-stimulated murine macrophage cell line. (neuromics.com)
  • These are named CCR1 to CCR10 according to the IUIS/WHO Subcommittee on Chemokine Nomenclature. (wikipedia.org)
  • CCR1 was the first CC chemokine receptor identified and binds multiple inflammatory/inducible (see inducible gene) CC chemokines (including CCL4, CCL5, CCL6, CCL14, CCL15, CCL16 and CCL23). (wikipedia.org)
  • BX471 is a potent nonpeptide CC chemokine receptor-1 (CCR1) antagonist in both human and mouse. (physiology.org)
  • CC chemokine receptor-1 (CCR1) is expressed on neutrophils and is upregulated on neutrophils in murine cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis model ( 20 ). (physiology.org)
  • Acts mainly via CC chemokine receptor CCR1. (nih.gov)
  • The product of this gene is chemotactic for T cells and monocytes, and acts through C-C chemokine receptor type 1 (CCR1). (nih.gov)
  • The CC chemokines CCL3, CCL5, CCL17 and CCL22 signal through this receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results: Three proteins were identified, of which the proinflammatory chemokine CC chemokine ligand 3 (CCL3) and cytokine TNF-a were downregulated and the antiinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 receptor antagonist was upregulated. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • This receptor binds and responds to a variety of chemokines (CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL3L1). (reportsnreports.com)
  • MIP-3B specifically binds to chemokine receptor CCR7. (creative-biogene.com)
  • It elicits its effects on its target cells by binding to the chemokine receptor chemokine receptor CCR7. (creativebiomart.net)
  • A number of recent studies have speculated that the C-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CCR7), plays important roles in immune-cell trafficking in various tissue compartments during inflammation and in immune surveillance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using computational modeling and microfluidics-based approaches, recent studies have explored leukocyte migration behavior in response to CCR7 ligands in a complex chemokine environment existing with other coexisting chemokine fields. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Some previous studies have reported that the chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 7 (CCR7) plays a role in breast cancer, is associated with lymph node metastasis and drives the site of distant metastasis. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • CC-chemokine receptor seven (CCR7), a G-protein coupled receptor normally facilitating immune cells lymphatic homing, has recently been identified on several cancer cells in promoting invasion and lymphatic specific metastasis by mimicking normal leukocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CC-chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7), a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) mostly expressed on immune cells, was initially regarded as an important regulator facilitating leukocytes homing to the lymphatic structures, where its two ligands CC-chemokine ligand 19 (CCL19) and CCL21 are constitutively expressed [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Interleukin-8 and related chemotactic cytokines--CXC and CC chemokines. (nih.gov)
  • Accumulation of leukocytes at inflammatory sites is regulated by a family of small, discrete chemotactic proteins called chemokines ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • RT-PCR verified by Southern blotting and sequencing of PCR products of four different C-C chemokines, macrophage-inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), monocyte-chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), MIP-1β, and RANTES, were performed on brain samples from EAE rats to evaluate mRNA transcription at different stages of disease. (jimmunol.org)
  • Monocyte chemotactic protein-4 (MCP-4) is a newly identified C-C chemokine with potent eosinophil chemoattractant properties. (jci.org)
  • Subsequently, the inflammatory CC chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (CCL7/MCP-3), which is a weak neutrophil chemoattractant, was found to dose-dependently enhance the neutrophil influx toward a suboptimal concentration of CXCL8. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Recombinant Mouse C-C Motif Chemokine 8, His (HEK293-expressed) is a member of the monocyte-chemoattractant protein family, and functions in a wide variety of inflammatory cells as a chemotactic factor. (lucerna-chem.ch)
  • Monocyte chemotactic protein-2 (MCP-2) is a member of the b (CC) family of chemokines. (creative-bioarray.com)
  • The chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and its receptor CXCR-4 (fusin, LESTR) are likely to be involved in the trafficking of hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells, as suggested by the reduced bone marrow hematopoiesis in SDF-1-deficient mice and the chemotactic effect of SDF-1 on CD34 + progenitor cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • THE CHEMOKINE STROMAL cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) was initially identified as a growth factor for B-cell progenitors and as a chemotactic factor for T cells and monocytes. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 4 The chemotactic effect of SDF-1 is mediated by the chemokine receptor CXCR-4 (fusin, LESTR), which is expressed on mononuclear leukocytes and shows structural similarities to the IL-8 receptor. (bloodjournal.org)
  • RESULTS We demonstrate that obesity activates hepatocyte expression of C-C chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2/MCP-1) leading to hepatic recruitment of CCR2 + myeloid cells that promote hepatosteatosis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In contrast, the combination of two CC chemokines (CCL2 plus CCL7) or two CXC chemokines (CXCL8 plus CXCL12) did not provide synergy in monocyte chemotaxis. (aspetjournals.org)
  • METHODS: Serum and plasma levels of TARC/CCL17 and plasma levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) and macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC/CCL22) in patients with SLE were determined by ELISA. (jrheum.org)
  • In the lung, inflammatory stimuli such pathogen-derived TLR ligands or exposure to environmental pollutants trigger the production of chemokines that recruit monocyte-derived inflammatory DCs in a CCR2-dependent manner ( 2 , 3 , 6 , 7 ), presumably via interaction with the ligand CCL2. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Several factors that activate glial cells in the spinal cord have been identified in neuropathic pain states, including adenosine triphosphate, tumor necrosis factor-α, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), fractalkine (CX3CL1), and toll-like receptor agonists. (asahq.org)
  • mRNA for the CC chemokines CCL2, -3, -4, -5, -8, and -22 was expressed in cell isolates from ascites samples, and the corresponding proteins were detected in ascitic fluid. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition, evaluating the association between different genotypes of the TLR1, 2 and 4 markers and cytokine/chemokine serological levels, IL-17 appears as an immunological marker regulated by the polymorphism of the three TLR genes evaluated, whereas different TLR1 genotypes were associated with differential production of IL-12p40 and MCP-1(CCL2). (scielo.br)
  • The immunophenotype of lymphocytes surrounding R-S cells is indeed Th2-like, and by RNA ISH these lymphocytes showed a positive signal for the chemokine receptor CCR4. (rug.nl)
  • CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4), a specific receptor for CCL17 and CCL22, is generally recognized as a receptor expressed on T helper 2 (Th2) cells [ 8 - 10 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • OBJECTIVE: The Th2-type CC chemokine thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17) is one of the high affinity ligands for CCR4, a chemokine receptor predominantly expressed by Th2 cells. (jrheum.org)
  • The CC-chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) is predominantly expressed on T cells driving the immune response in a Th2 direction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Isolated peripheral blood CD4 cells from allergic individuals express CC chemokine receptor (CCR)3 and CCR4 after expansion in vitro. (rupress.org)
  • In addition, human T helper type 2 (Th2) cells polarized in vitro selectively express CCR3 and CCR4 at certain stages of activation/differentiation and respond preferentially to the ligands eotaxin and monocyte-derived chemokine (MDC). (rupress.org)
  • Its ligands include the related chemokines CCL19 and CCL21, (previously called ELC and SLC). (wikipedia.org)
  • CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) is a prominent receptor for the monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP) group of CC chemokines. (pnas.org)
  • The monocyte chemoattractant proteins (MCPs) share about 65% amino acid identity and comprise a subgroup within the CC chemokine subfamily ( 3 - 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • 8,9 Studies 10-12 of gene-deficient mice have shown that chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2 (CCR2), and its high-affinity ligand monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), play a critical role in monocyte recruitment in a number of inflammatory diseases. (ahajournals.org)
  • Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 8--also known as monocyte chemoattractant protein 2 (MCP-2), HC14, SCYA8, or SCYA10--is a protein encoded by the CCL8 gene. (clontech.com)
  • Chemokines are a large subfamily of chemoattractant cytokines, which are classified into four highly conserved groups, CXC, CC, C, and CX 3 C, based on the position of the first two cysteines adjacent to the NH 2 terminus. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This gene belongs to the subfamily of small cytokine CC genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • A gene on chromosome 9p13 that encodes a CC-type cytokine, which is characterised by two adjacent cysteines and, as with all cytokines, is involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the present report, we show that, during acute HIV-1 infection, immunosuppression of uninfected T cells is governed by the cytokine IFNα and by the HIV-1 Tat protein and that the early production of C-C chemokines by immune cells in response to activation depends on IFNα and Tat and markedly declines as T cell immunosuppression progresses in patients at an advanced stage of infection. (pnas.org)
  • This gene is one of several CC cytokine genes clustered on the p-arm of chromosome 9. (creative-biogene.com)
  • Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 11 (CCL11) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family that is also known as eotaxin-1. (creative-biogene.com)
  • CCL17 is one of quite a few Cys-Cys (CC) cytokine genes clustered on the q arm of chromosome 16. (creativebiomart.net)
  • CCL19 is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family that is also known as thymus and activation regulated chemokine (TARC). (creativebiomart.net)
  • Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils. (umassmed.edu)
  • The immunoregulatory proteins C-C chemokines are potent chemoattractants of lymphocytes and monocytes, as well as activators and attractants of eosinophils and basophils. (nih.gov)
  • Inflammatory chemokines function mainly as chemoattractants for leukocytes , recruiting monocytes , neutrophils and other effector cells from the blood to sites of infection or tissue damage. (wikidoc.org)
  • CCR3 is a receptor for multiple inflammatory/inducible CC chemokines, including CCL11, CCL26, CCL7, CCL13, CCL15, CCL24 and CCL5 that attract eosinophils, and CCL28 that attracts B and T lymphocytes to mucosal tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • To date, ten true members of the CC chemokine receptor subfamily have been described. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1 2 SDF-1 is a member of the CXC subfamily of chemokines, which is characterized by an intervening residue (X) separating the first two cystein residues (C) within a conserved motif. (bloodjournal.org)
  • It has already been shown that MIP-1α enhances the protective innate immune response against sepsis by activating macrophages, whereas RANTES triggers the overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, resulting in aggravated injury and mortality following sepsis ( 13 , 23 ). (physiology.org)
  • Brain microglia and astrocytes become activated and migrate to the site of injury where these cells secrete immune mediators such as cytokines and chemokines. (tmc.edu)
  • These events are mediated via the generation of adhesion molecules, cytokines, and chemokines. (ahajournals.org)
  • A panel of cytokines and chemokines was accessed by enzime-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test in the serum of a subgroup of patients with and without leprosy reactions. (scielo.br)
  • All together our data points that the tested TLR markers may have a regulatory role in the immunity against Mycobacterium leprae, by driving the host's production of key cytokines and chemokines involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. (scielo.br)
  • In vitro chemotaxis assays have shown that, whereas MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and RANTES were efficient chemoattractants for Th1 cells to induce a dose-dependent transmigration, Th2 cells were not attracted by these chemokines ( 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • TECK (thymus-expressed chemokine), a recently described CC chemokine expressed in thymus and small intestine, was found to mediate chemotaxis of human G protein-coupled receptor GPR-9-6/L1.2 transfectants. (lu.se)
  • Macrophage-derived chemokine induces human eosinophil chemotaxis in a CC chemokine receptor 3- and CC chemokine receptor 4-independent manner. (semanticscholar.org)
  • By an in vitro chemotaxis assay, plasma and aortic homogenates from 35K gene transfer mice promoted significantly less CC-CK-induced cell migration than did PBS or AdGFP controls. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Synthesis of the chemokines MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and RANTES has been shown to be associated with a Th1 response ( 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Chemokine binding affinity does not predict how well the ligand will transmit a signal through the receptor: RANTES and human MIP-1 alpha induce a similar intracellular calcium flux while binding with disparate affinities, while MCP-1 and human MIP-1 beta induce calcium mobilization only at high concentrations. (nih.gov)
  • H. Moriuchi, M. Moriuchi, and A. S. Fauci, "Nuclear factor- κ B potently up-regulates the promoter activity of RANTES, a chemokine that blocks HIV infection," The Journal of Immunology , vol. 158, no. 7, pp. 3483-3491, 1997. (hindawi.com)
  • Depletion of C-C chemokines (RANTES, MIP-1α, and MIP-1β) neutralized the ability of LPS-conditioned supernatants to inhibit HIV-1 replication in MDM. (rupress.org)
  • Our results show that LPS-dependent inhibition of HIV infection affected T lymphocytes, as well as MDM, and involved the release of suppressive factors, most notably, the C-C chemokines RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T expressed and secreted), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, and MIP-1β. (rupress.org)
  • Along with CC chemokine family members, CCL-17 has approximately 24-29% amino acid sequence identity with RANTES, MIP-1? (creativebiomart.net)
  • RANTES, once described as the most potent chemokine in inhibiting R5 HIV-1 infection, was found to be considerably less active than LD78beta. (kuleuven.be)
  • CCR9 is a G protein-coupled receptor with specificity for a CC chemokine CCL25 (originally described as thymus-expressed chemokine or TECK) and is one of the key molecules in leukocyte homing to gut mucosa. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Our results show that blockage of each one of these chemokines reduces both lung leukocyte infiltration and BHR in a substantially different way. (rupress.org)
  • Chemokines are chemoattractants that mediate leukocyte attraction and recruitment at the site of inflammation. (jimmunol.org)
  • Its interaction with a chemokine results in calcium signaling within the leukocyte. (biology-online.org)
  • This leukocyte recruitment is tightly regulated by the interplay between endothelial cells and leukocytes, a process in which G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists, including complement factor C5a, bacterial peptides (e.g., fMLP), and chemokines, play a central role. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Simultaneously, we observed elevated levels of these chemokines and circulating leukocyte populations in the blood. (soton.ac.uk)
  • Chemokines selectively regulate the recruitment and trafficking of leukocyte subsets to inflammatory sites. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Recently, a novel CC chemokine known as MIP-3alpha or liver and activation-regulated chemokine has been identified from the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ expressed sequence tag database. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Here, we have assessed the role that different chemokines play in lung allergic inflammation and BHR by blocking their activities in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, modulation of EAE with C-C chemokine DNA vaccines is dependent on targeting chemokines that are highly transcribed at the site of inflammation at the onset of disease. (jimmunol.org)
  • Hepatic inflammation is a feature of obesity-induced liver disease, and our previous studies demonstrated reduced hepatic steatosis in obese mice deficient in the C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) that regulates myeloid cell recruitment. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, also known as LD78, is a member of a family of chemokines which recruit leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (elsevier.com)
  • Thus, D6 has unique functional and structural features, which make it ideally adapted to act as a chemokine decoy and scavenger receptor, strategically located on lymphatic endothelium to dampen inflammation in tissues and draining lymph nodes. (elsevier.com)
  • Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • C-C motif chemokine ligand 24 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCL24 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, C-C chemokines were shown to bind a C-C CKR-1-related gene product encoded by cytomegalovirus, suggesting a role for C-C chemokines in viral immunity. (nih.gov)
  • The human MCP-3 gene (SCYA7): cloning, sequence analysis, and assignment to the C-C chemokine gene cluster on chromosome 17ql 1.2-ql2. (ugent.be)
  • Broad-spectrum CC-chemokine blockade by gene transfer inhibits macrophage recruitment and atherosclerotic plaque formation in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The product of this gene is one of three related chemokines that specifically activate chemokine receptor CCR3. (nih.gov)
  • Naturally-occurring readthrough transcripts occur from this gene into the downstream gene, CCL14 (chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 14). (nih.gov)
  • In vitro and in vivo evidence, including results with gene-targeted mice, is consistent with the view that D6 acts as a decoy and scavenger for inflammatory CC chemokines. (elsevier.com)
  • A role for TARC/CCL17, a CC chemokine, in systemic lupus erythematosus. (jrheum.org)
  • The CC cytokines are proteins characterized by two adjacent cysteines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Identification of the pharmacophore of the CC chemokine-binding proteins Evasin-1 and -4 using phage display. (umassmed.edu)
  • Furthermore, the production of C-C chemokines in response to immune cell activation, initially enhanced by IFNα and Tat, ultimately is inhibited by these proteins in parallel with their induction of immunosuppression. (pnas.org)
  • The chemokines are small 8- to 10-kDa proteins. (physiology.org)
  • Chemokines are a family of small cytokines , or proteins secreted by cells . (wikidoc.org)
  • Proteins are classified as chemokines according to shared structural characteristics such as small size (they are all approximately 8-10 kilodaltons in size), and the presence of four cysteine residues in conserved locations that are key to forming their 3-dimensional shape. (wikidoc.org)
  • Proteins are classified into the chemokine family based on their structural characteristics, not just their ability to attract cells. (wikidoc.org)
  • Typical chemokine proteins are produced as pro-peptides , beginning with a signal peptide of approximately 20 amino acids that gets cleaved from the active (mature) portion of the molecule during the process of its secretion from the cell. (wikidoc.org)
  • These genes encode CC cytokines, which are secreted proteins characterized by two adjacent cysteines. (nih.gov)
  • Your search returned 145 C-C motif chemokine 23 ELISA ELISA Kit across 23 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • Your search returned 147 C-C motif chemokine receptor 7 ELISA ELISA Kit across 10 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • MBS701687 is a ready-to-use microwell, strip plate Sandwich ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) Kit for analyzing the presence of the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 7 (CCL7) ELISA Kit target analytes in biological samples. (mybiosource.com)
  • Recently, the proinflammatory C-C chemokines were found to exhibit potent anti-HIV-1 effects ( 32 ). (pnas.org)
  • A series of investigations on ovarian neoplasms have improved our understanding of proinflammatory microenvironment including unfavorable cytokines, chemokines and imbalanced hormone production. (mdpi.com)
  • Presently, we investigated the role of CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) in acute EAE. (rupress.org)
  • Multiple studies have shown that CC motif chemokine ligand 19 (CCL19) promotes cell proliferation in several human cancers. (springermedizin.de)
  • The chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19 (CCL19/ECL) has been reported to be a specific ligand of this receptor. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • This chemokine may contribute to the eosinophil accumulation in atopic diseases. (nih.gov)
  • Based on the positions of the first two cysteines, the chemokines can be divided into four highly conserved but distinct supergene families C-C, C-X-C, C, and the newly discovered C-X3-C ( 18 , 19 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • They all also possess conserved amino acids that are important for creating their 3-dimensional or tertiary structure , such as (in most cases) four cysteines that interact with each other in pairs to create a Greek key shape that is a characteristic of chemokines. (wikidoc.org)
  • The first two cysteines, in a chemokine, are situated close together near the N-terminal end of the mature protein, with the third cysteine residing in the centre of the molecule and the fourth close to the C-terminal end . (wikidoc.org)
  • CC and CXC chemokines induce airway smooth muscle proliferation and survival," Journal of Immunology , vol. 186, no. 7, pp. 4156-4163, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • There is some suggestion that this chemokine receptor is restricted to memory T-cells within the lymphocyte pool. (wikipedia.org)
  • The clinical corollary is the immunosuppression of uninfected T cells and the decline in C-C chemokine release found at advanced stages of HIV-1 infection paralleling rising levels of IFNα and extracellular Tat. (pnas.org)
  • The expression of chemokines in MOVAS cells induced by nicotine has an effect on RAW264.7 migration, which is likely to contribute to the development of nicotine-related AAA. (hindawi.com)
  • Effects of Th2 cytokines on chemokine expression in the lung: IL-13 potently induces eotaxin expression by airway epithelial cells," The Journal of Immunology , vol. 162, no. 5, pp. 2477-2487, 1999. (hindawi.com)
  • Production of the novel C-C chemokine MCP-4 by airway cells and comparison of its biological activity to other C-C chemokines. (jci.org)
  • The trafficking of these cells to tissues and lymph nodes is mediated by members of the chemokine family. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Selectin mediates rolling to reduce the velocity of circulating neutrophils so that they can detect chemokines that are immobilized on endothelial cells ( 25 ). (physiology.org)
  • Figure 1 Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells CCR2 load the C-C chemokine receptor type 2 receptor into their exosomes. (wjgnet.com)
  • This chemokine plays important roles in T cell development in thymus as well as in trafficking and activation of mature T cells. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Thus, chemokine receptor-mediated monocyte-derived inflammatory DC trafficking has become accepted as the means by which cells are recruited and directed into inflammatory sites and draining lymph nodes (LN). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • As migration of these cells is blocked by anti-GPR-9-6 mAb 3C3, we conclude that GPR-9-6 is the principal chemokine receptor for TECK. (lu.se)
  • Activated local immunity by CC chemokine ligand19-transduced embryonic endothelial progenitor cells suppresses metastasis of murine ovarian cancer. (springermedizin.de)
  • Some chemokines are considered pro-inflammatory and can be induced during an immune response to promote cells of the immune system to a site of infection , while others are considered homeostatic and are involved in controlling the migration of cells during normal processes of tissue maintenance or development . (wikidoc.org)
  • Chemokines released by infected or damaged cells form a concentration gradient. (wikidoc.org)
  • Attracted cells move through the gradient towards the higher concentration of chemokine. (wikidoc.org)
  • The major role of chemokines is to guide the migration of cells. (wikidoc.org)
  • Cells that are attracted by chemokines follow a signal of increasing chemokine concentration towards the source of the chemokine. (wikidoc.org)
  • Some chemokines control cells of the immune system during processes of immune surveillance, such as directing lymphocytes to the lymph nodes so they can screen for invasion of pathogens by interacting with antigen-presenting cells residing in these tissues. (wikidoc.org)
  • Other chemokines are inflammatory and are released from a wide variety of cells in response to bacterial infection, viruses and agents that cause physical damage such as silica or the urate crystals that occur in gout . (wikidoc.org)
  • Certain inflammatory chemokines activate cells to initiate an immune response or promote wound healing . (wikidoc.org)
  • The chemokines, by virtue of their specific cell receptor expression, can selectively mediate the local recruitment/activation of distinct leukocytes/cells, allowing for migration across the endothelium and beyond the vascular compartment. (ahajournals.org)
  • Double staining with phenotypic cell markers identified the chemokine receptor mRNA-expressing cells as macrophages/microglia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A frequently expressed tag in L428 corresponded to the T-cell-directed CC chemokine TARC. (rug.nl)
  • Acts as a ligand for C-C chemokine receptor CCR3 which triggers Ca(2+) mobilization in eosinophils (PubMed:10415065, PubMed:10488147, PubMed:11425309). (nih.gov)
  • BACKGROUND Chemokines are believed to contribute to selective cell recruitment. (semanticscholar.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that a single intravenous injection of a recombinant adenovirus encoding the broad-spectrum CC-CK inhibitor 35K can reduce atherosclerosis by inhibiting CC-CK-induced macrophage recruitment in atherosclerotic ApoE KO mice. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Chemokines are important regulators in the development, differentiation, and anatomic location of leukocytes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Chemokines belong to a class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes . (biology-online.org)
  • CC and CXC chemokines coinduced in fibroblasts and leukocytes by cytokines and microbial agents determine the number of phagocytes infiltrating into inflamed tissues. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These coinduced chemokines may cooperate to attract leukocytes to the site of infection, thereby enhancing the outcome of an inflammatory response. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Phosphodiesterase 4B is essential for lipopolysaccharide-induced CC chemokine ligand 3 production in mouse macrophages. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Here, we report an inhibitory effect of C-C chemokines on HIV replication in primary macrophages. (rupress.org)
  • Overall, the results of this thesis may contribute to the development of novel chemokine receptor antagonists, and GPCRs in general, with improved in vivo efficacy. (leidenuniv.nl)
  • Experiments using blocking antibodies and chemokine receptor antagonists demonstrate that chemokines act downstream of HGF signaling during axon morphogenesis. (frontiersin.org)
  • An array screening indicated that HGF signaling elevates the expression of chemokines of the CC and CXC families. (frontiersin.org)
  • The development and maintenance of these processes correlate with the coordinated production of chemokines. (rupress.org)
  • CCR9 is a member of the seven transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor superfamily, and is the single receptor for chemokine CCL25. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • We used reverse transcription-PCR and RNase protection assay to determine CC chemokine and chemokine receptor mRNA expression and ELISA to measure CC chemokine protein levels. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The specific ligand of this receptor is CCL25 To note, the chemokine binding protein D6 had previously been named CCR9, but this molecule is a scavenger receptor not a true (signaling) chemokine receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • These results suggest that different chemokines activate different cellular and molecular pathways that in a coordinated fashion contribute to the complex pathophysiology of asthma, and that their individual blockage results in intervention at different levels of these processes. (rupress.org)
  • All chemokines are small, with a molecular mass of between 8 and 10 kDa . (wikidoc.org)
  • Solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and molecular dynamics characterization of platelet-derived chemokine CXCL7 heterodimerization with chemokines CXCL1, CXCL4, and CXCL8 indicated that packing interactions promote CXCL7-CXCL1 and CXCL7-CXCL4 heterodimers, and electrostatic repulsive interactions disfavor the CXCL7-CXCL8 heterodimer. (mdpi.com)
  • We conclude that there is a complex chemokine/chemokine receptor network in ovarian cancer ascites. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In primary human diploid fibroblasts, infection with an unpurified stock of human cytomegalovirus induced accumulation of the CC chemokine MCP-1 in the cell culture medium. (asm.org)
  • A combination of recombinant C-C chemokines blocked HIV-1 infection as effectively as LPS. (rupress.org)
  • Moreover, when HIV-1 infection in M/M was monitored by a flow cytometric analysis using p24 antigen intracellular staining, LD78beta proved to be the most antivirally active of the chemokines. (kuleuven.be)
  • Chemokines mediate diverse fundamental biological processes, including combating infection. (mdpi.com)