Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.
Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.
Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
Group of chemokines without adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes only.
Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.
A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.
A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.
CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.
Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.
A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.
A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.
Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
A platelet-specific protein which is released when platelets aggregate. Elevated plasma levels have been reported after deep venous thrombosis, pre-eclampsia, myocardial infarction with mural thrombosis, and myeloproliferative disorders. Measurement of beta-thromboglobulin in biological fluids by radioimmunoassay is used for the diagnosis and assessment of progress of thromboembolic disorders.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
The process in which the neutrophil is stimulated by diverse substances, resulting in degranulation and/or generation of reactive oxygen products, and culminating in the destruction of invading pathogens. The stimulatory substances, including opsonized particles, immune complexes, and chemotactic factors, bind to specific cell-surface receptors on the neutrophil.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.
A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
Cell surface proteins that bind interleukins and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Movement of tethered, spherical LEUKOCYTES along the endothelial surface of the microvasculature. The tethering and rolling involves interaction with SELECTINS and other adhesion molecules in both the ENDOTHELIUM and leukocyte. The rolling leukocyte then becomes activated by CHEMOKINES, flattens out, and firmly adheres to the endothelial surface in preparation for transmigration through the interendothelial cell junction. (From Abbas, Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 3rd ed)
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.
Cytokine-induced cell adhesion molecule present on activated endothelial cells, tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, bone marrow fibroblasts, myoblasts, and myotubes. It is important for the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, p154)
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.
Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Proteins that specifically inhibit the growth of new blood vessels (ANGIOGENESIS, PHYSIOLOGIC).
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on LYMPHOCYTES. It can form a heterotrimer (LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA1, BETA2 HETEROTRIMER) with the soluble ligand LYMPHOTOXIN-ALPHA and anchor it to the cell surface. The membrane-bound complex is specific for the LYMPHOTOXIN BETA receptor.
A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.
Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-17. Several subtypes of receptors have been found, each with its own in specificity for interleukin-17 subtype.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.
The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.
Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
A pattern recognition receptor that binds DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA. It mediates cellular responses to certain viral pathogens.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.

Early gene expression of NK cell-activating chemokines in mice resistant to Leishmania major. (1/75)

Susceptibility of mice to Leishmania major is associated with an insufficient NK cell-mediated innate immune response. We analyzed the expression of NK cell-activating chemokines in vivo during the first days of infection in resistant and susceptible mice. The mRNA expression of gamma interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), and lymphotactin was upregulated 1 day after infection in the draining lymph nodes of resistant C57BL/6 mice but not in those of susceptible BALB/c mice. In vivo local treatment of BALB/c mice with recombinant IP-10 shortly after infection resulted in an enhanced NK cell activity in the draining lymph node. The data suggest that although the recruitment of NK cells is normal in susceptible mice, the lack of NK cell-activating chemokines is a factor resulting in a suboptimal NK cell-mediated defense.  (+info)

An activation-responsive element in single C motif-1/lymphotactin promoter is a site of constitutive and inducible DNA-protein interactions involving nuclear factor of activated T cell. (2/75)

Single C motif-1 (SCM-1)/lymphotactin is a C-type chemokine whose expression is activation dependent, cyclosporin A sensitive and restricted to CD8+ T cells, double-negative thymocytes, gammadelta-type T cells, and NK cells. In humans, there are two highly homologous genes encoding SCM-1alpha and SCM-1beta. Here we examined the regulatory mechanism of the SCM-1 genes. The luciferase reporter gene under the control of the 5' flanking region of 0.7 kb was strongly induced upon activation with anti-CD3 or PHA plus PMA only in SCM-1-producer T cell lines through a cyclosporin A-sensitive mechanism. An element termed E1 located at -108 to -95 nt relative to the major transcription start site was found to be critical for the promoter activity. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays using the E1 oligonucleotide as probe, nuclear extracts from unstimulated T and B cell lines formed a constitutive complex termed complex I, while nuclear extracts from stimulated SCM-1-producer T cell lines formed a higher mobility complex termed complex II with a concomitant decrease in complex I. The shift from complex I to complex II seen only in SCM-1-producer T cell lines upon activation was completely suppressed by cyclosporin A. Both complexes were critically dependent on the NF-AT core sequence TTTCC in the E1 element and were partially supershifted by anti-NF-ATp. One-hybrid assays in yeast isolated NF-ATp as an E1 binding protein, and transfection of NF-ATp into T and B cell lines strongly enhanced the activation-dependent SCM-1 promoter activity. Collectively, a unique mechanism involving NF-ATp appears to regulate the cell type-specific and activation-dependent expression of the SCM-1 genes.  (+info)

Gene disruption through homologous recombination in Spiroplasma citri: an scm1-disrupted motility mutant is pathogenic. (3/75)

To determine whether homologous recombination could be used to inactivate selected genes in Spiroplasma citri, plasmid constructs were designed to disrupt the motility gene scm1. An internal scm1 gene fragment was inserted into plasmid pKT1, which replicates in Escherichia coli but not in S. citri, and into the S. citri oriC plasmid pBOT1, which replicates in spiroplasma cells as well as in E. coli. Electrotransformation of S. citri with the nonreplicative, recombinant plasmid pKTM1 yielded no transformants. In contrast, spiroplasmal transformants were obtained with the replicative, pBOT1-derived plasmid pCJ32. During passaging of the transformants, the plasmid was found to integrate into the chromosome by homologous recombination either at the oriC region or at the scm1 gene. In the latter case, plasmid integration by a single crossover between the scm1 gene fragment carried by the plasmid and the full-length scm1 gene carried by the chromosome led to a nonmotile phenotype. Transmission of the scm1-disrupted mutant to periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) plants through injection into the leafhopper vector (Circulifer haematoceps) showed that the motility mutant multiplied in the insects and was efficiently transmitted to plants, in which it induced symptoms similarly to the wild-type S. citri strain. These results suggest that the spiroplasmal motility may not be essential for pathogenicity and that, more broadly, the S. citri oriC plasmids can be considered promising tools for specific gene disruption by promoting homologous recombination in S. citri, a mollicute which probably lacks a functional RecA protein.  (+info)

Activation of C-C beta-chemokines in human peripheral blood gammadelta T cells by isopentenyl pyrophosphate and regulation by cytokines. (4/75)

Human gammadelta T lymphocytes respond to viral, bacterial, protozoal, and tumoral antigens, but their precise function remains unknown. In adults the major circulating gammadelta T-cell subset expresses the Vgamma9Vdelta2 T-cell receptor and responds to protease-resistant phosphorylated derivatives found in many pathogens. In this study we show that activation of Vdelta2(+) cells with the nonpeptidic antigen isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) rapidly induces (within 4-12 hours) the C-C chemokines MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and lymphotactin but not MCP-1. The most robust response was obtained for MIP-1beta. IPP induction of MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta was not affected by costimulation with interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-10, TGF-beta, or interferon-gamma (INF-gamma). However, IL-12 significantly enhanced IPP-induced expression and release of MIP-1alpha that was down-regulated by TGF-beta whereas the induction of MIP-1beta by IPP+IL-12 was refractory to cotreatment with TGFbeta indicating that these chemokines are differentially regulated by these cytokines. Vdelta2(+) T cells also expressed a wide range of C-C chemokine receptors including CCR1, CCR5, and CCR8, all of which were down-regulated following activation. We conclude that Vdelta2(+) cells can be rapidly induced by components of bacterial cell walls to express high levels of proinflammatory chemokines, supporting an important role for these cells in the early stages of the inflammatory responses to many common pathogens. (Blood. 2000, 95:39-47)  (+info)

Adenovirus-mediated lymphotactin gene transfer improves therapeutic efficacy of cytosine deaminase suicide gene therapy in established murine colon carcinoma. (5/75)

Lymphotactin (Ltn) is the sole member of C chemokines which attracts T cells and NK cells specially. Ltn gene was transferred in vivo to improve the antitumor efficacy of cytosine deaminase (CD) gene therapy. Upregulation of CD80 and CD54 on murine CT26 colon carcinoma cells was observed after combined transfection with adenovirus encoding CD (AdCD) and adenovirus encoding murine Ltn (AdLtn) followed by administration of 5-fluorocytosine (5FC) in vitro. AdCD/5FC treatment also increased the expression of CD95 and induced obvious apoptosis of CT26 cells. After combined treatment with AdLtn and AdCD/5FC, the pre-established murine model with subcutaneous CT26 colon carcinoma exhibited most significant tumor growth inhibition, and four of eight tumor-bearing mice were tumor free, while tumors in other mice grew more progressively. Examination of lymphocyte infiltration and cytokine gene expression in tumor tissue revealed that tumors from AdLtn/AdCD/5FC-or AdLtn-treated mice were heavily infiltrated with CD4+, CD8+ T cells and NK cells, and IL-2 and IFN-gamma mRNA expression were present in parallel with T cell and NK cell infiltration. Splenic NK and CTL activities increased significantly after the combination therapy. In vivo depletion analysis showed that NK cells, CD4+ T cells and CD8+T cells participated in the antitumor effect of the host with CD8+T cells being the main T cell subset responsible for the enhanced antitumor immune response. These findings suggested that increased immunogenicity and induction of apoptosis of the tumor cells, and efficient induction of local and systemic antitumor immunity of the host might contribute to the enhanced antitumor effects of the combined Ltn and CD suicide therapy. Gene Therapy (2000) 7, 329-338.  (+info)

Biochemical characterization of endogenously formed eosinophilic crystals in the lungs of mice. (6/75)

Crystals seldom form spontaneously within tissues of mammals, except in the urinary tract or in association with eosinophil-rich diseases in humans (Charcot-Leyden crystals). Endogenously formed eosinophilic crystals have been reported in respiratory tract and other tissues of several strains of mice, but the biochemical characterization of these crystals has not been reported. In this study, eosinophilic crystal formation was examined in homozygous C57BL/6J viable motheaten mice, lung-specific surfactant apoprotein C promoter/soluble human tumor necrosis factor p75 receptor type II fusion protein transgenic mice (C57BL/6NTac x Sv/129), and CD40L-deficient mice with spontaneous Pneumocystis carinii infection. In viable motheaten but not wild type mice, rapidly developing crystals represented a major feature of the fatal lung injury induced by macrophage dysregulation. Conversely, eosinophilic crystals did not form until 4-8 months of age in transgenic and CD40L-deficient mice and were present in 10-30% of age-matched wild type controls. Mass spectrometry analysis of proteins from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid identified the crystals as Ym1, sometimes referred to as T-lymphocyte-derived eosinophil chemotactic factor. The Ym1 sequence was homologous to chitinase, and enzymatic assays indicated a 3-5-fold increase in chitinase activity compared with control mice. Intracellular and extracellular crystals associated with epithelial damage suggested that the crystals may contribute to lung inflammation through mechanical damage and enzymatic degradation.  (+info)

The C-class chemokine, lymphotactin, impairs the induction of Th1-type lymphokines in human CD4(+) T cells. (7/75)

Chemokines are involved in the regulation of leukocyte migration and for some of them, T-cell costimulation. To date, the only direct property of lymphotactin (Lptn), the unique member of the C class of chemokines, consists of T-cell chemoattraction. This report describes a novel function for Lptn in human T-lymphocyte biology, by demonstrating the direct ability of Lptn to both inhibit and costimulate CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell activation, respectively. Lptn but not RANTES inhibited CD4(+) T-cell proliferation, through a decreased production of Th1 (interleukin [IL]-2, interferon [IFN]-gamma) but not Th2 (IL-4, IL-13) lymphokines, and decreased IL-2R alpha expression. Transfections in Jurkat cells showed a Lptn-mediated transcriptional down-regulation of gene-promoter activities specific for Th1-type lymphokines, as well as of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NF-AT) but not AP-1 or NF-KB enhancer activities. This suppressive action of Lptn could be compensated by overexpression of NF-ATc but not NF-ATp. CD4(+) T-cell proliferation was completely restored by exogenous IL-2 or reversed by pertussis toxin, wortmannin, and genistein, suggesting the involvement of multiple partners in Lptn signaling. In contrast to CD4(+) cells, Lptn exerted a potent costimulatory activity on CD8(+) T-cell proliferation and IL-2 secretion. These data provide important insights into the role of Lptn in differential regulation of normal human T-cell activation and its possible implication in immune response disorders. (Blood. 2000;96:420-428)  (+info)

Identification of a gammaherpesvirus selective chemokine binding protein that inhibits chemokine action. (8/75)

Chemokines are involved in recruitment and activation of hematopoietic cells at sites of infection and inflammation. The M3 gene of gammaHV68, a gamma-2 herpesvirus that infects and establishes a lifelong latent infection and chronic vasculitis in mice, encodes an abundant secreted protein during productive infection. The M3 gene is located in a region of the genome that is transcribed during latency. We report here that the M3 protein is a high-affinity broad-spectrum chemokine scavenger. The M3 protein bound the CC chemokines human regulated upon activation of normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), murine macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha (MIP-1alpha), and murine monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), as well as the human CXC chemokine interleukin-8, the murine C chemokine lymphotactin, and the murine CX(3)C chemokine fractalkine with high affinity (K(d) = 1. 6 to 18.7 nM). M3 protein chemokine binding was selective, since the protein did not bind seven other CXC chemokines (K(d) > 1 microM). Furthermore, the M3 protein abolished calcium signaling in response to murine MIP-1alpha and murine MCP-1 and not to murine KC or human stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1), consistent with the binding data. The M3 protein was also capable of blocking the function of human CC and CXC chemokines, indicating the potential for therapeutic applications. Since the M3 protein lacks homology to known chemokines, chemokine receptors, or chemokine binding proteins, these studies suggest a novel herpesvirus mechanism of immune evasion.  (+info)

Rabbit anti Human Lymphotactin antibody recognizes human Lymphotactin, otherwise known as XCL1, the only member of the C-chemokine family
Find Other Chemokine-related Ligands and Receptors research area related information and Other Chemokine-related Ligands and Receptors research products from R&D Systems. Learn more.
XCL1 / Lymphotactin Protein LS-G5664 is a Recombinant Mouse XCL1 / Lymphotactin aa 22-114 produced in E. coli. It is biologically active.
Author Summary Although HIV, the causative agent of AIDS, establishes a lifelong infection that cannot be eradicated even with effective treatment, the host immune system has the ability to contain its replication for many years in which the disease remains asymptomatic. Key players in HIV control are CD8+ T cells, specialized immune cells that can not only destroy infected cells, but also secrete soluble factors that suppress the virus without killing infected cells. CD8+ T cells produce multiple HIV-suppressive factors, including certain chemokines (soluble proteins that attract immune cells), which block the virus even before it can gain access to its target cells. In the present study, we characterize a new anti-HIV chemokine, XCL1 or lymphotactin, which is primarily produced by CD8+ T cells. A unique feature of XCL1 is that, unlike other antiviral chemokines, it has a very broad spectrum of activity against different variants of HIV-1 and directly binds the virus outer coat, rather than blocking
XCL1 protein is expressed in E. coli, processed, refolded and purified to yield the native, secreted form of the mature chemokine. XCL1 is a ligand for the G protein coupled receptor XCR1 with and EC50 ~ 50 nM. It has been shown the WT XCL1 is able to int
Shop Viral Lymphotactin ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Viral Lymphotactin Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Chemokine receptor-ligand interactions are important to support functioning of both normal and pathologic cells. The expression and function of chemokine receptors in epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) is largely unknown. Here, we report that the lymphotactin receptor (XCR1) was expressed in primary and metastatic human epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) specimens and cell lines. In contrast, expression of XCR1 was not detected in the normal ovary or in human normal ovarian surface epithelial cells. Our data indicate that XCL1 and XCL2 are either present in the malignant ascites or expressed by the ovarian carcinoma cells. The addition of lymphotactin (XCL1 and XCL2) stimulated migration and proliferation of XCR1-positive cells. Reduction of XCR1 expression in ovarian carcinoma cell line SKOV-3 resulted in abrogated diaphragm and peritoneal wall tumor formation and in reduced frequency of colonic, splenetic, and liver nodules in an in vivo xenograft mouse model. Taken together, our data suggest ...
Anti-Mouse Lymphotactin/XCL1 polyclonal antibody reacts with mouse lymphotactin. |br| Background: Lymphotactin is the only C chemokine so far identified which has a single cysteine residue near the amino terminus. It has 114 amino acids with a 22 amino a
The mobilisation of leukocytes to inflammatory sites is crucial to host defense. Over the years a wealth of information has evolved concerning the mechanism of leukocyte locomotion and factors with...
Our team studies antigen presentation by DC. It has demonstrated cross-presentation ability of human plasmacytoid DC (pDC) and conventional DC1 bearing the chemokine receptor XCR1. We showed that DC perform cross-presentation of HIV antigens to specific CD8+ T lymphocytes specific for HIV very efficiently not only from apoptotic infected cells, but also from live cells. We are seeking to exploit this antigen presentation from live cells to kill cells which are HIV reservoirs or, with Armelle Prévost-Blondel, metastatic melanoma cells. (Immune activation and suppression during HIV infecton). We study the roles of different DC and monocyte/macrophage populations in T cell response polarization et in type I or III IFN production during HIV infection. We were the first to show during this infection the depletion of circulating DC et the accumulation of pro-inflammatory slan+ monocytes. Our aim is to reduce the reservoirs and the immune hyper activation and immune suppression which are linked to ...
This is an interesting and important finding because it is (so far) the only example of a protein adopting two completely different stable folds with no hydrogen bonds in common at equilibrium. Trivially, natively disordered proteins adopt multiple conformations under physiological solution conditions, and many proteins alter their conformations in response to ligand binding while keeping most of their hydrogen bond network intact. In this case, however, an existing network of stabilizing bonds is completely disrupted in order to form a new fold with a totally different function. Ive already discussed some of the implications of this with respect to protein folding, and in regards to the recent transitive homology studies out of the Cordes group. Lymphotactin offers lessons and ideas for protein folding and evolution that must be taken into account. In particular, the fact that point mutations can significantly stabilize one or the other of these structures implies that there may be previously ...
Japans largest platform for academic e-journals: J-STAGE is a full text database for reviewed academic papers published by Japanese societies
Complete information for XCL1 gene (Protein Coding), X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Get an answer for Two hypothetical ionic compounds are discovered with the chemical formulas XCl2 and YCl2, where X and Y represent symbols of the imaginary elements. Chemical analysis of the two compounds reveals that 0.25 mol XCl2 has a mass of 100.0 g and 0.50 mol YCl2has a mass of 125.0 g. a. What are the molar masses of XCl2 and YCl2? and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
Clone REAL241 is an antibody fragment derived from the full XCR1 antibody molecule. It displays no binding to Fc receptors. The recombinantly engineered antibody fragments are multimerized to form the REAlease Complex to bind markers with high avidity.Clone REAL241 recognizes the mouse XCR1 antigen, also known as GPR5. XCR1 is a G protein-coupled chemokine receptor for XCL1 and XCL2 also known as lymphotactin-1 and -2. XCR1 is highly expressed in CD8α+ dendritic cells. It plays a role in signal transduction by increasing the intracellular calcium ions level.The REAlease Kits consist of the respective fluorochrome-conjugated REAlease Complexes and the REAlease Support Kit for removal of the REAlease Complexes and optional relabeling with different fluorochrome-conjugated REAlease Complexes. | Canada
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The new Echo1USA Polymer XCR is in stock and ready for any sort of CQB gaming!. XCR Pistol in Black. XCR Pistol in Tan. 350 fps out of the box with an 8mm bearing gearbox for 20~ bps with a lipo and it is lipo ready!. ...
The Xenopus xCR1 protein is a receptor of the nodal signaling pathway, and vertebrate development requires the precise activation of this pathway at a specific time and place during embryogenesis. This requirement is met by restricting the accumulation of xCR1 protein to the animal cells within the developing embryo through the regulated translation of the maternal xCR1 mRNA (Zhang and Sheets, 2009). The maternal xCR1 mRNA is translated in animal cells while the xCR1 mRNA in vegetal cells is translationally repressed. The functional unit of mRNA translation is the mRNP that consists of the relevant mRNA regulatory sequences associated with specific RNA binding proteins. We have defined the mRNP that mediates repression in vegetal cells as consisting of the xCR1 mRNAs 3 UTR associated with the Pumilio and CUG-BP1 proteins (Zhang and Sheets, 2009). We are currently focused on understanding the mechanisms by which the xCR1 mRNP represses translation in one cell type but not the other. These ...
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CP000859.PE462 Location/Qualifiers FT CDS complement(528716..529123) FT /codon_start=1 FT /transl_table=11 FT /locus_tag=Dole_0462 FT /product=cytochrome c class III FT /note=PFAM: cytochrome c class III; KEGG: dde:Dde_3710 FT acidic cytochrome c3 FT /db_xref=EnsemblGenomes-Gn:Dole_0462 FT /db_xref=EnsemblGenomes-Tr:ABW66272 FT /db_xref=GOA:A8ZTK8 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR002322 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR011031 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR020942 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR036280 FT /db_xref=UniProtKB/TrEMBL:A8ZTK8 FT /protein_id=ABW66272.1 FT /translation=MRQRVGRKKATVLVSAFFSLFFVLSGNCVLAQDLELKMTDDVTRP FT PVIFPHDLHMGGFDCFDCHHDYDEDGNNILDDYALEEGNPDILCGACHTGKTTIEPREA FT FHLQCMGCHEQFTFKKRPTGPVLCGECHVKE MRQRVGRKKA TVLVSAFFSL FFVLSGNCVL AQDLELKMTD DVTRPPVIFP HDLHMGGFDC 60 FDCHHDYDED GNNILDDYAL EEGNPDILCG ACHTGKTTIE PREAFHLQCM GCHEQFTFKK 120 RPTGPVLCGE CHVKE 135 ...
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Fast, simple luminescent calcium flux assays using an AequoScreen cell line stably-transfected with human chemokine XCR1 receptor.
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T01872 (acav,adh,amin,apom,arn,arx,asoc,ato,bacs,balt,bara,barw,bcae,bko,camg,cmb,def,fln,frm,gli,gtm,lagl,les,lzy,mbov,mee,ntp,ntt,parb,part,pcx,pht,ppoa,ptu,rhu,sbj,sgv,slau,smal,sphd,sscu,sya,tpaf,trl : calculation not yet completed ...
The investigators have grown neuroblastoma cells in the laboratory and put into them two specially produced mouse viruses (retroviruses) that carry the lymphotactin and the IL-2 gene. These lymphotactin and IL-2 genes are meant to help the immune system fight the cancer. The modified cancer cells will be injected under the patients skin. There will be four shots. The second and subsequent shots will have ten times as many cells producing lymphotactin as the first. The patient will normally have these shots as an outpatient. Depending on response (if the patients cancer has stayed the same or gotten smaller), the patient may be able to have four more of these shots.. Tests during and after treatment:. If the patients blood has not been tested for HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, then the investigators will need to do this test. If this virus is present, this research treatment cannot be used.. Before the second shot, and then again about 2 weeks later, the investigators will remove some of the ...
Heparanase-1 (HPA-1) can promote angiogenesis and metastasis of malignant tumors and plays an important role in the genesis and development of tumors. This study was to explore the effects of specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting HPA-1 com
VACCINE DOSING: Vaccine components SJNB-JF-IL2 and SJNB-JF-Lptn will each be dosed at 1x10e7 cells/m2. This will be given in conjunction with an escalating dose of SKNLP vaccine in the phase I portion of this study. In the phase II portion of this study, the same dose of SJNB-JF-IL2 and SJNB-JF-Lptn will be given in conjunction with the highest dose of SKNLP determined in the phase I portion. Vaccination will be administered on an inpatient or outpatient basis. Patient will be notified of which dose of vaccine cells they will receive if enrolled in the study.. Phase I Dose Escalation Component: While the investigators do not suspect that addition of a second irradiated, unmodified neuroblastoma tumor cell line to the previously tested SJNB-JF gene modified cell line will affect the safety profile of the vaccine, as the SKNLP has not been tested previously in vaccine studies, the investigators will perform an abbreviated dose escalation study of the combined vaccine to assess safety. The ...
Complex surgical procedures requiring long cross clamp times for complete repair are often patients only chance for survival and better quality of life. Decisions about operability are often difficult, as research has shown that XCL time is an independent predictor of mortality and morbidity in patients undergoing cardiac surgeries [1, 2, 4]. Our results demonstrate that while high in relation to less complex surgeries, a 12.4 % mortality in these complex, high risk patients is lower than that reported by studies in the literature addressing longer XCL times. Nissinen et al. observed a 31.5 % 30-day mortality rate in their patients with XCL times greater than 240 min [2]. Furthermore, Al-Sarraf et al. found that high risk patients (EuroScore ≥ 6) with XCL times ,90 min and those with XCL times , 60 min and ≤ 90 min were respectively 4.7 and 3.1 times more likely to die than those with XCL times ≤ 60 min [1]. Doenst et al. found that XCL times greater than 30 min were associated with a ...
Neuroinflammation mediated by overactivated microglia plays a key role in many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimers disease (AD). In this study, we investigated for the first time the anti-neuroinflammatory effects and possible mechanisms of SCM-198 (an alkaloid extracted from Herbaleonuri), which was previously found highly cardioprotective, both in vitro and in vivo. For in vitro experiments, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or β-amyloid1-40 (Aβ1-40) was applied to induce microglial overactivation. Proinflammatory mediators were measured and activations of NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathways were investigated. Further protective effect of SCM-198 was evaluated in microglia-neuron co-culture assay and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats intrahippocampally-injected with Aβ1-40. SCM-198 reduced expressions of nitric oxide (NO), TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 possibly via, at least partially, inhibiting c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and NF-κB signaling pathways in microglia. Co-culture
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SeqID: 3608204 Analysis Report: CMSVM- CytoplasmicMembrane [No details] CytoSVM- Unknown [No details] ECSVM- Unknown [No details] ModHMM- Unknown [No internal helices found] Motif- Unknown [No motifs found] OMPMotif- Unknown [No motifs found] OMSVM- Unknown [No details] PPSVM- Unknown [No details] Profile- Unknown [No matches to profiles found] SCL-BLAST- Cytoplasmic [matched 15600232: shikimate kinase[Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1]] SCL-BLASTe- Unknown [No matches against database] Signal- Unknown [No signal peptide detected] Localization Scores: Cytoplasmic 1.33 CytoplasmicMembrane 8.46 Periplasmic 0.21 OuterMembrane 0.00 Extracellular 0.00 Final Prediction: CytoplasmicMembrane 8.46 ...
2020 Mercedes-Benz C-Class Sedan CAR Magazine review. Read our unbiased professional insights on the latest Mercedes-Benz C-Class Sedan
Affiliation (Current):和歌山県立医科大学,医学部,准教授, Research Field:Digestive surgery,General surgery,Basic Section 55020:Digestive surgery-related, Keywords:樹状細胞,がんワクチン,癌ワクチン,食道癌,ペプチド,XCR1,XCL1,TLR-9,CpG-ODN,アジュバント, # of Research Projects:10, # of Research Products:78, Ongoing Project:樹状細胞サブセットの選択的貪食による革新的XCL1産生腫瘍細胞ワクチンの開発
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Euro NCAP Mercedes-Benz C-Class Cabriolet güvenlik değerlendirmeleri: ayrıntılı sonuçlar, çarpışma testi resimleri, videoları ve yorumlar
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A trio of spyshots has surfaced online, revealing the final interior design of the 2017 Mercedes E Class. It combines the designs of the S Class and C Class.
and has been successful in the bearing market for Flange bearing housing . P5. ABEC 5 class C class 3. 5 class 4 class 4 class 0. P4. ABEC 7 class B class 0 .. 6026 2RS. 3.16. 130. 230. 40. 3. 6226 2RS. 5.82. 130. 280. 58. 4. 6326 2RS.. ...
The latest addition to the MSW Avantgarde collection was designed as an alternative to the OEM wheels on vehicles like the Audi A3 and A4, the Volkswagen Golf, Mercedes A Class and C Class and many others. The aggressive, streamlined design of the new MSW 71 is immediately eye-catching and memorable. Positioned alternate to the lug holes, the 5 double spokes start out thin and tapered at the center, becoming broader as they lengthen toward the external rim of the wheel. This allows the spokes to make a fluid junction with the rim well, and at the same time maintain their smooth lines and the strength of the wheel. The slight curve at the half-way point of the spoke adds to the sensation of movement and heightens the dynamic feel of the wheel itself. MSW 71 is OE CAP READY, that is, designed to accept the original Volkswagen, Audi and even Ford hub caps
chains in the Genus database with same CATH superfamily 2WI4 A; 3A0T A; 4BAE A; 4MOT A; 5J71 A; 1US7 A; 2WI7 A; 4NH8 A; 5CPH A; 1Y8O A; 3RKZ A; 2XJX A; 2YE3 A; 3MNR P; 3ZKD A; 2AKP A; 5F3K A; 2Q8I A; 1NHH A; 2ZDX A; 4XIQ A; 2BT0 A; 2BU6 A; 3INW A; 3PEJ A; 2YEF A; 2Q8H A; 1YC1 A; 2BZ5 A; 2WI1 A; 3CRK A; 3OMU A; 4BXI A; 2XX5 A; 4YKX A; 2BU8 A; 4CWQ A; 4WUC A; 4R3A A; 4U7O A; 4WUD A; 4PU9 A; 1ZXM A; 4E00 A; 4EFT A; 3O0I A; 1ZXN A; 4PL9 A; 2YI0 A; 1Y8N A; 2YKI A; 1KIJ A; 4O09 A; 4EEH A; 2WI3 A; 4ASB A; 4DUH A; 1TH8 A; 3BMY A; 2YGA A; 2YEG A; 4XCL A; 1I59 A; 3U2K A; 2YKJ A; 4B6C A; 2IOR A; 1UYM A; 3U67 A; 2BU2 A; 2XAB A; 1B63 A; 4XKK A; 4E01 A; 3T0Z A; 4EGH A; 2ESA A; 4I5S A; 3TZ2 A; 4BIU A; 2YKE A; 2JJC A; 2FYP A; 2CH4 A; 4ASF A; 3B25 A; 5L3J A; 2GQP A; 4URO A; 1S14 A; 3A0Y A; 4GCZ A; 3H80 A; 3VHA A; 1THN A; 3C11 A; 2FXS A; 3A0X A; 4QPJ A; 1ID0 A; 3GIF A; 1Z5A A; 1UY7 A; 3WHA A; 1QZR A; 5D7R A; 3CGY A; 4GEE A; 4R1F A; 1AH6 A; 1EI1 A; 1QY8 A; 4CWS A; 2XHR A; 4HZ0 A; 4CE2 A; 4L91 A; 2XDL A; 3EHJ A; ...
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Just bought one of these for my wife. Runs 650 great. Think the rear triangle is the same as the 650 Dakar. Jamis Dakar XCR Race Mountain Bike 2012 |
Power CA, Clemetson JM, Clemetson KJ, Wells TN (August 1995). "Chemokine and chemokine receptor mRNA expression in human ... Griffith JW, Sokol CL, Luster AD (2014). "Chemokines and chemokine receptors: positioning cells for host defense and immunity ... October 1998). "HIV-1 envelope gp120 inhibits the monocyte response to chemokines through CD4 signal-dependent chemokine ... "A non-glycosaminoglycan-binding variant of CC chemokine ligand 7 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-3) antagonizes chemokine- ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 1 (CCL1) is also known as small inducible cytokine A1 and I-309 in humans. CCL1 is a small ... CCL1 is encoded by CCL1 gene which is one of the several chemokine genes clustered on the chromosome 17q11.2-q12 in humans. It ... July 1998). "The chemokine receptor CCR8 is preferentially expressed in Th2 but not Th1 cells". Journal of Immunology. 161 (2 ... In addition to other chemokines, such as CCL2, CCL3, and CCL4, the presence of CCL1 has been reported in the development of ...
Such signaling has been shown to be physiologically relevant, for example, β-arrestin signaling mediated by the chemokine ... November 2018). "Biased agonists of the chemokine receptor CXCR3 differentially control chemotaxis and inflammation". Science ... chemokine receptors bind ligands that mediate intercellular communication between cells of the immune system; receptors such as ... chemokines; lipid mediators of inflammation (e.g., prostaglandins, prostanoids, platelet-activating factor, and leukotrienes); ...
His team demonstrated in 2005 that the chemokine receptor D6 acts as a decoy and scavenger receptor for inflammatory chemokines ... Chemokines. 1999. Pharmacology of cytokines. 2000. Gianfranco Bazzoni; Elisabetta Dejana; Alberto Mantovani (2006). Piccin (ed ... which is part of the large superfamily of chemokines, which belong to the family of cytokines. His works help to establish the ... "Increased inflammation in mice deficient for the chemokine decoy receptor D6". European Journal of Immunology. 35 (5): 1342- ...
The CCL2 chemokine is also expressed by neurons, astrocytes and microglia. The expression of CCL2 in neurons is mainly found in ... The chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) is also referred to as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) and small inducible ... In the human genome, CCL2 and many other CC chemokines are located on chromosome 17 (17q11.2-q21.1). The gene span is 1,927 ... CCL2 is a small cytokine that belongs to the CC chemokine family. CCL2 recruits monocytes, memory T cells, and dendritic cells ...
positive regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production. • positive regulation of JUN kinase activity. • positive ... positive regulation of chemokine production. • cellular extravasation. • negative regulation of lipid storage. • negative ... positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • epithelial cell proliferation involved in salivary gland morphogenesis ...
... s are a subset of cytokines that are produced by a type of immune cell known as a lymphocyte.[1] They are protein mediators typically produced by T cells to direct the immune system response by signaling between its cells. Lymphokines have many roles, including the attraction of other immune cells, including macrophages and other lymphocytes, to an infected site and their subsequent activation to prepare them to mount an immune response. Circulating lymphocytes can detect a very small concentration of lymphokine and then move up the concentration gradient towards where the immune response is required. Lymphokines aid B cells to produce antibodies. Important lymphokines secreted by the T helper cell include:[2] ...
... (IL-24) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL24 gene. IL-24 is a cytokine belonging to the IL-10 family of cytokines that signals through two heterodimeric receptors: IL-20R1/IL-20R2 and IL-22R1/IL-20R2. This interleukin is also known as melanoma differentiation-associated 7 (mda-7) due to its discovery as a tumour suppressing protein. IL-24 appears to control in cell survival and proliferation by inducing rapid activation of particular transcription factors called STAT1 and STAT3. This cytokine is predominantly released by activated monocytes, macrophages and T helper 2 (Th2) cells[5] and acts on non-haematopoietic tissues such as skin, lung and reproductive tissues. IL-24 performs important roles in wound healing, arthritis, psoriasis and cancer.[6][7][8] Several studies have shown that cell death occurs in cancer cells/cell lines following exposure to IL-24.[9][10] The gene for IL-24 is located on chromosome 1 in humans.[11] ...
... is sometimes used interchangeably among scientists with the term cytokine.[3] Historically, cytokines were associated with hematopoietic (blood and lymph forming) cells and immune system cells (e.g., lymphocytes and tissue cells from spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes). For the circulatory system and bone marrow in which cells can occur in a liquid suspension and not bound up in solid tissue, it makes sense for them to communicate by soluble, circulating protein molecules. However, as different lines of research converged, it became clear that some of the same signaling proteins which the hematopoietic and immune systems use were also being used by all sorts of other cells and tissues, during development and in the mature organism. While growth factor implies a positive effect on cell division, cytokine is a neutral term with respect to whether a molecule affects proliferation. While some cytokines can be growth factors, such as G-CSF and GM-CSF, others have an inhibitory effect on ...
The patent on Enbrel was originally set to expire on October 23, 2012,[28] but, in the United States, a second patent, granting exclusivity for another 16 years, has been granted.[29] Before the extension it seemed unlikely that a generic would have been available. As a biologic, etanercept is subject to different laws from those applicable to chemical formulations. Currently many countries do not permit the manufacture of generic biologics. However, the European Union and the United States (Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009) do currently have in place a system to approve generic biologics (biosimilars) which "requires mandatory clinical testing and periodic review".[30] In April 2013, the Indian pharma major Cipla made an announcement about launching the first biosimilar of Etanercept in India under the brand name 'Etacept' for the treatment of rheumatic disorders. The company's April 17, 2013 press release claimed that the biosimilar will cost 30% less as compared to the ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the interleukin 1 cytokine family. Protein structure modeling indicated that this cytokine may contain a 12-stranded beta-trefoil structure that is conserved between IL1A (IL-A alpha) and IL1B (IL-1 beta). This gene and eight other interleukin 1 family genes form a cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 2. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported.[8]. ...
Interferon alfa 2b is an antiviral or antineoplastic drug, that was originally discovered in the laboratory of Charles Weissmann at the University of Zurich. It was developed at Biogen, and ultimately marketed by Schering-Plough under the tradename Intron-A. It has been used for a wide range of indications, including viral infections and cancers. This drug is approved around the world for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C, chronic hepatitis B, hairy cell leukemia, Behçet's disease, chronic myelogenous leukemia, multiple myeloma, follicular lymphoma, carcinoid tumor, mastocytosis and malignant melanoma. ...
4-1BB is a type 2 transmembrane glycoprotein receptor belonging to the TNF superfamily, expressed on activated T Lymphocytes.[1] 4-1BBL (4-1BB ligand) is found on APCs (antigen presenting cells) and binds to 4-1BB. ...
The C-C motif chemokine receptor CCR5 is involved in the process by which HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, enters cells. Hence ... However, to limit the toxicity and side effects of CCR5 antagonists it would be ideal to be able to preserve the chemokine ... PRO 140, a humanized form of a PA14 antibody, is a chemokine-receptor CCR5 monoclonal antibody and can inhibit CCR5 tropic HIV- ... Arimont A, Sun S, Smit MJ, Leurs R, de Esch IJ, de Graaf C (2017). "Structural Analysis of Chemokine Receptor-Ligand ...
The effects of CCL11 are mediated by its binding to a G-protein-linked receptor known as a chemokine receptor. Chemokine ... an eosinophil-selective CC chemokine, and identification of a specific eosinophil eotaxin receptor, CC chemokine receptor 3". ... an eosinophil-selective CC chemokine, and identification of a specific eosinophil eotaxin receptor, CC chemokine receptor 3". ... C-C motif chemokine 11 also known as eosinophil chemotactic protein and eotaxin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ...
Le Y, Zhou Y, Iribarren P, Wang J (April 2004). "Chemokines and chemokine receptors: their manifold roles in homeostasis and ... chemokines that promote chemotaxis; and interferons that have anti-viral effects, such as shutting down protein synthesis in ... chemokines that promote chemotaxis; and interferons that have anti-viral effects, such as shutting down protein synthesis in ... T cell attraction to the epidermal chemokine CCL27". Nature Immunology. 8 (3): 285-93. doi:10.1038/ni1433. PMID 17259988. S2CID ...
Chemokines are a subset of cytokines that regulate cell migration, such as attracting immune cells to a site of infection or ... Physiologically, chemokines and cytokines function as neuromodulators that regulate inflammation and development. In the ... Various cell types in the brain may produce cytokines and chemokines such as microglia, astrocytes, endothelial cells, and ... After injury and sustained release of inflammatory factors such as chemokines, the blood-brain barrier may be compromised, ...
"Cc Chemokine Receptor (Ccr)3/Eotaxin Is Followed by Ccr4/Monocyte-Derived Chemokine in Mediating Pulmonary T Helper Lymphocyte ... Lloyd, Clare (2002). "Chemokines in allergic lung inflammation". Immunology. 105 (2): 144-154. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2567.2002. ... She was involved with early studies that looking at the cloning, expression and function of chemokine. Her group demonstrated ... LLoyd studied the role of these chemokines in allergic lung inflammation. She looked to better characterise the spatial ...
C-X-C chemokine receptor activity. • interleukin-8 binding. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. • chemokine receptor ... This name and the corresponding gene symbol IL8RA have been replaced by the HGNC approved name C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 1 ... "Chemokine Receptors: CXCR1". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... chemokine-mediated signaling pathway. • interleukin-8-mediated signaling pathway. • neutrophil degranulation. • chemotaxis. ...
K4 - vCCL2 - chemokine K4.1 - vCCL3 - chemokine K8 - transcriptional repressor - modulates chromatin K8.1 - envelope ...
Several CC chemokines: CCL1, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL7, CCL8, CCL11, CCL13, CCL14, CCL15, CCL16, CCL18, and CCL23 ...
chemokine activity. • cytokine activity. • heparin binding. • protein binding. • CXCR3 chemokine receptor binding. ... C-X-C motif chemokine 11 is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also called Interferon-inducible T- ... "Entrez Gene: CXCL11 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11".. *^ a b Cole KE, Strick CA, Paradis TJ, Ogborne KT, Loetscher M, Gladue ... This chemokine elicits its effects on its target cells by interacting with the cell surface chemokine receptor CXCR3, with a ...
For example, Naive T cells express the CCR7 receptor for the chemokine CCL21. and B cells exhibit CXCR5 receptors for chemokine ... FRCs express chemokines such as CCL21 and CCL19 which assist the movement of T cells and dendritic cells with CCR7 receptors. ... FDCs produce chemokine CXCL13 which promotes migration of B lymphocytes to the primary B cell follicle. B lymphocytes need a ... The lymph carries chemokines (molecular chemical messengers) and antigens to the lymph node. At the lymph node, the lymph ...
Maheshwari A, Christensen RD, Calhoun DA (November 2003). "ELR+ CXC chemokines in human milk". Cytokine. 24 (3): 91-102. doi: ... chemokines, and others. Colostrum also contains a number of growth factors, such as insulin-like growth factors I (IGF-1), and ...
HIV can enter the macrophage through binding of gp120 to CD4 and second membrane receptor, CCR5 (a chemokine receptor). Both ... Lucas AD, Greaves DR (November 2001). "Atherosclerosis: role of chemokines and macrophages". Expert Reviews in Molecular ...
ISBN 978-1-58603-471-9. D'Souza, M. Patricia; Harden, Victoria (December 1996). "Chemokines and HIV-1 Second Receptors". Nature ...
... is a CC chemokine receptor. This CCR2 gene is located in the chemokine receptor gene cluster region. Two alternatively ... "Entrez Gene: CCR2 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2". El Khoury J, Toft M, Hickman SE, Means TK, Terada K, Geula C, Luster AD ( ... C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2 or CD192 (cluster of differentiation 192) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... Ruibal-Ares BH, Belmonte L, Baré PC, Parodi CM, Massud I, de Bracco MM (January 2004). "HIV-1 infection and chemokine receptor ...
"Cell surface-anchored SR-PSOX/CXC chemokine ligand 16 mediates firm adhesion of CXC chemokine receptor 6-expressing cells". ... C-X-C chemokine receptor type 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CXCR6 gene. CXCR6 has also recently been ... "Entrez Gene: CXCR6 chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 6". Elliott ST, Wetzel KS, Francella N, Bryan S, Romero DC, Riddick NE, ... Ruibal-Ares BH, Belmonte L, Baré PC, Parodi CM, Massud I, de Bracco MM (January 2004). "HIV-1 infection and chemokine receptor ...
"Entrez Gene: XCR1 chemokine (C motif) receptor 1". Becker M, Güttler S, Bachem A, Hartung E, Mora A, Jäkel A, Hutloff A, Henn V ... The "C" sub-family of chemokine receptors contains only one member: XCR1, the receptor for XCL1 and XCL2 (or lymphotactin-1 and ... NK cells release XCL1 along with IFN-γ and some other chemokines upon encountering certain bacteria such as Listeria or MCMV. ... "Chemokine Receptors: XCR1". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
Chemokines constitute a large family of structurally similar cytokines that contain a signature of conserved cysteine residues ... Unraveling Chemokine and Chemokine Receptor Expression Patterns Using Genetically Engineered Mice Simon Yona, Ki-Wook Kim, ... Using Fluorescent Chemokine Uptake to Detect Chemokine Receptors by Fluorescent Activated Cell Sorting ... Initially, chemoattraction was the key function linked to chemokines/chemokine receptors; however, in recent years, it has ...
8 mesothelioma and 13 with benign PE was assayed for a panel of 40 cytokines/chemokines using the Luminex system. ... 8 mesothelioma and 13 with benign PE was assayed for a panel of 40 cytokines/chemokines using the Luminex system. ...
The involvement of chemokine receptors in HIV infection is briefly mentioned, while other interesting areas in chemokine ... a process that is closely linked to chemokine receptor expression. As an exception, one chemokine, SDF-1, is a highly effective ... Lymphocyte responses to chemokines.. Moser B1, Loetscher M, Piali L, Loetscher P. ... Of particular interest are the chemokines IP10 and Mig which bind to a receptor with selective expression in activated T ...
... are finely tuned by changing sets of chemokines that are selective for developmentally regulated chemokine receptors. Thus, the ... These chemokines do not act on the bulk of resting T cells that are in circulation. The identification of a new group of ... Lymphocyte traffic control by chemokines.. Moser B1, Loetscher P.. Author information. 1. Theodor-Kocher Institute, University ... Here, we summarize the current view of chemokine-mediated lymphocyte traffic and focus on the molecular mechanisms by which T ...
In Chemokine Receptors, leading investigators attempt to distill the large ... there are over twenty different chemokine receptors, binding nearly fifty unique ligands that have been identified. ... to physiological and pathological roles of chemokines. Chemokines exhibit a tremendous functional diversity and participate in ... In Chemokine Receptors, leading investigators attempt to distill the large body of literature ranging from basic molecular and ...
... Front Biosci (Elite Ed). 2009 Jun 1;1:26-35. ... We discuss the evidence base for the role of the chemokine network in the renal disease of small vessel vasculitis and extend ... of leukocyte infiltration and involvement in this setting are in part dependent on the combinatorial expression of chemokines ...
... Med Sci (Paris). 2007 Feb;23(2):173-9. doi: 10.1051/medsci/2007232173. ... Among the latter, chemokines are in the front line. We will here summarize the recent findings stressing out their ...
chemokine receptor activity. • receptor activity. • protein binding. • C-C chemokine receptor activity. • C-C chemokine binding ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene.[5] CCR6 ... "Entrez Gene: CCR6 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6".. *^ Wang K, Zhang H, Kugathasan S, Annese V, Bradfield JP, Russell RK, ... "Chemokine Receptors: CCR6". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
Chemokine Receptors and Disease, Volume 55 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780121533557, 9780080917207 ... Chemokines and Chemokine Receptors in Pulmonary Disease. Chemokines, Chemokine Receptors and Atherosclerosis. CXC Chemokines in ... Chemokines and Chemokine Receptors in Infectious Disease. New Therapies Targeting Chemokine Receptors: Can Changing the Way ... Chemokines, Chemokine Receptors and Disease, Volume 55 1st Edition. 0.0 star rating Write a review ...
... which allows the simultaneous determination of 40 chemokines per sample. The sets consist of the following chemokines: 6Ckine/ ... i,Results.,/i, We showed possible implication of 4 chemokines, that is, HCC-4, I-TAC, MIP-3,i,α,/i,, and TARC in women with ... i,Conclusion.,/i, On the basis of our findings, it seems that the chemokines may play role in the pathogenesis of preterm labor ... The aim of the study was to determine the concentration of selected chemokines in sera of patients with premature birth without ...
5. C Chemokines. The C chemokines are XCL1 (lymphotactin-α) and XCL2 (lymphotactin-β). The single receptor to which these ... 3. CC Chemokines and Thyroid Hormone Analogues. 3.1. CCL20. Among the homeostatic chemokines in the CNS that contribute to ... 4. CXC Chemokines and Thyroid Hormone Analogues. 4.1. CXCL2. A product of microglia, chemokine CXCL2 has important chemotactic ... 7. Chemokine Receptor Genes. The chemokine receptor genes whose transcription is subject to modulation by thyroid hormone ...
A subset of CC chemokines, acting through CC chemokine receptors (CCRs) 1 to 5, is instrumental in shaping inflammatory ... These data demonstrate the importance of proinflammatory CC chemokines in de novo tumorigenesis and reveal chemokine ... The chemokine receptor D6 limits the inflammatory response in vivo. Nat. Immunol. 6:403-411. View this article via: CrossRef ... p53, chemokines, and squamous cell carcinoma David M. Owens Departments of Dermatology and Pathology, Columbia University ...
Cytokines & Chemokines RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Rat Cytokines & Chemokines RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of ... Chemokines and Receptors RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Rat Chemokines & Receptors RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression ... Chemokines and Receptors RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Human Chemokines & Receptors RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression ... Chemokines and Receptors RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Mouse Chemokines & Receptors RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression ...
Macrophage-specific chemokines induced via innate immunity by amino acid copolymers and their role in eae. *Kovalchin J ... Strikingly, these chemokines are also secreted into serum of MHC Class II -/- mice, indicating that an innate immune receptor ... Macrophage-specific chemokines induced via innate immunity by amino acid copolymers and their role in eae. PLoS ONE, 6(12). ...
Chemokines were originally described as cytokines that mediate leukocyte recruitment to sites of inflammation. Members of a ... subgroup of chemokines, the CXC family, also play a critical role in both... ... Chemokines were originally described as cytokines that mediate leukocyte recruitment to sites of inflammation. Members of a ... subgroup of chemokines, the CXC family, also play a critical role in both physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis, including in ...
C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines in that it has ... CCL1 for the ligand 1 of the CC-family of chemokines, and CCR1 for its respective receptor. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) ... CXCR that bind CXC chemokines, CCR that bind CC chemokines, CX3CR1 that binds the sole CX3C chemokine (CX3CL1), and XCR1 that ...
The first teleost chemokine gene was reported in rainbow trout in 1998. Since then, numerous chemokine genes have been ... Subsequently, it has only been possible to establish clear homologies with mammalian chemokines in the case of some chemokines ... Despite this, functional studies have only been undertaken for a few of these chemokine genes. In this review, we describe the ... Finally, we summarise what is known about the chemokine receptors in teleosts and provide some analysis using recently ...
The chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 play a central role in the migration of hematopoietic stem cells, and several ... Chemokines and their receptors (along with surface-adhesion molecules) are central to these migrations, targeting developing ... Here, we summarize the role of chemokines and their receptors in the spatial organization of the immune system and consider the ... while effector and memory lymphocytes express bewildering patterns of adhesion molecules and chemokine receptors that allow ...
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C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ... CXC chemokinesEdit. The two N-terminal cysteines of CXC chemokines (or α-chemokines) are separated by one amino acid, ...
This review will focus on recent murine and human studies that use chemokines as therapeutic anti-cancer vaccine adjuvants. ... Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing ... This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential ... the chemokine-chemokine receptor system plays paradoxical roles. On one hand, the chemokine network is used by tumors to evade ...
... to novel carboxylic acid indole compounds and compositions for use in the treatment of disease states mediated by the chemokine ... Groα, GROβ, GROγ and NAP-2 also belong to the chemokine α family. Like IL-8 these chemokines have also been referred to by ... 9. A method of treating a chemokine mediated disease state, wherein the chemokine binds to an IL-8 α or β receptor in a mammal ... This invention provides for a method of treating a chemokine mediated disease, wherein the chemokine is one which binds to an ...
50% of the AIDS patients, however, had NSI viruses that were sensitive to beta-chemokines. Finally, anti-beta-chemokine- ... Do beta-chemokines have clinical relevance in HIV infection?. C E Mackewicz, E Barker, G Greco, G Reyes-Teran, and J A Levy ... The role of beta-chemokines in HIV infection was evaluated. The kinetics of regulated upon activation of normal T cell ... Evaluation of the effect of HIV replication on beta-chemokine production indicated that acute infection of CD4+ T cells with ...
Recent advances in chemokines and chemokine receptors.. Zlotnik A, Morales J, Hedrick JA.. Crit. Rev. Immunol. 19 1-47 1999 ... Chemokine receptors and T cell chemotaxis.. Mackay CR.. J. Exp. Med. 184 799-802 1996 PMID: 9064339 Related citations ... Chemokine receptors.. Horuk R.. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 12 313-35 2001 PMID: 11544102 Related citations ... Chemokines and their receptors in lymphocyte traffic and HIV infection.. Loetscher P, Moser B, Baggiolini M.. Adv. Immunol. 74 ...
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Term: chemokine receptor. ID: PIRSF038545 Mouse Protein Superfamily Annotations. Select one or more mouse PIRSF members to ...
Chemokine receptors are divided into different families, CXC chemokine receptors, CC chemokine receptors, CX3C chemokine ... Two types of chemokines that bind to these receptors are inflammatory chemokines and homeostatic chemokines. Inflammatory ... CX3C chemokine receptors (one member, CX3CR1). Fifty chemokines have been discovered so far, and most bind onto CXC and CC ... The N-terminal end of a chemokine receptor binds to chemokine(s) and is important for ligand specificity. G-proteins couple to ...
CXC chemokine receptors are integral membrane proteins that specifically bind and respond to cytokines of the CXC chemokine ... However, CXCR6 is more closely related in structure to CC chemokine receptors than to other CXC chemokine receptors. ACKR3 was ... within the chemokine receptor cluster on human chromosome 3p21) and its similarity to other chemokine receptors in its gene ... The chemokine receptor CXCR5 is expressed on B cells and CD4+ Tfh cells and is involved in lymphocyte homing and the ...
GenScript offers a broad range of active chemokine proteins with excellent lot-to-lot consistency, superior activity and ... Chemokines. Chemokines are a family of small cytokines, or proteins secreted by cells, with a molecular mass between 8 and 10 ... Members of the chemokine family are divided into four groups depending on the location of their first two cysteine residues. ... The major role of chemokines is to act as a chemoattractant to guide the migration of cells. GenScript offers a comprehensive ...
Cytokines and Chemokines in Erythema Migrans. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the ... The inflammatory immune profiles will be assessed using Luminex to measure the expression of cytokines and chemokines ...
  • The inflammatory immune profiles will be assessed using Luminex to measure the expression of cytokines and chemokines representative of innate and adaptive TH1, TH2, TH17, and B cell responses in serum and if available, skin, of patients during active infection and after treatment. (
  • The role of cytokines and chemokines in anti-viral defense has been demonstrated, but their relative contribution to protective anti-viral responses in vivo is not fully understood. (
  • Copenhagen, Denmark, Saturday 13 June 2009: Up-regulation of certain cytokines and chemokines (signaling molecules involved in the functioning of the immune system) can predict the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) three years before the onset of symptoms, according to the results of a new study presented today at EULAR 2009, the Annual Congress of the European League Against Rheumatism in Copenhagen, Denmark. (
  • Cytokines and chemokines are small signalling molecules which are integral to the immune system, as they mediate and regulate immunity, inflammation, and the development of blood cells (haematopoiesis). (
  • Once at the site of injury, immune cells can react by releasing additional cytokines and chemokines, bringing more cells into the fold. (
  • Therefore, many skin cancer subtypes remain with few treatment options and there is much still to be learned regarding the identification of biomarkers to predict immune checkpoint responses and the contribution of soluble mediators such as cytokines and chemokines to the tumour microenvironment and the outcome of tumour growth. (
  • These events are mediated via the generation of adhesion molecules, cytokines, and chemokines. (
  • Since immune modulation has been reported for similar extracts, cytokine antibody arrays were used to investigate the changes in the pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines released from a cultured line of human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to Rhinovirus 14 and two different chemically characterized Echinacea extracts. (
  • Cytokines and chemokines are the primary form of signaling between a wide variety of cells. (
  • Using antibodies to study cytokines and chemokines has given us a far greater understanding into signaling pathways. (
  • The aim of this study was to gain insight into the cytokines and chemokines that are produced by human pancreatic islets upon infection with CVBs. (
  • Analysis of secreted cytokines and chemokines by Luminex technology confirmed production and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., interleukin [IL]-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α) as well as various chemotactic proteins, such as IFN-γ-induced protein 10, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, MIP-1β, and IL-8. (
  • Cytokines and chemokines that are induced upon HEV-B infection of pancreatic islets, and the resulting inflammation, may be critical during the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. (
  • In this study, we set out to investigate production and secretion of a broad range of cytokines and chemokines to gain further insight into the inflammatory processes that are initiated in human islets of Langerhans upon HEV-B infection. (
  • We measured 34 immune mediators, cytokines and chemokines in peripheral blood every 4-7 days over one month per patient using a bio-plex multiplex immunoassay. (
  • however, in recent years, it has become clear that chemokine ligand-receptor interactions can also modulate cellular activation, survival, and proliferation, among other functions in homeostatic and diseased states. (
  • Practical and easy to use, Chemokines: Methods and Protocols aims to reveal key protocols of functional and descriptive chemokine ligand/receptor assays that will be of practical significance to graduate students, post-doctoral fellows, trainees, and researchers in academia and industry. (
  • Most chemokines bind to more than one receptor, while most receptors also display overlapping ligand specificity [ 5 ]. (
  • Human IP-9: A keratinocyte-derived high affinity CXC-chemokine ligand for the IP-10/Mig receptor (CXCR3). (
  • The N-terminal end of a chemokine receptor binds to chemokine(s) and is important for ligand specificity. (
  • Following binding of the chemokine ligand, chemokine receptors associate with G-proteins, allowing the exchange of GDP for another molecule called GTP , and the dissociation of the different G protein subunits. (
  • Biological activity of chemokines is mediated by receptors with overlapping ligand specificities that bind several proteins, which belong either to the CC-Chemokines or the group of CXC-Chemokines. (
  • The "R" nomenclature is used for receptors that bind chemokines and elicit intracellular signaling in response to binding of a ligand. (
  • In addition to the cysteine-rich domains (CRDs), characteristic of the ligand binding region of cellular TNFRs, CrmB and CrmD have a C-terminal domain unrelated to host proteins that binds chemokines and was named SECRET (smallpox virus-encoded chemokine receptor) domain 16 . (
  • The role of the CC chemokine ligand-5 (CCL5/RANTES) and its receptors CCR1 and CCR5 in atherosclerosis have been addressed in a number of studies. (
  • In the present study we investigated the effect of mutations in the GAG binding sites of three chemokines, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/CC chemokine ligand (CCL)2, macrophage-inflammatory protein-1β/CCL4, and RANTES/CCL5, on their ability to recruit cells in vivo . (
  • For example, N-methylation of Leu-25 in the CXC chemokine IL-8/CXC chemokine ligand 8 produces a monomer that is fully functional in vitro ( 7 ). (
  • Atypical chemokine receptor that controls chemokine levels and localization via high-affinity chemokine binding that is uncoupled from classic ligand-driven signal transduction cascades, resulting instead in chemokine sequestration, degradation, or transcytosis. (
  • Chemokine-binding does not activate G-protein-mediated signal transduction but instead induces beta-arrestin recruitment, leading to ligand internalization. (
  • Two nomenclature systems are used in the current literature, the traditional abbreviations dating back to the time of chemokine discovery, such as interleukin (IL)-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and a systematic nomenclature that combines structural motifs (CXC, CC, XC, CX3C) with L for ligand and the number of the respective gene ( gives access to recent updates 3 ). (
  • Upon ligand binding, chemokine receptors activate G proteins of the Gα i family, leading to inhibition of adenylyl cyclases and mobilization of Ca 2+ from intracellular stores. (
  • This study aimed at determining the role of the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL)2 and CCL7 in ARDS. (
  • Neutrophil chemotaxis to ARDS BAL fluid was evaluated and the contribution of each was assessed and compared with chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8 (CXCL8). (
  • To what extent do the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL)2 and CCL7 contribute to the migratory activity of neutrophils during acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)? (
  • Both CCL2 and CCL7 contribute to neutrophil chemotaxis during ARDS by synergising with chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8. (
  • CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is the receptor for the proinflammatory chemokines: RANTES (regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted) (CC chemokine ligand 5 [CCL5]), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α (CCL3), and MIP-1β (CCL4) ( 1 ). (
  • In heart allografts, the early expression of some chemokines, including MIP-1α and MIP-1β, subsides by day 7-9 posttransplant and is replaced by a late expression of other chemokines such as inducible protein (IP)-10 (CXCL10), monokine induced by interferon-γ (Mig) (CXCL9) (ligands for CXCR3), and RANTES (a ligand for CCR5) ( 6 ). (
  • The only known chemokine ligand for CCR6 is macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-3α (CCL20), although members of the β defensin family also bind CCR6 with a lower affinity ( 15 ). (
  • In addition to being known for mediating chemotaxis, chemokines are all approximately 8-10 kilodaltons in mass and have four cysteine residues in conserved locations that are key to forming their 3-dimensional shape. (
  • For example, in addition to chemotaxis, chemokines modulate lymphocyte development, priming and effector function [ 2 ] and play a critical role in immune surveillance. (
  • Chemokines are multipotent cytokines that localize and enhance inflammation by inducing chemotaxis and cell activation of different types of inflammatory cells typically present at inflammatory sites. (
  • The name chemokine, a contraction of "chemotactic cytokine," reflects the common property, by which chemokines were originally identified, of promoting leukocyte chemotaxis. (
  • The concentrations of circulating chemokines in neonates have not been reported, nor is it known whether low chemokine concentrations contribute to their defective chemotaxis. (
  • Chemokines are a class of cytokines that induce chemotaxis (migration) of target cells. (
  • While some chemotaxis is induced by inflammation or damaged cells, other chemokines function in homeostasis. (
  • In addition, the potential application of chemokines in chemotaxis of exosomes as drug vehicles is discussed. (
  • Exosomes containing chemokines or expressing receptors for chemokines may improve chemotaxis to HCC and may thus be exploited for targeted drug delivery. (
  • Representing the largest class of cytokines, chemokines play an essential role in both physiological and pathological activities by stimulating the migration of certain leukocytes through concentration gradients in a process known as chemotaxis. (
  • Chemokines and their receptors otherwise tend to interact indiscriminately to stimulate upregulation of adherent chemokines, co-stimulatory cytokines and signaling cascades that polarizes cells to direct chemotaxis. (
  • Both aspects, cell adhesion and chemotaxis, are regulated by members of the family of chemotactic cytokines (chemokines) comprising structurally related and secreted proteins of 67-127 amino acids in length. (
  • Chemokines are 8- to 12-kDa-sized secreted proteins that mediate the directed migration (chemotaxis) of leukocytes. (
  • Chemokine receptor activation mediates leukocyte chemotaxis toward lymphoid organs or sites of inflammation along a chemokine gradient that is established by binding of chemokines to membrane-tethered and extracellular matrix-associated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) ( 4 ). (
  • In vitro chemotaxis assays have shown that, whereas MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and RANTES were efficient chemoattractants for Th1 cells to induce a dose-dependent transmigration, Th2 cells were not attracted by these chemokines ( 5 ). (
  • Chemokines are a family of small cytokines, or proteins secreted by cells. (
  • Proteins are classified as chemokines according to shared structural characteristics such as small size (they are all approximately 8-10 kilodaltons in size), and the presence of four cysteine residues in conserved locations that are key to forming their 3-dimensional shape. (
  • Chemokines are small proteins that are important in normal immune responses. (
  • The Human Cytokines & Chemokines RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 key secreted proteins central to the immune response and other functions. (
  • Chemokines (Greek -kinos , movement) are a family of small cytokines , or signaling proteins secreted by cells . (
  • Cytokine proteins are classified as chemokines according to behavior and structural characteristics. (
  • All of these proteins exert their biological effects by interacting with G protein -linked transmembrane receptors called chemokine receptors , that are selectively found on the surfaces of their target cells. (
  • Intracellular signaling by chemokine receptors is dependent on neighbouring G-proteins. (
  • Chemokines are a family of small cytokines, or proteins secreted by cells, with a molecular mass between 8 and 10 kDa. (
  • GenScript offers a comprehensive catalog of chemokine proteins with excellent lot-to-lot consistency, superior activity and significantly low endotoxin levels. (
  • Among these signals, small molecular weight chemoattractant proteins known as chemokines are potentially important contributors as they participate in both directing leukocyte migration and function. (
  • CXC chemokine receptors are integral membrane proteins that specifically bind and respond to cytokines of the CXC chemokine family. (
  • They represent one subfamily of chemokine receptors, a large family of G protein-linked receptors that are known as seven transmembrane (7-TM) proteins, since they span the cell membrane seven times. (
  • Chemokines belong to a family of pro-inflammatory activation-inducible cytokines previously referred to as members of SIS family of cytokines, SIG family of cytokines, SCY family of cytokines, Platelet factor-4 superfamily or Intercrines These proteins are mainly chemotactic for different cell types. (
  • The first 2 cysteine residues are adjacent and, therefore, these proteins are called also CC-Chemokines [Cysteine-Cysteine-Chemokines]. (
  • Chemokines are a class of small molecular proteins with similar structures, functions and chemotactic properties, and their molecular weights are ~10 kDa, and chemokines represent the largest member of the cytokine family ( 9 ). (
  • The invasion of such matter generates an onslaught of inflammatory responses, recruiting several immune cells and proteins, including a special class of small cytokines called chemokines. (
  • Chemokine receptors belong to the large family of seven transmembrane domain receptors which couple to heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (G-proteins) (fig 1). (
  • Leukocyte trafficking, an event which plays a central role in fundamental functions of multicellular organisms, including tissue remodelling, defense, and pathology, is orchestrated by a superfamily of small proteins termed chemokines, which are essential players in immune and inflammatory reactions as well as in infections ( 6 - 8 ). (
  • Glycoprotein G isoforms from some alphaherpesviruses function as broad-spectrum chemokine binding proteins. (
  • Secreted poxvirus chemokine binding proteins. (
  • Chemokines are small secreted proteins that function in leukocyte trafficking, recruitment, and activation and have a role in many pathophysiological processes such as infectious and autoimmune diseases, inflammation, cancer, and vascular disease. (
  • Chemokines comprise a family of secreted proteins that activate G protein-coupled chemokine receptors and thereby control the migration of leukocytes during inflammation or immune surveillance. (
  • Although both glycosylation and proteolytic processing of the C- and/or N-terminus of chemokines has been reported, mainly proteolytic processing of the N-terminus appears to affect the receptor specificity, chemotactic property and signalling potency of these low-molecular-mass proteins. (
  • This view has changed dramatically with the discovery that peripheral blood T cells need to be activated before they can migrate in response to inflammatory chemokines. (
  • Inflammatory chemokines function mainly as chemoattractants for leukocytes , recruiting monocytes , neutrophils and other effector cells from the blood to sites of infection or tissue damage. (
  • Certain inflammatory chemokines activate cells to initiate an immune response or promote wound healing . (
  • Inflammatory: inflammatory chemokines are produced in high concentrations during infection or injury and determine the migration of inflammatory leukocytes into the damaged area. (
  • Some inflammatory chemokines have proven essential in memory T cell generation [ 3 ]. (
  • Chemokines represents the largest family of cytokines and based on their biological function, chemokines are divided into two categories: (i) Homeostatic chemokines which are typically expressed constitutively and are involved in immune surveillance as well as navigation of cells through hematopoiesis (ii) Inflammatory chemokines which are produced during infections or as a result of an inflammatory stimulus and facilitate an immune response by targeting cells of the innate/adaptive immune system. (
  • Inflammatory Chemokines - A Diagnostic Biomarker for Fibromyalgia? (
  • Since FM patients present higher serum concentrations of inflammatory chemokines than HW, the evaluation of these biomarkers could help in the diagnosis of this syndrome. (
  • These chemokines also have a more diverse range of functions compared to inflammatory chemokines. (
  • In the event of infection, injury, or tissue damage, inflammatory chemokines are often released to address the problem. (
  • Many inflammatory chemokines attract a wide variety of cells in both the innate and adaptive arms of immunity. (
  • Conclusion This study highlights important inflammatory chemokines involved in regulating neutrophil migration, which may have potential value as therapeutic targets for the treatment of ARDS. (
  • Of particular interest are the chemokines IP10 and Mig which bind to a receptor with selective expression in activated T lymphocytes and, therefore, may be critical mediators of T lymphocyte migration in T cell-dependent immune-responses. (
  • These inflammation-unrelated chemokines affect transendothelial migration and localization of progenitor and mature lymphocytes in lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues. (
  • Recent developments in this area justify the hypothesis that the distinct migration patterns of lymphocytes throughout their life cycle--that is, during lymphopoiesis, antigen-dependent priming, inflammation and immune surveillance--are finely tuned by changing sets of chemokines that are selective for developmentally regulated chemokine receptors. (
  • Chemokines are a superfamily of cytokines that appeared about 650 million years ago, at the emergence of vertebrates, and are responsible for regulating cell migration under both inflammatory and physiological conditions. (
  • The chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 play a central role in the migration of hematopoietic stem cells, and several chemokine receptors are transiently expressed during distinct stages of B- and T-cell development. (
  • Some chemokines are considered pro- inflammatory and can be induced during an immune response to recruit cells of the immune system to a site of infection , while others are considered homeostatic and are involved in controlling the migration of cells during normal processes of tissue maintenance or development . (
  • The major role of chemokines is to act as a chemoattractant to guide the migration of cells. (
  • Chemokines are functionally divided into two groups: Homeostatic: are constitutively produced in certain tissues and are responsible for basal leukocyte migration. (
  • The main function of chemokines is to manage the migration of leukocytes (homing) in the respective anatomical locations in inflammatory and homeostatic processes. (
  • [6] Chemokines and their receptors play a crucial role in cancer metastatis as they are involved in extravastation, migration, micrometastatis, and angiogenesis. (
  • Chemokine receptor CXCR7 helps primordial germ cell migration by sequestering a distracting chemokine. (
  • Thus, quaternary structure of chemokines and their interaction with GAGs may significantly contribute to the localization of leukocytes beyond migration patterns defined by chemokine receptor interactions. (
  • However, chemokines control the direction of cell migration and provide a trigger for cell activation. (
  • Chemokines Regulate Leukocyte Migration. (
  • Chemokines--A New Family of Cytokines Regulating Leukocyte Migration. (
  • When EGFP-NPs from CC chemokine receptor CCR 2 knock-out mice were transplanted into slices, they exhibited little migration toward sites of inflammation. (
  • We therefore hypothesized that chemokines released from sites of neuroinflammation might help to guide the migration of neural progenitors to damaged areas of the brain. (
  • After binding to the receptors, chemokines primarily serve a role in migration of leukocytes, such as monocytes, eosinophils and dendritic cells (DCs) ( 11 ). (
  • Chemokine Signalling in T Lymphocytes Migration: the Role ofPhosphoinositide 3-kinaseLaura Smith, Adam Webb, and *Stephen G. Ward, Ph.D.University of Bath5. (
  • This model allows direct observations of leukocyte/vessel wall interactions and has thus enabled us to study the mechanisms of chemokine-induced leukocyte migration in real-time in vivo. (
  • Chemokine receptors are critical regulators of cell migration in the context of immune surveillance, inflammation, and development. (
  • Chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) is critically involved in the transition from innate to adaptive immune activation by coordinating the migration to and positioning of antigen-presenting dendritic cells and T cells in secondary lymphoid organs. (
  • The chemokines, by virtue of their specific cell receptor expression, can selectively mediate the local recruitment/activation of distinct leukocytes/cells, allowing for migration across the endothelium and beyond the vascular compartment. (
  • Plays an important role in controlling the migration of immune and cancer cells that express chemokine receptors CCR7 and CCR9, by reducing the availability of CCL19, CCL21, and CCL25 through internalization. (
  • Homeostatic chemokines are chemokines that are responsible for basal leukocyte migration. (
  • In this study, we have used GAG binding-deficient chemokine mutants and cell-based functional (migration) assays to demonstrate that chemokine cooperativity is caused by competitive binding of chemokines to GAGs. (
  • Third, chemokines (chemotactic cytokines) and chemokine receptors are an important part of the immune response that affects cell migration, activation, and tissue homeostasis. (
  • Fourth, following local production, chemokines induce leukocyte cytoskeletal changes, for example, actin polymerization, optimizing cell migration to areas of microbial infection or degeneration. (
  • Transendothelial migration of monocytes into the nervous system is affected by chemokines produced by activated microglia and astrocytes. (
  • Your search returned 145 C-C motif chemokine 23 ELISA ELISA Kit across 23 suppliers. (
  • Your search returned 147 C-C motif chemokine receptor 7 ELISA ELISA Kit across 10 suppliers. (
  • Chemokines exhibit a tremendous functional diversity and participate in a wide variety of processes that include inflammation, innate and adaptive immunity, immune cell differentiation, angiogenesis, tumorigenesis, development, neurobiology and viral pathogenesis. (
  • Inflammation can be protumorigenic, and proinflammatory CC chemokines have been linked with various aspects of cancer biology, yet there is scant evidence supporting a critical role for these molecules in de novo tumor formation. (
  • Chemokines were originally described as cytokines that mediate leukocyte recruitment to sites of inflammation. (
  • Members of a subgroup of chemokines, the CXC family, also play a critical role in both physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis, including in the context of chronic inflammation, fibrosis, and malignancy. (
  • Chemokines can be located in different vascular cell types, eg, endothelial cells (ECs) but also inflammatory cells and can be detected within atherosclerotic lesions, where they function as messengers to direct leukocytes to sites of inflammation but may also control homeostasis and other activities of emigrated cells. (
  • During organogenesis, immunosurveillance, and inflammation, chemokines selectively recruit leukocytes by activating seven-transmembrane-spanning receptors. (
  • For instance, CCL20 is also associated with inflammation since it can act as pro-inflammatory chemokine as well. (
  • Chemokines are involved in recruitment and activation of hematopoietic cells at sites of infection and inflammation. (
  • This mechanistic explanation of chemokine cooperativity provides insight into chemokine gradient formation in the context of inflammation, in which multiple chemokines are secreted simultaneously. (
  • Through activation of the G-protein-coupled cell-surface receptor on target cells, chemokines and their receptors play a major role in the process by which leukocytes are recruited from the bloodstream into sites of inflammation, and several have been implicated in allograft rejection ( 1 ). (
  • Here, we show that in a cockroach antigen (CA) model of allergic pulmonary inflammation, the chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-3α is expressed in the lung within hours of allergen challenge. (
  • Chemokines, adhesion molecules, cytokines and proteases regulate the extravasation of leucocytes during acute and chronic inflammation and leucocyte homing. (
  • Appreciation of the existence of a plasma membrane receptor for thyroid hormone analogues on the extracellular domains of a structural plasma membrane protein, integrin α v β 3 [ 1 - 3 ], has permitted recognition of new control mechanisms for the release of cytokines, including chemotactic cytokines or chemokines [ 4 ]. (
  • All cytokines released by immune cells were called lymphokines/interleukins, whereas chemotactic cytokines were called chemokines. (
  • While a function of chemokines is to regulate lymphocyte trafficking, the view that chemokines act simply as "chemotactic cytokines" has evolved to include the many critical roles they play in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses. (
  • Chemokines belong to a large group of structurally related and secretable, largely basic, chemotactic cytokines, which can be divided into 4 families (CC, CXC, CX 3 C, XC) based on the position of the first 2 cysteine residues. (
  • The kinetics of leukocyte infiltration and involvement in this setting are in part dependent on the combinatorial expression of chemokines and their receptors. (
  • Predominantly, chemokine receptors are expressed by leukocytes, and the specific interactions of chemokines with their cognate receptors are major determinants of the trafficking and localization of leukocyte subsets within tissue compartments. (
  • Chemokines are small molecules with pro-migratory properties generated during inflammatory reactions and are actively involved during the leukocyte extravasation process. (
  • Chemokines constitute a large family of structurally similar cytokines that contain a signature of conserved cysteine residues joined by disulfide bridges. (
  • Four families of chemokine receptors differ in spacing of cysteine residues near N-terminal of the receptor. (
  • The first two extracellular loops of chemokine receptors are linked together by disulfide bonding between two conserved cysteine residues. (
  • Members of the chemokine family are divided into four groups depending on the location of their first two cysteine residues. (
  • Chemokines possess a number of conserved cysteine residues involved in intramolecular disulfide bond formation. (
  • The first 2 cysteine residues of this family are separated by 1 amino acids therefore, called CXC-Chemokines [Cysteine- Amino Acid-Cysteine-Chemokines]. (
  • Some human CXC-Chemokines are defined by the conserved ELR sequence motif (glutamic acid-leucine-arginine) after the first cysteine residue near the amino-terminal end. (
  • Several of the Beta-Chemokines contain two additional conserved cysteine residues and sometimes the term C6-beta-Chemokines is used for this subgroup. (
  • C-Chemokines also named Gamma-Chemokines differ from other chemokines by the absence of a one cysteine residue. (
  • Chemokines members having a CXXXC cysteine signature are referred to as Delta-Chemokines or CX3C-Chemokines or CXXXC-Chemokines. (
  • Chemokines have been traditionally divided into four families (CXC, CC, C, and CX3C) based on the patterns of amino-terminal cysteine residues. (
  • To date, >50 chemokines have been found, which can be divided into four families: CXC, CX3C, CC and XC, according to the different positions of the conserved N‑terminal cysteine residues. (
  • 50 chemokines have been identified, which can be divided into four families: CXC, CX3C, CC and XC, based on the different positions of the conserved N-terminal cysteine residues ( 9 ). (
  • Classified into subfamilies by the structural conservation of both cysteine residues and disulfide bonds, chemokine nomenclature reflects several cysteine-grouping motifs and arrangements. (
  • C Chemokines - Contain only two conserved cysteine residues linked by a single disulfide bond. (
  • CC Chemokines - Contain four conserved cysteine residues of which the first two, closest to the N-terminal, are adjacent to one another. (
  • CXC Chemokines - Contain four conserved cysteine residues of which the first two, closest to the N-terminal, are separated by a single amino acid. (
  • The chemokine family encompasses nearly 50 members, which are classified based on the relative position of their conserved N-terminal cysteine residues (CC, CXC, CX 3 C, and C). Chemokines elicit intracellular responses via G protein-coupled receptors. (
  • The CXCR3 binding chemokine IP-10/CXCL10: structure and receptor interactions. (
  • In this update, we will highlight these recent developments, in particular the identification of components regulating the transcriptional machinery of the proatherogenic chemokine CCL5, distinct roles of its receptors CCR1 and CCR5 in plaque formation and immunobalance, and differential site- and stage-specific effects of T cell-activating chemokines and their receptors, eg, CXCL10 and CXCR3. (
  • In preclinical ex vivo studies performed using explants of resected metastatic CRC, the combination of IFNα with nonselective or COX2-selective inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis resulted in elevated production of the effector T cell-attracting chemokines CXCL10 and CCL5. (
  • The most recent chemokine binding protein is a structural variant of CXCR3, termed CXCR3-B, which binds the classical CXCR3 ligands: monokine induced by interferon γ (Mig)/CXCL9, interferon α inducible protein 10 (IP10)/CXCL10, and interferon inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC)/CXCL11 as well as platelet factor 4/CXCL4. (
  • To date, there are over twenty different chemokine receptors, binding nearly fifty unique ligands that have been identified. (
  • Following interaction with their specific chemokine ligands , chemokine receptors trigger a flux in intracellular calcium (Ca 2+ ) ions ( calcium signaling ). (
  • Although chemokine receptors share high amino acid identity in their primary sequences, they typically bind a limited number of ligands. (
  • Recently, we have begun offering a range of chemokine products that cover ligands for a range of chemokine receptors, and incorporate site-specifically labelled biotin or AlexaFluor®647. (
  • Classified into subfamilies based on the motifs of their ligands, these receptors tend to interact with the chemokines of their eponymous subfamilies. (
  • Chemokines are produced after transcriptional activation by inflammatory mediators such as cytokines or microbial Toll-like receptor ligands and their effect depends on the expression of chemokine receptors on specific cell types. (
  • Typical structure of a chemokine receptor , with seven transmembrane domains and a characteristic "DRY" motif in the second intracellular domain. (
  • Chemokine receptors are G protein-coupled receptors containing 7 transmembrane domains [5] that are found predominantly on the surface of leukocytes , making it one of the rhodopsin-like receptors . (
  • Gamma & Delta Chemokines are type 1 transmembrane glycoproteins with the chemokine domain resting on top of an extended mucin-like stalk. (
  • A soluble form of the chemokine moiety can be released from its transmembrane anchor by extracellular cleavage. (
  • Chemokine receptors belong to the large group of G-protein-coupled seven transmembrane domain receptors that contain 7 hydrophobic alpha-helical segments that transverse the membrane. (
  • The contribution of the transmembrane chemokines CX 3 CL1 and CXCL16 with their respective receptors CX 3 CR1 and CXCR6 in the recruitment of T cell and monocyte subsets and shear-mediated plaque modulation will be discussed. (
  • Chemokines receptors are seven transmembrane spanning G protein-coupled receptors that allow cells to migrate towards increasing chemokine gradients. (
  • In order to exert biological effect, chemokines will bind with receptors of the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, which possess seven conserved transmembrane domains with which chemokines can interact. (
  • Chemokines interact with 7 transmembrane domain G-protein-coupled receptors and, so far, 10 CC (CCR1-10), 6 CXC (CXCR1-6), 1 CX3C (CXCR1), and 1 C (XCR1) receptors have been identified ( 9 ). (
  • Finally, anti-beta-chemokine-neutralizing antibodies caused a more rapid release of HIV by CD4+ T cells naturally infected by NSI, but not SI, viruses indicating that endogenously produced chemokines can affect HIV production in culture. (
  • Our cytokine and chemokine antibodies are quality controlled and tested in the application such as western blotting, ELISA, IF, IHC, and ICC. (
  • We discuss the evidence base for the role of the chemokine network in the renal disease of small vessel vasculitis and extend this to non-renal aspects of small vessel vasculitis other systemic vasculitides. (
  • Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene . (
  • We propose that actions of thyroid hormone and hormone analogues on chemokine gene expression contribute to regulation of inflammatory processes in brain and of brain blood vessel formation and maintenance. (
  • QIAGEN provides a broad range of assay technologies for cytokine and chemokine research that enables analysis of gene expression and regulation, epigenetic modification, genotyping, and signal transduction pathway activation. (
  • The first teleost chemokine gene was reported in rainbow trout in 1998. (
  • Since then, numerous chemokine genes have been identified in diverse fish species evidencing the great differences that exist among fish and mammalian chemokines, and within the different fish species, as a consequence of extensive intrachromosomal gene duplications and different infectious experiences. (
  • This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential vaccine adjuvants. (
  • CXCR6 was formerly called three different names (STRL33, BONZO, and TYMSTR) before being assigned CXCR6 based on its chromosomal location (within the chemokine receptor cluster on human chromosome 3p21) and its similarity to other chemokine receptors in its gene sequence. (
  • Chemokines share common gene & tertiary structure. (
  • Examples of viral chemokine receptor homologs are ECRF-3, EBI-1 (EBV induced gene-1) and US28. (
  • A gene on chromosome 5q31 that encodes a CXC-type chemokine that is a potent chemoattractant for neutrophils, and weaker one for dendritic cells. (
  • Lymphocyte-specific chemokine receptor CXCR3: regulation, chemokine binding and gene localization. (
  • The product of the Chemokine-like factor gene is a cytokine. (
  • This gene is one of several chemokine-like factor genes located in a cluster on chromosome 16. (
  • At the same time, the G-protein subunit Gα directly activates an enzyme called protein tyrosine kinase (PTK), which phosphorylates serine and threonine residues in the tail of the chemokine receptor, causing its desensitisation or inactivation. (
  • 1, 2 In addition, there are two C chemokines, Ltn-α/XCL1 and Ltn-β/XCL2, in which two out of the four conserved Cys residues are missing, and a single CX3C chemokine, called fractalkine/CX3CL1, with three amino acids separating the two NH 2 terminal Cys residues. (
  • As an exception, one chemokine, SDF-1, is a highly effective chemoattractant for non-activated T lymphocytes and progenitor B cells. (
  • Chemokines are a group of related chemoattractant peptides that are essential regulators of the immune system, both during homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. (
  • Serum concentrations of thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC)/(CCL17), monokine induced by gamma-interferon (MIG)/(CXCL9), macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC)/(CCL22), interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC)/(CXCL11), eotaxin (CCL11), pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine (PARC)/(CCL18) and hemofiltrate CC-chemokine-4 (HCC-4)/(CCL16) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and compared between the FM and HW groups. (
  • The defined subgroups of chemokines on the basis of structural and functional properties illustrates the importance of chemoattractant diversity in the regulation of the movement of leukocytes through the body. (
  • Chemokines are small chemoattractant peptides that provide directional cues for the cell trafficking and thus are vital for protective host response. (
  • Chemokines and their receptors (along with surface-adhesion molecules) are central to these migrations, targeting developing and mature leukocytes to tissues and microenvironments suitable for their differentiation and function. (
  • In the periphery, mature naïve B and T cells utilize the receptors CCR7, CXCR4, and CXCR5 to recirculate through specialized microenvironments within the secondary lymphoid tissues, while effector and memory lymphocytes express bewildering patterns of adhesion molecules and chemokine receptors that allow them to function within microenvironments and non-lymphoid tissues inaccessible to naïve cells. (
  • The involvement of chemokine receptors in HIV infection is briefly mentioned, while other interesting areas in chemokine research, such as hematopoiesis and angiogenesis, are not discussed. (
  • Chemokines and Angiogenesis*Michael P. Keane, M.D., John A. Belperio, M.D., and Robert M.Strieter, M.D.University of California, Los Angeles and University of Virginia16. (
  • 1,2 By signaling through G protein-coupled chemokine receptors, chemokines govern a variety of cell responses including cell activation and transmigration in leukocytes, as well as in nonhematopoietic cells. (
  • The chemokine receptors CXCR3 and CCR5 mark subsets of T cells associated with certain inflammatory reactions. (
  • CXCR4 (also known as fusin) is the receptor for a chemokine known as CXCL12 (or SDF-1) and, as with CCR5, is utilized by HIV-1 to gain entry into target cells. (
  • Rodent fibroblasts (3T3) that cannot be infected with myxoma virus could be made fully permissive for myxoma virus infection by expression of any one of several human chemokine receptors, including CCR1, CCR5, and CXCR4. (
  • Furthermore, dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons express the chemokine receptors CX3CR1, CXCR4, CCR4, and CCR5, and CXCR4- and CCR4-positive neurons also express substance P and the transient receptor potential ion channel (TRPV1, formerly named VR1) that have been implicated in nociception ( 8 ). (
  • Epitope mapping of CCR5 reveals multiple conformational states and distinct but overlapping structures involved in chemokine and coreceptor function. (
  • The chemokine receptor CCR5 is the major coreceptor for R5 human immunodeficiency virus type-1 strains. (
  • CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is expressed preferentially by CD4 + T helper 1 (Th1) cells. (
  • Th1 cells express CCR5 and CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) following activation, whereas activated T helper 2 (Th2) cells express CCR3, CCR4, and CCR8 ( 2 , 3 ). (
  • The G protein-coupled chemokine receptor CXCR4 is specifically implicated in cancer metastasis and HIV-1 infection. (
  • Chemokine receptors are divided into different families, CXC chemokine receptors , CC chemokine receptors , CX3C chemokine receptors and XC chemokine receptors that correspond to the 4 distinct subfamilies of chemokines they bind. (
  • [6] Chemokine receptors are redundant in their function as more than one chemokine is able to bind to a single receptor. (
  • CXCL8 (otherwise known as interleukin-8) and CXCL6 can both bind CXCR1 in humans, while all other ELR-positive chemokines, such as CXCL1 to CXCL7 bind only CXCR2. (
  • Many chemokines bind several receptors and multiple chemokines often bind the same receptor, resulting in a highly complex network of interactions ( 3 ). (
  • thus, it is not surprising that chemokines are also able to bind linear sulfated GAGs such as heparin and heparan sulfate. (
  • Use this table to quickly identify the chemokines that bind to each receptor. (
  • Chemokines bind to a variety of different receptors, which belong to the G-protein-binding receptor family, and there are ~23 types of chemokine receptors that have been discovered ( 10 ). (
  • 4- 6 Chemokine receptors are designated according to the type of chemokine(s) they bind (CXC, CC, XC, CX3C), followed by R for receptor and a number indicating the order of discovery. (
  • Furthermore, activated chemokine receptors bind to the scaffolding protein β-arrestin ( 1 - 3 ). (
  • Requirement of the chemokine receptor CXCR3 for acute allograft rejection. (
  • Regulation of pulmonary fibrosis by chemokine receptor CXCR3. (
  • Chemokine receptor CXCR3 mediates T cell recruitment and tissue injury in nephrotoxic nephritis in mice. (
  • Delayed and deficient dermal maturation in mice lacking the CXCR3 ELR-negative CXC chemokine receptor. (
  • CXCR3 chemokine receptor distribution in normal and inflamed tissues: expression on activated lymphocytes, endothelial cells, and dendritic cells. (
  • Lymphocyte responses to chemokines. (
  • This review emphasizes the new developments in the field of lymphocyte responses to chemokines. (
  • Lymphocyte traffic control by chemokines. (
  • Here, we summarize the current view of chemokine-mediated lymphocyte traffic and focus on the molecular mechanisms by which T cell responses to chemokines are modulated. (
  • Differential expression of three T lymphocyte-activating CXC chemokines by human atheroma-associated cells. (
  • Chemokines and their receptors in lymphocyte traffic and HIV infection. (
  • The chemokine receptor CXCR5 is expressed on B cells and CD4+ Tfh cells and is involved in lymphocyte homing and the development of normal lymphoid tissue. (
  • Chemokine Receptors and Lymphocyte TraffickingMichael N. Hedrick, Ph.D. and *Joshua M. Farber, M.D.National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease/NationalInstitutes of Health8. (
  • The fundamental importance of chemokines for atherogenesis, progression, and destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques is now widely appreciated, but the degree of complexity, specificity, and cooperativity harnessed by these signal molecules to govern atherogenic cell recruitment and homeostasis is still being refined. (
  • Naturally occurring modifications, such as N-terminal truncation, can affect the biological potency and the receptor specificity of chemokines. (
  • A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. (
  • A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. (
  • N-terminal processing of chemokines by aminopeptidases or endoproteases may alter the receptor specificity and may result in up- or down-regulation of their chemotactic, antiviral or angiogenic activity. (
  • Recently, we and others have demonstrated that the atypical chemokine receptor D6 actively sequesters and destroys many of these proinflammatory CC chemokines. (
  • Chemokines have been classified into four main subfamilies: CXC, CC, CX3C and XC. (
  • 2 different subfamilies of chemokines are distinguished according to their chromosomal location. (
  • Chemokines as mediators of neovasculariza. (
  • Chemokines are essential mediators for trafficking of leukocytes and their role is not only restricted to cell attraction. (
  • Here we present a temporal analysis of key immune mediators, cytokine and chemokines in blood of hospitalised COVID-19 patients from serial sampling and follow up over four weeks. (
  • Findings: We found that the chemokine RANTES(CCL5) was significantly elevated, from an early stage of the infection, in patients with mild but not severe disease. (
  • Nomenclature for chemokine receptors. (
  • ACKR3 designation has been accepted by the IUIS/WHO Subcommittee on Chemokine Nomenclature. (
  • In this article we have combined the "common" name with the systematic nomenclature at the first instance a particular chemokine is mentioned and then used the systematic name in the remainder of the text. (
  • These data demonstrate the importance of proinflammatory CC chemokines in de novo tumorigenesis and reveal chemokine sequestration by D6 to be a novel and effective method of tumor suppression. (
  • The authors compare this decoy receptor strategy to a similar mechanism that functions in the resolution of inflammatory responses: In that case, interleukin-10 promotes expression of inflammatory chemokine receptors on mature dendritic cells, where they also appear not to signal but instead act to sequester proinflammatory chemokines. (
  • Chemokine-triggered immune responses often require co-stimulation by primary proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1α, IFN-γ and TNF-α. (
  • The LEGENDplex™ Human Proinflammatory Chemokine Standard product is intended for use with the Mix and Match Human Proinflammatory Chemokine Panel of products. (
  • Today, almost three dozen human chemokines have been identified. (
  • The large majority of approximately 50 human chemokines fall into the group of either CXC or CC chemokines. (
  • These are known as homeostatic chemokines and are produced and secreted without any need to stimulate their source cell(s). (
  • Basal: homeostatic chemokines are basal produced in the thymus and lymphoid tissues. (
  • Homeostatic chemokines are constitutively expressed in particular organs or tissues. (
  • Due to their function of targeting cells to specific organs, homeostatic chemokines can also be involved in cancer and metastasis. (
  • Chemokines with an ELR sequence chemoattract & activate primarily neutrophils. (
  • Chemokine receptor expression on neutrophils from blood or BAL fluid of patients with ARDS was analysed by flow cytometry. (
  • Furthermore, neutrophils isolated from the blood or BAL fluid differentially regulated the cell surface expression of chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 1 and C-C chemokine receptor type 2 during ARDS. (
  • A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. (
  • IL-10 treatment improved pulmonary architecture and was associated with a reduction in inflammatory markers, including bronchoalveolar lavage fluid total protein, pulmonary myeloperoxidase activity (a biochemical marker of neutrophils), and the chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein 2. (
  • 4. The chemokine construct of claim 1, wherein said (VH) anti-CD4 has at least one CDR3 consisting of the amino acid sequence Lys Gly Glu Asn Gly Asn Ser Leu Ala Phe Ala Tyr (SEQ ID NO. 2). (
  • 6. The chemokine construct of claim 1, wherein said (VH) anti-CD4 has at least one CDR1 consisting of the amino acid sequence Asp Tyr Val Ile Asn (SEQ ID NO. 6). (
  • 10. The chemokine construct of claim 1, wherein said (VL) anti-CD4 has at least one CDR3 consisting of the amino acid sequence: Gln Gin Ser Ile Gln Asp Pro Cys Thr (SEQ ID NO. 8). (
  • 11. The chemokine construct of claim 1, wherein said (VL) anti-CD4 has at least one CDR2 consisting of the amino acid sequence: Ala Ala Ser Asn Leu Glu Ser (SEQ ID NO. 10). (
  • CXCR1 and CXCR2 are closely related receptors that recognize CXC chemokines that possess an E-L-R amino acid motif immediately adjacent to their CXC motif. (
  • In particular, chemokines have proven to be an attractive synthetic target, and chemical synthesis comes to the fore in enabling the introduction of unnatural amino acids, or labels that are useful aids in research. (
  • Many different cell types secrete chemokines, most often to attract immune cells to the site of infection or injury during innate and adaptive immune responses. (
  • This tract will discuss the contribution of chemokines to the development of innate and adaptive granuloma formation, as well as describe their relationship to more recently evolved cytokines generated during adaptive immune responses. (
  • Critical to maintaining hemostasis through hematopoietic differentiation and immune surveillance, chemokines also help orchestrate both innate and adaptive immune responses. (
  • Importantly, major advances in our understanding of chemokine biology have led to chemokine receptors becoming specific therapeutic targets with great potential. (
  • The Biology CXC Chemokines and Their Receptors. (
  • The Molecular and Cellular Biology of CC Chemokines and Their Receptors. (
  • This volume in the Current Topics in Membranes series discusses the biology of chemokines and their binding partners, chemokine receptors, in normal and disease-related states. (
  • In this review, we describe the current state of knowledge of chemokine biology in teleost fish. (
  • Chemokine biology is further complicated by individual chemokines interacting with more than one receptor and chemokine receptors potentially binding more than one chemokine. (
  • The Structural Biology of Chemokines*Elias Lolis, Ph.D. and James Murphy, Ph.D.Yale University3. (
  • Their homeostatic function in homing is best exemplified by the chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 (expressed within lymph nodes and on lymphatic endothelial cells) and their receptor CCR7 (expressed on cells destined for homing in cells to these organs). (
  • The chemokine CCL19, which is in the endothelium lining the vein, is stained blue in this immunofluorescent image. (
  • Chemokines are a family of small molecular weight cytokines, which are involved in leukocytes stimulation and chemotactic gradient determining. (
  • Among other homeostatic chemokine receptors include: CCR9, CCR10, and CXCR5, which are important as part of the cell addresses for tissue-specific homing of leukocytes. (
  • [4] This role of chemokine is strikingly similar to their normal function of localizing leukocytes to an inflammatory site. (
  • These findings suggest that poxviruses, like HIV, are able to use chemokine receptors to infect specific cell subtypes, notably migratory leukocytes, but that their mechanisms of receptor interactions are distinct. (
  • Chemokines are critical for the movement of leukocytes. (
  • Chemokines belong to a class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes . (
  • Chemokines are important regulators in the development, differentiation, and anatomic location of leukocytes. (
  • The increase of the chemokines concentration could be associated not only with infection but also with the mechanism of labor [ 12 ]. (
  • Other chemokines are inflammatory and are released from a wide variety of cells in response to bacterial infection, viruses and agents that cause physical damage such as silica or the urate crystals that occur in gout . (
  • Do beta-chemokines have clinical relevance in HIV infection? (
  • The role of beta-chemokines in HIV infection was evaluated. (
  • Evaluation of the effect of HIV replication on beta-chemokine production indicated that acute infection of CD4+ T cells with non-syncytia-inducing (NSI) viruses generally increased beta-chemokine production two to eightfold, whereas with SI strains, it led to decreased production. (
  • These findings suggest that beta-chemokines may affect HIV replication when an NSI virus is involved, but provide little evidence that they substantially influence HIV infection and pathogenesis. (
  • Chemokines are induced and released into the circulation during acute infection but high concentrations of some chemokines are observed also in normal plasma. (
  • Such variety of activities may provide poxviruses the ability to differentially block chemokines involved in distinct anti-viral responses, to inhibit chemokines at different stages of infection in the host or to simultaneously inhibit chemokines and TNF. (
  • Chemokines play a part in the development of many diseases, especially inflammatory diseases, including HIV infection. (
  • Virus infection stimulated the release of at least 31 cytokine-related molecules, including several important chemokines known to attract inflammatory cells. (
  • Chemokine receptors are critical for the infection of perivascular macrophages and microglia. (
  • It has also been shown that chemokines and their receptors play a more direct role in the neuropathogenesis of HIV-1 infection. (
  • Chemokines and the Neuropathogenesis of HIV-1 Infection, p 151-171. (
  • A proposed pathophysiological mechanism for how chemokines and their receptors influence the neuropathogenesis of HIV-1 infection. (
  • Echinacea extracts modulate the pattern of chemokine and cytokine secretion in rhinovirus-infected and uninfected epithelial cells. (
  • But it hadn't been identified as a receptor for a chemokine. (
  • Attracted cells move toward areas of higher concentrations of the chemokine. (
  • These cysteines provide tertiary structure for the chemokine through disulfide bonds. (
  • This invention relates to novel carboxylic acid indole compounds and compositions for use in the treatment of disease states mediated by the chemokine, Interleukin-8 (IL-8). (
  • This was associated with concomitant suppression of the intratumoral expression of CCL22, a Treg-attracting chemokine (Muthuswamy et al 2008 Canc Res, and Muthuswamy et al, submitted to Canc Res 2011). (
  • Chemokine CCL22" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Chemokine CCL22" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Chemokine CCL22" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Chemokine CCL22" by people in Profiles. (
  • On the other hand, the chemokine system also plays a crucial role in the induction of antitumor immune responses and optimal effector function regulation of immune cells [ 1 , 4 , 5 ]. (
  • Fig. 4: The m6A regulation of chemokine in immune evasion. (
  • Since the role of chemokines in atherosclerotic vascular disease has been reviewed in this journal, significant progress has been accomplished in defining the regulation of chemokine expression and function in atherosclerosis. (
  • Interestingly, post-disease onset, chemokines, stromal cell and angiogenic-related markers were important in differentiating up-regulation in those who had developed RA compared to findings in the same individual before symptoms of RA. (
  • Emerging evidence shows that the expression and function of G-protein-coupled receptors is strictly controlled by cytokines and other microenvironmental signals, such as Hyp ( 10 - 12 ), and that the regulation of receptor expression during cell activation and deactivation is as important as the regulation of chemokine production for tuning the chemokine system ( 13 ). (
  • Over the last few decades, chemokines are found to be involved in almost every aspect of tumorigenesis and antitumor immunity [ 1 ]. (
  • Chemokines: a new classification system and their role in immunity. (
  • The m6A could affect the chemokine functions including pro-tumor effects of chemokines involved in Immune cell such as granulocytic and monocytic myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), Treg cells, Th22 cells, and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), and suppress-tumor immunity by chemokines involved in immune cell including CD8 T cell and Th1 cell. (
  • Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is a chemokine relevant to inflammatory processes in the CNS that are microglia-dependent but also important to normal brain development. (
  • [1] [2] There have been 20 distinct chemokine receptors discovered in humans. (
  • There have been 19 distinct chemokine receptors described in mammals. (
  • All other chemokines with activities in lymphocytes do also induce responses in monocytes and granulocytes. (
  • In contrast to the remarkable chemokine responses of phagocytes and monocytes that were documented early on, lymphocytes have been considered for a long time to be poor targets for chemokine action. (
  • Notably, it was shown that lymphocytes require stimulation to become responsive to chemokines, a process that is closely linked to chemokine receptor expression. (
  • Flexible programs of chemokine receptor expression on human polarized T helper 1 and 2 lymphocytes. (
  • Lymphocytes require stimulation to become responsive to most known chemokines, and this process is linked closely to chemokine receptor expression. (
  • Based on this evidence, we investigated the effect of Hyp on the expression and function of chemokine receptors. (
  • The Mouse Chemokines & Receptors RT² Profiler ™ PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 genes that encode chemokines and their receptors. (
  • In Chemokine Receptors, leading investigators attempt to distill the large body of literature ranging from basic molecular and cellular mechanism of chemokine receptors, to physiological and pathological roles of chemokines. (
  • Recent studies suggest that its pathogenesis may involve cytokines, in particular, chemokines - cytokines that regulate cell traffic under both physiological and pathological conditions. (
  • In particular the book contains cutting-edge information ranging from basic molecular and cellular mechanisms to physiological and pathological roles of chemokines. (
  • Chemokines and their chemokine receptors are expressed in the nervous system, and their engagement affects neuronal and glial function. (
  • 1997). "Cloning and characterization of a specific receptor for the novel CC chemokine MIP-3alpha from lung dendritic cells" . (
  • 1997). "CCR6, a CC chemokine receptor that interacts with macrophage inflammatory protein 3alpha and is highly expressed in human dendritic cells" . (
  • CCR6 is a chemokine receptor that is expressed in immature dendritic cells (DCs) ( 10 )( 11 )( 12 ) as well as in B lymphocytes ( 13 )( 14 ) and memory T cells ( 13 ). (
  • Chemokines in Immune Surveillance of the Intestine. (
  • Some chemokines control cells of the immune system during processes of immune surveillance, such as directing lymphocytes to the lymph nodes so they can screen for invasion of pathogens by interacting with antigen-presenting cells residing in these tissues. (
  • On one hand, the chemokine network is used by tumors to evade immune surveillance, resist apoptosis, and metastasize. (