Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.
Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.
Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
Group of chemokines without adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes only.
Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.
A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.
A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.
CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.
Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.
A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.
A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.
Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
A platelet-specific protein which is released when platelets aggregate. Elevated plasma levels have been reported after deep venous thrombosis, pre-eclampsia, myocardial infarction with mural thrombosis, and myeloproliferative disorders. Measurement of beta-thromboglobulin in biological fluids by radioimmunoassay is used for the diagnosis and assessment of progress of thromboembolic disorders.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
The process in which the neutrophil is stimulated by diverse substances, resulting in degranulation and/or generation of reactive oxygen products, and culminating in the destruction of invading pathogens. The stimulatory substances, including opsonized particles, immune complexes, and chemotactic factors, bind to specific cell-surface receptors on the neutrophil.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.
A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
Cell surface proteins that bind interleukins and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Movement of tethered, spherical LEUKOCYTES along the endothelial surface of the microvasculature. The tethering and rolling involves interaction with SELECTINS and other adhesion molecules in both the ENDOTHELIUM and leukocyte. The rolling leukocyte then becomes activated by CHEMOKINES, flattens out, and firmly adheres to the endothelial surface in preparation for transmigration through the interendothelial cell junction. (From Abbas, Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 3rd ed)
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.
Cytokine-induced cell adhesion molecule present on activated endothelial cells, tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, bone marrow fibroblasts, myoblasts, and myotubes. It is important for the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, p154)
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.
Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Proteins that specifically inhibit the growth of new blood vessels (ANGIOGENESIS, PHYSIOLOGIC).
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on LYMPHOCYTES. It can form a heterotrimer (LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA1, BETA2 HETEROTRIMER) with the soluble ligand LYMPHOTOXIN-ALPHA and anchor it to the cell surface. The membrane-bound complex is specific for the LYMPHOTOXIN BETA receptor.
A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.
Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-17. Several subtypes of receptors have been found, each with its own in specificity for interleukin-17 subtype.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.
The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.
Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
A pattern recognition receptor that binds DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA. It mediates cellular responses to certain viral pathogens.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.

Early gene expression of NK cell-activating chemokines in mice resistant to Leishmania major. (1/75)

Susceptibility of mice to Leishmania major is associated with an insufficient NK cell-mediated innate immune response. We analyzed the expression of NK cell-activating chemokines in vivo during the first days of infection in resistant and susceptible mice. The mRNA expression of gamma interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), and lymphotactin was upregulated 1 day after infection in the draining lymph nodes of resistant C57BL/6 mice but not in those of susceptible BALB/c mice. In vivo local treatment of BALB/c mice with recombinant IP-10 shortly after infection resulted in an enhanced NK cell activity in the draining lymph node. The data suggest that although the recruitment of NK cells is normal in susceptible mice, the lack of NK cell-activating chemokines is a factor resulting in a suboptimal NK cell-mediated defense.  (+info)

An activation-responsive element in single C motif-1/lymphotactin promoter is a site of constitutive and inducible DNA-protein interactions involving nuclear factor of activated T cell. (2/75)

Single C motif-1 (SCM-1)/lymphotactin is a C-type chemokine whose expression is activation dependent, cyclosporin A sensitive and restricted to CD8+ T cells, double-negative thymocytes, gammadelta-type T cells, and NK cells. In humans, there are two highly homologous genes encoding SCM-1alpha and SCM-1beta. Here we examined the regulatory mechanism of the SCM-1 genes. The luciferase reporter gene under the control of the 5' flanking region of 0.7 kb was strongly induced upon activation with anti-CD3 or PHA plus PMA only in SCM-1-producer T cell lines through a cyclosporin A-sensitive mechanism. An element termed E1 located at -108 to -95 nt relative to the major transcription start site was found to be critical for the promoter activity. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays using the E1 oligonucleotide as probe, nuclear extracts from unstimulated T and B cell lines formed a constitutive complex termed complex I, while nuclear extracts from stimulated SCM-1-producer T cell lines formed a higher mobility complex termed complex II with a concomitant decrease in complex I. The shift from complex I to complex II seen only in SCM-1-producer T cell lines upon activation was completely suppressed by cyclosporin A. Both complexes were critically dependent on the NF-AT core sequence TTTCC in the E1 element and were partially supershifted by anti-NF-ATp. One-hybrid assays in yeast isolated NF-ATp as an E1 binding protein, and transfection of NF-ATp into T and B cell lines strongly enhanced the activation-dependent SCM-1 promoter activity. Collectively, a unique mechanism involving NF-ATp appears to regulate the cell type-specific and activation-dependent expression of the SCM-1 genes.  (+info)

Gene disruption through homologous recombination in Spiroplasma citri: an scm1-disrupted motility mutant is pathogenic. (3/75)

To determine whether homologous recombination could be used to inactivate selected genes in Spiroplasma citri, plasmid constructs were designed to disrupt the motility gene scm1. An internal scm1 gene fragment was inserted into plasmid pKT1, which replicates in Escherichia coli but not in S. citri, and into the S. citri oriC plasmid pBOT1, which replicates in spiroplasma cells as well as in E. coli. Electrotransformation of S. citri with the nonreplicative, recombinant plasmid pKTM1 yielded no transformants. In contrast, spiroplasmal transformants were obtained with the replicative, pBOT1-derived plasmid pCJ32. During passaging of the transformants, the plasmid was found to integrate into the chromosome by homologous recombination either at the oriC region or at the scm1 gene. In the latter case, plasmid integration by a single crossover between the scm1 gene fragment carried by the plasmid and the full-length scm1 gene carried by the chromosome led to a nonmotile phenotype. Transmission of the scm1-disrupted mutant to periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) plants through injection into the leafhopper vector (Circulifer haematoceps) showed that the motility mutant multiplied in the insects and was efficiently transmitted to plants, in which it induced symptoms similarly to the wild-type S. citri strain. These results suggest that the spiroplasmal motility may not be essential for pathogenicity and that, more broadly, the S. citri oriC plasmids can be considered promising tools for specific gene disruption by promoting homologous recombination in S. citri, a mollicute which probably lacks a functional RecA protein.  (+info)

Activation of C-C beta-chemokines in human peripheral blood gammadelta T cells by isopentenyl pyrophosphate and regulation by cytokines. (4/75)

Human gammadelta T lymphocytes respond to viral, bacterial, protozoal, and tumoral antigens, but their precise function remains unknown. In adults the major circulating gammadelta T-cell subset expresses the Vgamma9Vdelta2 T-cell receptor and responds to protease-resistant phosphorylated derivatives found in many pathogens. In this study we show that activation of Vdelta2(+) cells with the nonpeptidic antigen isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) rapidly induces (within 4-12 hours) the C-C chemokines MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and lymphotactin but not MCP-1. The most robust response was obtained for MIP-1beta. IPP induction of MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta was not affected by costimulation with interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-10, TGF-beta, or interferon-gamma (INF-gamma). However, IL-12 significantly enhanced IPP-induced expression and release of MIP-1alpha that was down-regulated by TGF-beta whereas the induction of MIP-1beta by IPP+IL-12 was refractory to cotreatment with TGFbeta indicating that these chemokines are differentially regulated by these cytokines. Vdelta2(+) T cells also expressed a wide range of C-C chemokine receptors including CCR1, CCR5, and CCR8, all of which were down-regulated following activation. We conclude that Vdelta2(+) cells can be rapidly induced by components of bacterial cell walls to express high levels of proinflammatory chemokines, supporting an important role for these cells in the early stages of the inflammatory responses to many common pathogens. (Blood. 2000, 95:39-47)  (+info)

Adenovirus-mediated lymphotactin gene transfer improves therapeutic efficacy of cytosine deaminase suicide gene therapy in established murine colon carcinoma. (5/75)

Lymphotactin (Ltn) is the sole member of C chemokines which attracts T cells and NK cells specially. Ltn gene was transferred in vivo to improve the antitumor efficacy of cytosine deaminase (CD) gene therapy. Upregulation of CD80 and CD54 on murine CT26 colon carcinoma cells was observed after combined transfection with adenovirus encoding CD (AdCD) and adenovirus encoding murine Ltn (AdLtn) followed by administration of 5-fluorocytosine (5FC) in vitro. AdCD/5FC treatment also increased the expression of CD95 and induced obvious apoptosis of CT26 cells. After combined treatment with AdLtn and AdCD/5FC, the pre-established murine model with subcutaneous CT26 colon carcinoma exhibited most significant tumor growth inhibition, and four of eight tumor-bearing mice were tumor free, while tumors in other mice grew more progressively. Examination of lymphocyte infiltration and cytokine gene expression in tumor tissue revealed that tumors from AdLtn/AdCD/5FC-or AdLtn-treated mice were heavily infiltrated with CD4+, CD8+ T cells and NK cells, and IL-2 and IFN-gamma mRNA expression were present in parallel with T cell and NK cell infiltration. Splenic NK and CTL activities increased significantly after the combination therapy. In vivo depletion analysis showed that NK cells, CD4+ T cells and CD8+T cells participated in the antitumor effect of the host with CD8+T cells being the main T cell subset responsible for the enhanced antitumor immune response. These findings suggested that increased immunogenicity and induction of apoptosis of the tumor cells, and efficient induction of local and systemic antitumor immunity of the host might contribute to the enhanced antitumor effects of the combined Ltn and CD suicide therapy. Gene Therapy (2000) 7, 329-338.  (+info)

Biochemical characterization of endogenously formed eosinophilic crystals in the lungs of mice. (6/75)

Crystals seldom form spontaneously within tissues of mammals, except in the urinary tract or in association with eosinophil-rich diseases in humans (Charcot-Leyden crystals). Endogenously formed eosinophilic crystals have been reported in respiratory tract and other tissues of several strains of mice, but the biochemical characterization of these crystals has not been reported. In this study, eosinophilic crystal formation was examined in homozygous C57BL/6J viable motheaten mice, lung-specific surfactant apoprotein C promoter/soluble human tumor necrosis factor p75 receptor type II fusion protein transgenic mice (C57BL/6NTac x Sv/129), and CD40L-deficient mice with spontaneous Pneumocystis carinii infection. In viable motheaten but not wild type mice, rapidly developing crystals represented a major feature of the fatal lung injury induced by macrophage dysregulation. Conversely, eosinophilic crystals did not form until 4-8 months of age in transgenic and CD40L-deficient mice and were present in 10-30% of age-matched wild type controls. Mass spectrometry analysis of proteins from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid identified the crystals as Ym1, sometimes referred to as T-lymphocyte-derived eosinophil chemotactic factor. The Ym1 sequence was homologous to chitinase, and enzymatic assays indicated a 3-5-fold increase in chitinase activity compared with control mice. Intracellular and extracellular crystals associated with epithelial damage suggested that the crystals may contribute to lung inflammation through mechanical damage and enzymatic degradation.  (+info)

The C-class chemokine, lymphotactin, impairs the induction of Th1-type lymphokines in human CD4(+) T cells. (7/75)

Chemokines are involved in the regulation of leukocyte migration and for some of them, T-cell costimulation. To date, the only direct property of lymphotactin (Lptn), the unique member of the C class of chemokines, consists of T-cell chemoattraction. This report describes a novel function for Lptn in human T-lymphocyte biology, by demonstrating the direct ability of Lptn to both inhibit and costimulate CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell activation, respectively. Lptn but not RANTES inhibited CD4(+) T-cell proliferation, through a decreased production of Th1 (interleukin [IL]-2, interferon [IFN]-gamma) but not Th2 (IL-4, IL-13) lymphokines, and decreased IL-2R alpha expression. Transfections in Jurkat cells showed a Lptn-mediated transcriptional down-regulation of gene-promoter activities specific for Th1-type lymphokines, as well as of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NF-AT) but not AP-1 or NF-KB enhancer activities. This suppressive action of Lptn could be compensated by overexpression of NF-ATc but not NF-ATp. CD4(+) T-cell proliferation was completely restored by exogenous IL-2 or reversed by pertussis toxin, wortmannin, and genistein, suggesting the involvement of multiple partners in Lptn signaling. In contrast to CD4(+) cells, Lptn exerted a potent costimulatory activity on CD8(+) T-cell proliferation and IL-2 secretion. These data provide important insights into the role of Lptn in differential regulation of normal human T-cell activation and its possible implication in immune response disorders. (Blood. 2000;96:420-428)  (+info)

Identification of a gammaherpesvirus selective chemokine binding protein that inhibits chemokine action. (8/75)

Chemokines are involved in recruitment and activation of hematopoietic cells at sites of infection and inflammation. The M3 gene of gammaHV68, a gamma-2 herpesvirus that infects and establishes a lifelong latent infection and chronic vasculitis in mice, encodes an abundant secreted protein during productive infection. The M3 gene is located in a region of the genome that is transcribed during latency. We report here that the M3 protein is a high-affinity broad-spectrum chemokine scavenger. The M3 protein bound the CC chemokines human regulated upon activation of normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), murine macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha (MIP-1alpha), and murine monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), as well as the human CXC chemokine interleukin-8, the murine C chemokine lymphotactin, and the murine CX(3)C chemokine fractalkine with high affinity (K(d) = 1. 6 to 18.7 nM). M3 protein chemokine binding was selective, since the protein did not bind seven other CXC chemokines (K(d) > 1 microM). Furthermore, the M3 protein abolished calcium signaling in response to murine MIP-1alpha and murine MCP-1 and not to murine KC or human stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1), consistent with the binding data. The M3 protein was also capable of blocking the function of human CC and CXC chemokines, indicating the potential for therapeutic applications. Since the M3 protein lacks homology to known chemokines, chemokine receptors, or chemokine binding proteins, these studies suggest a novel herpesvirus mechanism of immune evasion.  (+info)

Rabbit anti Human Lymphotactin antibody recognizes human Lymphotactin, otherwise known as XCL1, the only member of the C-chemokine family
Find Other Chemokine-related Ligands and Receptors research area related information and Other Chemokine-related Ligands and Receptors research products from R&D Systems. Learn more.
XCL1 / Lymphotactin Protein LS-G5664 is a Recombinant Mouse XCL1 / Lymphotactin aa 22-114 produced in E. coli. It is biologically active.
Author Summary Although HIV, the causative agent of AIDS, establishes a lifelong infection that cannot be eradicated even with effective treatment, the host immune system has the ability to contain its replication for many years in which the disease remains asymptomatic. Key players in HIV control are CD8+ T cells, specialized immune cells that can not only destroy infected cells, but also secrete soluble factors that suppress the virus without killing infected cells. CD8+ T cells produce multiple HIV-suppressive factors, including certain chemokines (soluble proteins that attract immune cells), which block the virus even before it can gain access to its target cells. In the present study, we characterize a new anti-HIV chemokine, XCL1 or lymphotactin, which is primarily produced by CD8+ T cells. A unique feature of XCL1 is that, unlike other antiviral chemokines, it has a very broad spectrum of activity against different variants of HIV-1 and directly binds the virus outer coat, rather than blocking
XCL1 protein is expressed in E. coli, processed, refolded and purified to yield the native, secreted form of the mature chemokine. XCL1 is a ligand for the G protein coupled receptor XCR1 with and EC50 ~ 50 nM. It has been shown the WT XCL1 is able to int
Shop Viral Lymphotactin ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Viral Lymphotactin Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Chemokine receptor-ligand interactions are important to support functioning of both normal and pathologic cells. The expression and function of chemokine receptors in epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) is largely unknown. Here, we report that the lymphotactin receptor (XCR1) was expressed in primary and metastatic human epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) specimens and cell lines. In contrast, expression of XCR1 was not detected in the normal ovary or in human normal ovarian surface epithelial cells. Our data indicate that XCL1 and XCL2 are either present in the malignant ascites or expressed by the ovarian carcinoma cells. The addition of lymphotactin (XCL1 and XCL2) stimulated migration and proliferation of XCR1-positive cells. Reduction of XCR1 expression in ovarian carcinoma cell line SKOV-3 resulted in abrogated diaphragm and peritoneal wall tumor formation and in reduced frequency of colonic, splenetic, and liver nodules in an in vivo xenograft mouse model. Taken together, our data suggest ...
Anti-Mouse Lymphotactin/XCL1 polyclonal antibody reacts with mouse lymphotactin. |br| Background: Lymphotactin is the only C chemokine so far identified which has a single cysteine residue near the amino terminus. It has 114 amino acids with a 22 amino a
The mobilisation of leukocytes to inflammatory sites is crucial to host defense. Over the years a wealth of information has evolved concerning the mechanism of leukocyte locomotion and factors with...
Our team studies antigen presentation by DC. It has demonstrated cross-presentation ability of human plasmacytoid DC (pDC) and conventional DC1 bearing the chemokine receptor XCR1. We showed that DC perform cross-presentation of HIV antigens to specific CD8+ T lymphocytes specific for HIV very efficiently not only from apoptotic infected cells, but also from live cells. We are seeking to exploit this antigen presentation from live cells to kill cells which are HIV reservoirs or, with Armelle Prévost-Blondel, metastatic melanoma cells. (Immune activation and suppression during HIV infecton). We study the roles of different DC and monocyte/macrophage populations in T cell response polarization et in type I or III IFN production during HIV infection. We were the first to show during this infection the depletion of circulating DC et the accumulation of pro-inflammatory slan+ monocytes. Our aim is to reduce the reservoirs and the immune hyper activation and immune suppression which are linked to ...
This is an interesting and important finding because it is (so far) the only example of a protein adopting two completely different stable folds with no hydrogen bonds in common at equilibrium. Trivially, natively disordered proteins adopt multiple conformations under physiological solution conditions, and many proteins alter their conformations in response to ligand binding while keeping most of their hydrogen bond network intact. In this case, however, an existing network of stabilizing bonds is completely disrupted in order to form a new fold with a totally different function. Ive already discussed some of the implications of this with respect to protein folding, and in regards to the recent transitive homology studies out of the Cordes group. Lymphotactin offers lessons and ideas for protein folding and evolution that must be taken into account. In particular, the fact that point mutations can significantly stabilize one or the other of these structures implies that there may be previously ...
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Complete information for XCL1 gene (Protein Coding), X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Get an answer for Two hypothetical ionic compounds are discovered with the chemical formulas XCl2 and YCl2, where X and Y represent symbols of the imaginary elements. Chemical analysis of the two compounds reveals that 0.25 mol XCl2 has a mass of 100.0 g and 0.50 mol YCl2has a mass of 125.0 g. a. What are the molar masses of XCl2 and YCl2? and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
Clone REAL241 is an antibody fragment derived from the full XCR1 antibody molecule. It displays no binding to Fc receptors. The recombinantly engineered antibody fragments are multimerized to form the REAlease Complex to bind markers with high avidity.Clone REAL241 recognizes the mouse XCR1 antigen, also known as GPR5. XCR1 is a G protein-coupled chemokine receptor for XCL1 and XCL2 also known as lymphotactin-1 and -2. XCR1 is highly expressed in CD8α+ dendritic cells. It plays a role in signal transduction by increasing the intracellular calcium ions level.The REAlease Kits consist of the respective fluorochrome-conjugated REAlease Complexes and the REAlease Support Kit for removal of the REAlease Complexes and optional relabeling with different fluorochrome-conjugated REAlease Complexes. | Canada
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The Xenopus xCR1 protein is a receptor of the nodal signaling pathway, and vertebrate development requires the precise activation of this pathway at a specific time and place during embryogenesis. This requirement is met by restricting the accumulation of xCR1 protein to the animal cells within the developing embryo through the regulated translation of the maternal xCR1 mRNA (Zhang and Sheets, 2009). The maternal xCR1 mRNA is translated in animal cells while the xCR1 mRNA in vegetal cells is translationally repressed. The functional unit of mRNA translation is the mRNP that consists of the relevant mRNA regulatory sequences associated with specific RNA binding proteins. We have defined the mRNP that mediates repression in vegetal cells as consisting of the xCR1 mRNAs 3 UTR associated with the Pumilio and CUG-BP1 proteins (Zhang and Sheets, 2009). We are currently focused on understanding the mechanisms by which the xCR1 mRNP represses translation in one cell type but not the other. These ...
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CP000859.PE462 Location/Qualifiers FT CDS complement(528716..529123) FT /codon_start=1 FT /transl_table=11 FT /locus_tag=Dole_0462 FT /product=cytochrome c class III FT /note=PFAM: cytochrome c class III; KEGG: dde:Dde_3710 FT acidic cytochrome c3 FT /db_xref=EnsemblGenomes-Gn:Dole_0462 FT /db_xref=EnsemblGenomes-Tr:ABW66272 FT /db_xref=GOA:A8ZTK8 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR002322 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR011031 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR020942 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR036280 FT /db_xref=UniProtKB/TrEMBL:A8ZTK8 FT /protein_id=ABW66272.1 FT /translation=MRQRVGRKKATVLVSAFFSLFFVLSGNCVLAQDLELKMTDDVTRP FT PVIFPHDLHMGGFDCFDCHHDYDEDGNNILDDYALEEGNPDILCGACHTGKTTIEPREA FT FHLQCMGCHEQFTFKKRPTGPVLCGECHVKE MRQRVGRKKA TVLVSAFFSL FFVLSGNCVL AQDLELKMTD DVTRPPVIFP HDLHMGGFDC 60 FDCHHDYDED GNNILDDYAL EEGNPDILCG ACHTGKTTIE PREAFHLQCM GCHEQFTFKK 120 RPTGPVLCGE CHVKE 135 ...
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Fast, simple luminescent calcium flux assays using an AequoScreen cell line stably-transfected with human chemokine XCR1 receptor.
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T01872 (acav,adh,amin,apom,arn,arx,asoc,ato,bacs,balt,bara,barw,bcae,bko,camg,cmb,def,fln,frm,gli,gtm,lagl,les,lzy,mbov,mee,ntp,ntt,parb,part,pcx,pht,ppoa,ptu,rhu,sbj,sgv,slau,smal,sphd,sscu,sya,tpaf,trl : calculation not yet completed ...
The investigators have grown neuroblastoma cells in the laboratory and put into them two specially produced mouse viruses (retroviruses) that carry the lymphotactin and the IL-2 gene. These lymphotactin and IL-2 genes are meant to help the immune system fight the cancer. The modified cancer cells will be injected under the patients skin. There will be four shots. The second and subsequent shots will have ten times as many cells producing lymphotactin as the first. The patient will normally have these shots as an outpatient. Depending on response (if the patients cancer has stayed the same or gotten smaller), the patient may be able to have four more of these shots.. Tests during and after treatment:. If the patients blood has not been tested for HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, then the investigators will need to do this test. If this virus is present, this research treatment cannot be used.. Before the second shot, and then again about 2 weeks later, the investigators will remove some of the ...
Heparanase-1 (HPA-1) can promote angiogenesis and metastasis of malignant tumors and plays an important role in the genesis and development of tumors. This study was to explore the effects of specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting HPA-1 com
VACCINE DOSING: Vaccine components SJNB-JF-IL2 and SJNB-JF-Lptn will each be dosed at 1x10e7 cells/m2. This will be given in conjunction with an escalating dose of SKNLP vaccine in the phase I portion of this study. In the phase II portion of this study, the same dose of SJNB-JF-IL2 and SJNB-JF-Lptn will be given in conjunction with the highest dose of SKNLP determined in the phase I portion. Vaccination will be administered on an inpatient or outpatient basis. Patient will be notified of which dose of vaccine cells they will receive if enrolled in the study.. Phase I Dose Escalation Component: While the investigators do not suspect that addition of a second irradiated, unmodified neuroblastoma tumor cell line to the previously tested SJNB-JF gene modified cell line will affect the safety profile of the vaccine, as the SKNLP has not been tested previously in vaccine studies, the investigators will perform an abbreviated dose escalation study of the combined vaccine to assess safety. The ...
Complex surgical procedures requiring long cross clamp times for complete repair are often patients only chance for survival and better quality of life. Decisions about operability are often difficult, as research has shown that XCL time is an independent predictor of mortality and morbidity in patients undergoing cardiac surgeries [1, 2, 4]. Our results demonstrate that while high in relation to less complex surgeries, a 12.4 % mortality in these complex, high risk patients is lower than that reported by studies in the literature addressing longer XCL times. Nissinen et al. observed a 31.5 % 30-day mortality rate in their patients with XCL times greater than 240 min [2]. Furthermore, Al-Sarraf et al. found that high risk patients (EuroScore ≥ 6) with XCL times ,90 min and those with XCL times , 60 min and ≤ 90 min were respectively 4.7 and 3.1 times more likely to die than those with XCL times ≤ 60 min [1]. Doenst et al. found that XCL times greater than 30 min were associated with a ...
Neuroinflammation mediated by overactivated microglia plays a key role in many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimers disease (AD). In this study, we investigated for the first time the anti-neuroinflammatory effects and possible mechanisms of SCM-198 (an alkaloid extracted from Herbaleonuri), which was previously found highly cardioprotective, both in vitro and in vivo. For in vitro experiments, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or β-amyloid1-40 (Aβ1-40) was applied to induce microglial overactivation. Proinflammatory mediators were measured and activations of NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathways were investigated. Further protective effect of SCM-198 was evaluated in microglia-neuron co-culture assay and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats intrahippocampally-injected with Aβ1-40. SCM-198 reduced expressions of nitric oxide (NO), TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 possibly via, at least partially, inhibiting c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and NF-κB signaling pathways in microglia. Co-culture
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The Committee received a report by the Assistant Director Highways, Transport and Regulatory Services which provided feedback to the Committee on the Albert Road Traffic Scheme on a number of work streams, which included consultation responses (portal/email/ETMO), comment on traffic surveys and air quality assessments and potential impacts. The report asked the committee to agree a way forward.. The report considered that the proposals would improve the local area and make it more attractive for residents, creating an environment that encourages more walking and cycling. The report noted that the COVID 19 pandemic, and the changing travel patterns had presented both an opportunity and a threat. The opportunity was that the council was able to bring forward at a quicker pace than expected a number of low traffic neighbourhood (LTN) projects which would make Kingston a clean, green and safe borough for all residents. It was therefore important that their analysis looked at other factors such as ...
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SeqID: 3608204 Analysis Report: CMSVM- CytoplasmicMembrane [No details] CytoSVM- Unknown [No details] ECSVM- Unknown [No details] ModHMM- Unknown [No internal helices found] Motif- Unknown [No motifs found] OMPMotif- Unknown [No motifs found] OMSVM- Unknown [No details] PPSVM- Unknown [No details] Profile- Unknown [No matches to profiles found] SCL-BLAST- Cytoplasmic [matched 15600232: shikimate kinase[Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1]] SCL-BLASTe- Unknown [No matches against database] Signal- Unknown [No signal peptide detected] Localization Scores: Cytoplasmic 1.33 CytoplasmicMembrane 8.46 Periplasmic 0.21 OuterMembrane 0.00 Extracellular 0.00 Final Prediction: CytoplasmicMembrane 8.46 ...
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A trio of spyshots has surfaced online, revealing the final interior design of the 2017 Mercedes E Class. It combines the designs of the S Class and C Class.
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The latest addition to the MSW Avantgarde collection was designed as an alternative to the OEM wheels on vehicles like the Audi A3 and A4, the Volkswagen Golf, Mercedes A Class and C Class and many others. The aggressive, streamlined design of the new MSW 71 is immediately eye-catching and memorable. Positioned alternate to the lug holes, the 5 double spokes start out thin and tapered at the center, becoming broader as they lengthen toward the external rim of the wheel. This allows the spokes to make a fluid junction with the rim well, and at the same time maintain their smooth lines and the strength of the wheel. The slight curve at the half-way point of the spoke adds to the sensation of movement and heightens the dynamic feel of the wheel itself. MSW 71 is OE CAP READY, that is, designed to accept the original Volkswagen, Audi and even Ford hub caps
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chains in the Genus database with same CATH superfamily 2WI4 A; 3A0T A; 4BAE A; 4MOT A; 5J71 A; 1US7 A; 2WI7 A; 4NH8 A; 5CPH A; 1Y8O A; 3RKZ A; 2XJX A; 2YE3 A; 3MNR P; 3ZKD A; 2AKP A; 5F3K A; 2Q8I A; 1NHH A; 2ZDX A; 4XIQ A; 2BT0 A; 2BU6 A; 3INW A; 3PEJ A; 2YEF A; 2Q8H A; 1YC1 A; 2BZ5 A; 2WI1 A; 3CRK A; 3OMU A; 4BXI A; 2XX5 A; 4YKX A; 2BU8 A; 4CWQ A; 4WUC A; 4R3A A; 4U7O A; 4WUD A; 4PU9 A; 1ZXM A; 4E00 A; 4EFT A; 3O0I A; 1ZXN A; 4PL9 A; 2YI0 A; 1Y8N A; 2YKI A; 1KIJ A; 4O09 A; 4EEH A; 2WI3 A; 4ASB A; 4DUH A; 1TH8 A; 3BMY A; 2YGA A; 2YEG A; 4XCL A; 1I59 A; 3U2K A; 2YKJ A; 4B6C A; 2IOR A; 1UYM A; 3U67 A; 2BU2 A; 2XAB A; 1B63 A; 4XKK A; 4E01 A; 3T0Z A; 4EGH A; 2ESA A; 4I5S A; 3TZ2 A; 4BIU A; 2YKE A; 2JJC A; 2FYP A; 2CH4 A; 4ASF A; 3B25 A; 5L3J A; 2GQP A; 4URO A; 1S14 A; 3A0Y A; 4GCZ A; 3H80 A; 3VHA A; 1THN A; 3C11 A; 2FXS A; 3A0X A; 4QPJ A; 1ID0 A; 3GIF A; 1Z5A A; 1UY7 A; 3WHA A; 1QZR A; 5D7R A; 3CGY A; 4GEE A; 4R1F A; 1AH6 A; 1EI1 A; 1QY8 A; 4CWS A; 2XHR A; 4HZ0 A; 4CE2 A; 4L91 A; 2XDL A; 3EHJ A; ...
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C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines in that it has ... CCL1 for the ligand 1 of the CC-family of chemokines, and CCR1 for its respective receptor. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) ... CXCR that bind CXC chemokines, CCR that bind CC chemokines, CX3CR1 that binds the sole CX3C chemokine (CX3CL1), and XCR1 that ...
... s are divided into different families, CXC chemokine receptors, CC chemokine receptors, CX3C chemokine ... CXC chemokine receptors (six members) CC chemokine receptors (ten/eleven members) C chemokine receptors (one member, XCR1) CX3C ... Two types of chemokines that bind to these receptors are inflammatory chemokines and homeostatic chemokines. Inflammatory ... Chemokine receptors are redundant in their function as more than one chemokine is able to bind to a single receptor. ...
... are integral membrane proteins that specifically bind and respond to cytokines of the CXC chemokine ... However, CXCR6 is more closely related in structure to CC chemokine receptors than to other CXC chemokine receptors. ACKR3 was ... within the chemokine receptor cluster on human chromosome 3p21) and its similarity to other chemokine receptors in its gene ... The chemokine receptor CXCR5 is expressed on B cells and CD4+ Tfh cells and is involved in lymphocyte homing and the ...
The CC chemokine receptors all work by activating the G protein Gi. CCR1 was the first CC chemokine receptor identified and ... CC chemokine receptors (or beta chemokine receptors) are integral membrane proteins that specifically bind and respond to ... May 1997). "Molecular cloning of a novel human CC chemokine EBI1-ligand chemokine that is a specific functional ligand for EBI1 ... September 1999). "Molecular cloning of a novel human CC chemokine (Eotaxin-3) that is a functional ligand of CC chemokine ...
A broad-spectrum chemokine inhibitor or BSCI (also termed chemotide or somatotaxin ) is a type of experimental anti- ... inflammatory drug that inhibits the action of the pro-inflammatory proteins chemokines. The observation that the chemokine CCL2 ... Grainger DJ, Reckless J, Fox DJ (2005). "Broad Spectrum Chemokine Inhibitors Related to NR58-3.14.3". Mini-Rev. Med. Chem. 5 (9 ... Kayisli UA, Berkkanoglu M, Zhang L, Kizilay G, Arici A (2007). "The Broad-Spectrum Chemokine Inhibitor NR58-3.14.3 Suppresses ...
"Entrez Gene: C-C motif chemokine ligand 27". Retrieved 2018-03-23. Morales et al. CTACK, a skin-associated chemokine that ... November 1999). "Molecular cloning of a novel CC chemokine, interleukin-11 receptor alpha-locus chemokine (ILC), which is ... C-C motif chemokine ligand 27 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCL27 gene. This gene is one of several CC cytokine ... "Serum thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) and cutaneous T cell- attracting chemokine (CTACK) levels in allergic ...
This chemokine receptor is special because it binds only one chemokine ligand CCL20 in compare to other chemokine receptors. ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene. CCR6 ... Frick, Vilma Oliveira; Rubie, Claudia; Keilholz, Ulrich; Ghadjar, Pirus (2016-01-14). "Chemokine/chemokine receptor pair CCL20/ ... "Entrez Gene: CCR6 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6". Dieu-Nosjean, Marie-Caroline; Massacrier, Catherine; Vanbervliet, Béatrice ...
"Macrophage-derived chemokine and EBI1-ligand chemokine attract human thymocytes in different stage of development and are ... "Molecular cloning of a novel human CC chemokine EBI1-ligand chemokine that is a specific functional ligand for EBI1, CCR7". The ... identification of a novel chemokine receptor that binds dendritic cell- and T cell-active chemokines including ELC, SLC, and ... "Secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine is a functional ligand for the CC chemokine receptor CCR7". The Journal of Biological ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCL24 gene. This gene belongs to the subfamily of ... "Entrez Gene: C-C motif chemokine ligand 24". Retrieved 2018-05-09. Papadopoulos NG, Papi A, Meyer J, Stanciu LA, Salvi S, ...
The protein encoded by this gene binds to several chemokine receptors, including chemokine binding protein 2 and chemokine (C-C ... C-C motif chemokine ligand 3 like 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCL3L3 gene. This gene is one of several ... "Entrez Gene: C-C motif chemokine ligand 3 like 3". Retrieved 2017-09-16. v t e This article incorporates text from the United ...
"Entrez Gene: FAM19A1 family with sequence similarity 19 (chemokine (C-C motif)-like), member A1". Mehrle A, Rosenfelder H, ... a member of the CC-chemokine family. The TAFA proteins are predominantly expressed in specific regions of the brain, and are ... postulated to function as brain-specific chemokines or neurokines that act as regulators of immune and nervous cells. GRCh38: ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FAM19A4 ... "Entrez Gene: Family with sequence similarity 19 member A4, C-C motif chemokine like". Retrieved 2017-12-09. Oguri M, Kato K, ... a member of the CC-chemokine family. The TAFA proteins are predominantly expressed in specific regions of the brain, and are ... postulated to function as brain-specific chemokines or neurokines, that act as regulators of immune and nervous cells. ...
Power CA, Clemetson JM, Clemetson KJ, Wells TN (August 1995). "Chemokine and chemokine receptor mRNA expression in human ... Griffith JW, Sokol CL, Luster AD (2014). "Chemokines and chemokine receptors: positioning cells for host defense and immunity ... October 1998). "HIV-1 envelope gp120 inhibits the monocyte response to chemokines through CD4 signal-dependent chemokine ... "A non-glycosaminoglycan-binding variant of CC chemokine ligand 7 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-3) antagonizes chemokine- ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 1 (CCL1) is also known as small inducible cytokine A1 and I-309 in humans. CCL1 is a small ... CCL1 is encoded by CCL1 gene which is one of the several chemokine genes clustered on the chromosome 17q11.2-q12 in humans. It ... July 1998). "The chemokine receptor CCR8 is preferentially expressed in Th2 but not Th1 cells". Journal of Immunology. 161 (2 ... In addition to other chemokines, such as CCL2, CCL3, and CCL4, the presence of CCL1 has been reported in the development of ...
Such signaling has been shown to be physiologically relevant, for example, β-arrestin signaling mediated by the chemokine ... November 2018). "Biased agonists of the chemokine receptor CXCR3 differentially control chemotaxis and inflammation". Science ... chemokine receptors bind ligands that mediate intercellular communication between cells of the immune system; receptors such as ... chemokines; lipid mediators of inflammation (e.g., prostaglandins, prostanoids, platelet-activating factor, and leukotrienes); ...
His team demonstrated in 2005 that the chemokine receptor D6 acts as a decoy and scavenger receptor for inflammatory chemokines ... Chemokines. 1999. Pharmacology of cytokines. 2000. Gianfranco Bazzoni; Elisabetta Dejana; Alberto Mantovani (2006). Piccin (ed ... which is part of the large superfamily of chemokines, which belong to the family of cytokines. His works help to establish the ... "Increased inflammation in mice deficient for the chemokine decoy receptor D6". European Journal of Immunology. 35 (5): 1342- ...
The CCL2 chemokine is also expressed by neurons, astrocytes and microglia. The expression of CCL2 in neurons is mainly found in ... The chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) is also referred to as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) and small inducible ... In the human genome, CCL2 and many other CC chemokines are located on chromosome 17 (17q11.2-q21.1). The gene span is 1,927 ... Foresti ML, Arisi GM, Katki K, Montañez A, Sanchez RM, Shapiro LA (December 2009). "Chemokine CCL2 and its receptor CCR2 are ...
It was the first of more than 50 chemokines.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link) Baggiolini, Marco (1998). "Chemokines ... Chemokines act as chemoattractants to guide the migration of cells. Some control cells of the immune system, some promote the ... is a Swiss immunologist and biochemist known for the discovery and the analysis of the first chemokines (or chemotactic ... "lnterleukin-8 and related chemotactic cytokines-CXC and CC chemokines". Advances in immunology. 55: 97-179. "Academy of Europe ...
The C-C motif chemokine receptor CCR5 is involved in the process by which HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, enters cells. Hence ... However, to limit the toxicity and side effects of CCR5 antagonists it would be ideal to be able to preserve the chemokine ... Arimont A, Sun S, Smit MJ, Leurs R, de Esch IJ, de Graaf C (2017). "Structural Analysis of Chemokine Receptor-Ligand ... Leronlimab, a humanized form of a PA14 antibody, is a chemokine-receptor CCR5 monoclonal antibody and can inhibit CCR5 tropic ...
The effects of CCL11 are mediated by its binding to a G-protein-linked receptor known as a chemokine receptor. Chemokine ... an eosinophil-selective CC chemokine, and identification of a specific eosinophil eotaxin receptor, CC chemokine receptor 3". ... an eosinophil-selective CC chemokine, and identification of a specific eosinophil eotaxin receptor, CC chemokine receptor 3". ... C-C motif chemokine 11 also known as eosinophil chemotactic protein and eotaxin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ...
Le Y, Zhou Y, Iribarren P, Wang J (April 2004). "Chemokines and chemokine receptors: their manifold roles in homeostasis and ... chemokines that promote chemotaxis; and interferons that have anti-viral effects, such as shutting down protein synthesis in ... chemokines that promote chemotaxis; and interferons that have anti-viral effects, such as shutting down protein synthesis in ...
Chemokines are a subset of cytokines that regulate cell migration, such as attracting immune cells to a site of infection or ... Physiologically, chemokines and cytokines function as neuromodulators that regulate inflammation and development. In the ... Various cell types in the brain may produce cytokines and chemokines such as microglia, astrocytes, endothelial cells, and ... After injury and sustained release of inflammatory factors such as chemokines, the blood-brain barrier may be compromised, ...
"Cc Chemokine Receptor (Ccr)3/Eotaxin Is Followed by Ccr4/Monocyte-Derived Chemokine in Mediating Pulmonary T Helper Lymphocyte ... Lloyd, Clare (2002). "Chemokines in allergic lung inflammation". Immunology. 105 (2): 144-154. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2567.2002. ... She was involved with early studies that looking at the cloning, expression and function of chemokine. Her group demonstrated ... LLoyd studied the role of these chemokines in allergic lung inflammation. She looked to better characterise the spatial ...
For example, Naive T cells express the CCR7 receptor for the chemokine CCL21. and B cells exhibit CXCR5 receptors for chemokine ... FRCs express chemokines such as CCL21 and CCL19 which assist the movement of T cells and dendritic cells with CCR7 receptors. ... FDCs produce chemokine CXCL13 which promotes migration of B lymphocytes to the primary B cell follicle. B lymphocytes need a ... The lymph carries chemokines (molecular chemical messengers) and antigens to the lymph node. At the lymph node, the lymph ...
Maheshwari A, Christensen RD, Calhoun DA (November 2003). "ELR+ CXC chemokines in human milk". Cytokine. 24 (3): 91-102. doi: ... chemokines, and others. Colostrum also contains a number of growth factors, such as insulin-like growth factors I (IGF-1), and ...
HIV can enter the macrophage through binding of gp120 to CD4 and second membrane receptor, CCR5 (a chemokine receptor). Both ... Lucas AD, Greaves DR (November 2001). "Atherosclerosis: role of chemokines and macrophages". Expert Reviews in Molecular ...
ISBN 978-1-58603-471-9. D'Souza, M. Patricia; Harden, Victoria (December 1996). "Chemokines and HIV-1 Second Receptors". Nature ...
... is a CC chemokine receptor. This CCR2 gene is located in the chemokine receptor gene cluster region. Two alternatively ... "Entrez Gene: CCR2 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2". El Khoury J, Toft M, Hickman SE, Means TK, Terada K, Geula C, Luster AD ( ... C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2 or CD192 (cluster of differentiation 192) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... Ruibal-Ares BH, Belmonte L, Baré PC, Parodi CM, Massud I, de Bracco MM (January 2004). "HIV-1 infection and chemokine receptor ...
This name and the corresponding gene symbol IL8RA have been replaced by the HGNC approved name C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 1 ... "Chemokine Receptors: CXCR1". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... Ahuja SK, Murphy PM (1996). "The CXC chemokines growth-regulated oncogene (GRO) alpha, GRObeta, GROgamma, neutrophil-activating ... a new inhibitor of the chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2". Biochem. Pharmacol. 69 (3): 385-94. doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2004.10.007 ...
"Cell surface-anchored SR-PSOX/CXC chemokine ligand 16 mediates firm adhesion of CXC chemokine receptor 6-expressing cells". ... C-X-C chemokine receptor type 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CXCR6 gene. CXCR6 has also recently been ... "Entrez Gene: CXCR6 chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 6". Elliott ST, Wetzel KS, Francella N, Bryan S, Romero DC, Riddick NE, ... Ruibal-Ares BH, Belmonte L, Baré PC, Parodi CM, Massud I, de Bracco MM (January 2004). "HIV-1 infection and chemokine receptor ...
Find out more about chemokines and their role in inducing immune response against different diseases, particularly cancer. ... Fusion approach: antigen-chemokine, antibody-chemokine, chemokine-Ig and toxin-chemokine fusion proteins were explained in this ... Chemokine & Chemokine Receptors *. Chemokines, a family of 8-14-kDa secreted basic proteins, mediate leukocyte trafficking by ... Viral and mutant viral vectors expressing chemokines, genetically modified dendritic cells with chemokine or chemokine ...
These chemokines induce the migration of immune cells, which target the invasive body through a variety of mechanisms. ... Chemokines are small cell signalling molecules secreted by certain cells in the presence of infective bodies such as bacteria ... The chemokines are divided into four subfamilies based on the type of chemokine they bind to. These include:. *CCR - binds to ... Chemokines are therefore chemotactic cytokines.. Chemokines are small molecules with a molecular weight of around 8 to 10 ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in negative regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process pathways, according to their Panther/ ...
In the last decades, it is emerging that the chemokine system represents a potential target for immunotherapy. Chemokines, a ... Chemokines, a large family of cytokines with chemotactic activity, and their cognate receptors are expressed by both cancer and ... Here, we review first attempts to inhibit the chemokine system in cancer as a monotherapy or in combination with canonical or ... Here, we review first attempts to inhibit the chemokine system in cancer as a monotherapy or in combination with canonical or ...
Pathophysiological Roles of Cytokine-Chemokine Immune Network - A Special Issue published by Hindawi ... Development of immune cell subsets by cytokines and chemokines. *Specific roles of cytokines and chemokines in the pathogenesis ... Immune-regulatory roles of cytokines and chemokines. *Roles of pathogenic and regulatory cytokines and chemokines in tumor ... Cytokines and chemokines exert crucial roles in the development, homeostasis, activation, differentiation, regulation, and ...
Chemokines and alcoholic hepatitis: are chemokines good therapeutic targets? Bin Gao, Mingjiang Xu ...
... Oral Dis. 2020 Nov;26(8):1668-1676. doi ...
NMR structure of CXCR3 binding chemokine CXCL11 (ITAC).. Booth, V., Clark-Lewis, I., Sykes, B.D.. (2004) Protein Sci 13: 2022- ... Unlike related chemokines such as IP-10 and IL-8, ITAC does not appear to form dimers at millimolar concentrations. The origin ... CXCL11 (ITAC) is one of three chemokines known to bind the receptor CXCR3, the two others being CXCL9 (Mig) and CXCL10 (IP-10 ... CXCL11 (ITAC) is one of three chemokines known to bind the receptor CXCR3, the two others being CXCL9 (Mig) and CXCL10 (IP-10 ...
C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10provided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:10637 See related. Ensembl:ENSG00000169245 MIM: ... C-X-C motif chemokine 10. Names. 10 kDa interferon gamma-induced protein. gamma IP10. interferon-inducible cytokine IP-10. ... involved_in chemokine-mediated signaling pathway IBA Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor. more info ... Chemokine_CXC; 1 of 4 subgroup designations based on the arrangement of the two N-terminal cysteine residues; includes a number ...
More info for Superfamily d.9.1: Interleukin 8-like chemokines. Timeline for Superfamily d.9.1: Interleukin 8-like chemokines: ... Superfamily d.9.1: Interleukin 8-like chemokines appears in SCOP 1.63. *Superfamily d.9.1: Interleukin 8-like chemokines ... Lineage for Superfamily d.9.1: Interleukin 8-like chemokines. *Root: SCOP 1.65 *. Class d: Alpha and beta proteins (a+b) [53931 ... Superfamily d.9.1: Interleukin 8-like chemokines [54117] (1 family) form dimers with different dimerisation modes. ...
Chemokines and chemokine receptors in mood disorders, schizophrenia, and cognitive impairment: a systematic review of biomarker ... These findings have prompted interest in soluble inflammatory molecules, called chemokines[9]. Chemokines are considered a ... The Role of Chemokines in the Pathophysiology of Major Depressive Disorder. Int J Mol Sci. 2019;20:2283. [PubMed] [DOI] [Cited ... Chemokine serum levels, pg/mL. HVs. Adolescents with MDD. Post hoc statistical analysis. ...
Modulation of chemokine receptor is used in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. ... Chemokine Receptor Targeted Library is a set of small-molecule ligands. ... ZIP Chemokine Receptor-Targeted Library 18,150 compounds PDF Chemokine Receptor-Targeted Library 18,150 compounds ... ChemDivs Chemokine Receptor-Targeted Library contains 20,000 compounds.. Chemokine receptors - one of the key targets ...
The Chemokine CCL2 Mediates the Seizure-enhancing Effects of Systemic Inflammation Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ... The Chemokine CCL2 Mediates the Seizure-enhancing Effects of Systemic Inflammation. Chiara Cerri, Sacha Genovesi, Manuela ... The Chemokine CCL2 Mediates the Seizure-enhancing Effects of Systemic Inflammation. Chiara Cerri, Sacha Genovesi, Manuela ... The Chemokine CCL2 Mediates the Seizure-enhancing Effects of Systemic Inflammation. Chiara Cerri, Sacha Genovesi, Manuela ...
The Chemokine Receptor CCR8 Promotes the Migration of Dendritic Cells into the Lymph Node Parenchyma to Initiate the Allergic ... "Chemokine CCL8" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Chemokine CCL8" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year ... The transcriptional repressor BLIMP1 curbs host defenses by suppressing expression of the chemokine CCL8. J Immunol. 2014 Mar ...
The systemic administration of erythrocytes with chemokine-encapsulating nanoparticles non-covalently anchored to their surface ... we show that treatment with chemokine-encapsulating nanoparticles that are non-covalently anchored onto the surface of injected ... Homey, B., Muller, A. & Zlotnik, A. Chemokines: agents for the immunotherapy of cancer? Nat. Rev. Immunol. 2, 175-184 (2002). ... Nagarsheth, N., Wicha, M. S. & Zou, W. P. Chemokines in the cancer microenvironment and their relevance in cancer immunotherapy ...
The MILLIPLEX® Human Cytokine/Chemokine/Growth Factor Panel A thus enables you to focus on the therapeutic potential of ... Simultaneously analyze up to 48 multiple cytokine, chemokine, and growth factor biomarkers with Bead-Based Multiplex Assays ... The cytokine group of proteins includes lymphokines, interferons, colony stimulating factors and chemokines. Growth factors are ... Quality Control Ranges: Human Cytokine/ Chemokine/Growth Factor Magnetic Bead Panel A ...
The liquid chip (Luminex) technology was applied to detect the expression levels of the above-mentioned serum chemokines in the ... There were no statistically significant differences in chemokine expressions between metastatic esophageal cancer group and non ... The aim of this study was to detect the expression levels of chemokines (CX3CL1, CXCL-11, CXCL-12, CCL3, CCL4, and CCL20) in ... Keywords: Chemokine CX3CL1, Chemokines, Esophageal Neoplasms, Aged, Biomarkers, Tumor, Carcinoma, Squamous Cell, China, ...
Chemokine Receptor 5 Δ32 Allele in Patients with Severe Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Yoav Keynan1. , Jennifer Juno1, Adrienne Meyers, T ... Amplification of the chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) Δ32 locus in white patients. Lane 1, heterozygous positive control; lanes 2-5 ... Chemokine Receptor 5 Δ32 Allele in Patients with Severe Pandemic (H1N1) 2009. ...
ASCO 2020: Chemokine Signature PUBLICATION:. ASCO 20. AUTHORS:. Hatem Soliman, Sangeetha Prabhakaran, Marilin Rosa, Charles Cox ... Chemokines, which act as trafficking signals for immune cells, influence the spatial organization of the host immune response ...
Selecting of format.. Clicking one of the Downlod boxes will download a file in the corresponding format with the selected data columns for the genes shown in the search result.. The copy boxes will give you a link to the file if you want to share it or save for later as a reference.. ...
A Nanoluciferase biosensor to investigate endogenous chemokine secretion and receptor binding. Carl W. White, Kevin D. G. ... Secreted chemokines are critical mediators of cellular communication that elicit intracellular signalling by binding membrane- ... A Nanoluciferase biosensor to investigate endogenous chemokine secretion and receptor binding Message Subject (Your Name) has ... CRISPR/Cas9 genome-editing was used to tag the chemokine CXCL12 with the Nanoluciferase fragment HiBiT. CXCL12 secretion was ...
Chemokine/Chemokine Receptor Interactions in Extramedullary Leukaemia of the Skin in Childhood AML: Differential Roles for CCR2 ... 2. Dissemination of acute leukemia and the role of chemokines and chemokine receptors. Despite significant advances in ... A recent study also suggests that chemokine/chemokine receptor interactions orchestrate extramedullary dissemination in ... 2.Dissemination of acute leukemia and the role of chemokines and chemokine receptors ...
GROα is a CXC chemokine which exerts its effects via CXCR2 receptors on neutrophils and monocytes, and MCP-1 is a CC chemokine ... the levels of these chemokines increase which may reflect increasing levels of underlying inflammation. These chemokines may be ... Growth related oncogene-α (GROα) is a CXC chemokine first reported as an endogenous growth factor for human melanoma cells.7 It ... Since GROα is known to be chemotactic for inflammatory cells,7,9 the relationship between this chemokine and inflammatory ...
Expression profiling of chemokines, especially those involved in inflammation and immune disorders, is important in achieving a ... Chemotactic cytokines or chemokines play pivotal roles in various processes such as immune surveillance, organ development, ... The Mouse Proinflammatory Chemokine Panel 2 (2-plex) is a multiplex bead-based assay panel, using fluorescence-encoded beads ... Expression profiling of chemokines, especially those involved in inflammation and immune disorders, is important in achieving a ...
Singh KK, Barroga CF, Hughes MD, Chen J, Raskino C, McKinney RE Jr, Prevalence of chemokine and chemokine receptor ... Chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a protein that belongs to the β-chemokine receptor family and is expressed primarily on T cells ... Kohlmeier JE, Miller SC, Smith J, Lu B, Gerard C, Cookenham T, The chemokine receptor CCR5 plays a key role in the early memory ... Lim JK, Louie CY, Glaser C, Jean C, Johnson B, Johnson H, Genetic deficiency of chemokine receptor CCR5 is a strong risk factor ...
Chemokine in the largest biology dictionary online. Free learning resources for students covering all major areas of biology. ... Chemokines can be divided into at least four structural branches: c (chemokines, c), cc (chemokines, cc), cx3c (chemokines, ... Chemokines may also be classified based on their functions. Homeostatic chemokines are chemokines that are responsible for ... Chemokines belong to a class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. Their name ...
Having said that, it does follow the typical structural feature of other cytokines in the CC chemokine family by having two ... all chemokines follow a similar structural makeup. Theyre noticeable for having four cysteines. However, CCL21 doesnt follow ... The CC chemokine family - which CCL21 is a member of - is known for having the power to directly induce chemotaxis in cells ... CCL21 is often referred to as Exodus-2 and is considered to be a minor cytokine of the CC chemokine family. All cytokines are ...
This study investigated the production of chemokines and expression of chemokine receptors by human brain endothelial cells ( ... The chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR3 were expressed by HBEC both in vitro and in situ, and CXCR3 was up-regulated in ... Expression of chemokines and their receptors by human brain endothelium: Implications for multiple sclerosis.. Journal of ... Four chemokines (CCL2, CCL5, CXCL8 and CXCL10), were demonstrated in endothelial cells in situ, which was reflected in the ...
title = "Targeting chemokines in cancer",. abstract = "The chemokine system is now recognized as a key element in cancer- ... keywords = "Cancer, Chemokine, Chemokine receptor, Inflammation",. author = "Raffaella Bonecchi and Benedetta Savino and ... Bonecchi, R., Savino, B., Mantovani, A., & Locati, M. (2012). Targeting chemokines in cancer. Current Immunology Reviews, 8(2 ... Bonecchi, R, Savino, B, Mantovani, A & Locati, M 2012, Targeting chemokines in cancer, Current Immunology Reviews, vol. 8, no ...
Chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Measurements of the chemokines showed that BAL fluid from asthmatic children ... 2⇓). Interestingly, among the different eosinophil-activating chemokines studied, RANTES was the chemokine detected in greatest ... Moreover, compared with the other eosinophil-activating chemokines, RANTES was the chemokine released in the greatest ... 4 chemokine gene (SCY13) in dermal fibroblasts: a comparison to other eosinophilic β‐ chemokines. Bioch Biophys Research Comm ...
  • This antimicrobial gene encodes a chemokine of the CXC subfamily and ligand for the receptor CXCR3. (
  • Ligand-receptor relationships within the chemokine superfamily are extremely complex. (
  • To probe the molecular basis of US28's unique ligand cross-reactivity, we deep-sequenced CX3CL1 chemokine libraries selected on 'molecular casts' of the US28 active-state and find that US28 can engage thousands of distinct chemokine sequences, many of which elicit diverse signaling outcomes. (
  • The structure of a G-protein-biased CX3CL1-variant in complex with US28 revealed an entirely unique chemokine amino terminal peptide conformation and remodeled constellation of receptor-ligand interactions. (
  • Thus, US28 accommodates and functionally discriminates amongst highly degenerate chemokine sequences by sensing the steric bulk of the ligands, which distort both receptor extracellular loops and the walls of the ligand binding pocket to varying degrees, rather than requiring sequence-specific bonding chemistries for recognition and signaling. (
  • CC chemokine ligand (CCL)17 and CCL22 are associated with a Th2 profile and are significantly elevated in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis [ 1 ]. (
  • Photomicrograph showing immunolocalisation of CC chemokine ligand (CCL)17 from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) lung tissue specimens. (
  • We discovered that CCR7 is ubiquitylated in a constitutive, ligand-independent manner and that receptor ubiquitylation regulates the basal trafficking of CCR7 in the absence of chemokine. (
  • Although androgen/androgen receptor (AR) signaling promotes prostate cancer progression, suppression of AR signaling induces chemokine (CC motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), which enables prostate cancer cells to gain metastatic potential. (
  • C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) is a small chemokine which belongs to the CC-type chemokine family, and has chemoattractant activity for recruitment of monocytes to sites of inflammation. (
  • CXCL12/Stromal Cell-derived Factor 1 (SDF-1) is a member of the CXC chemokine ligand superfamily. (
  • Serum level of CCL2 (C-C motif chemokine ligand 2) and CX3CL1 (C-X3-C motif chemokine ligand 1) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (
  • The cytokine group of proteins includes lymphokines, interferons, colony stimulating factors and chemokines. (
  • The MILLIPLEX ® Human Cytokine/Chemokine/Growth Factor Panel A thus enables you to focus on the therapeutic potential of cytokines and the modulation of cytokine expression. (
  • CCL21 is often referred to as Exodus-2 and is considered to be a minor cytokine of the CC chemokine family. (
  • The chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR3 were expressed by HBEC both in vitro and in situ, and CXCR3 was up-regulated in response to cytokine stimulation in vitro. (
  • Among the different chemokines, RANTES was the cytokine released in greatest quantities in BAL fluid from asthmatic children. (
  • All of this resulted in pancreatic down-regulation of the chemokines monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC). (
  • Cytokine receptors expressed by Th2 cells include CC chemokine receptor (CCR)4, CCR8 and CXCR4. (
  • There was an increase in chemokines and elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion compared to control. (
  • Principal component analysis of the cytokine/chemokine secretion showed close clustering for the s.a. and p.n. equivalent treatments. (
  • [ 2-4 ] IL-33, an IL-1 family cytokine induces mDCs to produce the pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α and chemokines like CCL17 to attract T-lymphocytes. (
  • Inflammatory CC (CCL2, CCL3, CCL5) and CXC (CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL5, CXCL6, and CXCL8) chemokines recruit at the tumor site CCR2 + monocytes and CXCR2 + neutrophils that differentiate into tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) and tumor associated neutrophils (TANs), exerting pro- or anti-tumoral role ( 7 - 10 ). (
  • Four chemokines (CCL2, CCL5, CXCL8 and CXCL10), were demonstrated in endothelial cells in situ, which was reflected in the chemokine production by primary HBEC and a brain endothelial cell line, hCEMC/D3. (
  • We previously identified that the chemokine CCL2 was highly expressed in breast cancer associated fibroblasts. (
  • Overexpressed CCL2 binding to its receptor C-C chemokine receptor 2 increases the risk of breast cancer in humans, but its effects on proliferation of bovine mammary epithelial cells is not known. (
  • Chemokines, are a family of small, secreted, and structurally related cytokines with a crucial role in inflammation and immunity ( 3 ). (
  • Excessive and/or inappropriate production and actions of pathogenic and/or regulatory cytokines and chemokines are involved in the pathogenesis of infection, inflammation, allergy, autoimmune diseases, and immune-relevant diseases, such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, and cancers. (
  • Chemokine receptors - one of the key targets implicated in inflammation diseases, cancer pathology and viral infections. (
  • Chemokine involvement is not limited to immunity and inflammation. (
  • Ransohoff, M. D. The Many Roles of Chemokines and Chemokine Receptors in Inflammation. (
  • Chemokines, which act as trafficking signals for immune cells, influence the spatial organization of the host immune response and the formation of organized extranodal lymphoid follicles, also known as ectopic lymph node- like structures (ELNs), in response to invading pathogens, chronic inflammation, and in solid tumors2-4. (
  • Expression profiling of chemokines, especially those involved in inflammation and immune disorders, is important in achieving a deeper understanding of disease states. (
  • For instance, CCL20 is also associated with inflammation since it can act as pro-inflammatory chemokine as well. (
  • The chemokine system is now recognized as a key element in cancer-related inflammation because it can affect tumor progression acting on tumor-stroma and also directly on tumor cells. (
  • Because of their eosinophil chemotactic properties, these chemokines have attracted major attention in allergic inflammation. (
  • Chemokines primarily act to promote leukocyte chemotaxis to sites of inflammation. (
  • CCR3 chemokine receptor is known to be a key player in the allergic inflammation process, but Dr. Ambati's studies have now identified CCR3 as a key marker of the CNV process involved in AMD. (
  • Amplification of the chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) Δ32 locus in white patients. (
  • Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. (
  • Because chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) may have a role in pulmonary immune response, we explored whether patients with severe pandemic (H1N1) 2009 were more likely to carry the CCR5Δ32 allele than were members of the general population. (
  • Chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a protein that belongs to the β-chemokine receptor family and is expressed primarily on T cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. (
  • CCR5 is a chemokine receptor expressed by T cells and macrophages, which also functions as the principal coreceptor for macrophage (M)-tropic strains of HIV 1. (
  • To understand the molecular basis of the binding of chemokines and HIV-1 to CCR5, we developed a number of mAbs that inhibit tile various interactions of CCR5, and mapped the binding sites of these mAbs using a panel of CCR5/CCR2b chimeras. (
  • One mAb termed 2D7 completely blocked the binding and chemotaxis of the three natural chemokine ligands of CCR5, RANTES (regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, and MIP-1β, to CCR5 transfectants. (
  • The 2D7 binding site mapped to the second extracellular loop of CCR5, whereas a group of mAbs that failed to block chemokine binding all mapped to the NH 2 -terminal region of CCR5. (
  • These results suggest a complicated pattern of HIV-1 gp120 binding to different regions of CCR5, but a relatively simple pattern for chemokine binding. (
  • We conclude that the second extracellular loop of CCR5 is an ideal target site for the development of inhibitors of either chemokine or HIV-1 binding to CCR5. (
  • A direct correlation between HIV infection and mutation in the chemokine receptor [‎CCR5]‎ gene has been established. (
  • Most strains of HIV use a T-cell protein, called CCR5 (or C-C chemokine receptor type 5) as a co-receptor to invade the host cell. (
  • Chemokines are a family of small proteins inducing directed cell migration via specific chemokine receptors, which play important roles in a variety of biological and pathological processes. (
  • Chemokine receptors, like all members of the GPCR superfamily, mediate signal transduction through specific G-proteins. (
  • The present study investigated the presence of the eosinophil-activating chemokines regulated on activation, normal T‐cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), monocyte chemotactic proteins (MCP)‐3 and ‐4, and eotaxins‐1 and ‐2 in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid obtained from both asthmatic (n=10, age 6-10 yrs) and normal children (n=10, age 5-10 yrs). (
  • As the survival and proliferation of tumor cells is influenced by immune cells within the tumor environment, the aim of our study was to investigate whether pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-1β and IFNγ) can induce pro- (CXCL1 and CXCL8) and anti-angiogenic (CXCL10) chemokines and in mutated CRC cell lines compared to wild type. (
  • In contrast, pro-angiogenic chemokines (CXCL1, CXCL8) showed a high constitutive expression in mutated cell lines DLD1 (KRAS), HT-29 and Colo205 (BRAF), compared to wild type (Caco2). (
  • Many of these inflammatory factors are influenced by the chemokine CXCL8/IL-8 (KC or MIP-2 in mice). (
  • Leucocytes, including monocytes and neutrophils, migrate in response to a number of chemotactic stimuli which include chemokines. (
  • Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is an 8.7 kDa CC chemokine produced by monocytes, T lymphocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and keratinocytes. (
  • This mAb inhibited most of the RANTES and MIP-1α chemotactic responses of activated T cells, but not of monocytes, suggesting differential usage of chemokine receptors by these two cell types. (
  • In the present study, we show that soluble factors secreted by breast tumor cells induce monocytes to produce a variety of proangiogenic CXC chemokines without secretion of angiostatic CXC chemokines. (
  • Using in vitro tubule formation in Matrigel, we demonstrated that the CXC chemokines secreted by MTSs (monocytes cultured with tumor cell supernatants) were able to induce microvessel formation. (
  • Objective ·To investigate the expression and clinical significance of C-C motif chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) and C-X3-C motif chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1) in peripheral blood monocytes subsets in patients with different types of coronary atherosclerotic heart disease (CHD). (
  • The aim of this study was to detect the expression levels of chemokines (CX3CL1, CXCL-11, CXCL-12, CCL3, CCL4, and CCL20) in the serum of esophageal cancer patients and a normal control group, and to explore the correlations of those expression levels with the pathological type, progression, and metastasis of esophageal cancer. (
  • The importance of β-chemokines (or CC chemokine ligands - CCL) in the development of inflammatory lesions in the central nervous system of patients with multiple sclerosis and rodents with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis is strongly supported by descriptive studies and experimental models. (
  • Previous studies have established the role of various chemokine ligands and receptors at the lesional site in psoriasis. (
  • On the contrary, chemokines, such as CCL21 and ELR − chemokines (CXCL4, CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11) inhibit angiogenesis and endothelial cell proliferation ( 26 ). (
  • CXCL11 (ITAC) is one of three chemokines known to bind the receptor CXCR3, the two others being CXCL9 (Mig) and CXCL10 (IP-10). (
  • The chemokine CXCL10 is predominantly produced by epithelial cells during ACD. (
  • Although the chemokine CXCL10 and its receptor CXCR3 are implicated in the pathophysiology of ACD, it is largely unexplored for itch and pain accompanying this disorder. (
  • However, the anti-angiogenic chemokine (CXCL10) showed a high basal expression in wild type, compared to mutated cell lines. (
  • Aims: In this study, we have compared the serum levels of various chemokines, namely, inducible protein-10 (IP-10) (CXCL10), MCP-1 (CCL-2), monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG) (CXCL-9), RANTES (CCL5), interleukin (IL)-8, and eotaxin in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis with that of healthy controls. (
  • The CC chemokine family - which CCL21 is a member of - is known for having the power to directly induce chemotaxis in cells that are close by. (
  • CCL21 is known for having a very high affinity for chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7). (
  • The dendritic cells flood the scene where they find plenty of T Cells that were brought there by the CCL21 chemokine. (
  • Although CCRL1 binds chemokines CCL19, CCL21 and CCL25 with high affinity, these chemokines are interanlised by the receptor and there is no known activation of intracellular signalling pathways. (
  • Viral and mutant viral vectors expressing chemokines, genetically modified dendritic cells with chemokine or chemokine receptors, engineered chemokine-expressing tumor cells and pDNA encoding chemokines are among these methods. (
  • Chemokines produced by tumor itself, cancer-associated fibroblasts and infiltrating leukocytes ( 27 , 28 ), through the binding of chemokine receptors expressed by tumor cells, directly promote cancer cell proliferation activating different signaling pathways, such as PI3K/AKT/NF-κB and MAPK/ERK pathway ( 29 - 31 ). (
  • Recent studies have clearly demonstrated that chemokines and chemokine receptors are produced by many different cell types, including tumor cells. (
  • The chemokine SDF1 (stromal derived factor-1) and its receptor CXCR4 regulate trafficking of normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) as well as metastasis of solid tumor cells. (
  • Chemokines are produced by both tumor cells and the tumor microenvironment and modulate not only leukocyte infiltration and angiogenesis but also senescence, cell survival and metastasis. (
  • The profile of secreted CXC chemokines was characteristic for each tumor cell line or fresh tumor cells. (
  • Schadendorf, D. The Chemokine RANTES is Secreted by Human Melanoma Cells and is Associated with Enhanced Tumour Formation in Nude Mice. (
  • Measurements of chemokines in BAL fluid showed that levels of RANTES, MCPs‐3 and ‐4, and eotaxins‐1 and ‐2 were significantly increased in fluid obtained from asthmatic children when compared with normal children. (
  • Studies conducted in adult asthmatics have shown that the chemokines RANTES, MCPs‐3 and ‐4, and eotaxins‐1 and ‐2 are implicated in the asthmatic reactions 17 - 21 . (
  • In the present study, the eosinophil-activating chemokines RANTES, MCPs‐3 and ‐4, and eotaxins‐1 and ‐2 have been systematically investigated in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of asthmatic children. (
  • Chemokine-evoked responses rapidly desensitized as indicated by the rapid return to basal [Ca 2+ ](i) levels in the maintained presence of RANTES. (
  • Thus, activation of CCR3 appears to evoke Ca 2+ influx through L-type Ca 2+ channels.These results indicate that β-chemokines, RANTES and eotaxin, activate a nimodipine sensitive Ca 2+ influx pathway in human fetal microglia. (
  • The Chemokine Receptor CCR8 Promotes the Migration of Dendritic Cells into the Lymph Node Parenchyma to Initiate the Allergic Immune Response. (
  • Conclusions ·Chemokine receptors and chemokines in monocyte subsets alter in different types of CHD. (
  • Furthermore, binding of native CXCL12-HiBiT to AlexaFluor488-tagged CXCR4 chemokine receptors could also be distinguished from glycosaminoglycan binding and pharmacologically analysed using BRET. (
  • The CXC chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4)/stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF1) axis has been implicated in the promotion of metastatic potential in several tumors. (
  • Targeting CXCL1 chemokine signaling for treating cisplatin ototoxicity. (
  • These results implicate the CXCL1 chemokine as an early player in cisplatin ototoxicity , possibly by initiating the immune cascade, and indicate that CXCR2 is a relevant target for treating cisplatin ototoxicity . (
  • Moreover, signaling through the chemokine receptor CCR7 is crucial for infiltration of T-ALL cells in the central nervous system. (
  • The chemokine receptor CCR7 is essential for lymphocyte and dendritic cell homing to secondary lymphoid organs. (
  • A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. (
  • The liquid chip (Luminex) technology was applied to detect the expression levels of the above-mentioned serum chemokines in the two groups. (
  • Limitations: The major limitation of the study is lack of data on the lesional chemokine levels compared to serum chemokines. (
  • At Site 1, the receptor N-terminal region binds a groove on the globular body of the chemokine. (
  • At Site 2, the chemokine N-terminal peptide binds within a deep pocket formed by the receptor transmembrane helices (TMs) that is believed to function as the receptor activation switch. (
  • There were no statistically significant differences in chemokine expressions between metastatic esophageal cancer group and non-metastatic esophageal cancer group ( P >0.05). (
  • A major role of chemokines is to mediate leukocyte migration through interaction with G-protein-coupled receptors. (
  • Chemokines bind to chemokine receptors, which are part of the family of G protein-coupled receptors. (
  • The N-terminus of the receptor is bound specifically by chemokines and the G-protein, which induces cell signalling after binding has occurred, is coupled to the receptor at the C-terminus. (
  • The association of the chemokine receptor with the G-protein leads to a chain of events that results in the activation of an enzyme called phospholipase C (PLC). (
  • Expression of Chemokines in Human Glioma Cells: Involvement of Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase 1/2 and p38 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase. (
  • The chemokines are a group of chemotactic cytokines that have been subdivided into four subfamilies on the basis of the position of either one or two cysteine residues located near theamino terminus of the protein (CXCL, CCL, CL, and CX3CL) 15 , 16 . (
  • 2013) β-Arrestin recruitment and G protein signaling by the atypical human chemokine decoy receptor CCX-CKR. (
  • Human cytomegalovirus has hijacked and evolved a human G-protein-coupled receptor into US28, which functions as a promiscuous chemokine 'sink' to facilitate evasion of host immune responses. (
  • HIV-1 Tat protein mimicked chemokine-mediated Ca 2+ signaling and may modulate the migratory and secretory responses of microglia. (
  • In order to determine the factors responsible for chemokine induction in the downstream-signalling pathway of pro-inflammatory cytokines, protein expression of transcription factors (NF-κB, MAPK1 and STAT3) involved in KRAS-mutant (DLD1) and wild type (Caco2) cell lines were studied. (
  • Similarity of chemokines charge and the V3 domain of HIV-1 env protein. (
  • Previously, we have demonstrated that an endotoxin-independent component of swine barn dust extract (SBE) elevates lung chemokines in a protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent manner resulting in the significant formation of lung inflammatory cell infiltrates in a mouse model of SBE injury. (
  • Structures of Orf Virus Chemokine Binding Protein in Complex with Host Chemokines Reveal Clues to Broad Binding Specificity. (
  • Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the chemokine-binding protein from orf virus (Poxviridae). (
  • Therapeutic strategies based on modulation of chemokine receptor pathways were reported to be promising clinical strategies in the treatment of inflammatory diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and atherosclerosis, psoriasis, inflammatory skin diseases and atopic dermatitis, as well as viral infections, including HIV. (
  • The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of GROα and MCP-1 in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and sputum from non-smokers, healthy smokers and patients with COPD, and to see if there was a correlation between the concentrations of these chemokines, lung function, and numbers of inflammatory cells. (
  • Cells counts were performed on the samples and correlations between the concentrations of these chemokines, lung function, and inflammatory cells observed. (
  • Chemokines belong to a class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocyte s. (
  • Conclusion: The inflammatory process in psoriasis is orchestrated through chemokines. (
  • The innate immune response to organic barn dusts results in production of a number of pro-inflammatory factors in the lungs of barn workers such as cytokines, chemokines, and an influx of neutrophils. (
  • There was a similar reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines IL-6, KC, and MIP-2 in SBE plus G31P-treated mice. (
  • ASM additionally exerts pro-inflammatory and immunomodulatory actions, by secreting a variety of cytokines and chemokines. (
  • modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules. (
  • In addition, chemokines induce more effective antitumor immunity when used as adjuvants. (
  • These chemokines induce the migration of immune cells, which target the invasive body through a variety of mechanisms. (
  • The proper movement of immune cells is orchestrated by the spatial and temporal expression of chemokines. (
  • Gronhoj, L. C. Expression of The T-Helper 2-Specific Chemokine Receptor CCR4 on CCR10-Positive Lymphocytes in Atopic Dermatitis Skin but Not in Psoriasis Skin. (
  • The transcriptional repressor BLIMP1 curbs host defenses by suppressing expression of the chemokine CCL8. (
  • This study investigated the production of chemokines and expression of chemokine receptors by human brain endothelial cells (HBEC), in vitro and in situ in multiple sclerosis tissue. (
  • This study aimed to investigate the role of therapeutic dexamethasone (Dex) treatment on the mechanisms underlying chemokine expression during mild and severe acute pancreatitis (AP) experimentally induced in rats. (
  • In conclusion, by targeting MAPKs, NF-κB and STAT3 pathways, Dex treatment down-regulated the chemokine expression in different cell sources during mild and severe AP, resulting in decreased severity of the disease. (
  • Furthermore, evidence has emerged regarding an imbalance between angiogenic and angiostatic chemokine levels, leading to an overall angiogenic pattern of expression in both animal models and tissue specimens from IPF patients. (
  • Our constructs exploit the high expression of chemokine receptors (e.g. (
  • More specifically, we are studying the expression of endothelial adhesion molecules and chemokines in unaffected and tumor tissues, and how these shape the repertoire of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. (
  • Finally, a novel mouse strain was produced with disrupted expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in bronchial epithelial cells (Ccsp-GR-/-). These cells are critical regulators of circadian rhythmicity in the lung and drive rhythmic neutrophil influx in response to LPS stimulation through production of the chemokine CXCL5. (
  • SLO development depends on the precisely regulated expression of cooperating lymphoid chemokines and cytokines such as LTα, LTβ, RANKL, TNF, IL-7, and perhaps IL-17. (
  • Binding of tagged CXCL12 to either chemokine receptors or membrane glycosaminoglycans could be monitored due to the steric constraints of Nanoluciferase complementation. (
  • We are delighted to have Dr. Prior join our team, especially at a time when our platform has discovered a unique chemokine receptor interaction being evaluated in vivo to treat a highly aggressive and difficult to treat form of breast cancer. (
  • Here we demonstrate the development and use of a sensitive real-time approach to quantify secretion and receptor binding of native chemokines in live cells to better understand their molecular interactions and function. (
  • Doms, R. W. Chemokines and Coreceptors in HIV/SIV-host Interactions. (
  • A recent study also suggests that chemokine/chemokine receptor interactions orchestrate extramedullary dissemination in childhood AML. (
  • Chemokines are small cell signalling molecules secreted by certain cells in the presence of infective bodies such as bacteria or viruses. (
  • The chemokine receptors are predominantly expressed on the surface of white blood cells. (
  • Once various immune cells are stimulated by chemokines, they act in several ways including migrating towards the site of infection, activating integrins, releasing the contents of their granules and generating superoxide anions that can destroy invading microbes. (
  • Chemokines, a large family of cytokines with chemotactic activity, and their cognate receptors are expressed by both cancer and stromal cells. (
  • Cytokines are small peptides or glycoproteins, and chemokines are a group of smaller cytokines with chemotactic properties, which are produced by a variety of cells. (
  • Human fetal microglia were grown in primary culture and chemokine-induced increases in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca 2+ ](i)) were measured in single cells using indo-1-based microfluorimetry. (
  • Certain chemokine receptors predominate on either Th1 or Th2 cells. (
  • Furthermore, we demonstrate that cathepsin-activatable chemokines are compatible with both fluorescent and therapeutic cargos, opening new avenues in the design of targeted theranostic probes for immune cells in the tumor microenvironment. (
  • meaning that the higher concentrations of cytokines and chemokines direct activated immune cells to inflamed organs, exacerbating the current state. (
  • When proteases of allergens break the barrier of epithelial cells, they start secreting cytokines and chemokines to call for DCs to sample these allergens. (
  • [ 101 ] Microbial recognition or damage to the tight junction and breach in epithelium causes production and release of numerous chemokines and cytokines to attract innate and adaptive immune cells. (
  • We also provide recent findings about the role in cancer of atypical chemokine receptors that could become future targets for immunotherapy. (
  • Homeostatic chemokines are chemokines that are responsible for basal leukocyte migration. (
  • Leukocyte migration into the CNS is mediated by chemokines, expressed on the surface of brain endothelium. (
  • Chemokines and alcoholic hepatitis: are chemokines good therapeutic targets? (
  • Here, we review available information in preclinical and clinical settings that suggest that the chemokine system represents a valuable target for the development of innovative therapeutic strategies. (
  • Some chemokines present at tumor site can modify leukocyte activation, for instance CXCL16 acting on CXCR6 induces macrophage polarization toward a pro-tumoral phenotype in solid tumors ( 11 , 12 ). (
  • Activation of β-chemokine receptors, co-receptors for human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1), stimulates movement and secretion in microglia, possibly through a Ca 2+ -dependent mechanism. (
  • Here, by taking advantage of the preferential colocalization of intravenously administered erythrocytes with metastases in the lungs, we show that treatment with chemokine-encapsulating nanoparticles that are non-covalently anchored onto the surface of injected erythrocytes results in local and systemic tumour suppression in mouse models of lung metastasis. (
  • Tools & Resources / Publications & References / Publications / Inhibition of metastasis of rhabdomyosarcoma by a novel neutralizing antibody to CXC chemokine receptor-4. (
  • Another approach for inducing a targeted immune response is fusion of a targeting antibody or antibody fragment to a chemokine. (
  • In this review, several chemokines with their role in inducing immune response against different diseases are discussed, with a major emphasis on cancer. (
  • Understanding the underlying mechanisms by which cytokines and chemokines exert their functions will lead to controlling such immune disorders. (
  • We invite investigators to contribute original research articles as well as review articles that may serve as valuable resources to understand the roles of cytokines and chemokines in immune homeostasis and in the pathogenesis of various diseases. (
  • Chemotactic cytokines or chemokines play pivotal roles in various processes such as immune surveillance, organ development, angiogenesis, and immune responses. (
  • There was a significant correlation between the concentrations of MCP‐4 and eosinophil numbers in BAL fluid and a trend between both chemokines MCP‐3 and eotaxin‐2 and eosinophils. (
  • Herein we report the first enzyme-activatable chemokine conjugates for effective targeting of defined macrophage subsets in live tumors. (
  • Both CC and CXC chemokines play a critical role in tumor angiogenesis, essential for tumor growth and metastatic spreading ( 19 , 20 ). (
  • Recently, we analyzed serum biomarkers by using samples from the Gulu outbreak and identified associations between cytokines/chemokines, acute-phase reactants, markers of coagulopathy, and markers of endothelial function and patient death, hemorrhage, and viremia. (