Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Chemokines, CXC: Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.Chemokines, CC: Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.Receptors, Chemokine: Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Chemokine CCL5: A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.Chemokine CXCL10: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemokine CXCL9: An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemokines, C: Group of chemokines without adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes only.Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins: Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.Chemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CCL4: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Chemokine CXCL1: A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.Chemokine CCL3: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Chemokines, CX3C: Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.Chemokine CXCL11: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Chemokine CCL7: A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.Monocyte Chemoattractant Proteins: Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.Chemokine CXCL2: A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Receptors, Interleukin-8B: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.Chemokine CXCL5: A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Duffy Blood-Group System: A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.Receptors, CXCR3: CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.Chemokine CCL19: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL21: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.Chemotactic Factors: Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.Chemokine CCL17: A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Receptors, CCR2: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.Chemokine CCL8: A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.Receptors, CCR1: CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.Chemokine CCL11: A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Chemokine CXCL12: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.Monokines: Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Chemokine CCL22: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.Receptors, Interleukin-8A: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Mice, Inbred C57BLChemokine CCL1: A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CCL24: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Receptors, CCR5: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Chemokine CXCL6: A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CX3CL1: A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.Receptors, CCR3: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Receptors, CXCR4: CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Neutrophil Infiltration: The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.Receptors, CCR10: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Chemokine CXCL13: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Chemokine CCL20: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Receptors, Cytokine: Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Mice, Inbred BALB CReceptors, CCR7: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.beta-Thromboglobulin: A platelet-specific protein which is released when platelets aggregate. Elevated plasma levels have been reported after deep venous thrombosis, pre-eclampsia, myocardial infarction with mural thrombosis, and myeloproliferative disorders. Measurement of beta-thromboglobulin in biological fluids by radioimmunoassay is used for the diagnosis and assessment of progress of thromboembolic disorders.Receptors, CCR4: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Receptors, CCR8: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Platelet Factor 4: A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.Receptors, CCR6: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Chemotactic Factors, Eosinophil: Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.Receptors, CXCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Receptors, CXCR5: CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Chemokine CCL27: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Cell Migration Inhibition: Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.Neutrophil Activation: The process in which the neutrophil is stimulated by diverse substances, resulting in degranulation and/or generation of reactive oxygen products, and culminating in the destruction of invading pathogens. The stimulatory substances, including opsonized particles, immune complexes, and chemotactic factors, bind to specific cell-surface receptors on the neutrophil.Receptors, CCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1: A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Receptors, Interleukin: Cell surface proteins that bind interleukins and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Toll-Like Receptors: A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Leukocyte Rolling: Movement of tethered, spherical LEUKOCYTES along the endothelial surface of the microvasculature. The tethering and rolling involves interaction with SELECTINS and other adhesion molecules in both the ENDOTHELIUM and leukocyte. The rolling leukocyte then becomes activated by CHEMOKINES, flattens out, and firmly adheres to the endothelial surface in preparation for transmigration through the interendothelial cell junction. (From Abbas, Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 3rd ed)Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Microglia: The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1: Cytokine-induced cell adhesion molecule present on activated endothelial cells, tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, bone marrow fibroblasts, myoblasts, and myotubes. It is important for the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, p154)Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Culture Media, Conditioned: Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Macrophages, Alveolar: Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Interleukins: Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.Models, Immunological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.Receptors, HIV: Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Angiostatic Proteins: Proteins that specifically inhibit the growth of new blood vessels (ANGIOGENESIS, PHYSIOLOGIC).CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Interleukin-17: A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Macrophage Activation: The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Lymphotoxin-beta: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on LYMPHOCYTES. It can form a heterotrimer (LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA1, BETA2 HETEROTRIMER) with the soluble ligand LYMPHOTOXIN-ALPHA and anchor it to the cell surface. The membrane-bound complex is specific for the LYMPHOTOXIN BETA receptor.Toll-Like Receptor 4: A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.Receptors, Interleukin-17: Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-17. Several subtypes of receptors have been found, each with its own in specificity for interleukin-17 subtype.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Integrin alpha4beta1: Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.Respiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Synovial Membrane: The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Toll-Like Receptor 2: A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.Mast Cells: Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Interleukin-1alpha: An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Toll-Like Receptor 3: A pattern recognition receptor that binds DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA. It mediates cellular responses to certain viral pathogens.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Endothelium, Lymphatic: Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.

Chemokine mRNA expression in gastric mucosa is associated with Helicobacter pylori cagA positivity and severity of gastritis. (1/4853)

AIM: To investigate the association between the quantity of gastric chemokine mRNA expression, severity of gastritis, and cagA positivity in Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis. METHODS: In 83 dyspeptic patients, antral and corpus biopsies were taken for semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and histological grading of gastritis. Gastritis was evaluated by visual analogue scales. Quantities of chemokine (IL-8, GRO alpha, ENA-78, RANTES, MCP-1) RT-PCR products were compared with G3PDH products. Each sample was also evaluated for the presence of cagA and ureA mRNA by RT-PCR. RESULTS: mRNA expression of all five chemokines was significantly greater in H pylori positive than in H pylori negative mucosa. In H pylori positive patients, in the antrum C-X-C chemokine mRNA expression was significantly greater in cagA positive patients than in cagA negative patients, but there were no significant differences in C-C chemokine mRNA expression. In H pylori positive patients, chemokine mRNA expression in the corpus was less than in the antrum. In contrast to the antrum, only GRO alpha mRNA expression was significantly greater in cagA positive infection. Polymorphonuclear cell infiltration was correlated with C-X-C chemokine mRNA expression. Significant correlations were also found between bacterial density and C-X-C chemokine mRNA expression. CONCLUSIONS: In H pylori infection, C-X-C chemokines may play a primary role in active gastritis. Infection with cagA positive H pylori induces greater gastric chemokine mRNA expression in the antral mucosa, which may be relevant to the increased mucosal damage associated with cagA positive H pylori infection.  (+info)

Isolation of novel GRO genes and a phylogenetic analysis of the CXC chemokine subfamily in mammals. (2/4853)

Approximately 15 different alpha, or CXC, chemokines have thus far been isolated from 11 species of mammals. Among the best studied chemokines are the 12 human proteins that are encoded by 11 paralogous genes. In order to better understand the evolution and function of this group of genes, we isolated and characterized six novel GRO and GRO-related cDNA sequences from the cow (Bos taurus), the sheep (Ovis aries), the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), and the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus). The amino acid sequence of the diverged guinea pig GRO or KC gene is only 50%-60% similar to presumed orthologs from other species, while the sheep and cow GRO proteins are 90%-99% similar to each other. The presence of multiple GRO genes in the cow, the rabbit, and the sheep is consistent with what has been observed for humans. Phylogenetic analyses of amino acid sequences from 44 proteins indicate that genes orthologous to many of the 11 known from humans exist in other species. One such gene, interleukin 8, or IL8, has been isolated from nine species, including the rodent guinea pig; however, this gene is absent in the rat and the mouse, indicating a unique gene loss event in the rat/mouse (muroid rodent) lineage. The KC (or MIP2) gene of rodents appears to be orthologous to the GRO gene found in other taxonomic orders. Combined evidence from different sources suggests that IP10 and MIG share sister taxon relationships on the evolutionary tree, while the remaining paralogous genes represent independent lineages, with limited evidence for kinship between them. This observation indicates that these genes originated nearly contemporaneously via a series of gene duplication events. Relative-rate tests for synonymous and nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions in the KC and IL8 genes did not detect rate heterogeneity; however, there are several notable features regarding the IL8 genes. For example, the IL8 proteins from two Old World monkeys are as similar to one another as they are to the IL8 protein from humans, and all observed nucleotide differences between the IL8 genes of the two monkeys cause amino acid changes; in other words, there are no synonymous differences between them.  (+info)

Selective recruitment of CCR4-bearing Th2 cells toward antigen-presenting cells by the CC chemokines thymus and activation-regulated chemokine and macrophage-derived chemokine. (3/4853)

Helper T cells are classified into Th1 and Th2 subsets based on their profiles of cytokine production. Th1 cells are involved in cell-mediated immunity, whereas Th2 cells induce humoral responses. Selective recruitment of these two subsets depends on specific adhesion molecules and specific chemoattractants. Here, we demonstrate that the T cell-directed CC chemokine thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) was abundantly produced by monocytes treated with granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or IL-3, especially in the presence of IL-4 and by dendritic cells derived from monocytes cultured with GM-CSF + IL-4. The receptor for TARC and another macrophage/dendritic cell-derived CC chemokine macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) is CCR4, a G protein-coupled receptor. CCR4 was found to be expressed on approximately 20% of adult peripheral blood effector/memory CD4+ T cells. T cells attracted by TARC and MDC generated cell lines predominantly producing Th2-type cytokines, IL-4 and IL-5. Fractionated CCR4+ cells but not CCR4- cells also selectively gave rise to Th2-type cell lines. When naive CD4+ T cells from adult peripheral blood were polarized in vitro, Th2-type cells selectively expressed CCR4 and vigorously migrated toward TARC and MDC. Taken together, CCR4 is selectively expressed on Th2-type T cells and antigen-presenting cells may recruit Th2 cells expressing CCR4 by producing TARC and MDC in Th2-dominant conditions.  (+info)

Prospects for cytokine and chemokine biotherapy. (4/4853)

Cytokines with immunostimulating effects have the capacity to induce tumor immunity in animal models, whereas some cytokines interfere with tumor growth based on their angiostatic effects. Despite these capabilities, cytokines, such as IFN-, IFN-, tumor necrosis factor, interleukin (IL)-1, and IL-2, have had limited clinical efficacy and many undesirable side effects. In preclinical models, cytokines can even promote tumor growth and increase metastatic spread. Although chemokines have had limited clinical evaluation, studies of animal models show that they can also have tumor-suppressive or tumor-enhancing effects. In mice, chemokines, such as IP-10, RANTES, and TCA3, have resulted in tumor regression and immunity to subsequent tumor challenge. Those chemokines that are angiostatic (e.g., PF4, IP-10, and MIG) can also induce tumor regression by reducing the tumor blood supply. Conversely, IL-8, which is angiogenic, can promote tumor growth. Our studies show that nasopharyngeal cell line cells (FADU) show a chemotactic as well as a proliferative response to MCP-1. In addition, a variant murine T cell lymphoma cell line Esb-MP, unlike the parental variant Esb, was selectively chemoattracted by murine MCP-1/JE. When injected s.c. into mice, the Esb-MP variant metastasized to the kidney with much higher frequency than the Esb variant. Both cultured kidneys from normal mice and a mesangial cell line constitutively produced chemoattractants that acted on Esb-MP but not Esb parental cells. Purification to homogeneity of these chemoattractants led to the identification of RANTES and JE. These results demonstrate that some chemokines may promote tumor growth and organ-specific metastatic spread of those tumors that have adapted and become responsive to chemokines. Finally, tumors appear to use numerous adaptive mechanisms to subvert and suppress the immune system. More effective therapy with cytokines and chemokines will require better characterization of the means by which tumors develop resistance to cytokines and overcome the immune system. Only then can we develop appropriate therapeutic approaches to antagonize cancer-induced immunosuppression.  (+info)

Persistent chlamydial envelope antigens in antibiotic-exposed infected cells trigger neutrophil chemotaxis. (5/4853)

An in vitro coculture model system was used to explore conditions that trigger neutrophil chemotaxis to Chlamydia trachomatis infected human epithelial cells (HEC-1B). Polarized HEC-1B monolayers growing on extracellular matrix (ECM) were infected with C. trachomatis serovar E. By 36 h, coincident with the secretion of chlamydial lipopolysaccharide and major outer membrane protein to the surfaces of infected cells, human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNL) loaded with azithromycin migrated through the ECM and infiltrated the HEC-1B monolayer. Bioreactive azithromycin was delivered by the chemotactic PMNL to infected epithelial cells in concentrations sufficient to kill intracellular chlamydiae. However, residual chlamydial envelopes persisted for 4 weeks, and PMNL chemotaxis was triggered to epithelial cells containing residual envelopes. Infected endometrial cells demonstrated up-regulation of ENA-78 and GCP-2 chemokine mRNA. Thus, despite appropriate antimicrobial therapy, residual chlamydial envelope antigens may persist in infected tissues of culture-negative women and provide one source for sustained inflammation.  (+info)

Mechanisms of acute inflammatory lung injury induced by abdominal sepsis. (6/4853)

Sequestration of neutrophils and release of histotoxic mediators are considered important for the development of pathologic alterations of the lung defined as adult respiratory distress syndrome. Mechanisms of inflammatory lung injury caused by abdominal sepsis were investigated using the colon ascendens stent peritonitis (CASP) model that closely mimics the human disease. In the CASP model, a continuous leakage of intraluminal bacteria into the peritoneal cavity is induced by implantation of a stent in the ascending colon, generating a septic focus. In contrast to the cecal ligation and puncture model of peritonitis, survival of mice following CASP surgery is dependent on IFN-gamma, but independent of tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Here we show that the systemic inflammation induced by CASP surgery results in a rapid and profound increase of lung vascular permeability that was associated with the activation and recruitment of neutrophils to the lung. Activation of circulating granulocytes was characterized by increased production of serine proteinases and reactive oxygen metabolites, as well as elevated expression of cell surface Mac-1. Expression of MIP-2, KC, MIP-1alpha and E-selectin mRNA in lung was strongly increased within 3 h following CASP surgery, whereas up-regulation of IP-10, MCP-1 and P-selectin was delayed. In contrast, induction of RANTES, LIX, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 mRNA was weak or not detectable after CASP surgery. Importantly, recruitment of leukocytes to the lung was normal in lipopolysaccharide-resistant mice, and was not affected by antibody neutralization of TNF or the chemokines MIP-2 and KC.  (+info)

Chemokine expression in CF epithelia: implications for the role of CFTR in RANTES expression. (7/4853)

To delineate the mechanisms that facilitate leukocyte migration into the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung, expression of chemokines, including interleukin-8 (IL-8), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and RANTES, was compared between CF and non-CF airway epithelia. The findings presented herein demonstrate that, under either basal conditions or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)- and/or interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-stimulated conditions, a consistent pattern of differences in the secretion of IL-8 and MCP-1 between CF and non-CF epithelial cells was not observed. In contrast, CF epithelial cells expressed no detectable RANTES protein or mRNA under basal conditions or when stimulated with TNF-alpha and/or IFN-gamma (P +info)

Cutting edge: clustered AU-rich elements are the target of IL-10-mediated mRNA destabilization in mouse macrophages. (8/4853)

In the present study we show that IL-10-mediated inhibition of inflammatory gene expression can be mediated by an AU-rich element (ARE) cluster present in the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of sensitive genes. A series of chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) reporter gene constructs were prepared in which different fragments from the IL-10-sensitive KC mRNA 3'UTR were placed downstream of the coding region of the reporter gene CAT. CAT mRNA containing the KC 3'UTR was markedly destabilized as compared with the control CAT mRNA, and the decay rate was further increased in cells stimulated with IL-10. The KC 3'UTR contains an ARE cluster and three isolated ARE motifs. The ARE cluster spanning nucleotides 378-399 appeared to be both necessary and sufficient to mediate sensitivity to IL-10 because a 116-nucleotide fragment that contains the cluster conferred sensitivity, while mutation of the sequence between positions 378 and 399 eliminated sensitivity. The destabilizing effect of IL-10 was relatively selective, as the stability of chimeric CAT mRNAs was not modulated in cells treated with IFN-gamma or IL-4.  (+info)

*Chemokine

C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines in that it has ... CCL1 for the ligand 1 of the CC-family of chemokines, and CCR1 for its respective receptor. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) ... CXCR that bind CXC chemokines, CCR that bind CC chemokines, CX3CR1 that binds the sole CX3C chemokine (CX3CL1), and XCR1 that ...

*Chemokine receptor

... s are divided into different families, CXC chemokine receptors, CC chemokine receptors, CX3C chemokine ... CXC chemokine receptors (seven members) CC chemokine receptors (ten/eleven members) C chemokine receptors (one member, XCR1) ... Two types of chemokines that bind to these receptors are inflammatory chemokines and homeostatic chemokines. Inflammatory ... Chemokine receptors are redundant in their function as more than one chemokine is able to bind to a single receptor. ...

*CC chemokine receptors

The CC chemokine receptors all work by activating the G protein Gi. CCR1 was the first CC chemokine receptor identified and ... The orphan chemokine receptor G protein-coupled receptor-2 (GPR-2, CCR10) binds the skin-associated chemokine CCL27 (CTACK/ALP/ ... Human CC chemokine liver-expressed chemokine/CCL16 is a functional ligand for CCR1, CCR2 and CCR5, and constitutively expressed ... Macrophage-derived chemokine is a functional ligand for the CC chemokine receptor 4. J. Biol. Chem. 273:1764-1768 (1998). Gong ...

*CXC chemokine receptors

... are integral membrane proteins that specifically bind and respond to cytokines of the CXC chemokine ... However, CXCR6 is more closely related in structure to CC chemokine receptors than to other CXC chemokine receptors. CXCR7 was ... within the chemokine receptor cluster on human chromosome 3p21) and its similarity to other chemokine receptors in its gene ... The chemokine receptor CXCR5 is expressed on B cells and CD4+ Tfh cells and is involved in lymphocyte homing and the ...

*Broad-spectrum chemokine inhibitor

A broad-spectrum chemokine inhibitor or BSCI (also termed chemotide or somatotaxin ) is a type of experimental anti- ... inflammatory drug that inhibits the action of the pro-inflammatory proteins chemokines. The observation that the chemokine CCL2 ... Grainger DJ, Reckless J, Fox DJ (2005). "Broad Spectrum Chemokine Inhibitors Related to NR58-3.14.3". Mini-Rev. Med. Chem. 5 (9 ... Kayisli UA, Berkkanoglu M, Zhang L, Kizilay G, Arici A (2007). "The Broad-Spectrum Chemokine Inhibitor NR58-3.14.3 Suppresses ...

*C-C chemokine receptor type 6

Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene. CCR6 ... "Entrez Gene: CCR6 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6". Wang K, Zhang H, Kugathasan S, Annese V, Bradfield JP, Russell RK, Sleiman ... "Chemokine Receptors: CCR6". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... Rubie C (Feb 2014). "Chemokine receptor CCR6 expression is regulated by miR-518a-5p in colorectal cancer cells". J Transl Med. ...

*C-C chemokine receptor type 7

"Macrophage-derived chemokine and EBI1-ligand chemokine attract human thymocytes in different stage of development and are ... "Molecular cloning of a novel human CC chemokine EBI1-ligand chemokine that is a specific functional ligand for EBI1, CCR7". The ... identification of a novel chemokine receptor that binds dendritic cell- and T cell-active chemokines including ELC, SLC, and ... "Secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine is a functional ligand for the CC chemokine receptor CCR7". The Journal of Biological ...

*C-C motif chemokine ligand 3 like 3

The protein encoded by this gene binds to several chemokine receptors, including chemokine binding protein 2 and chemokine (C-C ... C-C motif chemokine ligand 3 like 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCL3L3 gene. This gene is one of several ... C-C motif chemokine ligand 3 like 3". Retrieved 2017-09-16. Template:Gene-CHR HSCHR17 7 CTG4-stub This article incorporates ...

*Family with sequence similarity 19 member A4, C-C motif chemokine like

... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FAM19A4 ... C-C motif chemokine like". Retrieved 2017-12-09. Oguri M, Kato K, Yokoi K, Yoshida T, Watanabe S, Metoki N, Yoshida H, Satoh K ... a member of the CC-chemokine family. The TAFA proteins are predominantly expressed in specific regions of the brain, and are ... postulated to function as brain-specific chemokines or neurokines, that act as regulators of immune and nervous cells. ...

*Family with sequence similarity 19 (chemokine (C-C motif)-like), member A1

"Entrez Gene: FAM19A1 family with sequence similarity 19 (chemokine (C-C motif)-like), member A1". Mehrle A, Rosenfelder H, ... a member of the CC-chemokine family. The TAFA proteins are predominantly expressed in specific regions of the brain, and are ... postulated to function as brain-specific chemokines or neurokines that act as regulators of immune and nervous cells. GRCh38: ...

*G protein-coupled receptor

Chemokine receptors bind ligands that mediate intercellular communication between cells of the immune system; receptors such as ... chemokines; lipid mediators of inflammation (e.g., prostaglandins, prostanoids, platelet-activating factor, and leukotrienes); ...

*Alberto Mantovani

His team demonstrated in 2005 that the chemokine receptor D6 acts as a decoy and scavenger receptor for inflammatory chemokines ... Chemokines. 1999. Pharmacology of cytokines. 2000. Gianfranco Bazzoni; Elisabetta Dejana; Alberto Mantovani (2006). Piccin, ed ... which is part of the large superfamily of chemokines, which belong to the family of cytokines. His works help to establish the ... "Increased inflammation in mice deficient for the chemokine decoy receptor D6". European Journal of Immunology. 35 (5): 1342- ...

*CCL2

The CCL2 chemokine is also expressed by neurons, astrocytes and microglia. The expression of CCL2 in neurons is mainly found in ... The chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) is also referred to as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) and small inducible ... In the human genome, CCL2 and many other CC chemokines are located on chromosome 17 (17q11.2-q21.1). The gene span is 1,927 ... CCL2 is a small cytokine that belongs to the CC chemokine family. CCL2 recruits monocytes, memory T cells, and dendritic cells ...

*Resolvin

... and chemokines (e.g. CXCL2, CXCL8, CCL5, etc.) while stimulating the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. ... are full activators while RvE2 is a partaial actiator of the CMKLR1 receptor which is also known as the chemR23 or Chemokine- ...

*CCL11

The effects of CCL11 are mediated by its binding to a G-protein-linked receptor known as a chemokine receptor. Chemokine ... an eosinophil-selective CC chemokine, and identification of a specific eosinophil eotaxin receptor, CC chemokine receptor 3". ... an eosinophil-selective CC chemokine, and identification of a specific eosinophil eotaxin receptor, CC chemokine receptor 3". ... C-C motif chemokine 11 also known as eosinophil chemotactic protein and eotaxin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ...

*Immune system

Le Y, Zhou Y, Iribarren P, Wang J (Apr 2004). "Chemokines and chemokine receptors: their manifold roles in homeostasis and ... chemokines that promote chemotaxis; and interferons that have anti-viral effects, such as shutting down protein synthesis in ... chemokines that promote chemotaxis; and interferons that have anti-viral effects, such as shutting down protein synthesis in ... T cell attraction to the epidermal chemokine CCL27". Nature Immunology. 8 (3): 285-93. doi:10.1038/ni1433. PMID 17259988. ...

*Neuroinflammation

Chemokines are a subset of cytokines that regulate cell migration, such as attracting immune cells to a site of infection or ... Physiologically, chemokines and cytokines function as neuromodulators that regulate inflammation and development. In the ... Various cell types in the brain may produce cytokines and chemokines such as microglia, astrocytes, endothelial cells, and ... After injury and sustained release of inflammatory factors such as chemokines, the blood-brain barrier may be compromised, ...

*Lymph node stromal cell

For example, Naive T cells express the CCR7 receptor for the chemokine CCL21. and B cells exhibit CXCR5 receptors for chemokine ... FRCs express chemokines such as CCL21 and CCL19 which assist the movement of T cells and dentritic cells with CCR7 receptors. ... FDCs produce chemokine CXCL13 which promotes migration of B lymphocytes to the primary B cell follicle. B lymphocytes need a ... The lymph carries chemokines (molecular chemical messengers) and antigens to the lymph node. At the lymph node, the lymph ...

*Colostrum

... chemokines, and others. Colostrum also contains a number of growth factors, such as insulin-like growth factors I (IGF-1), and ... "ELR+ CXC chemokines in human milk". Cytokine. 24 (3): 91-102. doi:10.1016/j.cyto.2003.07.002. PMID 14581003. CS1 maint: ...

*Macrophage

HIV can enter the macrophage through binding of gp120 to CD4 and second membrane receptor, CCR5 (a chemokine receptor). Both ... Lucas AD, Greaves DR (November 2001). "Atherosclerosis: role of chemokines and macrophages". Expert Rev Mol Med. 3 (25): 1-18. ...

*CCR2

... is a chemokine receptor. This CCR2 gene is located in the chemokine receptor gene cluster region. Two alternatively ... C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2 or CD192 (cluster of differentiation 192) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... Ruibal-Ares BH, Belmonte L, Baré PC, Parodi CM, Massud I, de Bracco MM (January 2004). "HIV-1 infection and chemokine receptor ... "Chemokine Receptors: CCR2". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...

*Interleukin 8 receptor, alpha

This name and the corresponding gene symbol IL8RA have been replaced by the HGNC approved name C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 1 ... "Chemokine Receptors: CXCR1". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... Ahuja SK, Murphy PM (1996). "The CXC chemokines growth-regulated oncogene (GRO) alpha, GRObeta, GROgamma, neutrophil-activating ... a new inhibitor of the chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2". Biochem. Pharmacol. 69 (3): 385-94. doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2004.10.007 ...

*CXCR6

"Cell surface-anchored SR-PSOX/CXC chemokine ligand 16 mediates firm adhesion of CXC chemokine receptor 6-expressing cells". ... C-X-C chemokine receptor type 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CXCR6 gene. CXCR6 has also recently been ... "Entrez Gene: CXCR6 chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 6". Elliott ST, Wetzel KS, Francella N, Bryan S, Romero DC, Riddick NE, ... Ruibal-Ares BH, Belmonte L, Baré PC, Parodi CM, Massud I, de Bracco MM (January 2004). "HIV-1 infection and chemokine receptor ...

*XCR1

... chemokine (C motif) receptor 1". "Chemokine Receptors: XCR1". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International ... The "C" sub-family of chemokine receptors contains only one member: XCR1, the receptor for XCL1 and XCL2 (or lymphotactin-1 and ... The protein encoded by this gene is a chemokine receptor belonging to the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. The family ... 2001). "Role of C chemokine lymphotactin in mediating recruitment of antigen-specific CD62L(lo) cells in vitro and in vivo". ...

*CXCR3

Chemokine receptor CXCR3 is a Gαi protein-coupled receptor in the CXC chemokine receptor family. Other names for CXCR3 are G ... Chemokine receptors Chemokine Cluster of differentiation GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000186810 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38 ... "Expression of specific chemokines and chemokine receptors in the central nervous system of multiple sclerosis patients". The ... "Entrez Gene: CXCR3 chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 3". Yates CC, Whaley D, Kulasekeran P, Hancock WW, Lu B, Bodnar R, Newsome ...
article{7c45b648-bb75-40bb-a1de-8aa59d14e5c0, abstract = {Huntingtons disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by both neurological and systemic abnormalities. Immune activation is a well-established feature of the HD brain and we have previously demonstrated a widespread, progressive innate immune response detectable in plasma throughout the course of HD. In the present work we used multiplex ELISA to quantify levels of chemokines in plasma from controls and subjects at different stages of HD. We found an altered chemokine profile tracking with disease progression, with significant elevations of five chemokines (eotaxin-3, MIP-1β, eotaxin, MCP-1 and MCP-4) while three (eotaxin-3, MIP-1β and eotaxin) showed significant linear increases across advancing disease stages. We validated our results in a separate sample cohort including subjects at different stages of HD. Here we saw that chemokine levels (MCP-1 and eotaxin) correlated with clinical scores. We conclude ...
Chemokines mediate diverse fundamental biological processes, including combating infection. Multiple chemokines are expressed at the site of infection; thus chemokine synergy by heterodimer formation may play a role in determining function. Chemokine function involves interactions with G-protein-coupled receptors and sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAG). However, very little is known regarding heterodimer structural features and receptor and GAG interactions. Solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and molecular dynamics characterization of platelet-derived chemokine CXCL7 heterodimerization with chemokines CXCL1, CXCL4, and CXCL8 indicated that packing interactions promote CXCL7-CXCL1 and CXCL7-CXCL4 heterodimers, and electrostatic repulsive interactions disfavor the CXCL7-CXCL8 heterodimer. As characterizing the native heterodimer is challenging due to interference from monomers and homodimers, we engineered a
The research interest of my group remains focused on Chemokine activities in physiology and pathology, with an emphasis on the mechanisms governing fine-tuning modulation of their expression and activity. Chemokines are secreted proteins and have emerged as key controllers of integrin function and cell locomotion. The effects of chemokines are mediated by seven transmembrane domain receptors coupled to GTP-binding proteins, which are differentially expressed in a wide range of cell types. The resulting combinatorial diversity in responsiveness to chemokines guarantees the proper tissue distribution of distinct leukocyte subsets under normal and inflammatory/pathological conditions. A vast range of in situ experiments, aimed at understanding which chemokines are produced in specific circumstances, has revealed that a variety of chemokines can be concomitantly produced at target sites of leukocyte trafficking and homing. This renders the chemokine system a good target for therapy, and has ...
Certain viruses have the ability to subvert the mammalian immune response, including interference in the chemokine system. Poxviruses produce the chemokine binding protein vCCI (viral CC chemokine inhibitor; also called 35K), which tightly binds to CC chemokines. To facilitate the study of vCCI, we first provide a protocol to produce folded vCCI from Escherichia coli (E. coli.) It is shown here that vCCI binds with unusually high affinity to viral Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-II (vMIP-II), a chemokine analog produced by the virus, human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8). Fluorescence anisotropy was used to investigate the vCCI:vMIP-II complex and shows that vCCI binds to vMIP-II with a higher affinity than most other chemokines, having a Kd of 0.06 ± 0.006 nM. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shift perturbation experiments indicate that key amino acids used for binding in the complex are similar to those found in previous work. Molecular dynamics were then used to compare the vCCI:vMIP-II ...
Chemokines, adhesion molecules, cytokines and proteases regulate the extravasation of leucocytes during acute and chronic inflammation and leucocyte homing. Chemokines are produced after transcriptional activation by inflammatory mediators such as cytokines or microbial Toll-like receptor ligands and their effect depends on the expression of chemokine receptors on specific cell types. More and more evidence points towards a role for post-translational modifications in the fine-tuning of chemokine activity. Although both glycosylation and proteolytic processing of the C- and/or N-terminus of chemokines has been reported, mainly proteolytic processing of the N-terminus appears to affect the receptor specificity, chemotactic property and signalling potency of these low-molecular-mass proteins. N-terminal processing of chemokines by aminopeptidases or endoproteases may alter the receptor specificity and may result in up- or down-regulation of their chemotactic, antiviral or angiogenic activity. ...
LEGENDplex™ NHP IL-6 Capture Bead A5, 13X - LEGENDplex™ NHP Chemokine/Cytokine Panel Capture Beads are intended for use with the following reagents:740331 (LEGENDplex™ NHP Chemokine/Cytokine Panel Detection Antibodies)740330 (LEGENDplex™ NHP Chemokine/Cytokine Panel Standard)740368 (LEGENDplex™ Buffer Set).
Radiation combined injury (CI) is a radiation injury (RI) combined with other types of injury, which generally leads to greater mortality than RI alone. A spectrum of specific, time-dependent pathophysiological changes is associated with CI. Of these changes, the massive release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, severe hematopoietic and gastrointestinal losses and bacterial sepsis are important treatment targets to improve survival. Ciprofloxacin (CIP) is known to have immunomodulatory effect besides the antimicrobial activity. The present study reports that CIP ameliorated pathophysiological changes unique to CI that later led to major mortality. B6D2F1/J mice received CI on day 0, by RI followed by wound trauma, and were treated with CIP (90 mg/kg p.o., q.d. within 2 h after CI through day 10). At day 10, CIP treatment not only significantly reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine concentrations, including interleukin-6 (IL-6) and KC (i.e., IL-8 in human), but it also enhanced IL-3 production
Although epidemiologic and experimental evidence strongly indicates chronic inflammation as a risk factor for cancer, it remains unclear how chronic inflammation contributes carcinogenesis. Here we show that deletion of PPARδ diminishes colonic inflammation by reducing infiltration of immune cells via downregulation of pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokine in a mouse model of colon inflammation. These chemokines are responsible for recruitment of leukocytes from the circulation to local inflammatory sites. Our results further reveal that COX-2 is a downstream target of PPARδ and COX-2-derived PGE2 stimulates macrophages to produce pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokine. PGE2 is a crucial mediator of colorectal carcinogenesis. More importantly, loss of PPARδ attenuated colonic inflammation-associated adenoma growth in two mouse models of inflammation-associated colorectal cancer. Our results demonstrate that PPARδ promotes chronic colonic inflammation and colitis-associated ...
Atherosclerosis - the common disease where arteries become blocked and restrict blood flow - could result in a devastating heart attack if an artery that supplies blood to the heart is affected.. Studies have shown that chemokines (small chemoattractant proteins) play a key role in the development of atherosclerosis, as they recruit immune cells to the site of inflammation. By inhibiting the functions of chemokines, we could potentially reduce the progression of atherosclerosis - essentially, stop it in its tracks.. Lead researcher Dhanya Ravindran originally started investigating how atherosclerosis might be prevented by inhibiting chemokines while in the HRI Immunobiology Group, led by Dr Christina Bursill.. Enter the chemokine binding protein M3. M3 is a broad-spectrum chemokine inhibitor that binds and inactivates chemokines, helping to prevent the host immune response during inflammation/injury. It also has the vital ability to inactivate a range of the key chemokines involved in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chemokines in ischemia and reperfusion. AU - Frangogiannis, Nikolaos G.. PY - 2007/5. Y1 - 2007/5. N2 - Chemokine signaling plays an important role in the post-ischemic inflammatory response. Overlapping pathways involving reactive oxygen intermediates, Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation, the complement cascade and the nuclear factor (NF)-κB system induce both CXC and CC chemokines in ischemic tissues. Reperfusion accentuates chemokine expression promoting an intense inflammatory reaction. ELR-containing CXC chemokines regulate neutrophil infiltration in the ischemic area, whereas CXCR3 ligands may mediate recruitment of ThI cells. CC chemokines, on the other hand, induce mononuclear cell infiltration and macrophage activation. Evidence suggests that chemokine signaling mediates actions beyond leukocyte chemotaxis and activation, regulating angiogenesis and fibrous tissue deposition. Effective repair of ischemic tissue is dependent on a well-orchestrated cellular response and ...
The migration of leukocytes in response to chemokine gradients is an important process in the homeostasis of the human immune system and inflammation. In vivo the migration takes place on the surface of the endothelium to which the chemokine gradient is immobilized via interaction with glycosaminoglycans. To study leukocyte migration in response to surface-bound chemokines, we generated chemokine gradients by a simple stamping method: agarose stamps were soaked with chemokine solution to form continuous chemokine gradients by diffusion. These gradients could be easily transferred to a petri dish surface by stamping. We show that neutrophil granulocytes recognize these gradients and migrate toward increasing chemokine concentrations dependent on the slope of the gradient. Single-cell responses were recorded, and statistical analyses of cell behavior and migration were performed. For analysis of chemotaxis/haptotaxis, we propose a chemotactic precision index that is broadly applicable, valid, and ...
i have to travel to buffalo to get that test....dang. i am too sick to walk! lol...i will have to go to quest since i owe labcorp a couple of grand!...
Chemokines, or chemotactic cytokines, are a large family of small (6 14 kDa), structurally related proteins that mediate a wide range of biological activities. As a part of normal immune system functions, chemokines are a critical component of basal leukocyte trafficking essential for immune system architecture and development, and immune surveillance. Chemokines also participate in the growth, differentiation, and activation of leukocytes as well as stimulate various effector functions of these cells, such as integrin activation, chemotaxis, superoxide radical production and granule enzyme release. Four classes of chemokines have been defined by the arrangement of the conserved cysteine (C) residues of the mature proteins: the CXC chemokines the CC chemokines in which the first two conserved cysteines residues are adjacent; the C chemokines that lack two (the first and third) of the four conserved cysteine residues; and the CX3C chemokines which have three intervening AA residues between the ...
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Over the last several years there has been a great deal of progress in characterizing the role of dendritic cells (DCs) in the activation and modulation of B cells. DC-secreted chemokines can induce B cell trafficking to ...
Over the last several years there has been a great deal of progress in characterizing the role of dendritic cells (DCs) in the activation and modulation of B cells. DC-secreted chemokines can induce B cell trafficking to ...
In this study, we directly compared gene expression and secreted protein levels for a set of cytokines/chemokines using gene microarray and protein multiplexing technologies.. Our results suggest that although for some cytokines/chemokines, expression levels closely mirror protein levels (IFN-γ, MIP1A, IP10, and TNF-α) or moderately parallel protein levels (IL-2, GM-CSF, IL-5, RANTES, and MCP1), for other markers this is not the case (IL-1A, IL-1B, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17A, IL-17B, G-CSF, and eotaxin).. The imperfect and variable correlation between mRNA and protein levels is in agreement with previous reports (4, 10-13) and can be explained by posttranscriptional and posttranslational regulation and by misclassification due to measurement errors (14-17). The different levels of inaccuracy, noise, and sensitivity and dynamic ranges of the methods used for transcript and protein analysis likely contribute to the lack of correlation observed for several of the markers examined ...
Chemokines comprise a family of about 40 low-molecular-weight cytokines (see , Cytokines) with important roles in the immune system, as well as functions beyond it. The name chemokine, a contraction of
Chemokines comprise a family of about 40 low-molecular-weight cytokines (see , Cytokines) with important roles in the immune system, as well as functions beyond it. The name chemokine, a contraction of
Commensal Bacteria and Expression of Two Major Intestinal Chemokines, TECK-CCL25 and MEC-CCL28, and Their Receptors. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The experiments described in this paper allow us to make two primary conclusions. First, neural progenitors will migrate toward sites of neuroinflammation, and, second, this may be attributable to, at least in part, the release of chemokines from activated cells participating in the neuroinflammatory response. That this should be so is consistent with several previous observations in the literature. These include observations that neural progenitors will migrate toward areas of brain injury in vivo (Picard-Riera et al., 2002; Ben-Hur et al., 2003; Kokaia and Lindvall, 2003; Parent, 2003; Imitola et al., 2004; Jin et al., 2004; Kelly et al., 2004; Glass et al., 2005; Pluchino et al., 2005), that neural progenitors express chemokine receptors (Ji et al., 2004; Krathwohl and Kaiser, 2004b; Peng et al., 2004; Tran et al., 2004a; Pluchino et al., 2005), that chemokines act as chemoattractants for these cells (Tran et al., 2004a; Widera et al., 2004; Pluchino et al., 2005), and that cells involved in ...
Kemokiinid (ka kemotaktsed tsütokiinid; inglise keeles chemokines) on selgroogsete loomade mitmete tuumaga rakkude poolt (eosinofiilid, basofiilid, neutrofiilid, makrofaagid, endoteelirakud, keratinotsüüdid, fibroblastid jt) komplekteeritavate ja vabastatavate selliste väikesemolekuliliste looduslike valkude perekond, mis vahendavad lühiajaliselt ja lokaalselt erinevaid bioloogilisi toimeid ja rakkudevahelist informatsiooni seondudes G-valguga seotud retseptoreid omavate rakkude membraaniga ja aktiveerides ensüümi fosfolipaas C. Kemokiinide sarnaseid valke on tuvastatud teatud bakteritel ja viirustel. Kemokiinide funktsiooniks on mitmete rakkude sundviimine nakkus- või põletikukoldesse, lisaks reguleerivad kemokiinid lümfikudede ja närvisüsteemi arengut ja leukotsüütide migratsiooni, küpsemist, aktivatsiooni jm. Varem on neid liigitatud α,β,γ ja δ- rühma, tänapäeval liigitatakse aga sellisteks perekondadeks nagu CC- (β-kemokiinid), CXC- (α-kemokiinid), CX3C- (δ- ...
The question why CD4+/CD25+ T cells are reduced in asthmatic patients has not been answered yet; however, it has been observed that these cells reveal a reduced response to the chemokines CCL1 and CXCL1 suggesting an impaired recruitment to the lung [137, 138 ...
    Background & aim: Chemerin are novel adipokines that are secreted from adipose tissue and improved insulin sensitive. The purpose of this study was to examine the ffects of rhythmic aerobic exercise plus core stability training on serum chemerin levels and Insulin resistance, glucose levels and body composition of ...
Chemokines belong to a class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. Their name is derived from chemotactic cytokines" based on their ability to induce and mediate chemotaxis in nearby responsive cells. Formerly, they were called SIS family of cytokines, SIG family of cytokines, SCY family of cytokines, Platelet factor-4 superfamily or intercrines. Chemokines can be divided into at least four structural branches: c (chemokines, c), cc (chemokines, cc), cx3c (chemokines, cx3c), and cxc (chemokines, cxc). The classification is according to the variations in a shared cysteine motif. Chemokines may also be classified based on their functions. Homeostatic chemokines are chemokines that are responsible for basal leukocyte migration. Examples of homeostatic chemokines are CCL14, CCL19, CCL20, CCL21, CXCL12 and CXCL13. Nevertheless, some of them are not exclusive to this function. For instance, CCL20 is also associated with inflammation since it can act as ...
Migration of T-lymphocytes on a surface coated with extracellular matrix (ECM) components (two-dimensional (2-D) migration) and migration (infiltration) into a matrix (Three-dimesional (3-D) migration) are complex events and the underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Here 2-D and 3-D migration were studied by use of seven leukemic T-cell lines representing discrete differentiation stages, a non-leukemic T-cell clone, and normal peripheral blood T cells. peripheral blood lymphocytes and the T-cell clone produced nanogram quantities of various chemokines, as compared to a production of ≤ 0.05 ng/ml by the T leukemia cell lines. In a Boyden chamber system, the leukemic T-cell lines showed haptotactic migration on fibronectin. The migration was augmented bu exposure to chemokines, including RANTES, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and IL-8. The T-cell lines showed a peak response at a chemokine concentration of 10-50 ng/ml, whereas the T-cell clone responded optimally at 100 ng/ml. In contrast to a ...
Myeloid dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells critical for the orchestration of immunity and maintenance of self-tolerance. DC development and functions are tightly regulated by
We have characterized previously the expression of the chemokines eotaxin, MCP-5, RANTES, and MCP-1 (mRNA and/or protein), and correlated this with the leukocytes migrating to the lung during a murine model of lung inflammation ((5), (16)). From these experiments, we concluded that MCP-1 mRNA expression paralleled the accumulation of monocytes/macrophages in this organ, both events occurring predominantly at early stages of the response (day 15). Also, eotaxin mRNA expression paralleled lung eosinophilia predominantly at late stages (day 21). In contrast, other chemokines, such as RANTES or MCP-5, were expressed throughout the inflammatory reaction. This underlines the contribution of chemokines at different stages of the response.. From the work presented here, we first conclude that eosinophil recruitment and development of BHR in this model system involve the action of both eosinophilic (eotaxin, RANTES, MCP-5, and MIP-1α) and noneosinophilic chemokines (MCP-1). This indicates the absence of ...
The contribution of inflammation to the development of fibrosis varies in different conditions, and understanding the interaction between these processes is relevant to devise therapeutic strategies for chronic diseases such as pancreatitis. Identification of the chemokine system has elucidated the molecular mechanisms regulating leucocyte trafficking in a given tissue. Chemokines are a family of small cytokines that exert gradient dependent chemoattraction of cells bearing specific cognate receptors. The chemokine system is considerably complex, as indicated by the high number of ligands and receptors, and by the fact that the same chemokine may bind more than one receptor and the same receptor more than one chemokine.2 Additionally, the effects of chemokines are not limited to inflammation as the majority of cells express at least one chemokine receptor. A related aspect of chemokine biology is the distinction between "homeostatic" and "inflammatory" chemokines, where expression of the latter ...
Previous studies by our group and others have addressed the relationship between leukocyte infiltration into solid tumors and chemokine expression (14 , 16 , 23) . To our knowledge, this work is the first comprehensive study of CC chemokines and chemokine receptor expression in human ovarian cancer ascites.. We found that ascitic fluid is rich in CC chemokines and that the CD14-expressing cells and T cells present in ovarian cancer ascites express CC chemokine receptor mRNA and protein.. Is the extent and phenotype of the leukocyte infiltration in ovarian ascites related to chemokines and chemokine receptor expression? Gradients of chemokines usually cause tissue recruitment of leukocytes through effects on adhesion and endothelial transmigration (24) . Our data suggest that CC chemokine protein levels are significantly higher in ascitic fluid than in patient plasma samples. Therefore, chemokines present in ascites could form a gradient for leukocyte migration into the peritoneal cavity. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - L-Arginine attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced lung chemokine production. AU - Calkins, Casey M.. AU - Bensard, Denis D.. AU - Heimbach, Julie K.. AU - Meng, Xianzhong. AU - Shames, Brian D.. AU - Pulido, Edward J.. AU - McIntyre, Robert C.. PY - 2001/3. Y1 - 2001/3. N2 - Chemokines stimulate the influx of leukocytes into tissues. Their production is regulated by nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), an inducible transcription factor under the control of inhibitory factor κB-α (IκB-α). We have previously demonstrated that L-arginine (L-Arg) attenuates neutrophil accumulation and pulmonary vascular injury after administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We hypothesized that L-Arg would attenuate the production of lung chemokines by stabilizing IκB-α and preventing NF-κB DNA binding. We examined the effect of L-Arg on chemokine production, IκB-α degradation, and NF-κB DNA binding in the lung after systemic LPS. To block nitric oxide (NO) production, a NO synthase inhibitor was ...
Lung cancer cells express different chemokines and chemokine receptors that modulate leukocyte infiltration within tumor microenvironment. The released CXCL1 was functionally linked to recruiting monocytes into lung cancer cell microenvironment. and in Lewis lung carcinomas (LLC) [10]. In human airway epithelium and bronchoalveolar macrophages, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and CXCL1 were buy BAM 7 constitutively expressed and upregulated buy BAM 7 by TNF- but not by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) [11]. In pathological conditions, various cancer and/or cancer cells express different chemokines and chemokine receptor that modulate leukocyte infiltration within tumor microenvironment, tumor growth and metastasis. For example, CXCL1 has been reported to be expressed in melanoma, breast, colon and ovarian cancer [3]. Non-small cell TSPAN11 lung cancer (NSCLC) biopsy specimens have high buy BAM 7 intratumoral concentrations of CXCR2 ligands (CXCL1, CXCL5, and CXCL8) and type 2 cytokines ...
Enhanced expression of chemotactic cytokines (aka chemokines) within pancreatic islets likely contributes to islet inflammation by regulating the recruitment and activation of various leukocyte populations, including macrophages, neutrophils, and T-lymphocytes. Because of the powerful actions of these chemokines, precise transcriptional control is required. In this review, we highlight what is known about the signals and mechanisms that govern the transcription of genes encoding specific chemokine proteins in pancreatic islet β-cells, which include contributions from the NF-κB and STAT1 pathways. We further discuss increased chemokine expression in pancreatic islets during autoimmune-mediated and obesity-related development of diabetes.
The prediction of aspirate type (NS, ACID, SNAP, and CASP) was performed using an approach recently defined by Hutson15 to extend standard ROC methodology.16 In brief, lung injury type was modeled as a 2 × 2 outcome with injury groups recoded as NS = (ACID = 0, particles = 0), ACID = (ACID = 1, particles = 0), SNAP = (ACID = 0, particles = 1), or CASP = (ACID = 1, particles = 1). In the foregoing, the two factors in injury type are ACID and particles, and the two levels for each factor are no = 0 and yes = 1. The basic algorithm used in predictive modeling considered the following population probability parameters given by Π00= Probability (NS) = Pr (ACID = no, particles = no); Π10= Pr (ACID) = Pr (ACID = yes, particles = no); Π01= Pr (SNAP) = Pr (ACID = no, particles = yes); and Π11= Pr (CASP) = Pr (ACID = yes, particles = yes). These population probability parameters were modeled as a function of a linear combination of cytokine levels under the constraint that they sum to 1, i.e. , ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Spontaneous and antigen-induced production of HIV-inhibitory β- chemokines are associated with AIDS-free status. AU - Garzino-Demo, A.. AU - Moss, R. B.. AU - Margolick, Joseph Bernard. AU - Cleghorn, F.. AU - Sill, A.. AU - Blattner, W. A.. AU - Cocchi, F.. AU - Carlo, D. J.. AU - DeVico, A. L.. AU - Gallo, R. C.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - The β-chemokines RANTES, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, and MIP-1β suppress infection by macrophage-tropic strains of HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) by binding and down-regulating the viral coreceptor, CCR5. Accordingly, we have examined whether higher levels of CCR5 ligands are associated with a more favorable clinical status in AIDS. A cross-sectional study of 100 subjects enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study at the Baltimore site was conducted to measure chemokine production and lymphocyte proliferation by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Statistical analyses of the data revealed that the ...
The therapeutic goal in autoimmune diseases such as RA is to control disease, to establish remission, and eventually to cure. In theory, this goal can be achieved using either Ag-specific approaches, for example, elimination of self-reactive T cells (assuming that a finite number of key Ags can be identified as the target of the autoimmune process in RA), or the non-Ag-specific approaches, for example, blockade of cytokines as in the case of TNF-a neutralization. Currently, only the latter types of approaches have yielded clinical benefit, and it is in this category that approaches to block chemokines or receptors may be included. Despite their appeal in terms of effectiveness, non-Ag-specific approaches carry a higher risk of immunosuppression and opportunistic infections (48).. Although there is a myriad of ongoing clinical trials testing the effects of chemokine/receptor blockers in RA (Table 1), to date one cannot yet predict how many of the current targets will prove to be clinically ...
Researchers found that fibromyalgia patients have higher concentrations of inflammatory chemokines, a biomarker which could help diagnose FM.
Author Summary Although HIV, the causative agent of AIDS, establishes a lifelong infection that cannot be eradicated even with effective treatment, the host immune system has the ability to contain its replication for many years in which the disease remains asymptomatic. Key players in HIV control are CD8+ T cells, specialized immune cells that can not only destroy infected cells, but also secrete soluble factors that suppress the virus without killing infected cells. CD8+ T cells produce multiple HIV-suppressive factors, including certain chemokines (soluble proteins that attract immune cells), which block the virus even before it can gain access to its target cells. In the present study, we characterize a new anti-HIV chemokine, XCL1 or lymphotactin, which is primarily produced by CD8+ T cells. A unique feature of XCL1 is that, unlike other antiviral chemokines, it has a very broad spectrum of activity against different variants of HIV-1 and directly binds the virus outer coat, rather than blocking
Use of cell adhesion inhibitor for the mobilization of antigen presenting cells and immune cells in a cell mixture (AIM) from the peripheral blood and methods of use - Disclosed is a method to recover an antigen presenting cells (APCs) and immune cells rich mixture (AIM) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) mobilized with one or more cell adhesion inhibitors for the preparation of an AIM vaccine or an AIM adoptive immunotherapy preparation. In addition, AIM mobilization can be enhanced by priming, simultaneously or in sequence, one or more of a combination of different chemical compounds, cytokines, hormones, growth factors, etc. The interaction of chemokines and chemokine receptors enable tumor cells attachment or in close proximity to antigen presenting cells and immune cells which possess similar receptors in a micro niche environment. Severing the chemokine/chemokine receptor linkage by a cell adhesion inhibitor will release these specifically primed cell mixtures into the ...
Cell Sciences recombinant proteins include chemokines, cytokines, growth factors, as well as chemokine, cytokine and growth factor receptors.
Cell Sciences recombinant proteins include chemokines, cytokines, growth factors, as well as chemokine, cytokine and growth factor receptors.
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Our results showed that poly(I:C), a TLR3 agonist, up-regulated the production of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines such as MIP1-α, MIP1-β, RANTES, IL-6, and IL-8, by activating NFκB. Incubation of HCECs with poly(I:C) also activated IRF3 followed by IFN-β production. The up-regulated expression of TLR 3 by poly(I:C) indicates that the TLR3/TRIF signaling pathways were most likely activated by poly(I:C) in HCECs. This is consistent with previous reports [1,15-17]. The cytokines and chemokines investigated are known to have powerful effects in recruiting immune cells and stimulating the maturation of dendritic cells [29-31]. Therefore, we suggest that corneal epithelial cells, when the TLR3s are activated de novo, are able to recruit and activate immune cells against viral infections. Our results showed that DEX and CsA inhibit the poly(I:C)-induced NFκB activation and the subsequent production of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines. Earlier studies have shown that the concentration of ...
Immunology lecture on chemokines, chemokine receptor profiles, kinin and clotting system, fibrinolytic system, neutrophils, acute and chronic inflammation and NSAIDs.
Chemokines mediate repair in the adult CNS. Following demyelination, CXCL12 and its receptors, CXCR4 and CXCR7, are upregulated on astrocytes and endothelial ce
Ackr2 - Ackr2 (untagged) - Mouse chemokine binding protein 2 (Ccbp2), (10ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
AlphaLISA no-wash assay kit for detection and quantitation of Mouse/Rat C-C Motif Chemokine 5 / Regulated Upon Activation Normal T-Cell Expressed, and Secreted (CCL5/RANTES) in serum, bronchial lavage fluid (BALF), buffered solution or cell culture medium.
With Custom Mix-n-Match Multi-Analyte ELISArray Kits, a custom panel of cytokines or chemokines is arranged in a 96-well microplate to your specifications. Select 12 individual cytokines or select fewer cytokines and increase the number of samples per plate ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential effects of protein kinase C inhibitors on chemokine production in human synovial fibroblasts. AU - Jordan, Nicola J.. AU - Watson, Malcolm L.. AU - Yoshimura, Teizo. AU - Westwick, John. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - 1. Rheumatoid arthritis is associated with the accumulation and activation of selected populations of inflammatory cells within the arthritic joint. One putative signal for this process is the production, by resident cells, of a group of inflammatory mediators known as the chemokines. 2. The chemokines interleukin-8 (IL-8), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and RANTES (regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and presumably secreted) are target-cell specific chemoattractants produced by synovial fibroblasts in response to stimulation with interleukin-1α (IL-1α) or tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα). The signalling pathways involved in their production are not well defined. We therefore used four different protein kinase C inhibitors to ...
Purpose: : Epithelial cells from several mucosal sites (including conjunctiva) have been shown to actively participate during inflammatory episodes by producing and secreting cytokines and chemokines. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of cytokines/chemokine secretion from conjunctival epithelial cells under the effect of Th1 and Th2-type cytokines to further clarify the role of conjunctival epithelium in ocular surface inflammation. Methods: : IOBA-NHC (normal human conjunctival) epithelial cells were exposed to Th1- (IFN-γ and TNF-α) or Th2- (IL-4 and IL-13) derived cytokines for 48 h. Time dependency (30 min, 2 h and 24 h) of TNF-α induced cytokine/chemokine secretion was additionally studied. Cytokine/chemokine production was determined in supernatants by a 22-multiplex bead-based assay in a Luminex 100-IS. Additionally, eotaxin-2 and -3 production was analyzed with by ELISA. Results: : After 48 h of Th1 stimulation, cells produced high levels of IL-1α, IL-6, IL8, RANTES ...
The purpose of this study was to determine whether certain chemokines, which are highly expressed in injured skeletal muscle, are involved in the repair and functional recovery of the muscle after traumatic injury. In wild-type control mice, mRNA transcripts of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 as well as their major receptors, CC
Flagellin and LPS induced the expression of a number of other chemokines. The neutrophil-active chemokines GRO-α, GRO-β, GRO-γ, and IL-8 were expressed in both LPS- and fliC-treated DCs, as were the monocyte/macrophage/NK-active chemokines MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and RANTES. These findings suggest that DCs not only play a role in the initiation of an acquired immune response, but that they may also play a role in amplifying the early immune response by participating in the trafficking of innate immune cells to sites of infection. The early expression of these chemokines (1-3 h) is consistent with the notion that iDCs, upon encounter with pathogens, express these chemokines before the expression of the lymph node homing chemokine receptor CCR7, which is maximally expressed at 24 h after stimulation (Fig. 2⇑B).. Another intriguing finding was that murine splenic DCs do not mature to purified bacterial flagellin. Besides providing a control for the purity of our fliC preparation, this seems ...
Some chemokines are produced by leukocytes and other cells in response to external stimuli and are involved in inflammatory reactions, and other chemokines are produced constitutively in tissues and play a role in tissue organization. Chemokines were discovered on the basis of their activity as leukocyte chemoattractants, and this action is the main basis of their functional roles.. • Chemokines are essential for the recruitment of circulating leukocytes from blood vessels into extravascular sites. Leukocyte recruitment, including naive lymphocytes entering lymph nodes through high endothelial venules and effector lymphocytes, monocytes, and neutrophils entering into tissue sites of infection, is regulated by the actions of several chemokines. Che-mokines produced in the tissues bind to heparan sulfate proteoglycans on endothelial cells that line postcapillary venules and are displayed in this way to circulating leukocytes that have bound to the endo-thelial surfaces through adhesion molecule ...
Chemokines are small immune system proteins mediating leukocyte migration and activation, and are important in many aspects of health and diseases. Some chemokines also have the ability to block HIV-1 infection by binding to the HIV-1 co-receptors CCR5 (CC chemokine receptor 5) and CXCR4 (CXC chemokine receptor 4). The first part of this work is to determine the mechanism of action of a human herpesvirus-8 encoded viral chemokine analog vMIP-II (viral macrophage inflammatory protein-II) by characterizing its interactions with endothelial surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and cell surface receptors. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), mutagenesis and molecular-docking were conducted and results show that vMIP-II tightly binds glycosaminoglycans using residues distributed along one face of the protein, such as R18, R46 and R48, and that there is a shift in the GAG binding site between the monomer and dimer form of vMIP-II where the N-terminus is involved in GAG binding for the dimer. This study, for ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of a novel chemokine-dependent molecular mechanism underlying Rheumatoid arthritisassociated autoantibody-mediated bone loss. AU - Krishnamurthy, Akilan. AU - Joshua, Vijay. AU - Hensvold, Aase Haj. AU - Jin, Tao. AU - Sun, Meng. AU - Vivar, Nancy. AU - Ytterberg, A. Jimmy. AU - Engström, Marianne. AU - Fernandes-Cerqueira, Cátia. AU - Amara, Khaled. AU - Magnusson, Malin. AU - Wigerblad, Gustaf. AU - Kato, Jungo. AU - Jiménez-Andrade, Juan Miguel. AU - Tyson, Kerry. AU - Rapecki, Stephen. AU - Lundberg, Karin. AU - Catrina, Sergiu Bogdan. AU - Jakobsson, Per Johan. AU - Svensson, Camilla. AU - Malmström, Vivianne. AU - Klareskog, Lars. AU - Wähämaa, Heidi. AU - Catrina, Anca I.. PY - 2016/4/1. Y1 - 2016/4/1. N2 - Objectives: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-specific anticitrullinated protein/peptide antibodies (ACPAs) appear before disease onset and are associated with bone destruction. We aimed to dissect the role of ACPAs in osteoclast (OC) activation and to ...
Chemokines are believed to play a crucial role in local immunoresponse by regulating leukocyte movement in various tissues, including the intestinal mucosa. It has been suggested that they are key players in cancer biology, and several studies have identified leukocyte infiltration as a hallmark of most cancers. The chemokines CCL17 and CCL22 attract CCR4-bearing cells, which are especially polarised to Th2-type cells and regulatory T cells (Treg). Recent studies have revealed the participation of the CCL17 and CCL22 proteins in diseases such as atopic dermatitis and lymphoma. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of CCL17 and CCL22 protein expression in colorectal cancer (CRC) and to ascertain whether an association exists between promoter -431C,T CCL17 and -961G,A CCL22 gene polymorphisms in CRC versus non-CRC subjects. Using the ELISA assay, we noted a significantly higher expression of CCL22 in tumour tissue with a 2.3-fold up-regulation (tumour vs. paired normal tissue, n=78) but ...
C-C chemokine receptor type 10 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCR10 gene. Chemokines are a group of small (approximately 8 to 14 kD), mostly basic, structurally related molecules that regulate cell trafficking of various types of leukocytes through interactions with a subset of 7-transmembrane, G protein-coupled receptors. Chemokines also play fundamental roles in the development, homeostasis, and function of the immune system, and they have effects on cells of the central nervous system as well as on endothelial cells involved in angiogenesis or angiostasis. Chemokines are divided into 2 major subfamilies, CXC and CC, based on the arrangement of the first 2 of the 4 conserved cysteine residues; the 2 cysteines are separated by a single amino acid in CXC chemokines and are adjacent in CC chemokines. CCR10 is a chemokine receptor. Its ligands are CCL27 and CCL28. This receptor is normally expressed by melanocytes, plasma cells and skin-homing T cells. B16 melanoma cell transduction ...
For several years, it has been known that stimulation with bacterial LPS protects macrophages from productive infection by HIV-1 in vitro ((15), (16)). Despite the potential implications of this finding for the pathogenesis and treatment of HIV infection, the mechanisms responsible for the HIV suppressive effect of LPS have remained unknown. Our present results indicate that LPS stimulates human MDM to release soluble factors, the C-C chemokines RANTES, MIP-1α, and MIP-1β, that strongly inhibit HIV replication, not only in macrophages but also in T lymphocytes.. These data may help redefine our current understanding of the role played by monocyte/macrophages in the pathogenesis of HIV infection. Macrophages have been viewed mostly negatively, as major targets for infection ((3), (4)), reservoirs for the virus ((1), (2)), triggers for T cell apoptosis ((36), (37)), and last but not least, as a source of soluble factors (TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6) that sustain viral replication ((27), (38), (39)). The ...
cytoplasm, external side of plasma membrane, extracellular exosome, extracellular space, plasma membrane, chemoattractant activity, chemokine activity, chemokine receptor binding, CXCR chemokine receptor binding, adult locomotory behavior
The relation of cancer and the immune system has been traditionally regarded in terms of war; a force of courageous immune system soldiers representing, lets say, The United States of Your Body facing the evil forces of anarchy in the form of tumoral cells. Following this logic the immune system eradicates tumors (elimination phase) until tumors acquire enough growth rates to compensate the killings (equilibrium phase) and eventually outcompete the immune system (escape phase) 1. However, for the last twenty years there has been a change of paradigm. Now we know that for much killing the immune system inflicts in tumors, tumors use the immune system to grow! A terrifying paradox; the enemy uses our soldiers in its own benefit 2. And how? Well, this is the bad thing of having an enemy from your own body…They know all the dirty tricks. Let´s go down to details; let´s talk about chemokines. Chemokines are small proteins that attract (among other cell types) immune cells expressing specific ...
Despite the evidence for increased SM inflammation in obesity, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unexamined. Below, we detail potential roles for various mediators in SM inflammation.. Chemokines, adhesion molecules, and immune cell infiltration. Similar to what is observed in visceral AT (61, 74, 75), inflammation, including immune cell infiltration, starts early in SM during obesity development (35, 53, 56, 57, 60). Macrophage infiltration precedes T cell infiltration (35). Infiltration of leukocytes from the circulation into tissues requires attractant signals such as chemokines, and chemokines such as MCP-1 increase early in SM and visceral AT of mice fed a HFD. In visceral AT, the increase in MCP-1 appears to precede the increases in macrophages and the activation marker TNF-α (74, 75), suggesting that the initial increase in chemokines may derive from tissue-resident cells. Adipocytes and myocytes, the main resident cells in AT and SM, respectively, can express chemokines including ...
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Tetracyclines downregulate the production of LPS-induced cytokines and chemokines in THP-1 cells via ERK, p38, and nuclear factor-κB signaling pathwaysTetracyclines downregulate the production of LPS-induced cytokines and chemokines in THP-1 cells via ERK, p38, and nuclear factor-κB signaling pathways ...
Our long term goal is to understand the mechanisms that lead to chronic inflammation. Acute inflammation is a healthy response to infection or trauma. In contrast, chronic inflammation leads to, or exacerbates, most disease states. The process of acute inflammation has a initiation, maintainence and resolution phase. Either persitent initiation, or lack of resolution of acute inflammation can lead to a chronic activation of the immune system. To understand the genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors we use both mouse models and human studies employing both computational and laboratory tools. Osteoimmunology: Osteoimmunology is the emerging field of the crosstalk between the immune and skelatal systems. Osteoclasts are bone resorbing cells, derived from the myeloid cell lineage, that play a key role in remodeling and maintaining bone density. We discovered that osteoclasts produce chemokines that recruit T-cells and act as antigen-presenting cells to the CD8 T-cells. Cross-presentation of ...
The purpose of the innate immunity system is to keep away all pathogens. After, the pathogen makes an appearance in the body, the innate system of defense acts very rapidly. The major point in dealing with the innate system of defense is that it is nonspecific. Therefore, it will approach any pathogen it comes into contact with. The innate systems of defense are very helpful yet we overlook them quite often. The skin is probably the best innate line of defense. It excludes most pathogens from entering the body. Cilia in mucous membranes help sweep out airborne pathogens and dust. Tears, nasal secretions, and saliva are also good because they contain bacteria destroying enzymes. The innate system is also known for phagocytic cells ("phago"-eating, "cyte"-cell) which migrate to affected areas and engulfs the pathogens. Phagocytic cells include: Neutrophils, Macrophages, and Dendritic cells that are part of the white blood cell fraction. Pathogens and infected cells produce chemokines, peptides ...
The precise role of CD26/DPP4 in tumor biology is unclear at this time. Preclinical studies have shown conflicting data with differential CD26/DPP4 expression and activity depending on the type of cancer. These studies suggest that it has a role as either a tumor suppressor or tumor activator depending on the tumor microenvironment and molecules with which CD26/DPP4 associates (1,3). However, since most of these studies involved in vitro assays, further investigations with in vivo experiments are needed to definitively establish the role of CD26/DPP4 in each cancer type.. Published studies have demonstrated that CD26/DPP4 plays a major role in the invasion and metastasis of selected cancers, and may be a novel therapeutic target (1,2,5,6). There are several suggested mechanisms for cancer metastasis involving the intrinsic peptidase activity of CD26/DPP4 and its subsequent chemokine regulation, as well as its ability to bind key molecules. For example, CD26/DPP4 can upregulate the expression of ...
My research focus is in immunosenescence and the effects of inflammation in aging. There are 3 ongoing research projects:. 1. The effects of early life micronutrients on chronic inflammatory disease development. This NIH/NIA-sponsored program examines how prenatal micronutrient alters the susceptibility to chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease development in the F1 generation through the epigenetic system. The first part of this work has just been accepted for publication in the Journal of Nutrition, with Colin as the lead/first author. We are currently examining the mechanisms and effect of the pre-natal diet on cardiovascular disease, lupus and rheumatoid arthritis development.. 2. Age-related obesity and inflamm-aging. Our earlier work has defined key T cell chemokine changes in murine and human aging, as a mechanism explaining the observation that normal aging is associated with low grade chronic inflammation. In our most recent publication (Nov 2011, J Immunol), in collaboration ...
Collaborative Research Center (SFB-TR67) "Functional Biomaterials for Controlling Healing Processes in Bone and Skin-From Material Science to Clinical Application," Leipzig and Dresden, Germany.Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden, Max Bergmann Center of Biomaterials Dresden, Hohe Straße 6, 01069 Dresden, Germany.Technische Universität Dresden, Center for Regenerative Therapies Dresden, Fetscherstraße 105, 01307 Dresden, Germany. ...
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Up-regulation of certain cytokines and chemokines (signaling molecules involved in the functioning of the immune system) can predict the development of rheumatoid arthritis three years before the onset of symptoms, according to the results of a new study presented today at EULAR 2009, the Annual Congress of the European League Against Rheumatism in Copenhagen, Denmark.
Results Levels of IFNγ and of IFNγ-induced chemokines were markedly elevated during active MAS and sec-HLH and were significantly higher in patients with MAS compared with active sJIA without MAS. Levels in patients with active sJIA without MAS were comparable to those of patients with clinically inactive sJIA. During MAS, ferritin and alanine transferase levels and neutrophil and platelet counts were significantly correlated with serum levels of IFNγ and CXCL9. In murine MAS, serum levels of ferritin were significantly correlated with mRNA levels of Cxcl9 in liver and spleen. ...
Results Levels of IFNγ and of IFNγ-induced chemokines were markedly elevated during active MAS and sec-HLH and were significantly higher in patients with MAS compared with active sJIA without MAS. Levels in patients with active sJIA without MAS were comparable to those of patients with clinically inactive sJIA. During MAS, ferritin and alanine transferase levels and neutrophil and platelet counts were significantly correlated with serum levels of IFNγ and CXCL9. In murine MAS, serum levels of ferritin were significantly correlated with mRNA levels of Cxcl9 in liver and spleen. ...
Chemokine Receptors: Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Yan Zhang, Haiying Liu, Linghang Wang, Fan Yang, Yongfeng Hu, Xianwen Ren, Guojun Li, Yu Yang, Yang Yu, Shaoxia Sun, Yufen Li, Xinchun Chen, Xingwang Li, Qi Jin].
This binding between an integrin and its partner ligand (expressed on the blood vessel wall) is strong enough to fully arrest the immune cells, which can then squeeze through the gaps in between the cells that make up the walls of the blood vessel.. The final piece of the puzzle that you need to understand is what causes the activation of the integrin. Chemical signals called "chemokines" are produced by inflammed tissues, and these chemokines interact with receptors on the immune cells, telling them to extend their integrins in order to dock onto the vessel wall.. To recap: cells lining the blood vessel express selectins that bind sugars on immune cells, slowing them down and letting them roll along the vessel wall. Chemokines then signal to the immune cells that its time to activate their integrins, which can then grab tightly to the vessel wall, allowing the cell to stop and migrate across and into the tissue.. What I havent mentioned yet is that there are many different kinds of selectins, ...
This antimicrobial gene is one of several CC cytokine genes clustered on the p-arm of chromosome 9. Cytokines are a family of secreted proteins involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. The CC cytokines are proteins characterized by two adjacent cysteines. Similar to other chemokines the protein encoded by this gene inhibits hemopoiesis and stimulates chemotaxis. This protein is chemotactic in vitro for thymocytes and activated T cells, but not for B cells, macrophages, or neutrophils. The cytokine encoded by this gene may also play a role in mediating homing of lymphocytes to secondary lymphoid organs. It is a high affinity functional ligand for chemokine receptor 7 that is expressed on T and B lymphocytes and a known receptor for another member of the cytokine family (small inducible cytokine A19). [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014 ...
Immune cells constantly circulate in the body in search of pathogens or tissue damage. Because they move autonomously, immune cell trafficking must be tightly controlled and coordinated by extracellular cues. The main signals that guide immune cells are chemokines, small polypeptides that modulate the migratory behavior of cells. Remarkably, most chemokines are not only sensed but also secreted by immune cells, indicating that immune cells might either attract more of their own kind or trigger complex patterns of feedbacks between different cell populations. Such cascades might allow different immune cell types to orchestrate their sequential arrival at a site of infection (1). On page 1071 of this issue, Lim et al. (2) show that this is indeed the case with neutrophils and cytotoxic T cells, the former leaving a trail of cues for the latter to follow during the eradication of a viral infection. ...
The role of NK cells in solid tumors and especially in CRC is not well understood, specifically whether NK cells also contribute to an immune surveillance (16). For CRC, high densities of infiltrating lymphocytes, high levels of CD3, GrmB, CXCL8, an IFN-γ/IRF1-driven Th1 response and low angiogenesis were shown to have a strong prognostic impact (17, 18). Since most of the above parameters are also expressed or produced by NK cells, we aimed to delineate the contribution of NK cells to these observations. Our results, therefore, could be interpreted in different aspects: (a) the infiltration of NK cells following treatment is a possible predictive marker; (b) migration of NK cells into tumor needs to be an aim of clinical trials, regardless of the stage of the disease; (c) simple administration of a single cytokine/chemokine is unlikely to yield NK migration and clinical benefit; and (d) cytokines/chemokine levels are lower in metastatic lesions (and cannot be compared to the primary tumor) and ...
There are 18 ten-letter words containing H, I, K, M and O: CHEMOKINES HOMEMAKING HUMMOCKING ... SHOTMAKING SMOKETIGHT UNHOMELIKE. Every word on this site is valid scrabble words. See other lists, that begin with or end with letters of your choice.
Sexual violence is a known risk factor in HIV acquisition and transmission, and may cause dysregulation of genital immune microenvironment. IP-10, MCP-1 and MIP-3α are chemokines that act as chemo-attractants for macrophages and T-cells. Since macrophages and T-cells are targets for HIV, increase in these chemokines may lead to an increased risk of HIV infection in women experiencing sexual violence. Cases were defined as women who had experienced non-consensual vaginal intercourse in the last 3 months (n=42) and controls, defined as women who had no history of sexual violence, were recruited from the local Washington DC community (n=63). Cervical-vaginal lavage (CVL) samples were collected by washing the cervical-vaginal tract with 10 mL of sterile saline. Premenopausal women were asked to return 4 more times over 8 weeks to collect information about their menstrual cycle. Post-menopausal women were asked to return as well to match premenopausal women. Samples were analyzed by standard Enzyme
The ELR+ CXC chemokines play an important role in tumor growth and progression in a number of tumor model systems. IL-8/CXCL8 was the first described angiogenic, mitogenic, and motogenic chemokine in various cancer models and is the prototype of ELR+ CXC chemokines [8, 10-13]. This chemokine was initially discovered on the basis of its ability to induce mobilization of neutrophils and lymphocytes in vivo [9]. Like the basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), it is a strong angiogenesis inducer. IL-8 mediates endothelial cell chemotaxis and proliferation in vitro and in vivo [36].. The fact that all ELR+CXC chemokines mediate angiogenesis highlights the importance of identifying a common receptor that mediates their biological functions in promoting angiogenesis. The candidate CXC chemokine receptors are CXCR1 and CXCR2. Only CXCL-8/IL-8 and CXCL-6 specifically bind to CXCR1 whereas all ELR+CXC chemokines bind to CXCR2. There is evidence that CXCR2 ...
The Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) is expressed in human erythrocytes and on endothelial cells lining postcapillary venules in kidney and spleen. DARC is a promiscuous chemokine receptor and a binding protein for the malarial parasite Plasmodium vivax. The expression of DARC by subsets of endothelial cells and neurons in discrete anatomic sites in the brain suggests that this enigmatic receptor may have multiple roles in normal and pathological physiology. Conservation of this promiscuous chemokine binding function is evident from the similarity in nucleotide sequence of DARC homologues from multiple species, as well as the high-affinity binding of human chemokines to murine and avian erythrocytes ...
Chemokines promote leukocyte migration through the activation of dedicated G-protein coupled receptors. Beyond conventional chemokine receptors, which directly induce cell migration through heterotrimeric Gαi-mediated signalling events, a set of atypical chemokine receptors (ACKRs) have been described. ACKRs do not activate Gαi-mediated signalling activity, but they are mainly involved in shaping the chemokine gradient. The best characterized member of this family is ACKR2. ACKR2, previously referred to as D6, is a scavenger receptor that binds with high affinity to 13 inflammatory CC chemokines. The scavenging activity of ACKR2 relies on its intracellular traffic properties. Under homeostatic conditions, ACKR2 is mainly localized in intracellular stores associated with both early Rab4/5-positive and recycling Rab11-positive endosomes. At increasing levels of chemokines, ACKR2 increases plasma membrane abundance through an acceleration in the rate of Rab11-depedent recycling pathway, in order ...
ENCODES a protein that exhibits chemokine activity (inferred); INVOLVED IN cell chemotaxis (inferred); immune response (inferred); inner ear development (inferred); ASSOCIATED WITH asthma (ortholog); contact dermatitis (ortholog); endometriosis (ortholog); FOUND IN extracellular region (inferred); Golgi apparatus (inferred)
Chemerin is a leukocyte chemoattractant and adipokine with important immune and metabolic roles. Chemerin, secreted in an inactive form prochemerin, undergoes C-terminal proteolytic cleavage to generate active chemerin, a ligand for the chemokine-like receptor-1 (CMKLR1). We previously identified that adipocytes secrete and activate chemerin. Following treatment with the obesity-associated inflammatory mediator TNF alpha, unknown adipocyte mechanisms are altered resulting in an increased ratio of active to total chemerin production. Based on these findings we hypothesized adipocytes produce proteases capable of modifying chemerin and its ability to activate CMKRL1. 3T3-L1 adipocytes expressed mRNA of immunocyte and fibrinolytic proteases known to activate chemerin in vitro. Following treatment with a general protease inhibitor cocktail (PIC), the TNF alpha-stimulated increase in apparent active chemerin concentration in adipocyte media was amplified 10-fold, as measured by CMKLR1 activation. ...
Chemokine-driven interactions of immune cells are essential for effective antitumor immunity. Human natural killer (NK) cells can be primed by the interleukin (IL)-1-related proinflammatory cytokine IL-18 for unique helper activity, which promotes dendritic cell (DC) activation and DC-mediated induction of type-1 immune responses against cancer. Here, we show that such IL-18-primed "helper" NK cells produce high levels of the immature DC (iDC)-attracting chemokines CCL3 and CCL4 upon exposure to tumor cells or the additional inflammatory signals IFN-α, IL-15, IL-12, or IL-2. These "helper" NK cells potently attract iDCs in a CCR5-dependent mechanism and induce high DC production of CXCR3 and CCR5 ligands (CXCL9, CXCL10, and CCL5), facilitating the subsequent recruitment of type-1 effector CD8+ T (Teff) cells. Using cells isolated from the malignant ascites of patients with advanced ovarian cancer, we show that "helper" NK cell-inducing factors can be used to enhance local production of Teff ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 14 (CCL14) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. It is also commonly known as HCC-1. It is produced as a protein precursor that is processed to generate a mature active protein containing 74 amino acids that and is 46% identical in amino acid composition to CCL3 and CCL4. This chemokine is expressed in various tissues including spleen, bone marrow, liver, muscle, and gut. CCL14 activates monocytes, but does not induce their chemotaxis. Human CCL14 is located on chromosome 17 within a cluster of other chemokines belonging to the CC family. Schulz-Knappe et al., HCC-1, a novel chemokine from human plasma. J. Exp. Med., 1996, 183: 295-299. Naruseet al., A YAC contig of the human CC chemokine genes clustered on chromosome 17q11.2. Genomics, 1996, 34: 236-240 ...
Biased agonism, the ability of different ligands for the same receptor to selectively activate some signaling pathways while blocking others, is now an established paradigm for G protein-coupled receptor signaling. One group of receptors in which endogenous bias is critical is the chemokine system, consisting of over 50 ligands and 20 receptors that bind one another with significant promiscuity. We have previously demonstrated that ligands for the same receptor can cause biased signaling responses. The goal of this study was to identify mechanisms that could underlie biased signaling between different receptor splice variants. The C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) has two splice variants, CXCR3A and CXCR3B, which differ by 51 amino acids at its N-terminus. Consistent with an earlier study, we found that C-X-C motif chemokine ligands 4, 9, 10, and 11 all activated Gαi at CXCR3A, while at CXCR3B these ligands demonstrated no measurable Gαi or Gαs activity. β-arrestin (βarr) was ...
Chemokines are peptide ligands that activate G protein-coupled receptors and that bind glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) on the cell surface. Through these two interactions, chemokines participate in leukocyte migration and inflammatory signaling. Although studies of crystals and solution structures indicate that chemokines are dimers, various experiments with monomeric interleukin 8 (IL-8) suggest that the monomer may activate its GPCR, CXCR1. Fernando et al. provide in vitro evidence from isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and sedimentation equilibrium studies that IL-8 interacts with the N-terminal domain of CXCR1 (site 1) as a monomer. Sedimentation equilibration experiments showed a 1:1 stoichiometry and suggested that the dimeric IL-8 in solution must dissociate to bind the receptor peptide. ITC experiments supported the conclusion that the ligand dimer dissociated and then IL-8 bound to the receptor as a monomer. The authors propose that the dimeric IL-8 serves as a negative regulator for ...
The epithelial lining of the intestine forms a barrier that separates the intestinal lumen from the hosts internal milieu and is critical for fluid and electrolyte secretion and nutrient absorption. In the early 1990s, my laboratory discovered that intestinal epithelial cells could alter their phenotype and produce proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines when stimulated by pathogenic enteric luminal microbes or proinflammatory agonists produced by cells in the underlying mucosa. It is now well accepted that intestinal epithelial cells can be induced to express and secrete specific arrays of cytokines, chemokines, and antimicrobial defense molecules. The coordinated release of molecules by intestinal epithelial cells is crucial for activating intestinal mucosal inflammatory responses as well as mucosal innate and adaptive immune responses. More recent studies have focused on the intestinal epithelial signaling pathways that culminate in immune activation as well as the role of these pathways in ...
The epithelial lining of the intestine forms a barrier that separates the intestinal lumen from the hosts internal milieu and is critical for fluid and electrolyte secretion and nutrient absorption. In the early 1990s, my laboratory discovered that intestinal epithelial cells could alter their phenotype and produce proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines when stimulated by pathogenic enteric luminal microbes or proinflammatory agonists produced by cells in the underlying mucosa. It is now well accepted that intestinal epithelial cells can be induced to express and secrete specific arrays of cytokines, chemokines, and antimicrobial defense molecules. The coordinated release of molecules by intestinal epithelial cells is crucial for activating intestinal mucosal inflammatory responses as well as mucosal innate and adaptive immune responses. More recent studies have focused on the intestinal epithelial signaling pathways that culminate in immune activation as well as the role of these pathways in ...
The epithelial lining of the intestine forms a barrier that separates the intestinal lumen from the hosts internal milieu and is critical for fluid and electrolyte secretion and nutrient absorption. In the early 1990s, my laboratory discovered that intestinal epithelial cells could alter their phenotype and produce proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines when stimulated by pathogenic enteric luminal microbes or proinflammatory agonists produced by cells in the underlying mucosa. It is now well accepted that intestinal epithelial cells can be induced to express and secrete specific arrays of cytokines, chemokines, and antimicrobial defense molecules. The coordinated release of molecules by intestinal epithelial cells is crucial for activating intestinal mucosal inflammatory responses as well as mucosal innate and adaptive immune responses. More recent studies have focused on the intestinal epithelial signaling pathways that culminate in immune activation as well as the role of these pathways in ...
The epithelial lining of the intestine forms a barrier that separates the intestinal lumen from the hosts internal milieu and is critical for fluid and electrolyte secretion and nutrient absorption. In the early 1990s, my laboratory discovered that intestinal epithelial cells could alter their phenotype and produce proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines when stimulated by pathogenic enteric luminal microbes or proinflammatory agonists produced by cells in the underlying mucosa. It is now well accepted that intestinal epithelial cells can be induced to express and secrete specific arrays of cytokines, chemokines, and antimicrobial defense molecules. The coordinated release of molecules by intestinal epithelial cells is crucial for activating intestinal mucosal inflammatory responses as well as mucosal innate and adaptive immune responses. More recent studies have focused on the intestinal epithelial signaling pathways that culminate in immune activation as well as the role of these pathways in ...
The epithelial lining of the intestine forms a barrier that separates the intestinal lumen from the hosts internal milieu and is critical for fluid and electrolyte secretion and nutrient absorption. In the early 1990s, my laboratory discovered that intestinal epithelial cells could alter their phenotype and produce proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines when stimulated by pathogenic enteric luminal microbes or proinflammatory agonists produced by cells in the underlying mucosa. It is now well accepted that intestinal epithelial cells can be induced to express and secrete specific arrays of cytokines, chemokines, and antimicrobial defense molecules. The coordinated release of molecules by intestinal epithelial cells is crucial for activating intestinal mucosal inflammatory responses as well as mucosal innate and adaptive immune responses. More recent studies have focused on the intestinal epithelial signaling pathways that culminate in immune activation as well as the role of these pathways in ...
Primary infections of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) are followed by a lifelong infection in the state of latency or persistence. It is believed that the virus employs a number of immunomodulatory mechanisms to establish latent infections. Among these are the inhibition of cytotoxic CD8+ T-cells by US11 and the impairment of leukocyte migration by US28. The potency of US11 to mediate the inhibition of T-cell activation was analysed in a model of MHC class I mediated T-cell activation. Surface expression of MHC class I molecules was reduced by 60 % after expression of US11 in murine dendritic cells. In contrast, there was no reduction in the capacity of the dendritic cells to induce T-cell proliferation. The US28 gene product has been characterized as a functional receptor for the inflammatory chemokines RANTES, MCP-1, MCP-3, MIP-1?? MIP-1? and fractalkine.Upon ligand stimulation US28 mediates the activation of MAPK and additionally a constitutive activation of NF-?B. By generating site ...
The present studies are the first to demonstrate that the presence of gp120 in the brain induced fever via interaction with the chemokine system. It was previously shown that in addition to its behavioral effects, gp120 infused intracerebroventricularly also induced fever in rats (Barak et al., 2002). This effect was particularly evident during the initial hours after gp120 administration (3-5 h after injection). However, the main brain area involved in the pathogenesis of fever induced by gp120 was unknown. Because it is crucial to localize the site of action to investigate the mechanism involved, we administered the gp120 directly into the POAH and used a biotelemetry system to monitor the changes in Tb. Our present data show that gp120 given directly into the POAH was able to induce a significant increase in Tb in a dose-related manner. The onset, latency, magnitude of elevation, and time course of the increase in Tb after the administration of gp120, as well as the marked sickness behavior ...
Chemokines are a family of cytokines involved in the extravasation of leukocytes to the site of inflammation. 4 CCL2/monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), which is chemotactic for monocytes, 5 and CXCL8/IL-8, which chemoattracts neutrophils, 6 have been reported to be elevated in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) or serum of patients with active pulmonary sarcoidosis. 7 8 9 10 CCL3/macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), CCL4/MIP-1β, and CCL5/regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) also have been shown to be elevated in the BALF of patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis. 11 12 13 As a result of the findings that CCL3 and CCL5 share the same CC chemokine receptor (CCR5) that is expressed abundantly on Th1-type cells and that CCR5 mRNA expression is upregulated in BALF of patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis, these chemokines have been suggested to be involved in the recruitment of Th1 cells 14 from the circulation to the granulomas in pulmonary ...
The Poxvirus family is a group of large DNA viruses whose host range encompasses both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Their large genomes allow them to encode genes for replication and assembly as well as numerous accessory genes that aid in virulence and immune evasion. The Parapoxviruses comprise a genus of poxviruses that cause highly contagious, pustular skin lesions in ruminant animals and zoonoses in human. The prototypical parapoxvirus Orf virus (ORFV) encodes immunomodulatory genes that aid viral replication and control inflammation in the skin. The parapoxviruses are one of three genera of poxviruses that encode a chemokine binding protein (CBP) that sequester host chemokines preventing chemokine signalling and the recruitment of leukocytes to the site of viral replication. The key feature of CBPs is that they lack sequence and structural homology to any host chemokine receptor. The ORFV CBP has previously been shown to bind the CC- and XC-chemokine classes, in contrast to the CBPs ...
Looking for online definition of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 in the Medical Dictionary? Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 explanation free. What is Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1? Meaning of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 medical term. What does Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Intrahepatic levels of CXCR3-associated chemokines correlate with liver inflammation and fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C. AU - Zeremski, Marija. AU - Petrovic, Lydia M.. AU - Chiriboga, Luis. AU - Brown, Queenie B.. AU - Yee, Herman T.. AU - Kinkhabwala, Milan. AU - Jacobson, Ira M.. AU - Dimova, Rositsa. AU - Markatou, Marianthi. AU - Talal, Andrew H.. PY - 2008/11/1. Y1 - 2008/11/1. N2 - Chemokines, chemotactic cytokines, may promote hepatic inflammation in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection through the recruitment of lymphocytes to the liver parenchyma. We evaluated the association between inflammation and fibrosis and CXCR3-associated chemokines, interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-inducible protein 10 (IP-10/CXCL10), monokine induced by IFN-γ(Mig/CXCL9), and interferon-inducible T cell α chemoattractant (I-TAC/CXCL11), in HCV infection. Intrahepatic mRNA expression of these chemokines was analyzed in 106 chronic HCV-infected patients by real-time PCR. The intrahepatic ...
Chronic pain presents a widespread and intractable medical problem. While numerous pharmaceuticals are used to treat chronic pain, drugs that are safe for extended use and highly effective at treating the most severe pain do not yet exist. Chronic pain resulting from nervous system injury (neuropathic pain) is common in conditions ranging from multiple sclerosis to HIV-1 infection to type II diabetes. Inflammation caused by neuropathy is believed to contribute to the generation and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Chemokines are key inflammatory mediators, several of which (MCP-1, RANTES, MIP-1α, fractalkine, SDF-1 among others) have been linked to chronic, neuropathic pain in both human conditions and animal models. The important roles chemokines play in inflammation and pain make them an attractive therapeutic target. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors are a family of nuclear receptors known for their roles in metabolism. Recent research has revealed that PPARs also play a role in
Looking for online definition of Macrophage inflammatory proteins in the Medical Dictionary? Macrophage inflammatory proteins explanation free. What is Macrophage inflammatory proteins? Meaning of Macrophage inflammatory proteins medical term. What does Macrophage inflammatory proteins mean?
**2.8789620399475**

Inhibitory effects of resveratrol on human mast cell degranulation, cytokine, chemokine and leukotriene releaseInhibitory effects of resveratrol on human mast cell degranulation, cytokine, chemokine and leukotriene release

... () ... chemokine and leukotriene release. Open Journal of Immunology, 2, 187-194. doi: 10.4236/oji.2012.24022. ...
more infohttps://www.scirp.org/journal/paperinformation.aspx?paperid=26273

C-X-C Chemokine Receptor Type 2 (CDw128b or GRO/MGSA Receptor or High Affinity Interleukin 8 Receptor B or IL8 Receptor Type 2...C-X-C Chemokine Receptor Type 2 (CDw128b or GRO/MGSA Receptor or High Affinity Interleukin 8 Receptor B or IL8 Receptor Type 2...

C-X-C Chemokine Receptor Type 2 (CDw128b or GRO/MGSA Receptor or High Affinity Interleukin 8 Receptor B or IL8 Receptor Type 2 ... C-X-C Chemokine Receptor Type 1 - Pipeline Review, H2 2019SummaryC-X-C Chemokine Receptor Type 1 (CDw128a or High Affinity ... C-X-C Chemokine Receptor Type 2 (CDw128b or GRO/MGSA Receptor or High Affinity Interleukin 8 Receptor B or IL8 Receptor Type 2 ... C-X-C Chemokine Receptor Type 2 (CDw128b or GRO/MGSA Receptor or High Affinity Interleukin 8 Receptor B or IL8 Receptor Type 2 ...
more infohttps://www.reportlinker.com/p04331360/C-X-C-Chemokine-Receptor-Type-2-CDw128b-or-GRO-MGSA-Receptor-or-High-Affinity-Interleukin-8-Receptor-B-or-IL8-Receptor-Type-2-or-CD182-or-CXCR2-Pipeline-Review-H2.html

Chemokines | SpringerLinkChemokines | SpringerLink

Chemokines constitute a large family of structurally similar cytokines that contain a signature of conserved cysteine residues ... Unraveling Chemokine and Chemokine Receptor Expression Patterns Using Genetically Engineered Mice Simon Yona, Ki-Wook Kim, ... Using Fluorescent Chemokine Uptake to Detect Chemokine Receptors by Fluorescent Activated Cell Sorting ... Initially, chemoattraction was the key function linked to chemokines/chemokine receptors; however, in recent years, it has ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-1-62703-426-5

Chemokine - WikipediaChemokine - Wikipedia

C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines in that it has ... CCL1 for the ligand 1 of the CC-family of chemokines, and CCR1 for its respective receptor. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) ... CXCR that bind CXC chemokines, CCR that bind CC chemokines, CX3CR1 that binds the sole CX3C chemokine (CX3CL1), and XCR1 that ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemokine

Chemokine receptor - WikipediaChemokine receptor - Wikipedia

Chemokine receptors are divided into different families, CXC chemokine receptors, CC chemokine receptors, CX3C chemokine ... CXC chemokine receptors (seven members) CC chemokine receptors (ten/eleven members) C chemokine receptors (one member, XCR1) ... Two types of chemokines that bind to these receptors are inflammatory chemokines and homeostatic chemokines. Inflammatory ... Chemokine receptors are redundant in their function as more than one chemokine is able to bind to a single receptor. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemokine_receptor

Chemokines News, ResearchChemokines News, Research

8 mesothelioma and 13 with benign PE was assayed for a panel of 40 cytokines/chemokines using the Luminex system. ... 8 mesothelioma and 13 with benign PE was assayed for a panel of 40 cytokines/chemokines using the Luminex system. ...
more infohttps://www.news-medical.net/?tag=/Chemokines

Lymphocyte responses to chemokines.  - PubMed - NCBILymphocyte responses to chemokines. - PubMed - NCBI

The involvement of chemokine receptors in HIV infection is briefly mentioned, while other interesting areas in chemokine ... a process that is closely linked to chemokine receptor expression. As an exception, one chemokine, SDF-1, is a highly effective ... Lymphocyte responses to chemokines.. Moser B1, Loetscher M, Piali L, Loetscher P. ... Of particular interest are the chemokines IP10 and Mig which bind to a receptor with selective expression in activated T ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9505194?dopt=Abstract

Antibodies against murine chemokinesAntibodies against murine chemokines

I am trying to obtain hybridomas producing antibody against murine chemokines. I am particularly interested in the b-chemokines ... Antibodies against murine chemokines. JWS1 jws1 at aol.com Sun Apr 30 09:38:55 EST 1995 *Previous message: HEP-C ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/immuno/1995-April/003913.html

Cytokines & Chemokines - QIAGENCytokines & Chemokines - QIAGEN

Cytokines & Chemokines RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Rat Cytokines & Chemokines RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of ... Chemokines and Receptors RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Rat Chemokines & Receptors RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression ... Chemokines and Receptors RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Human Chemokines & Receptors RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression ... Chemokines and Receptors RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Mouse Chemokines & Receptors RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression ...
more infohttps://www.qiagen.com/fi/shop/genes-and-pathways/complete-biology-list/cytokines-and-chemokines/

Cytokines & Chemokines - QIAGENCytokines & Chemokines - QIAGEN

Cytokines & Chemokines RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Rat Cytokines & Chemokines RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of ... Chemokines and Receptors RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Rat Chemokines & Receptors RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression ... Chemokines and Receptors RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Human Chemokines & Receptors RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression ... Chemokines and Receptors RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Mouse Chemokines & Receptors RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression ...
more infohttps://www.qiagen.com/be/shop/genes-and-pathways/complete-biology-list/cytokines-and-chemokines/

Lymphocyte traffic control by chemokines.  - PubMed - NCBILymphocyte traffic control by chemokines. - PubMed - NCBI

... are finely tuned by changing sets of chemokines that are selective for developmentally regulated chemokine receptors. Thus, the ... These chemokines do not act on the bulk of resting T cells that are in circulation. The identification of a new group of ... Lymphocyte traffic control by chemokines.. Moser B1, Loetscher P.. Author information. 1. Theodor-Kocher Institute, University ... Here, we summarize the current view of chemokine-mediated lymphocyte traffic and focus on the molecular mechanisms by which T ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11175804?dopt=Abstract

Chemokine Receptor CCR1 | SpringerLinkChemokine Receptor CCR1 | SpringerLink

CCR-1; CD191; CC-CKR-1; CKR1; CMKBR1; HM145; MIP1aR Chemokines represent a large group of chemotactic proteins, with more than ... CCR1 is a chemokine receptor that responds to a large number of CC chemokines including CCL3 (MIP-1alpha), CCL5 (RANTES), CCL7 ... Differential chemokine activation of CC chemokine receptor 1-regulated pathways: ligand selective activation of Galpha 14- ... Horuk R. (2018) Chemokine Receptor CCR1. In: Choi S. (eds) Encyclopedia of Signaling Molecules. Springer, Cham. * .RIS Papers ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007%2F978-3-319-67199-4_406

Chemokine News, ResearchChemokine News, Research

Chemokine News and Research. RSS Chemokines are a family of small cytokines, or proteins secreted by cells. Proteins are ... classified as chemokines according to shared structural characteristics such as small size (they are all approximately 8-10 ...
more infohttps://www.news-medical.net/?tag=/Chemokine

chemokines | Gutchemokines | Gut

Chemokines and alcoholic hepatitis: are chemokines good therapeutic targets? Bin Gao, Mingjiang Xu ... Chemokines in colitis: microRNA control Ishan Roy, Christopher T Veldkamp, Brian F Volkman, Michael B Dwinell ...
more infohttps://gut.bmj.com/keyword/chemokines

Chemokines | ProSpecChemokines | ProSpec

Chemokines belong to a family of pro-inflammatory activation-inducible cytokines previously referred to as members of SIS ... C-Chemokines also named Gamma-Chemokines differ from other chemokines by the absence of a one cysteine residue. Chemokines ... The Alpha-Chemokines are referred to also as the 4q chemokine family because the genes encoding members of this family map to ... About Chemokines:. Chemokines belong to a family of pro-inflammatory activation-inducible cytokines previously referred to as ...
more infohttps://www.prospecbio.com/chemokines

JCI -
p53, chemokines, and squamous cell carcinomaJCI - p53, chemokines, and squamous cell carcinoma

A subset of CC chemokines, acting through CC chemokine receptors (CCRs) 1 to 5, is instrumental in shaping inflammatory ... These data demonstrate the importance of proinflammatory CC chemokines in de novo tumorigenesis and reveal chemokine ... The chemokine receptor D6 limits the inflammatory response in vivo. Nat. Immunol. 6:403-411. View this article via: CrossRef ... p53, chemokines, and squamous cell carcinoma David M. Owens Departments of Dermatology and Pathology, Columbia University ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/32719

Chemokines Profiling of Patients with Preterm BirthChemokines Profiling of Patients with Preterm Birth

The sets (Quantibody Array Human Chemokine, RayBiotech Inc.) consist of the following chemokines: CC chemokine ligand 21 ( ... By arraying multiple chemokine specific capture antibodies onto a glass support, multiplex detection of chemokines in one ... hemofiltrate cc chemokine 1 (HCC-1/CCL14), hemofiltrate CC chemokine 4 (HCC-4/CCL16), interleukin 9 (IL-9), interleukin 17F (IL ... When we compared the serum concentration of chemokines between patients with preterm labor before (. ) and after (. ) 7 days ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/185758/

Actions of Thyroid Hormone Analogues on ChemokinesActions of Thyroid Hormone Analogues on Chemokines

5. C Chemokines. The C chemokines are XCL1 (lymphotactin-α) and XCL2 (lymphotactin-β). The single receptor to which these ... 3. CC Chemokines and Thyroid Hormone Analogues. 3.1. CCL20. Among the homeostatic chemokines in the CNS that contribute to ... 4. CXC Chemokines and Thyroid Hormone Analogues. 4.1. CXCL2. A product of microglia, chemokine CXCL2 has important chemotactic ... 7. Chemokine Receptor Genes. The chemokine receptor genes whose transcription is subject to modulation by thyroid hormone ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2016/3147671/

Chemokine - WikipediaChemokine - Wikipedia

C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ... CXC chemokinesEdit. The two N-terminal cysteines of CXC chemokines (or α-chemokines) are separated by one amino acid, ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemokines

Chemokines and matrix met… - Göteborgs universitet 
							
							
						
					
				
			Chemokines and matrix met… - Göteborgs universitet

Chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with central nervous system complications caused by ... Methods: We analyzed the levels of 30 chemokines and 9 MMPs in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum from 66 patients with VZV ... Conclusions: We show that both chemokines and MMPs are elevated in the CSF of patients with VZV CNS infections. Encephalitis ... The role of MMPs in association to chemokines should be further investigated to evaluate their significance in the ...
more infohttps://www.gu.se/forskning/publikation/?tipFriend=true&tipUrl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.gu.se%2Fforskning%2Fpublikation%2F%3FpublicationId%3D278329&publicationId=278329

Chemokines as mediators of neovasculariza... & related info | MendeleyChemokines as mediators of neovasculariza... & related info | Mendeley

Chemokines were originally described as cytokines that mediate leukocyte recruitment to sites of inflammation. Members of a ... subgroup of chemokines, the CXC family, also play a critical role in both... ... Chemokines were originally described as cytokines that mediate leukocyte recruitment to sites of inflammation. Members of a ... subgroup of chemokines, the CXC family, also play a critical role in both physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis, including in ...
more infohttps://www.mendeley.com/research-papers/chemokines-mediators-neovascularization/

Cytokines & Chemokines: Novus BiologicalsCytokines & Chemokines: Novus Biologicals

Chemokines represents the largest family of cytokines and based on their biological function, chemokines are divided into two ... More than 40 chemokines exhibiting various pathophysiological properties have been characterized so far to be linked to ... Cytokines are broadly classified into categories such as chemokines, interleukins (IL), colony-stimulating factors (CSF), tumor ... Inflammatory chemokines which are produced during infections or as a result of an inflammatory stimulus and facilitate an ...
more infohttps://www.novusbio.com/research-areas/immunology/chemokines-cytokines

chemokines | Difference Betweenchemokines | Difference Between

Tag archive for chemokines. Want more amazing articles related to chemokines? Please subscribe below well notify you when we ...
more infohttp://www.differencebetween.net/tag/chemokines/

C-C chemokine receptor type 6 - WikipediaC-C chemokine receptor type 6 - Wikipedia

chemokine receptor activity. • receptor activity. • protein binding. • C-C chemokine receptor activity. • C-C chemokine binding ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene.[5] CCR6 ... "Entrez Gene: CCR6 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6".. *^ Wang K, Zhang H, Kugathasan S, Annese V, Bradfield JP, Russell RK, ... "Chemokine Receptors: CCR6". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C-C_chemokine_receptor_type_6

Cytokines, Chemokines - BioLegendCytokines, Chemokines - BioLegend

Chemokines - Cytokines antibodies from Biolegend. BioLegend develops and manufactures world-class, cutting-edge immunological ...
more infohttp://www.biolegend.com/cytokines-chemokines-5322/
  • These inflammation-unrelated chemokines affect transendothelial migration and localization of progenitor and mature lymphocytes in lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues. (nih.gov)
  • Recent developments in this area justify the hypothesis that the distinct migration patterns of lymphocytes throughout their life cycle--that is, during lymphopoiesis, antigen-dependent priming, inflammation and immune surveillance--are finely tuned by changing sets of chemokines that are selective for developmentally regulated chemokine receptors. (nih.gov)
  • Inflammation can be protumorigenic, and proinflammatory CC chemokines have been linked with various aspects of cancer biology, yet there is scant evidence supporting a critical role for these molecules in de novo tumor formation. (jci.org)
  • Chemokines were originally described as cytokines that mediate leukocyte recruitment to sites of inflammation. (mendeley.com)
  • Members of a subgroup of chemokines, the CXC family, also play a critical role in both physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis, including in the context of chronic inflammation, fibrosis, and malignancy. (mendeley.com)
  • In the periphery, mature naïve B and T cells utilize the receptors CCR7, CXCR4, and CXCR5 to recirculate through specialized microenvironments within the secondary lymphoid tissues, while effector and memory lymphocytes express bewildering patterns of adhesion molecules and chemokine receptors that allow them to function within microenvironments and non-lymphoid tissues inaccessible to naïve cells. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • CCR1 is a chemokine receptor that responds to a large number of CC chemokines including CCL3 (MIP-1alpha), CCL5 (RANTES), CCL7 (MCP-3), CCL9 (MIP-1gamma), CCL15 (MIP1 delta), CCL23 (MIP-3), and with low affinity to CCL4 (MIP-1 beta) and CCL8 (MCP-2). (springer.com)
  • Their homeostatic function in homing is best exemplified by the chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 (expressed within lymph nodes and on lymphatic endothelial cells) and their receptor CCR7 (expressed on cells destined for homing in cells to these organs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymphocyte traffic control by chemokines. (nih.gov)
  • The Alpha-Chemokines are referred to also as the 4q chemokine family because the genes encoding members of this family map to human chromosome 4q12-21. (prospecbio.com)
  • Discovery and lead optimization of a novel series of CC chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1)-selective piperidine antagonists via parallel synthesis. (springer.com)
  • Cytokines are broadly classified into categories such as chemokines, interleukins (IL), colony-stimulating factors (CSF), tumor necrosis factors (TNF), interferons (IFN), transforming growth factors (TGF) etc. (novusbio.com)
  • CONCLUSION: Chemokines comprise a new group of chemicals related to Interferons. (rainbow.coop)
  • Cytokines include a group of chemicals called Interferons and a new family of chemicals called Chemokines. (rainbow.coop)
  • Historically, cytokines were functionally separated into 2 families: lymphokines/interleukins and chemokines. (qiagen.com)
  • Chemokines molecular weight ranges from 8 kDa to10 kDa and show 20%-50 % sequence homology among each other at the protein level. (prospecbio.com)
  • Chemokines are a family of small molecular weight cytokines, which are involved in leukocytes stimulation and chemotactic gradient determining. (hindawi.com)
  • Gerard C, Frossard JL, Bhatia M, Saluja A, Gerard NP, Lu B, Steer M. Targeted disruption of the beta-chemokine receptor CCR1 protects against pancreatitis-associated lung injury. (springer.com)
  • Chemokines have been shown to be capable of binding to heparin moieties of the extracellular matrix. (prospecbio.com)
  • To assess the concentration of chemokines in the blood serum, we used a multiplex method, which allows the simultaneous determination of 40 chemokines per sample. (hindawi.com)
  • Chemokines released by infected or damaged cells form a concentration gradient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Attracted cells move through the gradient towards the higher concentration of chemokine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells that are attracted by chemokines follow a signal of increasing chemokine concentration towards the source of the chemokine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokines work through concentration gradients. (biolegend.com)
  • Chemokines have direct microbicidal activities characterized by a structural motif and have been classified as kinocidins. (prospecbio.com)
  • The Beta-Chemokines or 17q chemokine family map to human chromosome 17q11-32 (mouse chromosome11). (prospecbio.com)
  • Chemokines and their receptors (along with surface-adhesion molecules) are central to these migrations, targeting developing and mature leukocytes to tissues and microenvironments suitable for their differentiation and function. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • In Chemokines: Methods and Protocols , expert researchers provide practical information regarding experimental models and state of the art protocols used to delineate chemokine/chemokine receptor function and their applications in health and disease. (springer.com)
  • Methods: We analyzed the levels of 30 chemokines and 9 MMPs in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum from 66 patients with VZV CNS infections diagnosed by detection of VZV DNA in CSF and concomitant neurological symptoms and compared with a control group (n = 24). (gu.se)
  • Conclusions: We show that both chemokines and MMPs are elevated in the CSF of patients with VZV CNS infections. (gu.se)