Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.
Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.
Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
Group of chemokines without adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes only.
Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.
A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.
A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.
CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.
Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.
A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.
A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.
Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
A platelet-specific protein which is released when platelets aggregate. Elevated plasma levels have been reported after deep venous thrombosis, pre-eclampsia, myocardial infarction with mural thrombosis, and myeloproliferative disorders. Measurement of beta-thromboglobulin in biological fluids by radioimmunoassay is used for the diagnosis and assessment of progress of thromboembolic disorders.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
The process in which the neutrophil is stimulated by diverse substances, resulting in degranulation and/or generation of reactive oxygen products, and culminating in the destruction of invading pathogens. The stimulatory substances, including opsonized particles, immune complexes, and chemotactic factors, bind to specific cell-surface receptors on the neutrophil.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.
A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
Cell surface proteins that bind interleukins and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Movement of tethered, spherical LEUKOCYTES along the endothelial surface of the microvasculature. The tethering and rolling involves interaction with SELECTINS and other adhesion molecules in both the ENDOTHELIUM and leukocyte. The rolling leukocyte then becomes activated by CHEMOKINES, flattens out, and firmly adheres to the endothelial surface in preparation for transmigration through the interendothelial cell junction. (From Abbas, Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 3rd ed)
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.
Cytokine-induced cell adhesion molecule present on activated endothelial cells, tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, bone marrow fibroblasts, myoblasts, and myotubes. It is important for the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, p154)
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.
Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Proteins that specifically inhibit the growth of new blood vessels (ANGIOGENESIS, PHYSIOLOGIC).
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on LYMPHOCYTES. It can form a heterotrimer (LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA1, BETA2 HETEROTRIMER) with the soluble ligand LYMPHOTOXIN-ALPHA and anchor it to the cell surface. The membrane-bound complex is specific for the LYMPHOTOXIN BETA receptor.
A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.
Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-17. Several subtypes of receptors have been found, each with its own in specificity for interleukin-17 subtype.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.
The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.
Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
A pattern recognition receptor that binds DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA. It mediates cellular responses to certain viral pathogens.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.

Chemokine mRNA expression in gastric mucosa is associated with Helicobacter pylori cagA positivity and severity of gastritis. (1/4853)

AIM: To investigate the association between the quantity of gastric chemokine mRNA expression, severity of gastritis, and cagA positivity in Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis. METHODS: In 83 dyspeptic patients, antral and corpus biopsies were taken for semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and histological grading of gastritis. Gastritis was evaluated by visual analogue scales. Quantities of chemokine (IL-8, GRO alpha, ENA-78, RANTES, MCP-1) RT-PCR products were compared with G3PDH products. Each sample was also evaluated for the presence of cagA and ureA mRNA by RT-PCR. RESULTS: mRNA expression of all five chemokines was significantly greater in H pylori positive than in H pylori negative mucosa. In H pylori positive patients, in the antrum C-X-C chemokine mRNA expression was significantly greater in cagA positive patients than in cagA negative patients, but there were no significant differences in C-C chemokine mRNA expression. In H pylori positive patients, chemokine mRNA expression in the corpus was less than in the antrum. In contrast to the antrum, only GRO alpha mRNA expression was significantly greater in cagA positive infection. Polymorphonuclear cell infiltration was correlated with C-X-C chemokine mRNA expression. Significant correlations were also found between bacterial density and C-X-C chemokine mRNA expression. CONCLUSIONS: In H pylori infection, C-X-C chemokines may play a primary role in active gastritis. Infection with cagA positive H pylori induces greater gastric chemokine mRNA expression in the antral mucosa, which may be relevant to the increased mucosal damage associated with cagA positive H pylori infection.  (+info)

Isolation of novel GRO genes and a phylogenetic analysis of the CXC chemokine subfamily in mammals. (2/4853)

Approximately 15 different alpha, or CXC, chemokines have thus far been isolated from 11 species of mammals. Among the best studied chemokines are the 12 human proteins that are encoded by 11 paralogous genes. In order to better understand the evolution and function of this group of genes, we isolated and characterized six novel GRO and GRO-related cDNA sequences from the cow (Bos taurus), the sheep (Ovis aries), the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), and the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus). The amino acid sequence of the diverged guinea pig GRO or KC gene is only 50%-60% similar to presumed orthologs from other species, while the sheep and cow GRO proteins are 90%-99% similar to each other. The presence of multiple GRO genes in the cow, the rabbit, and the sheep is consistent with what has been observed for humans. Phylogenetic analyses of amino acid sequences from 44 proteins indicate that genes orthologous to many of the 11 known from humans exist in other species. One such gene, interleukin 8, or IL8, has been isolated from nine species, including the rodent guinea pig; however, this gene is absent in the rat and the mouse, indicating a unique gene loss event in the rat/mouse (muroid rodent) lineage. The KC (or MIP2) gene of rodents appears to be orthologous to the GRO gene found in other taxonomic orders. Combined evidence from different sources suggests that IP10 and MIG share sister taxon relationships on the evolutionary tree, while the remaining paralogous genes represent independent lineages, with limited evidence for kinship between them. This observation indicates that these genes originated nearly contemporaneously via a series of gene duplication events. Relative-rate tests for synonymous and nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions in the KC and IL8 genes did not detect rate heterogeneity; however, there are several notable features regarding the IL8 genes. For example, the IL8 proteins from two Old World monkeys are as similar to one another as they are to the IL8 protein from humans, and all observed nucleotide differences between the IL8 genes of the two monkeys cause amino acid changes; in other words, there are no synonymous differences between them.  (+info)

Selective recruitment of CCR4-bearing Th2 cells toward antigen-presenting cells by the CC chemokines thymus and activation-regulated chemokine and macrophage-derived chemokine. (3/4853)

Helper T cells are classified into Th1 and Th2 subsets based on their profiles of cytokine production. Th1 cells are involved in cell-mediated immunity, whereas Th2 cells induce humoral responses. Selective recruitment of these two subsets depends on specific adhesion molecules and specific chemoattractants. Here, we demonstrate that the T cell-directed CC chemokine thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) was abundantly produced by monocytes treated with granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or IL-3, especially in the presence of IL-4 and by dendritic cells derived from monocytes cultured with GM-CSF + IL-4. The receptor for TARC and another macrophage/dendritic cell-derived CC chemokine macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) is CCR4, a G protein-coupled receptor. CCR4 was found to be expressed on approximately 20% of adult peripheral blood effector/memory CD4+ T cells. T cells attracted by TARC and MDC generated cell lines predominantly producing Th2-type cytokines, IL-4 and IL-5. Fractionated CCR4+ cells but not CCR4- cells also selectively gave rise to Th2-type cell lines. When naive CD4+ T cells from adult peripheral blood were polarized in vitro, Th2-type cells selectively expressed CCR4 and vigorously migrated toward TARC and MDC. Taken together, CCR4 is selectively expressed on Th2-type T cells and antigen-presenting cells may recruit Th2 cells expressing CCR4 by producing TARC and MDC in Th2-dominant conditions.  (+info)

Prospects for cytokine and chemokine biotherapy. (4/4853)

Cytokines with immunostimulating effects have the capacity to induce tumor immunity in animal models, whereas some cytokines interfere with tumor growth based on their angiostatic effects. Despite these capabilities, cytokines, such as IFN-, IFN-, tumor necrosis factor, interleukin (IL)-1, and IL-2, have had limited clinical efficacy and many undesirable side effects. In preclinical models, cytokines can even promote tumor growth and increase metastatic spread. Although chemokines have had limited clinical evaluation, studies of animal models show that they can also have tumor-suppressive or tumor-enhancing effects. In mice, chemokines, such as IP-10, RANTES, and TCA3, have resulted in tumor regression and immunity to subsequent tumor challenge. Those chemokines that are angiostatic (e.g., PF4, IP-10, and MIG) can also induce tumor regression by reducing the tumor blood supply. Conversely, IL-8, which is angiogenic, can promote tumor growth. Our studies show that nasopharyngeal cell line cells (FADU) show a chemotactic as well as a proliferative response to MCP-1. In addition, a variant murine T cell lymphoma cell line Esb-MP, unlike the parental variant Esb, was selectively chemoattracted by murine MCP-1/JE. When injected s.c. into mice, the Esb-MP variant metastasized to the kidney with much higher frequency than the Esb variant. Both cultured kidneys from normal mice and a mesangial cell line constitutively produced chemoattractants that acted on Esb-MP but not Esb parental cells. Purification to homogeneity of these chemoattractants led to the identification of RANTES and JE. These results demonstrate that some chemokines may promote tumor growth and organ-specific metastatic spread of those tumors that have adapted and become responsive to chemokines. Finally, tumors appear to use numerous adaptive mechanisms to subvert and suppress the immune system. More effective therapy with cytokines and chemokines will require better characterization of the means by which tumors develop resistance to cytokines and overcome the immune system. Only then can we develop appropriate therapeutic approaches to antagonize cancer-induced immunosuppression.  (+info)

Persistent chlamydial envelope antigens in antibiotic-exposed infected cells trigger neutrophil chemotaxis. (5/4853)

An in vitro coculture model system was used to explore conditions that trigger neutrophil chemotaxis to Chlamydia trachomatis infected human epithelial cells (HEC-1B). Polarized HEC-1B monolayers growing on extracellular matrix (ECM) were infected with C. trachomatis serovar E. By 36 h, coincident with the secretion of chlamydial lipopolysaccharide and major outer membrane protein to the surfaces of infected cells, human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNL) loaded with azithromycin migrated through the ECM and infiltrated the HEC-1B monolayer. Bioreactive azithromycin was delivered by the chemotactic PMNL to infected epithelial cells in concentrations sufficient to kill intracellular chlamydiae. However, residual chlamydial envelopes persisted for 4 weeks, and PMNL chemotaxis was triggered to epithelial cells containing residual envelopes. Infected endometrial cells demonstrated up-regulation of ENA-78 and GCP-2 chemokine mRNA. Thus, despite appropriate antimicrobial therapy, residual chlamydial envelope antigens may persist in infected tissues of culture-negative women and provide one source for sustained inflammation.  (+info)

Mechanisms of acute inflammatory lung injury induced by abdominal sepsis. (6/4853)

Sequestration of neutrophils and release of histotoxic mediators are considered important for the development of pathologic alterations of the lung defined as adult respiratory distress syndrome. Mechanisms of inflammatory lung injury caused by abdominal sepsis were investigated using the colon ascendens stent peritonitis (CASP) model that closely mimics the human disease. In the CASP model, a continuous leakage of intraluminal bacteria into the peritoneal cavity is induced by implantation of a stent in the ascending colon, generating a septic focus. In contrast to the cecal ligation and puncture model of peritonitis, survival of mice following CASP surgery is dependent on IFN-gamma, but independent of tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Here we show that the systemic inflammation induced by CASP surgery results in a rapid and profound increase of lung vascular permeability that was associated with the activation and recruitment of neutrophils to the lung. Activation of circulating granulocytes was characterized by increased production of serine proteinases and reactive oxygen metabolites, as well as elevated expression of cell surface Mac-1. Expression of MIP-2, KC, MIP-1alpha and E-selectin mRNA in lung was strongly increased within 3 h following CASP surgery, whereas up-regulation of IP-10, MCP-1 and P-selectin was delayed. In contrast, induction of RANTES, LIX, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 mRNA was weak or not detectable after CASP surgery. Importantly, recruitment of leukocytes to the lung was normal in lipopolysaccharide-resistant mice, and was not affected by antibody neutralization of TNF or the chemokines MIP-2 and KC.  (+info)

Chemokine expression in CF epithelia: implications for the role of CFTR in RANTES expression. (7/4853)

To delineate the mechanisms that facilitate leukocyte migration into the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung, expression of chemokines, including interleukin-8 (IL-8), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and RANTES, was compared between CF and non-CF airway epithelia. The findings presented herein demonstrate that, under either basal conditions or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)- and/or interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-stimulated conditions, a consistent pattern of differences in the secretion of IL-8 and MCP-1 between CF and non-CF epithelial cells was not observed. In contrast, CF epithelial cells expressed no detectable RANTES protein or mRNA under basal conditions or when stimulated with TNF-alpha and/or IFN-gamma (P +info)

Cutting edge: clustered AU-rich elements are the target of IL-10-mediated mRNA destabilization in mouse macrophages. (8/4853)

In the present study we show that IL-10-mediated inhibition of inflammatory gene expression can be mediated by an AU-rich element (ARE) cluster present in the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of sensitive genes. A series of chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) reporter gene constructs were prepared in which different fragments from the IL-10-sensitive KC mRNA 3'UTR were placed downstream of the coding region of the reporter gene CAT. CAT mRNA containing the KC 3'UTR was markedly destabilized as compared with the control CAT mRNA, and the decay rate was further increased in cells stimulated with IL-10. The KC 3'UTR contains an ARE cluster and three isolated ARE motifs. The ARE cluster spanning nucleotides 378-399 appeared to be both necessary and sufficient to mediate sensitivity to IL-10 because a 116-nucleotide fragment that contains the cluster conferred sensitivity, while mutation of the sequence between positions 378 and 399 eliminated sensitivity. The destabilizing effect of IL-10 was relatively selective, as the stability of chimeric CAT mRNAs was not modulated in cells treated with IFN-gamma or IL-4.  (+info)

article{7c45b648-bb75-40bb-a1de-8aa59d14e5c0, abstract = {Huntingtons disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by both neurological and systemic abnormalities. Immune activation is a well-established feature of the HD brain and we have previously demonstrated a widespread, progressive innate immune response detectable in plasma throughout the course of HD. In the present work we used multiplex ELISA to quantify levels of chemokines in plasma from controls and subjects at different stages of HD. We found an altered chemokine profile tracking with disease progression, with significant elevations of five chemokines (eotaxin-3, MIP-1β, eotaxin, MCP-1 and MCP-4) while three (eotaxin-3, MIP-1β and eotaxin) showed significant linear increases across advancing disease stages. We validated our results in a separate sample cohort including subjects at different stages of HD. Here we saw that chemokine levels (MCP-1 and eotaxin) correlated with clinical scores. We conclude ...
Chemokines mediate diverse fundamental biological processes, including combating infection. Multiple chemokines are expressed at the site of infection; thus chemokine synergy by heterodimer formation may play a role in determining function. Chemokine function involves interactions with G-protein-coupled receptors and sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAG). However, very little is known regarding heterodimer structural features and receptor and GAG interactions. Solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and molecular dynamics characterization of platelet-derived chemokine CXCL7 heterodimerization with chemokines CXCL1, CXCL4, and CXCL8 indicated that packing interactions promote CXCL7-CXCL1 and CXCL7-CXCL4 heterodimers, and electrostatic repulsive interactions disfavor the CXCL7-CXCL8 heterodimer. As characterizing the native heterodimer is challenging due to interference from monomers and homodimers, we engineered a
The research interest of my group remains focused on Chemokine activities in physiology and pathology, with an emphasis on the mechanisms governing fine-tuning modulation of their expression and activity. Chemokines are secreted proteins and have emerged as key controllers of integrin function and cell locomotion. The effects of chemokines are mediated by seven transmembrane domain receptors coupled to GTP-binding proteins, which are differentially expressed in a wide range of cell types. The resulting combinatorial diversity in responsiveness to chemokines guarantees the proper tissue distribution of distinct leukocyte subsets under normal and inflammatory/pathological conditions. A vast range of in situ experiments, aimed at understanding which chemokines are produced in specific circumstances, has revealed that a variety of chemokines can be concomitantly produced at target sites of leukocyte trafficking and homing. This renders the chemokine system a good target for therapy, and has ...
Certain viruses have the ability to subvert the mammalian immune response, including interference in the chemokine system. Poxviruses produce the chemokine binding protein vCCI (viral CC chemokine inhibitor; also called 35K), which tightly binds to CC chemokines. To facilitate the study of vCCI, we first provide a protocol to produce folded vCCI from Escherichia coli (E. coli.) It is shown here that vCCI binds with unusually high affinity to viral Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-II (vMIP-II), a chemokine analog produced by the virus, human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8). Fluorescence anisotropy was used to investigate the vCCI:vMIP-II complex and shows that vCCI binds to vMIP-II with a higher affinity than most other chemokines, having a Kd of 0.06 ± 0.006 nM. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shift perturbation experiments indicate that key amino acids used for binding in the complex are similar to those found in previous work. Molecular dynamics were then used to compare the vCCI:vMIP-II ...
In the present study we demonstrate that islet-specific Th1 differ from Th2 cells by their capacity to more rapidly infiltrate and/or accumulate in the pancreas. Considerable evidence indicates that Th1 cells are the primary population that mediates IDDM via production of proinflammatory cytokines, including IFN-γ, LT, and TNF-α (reviewed in 46 , whereas Th2 cells invade the islets but do not typically cause disease, principally due to the protective effects of IL-4 8, 9, 10, 47 . Here we show that islet-specific Th1 but not Th2 cells from BDC2.5 TCR transgenic mice cause diabetes in immunodeficient NOD recipients (Fig. 3⇑), supporting previous studies indicating that these subsets can be distinguished by their capacity to promote disease onset in NOD mice 2, 10 . Although we did not find that Th2 cells elicited disease in NOD.scid mice as was previously reported 7 , we used splenic CD4 cells, which in BDC mice are enriched for cells with a memory phenotype 42 , rather than thymic CD4 cells, ...
Chemokines, adhesion molecules, cytokines and proteases regulate the extravasation of leucocytes during acute and chronic inflammation and leucocyte homing. Chemokines are produced after transcriptional activation by inflammatory mediators such as cytokines or microbial Toll-like receptor ligands and their effect depends on the expression of chemokine receptors on specific cell types. More and more evidence points towards a role for post-translational modifications in the fine-tuning of chemokine activity. Although both glycosylation and proteolytic processing of the C- and/or N-terminus of chemokines has been reported, mainly proteolytic processing of the N-terminus appears to affect the receptor specificity, chemotactic property and signalling potency of these low-molecular-mass proteins. N-terminal processing of chemokines by aminopeptidases or endoproteases may alter the receptor specificity and may result in up- or down-regulation of their chemotactic, antiviral or angiogenic activity. ...
LEGENDplex™ NHP IL-6 Capture Bead A5, 13X - LEGENDplex™ NHP Chemokine/Cytokine Panel Capture Beads are intended for use with the following reagents:740331 (LEGENDplex™ NHP Chemokine/Cytokine Panel Detection Antibodies)740330 (LEGENDplex™ NHP Chemokine/Cytokine Panel Standard)740368 (LEGENDplex™ Buffer Set).
Radiation combined injury (CI) is a radiation injury (RI) combined with other types of injury, which generally leads to greater mortality than RI alone. A spectrum of specific, time-dependent pathophysiological changes is associated with CI. Of these changes, the massive release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, severe hematopoietic and gastrointestinal losses and bacterial sepsis are important treatment targets to improve survival. Ciprofloxacin (CIP) is known to have immunomodulatory effect besides the antimicrobial activity. The present study reports that CIP ameliorated pathophysiological changes unique to CI that later led to major mortality. B6D2F1/J mice received CI on day 0, by RI followed by wound trauma, and were treated with CIP (90 mg/kg p.o., q.d. within 2 h after CI through day 10). At day 10, CIP treatment not only significantly reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine concentrations, including interleukin-6 (IL-6) and KC (i.e., IL-8 in human), but it also enhanced IL-3 production
Although epidemiologic and experimental evidence strongly indicates chronic inflammation as a risk factor for cancer, it remains unclear how chronic inflammation contributes carcinogenesis. Here we show that deletion of PPARδ diminishes colonic inflammation by reducing infiltration of immune cells via downregulation of pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokine in a mouse model of colon inflammation. These chemokines are responsible for recruitment of leukocytes from the circulation to local inflammatory sites. Our results further reveal that COX-2 is a downstream target of PPARδ and COX-2-derived PGE2 stimulates macrophages to produce pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokine. PGE2 is a crucial mediator of colorectal carcinogenesis. More importantly, loss of PPARδ attenuated colonic inflammation-associated adenoma growth in two mouse models of inflammation-associated colorectal cancer. Our results demonstrate that PPARδ promotes chronic colonic inflammation and colitis-associated ...
Atherosclerosis - the common disease where arteries become blocked and restrict blood flow - could result in a devastating heart attack if an artery that supplies blood to the heart is affected.. Studies have shown that chemokines (small chemoattractant proteins) play a key role in the development of atherosclerosis, as they recruit immune cells to the site of inflammation. By inhibiting the functions of chemokines, we could potentially reduce the progression of atherosclerosis - essentially, stop it in its tracks.. Lead researcher Dhanya Ravindran originally started investigating how atherosclerosis might be prevented by inhibiting chemokines while in the HRI Immunobiology Group, led by Dr Christina Bursill.. Enter the chemokine binding protein M3. M3 is a broad-spectrum chemokine inhibitor that binds and inactivates chemokines, helping to prevent the host immune response during inflammation/injury. It also has the vital ability to inactivate a range of the key chemokines involved in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chemokines in ischemia and reperfusion. AU - Frangogiannis, Nikolaos G.. PY - 2007/5. Y1 - 2007/5. N2 - Chemokine signaling plays an important role in the post-ischemic inflammatory response. Overlapping pathways involving reactive oxygen intermediates, Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation, the complement cascade and the nuclear factor (NF)-κB system induce both CXC and CC chemokines in ischemic tissues. Reperfusion accentuates chemokine expression promoting an intense inflammatory reaction. ELR-containing CXC chemokines regulate neutrophil infiltration in the ischemic area, whereas CXCR3 ligands may mediate recruitment of ThI cells. CC chemokines, on the other hand, induce mononuclear cell infiltration and macrophage activation. Evidence suggests that chemokine signaling mediates actions beyond leukocyte chemotaxis and activation, regulating angiogenesis and fibrous tissue deposition. Effective repair of ischemic tissue is dependent on a well-orchestrated cellular response and ...
The migration of leukocytes in response to chemokine gradients is an important process in the homeostasis of the human immune system and inflammation. In vivo the migration takes place on the surface of the endothelium to which the chemokine gradient is immobilized via interaction with glycosaminoglycans. To study leukocyte migration in response to surface-bound chemokines, we generated chemokine gradients by a simple stamping method: agarose stamps were soaked with chemokine solution to form continuous chemokine gradients by diffusion. These gradients could be easily transferred to a petri dish surface by stamping. We show that neutrophil granulocytes recognize these gradients and migrate toward increasing chemokine concentrations dependent on the slope of the gradient. Single-cell responses were recorded, and statistical analyses of cell behavior and migration were performed. For analysis of chemotaxis/haptotaxis, we propose a chemotactic precision index that is broadly applicable, valid, and ...
i have to travel to buffalo to get that test....dang. i am too sick to walk! lol...i will have to go to quest since i owe labcorp a couple of grand!...
The best 16 synonyms for chemokines, including: chemokine, chemoattractant, cytokines, , CD95, IL-10, interleukin-1, IL-3, IL-12, , integrins and more... Find another word for chemokines at YourDictionary.
Evidence that CD8+ CTLs produce chemokines following engagement of viral antigens, and that MIP-1alpha is required for an inflammatory response to virus challenge, suggests that these molecules are key elements in the generation of effective antiviral immunity. Here, David Price and colleagues argue that the antigen-dependent release of chemokines by CTLs provides an elegant mechanism linking localization, amplification and coordination of the antiviral immune response to specific recognition of infected host cells beyond the confines of the lymphoid system.
The recruitment of mononuclear leukocytes, and the migration, growth and activation of macrophages, lymphocytes and smooth muscle cells within lesions, are critical features of the chronic inflammatory response that typifies atherogenesis. Chemokines are members of a superfamily of small polypeptides that mediate not only migration, but also growth and activation of leukocytes and a variety of other cells. Monocyte chemoattractant and activating protein-1 was the first chemokine to be implicated in leukocyte-mediated inflammation in atherosclerosis. This review emphasizes new information on the potential atherogenic roles of monocyte chemoattractant and activating protein-1 and several other closely related chemokines of the C-C subfamily. We focus particular attention on the newly recognized atherogenic role of a subgroup of closely related chemokines of the C-X-C subfamily that includes interleukin-8 and growth regulated oncogene alpha. We also discuss new studies that reveal how CD40 ligand ...
Chemokines, or chemotactic cytokines, are a large family of small (6 14 kDa), structurally related proteins that mediate a wide range of biological activities. As a part of normal immune system functions, chemokines are a critical component of basal leukocyte trafficking essential for immune system architecture and development, and immune surveillance. Chemokines also participate in the growth, differentiation, and activation of leukocytes as well as stimulate various effector functions of these cells, such as integrin activation, chemotaxis, superoxide radical production and granule enzyme release. Four classes of chemokines have been defined by the arrangement of the conserved cysteine (C) residues of the mature proteins: the CXC chemokines the CC chemokines in which the first two conserved cysteines residues are adjacent; the C chemokines that lack two (the first and third) of the four conserved cysteine residues; and the CX3C chemokines which have three intervening AA residues between the ...
Cytokines and chemokines are key modulators of immune responses and play diverse roles in inflammatory diseases. Here, we discuss the role of specific cytokines and chemokines in cancer and tumor metastasis.
Study Flashcards On micro2 - chemokines at Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. makes it easy to get the grade you want!
This graph shows the total number of publications written about Chemokines, CXC by people in this website by year, and whether Chemokines, CXC was a major or minor topic of these publications ...
RayBio|sup|®|/sup| C-Series Human Chemokine Antibody Array 1 Kit. Detects 38 Human Chemokines. Suitable for all liquid sample types.
users temporary to free chemokines methods and taste Is left used on the used plastic validation Samples. opportunities read analyzed out the active site embodiments. innate acids may be enslaved, for free chemokines methods and protocols 2013, sternotomy and concentration.
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Over the last several years there has been a great deal of progress in characterizing the role of dendritic cells (DCs) in the activation and modulation of B cells. DC-secreted chemokines can induce B cell trafficking to ...
Over the last several years there has been a great deal of progress in characterizing the role of dendritic cells (DCs) in the activation and modulation of B cells. DC-secreted chemokines can induce B cell trafficking to ...
In this study, we directly compared gene expression and secreted protein levels for a set of cytokines/chemokines using gene microarray and protein multiplexing technologies.. Our results suggest that although for some cytokines/chemokines, expression levels closely mirror protein levels (IFN-γ, MIP1A, IP10, and TNF-α) or moderately parallel protein levels (IL-2, GM-CSF, IL-5, RANTES, and MCP1), for other markers this is not the case (IL-1A, IL-1B, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17A, IL-17B, G-CSF, and eotaxin).. The imperfect and variable correlation between mRNA and protein levels is in agreement with previous reports (4, 10-13) and can be explained by posttranscriptional and posttranslational regulation and by misclassification due to measurement errors (14-17). The different levels of inaccuracy, noise, and sensitivity and dynamic ranges of the methods used for transcript and protein analysis likely contribute to the lack of correlation observed for several of the markers examined ...
Chemokines comprise a family of about 40 low-molecular-weight cytokines (see , Cytokines) with important roles in the immune system, as well as functions beyond it. The name chemokine, a contraction of
Chemokines comprise a family of about 40 low-molecular-weight cytokines (see , Cytokines) with important roles in the immune system, as well as functions beyond it. The name chemokine, a contraction of
Commensal Bacteria and Expression of Two Major Intestinal Chemokines, TECK-CCL25 and MEC-CCL28, and Their Receptors. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The experiments described in this paper allow us to make two primary conclusions. First, neural progenitors will migrate toward sites of neuroinflammation, and, second, this may be attributable to, at least in part, the release of chemokines from activated cells participating in the neuroinflammatory response. That this should be so is consistent with several previous observations in the literature. These include observations that neural progenitors will migrate toward areas of brain injury in vivo (Picard-Riera et al., 2002; Ben-Hur et al., 2003; Kokaia and Lindvall, 2003; Parent, 2003; Imitola et al., 2004; Jin et al., 2004; Kelly et al., 2004; Glass et al., 2005; Pluchino et al., 2005), that neural progenitors express chemokine receptors (Ji et al., 2004; Krathwohl and Kaiser, 2004b; Peng et al., 2004; Tran et al., 2004a; Pluchino et al., 2005), that chemokines act as chemoattractants for these cells (Tran et al., 2004a; Widera et al., 2004; Pluchino et al., 2005), and that cells involved in ...
Kemokiinid (ka kemotaktsed tsütokiinid; inglise keeles chemokines) on selgroogsete loomade mitmete tuumaga rakkude poolt (eosinofiilid, basofiilid, neutrofiilid, makrofaagid, endoteelirakud, keratinotsüüdid, fibroblastid jt) komplekteeritavate ja vabastatavate selliste väikesemolekuliliste looduslike valkude perekond, mis vahendavad lühiajaliselt ja lokaalselt erinevaid bioloogilisi toimeid ja rakkudevahelist informatsiooni seondudes G-valguga seotud retseptoreid omavate rakkude membraaniga ja aktiveerides ensüümi fosfolipaas C. Kemokiinide sarnaseid valke on tuvastatud teatud bakteritel ja viirustel. Kemokiinide funktsiooniks on mitmete rakkude sundviimine nakkus- või põletikukoldesse, lisaks reguleerivad kemokiinid lümfikudede ja närvisüsteemi arengut ja leukotsüütide migratsiooni, küpsemist, aktivatsiooni jm. Varem on neid liigitatud α,β,γ ja δ- rühma, tänapäeval liigitatakse aga sellisteks perekondadeks nagu CC- (β-kemokiinid), CXC- (α-kemokiinid), CX3C- (δ- ...
The question why CD4+/CD25+ T cells are reduced in asthmatic patients has not been answered yet; however, it has been observed that these cells reveal a reduced response to the chemokines CCL1 and CXCL1 suggesting an impaired recruitment to the lung [137, 138 ...
    Background & aim: Chemerin are novel adipokines that are secreted from adipose tissue and improved insulin sensitive. The purpose of this study was to examine the ffects of rhythmic aerobic exercise plus core stability training on serum chemerin levels and Insulin resistance, glucose levels and body composition of ...
Chemokines belong to a class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. Their name is derived from chemotactic cytokines based on their ability to induce and mediate chemotaxis in nearby responsive cells. Formerly, they were called SIS family of cytokines, SIG family of cytokines, SCY family of cytokines, Platelet factor-4 superfamily or intercrines. Chemokines can be divided into at least four structural branches: c (chemokines, c), cc (chemokines, cc), cx3c (chemokines, cx3c), and cxc (chemokines, cxc). The classification is according to the variations in a shared cysteine motif. Chemokines may also be classified based on their functions. Homeostatic chemokines are chemokines that are responsible for basal leukocyte migration. Examples of homeostatic chemokines are CCL14, CCL19, CCL20, CCL21, CXCL12 and CXCL13. Nevertheless, some of them are not exclusive to this function. For instance, CCL20 is also associated with inflammation since it can act as ...
Migration of T-lymphocytes on a surface coated with extracellular matrix (ECM) components (two-dimensional (2-D) migration) and migration (infiltration) into a matrix (Three-dimesional (3-D) migration) are complex events and the underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Here 2-D and 3-D migration were studied by use of seven leukemic T-cell lines representing discrete differentiation stages, a non-leukemic T-cell clone, and normal peripheral blood T cells. peripheral blood lymphocytes and the T-cell clone produced nanogram quantities of various chemokines, as compared to a production of ≤ 0.05 ng/ml by the T leukemia cell lines. In a Boyden chamber system, the leukemic T-cell lines showed haptotactic migration on fibronectin. The migration was augmented bu exposure to chemokines, including RANTES, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and IL-8. The T-cell lines showed a peak response at a chemokine concentration of 10-50 ng/ml, whereas the T-cell clone responded optimally at 100 ng/ml. In contrast to a ...
Myeloid dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells critical for the orchestration of immunity and maintenance of self-tolerance. DC development and functions are tightly regulated by
This study focuses upon three chemokines, namely CCL5, CXCL10 and CCL3, which are potential novel therapeutic targets in arthritis. The aim of the study was to analyse the expression and production of these three chemokines within the joints of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) of the oligoarticular and polyarticular subtypes. All three of these chemokines are highly expressed at the level of mRNA, with the most significant increase in mRNA levels being demonstrated for CCL5 when compared with matched peripheral blood samples and controls. We show that high levels of all three chemokines are present in synovial fluid of children with JIA. We investigate the major source of CCL5 from inflammatory synovial cells, which we show to be CD8+ T cells. This CD8+ synovial T cell population has an unexpected phenotype that has not been described previously, being CCR7- yet predominantly CD28+ and CD45RA-. These cells contain high levels of stored intracellular CCL5, and rapid release of CCL5 takes
Cells were first stained with anti- CD16/32 (2.4G2) for 10 minutes at 4C, then with ETP-46321 specifically conjugated antibodies for 30 minutes at 4C in the dark. to anti-PD-1, and their induction in non- responsive murine tumors promoted responsiveness to anti-PD-1. Our data suggest that the CXCR3 chemokine system is usually a biomarker for sensitivity to PD-1 blockade and that augmenting the intratumoral function of EMR2 this chemokine system could improve clinical outcomes. eTOC Blurb Chow et al. find the CXCR3 chemokine system is not required for CD8+ T cell migration into the tumor, but rather for the enhancement of the intratumoral CD8+ T cell response in the context of PD-1 blockade. The CXCR3 chemokine system may serve as a biomarker for sensitivity to PD- 1 blockade and a target for improving clinical outcomes. Introduction CD8+ T cells play a vital role in tumor eradication through the production of cytotoxic molecules, such as perforin and granzyme, and cytokines, such as interferon ...
We have characterized previously the expression of the chemokines eotaxin, MCP-5, RANTES, and MCP-1 (mRNA and/or protein), and correlated this with the leukocytes migrating to the lung during a murine model of lung inflammation ((5), (16)). From these experiments, we concluded that MCP-1 mRNA expression paralleled the accumulation of monocytes/macrophages in this organ, both events occurring predominantly at early stages of the response (day 15). Also, eotaxin mRNA expression paralleled lung eosinophilia predominantly at late stages (day 21). In contrast, other chemokines, such as RANTES or MCP-5, were expressed throughout the inflammatory reaction. This underlines the contribution of chemokines at different stages of the response.. From the work presented here, we first conclude that eosinophil recruitment and development of BHR in this model system involve the action of both eosinophilic (eotaxin, RANTES, MCP-5, and MIP-1α) and noneosinophilic chemokines (MCP-1). This indicates the absence of ...
The contribution of inflammation to the development of fibrosis varies in different conditions, and understanding the interaction between these processes is relevant to devise therapeutic strategies for chronic diseases such as pancreatitis. Identification of the chemokine system has elucidated the molecular mechanisms regulating leucocyte trafficking in a given tissue. Chemokines are a family of small cytokines that exert gradient dependent chemoattraction of cells bearing specific cognate receptors. The chemokine system is considerably complex, as indicated by the high number of ligands and receptors, and by the fact that the same chemokine may bind more than one receptor and the same receptor more than one chemokine.2 Additionally, the effects of chemokines are not limited to inflammation as the majority of cells express at least one chemokine receptor. A related aspect of chemokine biology is the distinction between homeostatic and inflammatory chemokines, where expression of the latter ...
Previous studies by our group and others have addressed the relationship between leukocyte infiltration into solid tumors and chemokine expression (14 , 16 , 23) . To our knowledge, this work is the first comprehensive study of CC chemokines and chemokine receptor expression in human ovarian cancer ascites.. We found that ascitic fluid is rich in CC chemokines and that the CD14-expressing cells and T cells present in ovarian cancer ascites express CC chemokine receptor mRNA and protein.. Is the extent and phenotype of the leukocyte infiltration in ovarian ascites related to chemokines and chemokine receptor expression? Gradients of chemokines usually cause tissue recruitment of leukocytes through effects on adhesion and endothelial transmigration (24) . Our data suggest that CC chemokine protein levels are significantly higher in ascitic fluid than in patient plasma samples. Therefore, chemokines present in ascites could form a gradient for leukocyte migration into the peritoneal cavity. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - L-Arginine attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced lung chemokine production. AU - Calkins, Casey M.. AU - Bensard, Denis D.. AU - Heimbach, Julie K.. AU - Meng, Xianzhong. AU - Shames, Brian D.. AU - Pulido, Edward J.. AU - McIntyre, Robert C.. PY - 2001/3. Y1 - 2001/3. N2 - Chemokines stimulate the influx of leukocytes into tissues. Their production is regulated by nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), an inducible transcription factor under the control of inhibitory factor κB-α (IκB-α). We have previously demonstrated that L-arginine (L-Arg) attenuates neutrophil accumulation and pulmonary vascular injury after administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We hypothesized that L-Arg would attenuate the production of lung chemokines by stabilizing IκB-α and preventing NF-κB DNA binding. We examined the effect of L-Arg on chemokine production, IκB-α degradation, and NF-κB DNA binding in the lung after systemic LPS. To block nitric oxide (NO) production, a NO synthase inhibitor was ...
If patients could recognise themselves, or anyone else could recognise a patient from your description, please obtain the patients written consent to publication and send them to the editorial office before submitting your response [Patient consent forms] ...
Atopic dermatitis is a chronic relapsing pruritic eczematous disease affecting between 15% and 20% of children, with a social, psychological and economical impact on the children and their families. After increasing during the 1970s and 1980s, the incidence of the disease seems to have levelled out in the 1990s. The cause of atopic dermatitis is still unknown, but detailed description of its pathogenesis has improved our understanding of the disorder and opened new possibilities for the development of more effective methods for its treatment. Histologically, the skin of atopic dermatitis patients is characterized by inflammation, with prevalent infiltration by lymphocytes but also mast cells, eosinophils, and macrophages, as well as dendritic cells. Attraction of these cells to the skin is in part mediated by chemokines. Small proteins belonging to four distinct families, chemokines mediate their effects by binding to chemokine receptors. Some chemokines can attract skin-specific lymphocytes and ...
Lung cancer cells express different chemokines and chemokine receptors that modulate leukocyte infiltration within tumor microenvironment. The released CXCL1 was functionally linked to recruiting monocytes into lung cancer cell microenvironment. and in Lewis lung carcinomas (LLC) [10]. In human airway epithelium and bronchoalveolar macrophages, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and CXCL1 were buy BAM 7 constitutively expressed and upregulated buy BAM 7 by TNF- but not by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) [11]. In pathological conditions, various cancer and/or cancer cells express different chemokines and chemokine receptor that modulate leukocyte infiltration within tumor microenvironment, tumor growth and metastasis. For example, CXCL1 has been reported to be expressed in melanoma, breast, colon and ovarian cancer [3]. Non-small cell TSPAN11 lung cancer (NSCLC) biopsy specimens have high buy BAM 7 intratumoral concentrations of CXCR2 ligands (CXCL1, CXCL5, and CXCL8) and type 2 cytokines ...
Enhanced expression of chemotactic cytokines (aka chemokines) within pancreatic islets likely contributes to islet inflammation by regulating the recruitment and activation of various leukocyte populations, including macrophages, neutrophils, and T-lymphocytes. Because of the powerful actions of these chemokines, precise transcriptional control is required. In this review, we highlight what is known about the signals and mechanisms that govern the transcription of genes encoding specific chemokine proteins in pancreatic islet β-cells, which include contributions from the NF-κB and STAT1 pathways. We further discuss increased chemokine expression in pancreatic islets during autoimmune-mediated and obesity-related development of diabetes.
The prediction of aspirate type (NS, ACID, SNAP, and CASP) was performed using an approach recently defined by Hutson15 to extend standard ROC methodology.16 In brief, lung injury type was modeled as a 2 × 2 outcome with injury groups recoded as NS = (ACID = 0, particles = 0), ACID = (ACID = 1, particles = 0), SNAP = (ACID = 0, particles = 1), or CASP = (ACID = 1, particles = 1). In the foregoing, the two factors in injury type are ACID and particles, and the two levels for each factor are no = 0 and yes = 1. The basic algorithm used in predictive modeling considered the following population probability parameters given by Π00= Probability (NS) = Pr (ACID = no, particles = no); Π10= Pr (ACID) = Pr (ACID = yes, particles = no); Π01= Pr (SNAP) = Pr (ACID = no, particles = yes); and Π11= Pr (CASP) = Pr (ACID = yes, particles = yes). These population probability parameters were modeled as a function of a linear combination of cytokine levels under the constraint that they sum to 1, i.e. , ...
Immune abnormalities have been described in some individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) as well as their family members. However, few studies have directly investigated the role of prenatal cytokine and chemokine profiles on neurodevelopmental outcomes in humans. In the current study, we characterized mid-gestational serum profiles of 22 cytokines and chemokines in mothers of children with ASD (N=415), developmental delay (DD) without ASD (N=188), and general population (GP) controls (N=428) using a bead-based multiplex technology. The ASD group was further divided into those with intellectual disabilities (developmental/cognitive and adaptive composite score|70) (ASD+ID, N=184) and those without (composite score⩽70) (ASD-noID, N=201). Levels of cytokines and chemokines were compared between groups using multivariate logistic regression analyses, adjusting for maternal age, ethnicity, birth country and weight, as well as infant gender, birth year and birth month. Mothers of children with
TY - JOUR. T1 - Spontaneous and antigen-induced production of HIV-inhibitory β- chemokines are associated with AIDS-free status. AU - Garzino-Demo, A.. AU - Moss, R. B.. AU - Margolick, Joseph Bernard. AU - Cleghorn, F.. AU - Sill, A.. AU - Blattner, W. A.. AU - Cocchi, F.. AU - Carlo, D. J.. AU - DeVico, A. L.. AU - Gallo, R. C.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - The β-chemokines RANTES, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, and MIP-1β suppress infection by macrophage-tropic strains of HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) by binding and down-regulating the viral coreceptor, CCR5. Accordingly, we have examined whether higher levels of CCR5 ligands are associated with a more favorable clinical status in AIDS. A cross-sectional study of 100 subjects enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study at the Baltimore site was conducted to measure chemokine production and lymphocyte proliferation by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Statistical analyses of the data revealed that the ...
In the present study, it was demonstrated that IL-17A could stimulate the secretion of angiogenic CXC chemokines from liver cancer cells, which may recruit endothelial cells to the tumor cells in a CXCR2-dependent manner. Tumor angiogenesis was also promoted by IL-17A expression in vivo. The CXC chemokines can be classified as angiogenic or angiostatic predominantly based on the presence or absence of an ELR motif. The angiogenic CXC chemokines include CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, CXCL5, CXCL6, CXCL8 and CXCL12, and the angiostatic chemokines include CXCL4, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11 and CXCL14 (21). IL-17A was shown to increase the expression of CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, CXCL5, CXCL6 and CXCL8 in Huh7.5 cells and upregulated CXCL2 in HepG2 cells. Additionally, angiostatic CXC chemokines were not affected by IL-17A in both cell lines. IL-17A has been reported to stimulate VEGFA production and promote angiogenesis in several cancer cell lines (16-18) and it has been shown previously that IL-17A does not affect ...
The therapeutic goal in autoimmune diseases such as RA is to control disease, to establish remission, and eventually to cure. In theory, this goal can be achieved using either Ag-specific approaches, for example, elimination of self-reactive T cells (assuming that a finite number of key Ags can be identified as the target of the autoimmune process in RA), or the non-Ag-specific approaches, for example, blockade of cytokines as in the case of TNF-a neutralization. Currently, only the latter types of approaches have yielded clinical benefit, and it is in this category that approaches to block chemokines or receptors may be included. Despite their appeal in terms of effectiveness, non-Ag-specific approaches carry a higher risk of immunosuppression and opportunistic infections (48).. Although there is a myriad of ongoing clinical trials testing the effects of chemokine/receptor blockers in RA (Table 1), to date one cannot yet predict how many of the current targets will prove to be clinically ...
Researchers found that fibromyalgia patients have higher concentrations of inflammatory chemokines, a biomarker which could help diagnose FM.
Author Summary Although HIV, the causative agent of AIDS, establishes a lifelong infection that cannot be eradicated even with effective treatment, the host immune system has the ability to contain its replication for many years in which the disease remains asymptomatic. Key players in HIV control are CD8+ T cells, specialized immune cells that can not only destroy infected cells, but also secrete soluble factors that suppress the virus without killing infected cells. CD8+ T cells produce multiple HIV-suppressive factors, including certain chemokines (soluble proteins that attract immune cells), which block the virus even before it can gain access to its target cells. In the present study, we characterize a new anti-HIV chemokine, XCL1 or lymphotactin, which is primarily produced by CD8+ T cells. A unique feature of XCL1 is that, unlike other antiviral chemokines, it has a very broad spectrum of activity against different variants of HIV-1 and directly binds the virus outer coat, rather than blocking
Proteins are classified into the chemokine family based on their structural characteristics, not just their ability to attract cells. All chemokines are small, with a molecular mass of between 8 and 10 kDa. They are approximately 20-50% identical to each other; that is, they share gene sequence and amino acid sequence homology. They all also possess conserved amino acids that are important for creating their 3-dimensional or tertiary structure, such as (in most cases) four cysteines that interact with each other in pairs to create a Greek key shape that is a characteristic of chemokines. Intramolecular disulfide bonds typically join the first to third, and the second to fourth cysteine residues, numbered as they appear in the protein sequence of the chemokine. Typical chemokine proteins are produced as pro-peptides, beginning with a signal peptide of approximately 20 amino acids that gets cleaved from the active (mature) portion of the molecule during the process of its secretion from the cell. ...
Use of cell adhesion inhibitor for the mobilization of antigen presenting cells and immune cells in a cell mixture (AIM) from the peripheral blood and methods of use - Disclosed is a method to recover an antigen presenting cells (APCs) and immune cells rich mixture (AIM) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) mobilized with one or more cell adhesion inhibitors for the preparation of an AIM vaccine or an AIM adoptive immunotherapy preparation. In addition, AIM mobilization can be enhanced by priming, simultaneously or in sequence, one or more of a combination of different chemical compounds, cytokines, hormones, growth factors, etc. The interaction of chemokines and chemokine receptors enable tumor cells attachment or in close proximity to antigen presenting cells and immune cells which possess similar receptors in a micro niche environment. Severing the chemokine/chemokine receptor linkage by a cell adhesion inhibitor will release these specifically primed cell mixtures into the ...
PubMed journal article: Effects of cytokine deficiency on chemokine expression in CNS of mice with EAE. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Cell Sciences recombinant proteins include chemokines, cytokines, growth factors, as well as chemokine, cytokine and growth factor receptors.
Cell Sciences recombinant proteins include chemokines, cytokines, growth factors, as well as chemokine, cytokine and growth factor receptors.
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Our results showed that poly(I:C), a TLR3 agonist, up-regulated the production of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines such as MIP1-α, MIP1-β, RANTES, IL-6, and IL-8, by activating NFκB. Incubation of HCECs with poly(I:C) also activated IRF3 followed by IFN-β production. The up-regulated expression of TLR 3 by poly(I:C) indicates that the TLR3/TRIF signaling pathways were most likely activated by poly(I:C) in HCECs. This is consistent with previous reports [1,15-17]. The cytokines and chemokines investigated are known to have powerful effects in recruiting immune cells and stimulating the maturation of dendritic cells [29-31]. Therefore, we suggest that corneal epithelial cells, when the TLR3s are activated de novo, are able to recruit and activate immune cells against viral infections. Our results showed that DEX and CsA inhibit the poly(I:C)-induced NFκB activation and the subsequent production of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines. Earlier studies have shown that the concentration of ...
A number of the investigative efforts on chemokines have focused on intracellular signaling. Data from studies indicate that stimulation of chemokine receptors results in the activation of a variety of effector molecules.
Power CA, Clemetson JM, Clemetson KJ, Wells TN (August 1995). "Chemokine and chemokine receptor mRNA expression in human ... Griffith JW, Sokol CL, Luster AD (2014). "Chemokines and chemokine receptors: positioning cells for host defense and immunity ... October 1998). "HIV-1 envelope gp120 inhibits the monocyte response to chemokines through CD4 signal-dependent chemokine ... "A non-glycosaminoglycan-binding variant of CC chemokine ligand 7 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-3) antagonizes chemokine- ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 1 (CCL1) is also known as small inducible cytokine A1 and I-309 in humans. CCL1 is a small ... CCL1 is encoded by CCL1 gene which is one of the several chemokine genes clustered on the chromosome 17q11.2-q12 in humans. It ... July 1998). "The chemokine receptor CCR8 is preferentially expressed in Th2 but not Th1 cells". Journal of Immunology. 161 (2 ... In addition to other chemokines, such as CCL2, CCL3, and CCL4, the presence of CCL1 has been reported in the development of ...
Such signaling has been shown to be physiologically relevant, for example, β-arrestin signaling mediated by the chemokine ... November 2018). "Biased agonists of the chemokine receptor CXCR3 differentially control chemotaxis and inflammation". Science ... chemokine receptors bind ligands that mediate intercellular communication between cells of the immune system; receptors such as ... chemokines; lipid mediators of inflammation (e.g., prostaglandins, prostanoids, platelet-activating factor, and leukotrienes); ...
His team demonstrated in 2005 that the chemokine receptor D6 acts as a decoy and scavenger receptor for inflammatory chemokines ... Chemokines. 1999. Pharmacology of cytokines. 2000. Gianfranco Bazzoni; Elisabetta Dejana; Alberto Mantovani (2006). Piccin (ed ... which is part of the large superfamily of chemokines, which belong to the family of cytokines. His works help to establish the ... "Increased inflammation in mice deficient for the chemokine decoy receptor D6". European Journal of Immunology. 35 (5): 1342- ...
The CCL2 chemokine is also expressed by neurons, astrocytes and microglia. The expression of CCL2 in neurons is mainly found in ... The chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) is also referred to as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) and small inducible ... In the human genome, CCL2 and many other CC chemokines are located on chromosome 17 (17q11.2-q21.1). The gene span is 1,927 ... CCL2 is a small cytokine that belongs to the CC chemokine family. CCL2 recruits monocytes, memory T cells, and dendritic cells ...
The C-C motif chemokine receptor CCR5 is involved in the process by which HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, enters cells. Hence ... However, to limit the toxicity and side effects of CCR5 antagonists it would be ideal to be able to preserve the chemokine ... PRO 140, a humanized form of a PA14 antibody, is a chemokine-receptor CCR5 monoclonal antibody and can inhibit CCR5 tropic HIV- ... Arimont A, Sun S, Smit MJ, Leurs R, de Esch IJ, de Graaf C (2017). "Structural Analysis of Chemokine Receptor-Ligand ...
The effects of CCL11 are mediated by its binding to a G-protein-linked receptor known as a chemokine receptor. Chemokine ... an eosinophil-selective CC chemokine, and identification of a specific eosinophil eotaxin receptor, CC chemokine receptor 3". ... an eosinophil-selective CC chemokine, and identification of a specific eosinophil eotaxin receptor, CC chemokine receptor 3". ... C-C motif chemokine 11 also known as eosinophil chemotactic protein and eotaxin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ...
Le Y, Zhou Y, Iribarren P, Wang J (April 2004). "Chemokines and chemokine receptors: their manifold roles in homeostasis and ... chemokines that promote chemotaxis; and interferons that have anti-viral effects, such as shutting down protein synthesis in ... chemokines that promote chemotaxis; and interferons that have anti-viral effects, such as shutting down protein synthesis in ... T cell attraction to the epidermal chemokine CCL27". Nature Immunology. 8 (3): 285-93. doi:10.1038/ni1433. PMID 17259988. S2CID ...
Chemokines are a subset of cytokines that regulate cell migration, such as attracting immune cells to a site of infection or ... Physiologically, chemokines and cytokines function as neuromodulators that regulate inflammation and development. In the ... Various cell types in the brain may produce cytokines and chemokines such as microglia, astrocytes, endothelial cells, and ... After injury and sustained release of inflammatory factors such as chemokines, the blood-brain barrier may be compromised, ...
"Cc Chemokine Receptor (Ccr)3/Eotaxin Is Followed by Ccr4/Monocyte-Derived Chemokine in Mediating Pulmonary T Helper Lymphocyte ... Lloyd, Clare (2002). "Chemokines in allergic lung inflammation". Immunology. 105 (2): 144-154. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2567.2002. ... She was involved with early studies that looking at the cloning, expression and function of chemokine. Her group demonstrated ... LLoyd studied the role of these chemokines in allergic lung inflammation. She looked to better characterise the spatial ...
positive regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production. • positive regulation of JUN kinase activity. • positive ... positive regulation of chemokine production. • cellular extravasation. • negative regulation of lipid storage. • negative ... positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • epithelial cell proliferation involved in salivary gland morphogenesis ...
... s are a subset of cytokines that are produced by a type of immune cell known as a lymphocyte.[1] They are protein mediators typically produced by T cells to direct the immune system response by signaling between its cells. Lymphokines have many roles, including the attraction of other immune cells, including macrophages and other lymphocytes, to an infected site and their subsequent activation to prepare them to mount an immune response. Circulating lymphocytes can detect a very small concentration of lymphokine and then move up the concentration gradient towards where the immune response is required. Lymphokines aid B cells to produce antibodies. Important lymphokines secreted by the T helper cell include:[2] ...
... (IL-24) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL24 gene. IL-24 is a cytokine belonging to the IL-10 family of cytokines that signals through two heterodimeric receptors: IL-20R1/IL-20R2 and IL-22R1/IL-20R2. This interleukin is also known as melanoma differentiation-associated 7 (mda-7) due to its discovery as a tumour suppressing protein. IL-24 appears to control in cell survival and proliferation by inducing rapid activation of particular transcription factors called STAT1 and STAT3. This cytokine is predominantly released by activated monocytes, macrophages and T helper 2 (Th2) cells[5] and acts on non-haematopoietic tissues such as skin, lung and reproductive tissues. IL-24 performs important roles in wound healing, arthritis, psoriasis and cancer.[6][7][8] Several studies have shown that cell death occurs in cancer cells/cell lines following exposure to IL-24.[9][10] The gene for IL-24 is located on chromosome 1 in humans.[11] ...
... is sometimes used interchangeably among scientists with the term cytokine.[3] Historically, cytokines were associated with hematopoietic (blood and lymph forming) cells and immune system cells (e.g., lymphocytes and tissue cells from spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes). For the circulatory system and bone marrow in which cells can occur in a liquid suspension and not bound up in solid tissue, it makes sense for them to communicate by soluble, circulating protein molecules. However, as different lines of research converged, it became clear that some of the same signaling proteins which the hematopoietic and immune systems use were also being used by all sorts of other cells and tissues, during development and in the mature organism. While growth factor implies a positive effect on cell division, cytokine is a neutral term with respect to whether a molecule affects proliferation. While some cytokines can be growth factors, such as G-CSF and GM-CSF, others have an inhibitory effect on ...
The patent on Enbrel was originally set to expire on October 23, 2012,[28] but, in the United States, a second patent, granting exclusivity for another 16 years, has been granted.[29] Before the extension it seemed unlikely that a generic would have been available. As a biologic, etanercept is subject to different laws from those applicable to chemical formulations. Currently many countries do not permit the manufacture of generic biologics. However, the European Union and the United States (Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009) do currently have in place a system to approve generic biologics (biosimilars) which "requires mandatory clinical testing and periodic review".[30] In April 2013, the Indian pharma major Cipla made an announcement about launching the first biosimilar of Etanercept in India under the brand name 'Etacept' for the treatment of rheumatic disorders. The company's April 17, 2013 press release claimed that the biosimilar will cost 30% less as compared to the ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the interleukin 1 cytokine family. Protein structure modeling indicated that this cytokine may contain a 12-stranded beta-trefoil structure that is conserved between IL1A (IL-A alpha) and IL1B (IL-1 beta). This gene and eight other interleukin 1 family genes form a cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 2. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported.[8]. ...
Interferon alfa 2b is an antiviral or antineoplastic drug, that was originally discovered in the laboratory of Charles Weissmann at the University of Zurich. It was developed at Biogen, and ultimately marketed by Schering-Plough under the tradename Intron-A. It has been used for a wide range of indications, including viral infections and cancers. This drug is approved around the world for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C, chronic hepatitis B, hairy cell leukemia, Behçet's disease, chronic myelogenous leukemia, multiple myeloma, follicular lymphoma, carcinoid tumor, mastocytosis and malignant melanoma. ...
4-1BB is a type 2 transmembrane glycoprotein receptor belonging to the TNF superfamily, expressed on activated T Lymphocytes.[1] 4-1BBL (4-1BB ligand) is found on APCs (antigen presenting cells) and binds to 4-1BB. ...
For example, Naive T cells express the CCR7 receptor for the chemokine CCL21. and B cells exhibit CXCR5 receptors for chemokine ... FRCs express chemokines such as CCL21 and CCL19 which assist the movement of T cells and dendritic cells with CCR7 receptors. ... FDCs produce chemokine CXCL13 which promotes migration of B lymphocytes to the primary B cell follicle. B lymphocytes need a ... The lymph carries chemokines (molecular chemical messengers) and antigens to the lymph node. At the lymph node, the lymph ...
Maheshwari A, Christensen RD, Calhoun DA (November 2003). "ELR+ CXC chemokines in human milk". Cytokine. 24 (3): 91-102. doi: ... chemokines, and others. Colostrum also contains a number of growth factors, such as insulin-like growth factors I (IGF-1), and ...
HIV can enter the macrophage through binding of gp120 to CD4 and second membrane receptor, CCR5 (a chemokine receptor). Both ... Lucas AD, Greaves DR (November 2001). "Atherosclerosis: role of chemokines and macrophages". Expert Reviews in Molecular ...
ISBN 978-1-58603-471-9. D'Souza, M. Patricia; Harden, Victoria (December 1996). "Chemokines and HIV-1 Second Receptors". Nature ...
... is a CC chemokine receptor. This CCR2 gene is located in the chemokine receptor gene cluster region. Two alternatively ... "Entrez Gene: CCR2 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2". El Khoury J, Toft M, Hickman SE, Means TK, Terada K, Geula C, Luster AD ( ... C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2 or CD192 (cluster of differentiation 192) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... Ruibal-Ares BH, Belmonte L, Baré PC, Parodi CM, Massud I, de Bracco MM (January 2004). "HIV-1 infection and chemokine receptor ...
This name and the corresponding gene symbol IL8RA have been replaced by the HGNC approved name C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 1 ... "Chemokine Receptors: CXCR1". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... Ahuja SK, Murphy PM (1996). "The CXC chemokines growth-regulated oncogene (GRO) alpha, GRObeta, GROgamma, neutrophil-activating ... a new inhibitor of the chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2". Biochem. Pharmacol. 69 (3): 385-94. doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2004.10.007 ...
"Cell surface-anchored SR-PSOX/CXC chemokine ligand 16 mediates firm adhesion of CXC chemokine receptor 6-expressing cells". ... C-X-C chemokine receptor type 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CXCR6 gene. CXCR6 has also recently been ... "Entrez Gene: CXCR6 chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 6". Elliott ST, Wetzel KS, Francella N, Bryan S, Romero DC, Riddick NE, ... Ruibal-Ares BH, Belmonte L, Baré PC, Parodi CM, Massud I, de Bracco MM (January 2004). "HIV-1 infection and chemokine receptor ...
"Entrez Gene: XCR1 chemokine (C motif) receptor 1". Becker M, Güttler S, Bachem A, Hartung E, Mora A, Jäkel A, Hutloff A, Henn V ... The "C" sub-family of chemokine receptors contains only one member: XCR1, the receptor for XCL1 and XCL2 (or lymphotactin-1 and ... NK cells release XCL1 along with IFN-γ and some other chemokines upon encountering certain bacteria such as Listeria or MCMV. ... "Chemokine Receptors: XCR1". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
Chemokine receptor CXCR3 is a Gαi protein-coupled receptor in the CXC chemokine receptor family. Other names for CXCR3 are G ... Chemokine receptors Chemokine Cluster of differentiation GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000186810 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38 ... "Expression of specific chemokines and chemokine receptors in the central nervous system of multiple sclerosis patients". The ... "Entrez Gene: CXCR3 chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 3". Yates CC, Whaley D, Kulasekeran P, Hancock WW, Lu B, Bodnar R, Newsome ...
2000). "Lymphocyte CC chemokine receptor 9 and epithelial thymus-expressed chemokine (TECK) expression distinguish the small ... the receptor for the chemokine TECK". J Immunol. 162 (10): 5671-5. PMID 10229797. "Entrez Gene: CCR9 chemokine (C-C motif) ... C-C chemokine receptor type 9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCR9 gene. CCR9 has also recently been designated ... 2003). "CC chemokine receptor 9 expression defines a subset of peripheral blood lymphocytes with mucosal T cell phenotype and ...
... and chemokine CCL20. The actual recognition of microbial patterns takes place in the secretory and ciliated cells via Toll-like ...
... the 2 cysteines are separated by a single amino acid in CXC chemokines and are adjacent in CC chemokines. CCR10 is a chemokine ... C-C chemokine receptor type 10 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCR10 gene. Chemokines are a group of small ( ... "Entrez Gene: CCR10 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 10". Balkwill F (July 2004). "Cancer and the chemokine network". Nat. Rev. ... 2000). "Cutting edge: identification of a novel chemokine receptor that binds dendritic cell- and T cell-active chemokines ...
Chemokines constitute a large family of structurally similar cytokines that contain a signature of conserved cysteine residues ... Unraveling Chemokine and Chemokine Receptor Expression Patterns Using Genetically Engineered Mice Simon Yona, Ki-Wook Kim, ... Using Fluorescent Chemokine Uptake to Detect Chemokine Receptors by Fluorescent Activated Cell Sorting ... Initially, chemoattraction was the key function linked to chemokines/chemokine receptors; however, in recent years, it has ...
8 mesothelioma and 13 with benign PE was assayed for a panel of 40 cytokines/chemokines using the Luminex system. ... 8 mesothelioma and 13 with benign PE was assayed for a panel of 40 cytokines/chemokines using the Luminex system. ...
The involvement of chemokine receptors in HIV infection is briefly mentioned, while other interesting areas in chemokine ... a process that is closely linked to chemokine receptor expression. As an exception, one chemokine, SDF-1, is a highly effective ... Lymphocyte responses to chemokines.. Moser B1, Loetscher M, Piali L, Loetscher P. ... Of particular interest are the chemokines IP10 and Mig which bind to a receptor with selective expression in activated T ...
... are finely tuned by changing sets of chemokines that are selective for developmentally regulated chemokine receptors. Thus, the ... These chemokines do not act on the bulk of resting T cells that are in circulation. The identification of a new group of ... Lymphocyte traffic control by chemokines.. Moser B1, Loetscher P.. Author information. 1. Theodor-Kocher Institute, University ... Here, we summarize the current view of chemokine-mediated lymphocyte traffic and focus on the molecular mechanisms by which T ...
In Chemokine Receptors, leading investigators attempt to distill the large ... there are over twenty different chemokine receptors, binding nearly fifty unique ligands that have been identified. ... to physiological and pathological roles of chemokines. Chemokines exhibit a tremendous functional diversity and participate in ... In Chemokine Receptors, leading investigators attempt to distill the large body of literature ranging from basic molecular and ...
... Front Biosci (Elite Ed). 2009 Jun 1;1:26-35. ... We discuss the evidence base for the role of the chemokine network in the renal disease of small vessel vasculitis and extend ... of leukocyte infiltration and involvement in this setting are in part dependent on the combinatorial expression of chemokines ...
... Med Sci (Paris). 2007 Feb;23(2):173-9. doi: 10.1051/medsci/2007232173. ... Among the latter, chemokines are in the front line. We will here summarize the recent findings stressing out their ...
chemokine receptor activity. • receptor activity. • protein binding. • C-C chemokine receptor activity. • C-C chemokine binding ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene.[5] CCR6 ... "Entrez Gene: CCR6 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6".. *^ Wang K, Zhang H, Kugathasan S, Annese V, Bradfield JP, Russell RK, ... "Chemokine Receptors: CCR6". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
Chemokine Receptors and Disease, Volume 55 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780121533557, 9780080917207 ... Chemokines and Chemokine Receptors in Pulmonary Disease. Chemokines, Chemokine Receptors and Atherosclerosis. CXC Chemokines in ... Chemokines and Chemokine Receptors in Infectious Disease. New Therapies Targeting Chemokine Receptors: Can Changing the Way ... Chemokines, Chemokine Receptors and Disease, Volume 55 1st Edition. 0.0 star rating Write a review ...
... which allows the simultaneous determination of 40 chemokines per sample. The sets consist of the following chemokines: 6Ckine/ ... i,Results.,/i, We showed possible implication of 4 chemokines, that is, HCC-4, I-TAC, MIP-3,i,α,/i,, and TARC in women with ... i,Conclusion.,/i, On the basis of our findings, it seems that the chemokines may play role in the pathogenesis of preterm labor ... The aim of the study was to determine the concentration of selected chemokines in sera of patients with premature birth without ...
5. C Chemokines. The C chemokines are XCL1 (lymphotactin-α) and XCL2 (lymphotactin-β). The single receptor to which these ... 3. CC Chemokines and Thyroid Hormone Analogues. 3.1. CCL20. Among the homeostatic chemokines in the CNS that contribute to ... 4. CXC Chemokines and Thyroid Hormone Analogues. 4.1. CXCL2. A product of microglia, chemokine CXCL2 has important chemotactic ... 7. Chemokine Receptor Genes. The chemokine receptor genes whose transcription is subject to modulation by thyroid hormone ...
A subset of CC chemokines, acting through CC chemokine receptors (CCRs) 1 to 5, is instrumental in shaping inflammatory ... These data demonstrate the importance of proinflammatory CC chemokines in de novo tumorigenesis and reveal chemokine ... The chemokine receptor D6 limits the inflammatory response in vivo. Nat. Immunol. 6:403-411. View this article via: CrossRef ... p53, chemokines, and squamous cell carcinoma David M. Owens Departments of Dermatology and Pathology, Columbia University ...
C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines in that it has ... CCL1 for the ligand 1 of the CC-family of chemokines, and CCR1 for its respective receptor. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) ... CXCR that bind CXC chemokines, CCR that bind CC chemokines, CX3CR1 that binds the sole CX3C chemokine (CX3CL1), and XCR1 that ...
Cytokines & Chemokines RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Rat Cytokines & Chemokines RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of ... Chemokines and Receptors RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Rat Chemokines & Receptors RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression ... Chemokines and Receptors RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Human Chemokines & Receptors RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression ... Chemokines and Receptors RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Mouse Chemokines & Receptors RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression ...
Macrophage-specific chemokines induced via innate immunity by amino acid copolymers and their role in eae. *Kovalchin J ... Strikingly, these chemokines are also secreted into serum of MHC Class II -/- mice, indicating that an innate immune receptor ... Macrophage-specific chemokines induced via innate immunity by amino acid copolymers and their role in eae. PLoS ONE, 6(12). ...
Chemokines were originally described as cytokines that mediate leukocyte recruitment to sites of inflammation. Members of a ... subgroup of chemokines, the CXC family, also play a critical role in both... ... Chemokines were originally described as cytokines that mediate leukocyte recruitment to sites of inflammation. Members of a ... subgroup of chemokines, the CXC family, also play a critical role in both physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis, including in ...
The first teleost chemokine gene was reported in rainbow trout in 1998. Since then, numerous chemokine genes have been ... Subsequently, it has only been possible to establish clear homologies with mammalian chemokines in the case of some chemokines ... Despite this, functional studies have only been undertaken for a few of these chemokine genes. In this review, we describe the ... Finally, we summarise what is known about the chemokine receptors in teleosts and provide some analysis using recently ...
The chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 play a central role in the migration of hematopoietic stem cells, and several ... Chemokines and their receptors (along with surface-adhesion molecules) are central to these migrations, targeting developing ... Here, we summarize the role of chemokines and their receptors in the spatial organization of the immune system and consider the ... while effector and memory lymphocytes express bewildering patterns of adhesion molecules and chemokine receptors that allow ...
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CXC chemokine receptors are integral membrane proteins that specifically bind and respond to cytokines of the CXC chemokine ... However, CXCR6 is more closely related in structure to CC chemokine receptors than to other CXC chemokine receptors. ACKR3 was ... within the chemokine receptor cluster on human chromosome 3p21) and its similarity to other chemokine receptors in its gene ... The chemokine receptor CXCR5 is expressed on B cells and CD4+ Tfh cells and is involved in lymphocyte homing and the ...
C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ... CXC chemokinesEdit. The two N-terminal cysteines of CXC chemokines (or α-chemokines) are separated by one amino acid, ...
This review will focus on recent murine and human studies that use chemokines as therapeutic anti-cancer vaccine adjuvants. ... Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing ... This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential ... the chemokine-chemokine receptor system plays paradoxical roles. On one hand, the chemokine network is used by tumors to evade ...
... to novel carboxylic acid indole compounds and compositions for use in the treatment of disease states mediated by the chemokine ... Groα, GROβ, GROγ and NAP-2 also belong to the chemokine α family. Like IL-8 these chemokines have also been referred to by ... 9. A method of treating a chemokine mediated disease state, wherein the chemokine binds to an IL-8 α or β receptor in a mammal ... This invention provides for a method of treating a chemokine mediated disease, wherein the chemokine is one which binds to an ...
50% of the AIDS patients, however, had NSI viruses that were sensitive to beta-chemokines. Finally, anti-beta-chemokine- ... Do beta-chemokines have clinical relevance in HIV infection?. C E Mackewicz, E Barker, G Greco, G Reyes-Teran, and J A Levy ... The role of beta-chemokines in HIV infection was evaluated. The kinetics of regulated upon activation of normal T cell ... Evaluation of the effect of HIV replication on beta-chemokine production indicated that acute infection of CD4+ T cells with ...
Recent advances in chemokines and chemokine receptors.. Zlotnik A, Morales J, Hedrick JA.. Crit. Rev. Immunol. 19 1-47 1999 ... Chemokine receptors and T cell chemotaxis.. Mackay CR.. J. Exp. Med. 184 799-802 1996 PMID: 9064339 Related citations ... Chemokine receptors.. Horuk R.. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 12 313-35 2001 PMID: 11544102 Related citations ... Chemokines and their receptors in lymphocyte traffic and HIV infection.. Loetscher P, Moser B, Baggiolini M.. Adv. Immunol. 74 ...
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Term: chemokine receptor. ID: PIRSF038545 Mouse Protein Superfamily Annotations. Select one or more mouse PIRSF members to ...
Chemokine receptors are divided into different families, CXC chemokine receptors, CC chemokine receptors, CX3C chemokine ... Two types of chemokines that bind to these receptors are inflammatory chemokines and homeostatic chemokines. Inflammatory ... CX3C chemokine receptors (one member, CX3CR1). Fifty chemokines have been discovered so far, and most bind onto CXC and CC ... The N-terminal end of a chemokine receptor binds to chemokine(s) and is important for ligand specificity. G-proteins couple to ...
GenScript offers a broad range of active chemokine proteins with excellent lot-to-lot consistency, superior activity and ... Chemokines. Chemokines are a family of small cytokines, or proteins secreted by cells, with a molecular mass between 8 and 10 ... Members of the chemokine family are divided into four groups depending on the location of their first two cysteine residues. ... The major role of chemokines is to act as a chemoattractant to guide the migration of cells. GenScript offers a comprehensive ...
Cytokines and Chemokines in Erythema Migrans. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the ... The inflammatory immune profiles will be assessed using Luminex to measure the expression of cytokines and chemokines ...
  • The inflammatory immune profiles will be assessed using Luminex to measure the expression of cytokines and chemokines representative of innate and adaptive TH1, TH2, TH17, and B cell responses in serum and if available, skin, of patients during active infection and after treatment. (
  • The role of cytokines and chemokines in anti-viral defense has been demonstrated, but their relative contribution to protective anti-viral responses in vivo is not fully understood. (
  • Copenhagen, Denmark, Saturday 13 June 2009: Up-regulation of certain cytokines and chemokines (signaling molecules involved in the functioning of the immune system) can predict the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) three years before the onset of symptoms, according to the results of a new study presented today at EULAR 2009, the Annual Congress of the European League Against Rheumatism in Copenhagen, Denmark. (
  • Cytokines and chemokines are small signalling molecules which are integral to the immune system, as they mediate and regulate immunity, inflammation, and the development of blood cells (haematopoiesis). (
  • Once at the site of injury, immune cells can react by releasing additional cytokines and chemokines, bringing more cells into the fold. (
  • Therefore, many skin cancer subtypes remain with few treatment options and there is much still to be learned regarding the identification of biomarkers to predict immune checkpoint responses and the contribution of soluble mediators such as cytokines and chemokines to the tumour microenvironment and the outcome of tumour growth. (
  • These events are mediated via the generation of adhesion molecules, cytokines, and chemokines. (
  • Since immune modulation has been reported for similar extracts, cytokine antibody arrays were used to investigate the changes in the pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines released from a cultured line of human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to Rhinovirus 14 and two different chemically characterized Echinacea extracts. (
  • Cytokines and chemokines are the primary form of signaling between a wide variety of cells. (
  • Using antibodies to study cytokines and chemokines has given us a far greater understanding into signaling pathways. (
  • The aim of this study was to gain insight into the cytokines and chemokines that are produced by human pancreatic islets upon infection with CVBs. (
  • Analysis of secreted cytokines and chemokines by Luminex technology confirmed production and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., interleukin [IL]-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α) as well as various chemotactic proteins, such as IFN-γ-induced protein 10, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, MIP-1β, and IL-8. (
  • Cytokines and chemokines that are induced upon HEV-B infection of pancreatic islets, and the resulting inflammation, may be critical during the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. (
  • In this study, we set out to investigate production and secretion of a broad range of cytokines and chemokines to gain further insight into the inflammatory processes that are initiated in human islets of Langerhans upon HEV-B infection. (
  • We measured 34 immune mediators, cytokines and chemokines in peripheral blood every 4-7 days over one month per patient using a bio-plex multiplex immunoassay. (
  • however, in recent years, it has become clear that chemokine ligand-receptor interactions can also modulate cellular activation, survival, and proliferation, among other functions in homeostatic and diseased states. (
  • Practical and easy to use, Chemokines: Methods and Protocols aims to reveal key protocols of functional and descriptive chemokine ligand/receptor assays that will be of practical significance to graduate students, post-doctoral fellows, trainees, and researchers in academia and industry. (
  • Most chemokines bind to more than one receptor, while most receptors also display overlapping ligand specificity [ 5 ]. (
  • The N-terminal end of a chemokine receptor binds to chemokine(s) and is important for ligand specificity. (
  • Following binding of the chemokine ligand, chemokine receptors associate with G-proteins, allowing the exchange of GDP for another molecule called GTP , and the dissociation of the different G protein subunits. (
  • Biological activity of chemokines is mediated by receptors with overlapping ligand specificities that bind several proteins, which belong either to the CC-Chemokines or the group of CXC-Chemokines. (
  • The "R" nomenclature is used for receptors that bind chemokines and elicit intracellular signaling in response to binding of a ligand. (
  • In addition to the cysteine-rich domains (CRDs), characteristic of the ligand binding region of cellular TNFRs, CrmB and CrmD have a C-terminal domain unrelated to host proteins that binds chemokines and was named SECRET (smallpox virus-encoded chemokine receptor) domain 16 . (
  • The role of the CC chemokine ligand-5 (CCL5/RANTES) and its receptors CCR1 and CCR5 in atherosclerosis have been addressed in a number of studies. (
  • In the present study we investigated the effect of mutations in the GAG binding sites of three chemokines, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/CC chemokine ligand (CCL)2, macrophage-inflammatory protein-1β/CCL4, and RANTES/CCL5, on their ability to recruit cells in vivo . (
  • For example, N-methylation of Leu-25 in the CXC chemokine IL-8/CXC chemokine ligand 8 produces a monomer that is fully functional in vitro ( 7 ). (
  • Atypical chemokine receptor that controls chemokine levels and localization via high-affinity chemokine binding that is uncoupled from classic ligand-driven signal transduction cascades, resulting instead in chemokine sequestration, degradation, or transcytosis. (
  • Chemokine-binding does not activate G-protein-mediated signal transduction but instead induces beta-arrestin recruitment, leading to ligand internalization. (
  • Two nomenclature systems are used in the current literature, the traditional abbreviations dating back to the time of chemokine discovery, such as interleukin (IL)-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and a systematic nomenclature that combines structural motifs (CXC, CC, XC, CX3C) with L for ligand and the number of the respective gene ( gives access to recent updates 3 ). (
  • Upon ligand binding, chemokine receptors activate G proteins of the Gα i family, leading to inhibition of adenylyl cyclases and mobilization of Ca 2+ from intracellular stores. (
  • This study aimed at determining the role of the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL)2 and CCL7 in ARDS. (
  • Neutrophil chemotaxis to ARDS BAL fluid was evaluated and the contribution of each was assessed and compared with chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8 (CXCL8). (
  • To what extent do the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL)2 and CCL7 contribute to the migratory activity of neutrophils during acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)? (
  • Both CCL2 and CCL7 contribute to neutrophil chemotaxis during ARDS by synergising with chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8. (
  • CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is the receptor for the proinflammatory chemokines: RANTES (regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted) (CC chemokine ligand 5 [CCL5]), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α (CCL3), and MIP-1β (CCL4) ( 1 ). (
  • In heart allografts, the early expression of some chemokines, including MIP-1α and MIP-1β, subsides by day 7-9 posttransplant and is replaced by a late expression of other chemokines such as inducible protein (IP)-10 (CXCL10), monokine induced by interferon-γ (Mig) (CXCL9) (ligands for CXCR3), and RANTES (a ligand for CCR5) ( 6 ). (
  • The only known chemokine ligand for CCR6 is macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-3α (CCL20), although members of the β defensin family also bind CCR6 with a lower affinity ( 15 ). (
  • In addition to being known for mediating chemotaxis, chemokines are all approximately 8-10 kilodaltons in mass and have four cysteine residues in conserved locations that are key to forming their 3-dimensional shape. (
  • For example, in addition to chemotaxis, chemokines modulate lymphocyte development, priming and effector function [ 2 ] and play a critical role in immune surveillance. (
  • Chemokines are multipotent cytokines that localize and enhance inflammation by inducing chemotaxis and cell activation of different types of inflammatory cells typically present at inflammatory sites. (
  • The name chemokine, a contraction of "chemotactic cytokine," reflects the common property, by which chemokines were originally identified, of promoting leukocyte chemotaxis. (
  • The concentrations of circulating chemokines in neonates have not been reported, nor is it known whether low chemokine concentrations contribute to their defective chemotaxis. (
  • Chemokines are a class of cytokines that induce chemotaxis (migration) of target cells. (
  • While some chemotaxis is induced by inflammation or damaged cells, other chemokines function in homeostasis. (
  • In addition, the potential application of chemokines in chemotaxis of exosomes as drug vehicles is discussed. (
  • Exosomes containing chemokines or expressing receptors for chemokines may improve chemotaxis to HCC and may thus be exploited for targeted drug delivery. (
  • Representing the largest class of cytokines, chemokines play an essential role in both physiological and pathological activities by stimulating the migration of certain leukocytes through concentration gradients in a process known as chemotaxis. (
  • Chemokines and their receptors otherwise tend to interact indiscriminately to stimulate upregulation of adherent chemokines, co-stimulatory cytokines and signaling cascades that polarizes cells to direct chemotaxis. (
  • Both aspects, cell adhesion and chemotaxis, are regulated by members of the family of chemotactic cytokines (chemokines) comprising structurally related and secreted proteins of 67-127 amino acids in length. (
  • Chemokines are 8- to 12-kDa-sized secreted proteins that mediate the directed migration (chemotaxis) of leukocytes. (
  • Chemokine receptor activation mediates leukocyte chemotaxis toward lymphoid organs or sites of inflammation along a chemokine gradient that is established by binding of chemokines to membrane-tethered and extracellular matrix-associated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) ( 4 ). (
  • In vitro chemotaxis assays have shown that, whereas MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and RANTES were efficient chemoattractants for Th1 cells to induce a dose-dependent transmigration, Th2 cells were not attracted by these chemokines ( 5 ). (
  • Chemokines are a family of small cytokines, or proteins secreted by cells. (
  • Proteins are classified as chemokines according to shared structural characteristics such as small size (they are all approximately 8-10 kilodaltons in size), and the presence of four cysteine residues in conserved locations that are key to forming their 3-dimensional shape. (
  • Chemokines (Greek -kinos, movement) are a family of small cytokines, or signaling proteins secreted by cells. (
  • Cytokine proteins are classified as chemokines according to behavior and structural characteristics. (
  • All of these proteins exert their biological effects by interacting with G protein-linked transmembrane receptors called chemokine receptors, that are selectively found on the surfaces of their target cells. (
  • Chemokines are small proteins that are important in normal immune responses. (
  • The Human Cytokines & Chemokines RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 key secreted proteins central to the immune response and other functions. (
  • CXC chemokine receptors are integral membrane proteins that specifically bind and respond to cytokines of the CXC chemokine family. (
  • They represent one subfamily of chemokine receptors, a large family of G protein-linked receptors that are known as seven transmembrane (7-TM) proteins, since they span the cell membrane seven times. (
  • Intracellular signaling by chemokine receptors is dependent on neighbouring G-proteins. (
  • Chemokines are a family of small cytokines, or proteins secreted by cells, with a molecular mass between 8 and 10 kDa. (
  • GenScript offers a comprehensive catalog of chemokine proteins with excellent lot-to-lot consistency, superior activity and significantly low endotoxin levels. (
  • Among these signals, small molecular weight chemoattractant proteins known as chemokines are potentially important contributors as they participate in both directing leukocyte migration and function. (
  • Chemokines belong to a family of pro-inflammatory activation-inducible cytokines previously referred to as members of SIS family of cytokines, SIG family of cytokines, SCY family of cytokines, Platelet factor-4 superfamily or Intercrines These proteins are mainly chemotactic for different cell types. (
  • The first 2 cysteine residues are adjacent and, therefore, these proteins are called also CC-Chemokines [Cysteine-Cysteine-Chemokines]. (
  • Chemokines are a class of small molecular proteins with similar structures, functions and chemotactic properties, and their molecular weights are ~10 kDa, and chemokines represent the largest member of the cytokine family ( 9 ). (
  • The invasion of such matter generates an onslaught of inflammatory responses, recruiting several immune cells and proteins, including a special class of small cytokines called chemokines. (
  • Chemokine receptors belong to the large family of seven transmembrane domain receptors which couple to heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (G-proteins) (fig 1). (
  • Leukocyte trafficking, an event which plays a central role in fundamental functions of multicellular organisms, including tissue remodelling, defense, and pathology, is orchestrated by a superfamily of small proteins termed chemokines, which are essential players in immune and inflammatory reactions as well as in infections ( 6 - 8 ). (
  • Glycoprotein G isoforms from some alphaherpesviruses function as broad-spectrum chemokine binding proteins. (
  • Secreted poxvirus chemokine binding proteins. (
  • Chemokines are small secreted proteins that function in leukocyte trafficking, recruitment, and activation and have a role in many pathophysiological processes such as infectious and autoimmune diseases, inflammation, cancer, and vascular disease. (
  • Chemokines comprise a family of secreted proteins that activate G protein-coupled chemokine receptors and thereby control the migration of leukocytes during inflammation or immune surveillance. (
  • Although both glycosylation and proteolytic processing of the C- and/or N-terminus of chemokines has been reported, mainly proteolytic processing of the N-terminus appears to affect the receptor specificity, chemotactic property and signalling potency of these low-molecular-mass proteins. (
  • Your search returned 145 C-C motif chemokine 23 ELISA ELISA Kit across 23 suppliers. (
  • Your search returned 147 C-C motif chemokine receptor 7 ELISA ELISA Kit across 10 suppliers. (
  • This view has changed dramatically with the discovery that peripheral blood T cells need to be activated before they can migrate in response to inflammatory chemokines. (
  • Inflammatory chemokines function mainly as chemoattractants for leukocytes, recruiting monocytes, neutrophils and other effector cells from the blood to sites of infection or tissue damage. (
  • Certain inflammatory chemokines activate cells to initiate an immune response or promote wound healing. (
  • Inflammatory: inflammatory chemokines are produced in high concentrations during infection or injury and determine the migration of inflammatory leukocytes into the damaged area. (
  • Some inflammatory chemokines have proven essential in memory T cell generation [ 3 ]. (
  • Chemokines represents the largest family of cytokines and based on their biological function, chemokines are divided into two categories: (i) Homeostatic chemokines which are typically expressed constitutively and are involved in immune surveillance as well as navigation of cells through hematopoiesis (ii) Inflammatory chemokines which are produced during infections or as a result of an inflammatory stimulus and facilitate an immune response by targeting cells of the innate/adaptive immune system. (
  • Inflammatory Chemokines - A Diagnostic Biomarker for Fibromyalgia? (
  • Since FM patients present higher serum concentrations of inflammatory chemokines than HW, the evaluation of these biomarkers could help in the diagnosis of this syndrome. (
  • These chemokines also have a more diverse range of functions compared to inflammatory chemokines. (
  • In the event of infection, injury, or tissue damage, inflammatory chemokines are often released to address the problem. (
  • Many inflammatory chemokines attract a wide variety of cells in both the innate and adaptive arms of immunity. (
  • Conclusion This study highlights important inflammatory chemokines involved in regulating neutrophil migration, which may have potential value as therapeutic targets for the treatment of ARDS. (
  • Of particular interest are the chemokines IP10 and Mig which bind to a receptor with selective expression in activated T lymphocytes and, therefore, may be critical mediators of T lymphocyte migration in T cell-dependent immune-responses. (
  • These inflammation-unrelated chemokines affect transendothelial migration and localization of progenitor and mature lymphocytes in lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues. (
  • Recent developments in this area justify the hypothesis that the distinct migration patterns of lymphocytes throughout their life cycle--that is, during lymphopoiesis, antigen-dependent priming, inflammation and immune surveillance--are finely tuned by changing sets of chemokines that are selective for developmentally regulated chemokine receptors. (
  • Some chemokines are considered pro-inflammatory and can be induced during an immune response to recruit cells of the immune system to a site of infection, while others are considered homeostatic and are involved in controlling the migration of cells during normal processes of tissue maintenance or development. (
  • The major role of chemokines is to act as a chemoattractant to guide the migration of cells. (
  • Chemokines are functionally divided into two groups: Homeostatic: are constitutively produced in certain tissues and are responsible for basal leukocyte migration. (
  • The main function of chemokines is to manage the migration of leukocytes (homing) in the respective anatomical locations in inflammatory and homeostatic processes. (
  • Chemokines are a superfamily of cytokines that appeared about 650 million years ago, at the emergence of vertebrates, and are responsible for regulating cell migration under both inflammatory and physiological conditions. (
  • The chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 play a central role in the migration of hematopoietic stem cells, and several chemokine receptors are transiently expressed during distinct stages of B- and T-cell development. (
  • [6] Chemokines and their receptors play a crucial role in cancer metastatis as they are involved in extravastation, migration, micrometastatis, and angiogenesis. (
  • Chemokine receptor CXCR7 helps primordial germ cell migration by sequestering a distracting chemokine. (
  • Thus, quaternary structure of chemokines and their interaction with GAGs may significantly contribute to the localization of leukocytes beyond migration patterns defined by chemokine receptor interactions. (
  • However, chemokines control the direction of cell migration and provide a trigger for cell activation. (
  • Chemokines Regulate Leukocyte Migration. (
  • Chemokines--A New Family of Cytokines Regulating Leukocyte Migration. (
  • When EGFP-NPs from CC chemokine receptor CCR 2 knock-out mice were transplanted into slices, they exhibited little migration toward sites of inflammation. (
  • We therefore hypothesized that chemokines released from sites of neuroinflammation might help to guide the migration of neural progenitors to damaged areas of the brain. (
  • After binding to the receptors, chemokines primarily serve a role in migration of leukocytes, such as monocytes, eosinophils and dendritic cells (DCs) ( 11 ). (
  • Chemokine Signalling in T Lymphocytes Migration: the Role ofPhosphoinositide 3-kinaseLaura Smith, Adam Webb, and *Stephen G. Ward, Ph.D.University of Bath5. (
  • This model allows direct observations of leukocyte/vessel wall interactions and has thus enabled us to study the mechanisms of chemokine-induced leukocyte migration in real-time in vivo. (
  • Chemokine receptors are critical regulators of cell migration in the context of immune surveillance, inflammation, and development. (
  • Chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) is critically involved in the transition from innate to adaptive immune activation by coordinating the migration to and positioning of antigen-presenting dendritic cells and T cells in secondary lymphoid organs. (
  • The chemokines, by virtue of their specific cell receptor expression, can selectively mediate the local recruitment/activation of distinct leukocytes/cells, allowing for migration across the endothelium and beyond the vascular compartment. (
  • Plays an important role in controlling the migration of immune and cancer cells that express chemokine receptors CCR7 and CCR9, by reducing the availability of CCL19, CCL21, and CCL25 through internalization. (
  • Homeostatic chemokines are chemokines that are responsible for basal leukocyte migration. (
  • In this study, we have used GAG binding-deficient chemokine mutants and cell-based functional (migration) assays to demonstrate that chemokine cooperativity is caused by competitive binding of chemokines to GAGs. (
  • Third, chemokines (chemotactic cytokines) and chemokine receptors are an important part of the immune response that affects cell migration, activation, and tissue homeostasis. (
  • Fourth, following local production, chemokines induce leukocyte cytoskeletal changes, for example, actin polymerization, optimizing cell migration to areas of microbial infection or degeneration. (
  • Transendothelial migration of monocytes into the nervous system is affected by chemokines produced by activated microglia and astrocytes. (
  • Chemokines exhibit a tremendous functional diversity and participate in a wide variety of processes that include inflammation, innate and adaptive immunity, immune cell differentiation, angiogenesis, tumorigenesis, development, neurobiology and viral pathogenesis. (
  • Inflammation can be protumorigenic, and proinflammatory CC chemokines have been linked with various aspects of cancer biology, yet there is scant evidence supporting a critical role for these molecules in de novo tumor formation. (
  • Chemokines were originally described as cytokines that mediate leukocyte recruitment to sites of inflammation. (
  • Members of a subgroup of chemokines, the CXC family, also play a critical role in both physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis, including in the context of chronic inflammation, fibrosis, and malignancy. (
  • Chemokines can be located in different vascular cell types, eg, endothelial cells (ECs) but also inflammatory cells and can be detected within atherosclerotic lesions, where they function as messengers to direct leukocytes to sites of inflammation but may also control homeostasis and other activities of emigrated cells. (
  • During organogenesis, immunosurveillance, and inflammation, chemokines selectively recruit leukocytes by activating seven-transmembrane-spanning receptors. (
  • For instance, CCL20 is also associated with inflammation since it can act as pro-inflammatory chemokine as well. (
  • Chemokines are involved in recruitment and activation of hematopoietic cells at sites of infection and inflammation. (
  • This mechanistic explanation of chemokine cooperativity provides insight into chemokine gradient formation in the context of inflammation, in which multiple chemokines are secreted simultaneously. (
  • Through activation of the G-protein-coupled cell-surface receptor on target cells, chemokines and their receptors play a major role in the process by which leukocytes are recruited from the bloodstream into sites of inflammation, and several have been implicated in allograft rejection ( 1 ). (
  • Here, we show that in a cockroach antigen (CA) model of allergic pulmonary inflammation, the chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-3α is expressed in the lung within hours of allergen challenge. (
  • Chemokines, adhesion molecules, cytokines and proteases regulate the extravasation of leucocytes during acute and chronic inflammation and leucocyte homing. (
  • Appreciation of the existence of a plasma membrane receptor for thyroid hormone analogues on the extracellular domains of a structural plasma membrane protein, integrin α v β 3 [ 1 - 3 ], has permitted recognition of new control mechanisms for the release of cytokines, including chemotactic cytokines or chemokines [ 4 ]. (
  • All cytokines released by immune cells were called lymphokines/interleukins, whereas chemotactic cytokines were called chemokines. (
  • While a function of chemokines is to regulate lymphocyte trafficking, the view that chemokines act simply as "chemotactic cytokines" has evolved to include the many critical roles they play in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses. (
  • Chemokines belong to a large group of structurally related and secretable, largely basic, chemotactic cytokines, which can be divided into 4 families (CC, CXC, CX 3 C, XC) based on the position of the first 2 cysteine residues. (
  • The kinetics of leukocyte infiltration and involvement in this setting are in part dependent on the combinatorial expression of chemokines and their receptors. (
  • Predominantly, chemokine receptors are expressed by leukocytes, and the specific interactions of chemokines with their cognate receptors are major determinants of the trafficking and localization of leukocyte subsets within tissue compartments. (
  • Chemokines are small molecules with pro-migratory properties generated during inflammatory reactions and are actively involved during the leukocyte extravasation process. (
  • Chemokines constitute a large family of structurally similar cytokines that contain a signature of conserved cysteine residues joined by disulfide bridges. (
  • Four families of chemokine receptors differ in spacing of cysteine residues near N-terminal of the receptor. (
  • The first two extracellular loops of chemokine receptors are linked together by disulfide bonding between two conserved cysteine residues. (
  • Members of the chemokine family are divided into four groups depending on the location of their first two cysteine residues. (
  • Chemokines possess a number of conserved cysteine residues involved in intramolecular disulfide bond formation. (
  • The first 2 cysteine residues of this family are separated by 1 amino acids therefore, called CXC-Chemokines [Cysteine- Amino Acid-Cysteine-Chemokines]. (
  • Some human CXC-Chemokines are defined by the conserved ELR sequence motif (glutamic acid-leucine-arginine) after the first cysteine residue near the amino-terminal end. (
  • Several of the Beta-Chemokines contain two additional conserved cysteine residues and sometimes the term C6-beta-Chemokines is used for this subgroup. (
  • C-Chemokines also named Gamma-Chemokines differ from other chemokines by the absence of a one cysteine residue. (
  • Chemokines members having a CXXXC cysteine signature are referred to as Delta-Chemokines or CX3C-Chemokines or CXXXC-Chemokines. (
  • Chemokines have been traditionally divided into four families (CXC, CC, C, and CX3C) based on the patterns of amino-terminal cysteine residues. (
  • To date, >50 chemokines have been found, which can be divided into four families: CXC, CX3C, CC and XC, according to the different positions of the conserved N‑terminal cysteine residues. (
  • 50 chemokines have been identified, which can be divided into four families: CXC, CX3C, CC and XC, based on the different positions of the conserved N-terminal cysteine residues ( 9 ). (
  • Classified into subfamilies by the structural conservation of both cysteine residues and disulfide bonds, chemokine nomenclature reflects several cysteine-grouping motifs and arrangements. (
  • C Chemokines - Contain only two conserved cysteine residues linked by a single disulfide bond. (
  • CC Chemokines - Contain four conserved cysteine residues of which the first two, closest to the N-terminal, are adjacent to one another. (
  • CXC Chemokines - Contain four conserved cysteine residues of which the first two, closest to the N-terminal, are separated by a single amino acid. (
  • The chemokine family encompasses nearly 50 members, which are classified based on the relative position of their conserved N-terminal cysteine residues (CC, CXC, CX 3 C, and C). Chemokines elicit intracellular responses via G protein-coupled receptors. (
  • In this update, we will highlight these recent developments, in particular the identification of components regulating the transcriptional machinery of the proatherogenic chemokine CCL5, distinct roles of its receptors CCR1 and CCR5 in plaque formation and immunobalance, and differential site- and stage-specific effects of T cell-activating chemokines and their receptors, eg, CXCL10 and CXCR3. (
  • In preclinical ex vivo studies performed using explants of resected metastatic CRC, the combination of IFNα with nonselective or COX2-selective inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis resulted in elevated production of the effector T cell-attracting chemokines CXCL10 and CCL5. (
  • The most recent chemokine binding protein is a structural variant of CXCR3, termed CXCR3-B, which binds the classical CXCR3 ligands: monokine induced by interferon γ (Mig)/CXCL9, interferon α inducible protein 10 (IP10)/CXCL10, and interferon inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC)/CXCL11 as well as platelet factor 4/CXCL4. (
  • To date, there are over twenty different chemokine receptors, binding nearly fifty unique ligands that have been identified. (
  • Following interaction with their specific chemokine ligands , chemokine receptors trigger a flux in intracellular calcium (Ca 2+ ) ions ( calcium signaling ). (
  • Although chemokine receptors share high amino acid identity in their primary sequences, they typically bind a limited number of ligands. (
  • Recently, we have begun offering a range of chemokine products that cover ligands for a range of chemokine receptors, and incorporate site-specifically labelled biotin or AlexaFluor®647. (
  • Classified into subfamilies based on the motifs of their ligands, these receptors tend to interact with the chemokines of their eponymous subfamilies. (
  • Chemokines are produced after transcriptional activation by inflammatory mediators such as cytokines or microbial Toll-like receptor ligands and their effect depends on the expression of chemokine receptors on specific cell types. (
  • Typical structure of a chemokine receptor , with seven transmembrane domains and a characteristic "DRY" motif in the second intracellular domain. (
  • Chemokine receptors are G protein-coupled receptors containing 7 transmembrane domains [5] that are found predominantly on the surface of leukocytes , making it one of the rhodopsin-like receptors . (
  • Gamma & Delta Chemokines are type 1 transmembrane glycoproteins with the chemokine domain resting on top of an extended mucin-like stalk. (
  • A soluble form of the chemokine moiety can be released from its transmembrane anchor by extracellular cleavage. (
  • Chemokine receptors belong to the large group of G-protein-coupled seven transmembrane domain receptors that contain 7 hydrophobic alpha-helical segments that transverse the membrane. (
  • The contribution of the transmembrane chemokines CX 3 CL1 and CXCL16 with their respective receptors CX 3 CR1 and CXCR6 in the recruitment of T cell and monocyte subsets and shear-mediated plaque modulation will be discussed. (
  • Chemokines receptors are seven transmembrane spanning G protein-coupled receptors that allow cells to migrate towards increasing chemokine gradients. (
  • In order to exert biological effect, chemokines will bind with receptors of the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, which possess seven conserved transmembrane domains with which chemokines can interact. (
  • Chemokines interact with 7 transmembrane domain G-protein-coupled receptors and, so far, 10 CC (CCR1-10), 6 CXC (CXCR1-6), 1 CX3C (CXCR1), and 1 C (XCR1) receptors have been identified ( 9 ). (
  • Requirement of the chemokine receptor CXCR3 for acute allograft rejection. (
  • Regulation of pulmonary fibrosis by chemokine receptor CXCR3. (
  • Chemokine receptor CXCR3 mediates T cell recruitment and tissue injury in nephrotoxic nephritis in mice. (
  • The chemokine receptors CXCR3 and CCR5 mark subsets of T cells associated with certain inflammatory reactions. (
  • Delayed and deficient dermal maturation in mice lacking the CXCR3 ELR-negative CXC chemokine receptor. (
  • CXCR3 chemokine receptor distribution in normal and inflamed tissues: expression on activated lymphocytes, endothelial cells, and dendritic cells. (
  • Lymphocyte-specific chemokine receptor CXCR3: regulation, chemokine binding and gene localization. (
  • Th1 cells express CCR5 and CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) following activation, whereas activated T helper 2 (Th2) cells express CCR3, CCR4, and CCR8 ( 2 , 3 ). (
  • Finally, anti-beta-chemokine-neutralizing antibodies caused a more rapid release of HIV by CD4+ T cells naturally infected by NSI, but not SI, viruses indicating that endogenously produced chemokines can affect HIV production in culture. (
  • Our cytokine and chemokine antibodies are quality controlled and tested in the application such as western blotting, ELISA, IF, IHC, and ICC. (
  • We discuss the evidence base for the role of the chemokine network in the renal disease of small vessel vasculitis and extend this to non-renal aspects of small vessel vasculitis other systemic vasculitides. (
  • Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene . (
  • We propose that actions of thyroid hormone and hormone analogues on chemokine gene expression contribute to regulation of inflammatory processes in brain and of brain blood vessel formation and maintenance. (
  • QIAGEN provides a broad range of assay technologies for cytokine and chemokine research that enables analysis of gene expression and regulation, epigenetic modification, genotyping, and signal transduction pathway activation. (
  • CXCR6 was formerly called three different names (STRL33, BONZO, and TYMSTR) before being assigned CXCR6 based on its chromosomal location (within the chemokine receptor cluster on human chromosome 3p21) and its similarity to other chemokine receptors in its gene sequence. (
  • The first teleost chemokine gene was reported in rainbow trout in 1998. (
  • Since then, numerous chemokine genes have been identified in diverse fish species evidencing the great differences that exist among fish and mammalian chemokines, and within the different fish species, as a consequence of extensive intrachromosomal gene duplications and different infectious experiences. (
  • This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential vaccine adjuvants. (
  • Chemokines share common gene & tertiary structure. (
  • Examples of viral chemokine receptor homologs are ECRF-3, EBI-1 (EBV induced gene-1) and US28. (
  • A gene on chromosome 5q31 that encodes a CXC-type chemokine that is a potent chemoattractant for neutrophils, and weaker one for dendritic cells. (
  • The product of the Chemokine-like factor gene is a cytokine. (
  • This gene is one of several chemokine-like factor genes located in a cluster on chromosome 16. (
  • At the same time, the G-protein subunit Gα directly activates an enzyme called protein tyrosine kinase (PTK), which phosphorylates serine and threonine residues in the tail of the chemokine receptor, causing its desensitisation or inactivation. (
  • 1, 2 In addition, there are two C chemokines, Ltn-α/XCL1 and Ltn-β/XCL2, in which two out of the four conserved Cys residues are missing, and a single CX3C chemokine, called fractalkine/CX3CL1, with three amino acids separating the two NH 2 terminal Cys residues. (
  • As an exception, one chemokine, SDF-1, is a highly effective chemoattractant for non-activated T lymphocytes and progenitor B cells. (
  • Chemokines are a group of related chemoattractant peptides that are essential regulators of the immune system, both during homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. (
  • Serum concentrations of thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC)/(CCL17), monokine induced by gamma-interferon (MIG)/(CXCL9), macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC)/(CCL22), interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC)/(CXCL11), eotaxin (CCL11), pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine (PARC)/(CCL18) and hemofiltrate CC-chemokine-4 (HCC-4)/(CCL16) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and compared between the FM and HW groups. (
  • The defined subgroups of chemokines on the basis of structural and functional properties illustrates the importance of chemoattractant diversity in the regulation of the movement of leukocytes through the body. (
  • Chemokines are small chemoattractant peptides that provide directional cues for the cell trafficking and thus are vital for protective host response. (
  • Chemokines and their receptors (along with surface-adhesion molecules) are central to these migrations, targeting developing and mature leukocytes to tissues and microenvironments suitable for their differentiation and function. (
  • In the periphery, mature naïve B and T cells utilize the receptors CCR7, CXCR4, and CXCR5 to recirculate through specialized microenvironments within the secondary lymphoid tissues, while effector and memory lymphocytes express bewildering patterns of adhesion molecules and chemokine receptors that allow them to function within microenvironments and non-lymphoid tissues inaccessible to naïve cells. (
  • The involvement of chemokine receptors in HIV infection is briefly mentioned, while other interesting areas in chemokine research, such as hematopoiesis and angiogenesis, are not discussed. (
  • Chemokines and Angiogenesis*Michael P. Keane, M.D., John A. Belperio, M.D., and Robert M.Strieter, M.D.University of California, Los Angeles and University of Virginia16. (
  • 1,2 By signaling through G protein-coupled chemokine receptors, chemokines govern a variety of cell responses including cell activation and transmigration in leukocytes, as well as in nonhematopoietic cells. (
  • CXCR4 (also known as fusin) is the receptor for a chemokine known as CXCL12 (or SDF-1) and, as with CCR5, is utilized by HIV-1 to gain entry into target cells. (
  • Rodent fibroblasts (3T3) that cannot be infected with myxoma virus could be made fully permissive for myxoma virus infection by expression of any one of several human chemokine receptors, including CCR1, CCR5, and CXCR4. (
  • Furthermore, dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons express the chemokine receptors CX3CR1, CXCR4, CCR4, and CCR5, and CXCR4- and CCR4-positive neurons also express substance P and the transient receptor potential ion channel (TRPV1, formerly named VR1) that have been implicated in nociception ( 8 ). (
  • Epitope mapping of CCR5 reveals multiple conformational states and distinct but overlapping structures involved in chemokine and coreceptor function. (
  • The chemokine receptor CCR5 is the major coreceptor for R5 human immunodeficiency virus type-1 strains. (
  • CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is expressed preferentially by CD4 + T helper 1 (Th1) cells. (
  • The G protein-coupled chemokine receptor CXCR4 is specifically implicated in cancer metastasis and HIV-1 infection. (
  • CXCL8 (otherwise known as interleukin-8) and CXCL6 can both bind CXCR1 in humans, while all other ELR-positive chemokines, such as CXCL1 to CXCL7 bind only CXCR2. (
  • Chemokine receptors are divided into different families, CXC chemokine receptors , CC chemokine receptors , CX3C chemokine receptors and XC chemokine receptors that correspond to the 4 distinct subfamilies of chemokines they bind. (
  • [6] Chemokine receptors are redundant in their function as more than one chemokine is able to bind to a single receptor. (
  • Many chemokines bind several receptors and multiple chemokines often bind the same receptor, resulting in a highly complex network of interactions ( 3 ). (
  • thus, it is not surprising that chemokines are also able to bind linear sulfated GAGs such as heparin and heparan sulfate. (
  • Use this table to quickly identify the chemokines that bind to each receptor. (
  • Chemokines bind to a variety of different receptors, which belong to the G-protein-binding receptor family, and there are ~23 types of chemokine receptors that have been discovered ( 10 ). (
  • 4- 6 Chemokine receptors are designated according to the type of chemokine(s) they bind (CXC, CC, XC, CX3C), followed by R for receptor and a number indicating the order of discovery. (
  • Furthermore, activated chemokine receptors bind to the scaffolding protein β-arrestin ( 1 - 3 ). (
  • Lymphocyte responses to chemokines. (
  • This review emphasizes the new developments in the field of lymphocyte responses to chemokines. (
  • Lymphocyte traffic control by chemokines. (
  • Here, we summarize the current view of chemokine-mediated lymphocyte traffic and focus on the molecular mechanisms by which T cell responses to chemokines are modulated. (
  • The chemokine receptor CXCR5 is expressed on B cells and CD4+ Tfh cells and is involved in lymphocyte homing and the development of normal lymphoid tissue. (
  • Differential expression of three T lymphocyte-activating CXC chemokines by human atheroma-associated cells. (
  • Chemokines and their receptors in lymphocyte traffic and HIV infection. (
  • Chemokine Receptors and Lymphocyte TraffickingMichael N. Hedrick, Ph.D. and *Joshua M. Farber, M.D.National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease/NationalInstitutes of Health8. (
  • The fundamental importance of chemokines for atherogenesis, progression, and destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques is now widely appreciated, but the degree of complexity, specificity, and cooperativity harnessed by these signal molecules to govern atherogenic cell recruitment and homeostasis is still being refined. (
  • Naturally occurring modifications, such as N-terminal truncation, can affect the biological potency and the receptor specificity of chemokines. (
  • A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. (
  • A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. (
  • N-terminal processing of chemokines by aminopeptidases or endoproteases may alter the receptor specificity and may result in up- or down-regulation of their chemotactic, antiviral or angiogenic activity. (
  • Recently, we and others have demonstrated that the atypical chemokine receptor D6 actively sequesters and destroys many of these proinflammatory CC chemokines. (
  • Chemokines have been classified into four main subfamilies: CXC, CC, CX3C and XC. (
  • 2 different subfamilies of chemokines are distinguished according to their chromosomal location. (
  • Chemokines as mediators of neovasculariza. (
  • Chemokines are essential mediators for trafficking of leukocytes and their role is not only restricted to cell attraction. (
  • Here we present a temporal analysis of key immune mediators, cytokine and chemokines in blood of hospitalised COVID-19 patients from serial sampling and follow up over four weeks. (
  • Findings: We found that the chemokine RANTES(CCL5) was significantly elevated, from an early stage of the infection, in patients with mild but not severe disease. (
  • ACKR3 designation has been accepted by the IUIS/WHO Subcommittee on Chemokine Nomenclature. (
  • Nomenclature for chemokine receptors. (
  • In this article we have combined the "common" name with the systematic nomenclature at the first instance a particular chemokine is mentioned and then used the systematic name in the remainder of the text. (
  • These data demonstrate the importance of proinflammatory CC chemokines in de novo tumorigenesis and reveal chemokine sequestration by D6 to be a novel and effective method of tumor suppression. (
  • The authors compare this decoy receptor strategy to a similar mechanism that functions in the resolution of inflammatory responses: In that case, interleukin-10 promotes expression of inflammatory chemokine receptors on mature dendritic cells, where they also appear not to signal but instead act to sequester proinflammatory chemokines. (
  • Chemokine-triggered immune responses often require co-stimulation by primary proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1α, IFN-γ and TNF-α. (
  • The LEGENDplex™ Human Proinflammatory Chemokine Standard product is intended for use with the Mix and Match Human Proinflammatory Chemokine Panel of products. (
  • Today, almost three dozen human chemokines have been identified. (
  • The large majority of approximately 50 human chemokines fall into the group of either CXC or CC chemokines. (
  • These are known as homeostatic chemokines and are produced and secreted without any need to stimulate their source cells. (
  • Basal: homeostatic chemokines are basal produced in the thymus and lymphoid tissues. (
  • Homeostatic chemokines are constitutively expressed in particular organs or tissues. (
  • Due to their function of targeting cells to specific organs, homeostatic chemokines can also be involved in cancer and metastasis. (
  • Chemokines with an ELR sequence chemoattract & activate primarily neutrophils. (
  • Chemokine receptor expression on neutrophils from blood or BAL fluid of patients with ARDS was analysed by flow cytometry. (
  • Furthermore, neutrophils isolated from the blood or BAL fluid differentially regulated the cell surface expression of chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 1 and C-C chemokine receptor type 2 during ARDS. (
  • A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. (
  • IL-10 treatment improved pulmonary architecture and was associated with a reduction in inflammatory markers, including bronchoalveolar lavage fluid total protein, pulmonary myeloperoxidase activity (a biochemical marker of neutrophils), and the chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein 2. (
  • CXCR1 and CXCR2 are closely related receptors that recognize CXC chemokines that possess an E-L-R amino acid motif immediately adjacent to their CXC motif. (
  • 4. The chemokine construct of claim 1, wherein said (VH) anti-CD4 has at least one CDR3 consisting of the amino acid sequence Lys Gly Glu Asn Gly Asn Ser Leu Ala Phe Ala Tyr (SEQ ID NO. 2). (
  • 6. The chemokine construct of claim 1, wherein said (VH) anti-CD4 has at least one CDR1 consisting of the amino acid sequence Asp Tyr Val Ile Asn (SEQ ID NO. 6). (
  • 10. The chemokine construct of claim 1, wherein said (VL) anti-CD4 has at least one CDR3 consisting of the amino acid sequence: Gln Gin Ser Ile Gln Asp Pro Cys Thr (SEQ ID NO. 8). (
  • 11. The chemokine construct of claim 1, wherein said (VL) anti-CD4 has at least one CDR2 consisting of the amino acid sequence: Ala Ala Ser Asn Leu Glu Ser (SEQ ID NO. 10). (
  • In particular, chemokines have proven to be an attractive synthetic target, and chemical synthesis comes to the fore in enabling the introduction of unnatural amino acids, or labels that are useful aids in research. (
  • Many different cell types secrete chemokines, most often to attract immune cells to the site of infection or injury during innate and adaptive immune responses. (
  • This tract will discuss the contribution of chemokines to the development of innate and adaptive granuloma formation, as well as describe their relationship to more recently evolved cytokines generated during adaptive immune responses. (
  • Critical to maintaining hemostasis through hematopoietic differentiation and immune surveillance, chemokines also help orchestrate both innate and adaptive immune responses. (
  • Importantly, major advances in our understanding of chemokine biology have led to chemokine receptors becoming specific therapeutic targets with great potential. (
  • The Biology CXC Chemokines and Their Receptors. (
  • The Molecular and Cellular Biology of CC Chemokines and Their Receptors. (
  • This volume in the Current Topics in Membranes series discusses the biology of chemokines and their binding partners, chemokine receptors, in normal and disease-related states. (
  • In this review, we describe the current state of knowledge of chemokine biology in teleost fish. (
  • Chemokine biology is further complicated by individual chemokines interacting with more than one receptor and chemokine receptors potentially binding more than one chemokine. (
  • The Structural Biology of Chemokines*Elias Lolis, Ph.D. and James Murphy, Ph.D.Yale University3. (
  • Their homeostatic function in homing is best exemplified by the chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 (expressed within lymph nodes and on lymphatic endothelial cells) and their receptor CCR7 (expressed on cells destined for homing in cells to these organs). (
  • The chemokine CCL19, which is in the endothelium lining the vein, is stained blue in this immunofluorescent image. (
  • Among other homeostatic chemokine receptors include: CCR9, CCR10, and CXCR5, which are important as part of the cell addresses for tissue-specific homing of leukocytes. (
  • Chemokines are a family of small molecular weight cytokines, which are involved in leukocytes stimulation and chemotactic gradient determining. (
  • [4] This role of chemokine is strikingly similar to their normal function of localizing leukocytes to an inflammatory site. (
  • These findings suggest that poxviruses, like HIV, are able to use chemokine receptors to infect specific cell subtypes, notably migratory leukocytes, but that their mechanisms of receptor interactions are distinct. (
  • Chemokines are critical for the movement of leukocytes. (
  • Chemokines belong to a class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes . (
  • Chemokines are important regulators in the development, differentiation, and anatomic location of leukocytes. (
  • Echinacea extracts modulate the pattern of chemokine and cytokine secretion in rhinovirus-infected and uninfected epithelial cells. (
  • But it hadn't been identified as a receptor for a chemokine. (
  • Attracted cells move toward areas of higher concentrations of the chemokine. (
  • These cysteines provide tertiary structure for the chemokine through disulfide bonds. (
  • This invention relates to novel carboxylic acid indole compounds and compositions for use in the treatment of disease states mediated by the chemokine, Interleukin-8 (IL-8). (
  • This was associated with concomitant suppression of the intratumoral expression of CCL22, a Treg-attracting chemokine (Muthuswamy et al 2008 Canc Res, and Muthuswamy et al, submitted to Canc Res 2011). (
  • Chemokine CCL22" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Chemokine CCL22" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Chemokine CCL22" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Chemokine CCL22" by people in Profiles. (
  • On the other hand, the chemokine system also plays a crucial role in the induction of antitumor immune responses and optimal effector function regulation of immune cells [ 1 , 4 , 5 ]. (
  • Fig. 4: The m6A regulation of chemokine in immune evasion. (
  • Since the role of chemokines in atherosclerotic vascular disease has been reviewed in this journal, significant progress has been accomplished in defining the regulation of chemokine expression and function in atherosclerosis. (
  • Interestingly, post-disease onset, chemokines, stromal cell and angiogenic-related markers were important in differentiating up-regulation in those who had developed RA compared to findings in the same individual before symptoms of RA. (
  • Emerging evidence shows that the expression and function of G-protein-coupled receptors is strictly controlled by cytokines and other microenvironmental signals, such as Hyp ( 10 - 12 ), and that the regulation of receptor expression during cell activation and deactivation is as important as the regulation of chemokine production for tuning the chemokine system ( 13 ). (
  • Other chemokines are inflammatory and are released from a wide variety of cells in response to bacterial infection, viruses and agents that cause physical damage such as silica or the urate crystals that occur in gout. (
  • The increase of the chemokines concentration could be associated not only with infection but also with the mechanism of labor [ 12 ]. (
  • Do beta-chemokines have clinical relevance in HIV infection? (
  • The role of beta-chemokines in HIV infection was evaluated. (
  • Evaluation of the effect of HIV replication on beta-chemokine production indicated that acute infection of CD4+ T cells with non-syncytia-inducing (NSI) viruses generally increased beta-chemokine production two to eightfold, whereas with SI strains, it led to decreased production. (
  • These findings suggest that beta-chemokines may affect HIV replication when an NSI virus is involved, but provide little evidence that they substantially influence HIV infection and pathogenesis. (
  • Chemokines are induced and released into the circulation during acute infection but high concentrations of some chemokines are observed also in normal plasma. (
  • Such variety of activities may provide poxviruses the ability to differentially block chemokines involved in distinct anti-viral responses, to inhibit chemokines at different stages of infection in the host or to simultaneously inhibit chemokines and TNF. (
  • Chemokines play a part in the development of many diseases, especially inflammatory diseases, including HIV infection. (
  • Virus infection stimulated the release of at least 31 cytokine-related molecules, including several important chemokines known to attract inflammatory cells. (
  • Chemokine receptors are critical for the infection of perivascular macrophages and microglia. (
  • It has also been shown that chemokines and their receptors play a more direct role in the neuropathogenesis of HIV-1 infection. (
  • Chemokines and the Neuropathogenesis of HIV-1 Infection, p 151-171. (
  • A proposed pathophysiological mechanism for how chemokines and their receptors influence the neuropathogenesis of HIV-1 infection. (
  • Over the last few decades, chemokines are found to be involved in almost every aspect of tumorigenesis and antitumor immunity [ 1 ]. (
  • Chemokines: a new classification system and their role in immunity. (
  • The m6A could affect the chemokine functions including pro-tumor effects of chemokines involved in Immune cell such as granulocytic and monocytic myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), Treg cells, Th22 cells, and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), and suppress-tumor immunity by chemokines involved in immune cell including CD8 T cell and Th1 cell. (
  • Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is a chemokine relevant to inflammatory processes in the CNS that are microglia-dependent but also important to normal brain development. (
  • [1] [2] There have been 20 distinct chemokine receptors discovered in humans. (
  • There have been 19 distinct chemokine receptors described in mammals. (
  • All other chemokines with activities in lymphocytes do also induce responses in monocytes and granulocytes. (
  • In contrast to the remarkable chemokine responses of phagocytes and monocytes that were documented early on, lymphocytes have been considered for a long time to be poor targets for chemokine action. (
  • Notably, it was shown that lymphocytes require stimulation to become responsive to chemokines, a process that is closely linked to chemokine receptor expression. (
  • Flexible programs of chemokine receptor expression on human polarized T helper 1 and 2 lymphocytes. (
  • Lymphocytes require stimulation to become responsive to most known chemokines, and this process is linked closely to chemokine receptor expression. (
  • Based on this evidence, we investigated the effect of Hyp on the expression and function of chemokine receptors. (
  • The Mouse Chemokines & Receptors RT² Profiler ™ PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 genes that encode chemokines and their receptors. (
  • In Chemokine Receptors, leading investigators attempt to distill the large body of literature ranging from basic molecular and cellular mechanism of chemokine receptors, to physiological and pathological roles of chemokines. (
  • Recent studies suggest that its pathogenesis may involve cytokines, in particular, chemokines - cytokines that regulate cell traffic under both physiological and pathological conditions. (
  • In particular the book contains cutting-edge information ranging from basic molecular and cellular mechanisms to physiological and pathological roles of chemokines. (
  • Chemokines and their chemokine receptors are expressed in the nervous system, and their engagement affects neuronal and glial function. (
  • 1997). "Cloning and characterization of a specific receptor for the novel CC chemokine MIP-3alpha from lung dendritic cells" . (
  • 1997). "CCR6, a CC chemokine receptor that interacts with macrophage inflammatory protein 3alpha and is highly expressed in human dendritic cells" . (
  • CCR6 is a chemokine receptor that is expressed in immature dendritic cells (DCs) ( 10 )( 11 )( 12 ) as well as in B lymphocytes ( 13 )( 14 ) and memory T cells ( 13 ). (
  • Some chemokines control cells of the immune system during processes of immune surveillance, such as directing lymphocytes to the lymph nodes so they can screen for invasion of pathogens by interacting with antigen-presenting cells residing in these tissues. (
  • Chemokines in Immune Surveillance of the Intestine. (
  • On one hand, the chemokine network is used by tumors to evade immune surveillance, resist apoptosis, and metastasize. (