Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.
Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.
Proteins that specifically inhibit the growth of new blood vessels (ANGIOGENESIS, PHYSIOLOGIC).
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.
Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.
CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.
Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.

Chemokine mRNA expression in gastric mucosa is associated with Helicobacter pylori cagA positivity and severity of gastritis. (1/4853)

AIM: To investigate the association between the quantity of gastric chemokine mRNA expression, severity of gastritis, and cagA positivity in Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis. METHODS: In 83 dyspeptic patients, antral and corpus biopsies were taken for semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and histological grading of gastritis. Gastritis was evaluated by visual analogue scales. Quantities of chemokine (IL-8, GRO alpha, ENA-78, RANTES, MCP-1) RT-PCR products were compared with G3PDH products. Each sample was also evaluated for the presence of cagA and ureA mRNA by RT-PCR. RESULTS: mRNA expression of all five chemokines was significantly greater in H pylori positive than in H pylori negative mucosa. In H pylori positive patients, in the antrum C-X-C chemokine mRNA expression was significantly greater in cagA positive patients than in cagA negative patients, but there were no significant differences in C-C chemokine mRNA expression. In H pylori positive patients, chemokine mRNA expression in the corpus was less than in the antrum. In contrast to the antrum, only GRO alpha mRNA expression was significantly greater in cagA positive infection. Polymorphonuclear cell infiltration was correlated with C-X-C chemokine mRNA expression. Significant correlations were also found between bacterial density and C-X-C chemokine mRNA expression. CONCLUSIONS: In H pylori infection, C-X-C chemokines may play a primary role in active gastritis. Infection with cagA positive H pylori induces greater gastric chemokine mRNA expression in the antral mucosa, which may be relevant to the increased mucosal damage associated with cagA positive H pylori infection.  (+info)

Isolation of novel GRO genes and a phylogenetic analysis of the CXC chemokine subfamily in mammals. (2/4853)

Approximately 15 different alpha, or CXC, chemokines have thus far been isolated from 11 species of mammals. Among the best studied chemokines are the 12 human proteins that are encoded by 11 paralogous genes. In order to better understand the evolution and function of this group of genes, we isolated and characterized six novel GRO and GRO-related cDNA sequences from the cow (Bos taurus), the sheep (Ovis aries), the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), and the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus). The amino acid sequence of the diverged guinea pig GRO or KC gene is only 50%-60% similar to presumed orthologs from other species, while the sheep and cow GRO proteins are 90%-99% similar to each other. The presence of multiple GRO genes in the cow, the rabbit, and the sheep is consistent with what has been observed for humans. Phylogenetic analyses of amino acid sequences from 44 proteins indicate that genes orthologous to many of the 11 known from humans exist in other species. One such gene, interleukin 8, or IL8, has been isolated from nine species, including the rodent guinea pig; however, this gene is absent in the rat and the mouse, indicating a unique gene loss event in the rat/mouse (muroid rodent) lineage. The KC (or MIP2) gene of rodents appears to be orthologous to the GRO gene found in other taxonomic orders. Combined evidence from different sources suggests that IP10 and MIG share sister taxon relationships on the evolutionary tree, while the remaining paralogous genes represent independent lineages, with limited evidence for kinship between them. This observation indicates that these genes originated nearly contemporaneously via a series of gene duplication events. Relative-rate tests for synonymous and nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions in the KC and IL8 genes did not detect rate heterogeneity; however, there are several notable features regarding the IL8 genes. For example, the IL8 proteins from two Old World monkeys are as similar to one another as they are to the IL8 protein from humans, and all observed nucleotide differences between the IL8 genes of the two monkeys cause amino acid changes; in other words, there are no synonymous differences between them.  (+info)

Selective recruitment of CCR4-bearing Th2 cells toward antigen-presenting cells by the CC chemokines thymus and activation-regulated chemokine and macrophage-derived chemokine. (3/4853)

Helper T cells are classified into Th1 and Th2 subsets based on their profiles of cytokine production. Th1 cells are involved in cell-mediated immunity, whereas Th2 cells induce humoral responses. Selective recruitment of these two subsets depends on specific adhesion molecules and specific chemoattractants. Here, we demonstrate that the T cell-directed CC chemokine thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) was abundantly produced by monocytes treated with granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or IL-3, especially in the presence of IL-4 and by dendritic cells derived from monocytes cultured with GM-CSF + IL-4. The receptor for TARC and another macrophage/dendritic cell-derived CC chemokine macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) is CCR4, a G protein-coupled receptor. CCR4 was found to be expressed on approximately 20% of adult peripheral blood effector/memory CD4+ T cells. T cells attracted by TARC and MDC generated cell lines predominantly producing Th2-type cytokines, IL-4 and IL-5. Fractionated CCR4+ cells but not CCR4- cells also selectively gave rise to Th2-type cell lines. When naive CD4+ T cells from adult peripheral blood were polarized in vitro, Th2-type cells selectively expressed CCR4 and vigorously migrated toward TARC and MDC. Taken together, CCR4 is selectively expressed on Th2-type T cells and antigen-presenting cells may recruit Th2 cells expressing CCR4 by producing TARC and MDC in Th2-dominant conditions.  (+info)

Prospects for cytokine and chemokine biotherapy. (4/4853)

Cytokines with immunostimulating effects have the capacity to induce tumor immunity in animal models, whereas some cytokines interfere with tumor growth based on their angiostatic effects. Despite these capabilities, cytokines, such as IFN-, IFN-, tumor necrosis factor, interleukin (IL)-1, and IL-2, have had limited clinical efficacy and many undesirable side effects. In preclinical models, cytokines can even promote tumor growth and increase metastatic spread. Although chemokines have had limited clinical evaluation, studies of animal models show that they can also have tumor-suppressive or tumor-enhancing effects. In mice, chemokines, such as IP-10, RANTES, and TCA3, have resulted in tumor regression and immunity to subsequent tumor challenge. Those chemokines that are angiostatic (e.g., PF4, IP-10, and MIG) can also induce tumor regression by reducing the tumor blood supply. Conversely, IL-8, which is angiogenic, can promote tumor growth. Our studies show that nasopharyngeal cell line cells (FADU) show a chemotactic as well as a proliferative response to MCP-1. In addition, a variant murine T cell lymphoma cell line Esb-MP, unlike the parental variant Esb, was selectively chemoattracted by murine MCP-1/JE. When injected s.c. into mice, the Esb-MP variant metastasized to the kidney with much higher frequency than the Esb variant. Both cultured kidneys from normal mice and a mesangial cell line constitutively produced chemoattractants that acted on Esb-MP but not Esb parental cells. Purification to homogeneity of these chemoattractants led to the identification of RANTES and JE. These results demonstrate that some chemokines may promote tumor growth and organ-specific metastatic spread of those tumors that have adapted and become responsive to chemokines. Finally, tumors appear to use numerous adaptive mechanisms to subvert and suppress the immune system. More effective therapy with cytokines and chemokines will require better characterization of the means by which tumors develop resistance to cytokines and overcome the immune system. Only then can we develop appropriate therapeutic approaches to antagonize cancer-induced immunosuppression.  (+info)

Persistent chlamydial envelope antigens in antibiotic-exposed infected cells trigger neutrophil chemotaxis. (5/4853)

An in vitro coculture model system was used to explore conditions that trigger neutrophil chemotaxis to Chlamydia trachomatis infected human epithelial cells (HEC-1B). Polarized HEC-1B monolayers growing on extracellular matrix (ECM) were infected with C. trachomatis serovar E. By 36 h, coincident with the secretion of chlamydial lipopolysaccharide and major outer membrane protein to the surfaces of infected cells, human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNL) loaded with azithromycin migrated through the ECM and infiltrated the HEC-1B monolayer. Bioreactive azithromycin was delivered by the chemotactic PMNL to infected epithelial cells in concentrations sufficient to kill intracellular chlamydiae. However, residual chlamydial envelopes persisted for 4 weeks, and PMNL chemotaxis was triggered to epithelial cells containing residual envelopes. Infected endometrial cells demonstrated up-regulation of ENA-78 and GCP-2 chemokine mRNA. Thus, despite appropriate antimicrobial therapy, residual chlamydial envelope antigens may persist in infected tissues of culture-negative women and provide one source for sustained inflammation.  (+info)

Mechanisms of acute inflammatory lung injury induced by abdominal sepsis. (6/4853)

Sequestration of neutrophils and release of histotoxic mediators are considered important for the development of pathologic alterations of the lung defined as adult respiratory distress syndrome. Mechanisms of inflammatory lung injury caused by abdominal sepsis were investigated using the colon ascendens stent peritonitis (CASP) model that closely mimics the human disease. In the CASP model, a continuous leakage of intraluminal bacteria into the peritoneal cavity is induced by implantation of a stent in the ascending colon, generating a septic focus. In contrast to the cecal ligation and puncture model of peritonitis, survival of mice following CASP surgery is dependent on IFN-gamma, but independent of tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Here we show that the systemic inflammation induced by CASP surgery results in a rapid and profound increase of lung vascular permeability that was associated with the activation and recruitment of neutrophils to the lung. Activation of circulating granulocytes was characterized by increased production of serine proteinases and reactive oxygen metabolites, as well as elevated expression of cell surface Mac-1. Expression of MIP-2, KC, MIP-1alpha and E-selectin mRNA in lung was strongly increased within 3 h following CASP surgery, whereas up-regulation of IP-10, MCP-1 and P-selectin was delayed. In contrast, induction of RANTES, LIX, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 mRNA was weak or not detectable after CASP surgery. Importantly, recruitment of leukocytes to the lung was normal in lipopolysaccharide-resistant mice, and was not affected by antibody neutralization of TNF or the chemokines MIP-2 and KC.  (+info)

Chemokine expression in CF epithelia: implications for the role of CFTR in RANTES expression. (7/4853)

To delineate the mechanisms that facilitate leukocyte migration into the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung, expression of chemokines, including interleukin-8 (IL-8), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and RANTES, was compared between CF and non-CF airway epithelia. The findings presented herein demonstrate that, under either basal conditions or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)- and/or interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-stimulated conditions, a consistent pattern of differences in the secretion of IL-8 and MCP-1 between CF and non-CF epithelial cells was not observed. In contrast, CF epithelial cells expressed no detectable RANTES protein or mRNA under basal conditions or when stimulated with TNF-alpha and/or IFN-gamma (P +info)

Cutting edge: clustered AU-rich elements are the target of IL-10-mediated mRNA destabilization in mouse macrophages. (8/4853)

In the present study we show that IL-10-mediated inhibition of inflammatory gene expression can be mediated by an AU-rich element (ARE) cluster present in the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of sensitive genes. A series of chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) reporter gene constructs were prepared in which different fragments from the IL-10-sensitive KC mRNA 3'UTR were placed downstream of the coding region of the reporter gene CAT. CAT mRNA containing the KC 3'UTR was markedly destabilized as compared with the control CAT mRNA, and the decay rate was further increased in cells stimulated with IL-10. The KC 3'UTR contains an ARE cluster and three isolated ARE motifs. The ARE cluster spanning nucleotides 378-399 appeared to be both necessary and sufficient to mediate sensitivity to IL-10 because a 116-nucleotide fragment that contains the cluster conferred sensitivity, while mutation of the sequence between positions 378 and 399 eliminated sensitivity. The destabilizing effect of IL-10 was relatively selective, as the stability of chimeric CAT mRNAs was not modulated in cells treated with IFN-gamma or IL-4.  (+info)

article{7c45b648-bb75-40bb-a1de-8aa59d14e5c0, abstract = {Huntingtons disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by both neurological and systemic abnormalities. Immune activation is a well-established feature of the HD brain and we have previously demonstrated a widespread, progressive innate immune response detectable in plasma throughout the course of HD. In the present work we used multiplex ELISA to quantify levels of chemokines in plasma from controls and subjects at different stages of HD. We found an altered chemokine profile tracking with disease progression, with significant elevations of five chemokines (eotaxin-3, MIP-1β, eotaxin, MCP-1 and MCP-4) while three (eotaxin-3, MIP-1β and eotaxin) showed significant linear increases across advancing disease stages. We validated our results in a separate sample cohort including subjects at different stages of HD. Here we saw that chemokine levels (MCP-1 and eotaxin) correlated with clinical scores. We conclude ...
Chemokines mediate diverse fundamental biological processes, including combating infection. Multiple chemokines are expressed at the site of infection; thus chemokine synergy by heterodimer formation may play a role in determining function. Chemokine function involves interactions with G-protein-coupled receptors and sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAG). However, very little is known regarding heterodimer structural features and receptor and GAG interactions. Solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and molecular dynamics characterization of platelet-derived chemokine CXCL7 heterodimerization with chemokines CXCL1, CXCL4, and CXCL8 indicated that packing interactions promote CXCL7-CXCL1 and CXCL7-CXCL4 heterodimers, and electrostatic repulsive interactions disfavor the CXCL7-CXCL8 heterodimer. As characterizing the native heterodimer is challenging due to interference from monomers and homodimers, we engineered a
The research interest of my group remains focused on Chemokine activities in physiology and pathology, with an emphasis on the mechanisms governing fine-tuning modulation of their expression and activity. Chemokines are secreted proteins and have emerged as key controllers of integrin function and cell locomotion. The effects of chemokines are mediated by seven transmembrane domain receptors coupled to GTP-binding proteins, which are differentially expressed in a wide range of cell types. The resulting combinatorial diversity in responsiveness to chemokines guarantees the proper tissue distribution of distinct leukocyte subsets under normal and inflammatory/pathological conditions. A vast range of in situ experiments, aimed at understanding which chemokines are produced in specific circumstances, has revealed that a variety of chemokines can be concomitantly produced at target sites of leukocyte trafficking and homing. This renders the chemokine system a good target for therapy, and has ...
Certain viruses have the ability to subvert the mammalian immune response, including interference in the chemokine system. Poxviruses produce the chemokine binding protein vCCI (viral CC chemokine inhibitor; also called 35K), which tightly binds to CC chemokines. To facilitate the study of vCCI, we first provide a protocol to produce folded vCCI from Escherichia coli (E. coli.) It is shown here that vCCI binds with unusually high affinity to viral Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-II (vMIP-II), a chemokine analog produced by the virus, human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8). Fluorescence anisotropy was used to investigate the vCCI:vMIP-II complex and shows that vCCI binds to vMIP-II with a higher affinity than most other chemokines, having a Kd of 0.06 ± 0.006 nM. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shift perturbation experiments indicate that key amino acids used for binding in the complex are similar to those found in previous work. Molecular dynamics were then used to compare the vCCI:vMIP-II ...
In the present study we demonstrate that islet-specific Th1 differ from Th2 cells by their capacity to more rapidly infiltrate and/or accumulate in the pancreas. Considerable evidence indicates that Th1 cells are the primary population that mediates IDDM via production of proinflammatory cytokines, including IFN-γ, LT, and TNF-α (reviewed in 46 , whereas Th2 cells invade the islets but do not typically cause disease, principally due to the protective effects of IL-4 8, 9, 10, 47 . Here we show that islet-specific Th1 but not Th2 cells from BDC2.5 TCR transgenic mice cause diabetes in immunodeficient NOD recipients (Fig. 3⇑), supporting previous studies indicating that these subsets can be distinguished by their capacity to promote disease onset in NOD mice 2, 10 . Although we did not find that Th2 cells elicited disease in NOD.scid mice as was previously reported 7 , we used splenic CD4 cells, which in BDC mice are enriched for cells with a memory phenotype 42 , rather than thymic CD4 cells, ...
Chemokines, adhesion molecules, cytokines and proteases regulate the extravasation of leucocytes during acute and chronic inflammation and leucocyte homing. Chemokines are produced after transcriptional activation by inflammatory mediators such as cytokines or microbial Toll-like receptor ligands and their effect depends on the expression of chemokine receptors on specific cell types. More and more evidence points towards a role for post-translational modifications in the fine-tuning of chemokine activity. Although both glycosylation and proteolytic processing of the C- and/or N-terminus of chemokines has been reported, mainly proteolytic processing of the N-terminus appears to affect the receptor specificity, chemotactic property and signalling potency of these low-molecular-mass proteins. N-terminal processing of chemokines by aminopeptidases or endoproteases may alter the receptor specificity and may result in up- or down-regulation of their chemotactic, antiviral or angiogenic activity. ...
LEGENDplex™ NHP IL-6 Capture Bead A5, 13X - LEGENDplex™ NHP Chemokine/Cytokine Panel Capture Beads are intended for use with the following reagents:740331 (LEGENDplex™ NHP Chemokine/Cytokine Panel Detection Antibodies)740330 (LEGENDplex™ NHP Chemokine/Cytokine Panel Standard)740368 (LEGENDplex™ Buffer Set).
Radiation combined injury (CI) is a radiation injury (RI) combined with other types of injury, which generally leads to greater mortality than RI alone. A spectrum of specific, time-dependent pathophysiological changes is associated with CI. Of these changes, the massive release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, severe hematopoietic and gastrointestinal losses and bacterial sepsis are important treatment targets to improve survival. Ciprofloxacin (CIP) is known to have immunomodulatory effect besides the antimicrobial activity. The present study reports that CIP ameliorated pathophysiological changes unique to CI that later led to major mortality. B6D2F1/J mice received CI on day 0, by RI followed by wound trauma, and were treated with CIP (90 mg/kg p.o., q.d. within 2 h after CI through day 10). At day 10, CIP treatment not only significantly reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine concentrations, including interleukin-6 (IL-6) and KC (i.e., IL-8 in human), but it also enhanced IL-3 production
Although epidemiologic and experimental evidence strongly indicates chronic inflammation as a risk factor for cancer, it remains unclear how chronic inflammation contributes carcinogenesis. Here we show that deletion of PPARδ diminishes colonic inflammation by reducing infiltration of immune cells via downregulation of pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokine in a mouse model of colon inflammation. These chemokines are responsible for recruitment of leukocytes from the circulation to local inflammatory sites. Our results further reveal that COX-2 is a downstream target of PPARδ and COX-2-derived PGE2 stimulates macrophages to produce pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokine. PGE2 is a crucial mediator of colorectal carcinogenesis. More importantly, loss of PPARδ attenuated colonic inflammation-associated adenoma growth in two mouse models of inflammation-associated colorectal cancer. Our results demonstrate that PPARδ promotes chronic colonic inflammation and colitis-associated ...
Atherosclerosis - the common disease where arteries become blocked and restrict blood flow - could result in a devastating heart attack if an artery that supplies blood to the heart is affected.. Studies have shown that chemokines (small chemoattractant proteins) play a key role in the development of atherosclerosis, as they recruit immune cells to the site of inflammation. By inhibiting the functions of chemokines, we could potentially reduce the progression of atherosclerosis - essentially, stop it in its tracks.. Lead researcher Dhanya Ravindran originally started investigating how atherosclerosis might be prevented by inhibiting chemokines while in the HRI Immunobiology Group, led by Dr Christina Bursill.. Enter the chemokine binding protein M3. M3 is a broad-spectrum chemokine inhibitor that binds and inactivates chemokines, helping to prevent the host immune response during inflammation/injury. It also has the vital ability to inactivate a range of the key chemokines involved in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chemokines in ischemia and reperfusion. AU - Frangogiannis, Nikolaos G.. PY - 2007/5. Y1 - 2007/5. N2 - Chemokine signaling plays an important role in the post-ischemic inflammatory response. Overlapping pathways involving reactive oxygen intermediates, Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation, the complement cascade and the nuclear factor (NF)-κB system induce both CXC and CC chemokines in ischemic tissues. Reperfusion accentuates chemokine expression promoting an intense inflammatory reaction. ELR-containing CXC chemokines regulate neutrophil infiltration in the ischemic area, whereas CXCR3 ligands may mediate recruitment of ThI cells. CC chemokines, on the other hand, induce mononuclear cell infiltration and macrophage activation. Evidence suggests that chemokine signaling mediates actions beyond leukocyte chemotaxis and activation, regulating angiogenesis and fibrous tissue deposition. Effective repair of ischemic tissue is dependent on a well-orchestrated cellular response and ...
The migration of leukocytes in response to chemokine gradients is an important process in the homeostasis of the human immune system and inflammation. In vivo the migration takes place on the surface of the endothelium to which the chemokine gradient is immobilized via interaction with glycosaminoglycans. To study leukocyte migration in response to surface-bound chemokines, we generated chemokine gradients by a simple stamping method: agarose stamps were soaked with chemokine solution to form continuous chemokine gradients by diffusion. These gradients could be easily transferred to a petri dish surface by stamping. We show that neutrophil granulocytes recognize these gradients and migrate toward increasing chemokine concentrations dependent on the slope of the gradient. Single-cell responses were recorded, and statistical analyses of cell behavior and migration were performed. For analysis of chemotaxis/haptotaxis, we propose a chemotactic precision index that is broadly applicable, valid, and ...
i have to travel to buffalo to get that test....dang. i am too sick to walk! lol...i will have to go to quest since i owe labcorp a couple of grand!...
Evidence that CD8+ CTLs produce chemokines following engagement of viral antigens, and that MIP-1alpha is required for an inflammatory response to virus challenge, suggests that these molecules are key elements in the generation of effective antiviral immunity. Here, David Price and colleagues argue that the antigen-dependent release of chemokines by CTLs provides an elegant mechanism linking localization, amplification and coordination of the antiviral immune response to specific recognition of infected host cells beyond the confines of the lymphoid system.
The recruitment of mononuclear leukocytes, and the migration, growth and activation of macrophages, lymphocytes and smooth muscle cells within lesions, are critical features of the chronic inflammatory response that typifies atherogenesis. Chemokines are members of a superfamily of small polypeptides that mediate not only migration, but also growth and activation of leukocytes and a variety of other cells. Monocyte chemoattractant and activating protein-1 was the first chemokine to be implicated in leukocyte-mediated inflammation in atherosclerosis. This review emphasizes new information on the potential atherogenic roles of monocyte chemoattractant and activating protein-1 and several other closely related chemokines of the C-C subfamily. We focus particular attention on the newly recognized atherogenic role of a subgroup of closely related chemokines of the C-X-C subfamily that includes interleukin-8 and growth regulated oncogene alpha. We also discuss new studies that reveal how CD40 ligand ...
Chemokines, or chemotactic cytokines, are a large family of small (6 14 kDa), structurally related proteins that mediate a wide range of biological activities. As a part of normal immune system functions, chemokines are a critical component of basal leukocyte trafficking essential for immune system architecture and development, and immune surveillance. Chemokines also participate in the growth, differentiation, and activation of leukocytes as well as stimulate various effector functions of these cells, such as integrin activation, chemotaxis, superoxide radical production and granule enzyme release. Four classes of chemokines have been defined by the arrangement of the conserved cysteine (C) residues of the mature proteins: the CXC chemokines the CC chemokines in which the first two conserved cysteines residues are adjacent; the C chemokines that lack two (the first and third) of the four conserved cysteine residues; and the CX3C chemokines which have three intervening AA residues between the ...
Cytokines and chemokines are key modulators of immune responses and play diverse roles in inflammatory diseases. Here, we discuss the role of specific cytokines and chemokines in cancer and tumor metastasis.
Study Flashcards On micro2 - chemokines at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
This graph shows the total number of publications written about Chemokines, CXC by people in this website by year, and whether Chemokines, CXC was a major or minor topic of these publications ...
RayBio|sup|®|/sup| C-Series Human Chemokine Antibody Array 1 Kit. Detects 38 Human Chemokines. Suitable for all liquid sample types.
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Over the last several years there has been a great deal of progress in characterizing the role of dendritic cells (DCs) in the activation and modulation of B cells. DC-secreted chemokines can induce B cell trafficking to ...
Over the last several years there has been a great deal of progress in characterizing the role of dendritic cells (DCs) in the activation and modulation of B cells. DC-secreted chemokines can induce B cell trafficking to ...
In this study, we directly compared gene expression and secreted protein levels for a set of cytokines/chemokines using gene microarray and protein multiplexing technologies.. Our results suggest that although for some cytokines/chemokines, expression levels closely mirror protein levels (IFN-γ, MIP1A, IP10, and TNF-α) or moderately parallel protein levels (IL-2, GM-CSF, IL-5, RANTES, and MCP1), for other markers this is not the case (IL-1A, IL-1B, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17A, IL-17B, G-CSF, and eotaxin).. The imperfect and variable correlation between mRNA and protein levels is in agreement with previous reports (4, 10-13) and can be explained by posttranscriptional and posttranslational regulation and by misclassification due to measurement errors (14-17). The different levels of inaccuracy, noise, and sensitivity and dynamic ranges of the methods used for transcript and protein analysis likely contribute to the lack of correlation observed for several of the markers examined ...
Chemokines comprise a family of about 40 low-molecular-weight cytokines (see , Cytokines) with important roles in the immune system, as well as functions beyond it. The name chemokine, a contraction of
Chemokines comprise a family of about 40 low-molecular-weight cytokines (see , Cytokines) with important roles in the immune system, as well as functions beyond it. The name chemokine, a contraction of
Commensal Bacteria and Expression of Two Major Intestinal Chemokines, TECK-CCL25 and MEC-CCL28, and Their Receptors. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The experiments described in this paper allow us to make two primary conclusions. First, neural progenitors will migrate toward sites of neuroinflammation, and, second, this may be attributable to, at least in part, the release of chemokines from activated cells participating in the neuroinflammatory response. That this should be so is consistent with several previous observations in the literature. These include observations that neural progenitors will migrate toward areas of brain injury in vivo (Picard-Riera et al., 2002; Ben-Hur et al., 2003; Kokaia and Lindvall, 2003; Parent, 2003; Imitola et al., 2004; Jin et al., 2004; Kelly et al., 2004; Glass et al., 2005; Pluchino et al., 2005), that neural progenitors express chemokine receptors (Ji et al., 2004; Krathwohl and Kaiser, 2004b; Peng et al., 2004; Tran et al., 2004a; Pluchino et al., 2005), that chemokines act as chemoattractants for these cells (Tran et al., 2004a; Widera et al., 2004; Pluchino et al., 2005), and that cells involved in ...
Kemokiinid (ka kemotaktsed tsütokiinid; inglise keeles chemokines) on selgroogsete loomade mitmete tuumaga rakkude poolt (eosinofiilid, basofiilid, neutrofiilid, makrofaagid, endoteelirakud, keratinotsüüdid, fibroblastid jt) komplekteeritavate ja vabastatavate selliste väikesemolekuliliste looduslike valkude perekond, mis vahendavad lühiajaliselt ja lokaalselt erinevaid bioloogilisi toimeid ja rakkudevahelist informatsiooni seondudes G-valguga seotud retseptoreid omavate rakkude membraaniga ja aktiveerides ensüümi fosfolipaas C. Kemokiinide sarnaseid valke on tuvastatud teatud bakteritel ja viirustel. Kemokiinide funktsiooniks on mitmete rakkude sundviimine nakkus- või põletikukoldesse, lisaks reguleerivad kemokiinid lümfikudede ja närvisüsteemi arengut ja leukotsüütide migratsiooni, küpsemist, aktivatsiooni jm. Varem on neid liigitatud α,β,γ ja δ- rühma, tänapäeval liigitatakse aga sellisteks perekondadeks nagu CC- (β-kemokiinid), CXC- (α-kemokiinid), CX3C- (δ- ...
The question why CD4+/CD25+ T cells are reduced in asthmatic patients has not been answered yet; however, it has been observed that these cells reveal a reduced response to the chemokines CCL1 and CXCL1 suggesting an impaired recruitment to the lung [137, 138 ...
Power CA, Clemetson JM, Clemetson KJ, Wells TN (August 1995). "Chemokine and chemokine receptor mRNA expression in human ... Griffith JW, Sokol CL, Luster AD (2014). "Chemokines and chemokine receptors: positioning cells for host defense and immunity ... October 1998). "HIV-1 envelope gp120 inhibits the monocyte response to chemokines through CD4 signal-dependent chemokine ... "A non-glycosaminoglycan-binding variant of CC chemokine ligand 7 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-3) antagonizes chemokine- ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 1 (CCL1) is also known as small inducible cytokine A1 and I-309 in humans. CCL1 is a small ... CCL1 is encoded by CCL1 gene which is one of the several chemokine genes clustered on the chromosome 17q11.2-q12 in humans. It ... July 1998). "The chemokine receptor CCR8 is preferentially expressed in Th2 but not Th1 cells". Journal of Immunology. 161 (2 ... In addition to other chemokines, such as CCL2, CCL3, and CCL4, the presence of CCL1 has been reported in the development of ...
Such signaling has been shown to be physiologically relevant, for example, β-arrestin signaling mediated by the chemokine ... November 2018). "Biased agonists of the chemokine receptor CXCR3 differentially control chemotaxis and inflammation". Science ... chemokine receptors bind ligands that mediate intercellular communication between cells of the immune system; receptors such as ... chemokines; lipid mediators of inflammation (e.g., prostaglandins, prostanoids, platelet-activating factor, and leukotrienes); ...
His team demonstrated in 2005 that the chemokine receptor D6 acts as a decoy and scavenger receptor for inflammatory chemokines ... Chemokines. 1999. Pharmacology of cytokines. 2000. Gianfranco Bazzoni; Elisabetta Dejana; Alberto Mantovani (2006). Piccin (ed ... which is part of the large superfamily of chemokines, which belong to the family of cytokines. His works help to establish the ... "Increased inflammation in mice deficient for the chemokine decoy receptor D6". European Journal of Immunology. 35 (5): 1342- ...
The CCL2 chemokine is also expressed by neurons, astrocytes and microglia. The expression of CCL2 in neurons is mainly found in ... The chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) is also referred to as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) and small inducible ... In the human genome, CCL2 and many other CC chemokines are located on chromosome 17 (17q11.2-q21.1). The gene span is 1,927 ... CCL2 is a small cytokine that belongs to the CC chemokine family. CCL2 recruits monocytes, memory T cells, and dendritic cells ...
The C-C motif chemokine receptor CCR5 is involved in the process by which HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, enters cells. Hence ... However, to limit the toxicity and side effects of CCR5 antagonists it would be ideal to be able to preserve the chemokine ... PRO 140, a humanized form of a PA14 antibody, is a chemokine-receptor CCR5 monoclonal antibody and can inhibit CCR5 tropic HIV- ... Arimont A, Sun S, Smit MJ, Leurs R, de Esch IJ, de Graaf C (2017). "Structural Analysis of Chemokine Receptor-Ligand ...
The effects of CCL11 are mediated by its binding to a G-protein-linked receptor known as a chemokine receptor. Chemokine ... an eosinophil-selective CC chemokine, and identification of a specific eosinophil eotaxin receptor, CC chemokine receptor 3". ... an eosinophil-selective CC chemokine, and identification of a specific eosinophil eotaxin receptor, CC chemokine receptor 3". ... C-C motif chemokine 11 also known as eosinophil chemotactic protein and eotaxin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ...
Le Y, Zhou Y, Iribarren P, Wang J (April 2004). "Chemokines and chemokine receptors: their manifold roles in homeostasis and ... chemokines that promote chemotaxis; and interferons that have anti-viral effects, such as shutting down protein synthesis in ... chemokines that promote chemotaxis; and interferons that have anti-viral effects, such as shutting down protein synthesis in ... T cell attraction to the epidermal chemokine CCL27". Nature Immunology. 8 (3): 285-93. doi:10.1038/ni1433. PMID 17259988. S2CID ...
Chemokines are a subset of cytokines that regulate cell migration, such as attracting immune cells to a site of infection or ... Physiologically, chemokines and cytokines function as neuromodulators that regulate inflammation and development. In the ... Various cell types in the brain may produce cytokines and chemokines such as microglia, astrocytes, endothelial cells, and ... After injury and sustained release of inflammatory factors such as chemokines, the blood-brain barrier may be compromised, ...
"Cc Chemokine Receptor (Ccr)3/Eotaxin Is Followed by Ccr4/Monocyte-Derived Chemokine in Mediating Pulmonary T Helper Lymphocyte ... Lloyd, Clare (2002). "Chemokines in allergic lung inflammation". Immunology. 105 (2): 144-154. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2567.2002. ... She was involved with early studies that looking at the cloning, expression and function of chemokine. Her group demonstrated ... LLoyd studied the role of these chemokines in allergic lung inflammation. She looked to better characterise the spatial ...
For example, Naive T cells express the CCR7 receptor for the chemokine CCL21. and B cells exhibit CXCR5 receptors for chemokine ... FRCs express chemokines such as CCL21 and CCL19 which assist the movement of T cells and dendritic cells with CCR7 receptors. ... FDCs produce chemokine CXCL13 which promotes migration of B lymphocytes to the primary B cell follicle. B lymphocytes need a ... The lymph carries chemokines (molecular chemical messengers) and antigens to the lymph node. At the lymph node, the lymph ...
Maheshwari A, Christensen RD, Calhoun DA (November 2003). "ELR+ CXC chemokines in human milk". Cytokine. 24 (3): 91-102. doi: ... chemokines, and others. Colostrum also contains a number of growth factors, such as insulin-like growth factors I (IGF-1), and ...
HIV can enter the macrophage through binding of gp120 to CD4 and second membrane receptor, CCR5 (a chemokine receptor). Both ... Lucas AD, Greaves DR (November 2001). "Atherosclerosis: role of chemokines and macrophages". Expert Reviews in Molecular ...
ISBN 978-1-58603-471-9. D'Souza, M. Patricia; Harden, Victoria (December 1996). "Chemokines and HIV-1 Second Receptors". Nature ...
... is a CC chemokine receptor. This CCR2 gene is located in the chemokine receptor gene cluster region. Two alternatively ... "Entrez Gene: CCR2 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2". El Khoury J, Toft M, Hickman SE, Means TK, Terada K, Geula C, Luster AD ( ... C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2 or CD192 (cluster of differentiation 192) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... Ruibal-Ares BH, Belmonte L, Baré PC, Parodi CM, Massud I, de Bracco MM (January 2004). "HIV-1 infection and chemokine receptor ...
This name and the corresponding gene symbol IL8RA have been replaced by the HGNC approved name C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 1 ... "Chemokine Receptors: CXCR1". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... Ahuja SK, Murphy PM (1996). "The CXC chemokines growth-regulated oncogene (GRO) alpha, GRObeta, GROgamma, neutrophil-activating ... a new inhibitor of the chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2". Biochem. Pharmacol. 69 (3): 385-94. doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2004.10.007 ...
"Cell surface-anchored SR-PSOX/CXC chemokine ligand 16 mediates firm adhesion of CXC chemokine receptor 6-expressing cells". ... C-X-C chemokine receptor type 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CXCR6 gene. CXCR6 has also recently been ... "Entrez Gene: CXCR6 chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 6". Elliott ST, Wetzel KS, Francella N, Bryan S, Romero DC, Riddick NE, ... Ruibal-Ares BH, Belmonte L, Baré PC, Parodi CM, Massud I, de Bracco MM (January 2004). "HIV-1 infection and chemokine receptor ...
"Entrez Gene: XCR1 chemokine (C motif) receptor 1". Becker M, Güttler S, Bachem A, Hartung E, Mora A, Jäkel A, Hutloff A, Henn V ... The "C" sub-family of chemokine receptors contains only one member: XCR1, the receptor for XCL1 and XCL2 (or lymphotactin-1 and ... NK cells release XCL1 along with IFN-γ and some other chemokines upon encountering certain bacteria such as Listeria or MCMV. ... "Chemokine Receptors: XCR1". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
Chemokine receptor CXCR3 is a Gαi protein-coupled receptor in the CXC chemokine receptor family. Other names for CXCR3 are G ... Chemokine receptors Chemokine Cluster of differentiation GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000186810 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38 ... "Expression of specific chemokines and chemokine receptors in the central nervous system of multiple sclerosis patients". The ... "Entrez Gene: CXCR3 chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 3". Yates CC, Whaley D, Kulasekeran P, Hancock WW, Lu B, Bodnar R, Newsome ...
2000). "Lymphocyte CC chemokine receptor 9 and epithelial thymus-expressed chemokine (TECK) expression distinguish the small ... the receptor for the chemokine TECK". J Immunol. 162 (10): 5671-5. PMID 10229797. "Entrez Gene: CCR9 chemokine (C-C motif) ... C-C chemokine receptor type 9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCR9 gene. CCR9 has also recently been designated ... 2003). "CC chemokine receptor 9 expression defines a subset of peripheral blood lymphocytes with mucosal T cell phenotype and ...
... and chemokine CCL20. The actual recognition of microbial patterns takes place in the secretory and ciliated cells via Toll-like ...
... the 2 cysteines are separated by a single amino acid in CXC chemokines and are adjacent in CC chemokines. CCR10 is a chemokine ... C-C chemokine receptor type 10 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCR10 gene. Chemokines are a group of small ( ... "Entrez Gene: CCR10 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 10". Balkwill F (July 2004). "Cancer and the chemokine network". Nat. Rev. ... 2000). "Cutting edge: identification of a novel chemokine receptor that binds dendritic cell- and T cell-active chemokines ...
C-C chemokine receptor type 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCR1 gene. CCR1 has also recently been designated ... "Entrez Gene: CCR1 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 1". Struyf S, Menten P, Lenaerts JP, Put W, D'Haese A, De Clercq E, Schols D, ... This gene and other chemokine receptor genes, including CCR2, CCRL2, CCR3, CCR5 and CXCR1, are found to form a gene cluster on ... Kuang Y, Wu Y, Jiang H, Wu D (February 1996). "Selective G protein coupling by C-C chemokine receptors". The Journal of ...
The protein is a CXC chemokine receptor. CXCR-4 is an alpha-chemokine receptor specific for stromal-derived-factor-1 (SDF-1 ... "The promiscuous chemokine binding profile of the Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines is primarily localized to sequences in ... C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR-4) also known as fusin or CD184 (cluster of differentiation 184) is a protein that in ... CXCR4 is one of several chemokine co-receptors that HIV can use to infect CD4+ T cells. HIV isolates that use CXCR4 are ...
In this chronic signaling pathway, p38 is activated as a result of IL-1β signaling, and there is a presence of chemokines that ... White FA, Jung H, Miller RJ (December 2007). "Chemokines and the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain". Proceedings of the ...
Various chemokines and receptors are involved in the homing of hematopoietic stem cells. Bone Marrow Lymph nodes Skin Cyster, ... "Chemokine receptors that mediate B cell homing to secondary lymphoid tissues are highly expressed in B cell chronic lymphocytic ... JG; Ngo, VN; Ekland, EH; Gunn, MD; Sedgwick, JD; Ansel, KM (1999). "Chemokines and B-cell homing to follicles". Current Topics ...
They induce chemokine synthesis through the presentation of receptors on their surface. Immune cells then respond and initiate ... Synthesis of chemokines and regulation of inflammation". The American Journal of Pathology. 151 (2): 317-22. PMC 1858004. PMID ...
Recent results proved that chemokines (e.g. IL-8, RANTES) are working on long-term chemotaxis receptors, while vasoactive ...
Witt, D. P.; Lander, A. D. (1994). "Differential binding of chemokines to glycosaminoglycan subpopulations". Current Biology. 4 ...
The eotaxins are a CC chemokine subfamily of eosinophil chemotactic proteins. In humans, there are three family members: CCL11 ... "The MCP/eotaxin subfamily of CC chemokines". Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 10 (1): 61-86. doi:10.1016/s1359-6101(99)00005-2. PMID ...
Chemokines constitute a large family of structurally similar cytokines that contain a signature of conserved cysteine residues ... Unraveling Chemokine and Chemokine Receptor Expression Patterns Using Genetically Engineered Mice Simon Yona, Ki-Wook Kim, ... Using Fluorescent Chemokine Uptake to Detect Chemokine Receptors by Fluorescent Activated Cell Sorting ... Initially, chemoattraction was the key function linked to chemokines/chemokine receptors; however, in recent years, it has ...
8 mesothelioma and 13 with benign PE was assayed for a panel of 40 cytokines/chemokines using the Luminex system. ... 8 mesothelioma and 13 with benign PE was assayed for a panel of 40 cytokines/chemokines using the Luminex system. ...
The involvement of chemokine receptors in HIV infection is briefly mentioned, while other interesting areas in chemokine ... a process that is closely linked to chemokine receptor expression. As an exception, one chemokine, SDF-1, is a highly effective ... Lymphocyte responses to chemokines.. Moser B1, Loetscher M, Piali L, Loetscher P. ... Of particular interest are the chemokines IP10 and Mig which bind to a receptor with selective expression in activated T ...
Chemokine receptors are divided into different families, CXC chemokine receptors, CC chemokine receptors, CX3C chemokine ... CXC chemokine receptors (six members) CC chemokine receptors (ten/eleven members) C chemokine receptors (one member, XCR1) CX3C ... Two types of chemokines that bind to these receptors are inflammatory chemokines and homeostatic chemokines. Inflammatory ... Chemokine receptors are redundant in their function as more than one chemokine is able to bind to a single receptor. ...
... are finely tuned by changing sets of chemokines that are selective for developmentally regulated chemokine receptors. Thus, the ... These chemokines do not act on the bulk of resting T cells that are in circulation. The identification of a new group of ... Lymphocyte traffic control by chemokines.. Moser B1, Loetscher P.. Author information. 1. Theodor-Kocher Institute, University ... Here, we summarize the current view of chemokine-mediated lymphocyte traffic and focus on the molecular mechanisms by which T ...
In Chemokine Receptors, leading investigators attempt to distill the large ... there are over twenty different chemokine receptors, binding nearly fifty unique ligands that have been identified. ... to physiological and pathological roles of chemokines. Chemokines exhibit a tremendous functional diversity and participate in ... In Chemokine Receptors, leading investigators attempt to distill the large body of literature ranging from basic molecular and ...
The CC chemokine receptors all work by activating the G protein Gi. CCR1 was the first CC chemokine receptor identified and ... CC chemokine receptors (or beta chemokine receptors) are integral membrane proteins that specifically bind and respond to ... May 1997). "Molecular cloning of a novel human CC chemokine EBI1-ligand chemokine that is a specific functional ligand for EBI1 ... September 1999). "Molecular cloning of a novel human CC chemokine (Eotaxin-3) that is a functional ligand of CC chemokine ...
... Front Biosci (Elite Ed). 2009 Jun 1;1:26-35. ... We discuss the evidence base for the role of the chemokine network in the renal disease of small vessel vasculitis and extend ... of leukocyte infiltration and involvement in this setting are in part dependent on the combinatorial expression of chemokines ...
... Med Sci (Paris). 2007 Feb;23(2):173-9. doi: 10.1051/medsci/2007232173. ... Among the latter, chemokines are in the front line. We will here summarize the recent findings stressing out their ...
chemokine receptor activity. • receptor activity. • protein binding. • C-C chemokine receptor activity. • C-C chemokine binding ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene.[5] CCR6 ... "Entrez Gene: CCR6 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6".. *^ Wang K, Zhang H, Kugathasan S, Annese V, Bradfield JP, Russell RK, ... "Chemokine Receptors: CCR6". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
Chemokine Receptors and Disease, Volume 55 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780121533557, 9780080917207 ... Chemokines and Chemokine Receptors in Pulmonary Disease. Chemokines, Chemokine Receptors and Atherosclerosis. CXC Chemokines in ... Chemokines and Chemokine Receptors in Infectious Disease. New Therapies Targeting Chemokine Receptors: Can Changing the Way ... Chemokines, Chemokine Receptors and Disease, Volume 55 1st Edition. 0.0 star rating Write a review ...
... which allows the simultaneous determination of 40 chemokines per sample. The sets consist of the following chemokines: 6Ckine/ ... i,Results.,/i, We showed possible implication of 4 chemokines, that is, HCC-4, I-TAC, MIP-3,i,α,/i,, and TARC in women with ... i,Conclusion.,/i, On the basis of our findings, it seems that the chemokines may play role in the pathogenesis of preterm labor ... The aim of the study was to determine the concentration of selected chemokines in sera of patients with premature birth without ...
5. C Chemokines. The C chemokines are XCL1 (lymphotactin-α) and XCL2 (lymphotactin-β). The single receptor to which these ... 3. CC Chemokines and Thyroid Hormone Analogues. 3.1. CCL20. Among the homeostatic chemokines in the CNS that contribute to ... 4. CXC Chemokines and Thyroid Hormone Analogues. 4.1. CXCL2. A product of microglia, chemokine CXCL2 has important chemotactic ... 7. Chemokine Receptor Genes. The chemokine receptor genes whose transcription is subject to modulation by thyroid hormone ...
A subset of CC chemokines, acting through CC chemokine receptors (CCRs) 1 to 5, is instrumental in shaping inflammatory ... These data demonstrate the importance of proinflammatory CC chemokines in de novo tumorigenesis and reveal chemokine ... The chemokine receptor D6 limits the inflammatory response in vivo. Nat. Immunol. 6:403-411. View this article via: CrossRef ... p53, chemokines, and squamous cell carcinoma David M. Owens Departments of Dermatology and Pathology, Columbia University ...
Cytokines & Chemokines RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Rat Cytokines & Chemokines RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of ... Chemokines and Receptors RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Rat Chemokines & Receptors RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression ... Chemokines and Receptors RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Human Chemokines & Receptors RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression ... Chemokines and Receptors RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Mouse Chemokines & Receptors RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression ...
Macrophage-specific chemokines induced via innate immunity by amino acid copolymers and their role in eae. *Kovalchin J ... Strikingly, these chemokines are also secreted into serum of MHC Class II -/- mice, indicating that an innate immune receptor ... Macrophage-specific chemokines induced via innate immunity by amino acid copolymers and their role in eae. PLoS ONE, 6(12). ...
Chemokines were originally described as cytokines that mediate leukocyte recruitment to sites of inflammation. Members of a ... subgroup of chemokines, the CXC family, also play a critical role in both... ... Chemokines were originally described as cytokines that mediate leukocyte recruitment to sites of inflammation. Members of a ... subgroup of chemokines, the CXC family, also play a critical role in both physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis, including in ...
The first teleost chemokine gene was reported in rainbow trout in 1998. Since then, numerous chemokine genes have been ... Subsequently, it has only been possible to establish clear homologies with mammalian chemokines in the case of some chemokines ... Despite this, functional studies have only been undertaken for a few of these chemokine genes. In this review, we describe the ... Finally, we summarise what is known about the chemokine receptors in teleosts and provide some analysis using recently ...
The chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 play a central role in the migration of hematopoietic stem cells, and several ... Chemokines and their receptors (along with surface-adhesion molecules) are central to these migrations, targeting developing ... Here, we summarize the role of chemokines and their receptors in the spatial organization of the immune system and consider the ... while effector and memory lymphocytes express bewildering patterns of adhesion molecules and chemokine receptors that allow ...
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C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ... CXC chemokinesEdit. The two N-terminal cysteines of CXC chemokines (or α-chemokines) are separated by one amino acid, ...
This review will focus on recent murine and human studies that use chemokines as therapeutic anti-cancer vaccine adjuvants. ... Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing ... This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential ... the chemokine-chemokine receptor system plays paradoxical roles. On one hand, the chemokine network is used by tumors to evade ...
... to novel carboxylic acid indole compounds and compositions for use in the treatment of disease states mediated by the chemokine ... Groα, GROβ, GROγ and NAP-2 also belong to the chemokine α family. Like IL-8 these chemokines have also been referred to by ... 9. A method of treating a chemokine mediated disease state, wherein the chemokine binds to an IL-8 α or β receptor in a mammal ... This invention provides for a method of treating a chemokine mediated disease, wherein the chemokine is one which binds to an ...
Recent advances in chemokines and chemokine receptors.. Zlotnik A, Morales J, Hedrick JA.. Crit. Rev. Immunol. 19 1-47 1999 ... Chemokine receptors and T cell chemotaxis.. Mackay CR.. J. Exp. Med. 184 799-802 1996 PMID: 9064339 Related citations ... Chemokine receptors.. Horuk R.. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 12 313-35 2001 PMID: 11544102 Related citations ... Chemokines and their receptors in lymphocyte traffic and HIV infection.. Loetscher P, Moser B, Baggiolini M.. Adv. Immunol. 74 ...
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Term: chemokine receptor. ID: PIRSF038545 Mouse Protein Superfamily Annotations. Select one or more mouse PIRSF members to ...
Chemokine receptors are divided into different families, CXC chemokine receptors, CC chemokine receptors, CX3C chemokine ... Two types of chemokines that bind to these receptors are inflammatory chemokines and homeostatic chemokines. Inflammatory ... CX3C chemokine receptors (one member, CX3CR1). Fifty chemokines have been discovered so far, and most bind onto CXC and CC ... The N-terminal end of a chemokine receptor binds to chemokine(s) and is important for ligand specificity. G-proteins couple to ...
Cytokines and Chemokines in Erythema Migrans. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the ... The inflammatory immune profiles will be assessed using Luminex to measure the expression of cytokines and chemokines ...
... whereby said chemokine construct has the structural domain fo ... construct comprising a scFV anti-CD4 and a RANTES chemokine or ... The chemokine construct of claim 25, wherein said chemokine is SDF-1. 27. The chemokine construct of claim 26, wherein said ... The chemokine construct of claim 1, wherein said chemokine construct further comprises a tag. 23. The chemokine construct of ... The chemokine construct of claim 1, wherein said chemokine construct further comprises an additional cytokine or chemokine ...
Chemokines represents the largest family of cytokines and based on their biological function, chemokines are divided into two ... More than 40 chemokines exhibiting various pathophysiological properties have been characterized so far to be linked to ... Cytokines are broadly classified into categories such as chemokines, interleukins (IL), colony-stimulating factors (CSF), tumor ... Inflammatory chemokines which are produced during infections or as a result of an inflammatory stimulus and facilitate an ...
  • The inflammatory immune profiles will be assessed using Luminex to measure the expression of cytokines and chemokines representative of innate and adaptive TH1, TH2, TH17, and B cell responses in serum and if available, skin, of patients during active infection and after treatment. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The role of cytokines and chemokines in anti-viral defense has been demonstrated, but their relative contribution to protective anti-viral responses in vivo is not fully understood. (nature.com)
  • Copenhagen, Denmark, Saturday 13 June 2009: Up-regulation of certain cytokines and chemokines (signaling molecules involved in the functioning of the immune system) can predict the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) three years before the onset of symptoms, according to the results of a new study presented today at EULAR 2009, the Annual Congress of the European League Against Rheumatism in Copenhagen, Denmark. (eurekalert.org)
  • Cytokines and chemokines are small signalling molecules which are integral to the immune system, as they mediate and regulate immunity, inflammation, and the development of blood cells (haematopoiesis). (eurekalert.org)
  • Once at the site of injury, immune cells can react by releasing additional cytokines and chemokines, bringing more cells into the fold. (biolegend.com)
  • In the current study, we characterized mid-gestational serum profiles of 22 cytokines and chemokines in mothers of children with ASD ( N =415), developmental delay (DD) without ASD ( N =188), and general population (GP) controls ( N =428) using a bead-based multiplex technology. (nature.com)
  • Levels of cytokines and chemokines were compared between groups using multivariate logistic regression analyses, adjusting for maternal age, ethnicity, birth country and weight, as well as infant gender, birth year and birth month. (nature.com)
  • Mothers of children with ASD+ID had significantly elevated mid-gestational levels of numerous cytokines and chemokines, such as granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interferon-γ, interleukin-1α (IL-1α) and IL-6, compared with mothers of children with either ASD-noID, those with DD, or GP controls. (nature.com)
  • Therefore, many skin cancer subtypes remain with few treatment options and there is much still to be learned regarding the identification of biomarkers to predict immune checkpoint responses and the contribution of soluble mediators such as cytokines and chemokines to the tumour microenvironment and the outcome of tumour growth. (frontiersin.org)
  • These events are mediated via the generation of adhesion molecules, cytokines, and chemokines. (ahajournals.org)
  • Since immune modulation has been reported for similar extracts, cytokine antibody arrays were used to investigate the changes in the pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines released from a cultured line of human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to Rhinovirus 14 and two different chemically characterized Echinacea extracts. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Cytokines and chemokines are the primary form of signaling between a wide variety of cells. (prosci-inc.com)
  • Using antibodies to study cytokines and chemokines has given us a far greater understanding into signaling pathways. (prosci-inc.com)
  • The aim of this study was to gain insight into the cytokines and chemokines that are produced by human pancreatic islets upon infection with CVBs. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Analysis of secreted cytokines and chemokines by Luminex technology confirmed production and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., interleukin [IL]-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α) as well as various chemotactic proteins, such as IFN-γ-induced protein 10, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, MIP-1β, and IL-8. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Cytokines and chemokines that are induced upon HEV-B infection of pancreatic islets, and the resulting inflammation, may be critical during the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In this study, we set out to investigate production and secretion of a broad range of cytokines and chemokines to gain further insight into the inflammatory processes that are initiated in human islets of Langerhans upon HEV-B infection. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We measured 34 immune mediators, cytokines and chemokines in peripheral blood every 4-7 days over one month per patient using a bio-plex multiplex immunoassay. (ssrn.com)
  • In addition to being known for mediating chemotaxis, chemokines are all approximately 8-10 kilodaltons in mass and have four cysteine residues in conserved locations that are key to forming their 3-dimensional shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, in addition to chemotaxis, chemokines modulate lymphocyte development, priming and effector function [ 2 ] and play a critical role in immune surveillance. (mdpi.com)
  • Chemokines are multipotent cytokines that localize and enhance inflammation by inducing chemotaxis and cell activation of different types of inflammatory cells typically present at inflammatory sites. (prospecbio.com)
  • The name chemokine, a contraction of "chemotactic cytokine," reflects the common property, by which chemokines were originally identified, of promoting leukocyte chemotaxis. (amamanualofstyle.com)
  • The concentrations of circulating chemokines in neonates have not been reported, nor is it known whether low chemokine concentrations contribute to their defective chemotaxis. (rti.org)
  • Chemokines are a class of cytokines that induce chemotaxis (migration) of target cells. (biolegend.com)
  • While some chemotaxis is induced by inflammation or damaged cells, other chemokines function in homeostasis. (biolegend.com)
  • In addition, the potential application of chemokines in chemotaxis of exosomes as drug vehicles is discussed. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Exosomes containing chemokines or expressing receptors for chemokines may improve chemotaxis to HCC and may thus be exploited for targeted drug delivery. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Representing the largest class of cytokines, chemokines play an essential role in both physiological and pathological activities by stimulating the migration of certain leukocytes through concentration gradients in a process known as chemotaxis. (peprotech.com)
  • Chemokines and their receptors otherwise tend to interact indiscriminately to stimulate upregulation of adherent chemokines, co-stimulatory cytokines and signaling cascades that polarizes cells to direct chemotaxis. (peprotech.com)
  • Chemokines are 8- to 12-kDa-sized secreted proteins that mediate the directed migration (chemotaxis) of leukocytes. (jimmunol.org)
  • Chemokine receptor activation mediates leukocyte chemotaxis toward lymphoid organs or sites of inflammation along a chemokine gradient that is established by binding of chemokines to membrane-tethered and extracellular matrix-associated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) ( 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Neutrophil chemotaxis to ARDS BAL fluid was evaluated and the contribution of each was assessed and compared with chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8 (CXCL8). (bmj.com)
  • Both CCL2 and CCL7 contribute to neutrophil chemotaxis during ARDS by synergising with chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8. (bmj.com)
  • In vitro chemotaxis assays have shown that, whereas MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and RANTES were efficient chemoattractants for Th1 cells to induce a dose-dependent transmigration, Th2 cells were not attracted by these chemokines ( 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Chemokines induce chemotaxis through the activation of G-protein-coupled receptors, and the receptors that a given leukocyte expresses determines the chemokines to which it will respond. (ahajournals.org)
  • however, in recent years, it has become clear that chemokine ligand-receptor interactions can also modulate cellular activation, survival, and proliferation, among other functions in homeostatic and diseased states. (springer.com)
  • Practical and easy to use, Chemokines: Methods and Protocols aims to reveal key protocols of functional and descriptive chemokine ligand/receptor assays that will be of practical significance to graduate students, post-doctoral fellows, trainees, and researchers in academia and industry. (springer.com)
  • The N-terminal end of a chemokine receptor binds to chemokines and is important for ligand specificity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following binding of the chemokine ligand, chemokine receptors associate with G-proteins, allowing the exchange of GDP for another molecule called GTP, and the dissociation of the different G protein subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most chemokines bind to more than one receptor, while most receptors also display overlapping ligand specificity [ 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Human IP-9: A keratinocyte-derived high affinity CXC-chemokine ligand for the IP-10/Mig receptor (CXCR3). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Biological activity of chemokines is mediated by receptors with overlapping ligand specificities that bind several proteins, which belong either to the CC-Chemokines or the group of CXC-Chemokines. (prospecbio.com)
  • The "R" nomenclature is used for receptors that bind chemokines and elicit intracellular signaling in response to binding of a ligand. (prospecbio.com)
  • In addition to the cysteine-rich domains (CRDs), characteristic of the ligand binding region of cellular TNFRs, CrmB and CrmD have a C-terminal domain unrelated to host proteins that binds chemokines and was named SECRET (smallpox virus-encoded chemokine receptor) domain 16 . (nature.com)
  • The role of the CC chemokine ligand-5 (CCL5/RANTES) and its receptors CCR1 and CCR5 in atherosclerosis have been addressed in a number of studies. (ahajournals.org)
  • In the present study we investigated the effect of mutations in the GAG binding sites of three chemokines, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/CC chemokine ligand (CCL)2, macrophage-inflammatory protein-1β/CCL4, and RANTES/CCL5, on their ability to recruit cells in vivo . (pnas.org)
  • For example, N-methylation of Leu-25 in the CXC chemokine IL-8/CXC chemokine ligand 8 produces a monomer that is fully functional in vitro ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Atypical chemokine receptor that controls chemokine levels and localization via high-affinity chemokine binding that is uncoupled from classic ligand-driven signal transduction cascades, resulting instead in chemokine sequestration, degradation, or transcytosis. (uniprot.org)
  • Chemokine-binding does not activate G-protein-mediated signal transduction but instead induces beta-arrestin recruitment, leading to ligand internalization. (uniprot.org)
  • Upon ligand binding, chemokine receptors activate G proteins of the Gα i family, leading to inhibition of adenylyl cyclases and mobilization of Ca 2+ from intracellular stores. (jimmunol.org)
  • This study aimed at determining the role of the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL)2 and CCL7 in ARDS. (bmj.com)
  • To what extent do the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL)2 and CCL7 contribute to the migratory activity of neutrophils during acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)? (bmj.com)
  • CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is the receptor for the proinflammatory chemokines: RANTES (regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted) (CC chemokine ligand 5 [CCL5]), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α (CCL3), and MIP-1β (CCL4) ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In heart allografts, the early expression of some chemokines, including MIP-1α and MIP-1β, subsides by day 7-9 posttransplant and is replaced by a late expression of other chemokines such as inducible protein (IP)-10 (CXCL10), monokine induced by interferon-γ (Mig) (CXCL9) (ligands for CXCR3), and RANTES (a ligand for CCR5) ( 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The only known chemokine ligand for CCR6 is macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-3α (CCL20), although members of the β defensin family also bind CCR6 with a lower affinity ( 15 ). (rupress.org)
  • Chemokines (Greek -kinos, movement) are a family of small cytokines, or signaling proteins secreted by cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytokine proteins are classified as chemokines according to behavior and structural characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • All of these proteins exert their biological effects by interacting with G protein-linked transmembrane receptors called chemokine receptors, that are selectively found on the surfaces of their target cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intracellular signaling by chemokine receptors is dependent on neighbouring G-proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokines are a family of small cytokines, or proteins secreted by cells. (news-medical.net)
  • Proteins are classified as chemokines according to shared structural characteristics such as small size (they are all approximately 8-10 kilodaltons in size), and the presence of four cysteine residues in conserved locations that are key to forming their 3-dimensional shape. (news-medical.net)
  • Chemokines are small proteins that are important in normal immune responses. (elsevier.com)
  • The Human Cytokines & Chemokines RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 key secreted proteins central to the immune response and other functions. (qiagen.com)
  • Among these signals, small molecular weight chemoattractant proteins known as chemokines are potentially important contributors as they participate in both directing leukocyte migration and function. (frontiersin.org)
  • Chemokines belong to a family of pro-inflammatory activation-inducible cytokines previously referred to as members of SIS family of cytokines, SIG family of cytokines, SCY family of cytokines, Platelet factor-4 superfamily or Intercrines These proteins are mainly chemotactic for different cell types. (prospecbio.com)
  • The first 2 cysteine residues are adjacent and, therefore, these proteins are called also CC-Chemokines [Cysteine-Cysteine-Chemokines]. (prospecbio.com)
  • Chemokines are a class of small molecular proteins with similar structures, functions and chemotactic properties, and their molecular weights are ~10 kDa, and chemokines represent the largest member of the cytokine family ( 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The invasion of such matter generates an onslaught of inflammatory responses, recruiting several immune cells and proteins, including a special class of small cytokines called chemokines. (peprotech.com)
  • Leukocyte trafficking, an event which plays a central role in fundamental functions of multicellular organisms, including tissue remodelling, defense, and pathology, is orchestrated by a superfamily of small proteins termed chemokines, which are essential players in immune and inflammatory reactions as well as in infections ( 6 - 8 ). (rupress.org)
  • Glycoprotein G isoforms from some alphaherpesviruses function as broad-spectrum chemokine binding proteins. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Secreted poxvirus chemokine binding proteins. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Chemokines are small secreted proteins that function in leukocyte trafficking, recruitment, and activation and have a role in many pathophysiological processes such as infectious and autoimmune diseases, inflammation, cancer, and vascular disease. (rndsystems.com)
  • Chemokines comprise a family of secreted proteins that activate G protein-coupled chemokine receptors and thereby control the migration of leukocytes during inflammation or immune surveillance. (jimmunol.org)
  • Although both glycosylation and proteolytic processing of the C- and/or N-terminus of chemokines has been reported, mainly proteolytic processing of the N-terminus appears to affect the receptor specificity, chemotactic property and signalling potency of these low-molecular-mass proteins. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • In this review, we summarize roles of the chemokines, a family of small secreted proteins that selectively recruit monocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes to sites of vascular injury, inflammation, and developing atherosclerosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Chemokines ( chemo tactic cyto kines ) are small heparin-binding proteins that direct the migration of circulating leukocytes to sites of inflammation or injury. (ahajournals.org)
  • Chemokines are functionally divided into two groups: Homeostatic: are constitutively produced in certain tissues and are responsible for basal leukocyte migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • The kinetics of leukocyte infiltration and involvement in this setting are in part dependent on the combinatorial expression of chemokines and their receptors. (nih.gov)
  • Chemokines were originally described as cytokines that mediate leukocyte recruitment to sites of inflammation. (mendeley.com)
  • Predominantly, chemokine receptors are expressed by leukocytes, and the specific interactions of chemokines with their cognate receptors are major determinants of the trafficking and localization of leukocyte subsets within tissue compartments. (pnas.org)
  • Chemokines Regulate Leukocyte Migration. (rainbow.coop)
  • Chemokines--A New Family of Cytokines Regulating Leukocyte Migration. (rainbow.coop)
  • Chemokines are small molecules with pro-migratory properties generated during inflammatory reactions and are actively involved during the leukocyte extravasation process. (regonline.co.uk)
  • This model allows direct observations of leukocyte/vessel wall interactions and has thus enabled us to study the mechanisms of chemokine-induced leukocyte migration in real-time in vivo. (regonline.co.uk)
  • Chemokines direct tissue invasion by specific leukocyte populations. (jci.org)
  • Homeostatic chemokines are chemokines that are responsible for basal leukocyte migration. (biology-online.org)
  • Fourth, following local production, chemokines induce leukocyte cytoskeletal changes, for example, actin polymerization, optimizing cell migration to areas of microbial infection or degeneration. (asmscience.org)
  • There are six chemokine CXC receptors, CXCR1 to 6, with each one having a distinct chemokine and leukocyte specificity. (tocris.com)
  • These inflammation-unrelated chemokines affect transendothelial migration and localization of progenitor and mature lymphocytes in lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues. (nih.gov)
  • Recent developments in this area justify the hypothesis that the distinct migration patterns of lymphocytes throughout their life cycle--that is, during lymphopoiesis, antigen-dependent priming, inflammation and immune surveillance--are finely tuned by changing sets of chemokines that are selective for developmentally regulated chemokine receptors. (nih.gov)
  • Chemokines exhibit a tremendous functional diversity and participate in a wide variety of processes that include inflammation, innate and adaptive immunity, immune cell differentiation, angiogenesis, tumorigenesis, development, neurobiology and viral pathogenesis. (springer.com)
  • Inflammation can be protumorigenic, and proinflammatory CC chemokines have been linked with various aspects of cancer biology, yet there is scant evidence supporting a critical role for these molecules in de novo tumor formation. (jci.org)
  • Members of a subgroup of chemokines, the CXC family, also play a critical role in both physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis, including in the context of chronic inflammation, fibrosis, and malignancy. (mendeley.com)
  • Chemokines can be located in different vascular cell types, eg, endothelial cells (ECs) but also inflammatory cells and can be detected within atherosclerotic lesions, where they function as messengers to direct leukocytes to sites of inflammation but may also control homeostasis and other activities of emigrated cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • During organogenesis, immunosurveillance, and inflammation, chemokines selectively recruit leukocytes by activating seven-transmembrane-spanning receptors. (pnas.org)
  • When EGFP-NPs from CC chemokine receptor CCR 2 knock-out mice were transplanted into slices, they exhibited little migration toward sites of inflammation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Chemokine receptors are critical regulators of cell migration in the context of immune surveillance, inflammation, and development. (shapeways.com)
  • For instance, CCL20 is also associated with inflammation since it can act as pro-inflammatory chemokine as well. (biology-online.org)
  • Chemokines are involved in recruitment and activation of hematopoietic cells at sites of infection and inflammation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This mechanistic explanation of chemokine cooperativity provides insight into chemokine gradient formation in the context of inflammation, in which multiple chemokines are secreted simultaneously. (jimmunol.org)
  • Through activation of the G-protein-coupled cell-surface receptor on target cells, chemokines and their receptors play a major role in the process by which leukocytes are recruited from the bloodstream into sites of inflammation, and several have been implicated in allograft rejection ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Here, we show that in a cockroach antigen (CA) model of allergic pulmonary inflammation, the chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-3α is expressed in the lung within hours of allergen challenge. (rupress.org)
  • Chemokines, adhesion molecules, cytokines and proteases regulate the extravasation of leucocytes during acute and chronic inflammation and leucocyte homing. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • The chemokines are a family of potent chemotactic cytokines that regulate the trafficking of leukocytes and are rapidly upregulated at sites of vascular inflammation. (ahajournals.org)
  • CC chemokines tend to attract mononuclear cells and are found at sites of chronic inflammation. (ahajournals.org)
  • The CXC family of chemokines, of which IL-8 (CXCL8) is the prototypical member, attract polymorphonuclear leukocytes and have been implicated in acute pulmonary inflammation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Inflammatory chemokines function mainly as chemoattractants for leukocytes, recruiting monocytes, neutrophils and other effector cells from the blood to sites of infection or tissue damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain inflammatory chemokines activate cells to initiate an immune response or promote wound healing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inflammatory: inflammatory chemokines are produced in high concentrations during infection or injury and determine the migration of inflammatory leukocytes into the damaged area. (wikipedia.org)
  • This view has changed dramatically with the discovery that peripheral blood T cells need to be activated before they can migrate in response to inflammatory chemokines. (nih.gov)
  • Some inflammatory chemokines have proven essential in memory T cell generation [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Chemokines represents the largest family of cytokines and based on their biological function, chemokines are divided into two categories: (i) Homeostatic chemokines which are typically expressed constitutively and are involved in immune surveillance as well as navigation of cells through hematopoiesis (ii) Inflammatory chemokines which are produced during infections or as a result of an inflammatory stimulus and facilitate an immune response by targeting cells of the innate/adaptive immune system. (novusbio.com)
  • Inflammatory Chemokines - A Diagnostic Biomarker for Fibromyalgia? (prohealth.com)
  • Since FM patients present higher serum concentrations of inflammatory chemokines than HW, the evaluation of these biomarkers could help in the diagnosis of this syndrome. (prohealth.com)
  • These chemokines also have a more diverse range of functions compared to inflammatory chemokines. (biolegend.com)
  • In the event of infection, injury, or tissue damage, inflammatory chemokines are often released to address the problem. (biolegend.com)
  • Many inflammatory chemokines attract a wide variety of cells in both the innate and adaptive arms of immunity. (biolegend.com)
  • Conclusion This study highlights important inflammatory chemokines involved in regulating neutrophil migration, which may have potential value as therapeutic targets for the treatment of ARDS. (bmj.com)
  • Appreciation of the existence of a plasma membrane receptor for thyroid hormone analogues on the extracellular domains of a structural plasma membrane protein, integrin α v β 3 [ 1 - 3 ], has permitted recognition of new control mechanisms for the release of cytokines, including chemotactic cytokines or chemokines [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • All cytokines released by immune cells were called lymphokines/interleukins, whereas chemotactic cytokines were called chemokines. (qiagen.com)
  • While a function of chemokines is to regulate lymphocyte trafficking, the view that chemokines act simply as "chemotactic cytokines" has evolved to include the many critical roles they play in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses. (mdpi.com)
  • Chemokines belong to a large group of structurally related and secretable, largely basic, chemotactic cytokines, which can be divided into 4 families (CC, CXC, CX 3 C, XC) based on the position of the first 2 cysteine residues. (ahajournals.org)
  • Third, chemokines (chemotactic cytokines) and chemokine receptors are an important part of the immune response that affects cell migration, activation, and tissue homeostasis. (asmscience.org)
  • Some chemokines are considered pro-inflammatory and can be induced during an immune response to recruit cells of the immune system to a site of infection, while others are considered homeostatic and are involved in controlling the migration of cells during normal processes of tissue maintenance or development. (wikipedia.org)
  • The major role of chemokines is to act as a chemoattractant to guide the migration of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main function of chemokines is to manage the migration of leukocytes (homing) in the respective anatomical locations in inflammatory and homeostatic processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokines and their receptors play a crucial role in cancer metastasis as they are involved in extravasation, migration, micrometastasis, and angiogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of particular interest are the chemokines IP10 and Mig which bind to a receptor with selective expression in activated T lymphocytes and, therefore, may be critical mediators of T lymphocyte migration in T cell-dependent immune-responses. (nih.gov)
  • Chemokines are a superfamily of cytokines that appeared about 650 million years ago, at the emergence of vertebrates, and are responsible for regulating cell migration under both inflammatory and physiological conditions. (mdpi.com)
  • The chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 play a central role in the migration of hematopoietic stem cells, and several chemokine receptors are transiently expressed during distinct stages of B- and T-cell development. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Thus, quaternary structure of chemokines and their interaction with GAGs may significantly contribute to the localization of leukocytes beyond migration patterns defined by chemokine receptor interactions. (pnas.org)
  • However, chemokines control the direction of cell migration and provide a trigger for cell activation. (pnas.org)
  • We therefore hypothesized that chemokines released from sites of neuroinflammation might help to guide the migration of neural progenitors to damaged areas of the brain. (jneurosci.org)
  • After binding to the receptors, chemokines primarily serve a role in migration of leukocytes, such as monocytes, eosinophils and dendritic cells (DCs) ( 11 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chemokine Signalling in T Lymphocytes Migration: the Role ofPhosphoinositide 3-kinaseLaura Smith, Adam Webb, and *Stephen G. Ward, Ph.D.University of Bath5. (indigo.ca)
  • Chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) is critically involved in the transition from innate to adaptive immune activation by coordinating the migration to and positioning of antigen-presenting dendritic cells and T cells in secondary lymphoid organs. (ahajournals.org)
  • The chemokines, by virtue of their specific cell receptor expression, can selectively mediate the local recruitment/activation of distinct leukocytes/cells, allowing for migration across the endothelium and beyond the vascular compartment. (ahajournals.org)
  • Plays an important role in controlling the migration of immune and cancer cells that express chemokine receptors CCR7 and CCR9, by reducing the availability of CCL19, CCL21, and CCL25 through internalization. (uniprot.org)
  • In this study, we have used GAG binding-deficient chemokine mutants and cell-based functional (migration) assays to demonstrate that chemokine cooperativity is caused by competitive binding of chemokines to GAGs. (jimmunol.org)
  • Transendothelial migration of monocytes into the nervous system is affected by chemokines produced by activated microglia and astrocytes. (asmscience.org)
  • Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. (curehunter.com)
  • 1997). "CCR6, a CC chemokine receptor that interacts with macrophage inflammatory protein 3alpha and is highly expressed in human dendritic cells" . (wikipedia.org)
  • Your search returned 145 C-C motif chemokine 23 ELISA ELISA Kit across 23 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • Your search returned 147 C-C motif chemokine receptor 7 ELISA ELISA Kit across 10 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • QIAGEN provides a broad range of assay technologies for cytokine and chemokine research that enables analysis of gene expression and regulation, epigenetic modification, genotyping, and signal transduction pathway activation. (qiagen.com)
  • However, few studies have directly investigated the role of prenatal cytokine and chemokine profiles on neurodevelopmental outcomes in humans. (nature.com)
  • Our cytokine and chemokine antibodies are quality controlled and tested in the application such as western blotting, ELISA, IF, IHC, and ICC. (prosci-inc.com)
  • The chemokine receptors CXCR3 and CCR5 mark subsets of T cells associated with certain inflammatory reactions. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • To dissect the role of these chemokines, additional studies were conducted in CCR5- and CCR2-deficient mice. (cdc.gov)
  • Rodent fibroblasts (3T3) that cannot be infected with myxoma virus could be made fully permissive for myxoma virus infection by expression of any one of several human chemokine receptors, including CCR1, CCR5, and CXCR4. (sciencemag.org)
  • In this update, we will highlight these recent developments, in particular the identification of components regulating the transcriptional machinery of the proatherogenic chemokine CCL5, distinct roles of its receptors CCR1 and CCR5 in plaque formation and immunobalance, and differential site- and stage-specific effects of T cell-activating chemokines and their receptors, eg, CXCL10 and CXCR3. (ahajournals.org)
  • Furthermore, dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons express the chemokine receptors CX3CR1, CXCR4, CCR4, and CCR5, and CXCR4- and CCR4-positive neurons also express substance P and the transient receptor potential ion channel (TRPV1, formerly named VR1) that have been implicated in nociception ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • Epitope mapping of CCR5 reveals multiple conformational states and distinct but overlapping structures involved in chemokine and coreceptor function. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The chemokine receptor CCR5 is the major coreceptor for R5 human immunodeficiency virus type-1 strains. (semanticscholar.org)
  • CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is expressed preferentially by CD4 + T helper 1 (Th1) cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Th1 cells express CCR5 and CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) following activation, whereas activated T helper 2 (Th2) cells express CCR3, CCR4, and CCR8 ( 2 , 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The CXCR3 binding chemokine IP-10/CXCL10: structure and receptor interactions. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • In preclinical ex vivo studies performed using explants of resected metastatic CRC, the combination of IFNα with nonselective or COX2-selective inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis resulted in elevated production of the effector T cell-attracting chemokines CXCL10 and CCL5. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Following interaction with their specific chemokine ligands, chemokine receptors trigger a flux in intracellular calcium (Ca2+) ions (calcium signaling). (wikipedia.org)
  • Although chemokine receptors share high amino acid identity in their primary sequences, they typically bind a limited number of ligands. (wikipedia.org)
  • To date, there are over twenty different chemokine receptors, binding nearly fifty unique ligands that have been identified. (springer.com)
  • Recently, we have begun offering a range of chemokine products that cover ligands for a range of chemokine receptors, and incorporate site-specifically labelled biotin or AlexaFluor®647. (regonline.co.uk)
  • Classified into subfamilies based on the motifs of their ligands, these receptors tend to interact with the chemokines of their eponymous subfamilies. (peprotech.com)
  • Chemokines are produced after transcriptional activation by inflammatory mediators such as cytokines or microbial Toll-like receptor ligands and their effect depends on the expression of chemokine receptors on specific cell types. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Chemokine receptors are G protein-coupled receptors containing 7 transmembrane domains that are found predominantly on the surface of leukocytes, making it one of the rhodopsin-like receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typical structure of a chemokine receptor , with seven transmembrane domains and a characteristic "DRY" motif in the second intracellular domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gamma & Delta Chemokines are type 1 transmembrane glycoproteins with the chemokine domain resting on top of an extended mucin-like stalk. (prospecbio.com)
  • A soluble form of the chemokine moiety can be released from its transmembrane anchor by extracellular cleavage. (prospecbio.com)
  • Chemokine receptors belong to the large group of G-protein-coupled seven transmembrane domain receptors that contain 7 hydrophobic alpha-helical segments that transverse the membrane. (prospecbio.com)
  • The contribution of the transmembrane chemokines CX 3 CL1 and CXCL16 with their respective receptors CX 3 CR1 and CXCR6 in the recruitment of T cell and monocyte subsets and shear-mediated plaque modulation will be discussed. (ahajournals.org)
  • Chemokines receptors are seven transmembrane spanning G protein-coupled receptors that allow cells to migrate towards increasing chemokine gradients. (biolegend.com)
  • In order to exert biological effect, chemokines will bind with receptors of the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, which possess seven conserved transmembrane domains with which chemokines can interact. (peprotech.com)
  • Chemokines interact with 7 transmembrane domain G-protein-coupled receptors and, so far, 10 CC (CCR1-10), 6 CXC (CXCR1-6), 1 CX3C (CXCR1), and 1 C (XCR1) receptors have been identified ( 9 ). (rupress.org)
  • FK consists of a soluble chemokine domain fused to a mucin-like stalk and a transmembrane domain. (ahajournals.org)
  • Thus, unlike other soluble chemokines, it is a type 1 transmembrane protein. (ahajournals.org)
  • In the periphery, mature naïve B and T cells utilize the receptors CCR7, CXCR4, and CXCR5 to recirculate through specialized microenvironments within the secondary lymphoid tissues, while effector and memory lymphocytes express bewildering patterns of adhesion molecules and chemokine receptors that allow them to function within microenvironments and non-lymphoid tissues inaccessible to naïve cells. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The G protein-coupled chemokine receptor CXCR4 is specifically implicated in cancer metastasis and HIV-1 infection. (shapeways.com)
  • Some chemokines control cells of the immune system during processes of immune surveillance, such as directing lymphocytes to the lymph nodes so they can screen for invasion of pathogens by interacting with antigen-presenting cells residing in these tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokines in Immune Surveillance of the Intestine. (elsevier.com)
  • Many different cell types secrete chemokines, most often to attract immune cells to the site of infection or injury during innate and adaptive immune responses. (qiagen.com)
  • Here, we summarize the role of chemokines and their receptors in the spatial organization of the immune system and consider the implications for immune function. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Chemokines are a group of related chemoattractant peptides that are essential regulators of the immune system, both during homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. (mdpi.com)
  • On one hand, the chemokine network is used by tumors to evade immune surveillance, resist apoptosis, and metastasize. (mdpi.com)
  • On the other hand, the chemokine system also plays a crucial role in the induction of antitumor immune responses and optimal effector function regulation of immune cells [ 1 , 4 , 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • This tract will discuss the contribution of chemokines to the development of innate and adaptive granuloma formation, as well as describe their relationship to more recently evolved cytokines generated during adaptive immune responses. (frontiersin.org)
  • Chemokines comprise a family of about 40 low-molecular-weight cytokines (see , Cytokines) with important roles in the immune system, as well as functions beyond it. (amamanualofstyle.com)
  • The chemokine signal is transduced by chemokine receptors (G-protein coupled receptors) expressed on the immune cells. (genome.jp)
  • Chemokines usually elicit chemotactic responses from immune cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Chemokines are involved in the inflammatory response, tumor immune response, proliferation, invasion and metastasis via modulation of various signaling pathways. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chemokines and their receptors were initially thought to allow for an interaction between immune cells and the inflammatory sites ( 11 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The C-C-chemokine receptor type 7 (CCR7) has been described to be crucially involved in several fundamental processes shaping the structural and functional organization of the adaptive immune system. (ahajournals.org)
  • Critical to maintaining hemostasis through hematopoietic differentiation and immune surveillance, chemokines also help orchestrate both innate and adaptive immune responses. (peprotech.com)
  • Chemokine-triggered immune responses often require co-stimulation by primary proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1α, IFN-γ and TNF-α. (peprotech.com)
  • Here we present a temporal analysis of key immune mediators, cytokine and chemokines in blood of hospitalised COVID-19 patients from serial sampling and follow up over four weeks. (ssrn.com)
  • We found that loss of stromal fibromuscular AR led to suppression of PIN lesion development with alleviation of epithelium proliferation and tumour-promoting microenvironments, including extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling, immune cell infiltration and neovasculature formation due, in part, to the modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines. (wiley.com)
  • Chemokines as mediators of neovasculariza. (mendeley.com)
  • Chemokines are essential mediators for trafficking of leukocytes and their role is not only restricted to cell attraction. (prospecbio.com)
  • Chemokines and their receptors (along with surface-adhesion molecules) are central to these migrations, targeting developing and mature leukocytes to tissues and microenvironments suitable for their differentiation and function. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The fundamental importance of chemokines for atherogenesis, progression, and destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques is now widely appreciated, but the degree of complexity, specificity, and cooperativity harnessed by these signal molecules to govern atherogenic cell recruitment and homeostasis is still being refined. (ahajournals.org)
  • Naturally occurring modifications, such as N-terminal truncation, can affect the biological potency and the receptor specificity of chemokines. (rndsystems.com)
  • A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. (harvard.edu)
  • N-terminal processing of chemokines by aminopeptidases or endoproteases may alter the receptor specificity and may result in up- or down-regulation of their chemotactic, antiviral or angiogenic activity. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • The involvement of chemokine receptors in HIV infection is briefly mentioned, while other interesting areas in chemokine research, such as hematopoiesis and angiogenesis, are not discussed. (nih.gov)
  • Chemokines and Angiogenesis*Michael P. Keane, M.D., John A. Belperio, M.D., and Robert M.Strieter, M.D.University of California, Los Angeles and University of Virginia16. (indigo.ca)
  • Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • We propose that actions of thyroid hormone and hormone analogues on chemokine gene expression contribute to regulation of inflammatory processes in brain and of brain blood vessel formation and maintenance. (hindawi.com)
  • The first teleost chemokine gene was reported in rainbow trout in 1998. (mdpi.com)
  • Since then, numerous chemokine genes have been identified in diverse fish species evidencing the great differences that exist among fish and mammalian chemokines, and within the different fish species, as a consequence of extensive intrachromosomal gene duplications and different infectious experiences. (mdpi.com)
  • This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential vaccine adjuvants. (mdpi.com)
  • Chemokines share common gene & tertiary structure. (prospecbio.com)
  • Examples of viral chemokine receptor homologs are ECRF-3, EBI-1 (EBV induced gene-1) and US28. (prospecbio.com)
  • A gene on chromosome 5q31 that encodes a CXC-type chemokine that is a potent chemoattractant for neutrophils, and weaker one for dendritic cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Lymphocyte-specific chemokine receptor CXCR3: regulation, chemokine binding and gene localization. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The product of the Chemokine-like factor gene is a cytokine. (novusbio.com)
  • This gene is one of several chemokine-like factor genes located in a cluster on chromosome 16. (novusbio.com)
  • 1,2 By signaling through G protein-coupled chemokine receptors, chemokines govern a variety of cell responses including cell activation and transmigration in leukocytes, as well as in nonhematopoietic cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • Requirement of the chemokine receptor CXCR3 for acute allograft rejection. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Regulation of pulmonary fibrosis by chemokine receptor CXCR3. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Chemokine receptor CXCR3 mediates T cell recruitment and tissue injury in nephrotoxic nephritis in mice. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Delayed and deficient dermal maturation in mice lacking the CXCR3 ELR-negative CXC chemokine receptor. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • CXCR3 chemokine receptor distribution in normal and inflamed tissues: expression on activated lymphocytes, endothelial cells, and dendritic cells. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Recently, we and others have demonstrated that the atypical chemokine receptor D6 actively sequesters and destroys many of these proinflammatory CC chemokines. (jci.org)
  • it was previously known as CXCR7, but has been renamed ACKR3, or atypical chemokine receptor 3. (tocris.com)
  • This interaction is thought to facilitate the retention of chemokines on cell surfaces and enable localized high concentrations of chemokines to form, even in the presence of shear forces caused by blood flow in capillary beds. (pnas.org)
  • We hypothesized that serum concentrations of chemokines 1) would be lower in preterm than term neonates, and 2) would be lower in preterm and term neonates than adults. (rti.org)
  • Lymphocyte responses to chemokines. (nih.gov)
  • This review emphasizes the new developments in the field of lymphocyte responses to chemokines. (nih.gov)
  • Lymphocyte traffic control by chemokines. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we summarize the current view of chemokine-mediated lymphocyte traffic and focus on the molecular mechanisms by which T cell responses to chemokines are modulated. (nih.gov)
  • Differential expression of three T lymphocyte-activating CXC chemokines by human atheroma-associated cells. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Chemokines and their receptors in lymphocyte traffic and HIV infection. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Chemokine Receptors and Lymphocyte TraffickingMichael N. Hedrick, Ph.D. and *Joshua M. Farber, M.D.National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease/NationalInstitutes of Health8. (indigo.ca)
  • As an exception, one chemokine, SDF-1, is a highly effective chemoattractant for non-activated T lymphocytes and progenitor B cells. (nih.gov)
  • Serum concentrations of thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC)/(CCL17), monokine induced by gamma-interferon (MIG)/(CXCL9), macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC)/(CCL22), interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC)/(CXCL11), eotaxin (CCL11), pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine (PARC)/(CCL18) and hemofiltrate CC-chemokine-4 (HCC-4)/(CCL16) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and compared between the FM and HW groups. (prohealth.com)
  • The defined subgroups of chemokines on the basis of structural and functional properties illustrates the importance of chemoattractant diversity in the regulation of the movement of leukocytes through the body. (prospecbio.com)
  • Chemokines are small chemoattractant peptides that provide directional cues for the cell trafficking and thus are vital for protective host response. (genome.jp)
  • Here, we review the role of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and related chemokines in regulating the recruitment of monocyte/macrophages to the vessel wall and discuss how these chemokines contribute to the pathophysiology of vascular disease, with an emphasis on atherosclerosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Chemokines have been classified into four main subfamilies: CXC, CC, CX3C and XC. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokine receptors are divided into different families, CXC chemokine receptors, CC chemokine receptors, CX3C chemokine receptors and XC chemokine receptors that correspond to the 4 distinct subfamilies of chemokines they bind. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2 different subfamilies of chemokines are distinguished according to their chromosomal location. (prospecbio.com)
  • Classified into subfamilies by the structural conservation of both cysteine residues and disulfide bonds, chemokine nomenclature reflects several cysteine-grouping motifs and arrangements. (peprotech.com)
  • Chemokines, Chemokine Receptors and Atherosclerosis. (elsevier.com)
  • Since the role of chemokines in atherosclerotic vascular disease has been reviewed in this journal, significant progress has been accomplished in defining the regulation of chemokine expression and function in atherosclerosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • The considerable leap in insight over recent years leads us to anticipate further advances in comprehending the role of chemokines in atherosclerosis, allowing targeted interventions for its prevention and therapy. (ahajournals.org)
  • Chemokine receptors are redundant in their function as more than one chemokine is able to bind to a single receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many chemokines bind several receptors and multiple chemokines often bind the same receptor, resulting in a highly complex network of interactions ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • thus, it is not surprising that chemokines are also able to bind linear sulfated GAGs such as heparin and heparan sulfate. (pnas.org)
  • Use this table to quickly identify the chemokines that bind to each receptor. (biolegend.com)
  • Chemokines bind to a variety of different receptors, which belong to the G-protein-binding receptor family, and there are ~23 types of chemokine receptors that have been discovered ( 10 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Furthermore, activated chemokine receptors bind to the scaffolding protein β-arrestin ( 1 - 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Findings: We found that the chemokine RANTES(CCL5) was significantly elevated, from an early stage of the infection, in patients with mild but not severe disease. (ssrn.com)
  • Today, almost three dozen human chemokines have been identified. (nih.gov)
  • 5,6 There are ≈50 human chemokines, which are divided into three major families based on differences in their structure and function. (ahajournals.org)
  • Macrophage-specific chemokines in. (mendeley.com)
  • We conclude that the chemotactic defect observed in premature neonates is not the result of diminished circulating concentrations of any of the specific chemokines we measured. (rti.org)
  • We asked whether specific chemokines were expressed in the CNS during acute demyelinating events by analyzing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), whose composition reflects the CNS extracellular space. (jci.org)
  • These are known as homeostatic chemokines and are produced and secreted without any need to stimulate their source cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Basal: homeostatic chemokines are basal produced in the thymus and lymphoid tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Homeostatic chemokines are constitutively expressed in particular organs or tissues. (biolegend.com)
  • Due to their function of targeting cells to specific organs, homeostatic chemokines can also be involved in cancer and metastasis. (biolegend.com)
  • 1997). "Cloning and characterization of a specific receptor for the novel CC chemokine MIP-3alpha from lung dendritic cells" . (wikipedia.org)
  • CCR6 is a chemokine receptor that is expressed in immature dendritic cells (DCs) ( 10 )( 11 )( 12 ) as well as in B lymphocytes ( 13 )( 14 ) and memory T cells ( 13 ). (rupress.org)
  • Importantly, major advances in our understanding of chemokine biology have led to chemokine receptors becoming specific therapeutic targets with great potential. (springer.com)
  • The Biology CXC Chemokines and Their Receptors. (elsevier.com)
  • The Molecular and Cellular Biology of CC Chemokines and Their Receptors. (elsevier.com)
  • This volume in the Current Topics in Membranes series discusses the biology of chemokines and their binding partners, chemokine receptors, in normal and disease-related states. (elsevier.com)
  • In this review, we describe the current state of knowledge of chemokine biology in teleost fish. (mdpi.com)
  • Chemokine biology is further complicated by individual chemokines interacting with more than one receptor and chemokine receptors potentially binding more than one chemokine. (pnas.org)
  • The Structural Biology of Chemokines*Elias Lolis, Ph.D. and James Murphy, Ph.D.Yale University3. (indigo.ca)
  • Their homeostatic function in homing is best exemplified by the chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 (expressed within lymph nodes and on lymphatic endothelial cells) and their receptor CCR7 (expressed on cells destined for homing in cells to these organs). (wikipedia.org)
  • The chemokine CCL19, which is in the endothelium lining the vein, is stained blue in this immunofluorescent image. (eurekalert.org)
  • The first 2 cysteine residues of this family are separated by 1 amino acids therefore, called CXC-Chemokines [Cysteine- Amino Acid-Cysteine-Chemokines]. (prospecbio.com)
  • In particular, chemokines have proven to be an attractive synthetic target, and chemical synthesis comes to the fore in enabling the introduction of unnatural amino acids, or labels that are useful aids in research. (regonline.co.uk)
  • CX3C Chemokines - Contain four conserved cysteine residues of which the first two, closest to the N-terminal, are separated by three amino acids. (peprotech.com)
  • Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif. (curehunter.com)
  • In Chemokine Receptors, leading investigators attempt to distill the large body of literature ranging from basic molecular and cellular mechanism of chemokine receptors, to physiological and pathological roles of chemokines. (springer.com)
  • Subsequently, it has only been possible to establish clear homologies with mammalian chemokines in the case of some chemokines with well-conserved homeostatic roles, whereas the functionality of other chemokine genes will have to be independently addressed in each species. (mdpi.com)
  • Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing recruitment of antigen presenting cells (APCs) and effector cells to appropriate anatomical sites. (mdpi.com)
  • In the context of cancer, the chemokine-chemokine receptor system plays paradoxical roles. (mdpi.com)
  • Recent reports suggest that chemokines may have additional roles to play in pain. (pnas.org)
  • In the present review, the literature on the multifactorial roles of exosomes in HCC from PubMed, Cochrane library and Embase were obtained, with a specific focus on the functions and mechanisms of chemokines in HCC. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • It has been found that chemokine networks may serve pivotal roles in inducing organ-specific metastasis ( 8 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In particular the book contains cutting-edge information ranging from basic molecular and cellular mechanisms to physiological and pathological roles of chemokines. (indigo.ca)
  • Our results imply pathogenic roles for specific chemokine-chemokine receptor interactions in MS and suggest new molecular targets for therapeutic intervention. (jci.org)
  • Because of their critical roles in monocyte recruitment in vascular and nonvascular diseases, MCP-1 and CCR2 have become important therapeutic targets, and efforts are underway to develop potent and specific antagonists of these and related chemokines. (ahajournals.org)
  • These findings suggest that poxviruses, like HIV, are able to use chemokine receptors to infect specific cell subtypes, notably migratory leukocytes, but that their mechanisms of receptor interactions are distinct. (sciencemag.org)
  • The most thoroughly characterized CC chemokine is MCP-1 (also known as CCL2), a potent agonist for monocytes, memory T cells, and basophils. (ahajournals.org)
  • Recent studies suggest that its pathogenesis may involve cytokines, in particular, chemokines - cytokines that regulate cell traffic under both physiological and pathological conditions. (prohealth.com)
  • In addition, chemokines regulate plethora of biological processes of hematopoietic cells to lead cellular activation, differentiation and survival. (genome.jp)
  • Chemokines are specific kind of cytokines (See NOTE below) that "regulate the migratory activity of all types of leukocytic (white) cells. (rainbow.coop)
  • Thus, chemokines and their receptors directly or indirectly shape the tumor cell microenvironment, and regulate the biological behavior of the tumor. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • I am particularly interested in the b-chemokines such as MCP-1, MIP-1a, MIP-1b and RANTES. (bio.net)
  • Synthesis of the chemokines MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and RANTES has been shown to be associated with a Th1 response ( 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Mice lacking the chemokine receptor chemotactic cytokine receptor 2 (CCR2) have a marked attenuation of monocyte recruitment in response to various inflammatory stimuli and a reduction of inflammatory lesions in models of demyelinating disease. (pnas.org)
  • Conversely, mothers of children with either ASD-noID or with DD had significantly lower levels of the chemokines IL-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 compared with mothers of GP controls. (nature.com)
  • Echinacea extracts modulate the pattern of chemokine and cytokine secretion in rhinovirus-infected and uninfected epithelial cells. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • We discuss the evidence base for the role of the chemokine network in the renal disease of small vessel vasculitis and extend this to non-renal aspects of small vessel vasculitis other systemic vasculitides. (nih.gov)
  • All other chemokines with activities in lymphocytes do also induce responses in monocytes and granulocytes. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast to the remarkable chemokine responses of phagocytes and monocytes that were documented early on, lymphocytes have been considered for a long time to be poor targets for chemokine action. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, the chemokine system assures that cell traffic during inflammatory responses occurs in the proper spatial and temporal fashion and disturbance of this system, therefore, can lead to inflammatory disease. (nih.gov)
  • A subset of CC chemokines, acting through CC chemokine receptors (CCRs) 1 to 5, is instrumental in shaping inflammatory responses. (jci.org)
  • These results indicate that a specific set of chemokines enhance the inflammatory and protective anti-viral responses mediated by TNF and lymphotoxin, and illustrate how viruses optimize anti-TNF strategies with the addition of a chemokine binding domain as soluble decoy receptors. (nature.com)
  • Such variety of activities may provide poxviruses the ability to differentially block chemokines involved in distinct anti-viral responses, to inhibit chemokines at different stages of infection in the host or to simultaneously inhibit chemokines and TNF. (nature.com)
  • The chemokine family encompasses nearly 50 members, which are classified based on the relative position of their conserved N-terminal cysteine residues (CC, CXC, CX 3 C, and C). Chemokines elicit intracellular responses via G protein-coupled receptors. (jimmunol.org)
  • Chemokines constitute a large family of structurally similar cytokines that contain a signature of conserved cysteine residues joined by disulfide bridges. (springer.com)
  • The first two extracellular loops of chemokine receptors are linked together by disulfide bonding between two conserved cysteine residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokines possess a number of conserved cysteine residues involved in intramolecular disulfide bond formation. (prospecbio.com)
  • These cysteines provide tertiary structure for the chemokine through disulfide bonds. (biolegend.com)
  • C Chemokines - Contain only two conserved cysteine residues linked by a single disulfide bond. (peprotech.com)
  • Among other homeostatic chemokine receptors include: CCR9, CCR10, and CXCR5, which are important as part of the cell addresses for tissue-specific homing of leukocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This role of chemokine is strikingly similar to their normal function of localizing leukocytes to an inflammatory site. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokines are a family of small molecular weight cytokines, which are involved in leukocytes stimulation and chemotactic gradient determining. (hindawi.com)
  • Chemokines are critical for the movement of leukocytes. (rti.org)
  • Chemokines belong to a class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes . (biology-online.org)
  • Chemokines are important regulators in the development, differentiation, and anatomic location of leukocytes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Nomenclature for chemokine receptors. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • There have been 20 distinct chemokine receptors discovered in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • There have been 19 distinct chemokine receptors described in mammals. (genenames.org)
  • Other chemokines are inflammatory and are released from a wide variety of cells in response to bacterial infection, viruses and agents that cause physical damage such as silica or the urate crystals that occur in gout. (wikipedia.org)
  • The increase of the chemokines concentration could be associated not only with infection but also with the mechanism of labor [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Chemokines are induced and released into the circulation during acute infection but high concentrations of some chemokines are observed also in normal plasma. (prospecbio.com)
  • Chemokines play a part in the development of many diseases, especially inflammatory diseases, including HIV infection. (rainbow.coop)
  • Virus infection stimulated the release of at least 31 cytokine-related molecules, including several important chemokines known to attract inflammatory cells. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Chemokine receptors are critical for the infection of perivascular macrophages and microglia. (asmscience.org)
  • It has also been shown that chemokines and their receptors play a more direct role in the neuropathogenesis of HIV-1 infection. (asmscience.org)
  • Chemokines and the Neuropathogenesis of HIV-1 Infection, p 151-171. (asmscience.org)
  • A proposed pathophysiological mechanism for how chemokines and their receptors influence the neuropathogenesis of HIV-1 infection. (asmscience.org)
  • Chemokines and their chemokine receptors are expressed in the nervous system, and their engagement affects neuronal and glial function. (asmscience.org)
  • AequoScreen® Double Transfected Cell Lines: Chemokine, CX3CR1 subtype. (perkinelmer.com)
  • Chemokines: a new classification system and their role in immunity. (ebi.ac.uk)