A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.
An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.
Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.
A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.
CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.
A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.
Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.
The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.
CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.
Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Proteins that specifically inhibit the growth of new blood vessels (ANGIOGENESIS, PHYSIOLOGIC).
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
The passage of cells across the layer of ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, i.e., the ENDOTHELIUM; or across the layer of EPITHELIAL CELLS, i.e. the EPITHELIUM.

Expression of specific chemokines and chemokine receptors in the central nervous system of multiple sclerosis patients. (1/340)

Chemokines direct tissue invasion by specific leukocyte populations. Thus, chemokines may play a role in multiple sclerosis (MS), an idiopathic disorder in which the central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory reaction is largely restricted to mononuclear phagocytes and T cells. We asked whether specific chemokines were expressed in the CNS during acute demyelinating events by analyzing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), whose composition reflects the CNS extracellular space. During MS attacks, we found elevated CSF levels of three chemokines that act toward T cells and mononuclear phagocytes: interferon-gamma-inducible protein of 10 kDa (IP-10); monokine induced by interferon-gamma (Mig); and regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES). We then investigated whether specific chemokine receptors were expressed by infiltrating cells in demyelinating MS brain lesions and in CSF. CXCR3, an IP-10/Mig receptor, was expressed on lymphocytic cells in virtually every perivascular inflammatory infiltrate in active MS lesions. CCR5, a RANTES receptor, was detected on lymphocytic cells, macrophages, and microglia in actively demyelinating MS brain lesions. Compared with circulating T cells, CSF T cells were significantly enriched for cells expressing CXCR3 or CCR5. Our results imply pathogenic roles for specific chemokine-chemokine receptor interactions in MS and suggest new molecular targets for therapeutic intervention.  (+info)

The T cell-specific CXC chemokines IP-10, Mig, and I-TAC are expressed by activated human bronchial epithelial cells. (2/340)

Recruitment of activated T cells to mucosal surfaces, such as the airway epithelium, is important in host defense and for the development of inflammatory diseases at these sites. We therefore asked whether the CXC chemokines IFN-induced protein of 10 kDa (IP-10), monokine induced by IFN-gamma (Mig), and IFN-inducible T-cell alpha-chemoattractant (I-TAC), which specifically chemoattract activated T cells by signaling through the chemokine receptor CXCR3, were inducible in respiratory epithelial cells. The effects of proinflammatory cytokines, including IFN-gamma (Th1-type cytokine), Th2-type cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13), and dexamethasone were studied in normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBEC) and in two human respiratory epithelial cell lines, A549 and BEAS-2B. We found that IFN-gamma, but not TNF-alpha or IL-1 beta, strongly induced IP-10, Mig, and I-TAC mRNA accumulation mainly in NHBEC and that TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta synergized with IFN-gamma induction in all three cell types. High levels of IP-10 protein (> 800 ng/ml) were detected in supernatants of IFN-gamma/TNF-alpha-stimulated NHBEC. Neither dexamethasone nor Th2 cytokines modulated IP-10, Mig, or I-TAC expression. Since IFN-gamma is up-regulated in tuberculosis (TB), using in situ hybridization we studied the expression of IP-10 in the airways of TB patients and found that IP-10 mRNA was expressed in the bronchial epithelium. In addition, IP-10-positive cells obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage were significantly increased in TB patients compared with normal controls. These results show that activated bronchial epithelium is an important source of IP-10, Mig, and I-TAC, which may, in pulmonary diseases such as TB (in which IFN-gamma is highly expressed) play an important role in the recruitment of activated T cells.  (+info)

Gene expression and production of the monokine induced by IFN-gamma (MIG), IFN-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC), and IFN-gamma-inducible protein-10 (IP-10) chemokines by human neutrophils. (3/340)

Monokine induced by IFN-gamma (MIG), IFN-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC), and IFN-gamma-inducible protein of 10 kDa (IP-10) are related members of the CXC chemokine subfamily that bind to a common receptor, CXCR3, and that are produced by different cell types in response to IFN-gamma. We have recently reported that human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) have the capacity to release IP-10. Herein, we show that PMN also have the ability to produce MIG and to express I-TAC mRNA in response to IFN-gamma in combination with either TNF-alpha or LPS. While IFN-gamma, alone or in association with agonists such as fMLP, IL-8, granulocyte (G)-CSF and granulocyte-macrophage (GM)-CSF, failed to influence MIG, IP-10, and I-TAC gene expression, IFN-alpha, in combination with TNF-alpha, LPS, or IL-1beta, resulted in a considerable induction of IP-10 release by neutrophils. Furthermore, IL-10 and IL-4 significantly suppressed the expression of MIG, IP-10, and I-TAC mRNA and the extracellular production of MIG and IP-10 in neutrophils stimulated with IFN-gamma plus either LPS or TNF-alpha. Finally, supernatants harvested from stimulated PMN induced migration and rapid integrin-dependent adhesion of CXCR3-expressing lymphocytes; these activities were significantly reduced by neutralizing anti-MIG and anti-IP-10 Abs, suggesting that they were mediated by MIG and IP-10 present in the supernatants. Since MIG, IP-10, and I-TAC are potent chemoattractants for NK cells and Th1 lymphocytes, the ability of neutrophils to produce these chemokines might contribute not only to the progression and evolution of the inflammatory response, but also to the regulation of the immune response.  (+info)

Interleukin-18, interferon-gamma, IP-10, and Mig expression in Epstein-Barr virus-induced infectious mononucleosis and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease. (4/340)

T cell immunodeficiency plays an important role in the pathogenesis of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) by permitting the unbridled expansion of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected B lymphocytes. However, factors other than T cell function may contribute to PTLD pathogenesis because PTLD infrequently develops even in the context of severe T cell immunodeficiency, and athymic mice that are T-cell-immunodeficient can reject EBV-immortalized cells. Here we report that PTLD tissues express significantly lower levels of IL-18, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), Mig, and RANTES compared to lymphoid tissues diagnosed with acute EBV-induced infectious mononucleosis, as assessed by semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis. Other cytokines and chemokines are expressed at similar levels. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that PTLD tissues contain less IL-18 and Mig protein than tissues with infectious mononucleosis. IL-18, primarily a monocyte product, promotes the secretion of IFN-gamma, which stimulates Mig and RANTES expression. Both IL-18 and Mig display antitumor activity in mice involving inhibition of angiogenesis. These results document greater expression of IL-18, IFN-gamma, Mig, and RANTES in lymphoid tissues with acute EBV-induced infectious mononucleosis compared to tissues with PTLD and raise the possibility that these mediators participate in critical host responses to EBV infection.  (+info)

Intradermal delivery of IL-12 naked DNA induces systemic NK cell activation and Th1 response in vivo that is independent of endogenous IL-12 production. (5/340)

In this study four murine IL-12 naked DNA expression plasmids (pIL-12), containing both the p35 and p40 subunits, were shown to induce systemic biological effects in vivo after intradermal injection. Three of the four IL-12 expression vectors augmented NK activity and induced expression of the IFN-gamma and IFN-gamma-inducible Mig genes. Both IL-12 p70 heterodimer and IFN-gamma proteins were documented in the serum within 24 h after intradermal injection of the pIL-12o- plasmid, which also induced the highest level of NK activity in the spleen and liver among the IL-12 constructs. Interestingly, both p40 mRNA expression at the injection site and serum protein levels followed a biphasic pattern of expression, with peaks on days 1 and 5. Subsequent studies revealed that the ability of intradermally injected pIL-12o- to augment NK lytic activity was prevented by administration of a neutralizing anti-IL-12 mAb. Finally, injection of the pIL-12o- into BALB/c IL-12 p40-/- mice also resulted in a biphasic pattern of IL-12 p70 appearance in the serum, and induced IFN-gamma protein and activated NK lytic activity in liver and spleen. These results demonstrate that injection of delivered naked DNA encoding the IL-12 gene mediates the biphasic systemic production of IL-12-inducible genes and augments the cytotoxic function of NK cells in lymphoid and parenchymal organs as a direct result of transgene expression. The results also suggest that these naked DNA plasmids may be useful adjuvants for vaccines against infectious and neoplastic diseases.  (+info)

SLC/exodus2/6Ckine/TCA4 induces chemotaxis of hematopoietic progenitor cells: differential activity of ligands of CCR7, CXCR3, or CXCR4 in chemotaxis vs. suppression of progenitor proliferation. (6/340)

Chemokines induce chemotaxis of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC), and suppress their proliferation. In this study we report that SLC/ Exodus2/6Ckine/TCA4 (hereafter termed SLC) is a chemoattractant for human CD34+ HPC. SLC mainly induces preferential chemotaxis of macrophage progenitors. We examined the chemotactic activity of CXCR3 ligands on CD34+ HPC because it has been reported that SLC is a potential ligand of CXC chemokine receptor, CXCR3, in addition to a CC chemokine receptor, CCR7. It was found that the CXCR3 ligands, MIG and interferon-gamma inducible protein-10 (IP-10), unlike SLC, did not induce chemotaxis of CD34+ HPC. In this regard, CCR7 ligands (SLC and CKbeta-11), but not IP-10 and MIG, induce actin polymerization in CD34+ cells. On the other hand, CCR7 ligands and CXCR3 ligands, but not the CXCR4 ligand SDF-1, showed inhibitory activity for proliferation of myeloid progenitor cells. Our results suggest that SLC is a potential trafficking factor for HPC, and that chemokines that bind CCR7, CXCR4, and CXCR3 have differential biological activities on HPC in terms of suppression and chemotaxis.  (+info)

The CXCR3 activating chemokines IP-10, Mig, and IP-9 are expressed in allergic but not in irritant patch test reactions. (7/340)

Differentiation between allergic and irritant contact dermatitis reactions is difficult, as both inflammatory diseases are clinically, histologically, and immunohistologically very similar. Previous studies in mice revealed that the chemokine IP-10 is exclusively expressed in allergic contact dermatitis reactions. In the present study, we investigated whether the mRNA expression of IP-10 and the related CXCR3 activating chemokines, Mig and IP-9 are also differentially expressed in human allergic contact dermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis reactions. Skin biopsies from allergic (13 cases) and sodium lauryl sulfate-induced irritant patch test reactions (13 cases), obtained 1-72 h after patch testing, were studied by means of an in situ hybridization technique. Results of chemokine mRNA expression were correlated with clinical scoring, histology, and immunohistochemical data including the proportion of inflammatory cells expressing CXCR3, the receptor for IP-10, Mig, and IP-9, and ICAM-1 and HLA-DR expression on keratinocytes. IP-10, Mig, and IP-9 mRNA were detected in seven of nine allergic contact dermatitis reactions after 24-72 h, but not in sodium lauryl sulfate-induced irritant contact dermatitis reactions. ICAM-1 expression by keratinocytes was only found in allergic contact dermatitis reactions and correlated with chemokine expression. Moreover, up to 50% of the infiltrating cells in allergic contact dermatitis expressed CXCR3, in contrast to only 20% in irritant contact dermatitis reactions. In conclusion, we have demonstrated differences in chemokine expression between allergic contact dermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis reactions, which might reflect different regulatory mechanisms operating in these diseases and may be an important clue for differentiation between allergic contact dermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis reactions.  (+info)

Differential expression of three T lymphocyte-activating CXC chemokines by human atheroma-associated cells. (8/340)

Activated T lymphocytes accumulate early in atheroma formation and persist at sites of lesion growth and rupture, suggesting that they may play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Moreover, atherosclerotic lesions contain the Th1-type cytokine IFN-gamma, a potentiator of atherosclerosis. The present study demonstrates the differential expression of the 3 IFN-gamma-inducible CXC chemokines--IFN-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), monokine induced by IFN-gamma (Mig), and IFN-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC)--by atheroma-associated cells, as well as the expression of their receptor, CXCR3, by all T lymphocytes within human atherosclerotic lesions in situ. Atheroma-associated endothelial cells (ECs), smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and macrophages (MO) all expressed IP-10, whereas Mig and I-TAC were mainly expressed in ECs and MO, as detected by double immunofluorescence staining. ECs of microvessels within lesions also expressed abundant I-TAC. In vitro experiments supported these results and showed that IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and CD40 ligand potentiated IP-10 expression from IFN-gamma-stimulated ECs. In addition, nitric oxide (NO) treatment decreased IFN-gamma induction of IP-10. Our findings suggest that the differential expression of IP-10, Mig, and I-TAC by atheroma-associated cells plays a role in the recruitment and retention of activated T lymphocytes observed within vascular wall lesions during atherogenesis.  (+info)

The anaerobic bacterium Finegoldia magna is part of the human commensal microbiota, but is also an important opportunistic pathogen. This bacterium expresses a subtilisin-like serine proteinase, SufA, which partially degrade the antibacterial chemokine MIG/CXCL9. Here, we show that MIG/CXCL9 is produced by human keratinocytes in response to inflammatory stimuli. In contrast to the virulent human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes, the presence of F. magna had no enhancing effect on the MIG/CXCL9 expression by keratinocytes, suggesting poor detection of the latter by pathogen-recognition receptors. When MIG/CXCL9 was exposed to SufA-expressing F. magna, the molecule was processed into several smaller fragments. Analysis by mass spectrometry showed that SufA cleaves MIG/CXCL9 at several sites in the COOH-terminal region of the molecule. At equimolar concentrations, SufA-generated MIG/CXCL9 fragments were not bactericidal against F. magna, but retained their ability to kill S. pyogenes. Moreover, the ...
Weighed against tumor cells, the LP EpCAM+ cells indicated very high degrees of the chemokines CXCL3 and CXCL5, as well as the BAL fluid included raised CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL5, and CXCL7. have already been utilized and described to build up approaches for targeted treatments, the genomic surroundings of lung SCC is emerging now. There arent yet any authorized targeted therapies for lung SCC. Sadly, therapeutic focuses on in lung ADC, such as for example and (also called serine-threonine kinase 11 [mutations have become rarely within human being squamous lung tumors. Lately, it had been reported that kinase-dead was within reduction is probable a significant determinant of lung squamous tumorigenesis. Despite signs that reduction may be central towards the era of squamous cell malignancies, deletion of only struggles to travel tumor development (Ji et al., 2007). (phosphatase and tensin homolog) can be another frequently mutated, erased, or epigenetically silenced tumor suppressor in human being ...
Human CXCL10 (IP-10) ELISA MAX™ Deluxe - CXCL10, also known as IP-10, is a glutamic acid-leucine-arginine motif negative chemokine structurally and functionally related to MIG (CXCL9) and ITAC (CXCL11).
MIG (CXCL9) Bovine Recombinant is a non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 104 amino acids and having a molecular mass of about 18.0kDa.
Recombinant Human MIG/CXCL9 produced in E. coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 103 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 11.7 kDa.
Human C-X-C Motif Chemokine 9 / Monokine Induced by Gamma Interferon (CXCL9 / MIG) standard, for use in running standard curves in AlphaLISA no-wash detection assay
MIG Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 126 aa (23-125 a.a.) and having a molecular mass of 14kDa.
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MIG welding is another popular Arc welding process. The comparison above has shown us its various pros and cons. This welding process is faster and simpler
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Birgit Westernströer, Daniel Langenstroth, Sabine Kliesch, Britta Troppmann, Klaus Redmann, Joni Macdonald, Rod Mitchell, Joachim Wistuba, Stefan Schlatt, Nina Neuhaus].
The ESAB Aristo Mig 5000i is the ideal partner for when it comes to prefabrication of high alloyed materials with a high demand for the welding performance.
Version Found: MIG 7 Series v1.7Version Resolved: See (Xilinx Answer 45195) New calibration updates are required for MIG 7 Series DDR3 designs due to potential calibration failures across process variation or continuous resets. This answer record details the calibration updates and includes links to patches for both MIG 7 Series v1.7 and v1.8 designs. Moving to v1.8 is recommended but not required as long as the v1.7 patch from this answer record is applied.
Ah, gotcha! I initially thought the same as you, welding supplies direct seems to be the only place that describes it as a 17 sized torch but CK call it a...
Background Ulcerative colitis is characterized by relapsing mucosal inflammation where the lesions include tissue-damaging granulocytes. In addition, T cells and natural killer (NK) cells play important pathophysiologic roles. Chemokines are a large family of peptides that play key roles in the regulation of inflammation. The CXC-chemokines, growth-related oncogene (GRO)-α/CXCL1 and interleukin (IL)-8/CXCL8, both recruit neutrophils and possess mitogenic properties, whereas the interferon-dependent CXC-chemokines monokine induced by gamma-interferon (MIG)/CXCL9, interferon-γ inducible protein of 10 kD/CXCL10, and IFN-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant/CXCL11 recruit and activate T cells and NK cells. Materials and methods The expression of CXC-chemokines was studied in eight controls and in 11 patients suffering from ulcerative colitis in the distal part of the colon, before and during topical treatment with corticosteroids. Perfusates (obtained before, after 7 days, and after 28 days of ...
This study examined the association of interferon-gamma-inducible protein-10 concentrations in serum and IL28B genotype associated with responses to pegylated
LEGEND MAX™ Human CXCL10 (IP-10) ELISA Kit with Pre-coated Plates - CXCL10, also known as IP-10, is a glutamic acid-leucine-arginine motif negative chemokine structurally and functionally related to MIG (CXCL9) and ITAC (CXCL11).
Aortic and plasma expression levels of IL-18 and CXCL16.(A) Reduced aortic mRNA expression of IL-18 and CXCL16, but no change in the expression of IFN-γ is obs
Hallie Jeg må vist erklære mig nogenlunde enig med Caroline. Synes hælen er for lav på Biancos, til at de får der samme fede look. Men kan segfvøllelig også være vinklen på kameraet?? Men ku godt tænke mig at se hvordan den så ud på en fod. 2016-04-28 14:39:45 ...
CXCL12 izaziva potentnu hemotaksu limfocita.[4][5][6][7] Tokom embriogeneze on usmerava migraciju hematopoetskih ćelija i formiranje velikih krvnih sudova. Miševi bez CXCL12 gena su letalni pre rođenja, ili u toku prvog sata života. Kod odraslih CXCL12 igra važnu ulogu u angiogenezi putem regrutovanja endotelnih progenitorskih ćelija (EPC) iz koštane srži kroz CXCR4 zavistan mehanizam.[8] Ova funkcija čini CXCL12 veoma važnim faktorom u karcinogenezi i neovaskularizaciji vezanoj za progresiju tumora.[9] CXCL12 takođe ima ulogu u metastazi tumora gde su ćelije raka koje izražavaju CXCR4 receptor privučene ka metastaznim ciljnim tkivima koja oslobađaju ligand, CXCL12.[10] Kod raka dojke, međutim, povećano CXCL12 izražavanje određuje umanjeni rizik od metastaze.[11][12] ...
Human CXCL9 standard, lyophilized, for use in running standard curves in LANCE Ultra TR-FRET assays. This standard is already provided in the LANCE Ultra human CXCL9/MIG Detection Kit, but can be ordered separately.
human CXCL9 / MIG ELISA pair set and full ELISA kit. Detection range:15.63-1000 pg/mL . Save up to 60%. Bulk at deep discounts. High quality quaranteed.
References for Abcams Recombinant human CXCL5 protein (ab50039). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
det er osse mit yndlingsbillede nu. jeg skifter hovedet ud på den druknende hver dag--afhængig af dagsform. I går var det min svogers, fordi jeg ikke havde andres. I morgen gør jeg mig umage og finder et godt. kh k. SvarSlet ...
C-X-C motif chemokine 11 (CXCL11) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CXCL11 gene.[3] C-X-C motif chemokine 11 is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also called Interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC) and Interferon-gamma-inducible protein 9 (IP-9). It is highly expressed in peripheral blood leukocytes, pancreas and liver, with moderate levels in thymus, spleen and lung and low expression levels were in small intestine, placenta and prostate.[4] Gene expression of CXCL11 is strongly induced by IFN-γ and IFN-β, and weakly induced by IFN-α.[5] This chemokine elicits its effects on its target cells by interacting with the cell surface chemokine receptor CXCR3, with a higher affinity than do the other ligands for this receptor, CXCL9 and CXCL10.[4][6] CXCL11 is chemotactic for activated T cells. Its gene is located on human chromosome 4 along with many other members of the CXC chemokine family.[7][8] ...
Chemokines mediate diverse fundamental biological processes, including combating infection. Multiple chemokines are expressed at the site of infection; thus chemokine synergy by heterodimer formation may play a role in determining function. Chemokine function involves interactions with G-protein-coupled receptors and sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAG). However, very little is known regarding heterodimer structural features and receptor and GAG interactions. Solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and molecular dynamics characterization of platelet-derived chemokine CXCL7 heterodimerization with chemokines CXCL1, CXCL4, and CXCL8 indicated that packing interactions promote CXCL7-CXCL1 and CXCL7-CXCL4 heterodimers, and electrostatic repulsive interactions disfavor the CXCL7-CXCL8 heterodimer. As characterizing the native heterodimer is challenging due to interference from monomers and homodimers, we engineered a
Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 (CXCL9) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also known as Monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG). CXCL9 is a T-cell chemoattractant, which is induced by IFN-γ. It is closely related to two other CXC chemokines called CXCL10 and CXCL11, whose genes are located near the gene for CXCL9 on human chromosome 4. CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 all elicit their chemotactic functions by interacting with the chemokine receptor CXCR3. Neutrophil collagenase/matrix metalloproteinase 8 (MMP-8) degrades CXCL9 and cleaves CXCL10 at two positions. Gelatinase B/matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) degrades CXCL10 and cleaves CXCL9 at three different sites in its extended carboxy-terminal region ...
CXCL16, hemokin (C-X-C motiv) ligand 16, je mali citokin iz CXC hemokin familije. On je veći od drugih hemokina (sadrži 254 aminokiselina). CXCL16 se sastoji od CXC hemokin domaina, mucinu-slične stabljike, transmembranskog domaina i citoplazmatičnog repa koji sadrži potentno mesto tirozin fosforilacije koje može da veže SH2.[1] Ovo su neuobičajene osobine za hemokin, i omobućavaju CXCL16 da bude izražen kao molekul na ćelijskoj površini, kao i rastvorni hemokin.[2] CXCL16 proizvode dendritiske ćelije koje se mogu naći u T ćelijskim zonama limfoidnih organa, i ćelije iz crvene pulpe slezine.[1] Među ćelijama koje se vezuju i migriraju u responsu na CXCL16 su nekoliko podgrupa T ćelija, i NKT ćelije.[1] CXCL16 interaguje sa hemokin receptorom CXCR6, takođe poznatim kao Bonzo.[3][1] Ekspresiju CXCL16 indukuju inflamatorni citokini IFN-gama i TNF-alfa.[2] Gen za ljudski CXCL16 je lociran na hromozomu 17.[1][4] ...
CXCL12 izaziva potentnu hemotaksu limfocita.[4][5][6][7] Tokom embriogeneze on usmerava migraciju hematopoetskih ćelija i formiranje velikih krvnih sudova. Miševi bez CXCL12 gena su letalni pre rođenja, ili u toku prvog sata života. Kod odraslih CXCL12 igra važnu ulogu u angiogenezi putem regrutovanja endotelnih progenitorskih ćelija (EPC) iz koštane srži kroz CXCR4 zavistan mehanizam.[8] Ova funkcija čini CXCL12 veoma važnim faktorom u karcinogenezi i neovaskularizaciji vezanoj za progresiju tumora.[9] CXCL12 takođe ima ulogu u metastazi tumora gde su ćelije raka koje izražavaju CXCR4 receptor privučene ka metastaznim ciljnim tkivima koja oslobađaju ligand, CXCL12.[10] Kod raka dojke, međutim, povećano CXCL12 izražavanje određuje umanjeni rizik od metastaze.[11][12] ...
CXCL10, hemokin (C-X-C motiv) ligand 10, ili IP-10[1] je mali citokin iz CXC hemokin familije koji je takođe poznat kao 10 kDa interferon-gama-inducirani protein (γ-IP10 ili IP-10). CXCL10 luči nekoliko ćelijski tipova u responsu na IFN-γ. U te ćelijske tipove spadaju monociti, endotelijalne ćelije i fibroblasti.[2] CXCL10 hemokinu je bilo pripisano nekoliko uloga, kao što su hemoatrakcija monocita/makrofaga, T ćelija, NK ćelija, i dendritskih ćelija, promocija adhezije T ćelija na endotelijalne ćelije, antitumorska aktivnost, i inhibicija formiranja kolonija kičmene moždine i angiogeneze.[3][4] CXCL10 gen je lociran na ljudskom hromozomu 4 u klasteru sa nekoliko drugih CXC hemokina.[5] Ovaj hemokin dejstvuje putem vezivanja na CXCR3 hemokin receptore na ćelijskoj površini.[6]. Tri-dimenzionalna kristalna struktura ovog hemokina je bila utvrđena u 3 različite grupe uslova u rezoluciji do 1.92 A.[7] PDB pristupni kodovi za CXCL10 strukture su: 1lv9, 1o7y, 1o7z i 1o80.[8] ...
Complete information for CXCL9 gene (Protein Coding), C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 9, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Cxcl12 - Cxcl12 (untagged ORF) - Rat chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (stromal cell-derived factor 1) (Cxcl12), transcript variant 3, (10 ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Cxcl11 - Cxcl11 (Myc-DDK-tagged) - Mouse chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11 (Cxcl11), transcript variant 1 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
NO GAS MIG WELDER MIG85ENB Part No. 6010109 OPERATING & MAINTENANCE INSTRUCTIONS 0606 Thank you for purchasing this CLARKE NO-GAS MIG Welder. Before attempting to operate the machine, it is essential that you read this manual thoroughly and carefully follow all instructions given. In doing so you will ensure the safety of yourself and that of others around you, and you can also look forward to the welder giving you long and satisfactory service. CLARKE GUARANTEE This CLARKE product is guaranteed against faulty manufacture for a period of 12 months from the date of purchase. Please keep your receipt as proof of purchase. This guarantee is invalid if the product is found to have been abused or tampered with in any way, or not used for the purpose for which it was intended. Faulty goods should be returned to their place of purchase, no product can be returned to us without prior permission. This guarantee does not effect your statutory rights. For Service, please contact the following: TEL: 020 ...
Recombinant Human IP-10/CXCL10 produced inE. coliis a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 77 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 8.5 kDa.
BABY I Kender i det? Jeg synes godt nok at min aften har været alt for lang! Jeg har kedet mig, og kedet mig og KEDET MIG. Hvad gør man så? Det man elsker aller mest i sit liv ( my blog) Jeg elsker forresten også mit NIKON 3200 som er et fantastisk spejlfalsekamera! #feelingmyselfff ♥ Har fået taget mig en masse billeder af mig selv (i know selvglad) men…. ...
Human IL-8/CXCL8 HEK293 Cells Overexpression Lysate 10098-HNCH1L is validated in western blot (WB) as positive control. Sino Biological offers bulk order for high quality cell lysates which are produced in house.
人生长调节致癌基因γ(GRO-γ/CXCL3) (Human)首选赛业生物,380余种细胞因子囊括生长调节致癌基因、生长因子、干扰素、白细胞介素、肿瘤坏死因子等所有细胞因子家族,种属齐包括人、鼠、恒河猴及其他种属。赛业提供的生长调节致癌基因品质优良:高活性、高纯度、高稳定性、无热源、无外源因子污染。
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Tumor escape from immune-mediated destruction has been associated with immunosuppressive mechanisms that inhibit T cell activation. Although evidence for an active immune response, including infiltration with CD8+ T cells, can be found in a subset of patients, those tumors are nonetheless not immunologically rejected. In the current report, we show that it is the subset of T cell-inflamed tumors that showed high expression of three defined immunosuppressive mechanisms: indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), PD-L1/B7-H1, and FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs), suggesting that these inhibitory pathways might serve as negative feedback mechanisms that followed, rather than preceded, CD8+ T cell infiltration. Mechanistic studies in mice revealed that up-regulated expression of IDO and PD-L1, as well as recruitment of Tregs, in the tumor microenvironment depended on the presence of CD8+ T cells. The former was driven by interferon-γ and the latter by a production of CCR4-binding chemokines along with a ...
In the present study, it was demonstrated that IL-17A could stimulate the secretion of angiogenic CXC chemokines from liver cancer cells, which may recruit endothelial cells to the tumor cells in a CXCR2-dependent manner. Tumor angiogenesis was also promoted by IL-17A expression in vivo. The CXC chemokines can be classified as angiogenic or angiostatic predominantly based on the presence or absence of an ELR motif. The angiogenic CXC chemokines include CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, CXCL5, CXCL6, CXCL8 and CXCL12, and the angiostatic chemokines include CXCL4, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11 and CXCL14 (21). IL-17A was shown to increase the expression of CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, CXCL5, CXCL6 and CXCL8 in Huh7.5 cells and upregulated CXCL2 in HepG2 cells. Additionally, angiostatic CXC chemokines were not affected by IL-17A in both cell lines. IL-17A has been reported to stimulate VEGFA production and promote angiogenesis in several cancer cell lines (16-18) and it has been shown previously that IL-17A does not affect ...
CXCL2_HUMAN (P19875 ), CXCL2_MOUSE (P10889 ), CXCL2_RAT (P30348 ), CXCL3_HUMAN (P19876 ), CXCL3_MOUSE (Q6W5C0 ), CXCL3_RAT (Q10746 ), CXCL5_HUMAN (P42830 ), CXCL5_MOUSE (P50228 ), CXCL5_RAT (P97885 ), CXCL6_BOVIN (P80221 ), CXCL6_HORSE (Q8MIN2 ), CXCL6_HUMAN (P80162 ), CXCL7_HUMAN (P02775 ), CXCL7_PIG (P43030 ), CXCL9_BOVIN (A9QWP9 ), CXCL9_HUMAN (Q07325 ), CXCL9_MOUSE (P18340 ), CXL10_BOVIN (Q2KIQ8 ), CXL10_CANLF (Q5KSV9 ), CXL10_HUMAN (P02778 ), CXL10_MACMU (Q8MIZ1 ), CXL10_MACNE (Q865F5 ), CXL10_MOUSE (P17515 ), CXL10_RAT (P48973 ), CXL11_BOVIN (A9QWQ1 ), CXL11_HUMAN (O14625 ), CXL11_MOUSE (Q9JHH5 ), CXL13_HUMAN (O43927 ), CXL13_MOUSE (O55038 ), CXL15_MOUSE (Q9WVL7 ), GRO2_RABIT (P47854 ), GROA_BOVIN (O46676 ), GROA_CAVPO (O55235 ), GROA_CRIGR (P09340 ), GROA_HUMAN (P09341 ), GROA_MOUSE (P12850 ), GROA_RAT (P14095 ), GROA_SHEEP (O46678 ), GROB_BOVIN (O46677 ), GROG_BOVIN (O46675 ), IL8_BOVIN (P79255 ), IL8_CANLF (P41324 ), IL8_CAVPO (P49113 ), IL8_CERAT (P46653 ), IL8_CHICK (P08317 ), ...
|p|Recombinant Human I-TAC is a single non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 73 amino acids.|/p| |p|Background: I-TAC/CXCL11 cDNA encodes a 94 amino acid (aa) residue precursor protein with a 21 aa residue putative signal sequence, which is cleav
The LANCE® Ultra Human CXCL9/MIG Detection Kit is designed for detection and quantitation of human CXCL9/MIG in cell culture media using a homogeneous TR-FRET (no-wash steps, no separation steps) assay.
CXCL10 / IP10 antibody [15J7] (chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10) for Neut, WB. Anti-CXCL10 / IP10 mAb (GTX53293) is tested in Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
CXCL11 antibody [22F1] (chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11) for ELISA, WB. Anti-CXCL11 mAb (GTX54751) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
CXCL16 is a member of the CXC chemokine family and signals through the CXCR6 receptor. CXCL16 may play a role in attracting lymphocyte subsets
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IL-8/CXCL8 Immunoprecipitation (IP) Kit are used for Immunoprecipitation of IL-8/CXCL8 protein which expressed in vitro expression systems.
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Rutar, M, Natoli, R, Chia, R et al 2015, Chemokine-mediated inflammation in the degenerating retina is coordinated by Müller cells, activated microglia, and retinal pigment epithelium, Journal of Neuroinflammation, vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 1-15. ...
CXCL10 improves outcome by decreasing bacteremia in IFNAR−/− mice. (A) SEV129 wild-type mice (n = 10), IFNAR−/− mice (n = 11), or IFNAR−/− mice with
References for Abcams Recombinant Mouse CXCL5 protein (ab57029). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Many in vitro applications for chemical induced dimerization (CID) have progressed into transgenic animals - for example, the MaFIA mouse. The B/B Homodimerizer (AP20187) has been the widely used in vivo.
Many in vitro applications for chemical induced dimerization (CID) have progressed into transgenic animals - for example, the MaFIA mouse. The B/B Homodimerizer (AP20187) has been the widely used in vivo.
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While Treg-depletion was not sufficient to drive dacryoadenitis in castrated male NOD mice, chemokines (Cxcl9, Ccl19) and other ... Expression of Cxcl9 and Ccl19, in particular, remained significantly upregulated in the lacrimal glands of lymphocyte-deficient ...
Methods: CXCL9 and CXCL10 were quantified in 391 urine samples concomitant with graft biopsy, urinalysis and blood BK virus ( ... Purpose: The aim of this study was to optimize the performance of urinary chemokines C-X-C motif ligand (CXCL) 9 and CXCL10 as ... Compared to nonviremic patients, BKV-viremic KTRs had similarly increased levels of CXCL9 and CXCL10 in both the absence (P. * ... Confounding factors for chemokine elevations were identified and integrated to build a multiparametric noninvasive model of AR ...
CXCL9 was first described as part of a family of "chemokines" in the 1990s. CXCL9 and its family of inflammatory proteins ... The team of investigators identified CXCL9, an inflammatory protein that biologists call chemokines, as the strongest ... Researchers say the CXCL9 protein helps determine "how far along a person is in their inexorable march to the grave." ... CXCL9 Protein In Blood Determines "How Far Along A Person Is In Their Inexorable March To The Grave." ...
... and chemokine receptors and ligands (CXCR2, CXCR4, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL6, and CXCL9) was recognized in high-grade tumor budding ... Supplementary MaterialsTable_1. signatures of immune checkpoints, Toll-like receptors (TLRs), and chemokine family CBL-0137 ...
CXCL9 CXCL10 CXCL13 DDX5 F4/80 Fc epsilon RI alpha FGF-6 FOXP3 I-A/I-E I-Ak IFN-gamma Ig light chain kappa Ig light chain ... Chemokine Panel 2 (2-plex) w/ FP Multiplex - Panel RUO 741086 100 tests ...
... and TLR4-induced chemokine, CXCL9." All-in-all results suggested a "less robust CNS immune activation in A-ME/CFS.". Much more ...
... high CXCL9 and CXCL10 chemokine concentrations in the epithelium, that may donate to arrest, and presumably engagement with ...
... high CXCL9 and CXCL10 chemokine concentrations in the epithelium, that may donate to arrest, and presumably engagement with ...
... high CXCL9 and CXCL10 chemokine concentrations in the epithelium, that may donate to arrest, and presumably engagement with ...
Anti Human Chemokine. *Anti Human Cytokine. *Anti Human Enzymes. *Anti Human HSP ...
  • Study in human cervical epithelial cells and mouse model highlights Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) ICP4 as a vital viral protein in promoting CXCR3 ligand expression and CXCL9 as the key induced chemokine in mediating CD4+ T cell migration in HSV-2 infection. (nih.gov)
  • CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 all elicit their chemotactic functions by interacting with the chemokine receptor CXCR3. (prospecbio.com)
  • In vivo expression of cxcl9 and its receptor cxcr3 in intestinal mucosa after chemotherapy was determined by quantitative real-time PCR. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The expression levels of cxcl9 and cxcr3 were significantly up-regulated in intestinal mucosa after 5-FU injection. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • CXCL9/CXCR3 interaction can exacerbate chemotherapeutic agent-induced intestinal damage, and anti-CXCL9 agents are potential novel therapeutic candidates for promoting mucosal restitution. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Moreover, the SufA-generated MIG/CXCL9 fragments were capable of activating the angiostasis-mediating CXCR3 receptor, which is expressed on endothelial cells, in an order of magnitude similar to that of intact MIG/CXCL9. (diva-portal.org)
  • Hepatectomy leads to loss of TRAIL-expressing liver NK cells via downregulation of the CXCL9 -CXCR3 axis in mice. (wroc.pl)
  • GO annotations related to this gene include cytokine activity and CXCR3 chemokine receptor binding . (genecards.org)
  • Using confocal immunofluorescence and quantitative PCR, we studied cell surface staining and gene expression of the CXCR3, CCR4, CCR5, CCR7, CCR8 receptors and their chemokine ligands in myocardial samples from end-stage CCC patients. (cdc.gov)
  • CXCL9 mRNA expression directly correlated with the intensity of myocarditis, as well as with mRNA expression of CXCR3, CCR4, CCR5, CCR7, CCR8 and their ligands. (cdc.gov)
  • Histopathological analysis and localization of CCR5 + , CXCR3 + , CCR4 + , CCL5 + and CXCL9 + cells in heart tissue. (cdc.gov)
  • CXCL9 signals through CXCR3 to induce the chemoattraction of activated T cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. (rndsystems.com)
  • Requirement of the chemokine receptor CXCR3 for acute allograft rejection. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Regulation of pulmonary fibrosis by chemokine receptor CXCR3. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Chemokine receptor CXCR3 mediates T cell recruitment and tissue injury in nephrotoxic nephritis in mice. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The chemokine receptors CXCR3 and CCR5 mark subsets of T cells associated with certain inflammatory reactions. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Delayed and deficient dermal maturation in mice lacking the CXCR3 ELR-negative CXC chemokine receptor. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • CCR3 functional responses are regulated by both CXCR3 and its ligands CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The CXCR3 binding chemokine IP-10/CXCL10: structure and receptor interactions. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Human IP-9: A keratinocyte-derived high affinity CXC-chemokine ligand for the IP-10/Mig receptor (CXCR3). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • CXCR3 chemokine receptor distribution in normal and inflamed tissues: expression on activated lymphocytes, endothelial cells, and dendritic cells. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This antimicrobial gene encodes a chemokine of the CXC subfamily and ligand for the receptor CXCR3. (genecards.org)
  • We demonstrate that the chemokine receptor CXCR3 is involved in promoting CD8 + T cell commitment to an effector fate rather than a memory fate by regulating T cell recruitment to an antigen/inflammation site. (rupress.org)
  • T cells were also actively recruited post-TDB treatment by IFNγ-dependent T-cell chemokines mediated via CXCR3. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Breast tumor cells express the chemokine receptor CXCR3, which binds the ligands CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CXCR3 and other chemokine receptors may mediate tumor metastasis by supporting migration of tumor cells to sites of ligand expression including the lymph nodes, lungs, and bone marrow. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Considerably less is known about the role of the related chemokine receptor, CXCR3, which binds the ligands CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Specific genetic targeting of CXCR3 on murine mammary tumor cells was also used to examine the role of the tumor cell chemokine receptor on metastatic potential. (aacrjournals.org)
  • There are two isoforms, CXCR3-A and CXCR3-B. It has three highly related ligands in mammals, CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11. (wikipedia.org)
  • CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 obtain their chemotactic functions by interacting with the chemokine receptor CXCR3. (prospecbio.com)
  • CXCL9 and its receptor CXCR3 are a chemokine-based antifibrotic pathway in the liver. (kompetenznetz-hepatitis.de)
  • It elicits its chemotactic functions by interacting with the chemokine receptor CXCR3. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • A modulatory role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ or - α agonists on CXCR3 chemokines in AT, GD and GO and the immuno-modulatory effect of methimazole on CXCR3 chemokines in GD have been shown. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Memory CD8+ T lymphocytes (mCTLs) are activated first after infection and then are signaled by CXCR3, IL-12, and CXCL9 by other XCR1+ DCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Silvia Martina Ferrari, Alessandro Antonelli, Andrea Di Domenicantonio, Andreina Manfredi, Clodoveo Ferri and Poupak Fallahi, "Modulatory Effects of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ on CXCR3 Chemokines", Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery (2014) 8: 132. (eurekaselect.com)
  • In contrast to the virulent human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes, the presence of F. magna had no enhancing effect on the MIG/CXCL9 expression by keratinocytes, suggesting poor detection of the latter by pathogen-recognition receptors. (diva-portal.org)
  • Among its related pathways are Peptide ligand-binding receptors and Chemokine Superfamily Pathway: Human/Mouse Ligand-Receptor Interactions . (genecards.org)
  • To date, there are more than 50 chemokines and 18 chemokine receptors identified [ 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Most chemokines bind to more than one receptor, while most receptors also display overlapping ligand specificity [ 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • mRNA expression of the chemokines CCL5, CXCL9, CXCL10, CCL17, CCL19 and their receptors was upregulated in CCC myocardium. (cdc.gov)
  • We also analyzed single-nucleotide polymorphisms for genes encoding the most highly expressed chemokines and receptors in a cohort of Chagas disease patients. (cdc.gov)
  • Significantly, myocardial samples from CCC patients carrying the CXCL9/CXCL10 genotypes associated to a lower risk displayed a 2-6 fold reduction in mRNA expression of CXCL9, CXCL10, and other chemokines and receptors, along with reduced intensity of myocarditis, as compared to those with other CXCL9/CXCL10 genotypes. (cdc.gov)
  • All of these proteins exert their biological effects by interacting with G protein -linked transmembrane receptors called chemokine receptors , that are selectively found on the surfaces of their target cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies of chemokine receptors (CKR) in natural killer- (NK-) cells have already been published, but only a few gave detailed information on its differential expression on blood NK-cell subsets. (hindawi.com)
  • It has been found that chemokines and their receptors serve a pivotal role in HCC progression. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Thus, chemokines and their receptors directly or indirectly shape the tumor cell microenvironment, and regulate the biological behavior of the tumor. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Exosomes containing chemokines or expressing receptors for chemokines may improve chemotaxis to HCC and may thus be exploited for targeted drug delivery. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chemokines bind to a variety of different receptors, which belong to the G-protein-binding receptor family, and there are ~23 types of chemokine receptors that have been discovered ( 10 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chemokines and their receptors were initially thought to allow for an interaction between immune cells and the inflammatory sites ( 11 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • After binding to the receptors, chemokines primarily serve a role in migration of leukocytes, such as monocytes, eosinophils and dendritic cells (DCs) ( 11 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In rodents, modulation of toll-like receptor-4 ( 5 ), tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptors ( 6 ), chemokines, and downstream kinases ( 7 ) attenuate diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Chemokines receptors are seven transmembrane spanning G protein-coupled receptors that allow cells to migrate towards increasing chemokine gradients. (biolegend.com)
  • Specific chemokine receptors are often required to gain entry (or exit) from certain organs and tissues like the thymus and bone marrow. (biolegend.com)
  • Chemokine signals are transduced by G-protein coupled receptors, which dissociate to activate diverse downstream pathways resulting in cellular polarization and actin reorganization. (wikipathways.org)
  • Immunohistochemical studies on tissue specimens from WHO Group 1 PAH patients were performed for cytokines and chemokines and their respective receptors. (nih.gov)
  • Cells in the lamina propria, in turn, produce mediators (vii) that act on cytokine and chemokine receptors on intestinal epithelial cells. (jci.org)
  • Epithelial cells also express TLRs that respond to microbial products (e.g., bacterial flagellin signals through TLR5) and chemokine receptors (CCR6, CXCR4, CCR5, and CX3CR1) and can be induced to produce antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), such as -defensins and cathelicidin (viii). (jci.org)
  • Nomenclature for chemokine receptors. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Chemokines and their receptors in lymphocyte traffic and HIV infection. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Recent advances in chemokines and chemokine receptors. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Chemokine receptors. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Signal transduction has not been further analyzed but may include the same enzymes that were identified in the signaling cascade induced by other chemokine receptors. (fishersci.com)
  • The chemokine superfamily is composed of ∼40 low molecular weight cytokines that bind a family of 18 to 22 G-protein-coupled receptors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Since the first description of chemokine receptors on malignant cells ( 1 ), an extensive literature has developed describing the expression and function of chemokine receptors in many malignancies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CXC chemokine receptors are integral membrane proteins that specifically bind and respond to cytokines of the CXC chemokine family. (wikipedia.org)
  • They represent one subfamily of chemokine receptors, a large family of G protein-linked receptors that are known as seven transmembrane (7-TM) proteins, since they span the cell membrane seven times. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are currently six known CXC chemokine receptors in mammals, named CXCR1 through CXCR6. (wikipedia.org)
  • CXCR1 and CXCR2 are closely related receptors that recognize CXC chemokines that possess an E-L-R amino acid motif immediately adjacent to their CXC motif. (wikipedia.org)
  • CXCR6 was formerly called three different names (STRL33, BONZO, and TYMSTR) before being assigned CXCR6 based on its chromosomal location (within the chemokine receptor cluster on human chromosome 3p21) and its similarity to other chemokine receptors in its gene sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, CXCR6 is more closely related in structure to CC chemokine receptors than to other CXC chemokine receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The "C" sub-family of chemokine receptors contains only one member: XCR1, the receptor for XCL1 and XCL2 (or lymphotactin-1 and -2). (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypothesis: Based on previous studies investigating the role of chemokines during neuroinflammation it was hypothesised that chemokines and other cytokines are highly upregulated during viral encephalitis, and the blockade of selected chemokine receptors would lead to altered disease outcome. (gla.ac.uk)
  • It was also hypothesised that chemokine receptors would present plausible targets for the treatment of viral encephalitis. (gla.ac.uk)
  • After identifying the key chemokines upregulated during viral encephalitis, next a selected panel of chemokine receptor antagonists was utilized to evaluate the hierarchy and relative importance of distinct chemokine receptors for CNS leukocyte influx, viral clearance, neuropathogenesis and host survival. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Conclusion: These data suggest that chemokine receptors represent plausible therapeutic targets for viral encephalitis. (gla.ac.uk)
  • CXCL9 is closely related to two other CXC chemokines called CXCL10 and CXCL11, whose genes are located near the gene for CXCL9 on human chromosome 4. (prospecbio.com)
  • The CXC-chemokines, growth-related oncogene (GRO)-α/CXCL1 and interleukin (IL)-8/CXCL8, both recruit neutrophils and possess mitogenic properties, whereas the interferon-dependent CXC-chemokines monokine induced by gamma-interferon (MIG)/CXCL9, interferon-γ inducible protein of 10 kD/CXCL10, and IFN-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant/CXCL11 recruit and activate T cells and NK cells. (diva-portal.org)
  • Moreover, CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 expression were induced in Schwann cells, leading to the recruitment and infiltration of CD8(+) T cells into DPN tissues. (nih.gov)
  • CXCL11 is more potent than CXCL10, and CXCL10 is more potent than CXCL9. (biolegend.com)
  • Also, CXCL9 (as well as CXCL10 and CXCL11) induces angiostatic effects in human microvacular endothelial cells. (biolegend.com)
  • Downstream chemokine CXCL10, but not CXCL9 or CXCL11, was markedly elevated compared with controls. (nih.gov)
  • It is a chemokine receptor that binds CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11. (fluidigm.com)
  • CD183 binds CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 as ligands. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • The C-X-C chemokine receptor (CXCR)3 and its chemokines (CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11) are involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroiditis (AT), Graves' disease (GD) and Graves' Ophthalmopathy (GO). (eurekaselect.com)
  • The concentrations of CXCL9 and CXCL11 in BALF were determined using commercial ELISA kits (R&D System, Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 10) Thus, NOD1 activation of CXCL9 , CXCL10, and CXCL11 transcription via type I IFN requires nuclear translocation of ISGF3, a complex composed of Stat1, Stat2, and IRF9. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • An increasing body of evidence shows the importance of the chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor (CXCR)3 and cognate chemokines (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 in the T helper 1 immune response, and in inflammatory diseases such as bowel inflammatory disorders, allograft rejection, thyroid autoimmune disorders, vascular and renal inflammation, and others. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Once at the site of injury, immune cells can react by releasing additional cytokines and chemokines, bringing more cells into the fold. (biolegend.com)
  • In addition, knockdown of PlGF by siRNA inhibited macrophages activation and substantially suppressed the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in fibrotic livers. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cytokines and chemokines are the primary form of signaling between a wide variety of cells. (prosci-inc.com)
  • Using antibodies to study cytokines and chemokines has given us a far greater understanding into signaling pathways. (prosci-inc.com)
  • Using MMF in diabetic nephropathy reduced various inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and attenuated podocyte apoptosis. (hindawi.com)
  • These events are mediated via the generation of adhesion molecules, cytokines, and chemokines. (ahajournals.org)
  • Specifically, the types of cytokines and chemokines produced by the host are thought to play an important role in the progression of uncomplicated malaria towards cerebral malaria and other severe and complicated pathological manifestations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Notably, glial cells are activated by drugs of abuse, and their activation and subsequent release of cytokines and chemokines can impact the physiological and addictive properties of drugs of abuse, including morphine. (jneurosci.org)
  • Serum biomarker analyses identified significant early changes in cytokines and chemokines, including CXCL9, a chemoattractant ligand for cytotoxic T cell migration. (news-medical.net)
  • The encoded protein binds to C-X-C motif chemokine 3 and is a chemoattractant for lymphocytes but not for neutrophils. (nih.gov)
  • Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 (CXCL9) is a small cytokine belongs to the CXC chemokine family that is also known as Monokine induced by gamma INF (MIG). (prospecbio.com)
  • You need info about Human chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 (CXCL9) ELISA kit or any other Gentaur produtct? (gentaurshop.com)
  • Your search returned 319 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 9 ELISA ELISA Kit across 24 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • CXCL9 (C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 9) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • CXCL9 is a CXC chemokine and member of the non-ELR (lacking a Glu-Leu-Arg motif in the N-terminal region) CXC chemokine family. (biolegend.com)
  • Through PPI network construction, 108 nodes and 278 gene pairs were obtained, from which chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 ( CXCL9 ), CXCL10 , protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type C ( PTPRC ), and human leukocyte antigen ( HLA ) were screened out as hub genes. (springer.com)
  • This gene, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 14, is one of several CC cytokine genes clustered on 17q11.2. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Read-through transcripts are also expressed that include exons from the upstream cytokine gene, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 15, and are represented as GeneID: 348249. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Absence of chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 in these knock-out mice affects immune and a number of other physiological responses. (jax.org)
  • Binds to atypical chemokine receptor ACKR4 and mediates the recruitment of beta-arrestin (ARRB1/2) to ACKR4. (uniprot.org)
  • MIP-3B specifically binds to chemokine receptor CCR7. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The major role of chemokines is to act as a chemoattractant to guide the migration of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • To decipher the role of chemokines in TB infection and disease, we measured the levels of chemokines in PTB, LTB and HC individuals. (nature.com)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of chemokines as biologic markers of disease activity. (ajtmh.org)
  • We investigated the role of chemokines in regulating T cell accumulation in solid tumors. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Chemokines are essential to stimulate chemotaxis of leukocytes and initiate inflammatory responses ( 1 , 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • For example, in addition to chemotaxis, chemokines modulate lymphocyte development, priming and effector function [ 2 ] and play a critical role in immune surveillance. (mdpi.com)
  • In addition to being known for mediating chemotaxis, chemokines are all approximately 8-10 kilodaltons in mass and have four cysteine residues in conserved locations that are key to forming their 3-dimensional shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the potential application of chemokines in chemotaxis of exosomes as drug vehicles is discussed. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Amino-terminal truncation of CXCL9 by CD26 impairs lymphocyte chemotaxis, but the antiangiogenic activity is not affected. (biolegend.com)
  • Chemokines are a class of cytokines that induce chemotaxis (migration) of target cells. (biolegend.com)
  • While some chemotaxis is induced by inflammation or damaged cells, other chemokines function in homeostasis. (biolegend.com)
  • In addition, the upregulated ileal genes of the Lactobacillus -dominant calves were related to leukocyte and lymphocyte chemotaxis, the cytokine/chemokine-mediated signaling pathway, and inflammatory responses, while the upregulated ileal genes of the Bacteroides -dominant calves were related to cell adhesion, response to stimulus, cell communication and regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades. (asm.org)
  • This is why we offer customized antibody production that can be tailored to detect a specific cytokine protein or chemokines protein that is necessary for the success of your research. (prosci-inc.com)
  • The following antibody was used in this experiment: CXCL9 Recombinant Rabbit Monoclonal Antibody (11H1L14) from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # 701117, RRID AB_2532396. (thermofisher.com)
  • Rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against synthetic peptide of CXCL9. (abnova.com)
  • Western blot analysis of recombinate human CXCL9 protein with CXCL9 polyclonal antibody (Cat # PAB19516). (abnova.com)
  • Immunohistochemical staining of paraffin-embedded human lung cancer tissue section with CXCL9 polyclonal antibody (Cat # PAB19516). (abnova.com)
  • This assay employs an antibody specific for Human CXCL9 coated on a 96-well plate. (abcam.com)
  • Standards and samples are pipetted into the wells and CXCL9 present in a sample is bound to the wells by the immobilized antibody. (abcam.com)
  • These include chemokines (CK), such as MIP-1 α (macrophage inflammatory proteins-1 alpha, CCL3) and MIP-1 β (CCL4), RANTES (regulated activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted, CCL5), and ATAC (activation-induced, T cell derived, and chemokine-related cytokine, CXCL1). (hindawi.com)
  • PTB individuals exhibited significantly higher levels of CCL1, CCL3, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL9 and CXCL10 in comparison to LTB and/or HC individuals. (nature.com)
  • In addition, PTB individuals with slower culture conversion displayed significantly elevated levels of CCL1, CCL3, CXCL1 and CXCL9 at the time of PTB diagnosis and prior to ATT. (nature.com)
  • CXCL8 (otherwise known as interleukin-8) and CXCL6 can both bind CXCR1 in humans, while all other ELR-positive chemokines, such as CXCL1 to CXCL7 bind only CXCR2. (wikipedia.org)
  • CCC patients with ventricular dysfunction displayed reduced genotypic frequencies of CXCL9 rs10336 CC, CXCL10 rs3921 GG, and increased CCR5 rs1799988CC as compared to those without dysfunction. (cdc.gov)
  • Because the accumulation of Tregs at the tumor site is, in part, due to selective recruitment through CCR5- and CCR5-associated chemokines, we investigated the role of CCR5 in the SCC development. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Chemokines produced in inflammatory tissues and lead to the accumulation of CCR5 + Tregs in tumor microenvironment ( 2, 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • CXCR4 (also known as fusin) is the receptor for a chemokine known as CXCL12 (or SDF-1) and, as with CCR5, is utilized by HIV-1 to gain entry into target cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • On one hand, the chemokine network is used by tumors to evade immune surveillance, resist apoptosis, and metastasize. (mdpi.com)
  • Histologic analysis of regressing tumors identified infiltration of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and the expression of CXCL9 chemokine in tumors. (fda.gov)
  • Cooperation between Constitutive and Inducible Chemokines Enables T Cell Engraftment and Immune Attack in Solid Tumors. (bioportfolio.com)
  • CCL5 and CXCL9 overexpression was associated with CD8 T cell infiltration in solid tumors. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Overexpression of CXCL9 in tumors can lead to T-cell accumulation, vascular damage, and tumor regression. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Results may indicate that genotypes associated to reduced risk in closely linked CXCL9 and CXCL10 genes may modulate local expression of the chemokines themselves, and simultaneously affect myocardial expression of other key chemokines as well as intensity of myocarditis. (cdc.gov)
  • These included established adipocytokines and chemokines implicated in recruitment and activation of lymphocytes, adhesion molecules, antioxidants, and several novel genes with unknown function. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • J:185240 Lefebvre S, Fliniaux I, Schneider P, Mikkola ML, Identification of ectodysplasin target genes reveals the involvement of chemokines in hair development. (jax.org)
  • Chemokines (Greek -kinos , movement) are a family of small cytokines , or signaling proteins secreted by cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytokine proteins are classified as chemokines according to behavior and structural characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokines are a class of small molecular proteins with similar structures, functions and chemotactic properties, and their molecular weights are ~10 kDa, and chemokines represent the largest member of the cytokine family ( 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chemokines are a family of small cytokines , or proteins secreted by cells . (wikidoc.org)
  • Proteins are classified as chemokines according to shared structural characteristics such as small size (they are all approximately 8-10 kilodaltons in size), and the presence of four cysteine residues in conserved locations that are key to forming their 3-dimensional shape. (wikidoc.org)
  • Proteins are classified into the chemokine family based on their structural characteristics, not just their ability to attract cells. (wikidoc.org)
  • Typical chemokine proteins are produced as pro-peptides , beginning with a signal peptide of approximately 20 amino acids that gets cleaved from the active (mature) portion of the molecule during the process of its secretion from the cell. (wikidoc.org)
  • Chemokines are small cytokines, or signaling proteins, secreted by cells. (wikipathways.org)
  • Chemokines are a family of small cytokines, or proteins secreted by cells, with a molecular mass between 8 and 10 kDa. (genscript.com)
  • GenScript offers a comprehensive catalog of chemokine proteins with excellent lot-to-lot consistency, superior activity and significantly low endotoxin levels. (genscript.com)
  • Endogenous CXCL9 affects prognosis by regulating tumor-infiltrating natural killer cells in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. (nih.gov)
  • Results found that high endogenous CXCL9 expression in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma was correlated with favorable postoperative survival and high numbers of tumor-infiltrating natural killer cells. (nih.gov)
  • CXCL9 inhibited the proliferation of MCF10A cells by activating phosphorylation of p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K), which further promotes the secretion of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) as the downstream effector. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A blockade of phospho-p70S6K with inhibitor abolished the effect of CXCL9 on MCF10A cells and reduced the secretion of TGF-β. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • CXCL9 inhibits the proliferation of epithelial cells via phosphorylation of p70S6K, resulting in the excretion of TGF-β as downstream mediator. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Further studies of serum chemokines and placenta tissue could provide a better understanding of the cells involved in the pathogenesis of maternal erythrocyte alloimmunization. (frontiersin.org)
  • In pregnancy, chemokines are potent mediators of embryogenesis and neoangiogenesis and important for the recruitment of macrophages and NK, dendritic, and T cells to maternal decidua ( 1 , 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing recruitment of antigen presenting cells (APCs) and effector cells to appropriate anatomical sites. (mdpi.com)
  • On the other hand, the chemokine system also plays a crucial role in the induction of antitumor immune responses and optimal effector function regulation of immune cells [ 1 , 4 , 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Suppression of CD8+ cytotoxic T cells was responsible for the tumour-promoting effect of CXCL9. (aging-us.com)
  • E ) showed that adoptive transfer of CD8+ cytotoxic T cells reduces tumour weight of PAAD in CXCL9-treated mice. (aging-us.com)
  • Some chemokines are considered pro- inflammatory and can be induced during an immune response to recruit cells of the immune system to a site of infection , while others are considered homeostatic and are involved in controlling the migration of cells during normal processes of tissue maintenance or development . (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokines released by infected or damaged cells form a concentration gradient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Attracted cells move through the gradient towards the higher concentration of chemokine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells that are attracted by chemokines follow a signal of increasing chemokine concentration towards the source of the chemokine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some chemokines control cells of the immune system during processes of immune surveillance, such as directing lymphocytes to the lymph nodes so they can screen for invasion of pathogens by interacting with antigen-presenting cells residing in these tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other chemokines are inflammatory and are released from a wide variety of cells in response to bacterial infection, viruses and agents that cause physical damage such as silica or the urate crystals that occur in gout . (wikipedia.org)
  • Inflammatory chemokines function mainly as chemoattractants for leukocytes , recruiting monocytes , neutrophils and other effector cells from the blood to sites of infection or tissue damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain inflammatory chemokines activate cells to initiate an immune response or promote wound healing . (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokines are felt to play a major role latent TB infection (LTB) as they appear to be critical in the formation and maintenance of quiescent granulomas 4 and in the recruitment of cells from the periphery for positioning within the granuloma 5 . (nature.com)
  • CXCL9 plays a key role in leukocyte trafficking, acting on activated CD4+ Th1 cells, CD8+ T cells, IL-2 activated T lymphocytes, and NK cells. (biolegend.com)
  • CXCL9 induces T cells proliferation and cytokine production in an experimental model of cardiac allograft vasculopathy. (biolegend.com)
  • Here, we report that the entry of diabetogenic CD4 T cells very rapidly triggered inflammatory gene expression changes in islets and vessels by up-regulating chemokines and adhesion molecules. (pnas.org)
  • In contrast to the entry of diabetogenic CD4 T cells, the entrance of nonspecific T cells required a chemokine response and VCAM-1 expression by the islets. (pnas.org)
  • Attracted cells move toward areas of higher concentrations of the chemokine. (biolegend.com)
  • Due to their function of targeting cells to specific organs, homeostatic chemokines can also be involved in cancer and metastasis. (biolegend.com)
  • Many inflammatory chemokines attract a wide variety of cells in both the innate and adaptive arms of immunity. (biolegend.com)
  • Upon sensing the inflammatory chemokine, cells will extravasate from the blood vessel and follow the gradient to its source. (biolegend.com)
  • A major rol of chemokines is to act as chemoattractants in guiding migration of cells. (wikipathways.org)
  • CXCL9, also known as MIG, is a chemokine that is induced in macrophages and in CNS glial cells in response to IFN-gamma. (rndsystems.com)
  • In the early 1990s, my laboratory discovered that intestinal epithelial cells could alter their phenotype and produce proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines when stimulated by pathogenic enteric luminal microbes or proinflammatory agonists produced by cells in the underlying mucosa. (jci.org)
  • It is now well accepted that intestinal epithelial cells can be induced to express and secrete specific arrays of cytokines, chemokines, and antimicrobial defense molecules. (jci.org)
  • A ) Intestinal epithelial cells can be induced to express chemokines and cytokines in response to encounter with enteric microbial pathogens. (jci.org)
  • In response, the intestinal epithelium can change its phenotype to produce chemokines and cytokines (v) that act on underlying cells of the innate and adaptive immune system in the lamina propria (vi). (jci.org)
  • Differential expression of three T lymphocyte-activating CXC chemokines by human atheroma-associated cells. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The chemokines, by virtue of their specific cell receptor expression, can selectively mediate the local recruitment/activation of distinct leukocytes/cells, allowing for migration across the endothelium and beyond the vascular compartment. (ahajournals.org)
  • The chemokine receptor CXCR5 is expressed on B cells and CD4+ Tfh cells and is involved in lymphocyte homing and the development of normal lymphoid tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • RT-PCR assays for ABCD-1 and Mig (CXCL9) were performed on total RNA isolated from Bm1.11 cells infected with C. muridarum for 18 h and activated peritoneal macrophages (Activated MACS) as a positive control. (asm.org)
  • CXCL9 is a T-cell chemoattractant, which is induced by IFN-γ during infection, injury or immunoinflammatory responses in macrophages, hepatocytes, and endothelial cells. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • A similar trend was observed for Th1-associated mediators (IL-12p40, INF-[gamma], INF-[gamma]-inducible CXCL9 , and CXCL10), which are strong chemoattractants for CD4+/CD8+ T-effector cells (Figure 5, panel B). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • NK cells release XCL1 along with IFN-γ and some other chemokines upon encountering certain bacteria such as Listeria or MCMV. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to make a powerful secondary infection response, cytokine and chemokine signaling between XCR1+ DCs and NK cells must occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therapeutic treatment with anti-CXCL9 antibodies was investigated to confirm the hypothesis that CXCL9 can contribute to the intestinal epithelium damage induced by chemotherapy. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Neutralizing elevated CXCL9 with anti-CXCR9 antibodies successfully enhanced reconstitution of intestinal mucosa and improved the survival rate of mice that received high-dose chemotherapy. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Our cytokine and chemokine antibodies are quality controlled and tested in the application such as western blotting, ELISA, IF, IHC, and ICC. (prosci-inc.com)
  • Homeostatic chemokines are constitutively expressed in particular organs or tissues. (biolegend.com)
  • The influx of leukocytes into the infected tissues is mediated by chemokines and is believed to be important for virus clearance. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Multiple pathway analysis was carried out to explore the pathway that mediated the effect of CXCL9, and the corresponding downstream effector was identified with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This pathway was inferred from Mus musculus pathway "Chemokine signaling pathway", WP2292 revision 89521, with a 91.0% conversion rate. (wikipathways.org)
  • We selected most pathways CCL14 participated on our site, such as Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, Chemokine signaling pathway, which may be useful for your reference. (creativebiomart.net)
  • High CXCL9 expression is associated with invasion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. (nih.gov)
  • Title: Circular RNA circ_0008450 upregulates CXCL9 expression by targeting miR-577 to regulate cell proliferation and invasion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. (nih.gov)
  • Materials and methods The expression of CXC-chemokines was studied in eight controls and in 11 patients suffering from ulcerative colitis in the distal part of the colon, before and during topical treatment with corticosteroids. (diva-portal.org)
  • The rectal release of GRO-α and MIG was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and tissue expression of the chemokines was detected in colonic tissue by immunohistochemistry. (diva-portal.org)
  • Myocardial chemokine expression and intensity of myocarditis in Chagas cardiomyopathy are controlled by polymorphisms in CXCL9 and CXCL10. (cdc.gov)
  • Gene expression profiling of CLL-associated monocytes revealed aberrantly high PD-L1 expression and secretion of multiple inflammatory and immunosuppressive cytokines like interleukin-10, tumor necrosis factor-α and CXCL9. (nih.gov)
  • Establishment of the TB granuloma is controlled by the synchronized expression of various chemokines. (nature.com)
  • Flexible programs of chemokine receptor expression on human polarized T helper 1 and 2 lymphocytes. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The renal chemokines expression and macrophages infiltration were also attenuated by MMF treatment. (hindawi.com)
  • Differential expression of chemokines in patients with localized and diffuse cutaneous American leishmaniasis. (ajtmh.org)
  • We found that PRC2 components and demethylase JMJD3-mediated histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) repress the expression and subsequent production of Th1-type chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10, mediators of effector T-cell trafficking. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Moreover, the expression levels of PRC2 components, including EZH2, SUZ12, and EED, were inversely associated with those of CD4, CD8, and Th1-type chemokines in human colon cancer tissue, and this expression pattern was significantly associated with patient survival. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We report that glia within the rat nucleus accumbens (NAcc) respond to morphine with an increase in cytokine/chemokine expression, which predicts future reinstatement of morphine conditioned place preference (CPP) following a priming dose of morphine. (jneurosci.org)
  • Results: To test these hypotheses, the chemokine expression pattern and the kinetics of chemokine mediated leukocyte recruitment during viral encephalitis were analysed in unprecedented detail by TaqMan low density array, and flow cytometry, respectively, and key chemokine receptor were identified as therapeutic targets. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Both SFV and WNV exhibited a similar pattern of chemokine upregulation, although WNV induced significantly higher fold expression. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Chemokines are a group of related chemoattractant peptides that are essential regulators of the immune system, both during homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. (mdpi.com)
  • This gene encodes a G protein-coupled receptor with selectivity for three chemokines, termed IP10 (interferon-g-inducible 10 kDa protein), Mig (monokine induced by interferon-g) and I-TAC (interferon-inducible T cell a-chemoattractant). (fishersci.com)
  • CXCL9 is an inflammatory chemokine initially identified by differential screening of a cDNA library from lymphokine-activated macrophages. (biolegend.com)
  • Monokine induced by gamma (MIG), or CXCL9, is a chemokine induced by IFN-gamma and has the potential to provide amplification of the IFN-gamma signal. (nih.gov)
  • This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential vaccine adjuvants. (mdpi.com)
  • An important paralog of this gene is CXCL9 . (genecards.org)
  • This gene has been localized to 4q21 with INP10, which is also a member of the chemokine family of cytokines. (abnova.com)
  • In the NSCLC discovery set, a four-gene IFNγ-positive (IFNγ + ) signature comprising IFNγ, CD274, LAG3 , and CXCL9 was associated with higher overall response rates, longer median progression-free survival, and overall survival compared with signature-low patients. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a chemokine receptor belonging to the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • We analyzed cytokine and chemokine protein levels in plasma from 43 individuals with WHO Group 1 PAH by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay compared with 35 healthy individuals. (nih.gov)
  • We used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure chemokines in plasma of patients with leprosy (LE) and non-infected (NI) individuals. (ajtmh.org)
  • In the present study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was used to investigate the plasma content of several biomarkers of the immune response, namely Neopterin, sCD163, suPAR, Pentraxin 3 (PTX3), sCD14, Fractalkine (CX3CL1), sTREM-1 and MIG (CXCL9), in patients with distinct clinical manifestations of malaria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Abcam's CXCL9 Human ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) kit is an in vitro enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantitative measurement of Human CXCL9 in serum, plasma, and cell culture supernatants. (abcam.com)
  • CD183 harbors seven-transmembrane α-helices, an extracellular N-terminal domain containing three loops involved in the chemokine ligand binding, an intracellular C-terminal domain involved in signal transduction. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • IP10, Mig and I-TAC belong to the structural subfamily of CXC chemokines, in which a single amino acid residue separates the first two of four highly conserved Cys residues. (fishersci.com)
  • Chemokines are a large family of peptides that play key roles in the regulation of inflammation. (diva-portal.org)
  • Notably, endotoxemia induces adipose inflammation ( 27 ) with activation of several adipose inflammatory cascades, including cytokines, chemokines, and suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) molecules ( 26 ) that attenuate insulin signaling and are implicated in obesity and type 2 diabetes ( 28 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • While a function of chemokines is to regulate lymphocyte trafficking, the view that chemokines act simply as "chemotactic cytokines" has evolved to include the many critical roles they play in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses. (mdpi.com)
  • CXCL8, CXCL9, CCL5, and CXCL10 levels were determined from cell culture supernatants by flow cytometry in 46 (30 non-alloimmunized RhD − and 16 previously alloimmunized RhD − ) pregnant women. (frontiersin.org)
  • Type I immune response cytokine-chemokine cascade is associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension. (nih.gov)
  • These are known as homeostatic chemokines and are produced and secreted without any need to stimulate their source cell(s). (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we show that a fast and inexpensive assay based on CRISPR-Cas13 accurately detects BK polyomavirus DNA and cytomegalovirus DNA from patient-derived blood and urine samples, as well as CXCL9 messenger RNA (a marker of graft rejection) at elevated levels in urine samples from patients experiencing acute kidney transplant rejection. (nature.com)
  • Here, we show that MIG/CXCL9 is produced by human keratinocytes in response to inflammatory stimuli. (diva-portal.org)
  • This review will focus on recent murine and human studies that use chemokines as therapeutic anti-cancer vaccine adjuvants. (mdpi.com)
  • Baf3-mCXCR3 transfectants chemoattracted by human CXCL9. (biolegend.com)
  • Human CXCL9, amino acids Thr23 - Thr125 (Accession # NM_002416.1) was expressed in E. coli . (biolegend.com)
  • A synthetic peptide corresponding to amino acids at N-terminus of human CXCL9. (abnova.com)
  • The LEGENDplex™ Human Proinflammatory Chemokine Standard product is intended for use with the Mix and Match Human Proinflammatory Chemokine Panel of products. (biolegend.com)
  • MIG (CXCL9) BovineRecombinant produced in E.Coli is a non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 104 amino acids and having a molecular mass of approximately 18.0kDa. (prospecbio.com)
  • They all also possess conserved amino acids that are important for creating their 3-dimensional or tertiary structure , such as (in most cases) four cysteines that interact with each other in pairs to create a Greek key shape that is a characteristic of chemokines. (wikidoc.org)
  • Soluble FAF was found to bind and inactivate the antibacterial activity of MIG/CXCL9, thereby further potentially promoting the survival of F. magna. (diva-portal.org)
  • Use this table to quickly identify the chemokines that bind to each receptor. (biolegend.com)
  • A series of investigations on ovarian neoplasms have improved our understanding of proinflammatory microenvironment including unfavorable cytokines, chemokines and imbalanced hormone production. (mdpi.com)
  • Clone REA232 recognizes CD183, a 38 kDa G protein-coupled chemokine receptor. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • 0.001), CXCL8 ( P = 0.027), CXCL9 ( P = 0.007), and CXCL10 ( P = 0.002) were significantly higher in patients who developed postoperative PVR after primary RRD than in patients with uncomplicated retinal detachment. (arvojournals.org)
  • Finally, the chemokines were significantly reduced following successful ATT. (nature.com)
  • There were significantly greater concentrations of the chemokines CCL3 and CCL11 in plasma of LE patients than in NI individuals. (ajtmh.org)
  • IL-6], CXCL8/IL-8, CXCL10/IP-10, CXCL9/MIG) or plex clinical scenarios in adults may have hindered case present at low levels (e.g. (cdc.gov)
  • The Multifaceted Roles of CXCL9 Within the Tumor Microenvironment. (nih.gov)
  • A complex chemokine-chemokine receptor interaction is involved with immune cell migration to tumor microenvironment ( 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Chemokines are involved in the inflammatory response, tumor immune response, proliferation, invasion and metastasis via modulation of various signaling pathways. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Taken together our results may suggest that CXCL9 and CXCL10 are master regulators of myocardial inflammatory cell migration, perhaps affecting clinical progression to the life-threatening form of CCC. (cdc.gov)
  • Binding of chemokines to this protein induces cellular responses that are involved in leukocyte traffic, most notably integrin activation, cytoskeletal changes and chemotactic migration. (fishersci.com)
  • At equimolar concentrations, SufA-generated MIG/CXCL9 fragments were not bactericidal against F. magna, but retained their ability to kill S. pyogenes. (diva-portal.org)
  • This active T-cell recruitment by TDB-induced chemokine signaling was the dominant mechanism and necessary for the therapeutic activity of anti-HER2/CD3 TDB. (aacrjournals.org)
  • An active T-cell recruitment mediated by TDB-induced chemokine signaling was the major mechanism for T-cell recruitment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Discovery of a mechanism for active T-cell recruitment via anti-HER2/CD3 TDB-induced chemokine signaling may aid in designing strategies to further augment T-cell recruitment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The upregulation of chemokines coincided with leukocyte influx into the CNS. (gla.ac.uk)

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