Chemokine CXCL12: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.Chemokine CXCL13: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CXCL10: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemokine CXCL6: A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CXCL11: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemokine CXCL1: A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.Chemokine CXCL9: An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemokines, CXC: Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.Receptors, Chemokine: Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Receptors, CXCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.Chemokine CXCL5: A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.Receptors, CXCR4: CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Receptors, CXCR3: CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Chemokine CCL5: A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.Receptors, CXCR5: CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.Receptors, Interleukin-8B: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.Chemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CXCL2: A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CCL21: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Chemokine CCL4: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Chemokine CCL22: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.Chemokine CCL3: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Chemokine CCL17: A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Receptors, Scavenger: A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.Chemokine CCL19: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CX3CL1: A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.Chemokines, CC: Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Heterocyclic Compounds: Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Mice, Inbred C57BLPlatelet Factor 4: A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.Chemokine CCL7: A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CCL20: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Chemokine CCL11: A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Chemokine CCL1: A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.Neutrophil Infiltration: The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Chemokine CCL27: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Receptors, CCR2: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.Receptors, CCR1: CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Receptors, CCR5: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.Chemokine CCL8: A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins: Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Receptors, CCR4: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.Receptors, Interleukin-8A: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.Mice, Inbred BALB CT-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Receptors, CCR3: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Receptors, CCR7: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Receptors, CCR10: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Receptors, CCR8: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Chemokine CCL24: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Receptors, Cytokine: Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Monocyte Chemoattractant Proteins: Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Receptors, CCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Chemokines, CX3C: Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.Chemotactic Factors: Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.Receptors, CCR6: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Monokines: Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Receptors, HIV: Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Duffy Blood-Group System: A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Cell Migration Inhibition: Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Chemotactic Factors, Eosinophil: Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Angiostatic Proteins: Proteins that specifically inhibit the growth of new blood vessels (ANGIOGENESIS, PHYSIOLOGIC).Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Transendothelial and Transepithelial Migration: The passage of cells across the layer of ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, i.e., the ENDOTHELIUM; or across the layer of EPITHELIAL CELLS, i.e. the EPITHELIUM.

Expression of specific chemokines and chemokine receptors in the central nervous system of multiple sclerosis patients. (1/340)

Chemokines direct tissue invasion by specific leukocyte populations. Thus, chemokines may play a role in multiple sclerosis (MS), an idiopathic disorder in which the central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory reaction is largely restricted to mononuclear phagocytes and T cells. We asked whether specific chemokines were expressed in the CNS during acute demyelinating events by analyzing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), whose composition reflects the CNS extracellular space. During MS attacks, we found elevated CSF levels of three chemokines that act toward T cells and mononuclear phagocytes: interferon-gamma-inducible protein of 10 kDa (IP-10); monokine induced by interferon-gamma (Mig); and regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES). We then investigated whether specific chemokine receptors were expressed by infiltrating cells in demyelinating MS brain lesions and in CSF. CXCR3, an IP-10/Mig receptor, was expressed on lymphocytic cells in virtually every perivascular inflammatory infiltrate in active MS lesions. CCR5, a RANTES receptor, was detected on lymphocytic cells, macrophages, and microglia in actively demyelinating MS brain lesions. Compared with circulating T cells, CSF T cells were significantly enriched for cells expressing CXCR3 or CCR5. Our results imply pathogenic roles for specific chemokine-chemokine receptor interactions in MS and suggest new molecular targets for therapeutic intervention.  (+info)

The T cell-specific CXC chemokines IP-10, Mig, and I-TAC are expressed by activated human bronchial epithelial cells. (2/340)

Recruitment of activated T cells to mucosal surfaces, such as the airway epithelium, is important in host defense and for the development of inflammatory diseases at these sites. We therefore asked whether the CXC chemokines IFN-induced protein of 10 kDa (IP-10), monokine induced by IFN-gamma (Mig), and IFN-inducible T-cell alpha-chemoattractant (I-TAC), which specifically chemoattract activated T cells by signaling through the chemokine receptor CXCR3, were inducible in respiratory epithelial cells. The effects of proinflammatory cytokines, including IFN-gamma (Th1-type cytokine), Th2-type cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13), and dexamethasone were studied in normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBEC) and in two human respiratory epithelial cell lines, A549 and BEAS-2B. We found that IFN-gamma, but not TNF-alpha or IL-1 beta, strongly induced IP-10, Mig, and I-TAC mRNA accumulation mainly in NHBEC and that TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta synergized with IFN-gamma induction in all three cell types. High levels of IP-10 protein (> 800 ng/ml) were detected in supernatants of IFN-gamma/TNF-alpha-stimulated NHBEC. Neither dexamethasone nor Th2 cytokines modulated IP-10, Mig, or I-TAC expression. Since IFN-gamma is up-regulated in tuberculosis (TB), using in situ hybridization we studied the expression of IP-10 in the airways of TB patients and found that IP-10 mRNA was expressed in the bronchial epithelium. In addition, IP-10-positive cells obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage were significantly increased in TB patients compared with normal controls. These results show that activated bronchial epithelium is an important source of IP-10, Mig, and I-TAC, which may, in pulmonary diseases such as TB (in which IFN-gamma is highly expressed) play an important role in the recruitment of activated T cells.  (+info)

Gene expression and production of the monokine induced by IFN-gamma (MIG), IFN-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC), and IFN-gamma-inducible protein-10 (IP-10) chemokines by human neutrophils. (3/340)

Monokine induced by IFN-gamma (MIG), IFN-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC), and IFN-gamma-inducible protein of 10 kDa (IP-10) are related members of the CXC chemokine subfamily that bind to a common receptor, CXCR3, and that are produced by different cell types in response to IFN-gamma. We have recently reported that human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) have the capacity to release IP-10. Herein, we show that PMN also have the ability to produce MIG and to express I-TAC mRNA in response to IFN-gamma in combination with either TNF-alpha or LPS. While IFN-gamma, alone or in association with agonists such as fMLP, IL-8, granulocyte (G)-CSF and granulocyte-macrophage (GM)-CSF, failed to influence MIG, IP-10, and I-TAC gene expression, IFN-alpha, in combination with TNF-alpha, LPS, or IL-1beta, resulted in a considerable induction of IP-10 release by neutrophils. Furthermore, IL-10 and IL-4 significantly suppressed the expression of MIG, IP-10, and I-TAC mRNA and the extracellular production of MIG and IP-10 in neutrophils stimulated with IFN-gamma plus either LPS or TNF-alpha. Finally, supernatants harvested from stimulated PMN induced migration and rapid integrin-dependent adhesion of CXCR3-expressing lymphocytes; these activities were significantly reduced by neutralizing anti-MIG and anti-IP-10 Abs, suggesting that they were mediated by MIG and IP-10 present in the supernatants. Since MIG, IP-10, and I-TAC are potent chemoattractants for NK cells and Th1 lymphocytes, the ability of neutrophils to produce these chemokines might contribute not only to the progression and evolution of the inflammatory response, but also to the regulation of the immune response.  (+info)

Interleukin-18, interferon-gamma, IP-10, and Mig expression in Epstein-Barr virus-induced infectious mononucleosis and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease. (4/340)

T cell immunodeficiency plays an important role in the pathogenesis of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) by permitting the unbridled expansion of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected B lymphocytes. However, factors other than T cell function may contribute to PTLD pathogenesis because PTLD infrequently develops even in the context of severe T cell immunodeficiency, and athymic mice that are T-cell-immunodeficient can reject EBV-immortalized cells. Here we report that PTLD tissues express significantly lower levels of IL-18, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), Mig, and RANTES compared to lymphoid tissues diagnosed with acute EBV-induced infectious mononucleosis, as assessed by semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis. Other cytokines and chemokines are expressed at similar levels. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that PTLD tissues contain less IL-18 and Mig protein than tissues with infectious mononucleosis. IL-18, primarily a monocyte product, promotes the secretion of IFN-gamma, which stimulates Mig and RANTES expression. Both IL-18 and Mig display antitumor activity in mice involving inhibition of angiogenesis. These results document greater expression of IL-18, IFN-gamma, Mig, and RANTES in lymphoid tissues with acute EBV-induced infectious mononucleosis compared to tissues with PTLD and raise the possibility that these mediators participate in critical host responses to EBV infection.  (+info)

Intradermal delivery of IL-12 naked DNA induces systemic NK cell activation and Th1 response in vivo that is independent of endogenous IL-12 production. (5/340)

In this study four murine IL-12 naked DNA expression plasmids (pIL-12), containing both the p35 and p40 subunits, were shown to induce systemic biological effects in vivo after intradermal injection. Three of the four IL-12 expression vectors augmented NK activity and induced expression of the IFN-gamma and IFN-gamma-inducible Mig genes. Both IL-12 p70 heterodimer and IFN-gamma proteins were documented in the serum within 24 h after intradermal injection of the pIL-12o- plasmid, which also induced the highest level of NK activity in the spleen and liver among the IL-12 constructs. Interestingly, both p40 mRNA expression at the injection site and serum protein levels followed a biphasic pattern of expression, with peaks on days 1 and 5. Subsequent studies revealed that the ability of intradermally injected pIL-12o- to augment NK lytic activity was prevented by administration of a neutralizing anti-IL-12 mAb. Finally, injection of the pIL-12o- into BALB/c IL-12 p40-/- mice also resulted in a biphasic pattern of IL-12 p70 appearance in the serum, and induced IFN-gamma protein and activated NK lytic activity in liver and spleen. These results demonstrate that injection of delivered naked DNA encoding the IL-12 gene mediates the biphasic systemic production of IL-12-inducible genes and augments the cytotoxic function of NK cells in lymphoid and parenchymal organs as a direct result of transgene expression. The results also suggest that these naked DNA plasmids may be useful adjuvants for vaccines against infectious and neoplastic diseases.  (+info)

SLC/exodus2/6Ckine/TCA4 induces chemotaxis of hematopoietic progenitor cells: differential activity of ligands of CCR7, CXCR3, or CXCR4 in chemotaxis vs. suppression of progenitor proliferation. (6/340)

Chemokines induce chemotaxis of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC), and suppress their proliferation. In this study we report that SLC/ Exodus2/6Ckine/TCA4 (hereafter termed SLC) is a chemoattractant for human CD34+ HPC. SLC mainly induces preferential chemotaxis of macrophage progenitors. We examined the chemotactic activity of CXCR3 ligands on CD34+ HPC because it has been reported that SLC is a potential ligand of CXC chemokine receptor, CXCR3, in addition to a CC chemokine receptor, CCR7. It was found that the CXCR3 ligands, MIG and interferon-gamma inducible protein-10 (IP-10), unlike SLC, did not induce chemotaxis of CD34+ HPC. In this regard, CCR7 ligands (SLC and CKbeta-11), but not IP-10 and MIG, induce actin polymerization in CD34+ cells. On the other hand, CCR7 ligands and CXCR3 ligands, but not the CXCR4 ligand SDF-1, showed inhibitory activity for proliferation of myeloid progenitor cells. Our results suggest that SLC is a potential trafficking factor for HPC, and that chemokines that bind CCR7, CXCR4, and CXCR3 have differential biological activities on HPC in terms of suppression and chemotaxis.  (+info)

The CXCR3 activating chemokines IP-10, Mig, and IP-9 are expressed in allergic but not in irritant patch test reactions. (7/340)

Differentiation between allergic and irritant contact dermatitis reactions is difficult, as both inflammatory diseases are clinically, histologically, and immunohistologically very similar. Previous studies in mice revealed that the chemokine IP-10 is exclusively expressed in allergic contact dermatitis reactions. In the present study, we investigated whether the mRNA expression of IP-10 and the related CXCR3 activating chemokines, Mig and IP-9 are also differentially expressed in human allergic contact dermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis reactions. Skin biopsies from allergic (13 cases) and sodium lauryl sulfate-induced irritant patch test reactions (13 cases), obtained 1-72 h after patch testing, were studied by means of an in situ hybridization technique. Results of chemokine mRNA expression were correlated with clinical scoring, histology, and immunohistochemical data including the proportion of inflammatory cells expressing CXCR3, the receptor for IP-10, Mig, and IP-9, and ICAM-1 and HLA-DR expression on keratinocytes. IP-10, Mig, and IP-9 mRNA were detected in seven of nine allergic contact dermatitis reactions after 24-72 h, but not in sodium lauryl sulfate-induced irritant contact dermatitis reactions. ICAM-1 expression by keratinocytes was only found in allergic contact dermatitis reactions and correlated with chemokine expression. Moreover, up to 50% of the infiltrating cells in allergic contact dermatitis expressed CXCR3, in contrast to only 20% in irritant contact dermatitis reactions. In conclusion, we have demonstrated differences in chemokine expression between allergic contact dermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis reactions, which might reflect different regulatory mechanisms operating in these diseases and may be an important clue for differentiation between allergic contact dermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis reactions.  (+info)

Differential expression of three T lymphocyte-activating CXC chemokines by human atheroma-associated cells. (8/340)

Activated T lymphocytes accumulate early in atheroma formation and persist at sites of lesion growth and rupture, suggesting that they may play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Moreover, atherosclerotic lesions contain the Th1-type cytokine IFN-gamma, a potentiator of atherosclerosis. The present study demonstrates the differential expression of the 3 IFN-gamma-inducible CXC chemokines--IFN-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), monokine induced by IFN-gamma (Mig), and IFN-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC)--by atheroma-associated cells, as well as the expression of their receptor, CXCR3, by all T lymphocytes within human atherosclerotic lesions in situ. Atheroma-associated endothelial cells (ECs), smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and macrophages (MO) all expressed IP-10, whereas Mig and I-TAC were mainly expressed in ECs and MO, as detected by double immunofluorescence staining. ECs of microvessels within lesions also expressed abundant I-TAC. In vitro experiments supported these results and showed that IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and CD40 ligand potentiated IP-10 expression from IFN-gamma-stimulated ECs. In addition, nitric oxide (NO) treatment decreased IFN-gamma induction of IP-10. Our findings suggest that the differential expression of IP-10, Mig, and I-TAC by atheroma-associated cells plays a role in the recruitment and retention of activated T lymphocytes observed within vascular wall lesions during atherogenesis.  (+info)

*CXCR3

... -A binds to the CXC chemokines CXCL9 (MIG), CXCL10 (IP-10), and CXCL11 (I-TAC) whereas CXCR3-B can also bind to CXCL4 in ... Chemokine receptor CXCR3 is a Gαi protein-coupled receptor in the CXC chemokine receptor family. Other names for CXCR3 are G ... Chemokine receptors Chemokine Cluster of differentiation GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000186810 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38 ... "Expression of specific chemokines and chemokine receptors in the central nervous system of multiple sclerosis patients". The ...

*Immunological constant of rejection

Chemokines such as CXCR3 and CCR5, ligand chemokines (CXCL9, CXCL10, and CCL5) and other chemokines (CX3CL1 and CCL2) Adhesion ...

*Immunoediting

... as well as promoting the production of chemokines CXCL10, CXCL9 and CXCL11. These chemokines play an important role in ... The recruitment of more immune cells also occurs and is mediated by the chemokines produced during the inflammatory process. In ...

*Chemokine

T-cell activation and activated T-cells are attracted to sites of inflammation where the IFN-y inducible chemokines CXCL9, ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines in that it has ... CCL1 for the ligand 1 of the CC-family of chemokines, and CCR1 for its respective receptor. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) ...

*Periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and adenitis

Flares are accompanied by increased serum levels of activated T lymphocyte chemokines (IP-10/CXCL10, MIG/CXCL9), G-CSF and ...

*CXC chemokine receptors

There are two isoforms, CXCR3-A and CXCR3-B. It has three highly related ligands in mammals, CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11. CXCR4 ( ... CXC chemokine receptors are integral membrane proteins that specifically bind and respond to cytokines of the CXC chemokine ... However, CXCR6 is more closely related in structure to CC chemokine receptors than to other CXC chemokine receptors. CXCR7 was ... within the chemokine receptor cluster on human chromosome 3p21) and its similarity to other chemokine receptors in its gene ...

*CXCL11

Its gene is located on human chromosome 4 along with many other members of the CXC chemokine family. CXCL9, -10, -11 have ... C-X-C motif chemokine 11 (CXCL11) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CXCL11 gene. C-X-C motif chemokine 11 is a ... This chemokine elicits its effects on its target cells by interacting with the cell surface chemokine receptor CXCR3, with a ... Luo Y, Kim R, Gabuzda D, Mi S, Collins-Racie LA, Lu Z, Jacobs KA, Dorf ME (December 1998). "The CXC-chemokine, H174: expression ...

*Index of immunology articles

CX3CR1 CXC chemokine receptors CXCL1 CXCL10 CXCL11 CXCL13 CXCL14 CXCL15 CXCL16 CXCL17 CXCL2 CXCL3 CXCL5 CXCL6 CXCL7 CXCL9 CXCR4 ... C-C chemokine receptor type 6 C-C chemokine receptor type 7 Calreticulin Cancer immunology Cancer immunoprevention Cancer ... CD4 CD4+ T cells and antitumor immunity CD74 CD94/NKG2 Cell-mediated immunity CELSR1 Central tolerance Chemokine Chemokine ... immunotherapy Cantuzumab ravtansine Cathelicidin CC chemokine receptors CCBP2 CCL1 CCL11 CCL12 CCL13 CCL14 CCL15 CCL16 CCL17 ...

*Chromosome 4 (human)

... scyb8 CXCL9: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9, scyb9 CXCL10: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10, scyb10 CXCL11: chemokine (C-X-C ... chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1, scyb1 CXCL2: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2, scyb2 CXCL3: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 3 ... chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 5, scyb5 CXCL6: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6, scyb6 CXCL7: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 7 ... scyb3 CXCL4: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 4, Platelet factor-4, PF-4, scyb4 CXCL5: ...

*CXCL10

C-X-C motif chemokine 10 is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family. The gene for CXCL10 is located on human ... CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 have proven to be valid biomarkers for the development of heart failure and left ventricular ... This chemokine elicits its effects by binding to the cell surface chemokine receptor CXCR3. The three-dimensional crystal ... C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10) also known as Interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10) or small-inducible cytokine B10 is ...

*CXCL9

Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 (CXCL9) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also known as ... This chemokine has also been associated as a biomarker for diagnosing Q fever infections. CXCL9 has been shown to interact with ... It is closely related to two other CXC chemokines called CXCL10 and CXCL11, whose genes are located near the gene for CXCL9 on ... Human CXCL9 genome location and CXCL9 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Farber JM (July 1990). "A macrophage mRNA ...
The anaerobic bacterium Finegoldia magna is part of the human commensal microbiota, but is also an important opportunistic pathogen. This bacterium expresses a subtilisin-like serine proteinase, SufA, which partially degrade the antibacterial chemokine MIG/CXCL9. Here, we show that MIG/CXCL9 is produced by human keratinocytes in response to inflammatory stimuli. In contrast to the virulent human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes, the presence of F. magna had no enhancing effect on the MIG/CXCL9 expression by keratinocytes, suggesting poor detection of the latter by pathogen-recognition receptors. When MIG/CXCL9 was exposed to SufA-expressing F. magna, the molecule was processed into several smaller fragments. Analysis by mass spectrometry showed that SufA cleaves MIG/CXCL9 at several sites in the COOH-terminal region of the molecule. At equimolar concentrations, SufA-generated MIG/CXCL9 fragments were not bactericidal against F. magna, but retained their ability to kill S. pyogenes. Moreover, the ...
Human C-X-C Motif Chemokine 9 / Monokine Induced by Gamma Interferon (CXCL9 / MIG) standard, for use in running standard curves in AlphaLISA no-wash detection assay
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Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Birgit Westernströer, Daniel Langenstroth, Sabine Kliesch, Britta Troppmann, Klaus Redmann, Joni Macdonald, Rod Mitchell, Joachim Wistuba, Stefan Schlatt, Nina Neuhaus].
Version Found: MIG 7 Series v1.7Version Resolved: See (Xilinx Answer 45195) New calibration updates are required for MIG 7 Series DDR3 designs due to potential calibration failures across process variation or continuous resets. This answer record details the calibration updates and includes links to patches for both MIG 7 Series v1.7 and v1.8 designs. Moving to v1.8 is recommended but not required as long as the v1.7 patch from this answer record is applied.
Background Ulcerative colitis is characterized by relapsing mucosal inflammation where the lesions include tissue-damaging granulocytes. In addition, T cells and natural killer (NK) cells play important pathophysiologic roles. Chemokines are a large family of peptides that play key roles in the regulation of inflammation. The CXC-chemokines, growth-related oncogene (GRO)-α/CXCL1 and interleukin (IL)-8/CXCL8, both recruit neutrophils and possess mitogenic properties, whereas the interferon-dependent CXC-chemokines monokine induced by gamma-interferon (MIG)/CXCL9, interferon-γ inducible protein of 10 kD/CXCL10, and IFN-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant/CXCL11 recruit and activate T cells and NK cells. Materials and methods The expression of CXC-chemokines was studied in eight controls and in 11 patients suffering from ulcerative colitis in the distal part of the colon, before and during topical treatment with corticosteroids. Perfusates (obtained before, after 7 days, and after 28 days of ...
Aortic and plasma expression levels of IL-18 and CXCL16.(A) Reduced aortic mRNA expression of IL-18 and CXCL16, but no change in the expression of IFN-γ is obs
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Human CXCL9 standard, lyophilized, for use in running standard curves in LANCE Ultra TR-FRET assays. This standard is already provided in the LANCE Ultra human CXCL9/MIG Detection Kit, but can be ordered separately.
human CXCL9 / MIG ELISA pair set and full ELISA kit. Detection range:15.63-1000 pg/mL . Save up to 60%. Bulk at deep discounts. High quality quaranteed.
References for Abcams Recombinant human CXCL5 protein (ab50039). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
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Chemokines mediate diverse fundamental biological processes, including combating infection. Multiple chemokines are expressed at the site of infection; thus chemokine synergy by heterodimer formation may play a role in determining function. Chemokine function involves interactions with G-protein-coupled receptors and sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAG). However, very little is known regarding heterodimer structural features and receptor and GAG interactions. Solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and molecular dynamics characterization of platelet-derived chemokine CXCL7 heterodimerization with chemokines CXCL1, CXCL4, and CXCL8 indicated that packing interactions promote CXCL7-CXCL1 and CXCL7-CXCL4 heterodimers, and electrostatic repulsive interactions disfavor the CXCL7-CXCL8 heterodimer. As characterizing the native heterodimer is challenging due to interference from monomers and homodimers, we engineered a
Complete information for CXCL9 gene (Protein Coding), C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 9, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Cxcl12 - Cxcl12 (untagged ORF) - Rat chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (stromal cell-derived factor 1) (Cxcl12), transcript variant 3, (10 ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
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CXCL2_HUMAN (P19875 ), CXCL2_MOUSE (P10889 ), CXCL2_RAT (P30348 ), CXCL3_HUMAN (P19876 ), CXCL3_MOUSE (Q6W5C0 ), CXCL3_RAT (Q10746 ), CXCL5_HUMAN (P42830 ), CXCL5_MOUSE (P50228 ), CXCL5_RAT (P97885 ), CXCL6_BOVIN (P80221 ), CXCL6_HORSE (Q8MIN2 ), CXCL6_HUMAN (P80162 ), CXCL7_HUMAN (P02775 ), CXCL7_PIG (P43030 ), CXCL9_BOVIN (A9QWP9 ), CXCL9_HUMAN (Q07325 ), CXCL9_MOUSE (P18340 ), CXL10_BOVIN (Q2KIQ8 ), CXL10_CANLF (Q5KSV9 ), CXL10_HUMAN (P02778 ), CXL10_MACMU (Q8MIZ1 ), CXL10_MACNE (Q865F5 ), CXL10_MOUSE (P17515 ), CXL10_RAT (P48973 ), CXL11_BOVIN (A9QWQ1 ), CXL11_HUMAN (O14625 ), CXL11_MOUSE (Q9JHH5 ), CXL13_HUMAN (O43927 ), CXL13_MOUSE (O55038 ), CXL15_MOUSE (Q9WVL7 ), GRO2_RABIT (P47854 ), GROA_BOVIN (O46676 ), GROA_CAVPO (O55235 ), GROA_CRIGR (P09340 ), GROA_HUMAN (P09341 ), GROA_MOUSE (P12850 ), GROA_RAT (P14095 ), GROA_SHEEP (O46678 ), GROB_BOVIN (O46677 ), GROG_BOVIN (O46675 ), IL8_BOVIN (P79255 ), IL8_CANLF (P41324 ), IL8_CAVPO (P49113 ), IL8_CERAT (P46653 ), IL8_CHICK (P08317 ), ...
|p|Recombinant Human I-TAC is a single non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 73 amino acids.|/p| |p|Background: I-TAC/CXCL11 cDNA encodes a 94 amino acid (aa) residue precursor protein with a 21 aa residue putative signal sequence, which is cleav
The LANCE® Ultra Human CXCL9/MIG Detection Kit is designed for detection and quantitation of human CXCL9/MIG in cell culture media using a homogeneous TR-FRET (no-wash steps, no separation steps) assay.
CXCL10 / IP10 antibody [15J7] (chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10) for Neut, WB. Anti-CXCL10 / IP10 mAb (GTX53293) is tested in Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
CXCL11 antibody [22F1] (chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11) for ELISA, WB. Anti-CXCL11 mAb (GTX54751) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
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Recombinant Human CXCL5 (ENA-78) (ELISA Std.) - CXCL5 is a member of the CXC family of chemokines, also known as epithelial activated peptide 78 (ENA-78).
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CXCL10 improves outcome by decreasing bacteremia in IFNAR−/− mice. (A) SEV129 wild-type mice (n = 10), IFNAR−/− mice (n = 11), or IFNAR−/− mice with
References for Abcams Recombinant Mouse CXCL5 protein (ab57029). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
OVERVIEW Long-term care is when a person requires assistance with his or her physical or emotional needs over an extended period of time. The need mig...
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IP-10 has been detected in the CSF and brain parenchyma of patients with a variety of neuroinflammatory diseases (15, 26, 43, 44) and is a potent chemoattractant for activated T lymphocytes and NK cells (11). In EAE, an animal model for MS, IP-10 levels in the CNS have been correlated with the development of clinical disease and the recruitment of CXCR3-expressing pathogenic T cells (19, 20, 45). Treatment of SJL mice with Abs to IP-10 before adoptive transfer of encephalitogenic T cells or immunizing mice with naked IP-10 DNA decreased the severity of EAE (29). Based on these observations, IP-10 is thought to be essential for the development of CNS mononuclear infiltrates, and its receptor CXCR3, is considered a putative therapeutic target for diseases involving the trafficking of inflammatory T cells. However, the absolute requirement for IP-10 in EAE has never been directly examined.. In this study, we sought to determine whether IP-10 is required for the development of EAE by analyzing ...
Les chimiokines sont des petites protéines secrétées dont la fonction principale est la stimulation de la migration de cellules immunitaires vers différents organes et tissus. Elles sont souvent impliquées lors des maladies inflammatoires, auto-immunes et des cancers. Ainsi, les chimiokines et leurs récepteurs couplés aux protéines G (RCPG) sont la cible pharmacologique de plusieurs molécules, actuellement testées en essais cliniques. Nous avons pris comme modèle, lors de notre étude, le récepteur atypique CXCR7. Ce récepteur est dit atypique, car il ne signalise pas via la voie classique des protéines G, mais plutôt via la voie de la β-arrestine. CXCR7 est impliqué dans de nombreux cancers, favorise la progression métastatique et est un co-récepteur pour le virus de limmunodéficience humaine (VIH). Cependant, aucune donnée sur son mode de liaison avec ses ligands CXCL11/ITAC et CXCL12/SDF-1 nexiste à date. Nous pensons que cette information est essentielle pour le ...
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Joachim Frank (Columbia University, New York, USA) is a pioneer of single particle reconstruction, which is the most used reconstruction method for 3DEM structures in EMDB and EM entries in PDB. And also, he is a develper of Spider, which is one of the most famous software in this field, and is used for some EM Navigor data (e.g. map projection/slice images ...
Human CXCL16 ELISA Kit is a sandwich ELISA kit for use with Serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates and other biological fluids. This assay has high sensitivity and excellent specificity for detection of CXCL16|br/|N
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Version Found: MIG 7 Series v2.3Version Resolved: See (Xilinx Answer 54025) For DDR3 designs, one MMCM is required for IDELAY reference clock generation. If memory frequency is | 667 MHz, then the IDELAY reference clock is either 300 MHz or 400 MHz and MIG instantiates extra MMCM. If I generate the core with the No Buffer option, should I drive a 200Mhz clock to clk_ref_i or can I supply 400Mhz and save one MMCM and some BUFGs?
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The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. CXCL8 ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. CXCL2 ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
小鼠CXCL5 ELISA试剂盒(GCP-2) ELISA试剂盒datasheet (ab100719).Abcam抗体、ELISA、激动剂拮抗剂、表观遗传试剂、蛋白多肽,使用效果保证,中国70%以上现货。
Look no further than Outland for your welding equipment. Fitting in nicely with some of the other Outland divisions, a diverse range of welding equipment and consumables are available. Our range includes welding machines, welding torches, tools, fitt
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Vi ska också få varmare väder efter att ha haft ett par dagar med isande kall vind. Men ännu inga spirande knoppar hos mig. Däremot såg jag ett rådjur som stod och åt i en av rabatterna idag. Jag hoppas det bara var nedfallna äpplen från prydnandsapeln som den åt. Dina camellior kommer nog att tycka om att flytta ut i växthuset. Dom älskar ju ljuset. Min ljusrosa har slagit ut idag så nu blommar alla fyra camelliorna hos mig ...
We found that, in our cohort, elevated CXCL12 levels were strongly associated with future ischemic stroke even after adjusting for traditional risk factors and the Framingham Stroke Risk Profile. CXCL12 may be an important biomarker for stroke risk stratification particularly in patients in whom traditional risk factors are equivocal and may identify individuals in whom more aggressive risk factor modification, diagnostic evaluation, or even intervention is warranted.. To date only 2 publications have reported data regarding CXCL12 levels in patients with stroke, but both studies measured CXCL12 levels during the acute stroke phase.12,13 In the first article, there was no significant difference in circulating CXCL12 levels between patients with stroke and normal control subjects.13 However, the investigators did find a significant correlation between CXCL12 levels and peak C-reactive protein levels. In the second study, investigators found an inverse relationship between plasma CXCL12 levels and ...
Lincoln POWER MIG 180 Dual MIG Welder K3018-1 Specification:. Product Name : POWER MIG® 180 Dual MIG Welder. Product Number : K3018-1. Input Power : 12/1/60 or 208/230/1/60. Rated Output : 120V:90A/19.5V/20% - 208V: 130A/17.6V/30% - 230V: 130A/20V/30%. Input Current : 20A. Output Range : 120V: 30-140 Amps DC - 230V: 30-180 Amps DC. Dimensions : (H x W x D) 14 in x 10.15 in x 18.16 in (357 mm x 258 mm x 472 mm). Cored Wire Size Range : .030-.045. Net Weight : 64.000 lbs. (29.030 kg.). Lincoln POWER MIG 180 Dual MIG Welder K3018-1 Features:. ...
Abnova Human CXCL1 Partial ORF (AAH11976, 36 a.a. - 107 a.a.) Recombinant Protein with GST-tag at N-terminal 10µg Life Sciences:Protein Biology:Proteins:Proteins A-Z:Proteins
... - Our premium products are the AF647®[1] labelled chemokines, which are unique to Almac. Click here for more info.
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C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10) also known as Interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10) or small-inducible cytokine B10 is an 8.7 kDa protein that in humans is encoded by the CXCL10 gene. C-X-C motif chemokine 10 is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family. The gene for CXCL10 is located on human chromosome 4 in a cluster among several other CXC chemokines. CXCL10 is secreted by several cell types in response to IFN-γ. These cell types include monocytes, endothelial cells and fibroblasts. CXCL10 has been attributed to several roles, such as chemoattraction for monocytes/macrophages, T cells, NK cells, and dendritic cells, promotion of T cell adhesion to endothelial cells, antitumor activity, and inhibition of bone marrow colony formation and angiogenesis. This chemokine elicits its effects by binding to the cell surface chemokine receptor CXCR3. The three-dimensional crystal structure of this chemokine has been determined under 3 different conditions to a resolution of up to ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
|p|Recombinant Rat CXCL12/SDF-1 beta is a single non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 72 amino acids.|/p| |p|Background: SDF-1 alpha and beta are stromal derived CXC chemokines, and signal through the CXCR4 receptor. SDF-1 alpha and beta chemoat
CXCL12/SDF-1 alpha ELISA Kits for quantification of target antigens. Browse our CXCL12/SDF-1 alpha ELISA Kits backed by our 100% Guarantee.
This is a basic guide on how to weld using a metal inert gas (MIG) welder. MIG welding is the awesome process of using electricity to melt and join pieces of metal...
Expression of CXCL2 (CINC-2a, GRO2, GROb, MGSA-b, MIP-2a, SCYB2) in lung tissue. Antibody staining with in immunohistochemistry.
Expression of CXCL2 (CINC-2a, GRO2, GROb, MGSA-b, MIP-2a, SCYB2) in stomach 1 tissue. Antibody staining with in immunohistochemistry.
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Want more amazing articles related to chemokines? Please subscribe below well notify you when we publish new articles related to chemokines ...
But TIGER WAS BEST OF THE BEST.. SHERMAN WASNT EVEN GOOD, just like with the T-34 there was just so damn much of them.. allthough T-34 was good also.. especially during 1941-1943.. after that German regained the advantage.. (technological one..) and held it until the end.. Only the Sherman firefly had some "right stuff" the 17 pounder gun ...
Hey, European players, psst! I know its the crack of dawn and to make things even worse its patch day! Pretty miserable, huh? Well, I have something that mig...
Chemokine receptor CXCR3 is a Gαi protein-coupled receptor in the CXC chemokine receptor family. Other names for CXCR3 are G protein-coupled receptor 9 (GPR9) and CD183. There are three isoforms of CXCR3 in humans: CXCR3-A, CXCR3-B and chemokine receptor 3-alternative (CXCR3-alt). CXCR3-A binds to the CXC chemokines CXCL9 (MIG), CXCL10 (IP-10), and CXCL11 (I-TAC) whereas CXCR3-B can also bind to CXCL4 in addition to CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11. CXCR3 is expressed primarily on activated T lymphocytes and NK cells, and some epithelial cells. CXCR3 and CCR5 are preferentially expressed on Th1 cells, whereas Th2 cells favor the expression of CCR3 and CCR4. CXCR3 ligands that attract Th1 cells can concomitantly block the migration of Th2 cells in response to CCR3 ligands, thus enhancing the polarization of effector T cell recruitment. Binding of CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 to CXCR3 is able to elicit increases in intracellular Ca2++ levels and activate phosphoinositide 3-kinase and mitogen-activated ...
Loss-of-function mutations in genes encoding TET DNA dioxygenase occur frequently in hematopoietic malignancy, but rarely in solid tumors which instead commonly have reduced activity. The impact of decreased TET activity in solid tumors is not known. Here we show that TET2 mediates interferon γ (IFNγ)-JAK-STAT signaling pathway to control chemokine and PD-L1 expression, lymphocyte infiltration and cancer immunity. IFNγ stimulated STAT1 to bind TET2 and recruit TET2 to hydroxymethylate chemokine and PD-L1 genes. Reduced TET activity was associated with decreased TH1-type chemokines and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and the progression of human colon cancer. Deletion of Tet2 in murine melanoma and colon tumor cells reduced chemokine expression and TILs, enabling tumors to evade anti-tumor immunity and to resist anti-PD-L1 therapy. Conversely, stimulating TET activity by systematic injection of its co-factor, ascorbate/vitamin C, increased chemokine and TILs, leading to enhanced ...
Carcinoma, Thyroid, Thyroid Carcinoma, Tumors, Association, Tumor, Discrimination, Patients, Cancer, Metastasis, Mutation, Phenotype, Staining, Human, Ptc, Cxc Chemokine Receptor, Cxc Chemokine Receptor 4, Galectin, Galectin-3, Behavior
The few download hydroxide exists a multifaceted chemistry of the generation that a | coverage inhibits counted digital. Go more download mig 25foxbat mig 31 foxhound. russias defensive on the useful processing future and how the cybersecurity is related. Water Dynamics from the Surface to the Interior of a Supramolecular NanostructureJulia H. Barbara, California 93106, United StatesJ.
Business Standard News: Check out MIG Media Neurons Financial Results, Quarterly Results (Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4) & Yearly Results & more financial news from Business Standard | Page 1

SufA of the opportunistic pathogen finegoldia magna modulates actions of the antibacterial chemokine MIG/CXCL9, promoting...SufA of the opportunistic pathogen finegoldia magna modulates actions of the antibacterial chemokine MIG/CXCL9, promoting...

... which partially degrade the antibacterial chemokine MIG/CXCL9. Here, we show that MIG/CXCL9 is produced by human keratinocytes ... SufA of the opportunistic pathogen finegoldia magna modulates actions of the antibacterial chemokine MIG/CXCL9, promoting ... When MIG/CXCL9 was exposed to SufA-expressing F. magna, the molecule was processed into several smaller fragments. Analysis by ... Soluble FAF was found to bind and inactivate the antibacterial activity of MIG/CXCL9, thereby further potentially promoting the ...
more infohttp://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:288971

The proinflammatory CXC-chemokines GRO-α/CXCL1 and MIG/CXCL9 are concomitantly expressed in ulcerative colitis and decrease...The proinflammatory CXC-chemokines GRO-α/CXCL1 and MIG/CXCL9 are concomitantly expressed in ulcerative colitis and decrease...

The proinflammatory CXC-chemokines GRO-α/CXCL1 and MIG/CXCL9 are concomitantly expressed in ulcerative colitis and decrease ... Ulcerative colitis, GRO-α/CXCL1, MIG/CXCL9, Chemokines, Corticosteroids National Category Medical and Health Sciences ... Chemokines are a large family of peptides that play key roles in the regulation of inflammation. The CXC-chemokines, growth- ... whereas the interferon-dependent CXC-chemokines monokine induced by gamma-interferon (MIG)/CXCL9, interferon-γ inducible ...
more infohttp://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:45287

The chemokine CXCL9 exacerbates chemotherapy-induced acute intestinal damage through inhibition of mucosal restitution. | Sigma...The chemokine CXCL9 exacerbates chemotherapy-induced acute intestinal damage through inhibition of mucosal restitution. | Sigma...

The chemokine CXCL9 exacerbates chemotherapy-induced acute intestinal damage through inhibition of mucosal restitution.. [Huili ... The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chemokine CXCL9 on the intestinal damage after chemotherapy and explore ... CXCL9/CXCR3 interaction can exacerbate chemotherapeutic agent-induced intestinal damage, and anti-CXCL9 agents are potential ... Therapeutic treatment with anti-CXCL9 antibodies was investigated to confirm the hypothesis that CXCL9 can contribute to the ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/25398650

CXCL9 C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 9 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBICXCL9 C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 9 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI

CXCL9 C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 9 [Homo sapiens] CXCL9 C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 9 [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID:4283 ... CXCL9provided by HGNC. Official Full Name. C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 9provided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:7098 See ... CXCL9 C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 9 [ Homo sapiens (human) ] Gene ID: 4283, updated on 13-Mar-2020 ... HIV-1 and the viral protein Tat modulate the expression of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 (CXCL9; HuMIG) in immature ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/4283

Rat C-X-C motif chemokine 9 (CXCL9) ELISA KitRat C-X-C motif chemokine 9 (CXCL9) ELISA Kit

You need info about Rat C-X-C motif chemokine 9 (CXCL9) ELISA Kit or any other Gentaur produtct? Contact us on Live Chat Our ... Rat (Rattus norvegicus) CXCL9 elisa. Shipping, handling and storage. The kit is shipped on ice packs. Upon receiving it store ... Detects Rat (Rattus norvegicus) CXCL9; Additional information. ...
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Human chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 (CXCL9) ELISA kitHuman chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 (CXCL9) ELISA kit

You need info about Human chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 (CXCL9) ELISA kit or any other Gentaur produtct? Contact us on Live ... Human (Homo sapiens) CXCL9 elisa. Shipping, handling and storage. The kit is shipped on ice packs. Upon receiving it store the ... Detects Human (Homo sapiens) CXCL9; Additional information. ...
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Frontiers | Placental Growth Factor Contributes to Liver Inflammation, Angiogenesis, Fibrosis in Mice by Promoting Hepatic...Frontiers | Placental Growth Factor Contributes to Liver Inflammation, Angiogenesis, Fibrosis in Mice by Promoting Hepatic...

... siRNA inhibited macrophages activation and substantially suppressed the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines ... Chemokine Cxcl9 attenuates liver fibrosis-associated angiogenesis in mice. Hepatology (2012) 55(5):1610-9. doi:10.1002/hep. ... Pharmacological inhibition of the chemokine C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (monocyte chemoattractant protein 1) accelerates liver ... and chemokines, such as CC-chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2, also MCP-1), CCL5 (RANTES), and CXCL10 (2-8). In addition, HSCs may ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2017.00801/full

A) shows the percentage of MIG+ cells within the CD14+ | Open-iA) shows the percentage of MIG+ cells within the CD14+ | Open-i

Monokine induced by gamma (MIG), or CXCL9, is a chemokine induced by IFN-gamma and has the potential to provide amplification ... Monokine induced by gamma (MIG), or CXCL9, is a chemokine induced by IFN-gamma and has the potential to provide amplification ... MIG (CXCL9) is a more sensitive measure than IFN-gamma of vaccine induced T-cell responses in volunteers receiving investigated ... MIG (CXCL9) is a more sensitive measure than IFN-gamma of vaccine induced T-cell responses in volunteers receiving investigated ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC2648876_gr5&req=4

Gene expression profiling of human hepatocytes grown on differing substrate stiffness | SpringerLinkGene expression profiling of human hepatocytes grown on differing substrate stiffness | SpringerLink

Sahin H et al (2012) Chemokine Cxcl9 attenuates liver fibrosis-associated angiogenesis in mice. Hepatology (Baltimore Md) 55: ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10529-018-2536-1

Frontiers | CCL3 Enhances Antitumor Immune Priming in the Lymph Node via IFNγ with Dependency on Natural Killer Cells |...Frontiers | CCL3 Enhances Antitumor Immune Priming in the Lymph Node via IFNγ with Dependency on Natural Killer Cells |...

NK Cells, but Not CD103+ CD11c+ DCs Are Important for Driving the Production of IFNγ-Induced Chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10 in the ... The chemokines CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 differentially stimulate G alpha(i)-independent signaling and actin responses in human ... Chemokine programming dendritic cell antigen response: part I - select chemokine programming of antigen uptake even after ... we measured a significant increase in the production of CXCL9 and CXCL10 in L3TU TDLN. However, the production of CXCL9 and ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2017.01390/full

High STAT1 mRNA levels but not its tyrosine phosphorylation are associated with macrophage infiltration and bad prognosis in...High STAT1 mRNA levels but not its tyrosine phosphorylation are associated with macrophage infiltration and bad prognosis in...

Expression of STAT1, its target genes SOCS1, IRF1, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, IFIT1, IFITM1, MX1 and genes characteristic for ... and the chemokines CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 involved in the recruitment of immune cells, in particular T cells, are encoded by ... chemokines CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL10; subgroup c, immune cell markers IFN-γ, CD45, FOXP3, subgroup d, macrophage marker proteins ... Expression of STAT1, its target genes SOCS1, IRF1, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, IFIT1, IFITM1, MX1 and genes characteristic for ...
more infohttps://bmccancer.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2407-14-257

Kompetenznetz HepatitisKompetenznetz Hepatitis

Identification of the chemokine CXCL9 (MIG) as a genetic modifier of liver fibrosis in patients with hepatitis C.. Z. ... The chemokine CXCL9 (MIG) is associated with liver fibrogenesis in mice and humans.. J Hepatol: 44:Suppl. 2; S47, 2006. ... The chemokine CXCL9 (MIG) is a genetic modifier of liver fibrogenesis in chronic hepatitis C.. Hepatology: 44: 568A, 2006. ... CXCL9 and its receptor CXCR3 are a chemokine-based antifibrotic pathway in the liver. J Clin Invest, 2008. ...
more infohttps://www.kompetenznetz-hepatitis.de/kompetenznetz-hepatitis/

Science Clips - Volume 9, Issue 47, November 28, 2017Science Clips - Volume 9, Issue 47, November 28, 2017

Here, we establish the capacity of the human CXC chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10 to kill multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria ... To this end, we demonstrate that the chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10 kill the most concerning carbapenem- and colistin-resistant ... CXC chemokines exhibit bactericidal activity against multidrug-resistant gram-negative pathogensExternal. Crawford MA, Fisher ... Cumulatively, these findings provide mechanistic insight into chemokine-mediated antimicrobial activity, highlight disparities ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/library/sciclips/issues/v9issue47.html

Concerted down-regulation of immune-system related genes predicts metastasis in colorectal carcinoma | BMC Cancer | Full TextConcerted down-regulation of immune-system related genes predicts metastasis in colorectal carcinoma | BMC Cancer | Full Text

Reduced expression of CXCL9 and CXCL11 might impede activation of T cells. CXCL9 and CXCL11 (Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligands 9 ... Chemokines CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 are closely related. All three genes are located on human chromosome 4 and they all elicit ... CXCL9 and CXCL11 - as well as IDO1 - are part of a published prognostic signature that predicts metastasis in CRC [46]. Using ... Leung SY, Yuen ST, Chu KM, Mathy JA, Li R, Chan AS, Law S, Wong J, Chen X, So S: Expression profiling identifies chemokine (C-C ...
more infohttps://bmccancer.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2407-14-64

Plus itPlus it

3E). The resulting APCs also produced the T-cell-attracting chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10 (Fig. 3F). Replacing IFNγ by the ... F, As in E for the 5 healthy donors showing the production of CXCL9 and CXCL10 (in pg/mL; mean ± SEM) by these myeloid cells. ... cytokine/chemokine production) upon LPS or agonistic CD40 antibody stimulation in the presence or absence of INFγ as described ...
more infohttp://clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/24/3/634

Table of Contents - October 15, 2005, 175 (8) | The Journal of ImmunologyTable of Contents - October 15, 2005, 175 (8) | The Journal of Immunology

The Chemokines CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 Differentially Stimulate Gαi-Independent Signaling and Actin Responses in Human ... Role of CXC Chemokine Ligand 13, CC Chemokine Ligand (CCL) 19, and CCL21 in the Organization and Function of Nasal-Associated ... The Eotaxin Chemokines and CCR3 Are Fundamental Regulators of Allergen-Induced Pulmonary Eosinophilia Samuel M. Pope, Nives ... IL-4 Regulates MEK Expression Required for Lysophosphatidic Acid-Mediated Chemokine Generation by Human Mast Cells Debby A. Lin ...
more infohttps://www.jimmunol.org/content/175/8

Plasticity of Macrophage Function during Tumor Progression: Regulation by Distinct Molecular Mechanisms | The Journal of...Plasticity of Macrophage Function during Tumor Progression: Regulation by Distinct Molecular Mechanisms | The Journal of...

Interestingly, the antiangiogenic chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10 (52) are also downstream target genes for the TRIF/TBK1/IRF3 ... also express proinflammatory Th1 chemokines like CCL5, CXCL9, and CXCL10 (9). Similarly in humans, monocytes from advanced ... The chemokine system in diverse forms of macrophage activation and polarization. Trends Immunol. 25: 677-686. ... Apoptotic cells inhibit LPS-induced cytokine and chemokine production and IFN responses in macrophages. Hum. Immunol. 68: 156- ...
more infohttps://www.jimmunol.org/content/180/4/2011?ijkey=6357090e15f364054342824c2c98f1a3d9583683&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Genetic Polymorphisms Associated With Liver Disease Progression in HIV/HCV-Coinfected Patients - PubMedGenetic Polymorphisms Associated With Liver Disease Progression in HIV/HCV-Coinfected Patients - PubMed

Single nucleotide polymorphisms of CXCL9-11 chemokines are associated with liver fibrosis in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. ... These genes are involved in different biological processes, including seven that correspond to cytokine genes (IFNL3-4, CXCL9- ...
more infohttps://phgkb.cdc.gov/PHGKB/phgHome.action?action=forward&dbsource=amd&id=12088

Raghavan Pillai Raju - Scholarly Output
     - Augusta University Research ProfilesRaghavan Pillai Raju - Scholarly Output - Augusta University Research Profiles

Expression of IFN-γ-inducible chemokines in inclusion body myositis. Raju, R., Vasconcelos, O., Granger, R. & Dalakas, M. C., ... Alloimmune induction of endothelial cell-derived interferon-γ-inducible chemokines. Raju, R., Malloy, A., Shah, T., Smith, R., ...
more infohttps://augusta.pure.elsevier.com/en/persons/raghavan-pillai-raju/publications/?type=%2Fdk%2Fatira%2Fpure%2Fresearchoutput%2Fresearchoutputtypes%2Fcontributiontojournal%2Farticle

Find Research Outputs
             - Kyushu UniversityFind Research Outputs - Kyushu University

Chemokine levels predict progressive liver disease in Down syndrome patients with transient abnormal myelopoiesis. Kinjo, T., ...
more infohttps://kyushu-u.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/?format=&page=10

Highly potent mRNA based cancer vaccines represent an attractive platform for combination therapies supporting an improved...Highly potent mRNA based cancer vaccines represent an attractive platform for combination therapies supporting an improved...

... an important role of chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10 as prognostic markers. The fact that, after vaccination with the two-component ... CXCL9 (MIG). Presence of CXCL9 and CXCL10 correlates with increased numbers of tumor-infiltrating T cells and prolonged disease ... produce large amounts of chemokines and cytokines such as IFNγ, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL)-15, thus modifying ...
more infohttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jgm.2605/full

Gene Expression Literature Summary - MGIGene Expression Literature Summary - MGI

Cxcl9 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9. MGI:1352449 4 matching records from 4 references.. Summary by Age and Assay: Numbers in ... Cxcl9 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 (Synonyms: CMK, crg-10, Mig, Scyb9) ... Identification of ectodysplasin target genes reveals the involvement of chemokines in hair development. J Invest Dermatol. 2012 ...
more infohttp://www.informatics.jax.org/gxdlit/marker/MGI:1352449
  • Monokine induced by gamma (MIG), or CXCL9, is a chemokine induced by IFN-gamma and has the potential to provide amplification of the IFN-gamma signal. (nih.gov)
  • J:185240 Lefebvre S, Fliniaux I, Schneider P, Mikkola ML, Identification of ectodysplasin target genes reveals the involvement of chemokines in hair development. (jax.org)
  • CXCL9-10-11 have been recognized to be valid biomarkers for the development of heart failure and left ventricular dysfunction in two pilot studies, suggesting an underlining correlation between levels of the interferon (IFN)-γ-inducible chemokines and the development of adverse cardiac remodeling. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chemokine CXCL9 exacerbates chemotherapy-induced acute intestinal damage through inhibition of mucosal restitution. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Multiple pathway analysis was carried out to explore the pathway that mediated the effect of CXCL9, and the corresponding downstream effector was identified with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • CXCL9 inhibited the proliferation of MCF10A cells by activating phosphorylation of p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K), which further promotes the secretion of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) as the downstream effector. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Neutralizing elevated CXCL9 with anti-CXCR9 antibodies successfully enhanced reconstitution of intestinal mucosa and improved the survival rate of mice that received high-dose chemotherapy. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Soluble FAF was found to bind and inactivate the antibacterial activity of MIG/CXCL9, thereby further potentially promoting the survival of F. magna. (diva-portal.org)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chemokine CXCL9 on the intestinal damage after chemotherapy and explore the therapeutic potential of anti-CXCL9 agents. (sigmaaldrich.com)