A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.
An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.
Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.
A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.
CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.
A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.
Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.
The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.
CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.
Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Proteins that specifically inhibit the growth of new blood vessels (ANGIOGENESIS, PHYSIOLOGIC).
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
The passage of cells across the layer of ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, i.e., the ENDOTHELIUM; or across the layer of EPITHELIAL CELLS, i.e. the EPITHELIUM.

Isolation of the CXC chemokines ENA-78, GRO alpha and GRO gamma from tumor cells and leukocytes reveals NH2-terminal heterogeneity. Functional comparison of different natural isoforms. (1/90)

Chemokines are a family of chemotactic peptides affecting leukocyte migration during the inflammatory response. Post-translational modification of chemokines has been shown to affect their biological potency. Here, the isolation and identification of natural isoforms of the neutrophil chemoattractants GRO alpha and GRO gamma and the epithelial-cell-derived neutrophil attractant-78 (ENA-78), is reported. Cultured tumor cells produced predominantly intact chemokine forms, whereas peripheral blood monocytes secreted mainly NH2-terminally truncated forms. The order of neutrophil chemotactic potency of these CXC chemokines was GRO alpha > GRO gamma > ENA-78 both for intact and truncated forms. However, truncated GRO alpha (4,5,6-73), GRO gamma (5-73) and ENA-78(8,9-78) were 30-fold, fivefold and threefold more active than the corresponding intact chemokine. As a consequence, truncated GRO alpha (4,5,6-73) was 300-fold more potent than intact ENA-78 indicating that both the type of chemokine and its mode of processing determine the chemotactic potency. Similar observations were made when intact and truncated GRO alpha, GRO gamma and ENA-78 were compared for their capacity to induce an increase in the intracellular calcium concentration in neutrophilic granulocytes, and to desensitize the calcium response towards the CXC chemokine granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 (GCP-2). It must be concluded that physiological proteolytic cleavage of CXC chemokines in general enhances the inflammatory response, whereas for CC chemokines NH2-terminal processing mostly results in reduced chemotactic potency.  (+info)

NH2- and COOH-terminal truncations of murine granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 augment the in vitro and in vivo neutrophil chemotactic potency. (2/90)

Chemokines are important mediators of leukocyte migration during the inflammatory response. Post-translational modifications affect the biological potency of chemokines. In addition to previously identified NH2-terminally truncated forms, COOH-terminally truncated forms of the CXC chemokine murine granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 (GCP-2) were purified from conditioned medium of stimulated fibroblasts. The truncations generated 28 natural murine GCP-2 isoforms containing 69-92 residues, including most intermediate forms. Both NH2- and COOH-terminal truncations of GCP-2 resulted in enhanced chemotactic potency for human and murine neutrophils in vitro. The truncated isoform GCP-2(9-78) was 30-fold more potent than intact GCP-2(1-92)/LPS-induced CXC chemokine (LIX) at inducing an intracellular calcium increase in human neutrophils. After intradermal injection in mice, GCP-2(9-78) was also more effective than GCP-2(1-92)/LIX at inducing neutrophil infiltration. Similar to human IL-8 and GCP-2, murine GCP-2(9-78) and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) induced calcium increases in both CXCR1 and CXCR2 transfectants. Murine GCP-2(9-78) could desensitize the calcium response induced by MIP-2 in human neutrophils and vice versa. Furthermore, MIP-2 and truncated GCP-2(9-78), but not intact GCP-2(1-92)/LIX, partially desensitized the calcium response to human IL-8 in human neutrophils. Taken together, these findings point to an important role of post-translationally modified GCP-2 to replace IL-8 in the mouse.  (+info)

GCP-2-induced internalization of IL-8 receptors: hierarchical relationships between GCP-2 and other ELR(+)-CXC chemokines and mechanisms regulating CXCR2 internalization and recycling. (3/90)

The chemotactic potencies of ELR(+)-CXC chemokines during acute inflammation are regulated by their binding affinities and by their ability to activate, desensitize, and internalize their specific receptors, CXCR1 and CXCR2. To gain insight into the fine mechanisms that control acute inflammatory processes, we have focused in this study on the highly potent ELR(+)-CXC chemokine Granulocyte Chemotactic Protein 2 (GCP-2), and on its ability to control the cell surface expression of CXCR1 and CXCR2. Although GCP-2 has been considered an effective ligand for both CXCR1 and CXCR2, our findings demonstrated that it was a potent inducer of CXCR2 internalization only. A functional hierarchy was shown to exist between GCP-2 and 2 other ELR(+)-CXC chemokines, IL-8 and NAP-2, in their abilities to induce CXCR1 and CXCR2 internalization, according to the following: IL-8 > GCP-2 > NAP-2. By the use of pertussis toxin (PTx), it was demonstrated that the actual events of G(alphai)-coupling to CXCR2 do not have a major role in the regulation of its internalization. Rather, CXCR2 internalization was shown to be negatively controlled by induction of signaling events, as indicated by the promotion of CXCR2 internalization following exposure to wortmannin, a potent inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3 kinases and PI4 kinases. Furthermore, our results suggest that rab11(+)-endosomes participate in the trafficking of CXCR2 through the endocytic pathway, to eventually allow its recycling back to the plasma membrane. To conclude, our findings shed light on the interrelationships between GCP-2 and other ELR(+)-CXC chemokines, and determine the mechanisms involved in the regulation of GCP-2-induced internalization and recycling of CXCR2. (Blood. 2000;95:1551-1559)  (+info)

Identification of a blood-derived chemoattractant for neutrophils and lymphocytes as a novel CC chemokine, Regakine-1. (4/90)

Chemokines constitute a large family of chemotactic cytokines that selectively attract different blood cell types. Although most inflammatory chemoattractants are only induced and released in the circulation during acute infection, a restricted number of CXC and CC chemokines are constitutively present in normal plasma at high concentrations. Here, such a chemotactic protein was purified to homogeneity from serum and fully identified as a novel CC chemokine by mass spectrometry and amino acid sequence analysis. The protein, tentatively designated Regakine-1, shows less than 50% sequence identity with any known chemokine. This novel CC chemokine chemoattracts both neutrophils and lymphocytes but not monocytes or eosinophils. Its modest chemotactic potency but high blood concentration is similar to that of other chemokines present in the circulation, such as hemofiltrate CC chemokine-1, platelet factor-4, and beta-thromboglobulin. Regakine-1 did not induce neutrophil chemokinesis. However, it synergized with the CXC chemokines interleukin-8 and granulocyte chemotactic protein-2, and the CC chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein-3, resulting in an at least a 2-fold increase of the neutrophil and lymphocyte chemotactic response, respectively. The biologic effects of homogeneous natural Regakine-1 were confirmed with chemically synthesized chemokine. Like other plasma chemokines, it is expected that Regakine-1 plays a unique role in the circulation during normal or pathologic conditions.  (+info)

Tumor angiogenesis induced by granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 as a countercurrent principle. (5/90)

Chemokine production by tumors is a well-known phenomenon, but its role in tumor biology remains debatable. Although intratumoral injection of granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 (GCP-2) had no effect on tumor parameters, needle-free stable expression of the chemokine resulted in enhanced tumor growth. It is shown here that tumors that express a potent form of GCP-2 induce a strong influx and activation of tumor-associated neutrophils. The production of GCP-2 leads to intratumoral expression of gelatinase B and advantage for tumor growth by increased angiogenesis. These results are in line with the countercurrent principle of chemokine action and support the notion that paraneoplastic expression of ELR-positive CXC chemokines has to be blocked rather than stimulated in cancer therapy.  (+info)

Differential regulation of ENA-78 and GCP-2 gene expression in human corneal keratocytes and epithelial cells. (6/90)

PURPOSE: To determine whether interleukin (IL)-1alpha- and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-stimulated human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) and human corneal keratocytes (HCKs) produce the alpha-chemokines epithelial cell-derived neutrophil attractant (ENA)-78 and granulocyte chemotactic protein (GCP)-2. METHODS: Cultures of HCECs and HCKs were stimulated with either human recombinant IL-1alpha or TNF-alpha. At selected times after stimulation, culture supernatants were harvested and assayed for ENA-78 and GCP-2 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RNA was extracted from cell cultures to measure steady state levels of intracellular ENA-78 and GCP-2 pre-mRNA and mRNA by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Exposure of HCECs to either IL-1alpha or TNF-alpha stimulated a more than 4.5-fold increase in ENA-78 RNA and protein synthesis without stimulating a significant increase in either GCP-2 RNA synthesis or protein production. Exposure of HCK to IL-1alpha stimulated a 10-fold increase in ENA-78 and GCP-2 RNA synthesis and a more than 300-fold increase in ENA-78 and GCP-2 protein production. In contrast, exposure of keratocytes to TNF-alpha significantly enhanced ENA-78 RNA synthesis, resulting in a more than 68-fold increase in ENA-78 protein synthesis without significantly enhancing either GCP-2 gene expression or protein secretion. CONCLUSIONS: ENA-78 gene expression is significantly enhanced in both HCECs and HCKs in response to either IL-1alpha or TNF-alpha stimulation. In contrast, GCP-2 synthesis is only inducible in IL-1alpha-stimulated HCKs. The results suggest that GCP-2 gene expression is more tightly regulated in diseased or injured corneal tissue than is ENA-78 gene expression.  (+info)

Cutting edge: SR-PSOX/CXC chemokine ligand 16 mediates bacterial phagocytosis by APCs through its chemokine domain. (7/90)

SR-PSOX and CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL)16, which were originally identified as a scavenger receptor and a transmembrane-type chemokine, respectively, are indicated to be identical. In this study, we demonstrate that membrane-bound SR-PSOX/CXCL16 mediates adhesion and phagocytosis of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Importantly, our prepared anti-SR-PSOX mAb, which suppressed chemotactic activity of SR-PSOX, significantly inhibited bacterial phagocytosis by human APCs including dendritic cells. Various scavenger receptor ligands inhibited the bacterial phagocytosis of SR-PSOX. In addition, the recognition specificity for bacteria was determined by only the chemokine domain of SR-PSOX/CXCL16. Thus, SR-PSOX/CXCL16 may play an important role in facilitating uptake of various pathogens and chemotaxis of T and NKT cells by APCs through its chemokine domain.  (+info)

GCP II (NAALADase) inhibition suppresses mossy fiber-CA3 synaptic neurotransmission by a presynaptic mechanism. (8/90)

We tested the hypothesis that endogenous N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) presynaptically inhibits glutamate release at mossy fiber-CA3 synapses. For this purpose, we made use of 2-(3-mercaptopropyl)pentanedioic acid (2-MPPA), an inhibitor of glutamate carboxypeptidase II [GCP II; also known as N-acetylated alpha-linked acidic dipeptidase (NAALADase)], the enzyme that hydrolyzes NAAG into N-acetylaspartate and glutamate. Application of 2-MPPA (1-20 microM) had no effect on intrinsic membrane properties of CA3 pyramidal neurons recorded in vitro in whole cell current- or voltage-clamp mode. Bath application of 10 microM 2-MPPA suppressed evoked excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) amplitudes. Attenuation of EPSC amplitudes was accompanied by a significant increase in paired-pulse facilitation (50-ms interpulse intervals), suggesting that a presynaptic mechanism is involved. The group II metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) antagonist 2S-2-amino-2-(1S,2S-2-carboxycyclopropyl-1-yl)-3-(xanth-9-y l) propanoic acid (LY341495) prevented the 2-MPPA-dependent suppression of EPSC amplitudes. 2-MPPA reduced the frequencies of TTX-insensitive miniature EPSCs (mEPSC), without affecting their amplitudes, further supporting a presynaptic action for GCP II inhibition. 2-MPPA-induced reduction of mEPSC frequencies was prevented by LY341495, reinforcing the role of presynaptic group II mGluR. Because GCP II inhibition is thought to increase NAAG levels, these results suggest that NAAG suppresses synaptic transmission at mossy fiber-CA3 synapses through presynaptic activation of group II mGluRs.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Beta-adrenergic receptor agonists induce the release of granulocyte chemotactic protein-2, oncostatin M, and vascular endothelial growth factor from macrophages. AU - Verhoeckx, K.C.M.. AU - Doornbos, R.P.. AU - Witkamp, R.F.. AU - de Greef, J.. AU - Rodenburg, R.J.T.. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. N2 - Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), oncostatin M (OSM), and granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 (GCP-2/CXCL6) are up-regulated in U937 macrophages and peripheral blood macrophages exposed to LPS, beta-adrenergic receptor (ß2-AR) agonists (e.g. zilpaterol, and clenbuterol) and some other agents that induce intracellular cAMP (prostaglandin E2, forskolin, and butyryl cAMP). LPS in combination with ß2-agonists and cAMP elevating agents had an additional effect on the release of VEGF, OSM, and CXCL6. These proteins are up-regulated after 16-24 h of exposure and this is mediated by the ß2-AR, as determined by time course experiments and the use of a specific ß2-AR antagonist (ICI ...
Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6 (CXCL6) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also known as granulocyte chemotactic protein 2 (GCP-2). As its former name suggests, CXCL6 is a chemoattractant for neutrophilic granulocytes. It elicits its chemotactic effects by interacting with the chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2. The gene for CXCL6 is located on human chromosome 4 in a cluster with other CXC chemokine genes. Proost P, Wuyts A, Conings R, Lenaerts J, Billiau A, Opdenakker G, Van Damme J (1993). Human and bovine granulocyte chemotactic protein-2: complete amino acid sequence and functional characterization as chemokines. Biochemistry. 32 (38): 10170-7. doi:10.1021/bi00089a037. PMID 8399143. Wuyts A, Van Osselaer N, Haelens A, Samson I, Herdewijn P, Ben-Baruch A, Oppenheim J, Proost P, Van Damme J (1997). Characterization of synthetic human granulocyte chemotactic protein 2: usage of chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2 and in vivo inflammatory properties. ...
CXCL10 (chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10), Authors: Frank Antonicelli, Philippe Bernard. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that was previously called GRO1 oncogene, GROα, KC, Neutrophil-activating protein 3 (NAP-3) and melanoma growth stimulating activity, alpha (MSGA-α). In humans, this protein is encoded by the CXCL1 gene.
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 8--also known as monocyte chemoattractant protein 2 (MCP-2), HC14, SCYA8, or SCYA10--is a protein encoded by the CCL8 gene. The precursor protein (109 amino acids) is cleaved to produce mature CCL8 (75 amino acids). CCL8 activates many different immune cells, including mast cells, eosinophils, and basophils (implicated in allergic responses), and monocytes, T cells, and NK cells (involved in the inflammatory response). CCL8 acts through binding to several different cell surface chemokine receptors, including CCR1, CCR2B, and CCR5 (one of the major co-receptors for HIV-1).. ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in negative regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
The multi-domain CX3CL1 transmembrane chemokine triggers leukocyte adherence without rolling and migration by presentingits chemokine domain (CD) to its receptor CX3CR1. Through the combination of functional adhesion assays with structural analysis using FRAP, we investigated the functional role of the other domains of CX3CL1, i.e., its mucin stalk, transmembrane domain and cytosolic domain. Our results indicate that the CX3CL1 molecular structure is finely adapted to capture CX3CR1 incirculating cells and that each domain has a specific purpose: the mucin stalk is stiffened by its high glycosylation to present the CD away from the membrane, the transmembrane domain generates the permanent aggregation of an adequate amount of monomers to guarantee adhesion and prevent rolling, and the cytosolic domain ensures adhesive robustness by interacting with the cytoskeleton. We propose a model in which quasi-immobile CX3CL1 bundles are organized to quickly generate adhesive patches with sufficiently high
Recombinant mouse Cxcl3 protein, fused to His-tag at N-terminus, was expressed in E. coli and purified by using conventional chromatography techniques.
Multiple studies have shown that CC motif chemokine ligand 19 (CCL19) promotes cell proliferation in several human cancers. The aim of this study was
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PE anti-mouse CCL5 (RANTES) Antibody - Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5), also known as regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), is a 10 kD protein primarily produced by CD8+ T cells.
Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-PPBP Antibody against Human pro-platelet basic protein (chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 7). Validated for Immunohistochemistry and Western Blot
SDF1 antibody (chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12) for ELISA, Neut, WB. Anti-SDF1 pAb (GTX10395) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
MIP1 alpha antibody (chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3) for ELISA, Neut, WB. Anti-MIP1 alpha pAb (GTX10381) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
小鼠CXCL5 ELISA试剂盒(GCP-2) ELISA试剂盒datasheet (ab100719).Abcam抗体、ELISA、激动剂拮抗剂、表观遗传试剂、蛋白多肽,使用效果保证,中国70%以上现货。
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antiproteinuric effect of chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 inhibition in subjects with acute proliferative lupus nephritis. AU - Ble, Alessandro. AU - Mosca, Marta. AU - Di Loreto, Giorgio. AU - Guglielmotti, Angelo. AU - Biondi, Giuseppe. AU - Bombardieri, Stefano. AU - Remuzzi, Giuseppe. AU - Ruggenenti, Piero. PY - 2011/10. Y1 - 2011/10. N2 - Background/Aims: To test the role of chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2) in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis (LN), we evaluated the effects of CCL2 inhibition by bindarit therapy in patients with systemic lupus and active renal disease. Methods: In this proof-of-concept, prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical study, 22 subjects with acute LN were assigned on a 1:1 ratio to 24-week treatment with bindarit (1,200 mg/day) or matching placebo. All subjects were on the same standardized steroid background therapy. Urinary CCL2, urinary albumin excretion (UAE), estimated glomerular filtration rate, time to remission and time to relapse ...
Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6 (CXCL6) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also known as granulocyte chemotactic protein 2 (GCP-2). As its former name suggests, CXCL6 is a chemoattractant for neutrophilic granulocytes.[1][2] It elicits its chemotactic effects by interacting with the chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2.[2] The gene for CXCL6 is located on human chromosome 4 in a cluster with other CXC chemokine genes.[3][4] ...
Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 (CXCL9) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also known as Monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG). CXCL9 is a T-cell chemoattractant, which is induced by IFN-γ. It is closely related to two other CXC chemokines called CXCL10 and CXCL11, whose genes are located near the gene for CXCL9 on human chromosome 4. CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 all elicit their chemotactic functions by interacting with the chemokine receptor CXCR3. Neutrophil collagenase/matrix metalloproteinase 8 (MMP-8) degrades CXCL9 and cleaves CXCL10 at two positions. Gelatinase B/matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) degrades CXCL10 and cleaves CXCL9 at three different sites in its extended carboxy-terminal region ...
Mouse macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2, also known as MIP-2-alpha) is the homolog of human chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2) protein, a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine subfamily. MIP-2 is also homologous to rat CINC-2. MIP-2 is expressed by activated monocytes and neutrophils at sites of inflammation. It has also been shown to control mucosal lymphocyte migration in mice. MIP-2/CXCL2 is also known as GRO2 oncogene, GRO-beta, SCYB, SCYB2, and melanoma growth stimulating activity beta (MSGA-beta).. ...
Background: Despite the importance of inflammation in cancer, the role of the cytokine IL-33, and its receptor ST2, in colon cancer is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of IL-33, and its receptor isoforms (ST2 and ST2L), in colon cancer. Methods: Serum levels of IL-33 and sST2 were determined with ELISA. ST2 and IL-33 expression was detected with quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), western blotting and immunohistochemistry. ST2 expression in CT26 cells was stably suppressed using ST2-specific shRNA. Cytokine and chemokine gene expression was detected with qRT-PCR. Results: Human colon tumours showed lower expression of ST2L as compared with adjacent non-tumour tissue (P,0.01). Moreover, the higher the tumour grade, the lower the expression of ST2L (P=0.026). Colon cancer cells expressed ST2 and IL-33 in vitro. Functional analyses showed that stimulation of tumour cells with IL-33 induced the expression of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2). Knockdown of ST2 in ...
The blood-brain barrier (BBB), made up of endothelial cells of capillaries in the brain, maintains the microenvironment of the central nervous system. During ischemia and traumatic brain injury (TBI), cellular disruption leading to mechanical insult results to the BBB being compromised. Oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) is the most commonly used in vitro model for ischemia. On the other hand, stretch injury is currently being used to model TBI in vitro. In this paper, the two methods are used alone or in combination, to assess their effects on cerebrovascular endothelial cells cEND in the presence or absence of astrocytic factors. Applying severe stretch and/or OGD to cEND cells in our experiments resulted to cell swelling and distortion. Damage to the cells induced release of lactate dehydrogenase enzyme (LDH) and nitric oxide (NO) into the cell culture medium. In addition, mRNA expression of inflammatory markers interleukin (I L)-6, IL-1\(\alpha\) chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and tumor ...
Rat CXCL5/ENA-78 ELISA Kit assay has a sensitivity of 9.375pg/ml.. Measure Rat CXCL5/ENA-78 in serum, blood, plasma, cell supernatant samples.
Results The serum levels of sCXCL16 in jSLE patients were higher than controls (p,0.001), they were also siginificantly higher in patients with alopecia or malar rash than other jSLE .Positive correlation was identified between serum levels of sCXCL16 and SLEDAI score. There was a significant positive correlation between sCXCL16 levels and severity of lupus nephritis as assessed by renal biopsy. Serum levels of sCXCL16 were positively significantly correlated with the 24 hour urine protein,ANA, SBP, DBP AND ESR 1st hour. Serum sCXCL16 level was significanly negatively correlated with C3 serum level. ...
Cell-based therapies have intriguing potential for the treatment of a variety of neurological disorders. One such example is genetically engineered cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) that are being investigated in brain tumor clinical trials. The development of methods for CTL delivery is critical to their use in the laboratory and clinical setting. In our study, we determined whether CTLs can migrate through fibrin matrices and if their migration, survival, and function could be modulated by adding chemokines to the matrix. Our results indicated that CTLs can freely migrate through fibrin matrices. As expected, the addition of the monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), also known as chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2), to the surrounding media increased egress of the CTLs out of the fibrin clot. Interleukin (IL) -2 and/or IL-15 embedded in the matrix enhanced T cell survival and further promoted T cell migration. The interleukin-13 receptor alpha 2 specific (IL-13R alpha2) T cells that traveled out of the
ENCODES a protein that exhibits kinase activity (ortholog); protein kinase activity (ortholog); protein kinase binding (ortholog); INVOLVED IN cellular hypotonic response (ortholog); cellular response to chemokine (ortholog); chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 signaling pathway (ortholog); ASSOCIATED WITH Animal Disease Models (ortholog); autistic disorder (ortholog); hypertension (ortholog); FOUND IN apical plasma membrane (ortholog); basolateral plasma membrane (ortholog); cytoplasm (ortholog)
The chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) is also referred to as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) and small inducible cytokine A2. CCL2 is a small cytokine that belongs to the CC chemokine family. CCL2 recruits monocytes, memory T cells, and dendritic cells to the sites of inflammation produced by either tissue injury or infection ...
Chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1 (CX3CL1) is a large cytokine protein of 373 amino acids. It contains multiple domains and is the only known member of the CX3C chemokine family. It is also commonly known under the names fractalkine (in humans) and neurotactin (in mice). The polypeptide structur...
Recombinant Human CXCL5 (ENA-78) (ELISA Std.) - CXCL5 is a member of the CXC family of chemokines, also known as epithelial activated peptide 78 (ENA-78).
Summary of CXCL8 (3-10C, AMCF-I, b-ENAP, GCP-1, GCP1, IL-8, IL8, K60, LECT, LUCT, LYNAP, MDNCF, MONAP, NAF, NAP-1, NAP1, SCYB8, TSG-1) expression in human tissue. Cytoplasmic expression in several lymphoid tissues.
Chicken polyclonal CXCL16 antibody validated for WB and tested in Human. With 1 independent review. Immunogen corresponding to recombinant fragment
Objective. Synovial fibroblasts share a number of phenotype markers with fibroblasts derived from bone marrow. In this study we investigated the role of matched fibroblasts obtained from 3 different sources (bone marrow, synovium, and skin) to test the hypothesis that synovial fibroblasts share similarities with bone marrow-derived fibroblasts in terms of their ability to support survival of T cells and neutrophils. Methods. Matched synovial, bone marrow, and skin fibroblasts were established from 8 different patients with rheumatoid arthritis who were undergoing knee or hip surgery. Resting or activated fibroblasts were cocultured with either CD4 T cells or neutrophils, and the degree of leukocyte survival, apoptosis, and proliferation were measured. Results. Fibroblasts derived from all 3 sites supported increased survival of CD4 T cells, mediated principally by interferon-beta. However, synovial and bone marrow fibroblasts shared an enhanced site-specific ability to maintain CD4 T cell ...
Lipid transporter involved in lipid countertransport between the endoplasmic reticulum and the plasma membrane: specifically exchanges phosphatidylserine with phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P), delivering phosphatidylserine to the plasma membrane in exchange for PI4P, which is degraded by the SAC1/SACM1L phosphatase in the endoplasmic reticulum. Binds phosphatidylserine and PI4P in a mutually exclusive manner (PubMed:23934110, PubMed:26206935). May cooperate with NPC1 to mediate the exit of cholesterol from endosomes/lysosomes (PubMed:21220512). Binds 25-hydroxycholesterol and cholesterol (PubMed:17428193).
Infobox_gene}} Interleukin 8 (IL8 or chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8, CXCL8) is a [[chemokine]] produced by [[macrophages]] and other cell types such as [[epithelial cells]], airway smooth muscle cells,ref name=pmid10873157>{{cite journal , vauthors = Hedges JC, Singer CA, Gerthoffer WT , title = Mitogen-activated protein kinases regulate cytokine gene expression in human airway myocytes , journal = Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. , volume = 23 , issue = 1 , pages = 86-94 , year = 2000 , pmid = 10873157 , doi = 10.1165/ajrcmb.23.1.4014 }},/ref> and endothelial cells. [[Endothelial cells]] store IL-8 in their storage vesicles, the [[Weibel-Palade bodies]].,ref name=pmid9802987>{{cite journal , vauthors = Wolff B, Burns AR, Middleton J, Rot A , title = Endothelial cell memory of inflammatory stimulation: human venular endothelial cells store interleukin 8 in Weibel-Palade bodies , journal = J. Exp. Med. , volume = 188 , issue = 9 , pages = 1757-62 , year = 1998 , pmid = ...
Rabbit polyclonal CXCL11 antibody validated for WB, ELISA, IHC, Neut, ICC/IF and tested in Human. Referenced in 3 publications and 1 independent review.
TY - JOUR. T1 - CXCL3 positively regulates adipogenic differentiation. AU - Kusuyama, Joji. AU - Komorizono, Anna. AU - Bandow, Kenjiro. AU - Ohnishi, Tomokazu. AU - Matsuguchi, Tetsuya. PY - 2016/10. Y1 - 2016/10. N2 - Chemokines are a family of cytokines inducing cell migration and inflammation. Recent reports have implicated the roles of chemokines in cell differentiation. However, little is known about the functional roles of chemokines in adipocytes. Here, we explored gene expression levels of chemokines and chemokine receptors during adipogenic differentiation. We have found that two chemokines, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 3 (CXCL3) and CXCL13, as well as CXC chemokine receptor 2(CXCR2), a CXCL3 receptor, are highly expressed in mature adipocytes. When 3T3-L1 cells and ST2 cells were induced to differentiate, both the number of lipid droplets and the expression levels of adipogenic markers were significantly promoted by the addition of CXCL3, but not CXCL13. Conversely, gene knockdown ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulated C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2) in luteal cells contributes to macrophage infiltration into the human corpus luteum during luteolysis. AU - Nio-Kobayashi, Junko. AU - Kudo, Masataka. AU - Sakuragi, Noriaki. AU - Kimura, Shunsuke. AU - Iwanaga, Toshihiko. AU - Colin Duncan, W.. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © The Author 2015.. PY - 2015/3/10. Y1 - 2015/3/10. N2 - Intense macrophage infiltration is observed during luteolysis in various animals including women; however, we still do not know how macrophage infiltration into the human corpus luteum (CL) during luteolysis is regulated. In this study, we examined the expression, localization and regulation of an important chemokine for the recruitment of monocyte/macrophage lineages,C-Cmotif ligand 2 (CCL2), in thehuman CL across the luteal phase and in cultured human luteinized granulosa cells (LGCs), with special reference to the number of infiltrating macrophages and luteal cell function. CCL2 mRNA increased in the non-functional ...
article{a4a89a77-6245-40ad-adfc-12ba8e92c5b8, abstract = {OBJECTIVE: Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease. Several chemokines are important for monocyte/macrophage and T-cell recruitment to the lesion. CXCL16 is a recently discovered chemokine that is expressed in soluble and transmembrane forms, ligates CXCR6 chemokine receptor, and guides migration of activated Th1 and Tc1 cells. It is identical to scavenger receptor SR-PSOX, which mediates uptake of oxidized low-density lipoprotein. We investigated whether CXCL16 expression is controlled by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-cytokine abundant in atherosclerotic lesions. METHODS AND RESULTS: CXCL16 and CXCR6 expression was identified by polymerase chain reaction and histochemistry in atherosclerotic lesions from humans and apolipoprotein-E-deficient mice. In vitro IFN-gamma induced CXCL16 in human monocytic THP-1 cells and primary human monocytes, which led to increased uptake of oxidized low-density lipoprotein in THP-1 cells, which could be ...
Psoriatic arthritis (PsA), an inflammatory musculoskeletal disease, develops in approximately 30% of patients with psoriasis. Previously, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10) was identified as a predictive biomarker of PsA in patients with psoriasis and was reduced after development of PsA. The purpose of the present study was to explore messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of CXCL10 and its receptor, chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 3 (CXCR3), in the joints of patients with PsA to gain insight into their role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Sera from 47 patients with PsA and 33 healthy control subjects were compared for expression of CXCL10 by Luminex assay. Synovial fluid (SF) was obtained from patients with PsA (n = 40), osteoarthritis (OA; n = 14), gout (n = 8), and rheumatoid arthritis (RA; n = 11) during clinical care. SF mRNA and protein expression of CXCL10, interleukin-17A (IL-17A), CXCR3, TBX21, RORC and/or interferon γ (IFNγ) were compared among the above-mentioned disease
Chemokines are a large group of chemotactic cytokines that play an important pathogenic role in inflammatory diseases and autoimmune disorders by enhancement of leukocyte recruitment and activation at inflammatory sites [3-6]. ENA-78 is a CXC chemokine that attracts neutrophils during inflammation [7].. In this work, serum levels of ENA-78 were significantly higher in autistic children than healthy control children (P , 0.001). In addition, 69.35% of autistic children had increased serum levels of ENA-78. This study was the first to investigate serum levels of ENA-78 in autistic children. ENA-78 is an inflammatory C-X-C chemokine that is encoded by the CXCL5 gene [28]. Its levels are elevated in myriad inflammatory conditions [29-32].. ENA-78 is an α chemokine which is produced concomitantly with IL-8 and melanoma growth stimulating activity [7]. The main stimuli for secretion of chemokines, including ENA-78, are the early signals elicited during innate immune response such as bacterial ...
History & Aims Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)induced angiogenesis is implicated in fibrogenesis and portal hypertension. motif) ligand 9. Conclusions In a mouse model of liver fibrosis resolution, VEGF promoted fibrogenesis, but was required for hepatic tissue repair and fibrosis resolution also. We noticed that VEGF regulates vascular permeability, monocyte infiltration, and scar-associated macrophages function. evaluation and check of variance when appropriate. Differences were regarded as significant when < .05. Outcomes VEGF-Neutralizing Antibody Impairs Fibrosis Quality in Vivo We 1st founded a murine style of fibrosis quality through the use of the gallbladder dilation occurring after BDL in mice, to accomplish an usage of reconstruct bile movement by virtue of CJ. Sham or CJ medical procedures was performed 14 days after BDL. Fourteen days after CJ, the complete bile duct program was drained through the built anastomosis with nearly complete hepatic cells repair (Shape 1ACC). ...
Abstract. Pentoxifylline is a tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) inhibitor that also attenuates the immune response and decreases tissue inflammation. The association of pentoxifylline with antimony improves the cure rate of mucosal and cutaneous leishmaniasis. In this randomized and double blind pilot trial, cure rate was higher, although not significant, in patients who received antimony plus pentoxifylline than in those patients receiving antimony plus placebo. A significant decrease in TNF-α and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) levels during therapy was more pronounced in the antimony plus pentoxifylline group, whereas CCL-3 (Chemokine [C-C motif] ligand 3) decreased similarly in both groups. The increased levels of CXCL-9 (Chemokine [C-X-C motif] ligand 9) during therapy were lower in the antimony plus pentoxifylline group. Therapy with pentoxifylline modifies cytokines and chemokines production, which may be associated with therapeutic outcome.
Chemokines mediate diverse fundamental biological processes, including combating infection. Multiple chemokines are expressed at the site of infection; thus chemokine synergy by heterodimer formation may play a role in determining function. Chemokine function involves interactions with G-protein-coupled receptors and sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAG). However, very little is known regarding heterodimer structural features and receptor and GAG interactions. Solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and molecular dynamics characterization of platelet-derived chemokine CXCL7 heterodimerization with chemokines CXCL1, CXCL4, and CXCL8 indicated that packing interactions promote CXCL7-CXCL1 and CXCL7-CXCL4 heterodimers, and electrostatic repulsive interactions disfavor the CXCL7-CXCL8 heterodimer. As characterizing the native heterodimer is challenging due to interference from monomers and homodimers, we engineered a
CXCL12 izaziva potentnu hemotaksu limfocita.[4][5][6][7] Tokom embriogeneze on usmerava migraciju hematopoetskih ćelija i formiranje velikih krvnih sudova. Miševi bez CXCL12 gena su letalni pre rođenja, ili u toku prvog sata života. Kod odraslih CXCL12 igra važnu ulogu u angiogenezi putem regrutovanja endotelnih progenitorskih ćelija (EPC) iz koštane srži kroz CXCR4 zavistan mehanizam.[8] Ova funkcija čini CXCL12 veoma važnim faktorom u karcinogenezi i neovaskularizaciji vezanoj za progresiju tumora.[9] CXCL12 takođe ima ulogu u metastazi tumora gde su ćelije raka koje izražavaju CXCR4 receptor privučene ka metastaznim ciljnim tkivima koja oslobađaju ligand, CXCL12.[10] Kod raka dojke, međutim, povećano CXCL12 izražavanje određuje umanjeni rizik od metastaze.[11][12] ...
Mhedbi-Hajri N, Hajri A, Boureau T, Darrasse A, Durand K, Brin C, Saux MF, Manceau C, Poussier S, Pruvost O, Lemaire C, Jacques MA ...
MCP-1 (5); Monoclonal anti-Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 antibody can be used in western blotting. Bulk and Prepack available at Sigmaaldrich.com.
Complete information for CXCL9 gene (Protein Coding), C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 9, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Aortic and plasma expression levels of IL-18 and CXCL16.(A) Reduced aortic mRNA expression of IL-18 and CXCL16, but no change in the expression of IFN-γ is obs
人生长调节致癌基因γ(GRO-γ/CXCL3) (Human)首选赛业生物,380余种细胞因子囊括生长调节致癌基因、生长因子、干扰素、白细胞介素、肿瘤坏死因子等所有细胞因子家族,种属齐包括人、鼠、恒河猴及其他种属。赛业提供的生长调节致癌基因品质优良:高活性、高纯度、高稳定性、无热源、无外源因子污染。
Preferred Name: CCL21-expressing H1944 Cell Vaccine Definition: A cancer cell vaccine comprised of the allogeneic human lung adenocarcinoma cell line H1944 that has been transduced ex vivo with adenoviral vector encoding human cytokine chemokine C-C motif ligand 21 (CCL21), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, CCL21-expressing H1944 cell vaccine expresses the chemokine CCL21, which may induce an antitumoral cytotoxic T-lymphocyte immune response in the tumor microenvironment. CCL21 has been shown to attract antigen presenting cells (APCs), like leukocytes and DCs, and natural killer (NK) cells and their T-cell effectors to induce a cytotoxic immune response. H1944 cells contain tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) overexpressed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Display Name: CCL21-expressing H1944 Cell Vaccine Label: CCL21-expressing H1944 Cell Vaccine NCI Thesaurus Code: C98281 (Search for linked caDSR metadata) (search value sets) NCI ...
It is well-documented that both chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19 (CCL19) and 21 (CCL21) mediate cell migration and angiogenesis in many diseases. However, these ligands precise pathological role in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) has not been elucidated. The objective of this study was to examine the expression of CCL19 and CCL21 (CCL19/CCL21) in AS hip ligament tissue (LT) and determine their pathological functions. The expression levels of CCL19, CCL21 and their receptor CCR7 in AS (n = 31) and osteoarthritis (OA, n = 21) LT were analyzed via real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The expression of CCL19, CCL21 and CCR7 in AS ligament fibroblasts was also detected. The proliferation of ligament fibroblasts was measured via a cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) assay after exogenous CCL19/CCL21 treatment. Additionally, the role of CCL19/CCL21 in osteogenesis was evaluated via RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in individual AS fibroblast cultures. Furthermore,
Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are rare, malignant tumors of mesenchymal origin that manifest in the connective tissues, including muscle, adipose and deep skin tissue, nerves, and joint tissue. Complications from primary or recurrent sarcomas often lead to increased morbidity, but the most lethal aspect of sarcomas is their propensity for hematogenous dissemination leading to metastatic disease. After development of distant metastases, the median survival for patients with STS is merely 11 to 15 months1,2. Therefore, gaining a better understanding of the metastatic environment is essential to developing new therapies. The tumor microenvironment has been implicated as an essential component for metastatic progression and one of the most prominent cell types of the tumor microenvironment is the cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF)3,4. CAFs promote tumor progression by stimulating angiogenesis, cancer cell growth, invasion and metastasis, and through evasion of the immune response5,6. Studies clearly ...
CXCL16, hemokin (C-X-C motiv) ligand 16, je mali citokin iz CXC hemokin familije. On je veći od drugih hemokina (sadrži 254 aminokiselina). CXCL16 se sastoji od CXC hemokin domaina, mucinu-slične stabljike, transmembranskog domaina i citoplazmatičnog repa koji sadrži potentno mesto tirozin fosforilacije koje može da veže SH2.[1] Ovo su neuobičajene osobine za hemokin, i omobućavaju CXCL16 da bude izražen kao molekul na ćelijskoj površini, kao i rastvorni hemokin.[2] CXCL16 proizvode dendritiske ćelije koje se mogu naći u T ćelijskim zonama limfoidnih organa, i ćelije iz crvene pulpe slezine.[1] Među ćelijama koje se vezuju i migriraju u responsu na CXCL16 su nekoliko podgrupa T ćelija, i NKT ćelije.[1] CXCL16 interaguje sa hemokin receptorom CXCR6, takođe poznatim kao Bonzo.[3][1] Ekspresiju CXCL16 indukuju inflamatorni citokini IFN-gama i TNF-alfa.[2] Gen za ljudski CXCL16 je lociran na hromozomu 17.[1][4] ...
CXCL12 izaziva potentnu hemotaksu limfocita.[4][5][6][7] Tokom embriogeneze on usmerava migraciju hematopoetskih ćelija i formiranje velikih krvnih sudova. Miševi bez CXCL12 gena su letalni pre rođenja, ili u toku prvog sata života. Kod odraslih CXCL12 igra važnu ulogu u angiogenezi putem regrutovanja endotelnih progenitorskih ćelija (EPC) iz koštane srži kroz CXCR4 zavistan mehanizam.[8] Ova funkcija čini CXCL12 veoma važnim faktorom u karcinogenezi i neovaskularizaciji vezanoj za progresiju tumora.[9] CXCL12 takođe ima ulogu u metastazi tumora gde su ćelije raka koje izražavaju CXCR4 receptor privučene ka metastaznim ciljnim tkivima koja oslobađaju ligand, CXCL12.[10] Kod raka dojke, međutim, povećano CXCL12 izražavanje određuje umanjeni rizik od metastaze.[11][12] ...
Monoclonal Anti-Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-2 antibody produced in mouse is suitable for indirect ELISA, western blot, neutralization
Cxcl11 - Cxcl11 (Myc-DDK-tagged) - Mouse chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11 (Cxcl11), transcript variant 1 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Cxcl16 - Cxcl16 (GFP-tagged) - Mouse chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 16 (Cxcl16) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Speakers Nathalie Grün Human Papillomavirus in healthy youth Elin Sjöberg A novel role for the chemokine CXCL14 in epithelial to mesenchymal transition Chair Hanif Rassoolzadeh Welcome!
"Gelatinase B/MMP-9 and neutrophil collagenase/MMP-8 process the chemokines human GCP-2/CXCL6, ENA-78/CXCL5 and mouse GCP-2/LIX ...
... chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 5, scyb5 CXCL6: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6, scyb6 CXCL7: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 7 ... chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1, scyb1 CXCL2: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2, scyb2 CXCL3: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 3 ... chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9, scyb9 CXCL10: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10, scyb10 CXCL11: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ... scyb3 CXCL4: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 4, Platelet factor-4, PF-4, scyb4 CXCL5: ...
Cryptotope CX3CL1 CX3CR1 CXC chemokine receptors CXCL1 CXCL10 CXCL11 CXCL13 CXCL14 CXCL15 CXCL16 CXCL17 CXCL2 CXCL3 CXCL5 CXCL6 ... Breakthrough infection Broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies Bursa of Fabricius C-C chemokine receptor type 6 C-C chemokine ... CD4 CD4+ T cells and antitumor immunity CD74 CD94/NKG2 Cell-mediated immunity CELSR1 Central tolerance Chemokine Chemokine ... 7 Calreticulin Cancer immunology Cancer immunoprevention Cancer immunotherapy Cantuzumab ravtansine Cathelicidin CC chemokine ...
Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6 (CXCL6) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also known as ... The gene for CXCL6 is located on human chromosome 4 in a cluster with other CXC chemokine genes. Proost P, Wuyts A, Conings R, ... Modi W, Chen Z (1998). "Localization of the human CXC chemokine subfamily on the long arm of chromosome 4 using radiation ... O'Donovan N, Galvin M, Morgan J (1999). "Physical mapping of the CXC chemokine locus on human chromosome 4". Cytogenet Cell ...
CXCL8 (otherwise known as interleukin-8) and CXCL6 can both bind CXCR1 in humans, while all other ELR-positive chemokines, such ... CXC chemokine receptors are integral membrane proteins that specifically bind and respond to cytokines of the CXC chemokine ... However, CXCR6 is more closely related in structure to CC chemokine receptors than to other CXC chemokine receptors. ACKR3 was ... within the chemokine receptor cluster on human chromosome 3p21) and its similarity to other chemokine receptors in its gene ...
chemokine receptor activity. • receptor activity. • protein binding. • C-C chemokine receptor activity. • C-C chemokine binding ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene.[5] CCR6 ... "Entrez Gene: CCR6 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6".. *^ Wang K, Zhang H, Kugathasan S, Annese V, Bradfield JP, Russell RK, ... "Chemokine Receptors: CCR6". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
CXCL6. Scyb6. GCP-2. CXCR1, CXCR2. P80162 CXCL7. Scyb7. NAP-2, CTAPIII, β-Ta, PEP. P02775 ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ...
O'Donovan N, Galvin M, Morgan J (1999). „Physical mapping of the CXC chemokine locus on human chromosome 4". Cytogenet Cell ... CXCL6, hemokin (C-X-C motiv) ligand 6, je mali citokin iz CXC hemokin familije koji je takođe poznat kao granulocit hemotaksni ... Modi W, Chen Z (1998). „Localization of the human CXC chemokine subfamily on the long arm of chromosome 4 using radiation ... CXCL6 gen je lociran na ljudskom hromozomu 4 u klasteru sa drugim CXC hemokin genima.[3][4][5] ...
C-X-C chemokine receptor activity. • interleukin-8 binding. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. • chemokine receptor ... This name and the corresponding gene symbol IL8RA have been replaced by the HGNC approved name C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 1 ... "Chemokine Receptors: CXCR1". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... chemokine-mediated signaling pathway. • interleukin-8-mediated signaling pathway. • neutrophil degranulation. • chemotaxis. ...
chemokine activity. • cytokine activity. • heparin binding. • protein binding. • CXCR3 chemokine receptor binding. ... C-X-C motif chemokine 11 is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also called Interferon-inducible T- ... "Entrez Gene: CXCL11 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11".. *^ a b Cole KE, Strick CA, Paradis TJ, Ogborne KT, Loetscher M, Gladue ... This chemokine elicits its effects on its target cells by interacting with the cell surface chemokine receptor CXCR3, with a ...
CXCL1 · CXCL2 · CXCL3 · CXCL4 · CXCL5 · CXCL6 · CXCL7 · CXCL8/IL8 · CXCL9 · CXCL10 · CXCL11 · CXCL12 · CXCL13 · CXCL14 · CXCL15 ... Chemokine. CCL. CCL1 · CCL2 · CCL3 · CCL4 · CCL5 · CCL6 · CCL7 · CCL8 · CCL9 · CCL11 · CCL12 · CCL13 · CCL14 · CCL15 · CCL16 · ...
positive regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production. • positive regulation of JUN kinase activity. • positive ... positive regulation of chemokine production. • cellular extravasation. • negative regulation of lipid storage. • negative ... positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • epithelial cell proliferation involved in salivary gland morphogenesis ...
... s are a subset of cytokines that are produced by a type of immune cell known as a lymphocyte.[1] They are protein mediators typically produced by T cells to direct the immune system response by signaling between its cells. Lymphokines have many roles, including the attraction of other immune cells, including macrophages and other lymphocytes, to an infected site and their subsequent activation to prepare them to mount an immune response. Circulating lymphocytes can detect a very small concentration of lymphokine and then move up the concentration gradient towards where the immune response is required. Lymphokines aid B cells to produce antibodies. Important lymphokines secreted by the T helper cell include:[2] ...
... binds to the death receptors DR4 (TRAIL-RI) and DR5 (TRAIL-RII). The process of apoptosis is caspase-8-dependent. Caspase-8 activates downstream effector caspases including procaspase-3, -6, and -7, leading to activation of specific kinases.[11] TRAIL also binds the receptors DcR1 and DcR2, which do not contain a cytoplasmic domain (DcR1) or contain a truncated death domain (DcR2). DcR1 functions as a TRAIL-neutralizing decoy-receptor. The cytoplasmic domain of DcR2 is functional and activates NFkappaB. In cells expressing DcR2, TRAIL binding therefore activates NFkappaB, leading to transcription of genes known to antagonize the death signaling pathway and/or to promote inflammation. Application of engineered ligands that have variable affinity for different death (DR4 and DR5) and decoy receptors (DCR1 and DCR2) may allow selective targeting of cancer cells by controlling activation of Type 1/Type 2 pathways of cell death and single cell fluctuations. Luminescent iridium complex-peptide ...
... (IL-24) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL24 gene. IL-24 is a cytokine belonging to the IL-10 family of cytokines that signals through two heterodimeric receptors: IL-20R1/IL-20R2 and IL-22R1/IL-20R2. This interleukin is also known as melanoma differentiation-associated 7 (mda-7) due to its discovery as a tumour suppressing protein. IL-24 appears to control in cell survival and proliferation by inducing rapid activation of particular transcription factors called STAT1 and STAT3. This cytokine is predominantly released by activated monocytes, macrophages and T helper 2 (Th2) cells[5] and acts on non-haematopoietic tissues such as skin, lung and reproductive tissues. IL-24 performs important roles in wound healing, arthritis, psoriasis and cancer.[6][7][8] Several studies have shown that cell death occurs in cancer cells/cell lines following exposure to IL-24.[9][10] The gene for IL-24 is located on chromosome 1 in humans.[11] ...
... as well as chemokine and cytokine production, and expression of adhesion molecules such as E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. This ...
positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • regulation of insulin secretion. • extrinsic apoptotic signaling ... Copeland KF (2006). "Modulation of HIV-1 transcription by cytokines and chemokines". Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry. 5 (12 ...
... is sometimes used interchangeably among scientists with the term cytokine.[3] Historically, cytokines were associated with hematopoietic (blood and lymph forming) cells and immune system cells (e.g., lymphocytes and tissue cells from spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes). For the circulatory system and bone marrow in which cells can occur in a liquid suspension and not bound up in solid tissue, it makes sense for them to communicate by soluble, circulating protein molecules. However, as different lines of research converged, it became clear that some of the same signaling proteins which the hematopoietic and immune systems use were also being used by all sorts of other cells and tissues, during development and in the mature organism. While growth factor implies a positive effect on cell division, cytokine is a neutral term with respect to whether a molecule affects proliferation. While some cytokines can be growth factors, such as G-CSF and GM-CSF, others have an inhibitory effect on ...
Interferon alfa 2b is an antiviral or antineoplastic drug, that was originally discovered in the laboratory of Charles Weissmann at the University of Zurich. It was developed at Biogen, and ultimately marketed by Schering-Plough under the tradename Intron-A. It has been used for a wide range of indications, including viral infections and cancers. This drug is approved around the world for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C, chronic hepatitis B, hairy cell leukemia, Behçet's disease, chronic myelogenous leukemia, multiple myeloma, follicular lymphoma, carcinoid tumor, mastocytosis and malignant melanoma. ...
4-1BB is a type 2 transmembrane glycoprotein receptor belonging to the TNF superfamily, expressed on activated T Lymphocytes.[1] 4-1BBL (4-1BB ligand) is found on APCs (antigen presenting cells) and binds to 4-1BB. ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the interleukin 1 cytokine family. Protein structure modeling indicated that this cytokine may contain a 12-stranded beta-trefoil structure that is conserved between IL1A (IL-A alpha) and IL1B (IL-1 beta). This gene and eight other interleukin 1 family genes form a cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 2. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported.[8]. ...
IPR001089. Chemokine_CXC. IPR018048. Chemokine_CXC_CS. IPR001811. Chemokine_IL8-like_dom. IPR033899. CXC_Chemokine_domain. ... IPR001089. Chemokine_CXC. IPR018048. Chemokine_CXC_CS. IPR001811. Chemokine_IL8-like_dom. IPR033899. CXC_Chemokine_domain. ... sp,P80221,CXCL6_BOVIN C-X-C motif chemokine 6 OS=Bos taurus OX=9913 GN=CXCL6 PE=1 SV=2 ... R-BTA-380108. Chemokine receptors bind chemokines. R-BTA-418594. G alpha (i) signalling events. ...
Compare C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 6 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations ... C-X-C Motif Chemokine 6 / GCP2 (CXCL6). *. Detection Range: 15.6 pg/ml - 1000 pg/ml ... C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 6 ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a widely used application for ... Your search returned 98 C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 6 ELISA ELISA Kit across 20 suppliers. ...
chemokine receptor activity. • receptor activity. • protein binding. • C-C chemokine receptor activity. • C-C chemokine binding ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene.[5] CCR6 ... "Entrez Gene: CCR6 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6".. *^ Wang K, Zhang H, Kugathasan S, Annese V, Bradfield JP, Russell RK, ... "Chemokine Receptors: CCR6". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
Compare X-C motif chemokine ligand 2 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, ... X-C motif chemokine ligand 2 ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established antibody-based ... Your search returned 394 X-C motif chemokine ligand 2 ELISA Kit across 24 suppliers. ... CXCL6/GCP-2. *. Detection Range: 15.6 pg/ml -1000 pg/ml. *. Reactivity: Human ...
C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 6, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The ... Summaries for CXCL6 Gene GeneCards Summary for CXCL6 Gene CXCL6 (C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 6) is a Protein Coding gene. ... Aliases for CXCL6 Gene Aliases for CXCL6 Gene. * C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 6 2 3 5 ... Publications for CXCL6 Gene * The human CXC chemokine granulocyte chemotactic protein 2 (GCP-2)/CXCL6 possesses membrane- ...
LIX; Cxcl6; GCP-2; Scyb5; Scyb6; ENA-78; AMCF-II. Summary. This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the CXC subfamily of ... Chemokine receptors bind chemokines, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME) Chemokine receptors bind chemokines, organism- ... Cxcl5 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 5 [Mus musculus] Cxcl5 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 5 [Mus musculus]. Gene ID:20311 ... Chemokine_CXC; Chemokine_CXC: 1 of 4 subgroup designations based on the arrangement of the two N-terminal cysteine residues; ...
This review will focus on recent murine and human studies that use chemokines as therapeutic anti-cancer vaccine adjuvants. ... Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing ... This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential ... CXCL6. GCP-2. CXCR1, CXCR2. inflammatory and angiogenic. CXCL7. NAP-2. CXCR1, CXCR2. inflammatory and angiogenic. ...
The chemokine receptor CXCR6 is highly expressed on lung-derived T cells compared to blood T cells, especially in inflammatory ... Chemokine CXCL6 / analysis * Chemokine CXCL6 / genetics* * Chemokine CXCL6 / metabolism * Chemotaxis, Leukocyte * Cytokines / ... The chemokine CXCL16 is highly and constitutively expressed by human bronchial epithelial cells Exp Lung Res. 2009 May;35(4): ... The chemokine receptor CXCR6 is highly expressed on lung-derived T cells compared to blood T cells, especially in inflammatory ...
PeproTechs chemokines include proteins that act through G protein-coupled receptors and conform to the prototypical chemokine ...
CXCL6. Scyb6. GCP-2. CXCR1, CXCR2. P80162 CXCL7. Scyb7. NAP-2, CTAPIII, β-Ta, PEP. P02775 ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ...
Gelatinase B/MMP-9 and neutrophil collagenase/MMP-8 process the chemokines human GCP-2/CXCL6, ENA-78/CXCL5 and mouse GCP-2/LIX ...
CXCL6. GCP-2. CXCR1, CXCR2. N, M. ND. CXCL8. IL-8. CXCR1, CXCR2. N, M. 259 ± 296. 63.5 (0-977). 11,900 ± 15,200. ND† 63.6‡ ... the CXC chemokines CXCL8, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL12; and CX3CL1. This set represented all chemokines present in the chemokine ... Generally, CC chemokines potently attract monocytes, T lymphocytes, eosinophils, and basophils, whereas CXC chemokines are ... Differences between our study and previous studies, chemokine function, and chemokine levels are summarized in Table 4. Before ...
Chemokine receptors. Chemokines. Functions. Signaling pathways. Role in HCC. (Refs.). CXCR1. CXCL6,. Chemotactic neutrophils. - ... Among the four types of chemokines, there are two highly homologous XC chemokines: XC motif chemokine ligand 1 (XCL1) and XCL2 ... chemokines can bind to the atypical chemokine receptor (ACKR) subfamily, which is a key regulator of the chemokine network, and ... Exosomes containing chemokines or expressing receptors for chemokines may improve chemotaxis to HCC and may thus be exploited ...
... chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 16 (CXCL16), chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 3 (CXCR3), interleukin-6 (IL-6), protein NOV ... CXCL6 protein, human * Chemokine CXCL6 * Cytokines * IL6 protein, human * Inflammation Mediators * Interleukin-6 ...
CXCL6 and -8 also signal through CXCR2.7 Mice lack complete homologs of the 7 human ELR+ chemokines, having only 4: mCXCL1/ ... MMP-12 processing of human ELR+ CXC chemokines. All 7 of the human ELR+ CXC chemokines tested were processed by human MMP-12 ... MMP-1 and -9 processing of human ELR+ CXC chemokines. The ELR motif in ELR+ CXC chemokines is crucial in cognate receptor ... MMP-12 processing of murine ELR+ CXC chemokines. Proteolytic screening of the 3 other murine ELR+ CXC chemokines mCXCL1, -2, ...
View our interactive Chemokine Superfamily Pathway: Human/Mouse Ligand-Receptor Interactions. ... CXCL6/GCP-2. CXCL7/NAP-2. CXCL7/Thymus Chemokine-1. CXCL8/IL-8. LIX. ... While chemokine receptors generally bind only one subfamily of chemokines, within those subfamilies, most chemokines display ... CXCL6/GCP-2. CXCL7/NAP-2. CXCL7/Thymus Chemokine-1. CXCL8/IL-8. LIX. ...
114105 Cxcl2; C-X-C motif chemokine 2 precursor 171551 Cxcl3; C-X-C motif chemokine 3 precursor 60665 Cxcl6; C-X-C motif ... C-C motif chemokine 5 K22671 CCL9; C-C motif chemokine 9 K05510 CCL6; C-C motif chemokine 6 K05509 CCL7; C-C motif chemokine 7 ... C-C motif chemokine 3 K22671 CCL9; C-C motif chemokine 9 K05510 CCL6; C-C motif chemokine 6 K05509 CCL7; C-C motif chemokine 7 ... C-C motif chemokine 1 K14624 CCL2; C-C motif chemokine 2 K14624 CCL2; C-C motif chemokine 2 K05408 CCL3; C-C motif chemokine 3 ...
Chemokines and their receptors play essential roles in immunology during inflammation and in homeostasis. ... Chemokines are a class of secreted molecules that induce chemotaxis (migration) of target cells. ... CXCL6. a. a. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. ... Chemokine Receptor Biology poster. Order your copy of our ... Chemokines are also involved in the orchestration of wound healing.. For more information on inflammatory chemokines, see the ...
CXCL6. chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6. Chemotaxis, immune response. Cyt ... MFP (Table 5). Among these were osteopontin [SPP1] and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 [CXCL10], which were 22- and 3.5-fold ... PAR (Figure 4). In addition, IL7 and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 [CCL2], potentially released by PAR, may have determined ...
It is possible to identify the particular chemokines which are over-expressed in the tumor using methods of the invention and ... The present invention provides a means of inhibiting the growth and metastasis of cancer cells by administering anti-chemokine ... The 15 amino acid peptides from CXCR1, CXCR2, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, CXCL5, CXCL6 CXCL7, CXCL8, CXCL12, CXCR5a, CXCR5b, CXCL13, ... The patient is then given the antibodies against the over-expressed chemokine(s). However, the level of each chemokine may also ...
Identification of chemokines which are over-produced makes it possible to block specific chemokine activity using antibodies to ... It is possible to inhibit inflammatory processes by administration of antibodies to chemokines. ... CXCL6, CXCL7, CXCL8, CXCL9,. CXCL10, CXCL11, CCL5. Arthritis. CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11,. CXCR3, CXCR4, CXCR5. ... Chemokines: roles in leukocyte development, trafficking, and effector function. Anders et al. 2003. Chemokines and chemokine ...
Melanoma cells were transfected to overexpress the GCP-2/CXCL6 chemokine and then implanted into nude mice. The new CXCL6- ... Tumor cells produce many chemokines, such as CXCL1 (KC), CXCL2 (MIP-2), CXCL5 (ENA-78), CXCL6 (GCP-2), CXCL8 (IL-8), and MIF, ... Using the same CXCR1 and CXCR2 receptors, neutrophils can also respond to other chemokines such as CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL5, CXCL6, ... G. Lazennec and A. Richmond, "Chemokines and chemokine receptors: new insights into cancer-related inflammation," Trends in ...
CXCR2 is the receptor for seven structurally related ELR+ chemokines: CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, CXCL6, and CXCL8 (see Table 1 for ... C. H. Kim, "Chemokine-chemokine receptor network in immune cell trafficking," Current Drug Targets, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 343-361 ... CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR) 1 and CXCR2 are the major chemokine receptors of neutrophils [14-16]. CXCR2 is of particular ... The most relevant chemokine receptors of neutrophils are CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR) 1 and CXCR2. CXCR2 is of particular ...
AP003554) followed by three genes coding CXC motif chemokines (CXCL2, CXCL6, and CXCL1) and IL-6. Other named genes were SCG2, ... Three of the 10 transcripts encoded CXC chemokines (CXCL1, CXCL2, and CXCL6). The rest included the transcripts of other ... and CXCL6 (GCP-2). Chemokines are groups of small structurally related molecules that regulate cell trafficking of various ... Because three of the CXC chemokines were up-regulated by low doses of X-rays, we wanted to test if cells with a high number of ...
chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 5 (Mus musculus), cyclization recombinase (Other). Oliver Add to Cart ... Description chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6 (granulocyte chemotactic protein 2) ...
CXCL6. (redirected from Small-inducible cytokine B6) CXCL6. A gene on chromosome 4q13.3 that encodes an inflammatory chemokine ... a href=https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Small-inducible+cytokine+B6,CXCL6,/a,. *Facebook ...
Alternative C-terminal helix orientation alters chemokine function: structure of the anti-angiogenic chemokine, CXCL4L1. J Biol ... 3B, left). In contrast, no changes were observed in CXCL1 and CXCL6 expression with this treatment. This indicates that DNA ... Dual Roles for CXCL4 Chemokines and CXCR3 in Angiogenesis and Invasion of Pancreatic Cancer. Cathy Quemener, Jessica Baud, ... The CXCL4L1 gene is located within a cluster of chemokines-encoded genes (Fig. 3A). To determine the expression of these genes ...
18782286 - Cxcl6 (granulocyte chemotactic protein-2): a novel chemokine involved in the innate imm.... 11483916 - Does epidural ...
Cxcl6 C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 6 Rat chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 5 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 5, chemokine (C-X-C ... CXC chemokine LIX, Cxcl5, Cxcl6, C-X-C motif chemokine 5, cytokine LIX, LOC60665, small-inducible cytokine B5 ... motif) ligand 6, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6 (granulocyte chemotactic protein 2), ...
Keywords: Hepatic IR, chemokines, CXCR2, neutrophil-mediated liver injury. ... chemokine and cytokine production, and histological outcome. Treatment with reparixin significantly decreased neutrophil influx ... chemokine and cytokine production and histological outcome. Treatment with reparixin significantly decreased neutrophil influx ... CXC chemokines mediate hepatic inflammation following reperfusion. However, few studies have demonstrated in real-time the ...
  • MMP-12 specifically cleaves human ELR + CXC chemokines (CXCL1, -2, -3, -5, and -8) at E-LR, the critical receptor-binding motif or, for CXCL6, carboxyl-terminal to it. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Three of the 10 transcripts encoded CXC chemokines (CXCL1, CXCL2, and CXCL6). (aacrjournals.org)
  • CXCL8 (otherwise known as interleukin-8) and CXCL6 can both bind CXCR1 in humans, while all other ELR-positive chemokines, such as CXCL1 to CXCL7 bind only CXCR2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that was previously called GRO1 oncogene, GROα, KC, Neutrophil-activating protein 3 (NAP-3) and melanoma growth stimulating activity, alpha (MSGA-α). (creativebiomart.net)
  • Levels of tumor necrosis factor ␣ (TNF␣) and the chemokines CXCL1 and CXCL2 were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (docme.ru)
  • The expression of CCL2, CCL5, and CCL20 (Cys-Cys motif chemokines) and of CXCL1, CXCL3, CXCL5, CXCL6, and CXCL8 (Cys-X-Cys motif chemokines) was induced in LEC with LTA. (nih.gov)
  • IL‑17A had no evident impact on vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) production in HepG2 and Huh7.5 cells as determined by reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR and ELISA, but it did stimulate angiogenic CXC chemokine secretion, including chemokine (C‑X‑C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1), CXCL2, CXCL3, CXCL5, CXCL6 and CXCL8 in Huh7.5 cells and CXCL2 in HepG2 cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The data presented here describe the cellular pharmacology of the acid and ester forms of the nicotinamide glycolate pharmacophore, a potent antagonist of CXCR2 signaling by the chemokines CXCL1 and CXCL8. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Neutrophil chemotaxis to ARDS BAL fluid was evaluated and the contribution of each was assessed and compared with chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8 (CXCL8). (bmj.com)
  • Interleukin-8/CXCL8 and stromal cell-derived factor-1/CXCL12 significantly and dose-dependently increased the migration of monocytes, expressing the corresponding CXC chemokine receptors CXCR2 and CXCR4, toward suboptimal concentrations of the monocyte chemotactic proteins CCL2 or CCL7. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In contrast, the combination of two CC chemokines (CCL2 plus CCL7) or two CXC chemokines (CXCL8 plus CXCL12) did not provide synergy in monocyte chemotaxis. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Subsequently, the inflammatory CC chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (CCL7/MCP-3), which is a weak neutrophil chemoattractant, was found to dose-dependently enhance the neutrophil influx toward a suboptimal concentration of CXCL8. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Extracellular receptors such as TLR2, TLR4 and TLR5 induced the transcription of CXC chemokines including CXCL5, CXCL6 and CXCL8, whereas intracellular receptors such as TLR7 and TLR8 upregulated CXC chemokines 11 and 12. (ku.edu)
  • NRAS mutations functioned to up-regulate Cxcl5/Ppbp and CXCL6/7/8 expression by mouse and human tumor cells, respectively, directly targeting circulating tumor cells to the CXCR1+ lung vasculature. (ersjournals.com)
  • It elicits its chemotactic effects by interacting with the chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2. (wikipedia.org)
  • CXCL6 and -8 also signal through CXCR2. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The most relevant chemokine receptors of neutrophils are CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR) 1 and CXCR2. (hindawi.com)
  • CXCR2 gets activated by ELR + chemokines, including MIP-2, KC (rodents) and IL-8 (human). (hindawi.com)
  • Since multiple ELR + CXC chemokines act on both receptors-CXCR1 and CXCR2-a pharmacologic agent blocking both receptors seems to be advantageous. (hindawi.com)
  • CXCR1 and CXCR2 are closely related receptors that recognize CXC chemokines that possess an E-L-R amino acid motif immediately adjacent to their CXC motif. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2 play a role in mediating neutrophil recruitment and neutrophil-dependent injury in several models of inflammation. (docme.ru)
  • The supernatant of Huh7.5‑IL17A cells promoted endothelial cell chemotaxis, which was attenuated by the C‑X‑C chemokine receptor type 2 (CXCR2) inhibitor SB225002. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In addition to VEGFA, some CXC chemokines have been shown to play important roles in promoting tumoral angiogenesis via the receptor C-X-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CXCR2). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chemokine signaling was essential for NRAS -dictated lung metastasis, since Cxcr1 and Cxcr2 deficient mice were immune to lung colonization. (ersjournals.com)
  • CXC chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2) has been reported to play an important role in the proliferation and invasion of gastric cancer cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CXCR2 is a member of the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily and the receptor for chemokines with the presence or absence of ELR motif (Glu-Leu-Arg). (biomedcentral.com)
  • GCP-2 or CXCL6 is a connective tissue derived CXC chemokine that can signal through the CXCR1 and CXCR2 receptors. (reliatech.de)
  • For example, in addition to chemotaxis, chemokines modulate lymphocyte development, priming and effector function [ 2 ] and play a critical role in immune surveillance. (mdpi.com)
  • In addition to being known for mediating chemotaxis, chemokines are all approximately 8-10 kilodaltons in mass and have four cysteine residues in conserved locations that are key to forming their 3-dimensional shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the potential application of chemokines in chemotaxis of exosomes as drug vehicles is discussed. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Exosomes containing chemokines or expressing receptors for chemokines may improve chemotaxis to HCC and may thus be exploited for targeted drug delivery. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chemokines are a class of cytokines that induce chemotaxis (migration) of target cells. (biolegend.com)
  • While some chemotaxis is induced by inflammation or damaged cells, other chemokines function in homeostasis. (biolegend.com)
  • The extravasation of leukocytes is controlled by chemokines, which are released at the site of inflammation and induce chemotaxis. (hindawi.com)
  • Besides chemotaxis, chemokines can activate integrins that mediate leukocyte adherence on endothelial cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Chemokines primarily act to promote leukocyte chemotaxis to sites of inflammation. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • Both CCL2 and CCL7 contribute to neutrophil chemotaxis during ARDS by synergising with chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8. (bmj.com)
  • In addition, the production of angiostatic chemokines such as CXCL10 was not affected. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Maternal Serum Concentrations of the Chemokine CXCL10/IP-10 Are Elevated in Acute Pyelonephritis During Pregnancy The Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine : the Official Journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians. (jove.com)
  • Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6 (CXCL6) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also known as granulocyte chemotactic protein 2 (GCP-2). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytokine proteins are classified as chemokines according to behavior and structural characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin (IL)-6, a multifunctional cytokine with regulatory functions in wound healing, and several chemokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) after rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). (arvojournals.org)
  • Chemokines are a class of small molecular proteins with similar structures, functions and chemotactic properties, and their molecular weights are ~10 kDa, and chemokines represent the largest member of the cytokine family ( 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • IR induced liver injury and inflammation, as evidenced by high levels of alanine aminotransferase and myeloperoxidase activity, chemokine and cytokine production, and histological outcome. (frontiersin.org)
  • We selected most pathways CCL1 participated on our site, such as Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, Chemokine signaling pathway, which may be useful for your reference. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The skin phenotype is characterized by acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, the presence of a mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate, and increased cytokine and chemokine expression. (rupress.org)
  • After the initial PMN influx, the next stage of inflammation is directed in part by CC chemokines consisting of CCL2/monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, CCL7/MCP-3, CCL8/MCP-2, and CCL13/MCP-4, which target multiple leukocyte subsets (monocytes, T lymphocytes, basophils, and eosinophils). (bloodjournal.org)
  • Once at the site of injury, immune cells can react by releasing additional cytokines and chemokines, bringing more cells into the fold. (biolegend.com)
  • In addition, neutrophils are capable of producing many cytokines and chemokines, which can influence the inflammatory response, as well as the immune response [ 4 , 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The various antimicrobial and cytotoxic compounds contained in granules can destroy malignant cells, and cytokines and chemokines secreted by neutrophils can also recruit other cells with antitumor activity [ 5 , 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • novicida -infected mice correlated with a delay in the upregulation of multiple proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as a delay in caspase-1 activation. (asm.org)
  • Strikingly, the initial delay in the upregulation of cytokines through 1 day postinfection was followed by profound upregulation of multiple cytokines and chemokines to levels consistent with hypercytokinemia described for severe sepsis. (asm.org)
  • Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • 1997). "CCR6, a CC chemokine receptor that interacts with macrophage inflammatory protein 3alpha and is highly expressed in human dendritic cells" . (wikipedia.org)
  • CXCL6 (C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 6) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the CXC subfamily of chemokines. (nih.gov)
  • This protein is proposed to bind the G-protein coupled receptor chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 2 to recruit neutrophils and to have homeostatic and inflammatory functions. (nih.gov)
  • All of these proteins exert their biological effects by interacting with G protein -linked transmembrane receptors called chemokine receptors , that are selectively found on the surfaces of their target cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokines bind to a variety of different receptors, which belong to the G-protein-binding receptor family, and there are ~23 types of chemokine receptors that have been discovered ( 10 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chemokines receptors are seven transmembrane spanning G protein-coupled receptors that allow cells to migrate towards increasing chemokine gradients. (biolegend.com)
  • They represent one subfamily of chemokine receptors, a large family of G protein-linked receptors that are known as seven transmembrane (7-TM) proteins, since they span the cell membrane seven times. (wikipedia.org)
  • MMPs accomplish these varied tasks by acting on a variety of protein substrates, such as antimicrobial peptides, adhesion proteins, receptors, cytokines, chemokines and extracellular-matrix proteins. (nature.com)
  • CXCL6 , hemokin (C-X-C motiv) ligand 6 , je mali citokin iz CXC hemokin familije koji je takođe poznat kao granulocit hemotaksni protein 2 (GCP-2). (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a glycosylated membrane protein and a non-specific receptor for several chemokines. (genecards.org)
  • ACKR1 (Atypical Chemokine Receptor 1 (Duffy Blood Group)) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • In addition to binding endogenous chemokines, these viral G protein-coupled receptors (vGPCRs) have acquired the ability to signal in a constitutive manner. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This leukocyte recruitment is tightly regulated by the interplay between endothelial cells and leukocytes, a process in which G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists, including complement factor C5a, bacterial peptides (e.g., fMLP), and chemokines, play a central role. (aspetjournals.org)
  • intramolecular disulphide bonds typically join the first to third, and the second to fourth cysteine residues, numbered as they appear in the protein sequence of the chemokine. (wikia.org)
  • The first two cysteines, in a chemokine, are situated close together near the N-terminal end of the mature protein, with the third cysteine residing in the centre of the molecule and the fourth close to the C-terminal end . (wikia.org)
  • GO annotations related to this gene include heparin binding and CXCR chemokine receptor binding . (genecards.org)
  • This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential vaccine adjuvants. (mdpi.com)
  • The gene for CXCL6 is located on human chromosome 4 in a cluster with other CXC chemokine genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using this novel technology, we did comparative analyses of gene expression for ∼23,000 transcripts in normal human fibroblasts and found that low-dose X-rays up-regulated a distinct set of chemokines that have not been shown to be associated with radiation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A gene on chromosome 4q13.3 that encodes an inflammatory chemokine which is chemotatic for neutrophils. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • CXCR6 was formerly called three different names (STRL33, BONZO, and TYMSTR) before being assigned CXCR6 based on its chromosomal location (within the chemokine receptor cluster on human chromosome 3p21) and its similarity to other chemokine receptors in its gene sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • We also showed that the severity of CTL-induced liver disease is ameliorated by the depletion of Gr-1 + cells (Gr-1 is an antigen highly expressed by neutrophils), which, secondarily, abolishes the intrahepatic recruitment of all antigen-nonspecific Gr-1 - mononuclear cells (NK and NKT cells, T and B lymphocytes, monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells) despite the strong induction of chemokine gene expression. (jci.org)
  • CXCL6 antibody neutralization prevents lung inflammation and fibrosis in mice in the bleomycin model. (nih.gov)
  • Chemokines are an important class of chemoattractant cytokines produced locally in tissues that provide the directional cues for the movement of blood-derived leukocytes in development, homeostasis, and inflammation. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The initial phase of inflammation involves a subset of CXC chemokines, which rapidly attract PMNs. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Thereby, the extravasation of leukocytes from the vascular system into the tissue is induced by chemokines that are released from the site of inflammation. (hindawi.com)
  • CXC chemokines mediate hepatic inflammation following reperfusion. (frontiersin.org)
  • However recent substrate identification studies reveal that MMPs are regulating the release or activation of chemokines, cytokines, growth factors, antibiotic peptides, and other bioactive molecules thus participating in physiological processes such as innate and adaptive immunity, inflammation, angiogenesis, bone remodelling, and neurite growth. (ersjournals.com)
  • In particular, several MMPs regulate the activity of chemokines, either directly or indirectly, thereby controlling many aspects of inflammation and immunity. (nature.com)
  • Indeed, as we discuss here, recent findings indicate that matrix metalloproteinases act on pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and other proteins to regulate varied aspects of inflammation and immunity. (nature.com)
  • Most chemokines bind to more than one receptor, while most receptors also display overlapping ligand specificity [ 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Use this table to quickly identify the chemokines that bind to each receptor. (biolegend.com)
  • CXC chemokine receptors are integral membrane proteins that specifically bind and respond to cytokines of the CXC chemokine family. (wikipedia.org)
  • By contrast, others chemokines are regulated by MMP cleavage of substrates that bind, retain and concentrate the chemotactic molecules in particular locations: that is, they establish chemokine gradients. (nature.com)
  • Among the most highly repressed genes upon PPARα activation were several chemokines (e.g. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Discover related pathways, diseases and genes to CXCL6/GCP-2 RNAi (H00006372-R01). (novusbio.com)
  • The five genes were DIRAS3 (DIRAS family, GTP-binding RAS-like 3), CXCL6 (chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6), SAMD5 (sterile alpha motif domain containing 5), CBFB (core-binding factor, beta subunit), and MEIS2 (meis homeobox 2). (molvis.org)
  • Inflammatory chemokines function mainly as chemoattractants for leukocytes , recruiting monocytes , neutrophils and other effector cells from the blood to sites of infection or tissue damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, at the wound site, MMP7 sheds chemokine-bound syndecan-1, a transmembrane proteoglycan, which in turn guides the transepithelial influx of neutrophils. (nature.com)
  • The chemokine receptors CXCR1CXCR2 modulate antigen-induced arthritis by regulating adhesion of neutrophils to the synovial microvasculature. (docme.ru)
  • Chemokine receptor expression on neutrophils from blood or BAL fluid of patients with ARDS was analysed by flow cytometry. (bmj.com)
  • Furthermore, neutrophils isolated from the blood or BAL fluid differentially regulated the cell surface expression of chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 1 and C-C chemokine receptor type 2 during ARDS. (bmj.com)
  • To what extent do the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL)2 and CCL7 contribute to the migratory activity of neutrophils during acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)? (bmj.com)
  • This showed increased expression of neutrophils and ligands in the interproximal region, in addition to revealing that both mutants caused a decrease in neutrophil migration and CXCL6 expression. (washington.edu)
  • Leukocyte adhesion molecule and chemokine production through lipoteichoic acid recognition by toll-like receptor 2 in cultured human lymphatic endo. (nih.gov)
  • This study has been designed to investigate the expression dynamics of LTA-induced leukocyte adhesion molecules and chemokines in cultured human lymphatic endothelium (LEC). (nih.gov)
  • These data suggest that the human lymphatic endothelial phenotype has TLR2-mediated LTA-recognition mechanisms, resulting in increased expression of inflammatory leukocyte adhesion molecules and phagocyte-attractive chemokines. (nih.gov)
  • Chemokines (Greek -kinos , movement) are a family of small cytokines , or signaling proteins secreted by cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokines are a family of small cytokines , or proteins secreted by cells . (wikia.org)
  • Proteins are classified as chemokines according to shared structural characteristics such as small size (they are all approximately 8-10 kilodaltons in size), and the presence of four cysteine residues in conserved locations that are key to forming their 3-dimensional shape. (wikia.org)
  • Proteins are classified into the chemokine family based on their structural characteristics, not just their ability to attract cells. (wikia.org)
  • Typical chemokine proteins are produced as pro-peptides , beginning with a signal peptide of approximately 20 amino acids that gets cleaved from the active (mature) portion of the molecule during the process of its secretion from the cell. (wikia.org)
  • CXC chemokine ligand 16 (CXCL16) mRNA has been detected in both inflamed and normal liver tissues and is strongly upregulated in the injured liver tissues in a murine model. (bvsalud.org)
  • The present invention provides a means of inhibiting the growth and metastasis of cancer cells by administering anti-chemokine antibodies. (google.com)
  • So far, the existence of more than 40 members of chemokines and 19 different chemokine receptors has been demonstrated [ 13 ], and most chemokine receptors have multiple chemokine ligands. (hindawi.com)
  • Chemokines are involved in the inflammatory response, tumor immune response, proliferation, invasion and metastasis via modulation of various signaling pathways. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Click on one of the chemokine subfamilies shown in the Explore Pathways box below to see the specific chemokines that belong to each group, their receptors, and the different immune cell types that have been shown to express the chemokine receptors. (rndsystems.com)
  • These data show that chemokines competing for related receptors and using similar signaling pathways do not synergize. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This study aimed at determining the role of the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL)2 and CCL7 in ARDS. (bmj.com)
  • Chemokines, which recruit and activate leukocytes, are classified by function (inflammatory or homeostatic) or by structure. (nih.gov)
  • Chemokines are a group of related chemoattractant peptides that are essential regulators of the immune system, both during homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. (mdpi.com)
  • Some chemokines are considered pro- inflammatory and can be induced during an immune response to recruit cells of the immune system to a site of infection , while others are considered homeostatic and are involved in controlling the migration of cells during normal processes of tissue maintenance or development . (wikipedia.org)
  • These are known as homeostatic chemokines and are produced and secreted without any need to stimulate their source cell(s). (wikipedia.org)
  • Homeostatic chemokines are constitutively expressed in particular organs or tissues. (biolegend.com)
  • Due to their function of targeting cells to specific organs, homeostatic chemokines can also be involved in cancer and metastasis. (biolegend.com)
  • Has a promiscuous chemokine-binding profile, interacting with inflammatory chemokines of both the CXC and the CC subfamilies but not with homeostatic chemokines. (genecards.org)
  • It has been found that chemokine networks may serve pivotal roles in inducing organ-specific metastasis ( 8 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In addition, chemokine receptors play a prominent role in cancer development (e.g., by inducing cellular proliferation or by modifying cellular migration patterns), resulting in cancer metastasis ( Balkwill, 2004 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing recruitment of antigen presenting cells (APCs) and effector cells to appropriate anatomical sites. (mdpi.com)
  • Thus, chemokines and their receptors directly or indirectly shape the tumor cell microenvironment, and regulate the biological behavior of the tumor. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • It is possible to identify the particular chemokines which are over-expressed in the tumor using methods of the invention and administer antibodies against that over-expressed chemokine. (google.com)
  • Taken together, these results demonstrated that IL‑17A may stimulate chemokine‑induced angiogenesis and promote tumor progression, independent of VEGF signaling. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The CXCL4 paralog CXCL4L1 is a less studied chemokine that has been suggested to exert an antiangiogenic function. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CXCR4 (also known as fusin) is the receptor for a chemokine known as CXCL12 (or SDF-1) and, as with CCR5, is utilized by HIV-1 to gain entry into target cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon sensing the inflammatory chemokine, cells will extravasate from the blood vessel and follow the gradient to its source. (biolegend.com)
  • Chemokines are small, soluble peptides and interact with cells through specific chemokine receptors. (hindawi.com)
  • Bio-Plex Pro™ Multiplex Immunoassays are built on magnetic beads for the quantitation of multiple cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors, including TGF-β. (bio-rad.com)
  • Atypical chemokine receptor that controls chemokine levels and localization via high-affinity chemokine binding that is uncoupled from classic ligand-driven signal transduction cascades, resulting instead in chemokine sequestration, degradation, or transcytosis. (genecards.org)
  • As its former name suggests, CXCL6 is a chemoattractant for neutrophilic granulocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The major role of chemokines is to act as a chemoattractant to guide the migration of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • After binding to the receptors, chemokines primarily serve a role in migration of leukocytes, such as monocytes, eosinophils and dendritic cells (DCs) ( 11 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • CXCR1 is one of more than 20 distinct chemokine receptors expressed in human leukocytes. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • CC and CXC chemokines coinduced in fibroblasts and leukocytes by cytokines and microbial agents determine the number of phagocytes infiltrating into inflamed tissues. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These coinduced chemokines may cooperate to attract leukocytes to the site of infection, thereby enhancing the outcome of an inflammatory response. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This invention relates to antibodies or the use of antibodies directed against certain chemokines. (google.com)
  • Conclusion This study highlights important inflammatory chemokines involved in regulating neutrophil migration, which may have potential value as therapeutic targets for the treatment of ARDS. (bmj.com)
  • 1997). "Cloning and characterization of a specific receptor for the novel CC chemokine MIP-3alpha from lung dendritic cells" . (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokines have been classified into four main subfamilies: CXC, CC, CX3C and XC. (wikipedia.org)
  • While a function of chemokines is to regulate lymphocyte trafficking, the view that chemokines act simply as "chemotactic cytokines" has evolved to include the many critical roles they play in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses. (mdpi.com)
  • In the context of cancer, the chemokine-chemokine receptor system plays paradoxical roles. (mdpi.com)
  • In the present review, the literature on the multifactorial roles of exosomes in HCC from PubMed, Cochrane library and Embase were obtained, with a specific focus on the functions and mechanisms of chemokines in HCC. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • To date, >50 chemokines have been found, which can be divided into four families: CXC, CX3C, CC and XC, according to the different positions of the conserved N‑terminal cysteine residues. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • 50 chemokines have been identified, which can be divided into four families: CXC, CX3C, CC and XC, based on the different positions of the conserved N-terminal cysteine residues ( 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • All chemokines share a typical Greek key structure that is stabilised by disulphide bonds between conserved cysteine residues. (wikia.org)