A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.
An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.
Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.
A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.
CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.
A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.
Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.
The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.
CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.
Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Proteins that specifically inhibit the growth of new blood vessels (ANGIOGENESIS, PHYSIOLOGIC).
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
The passage of cells across the layer of ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, i.e., the ENDOTHELIUM; or across the layer of EPITHELIAL CELLS, i.e. the EPITHELIUM.

Isolation of the CXC chemokines ENA-78, GRO alpha and GRO gamma from tumor cells and leukocytes reveals NH2-terminal heterogeneity. Functional comparison of different natural isoforms. (1/90)

Chemokines are a family of chemotactic peptides affecting leukocyte migration during the inflammatory response. Post-translational modification of chemokines has been shown to affect their biological potency. Here, the isolation and identification of natural isoforms of the neutrophil chemoattractants GRO alpha and GRO gamma and the epithelial-cell-derived neutrophil attractant-78 (ENA-78), is reported. Cultured tumor cells produced predominantly intact chemokine forms, whereas peripheral blood monocytes secreted mainly NH2-terminally truncated forms. The order of neutrophil chemotactic potency of these CXC chemokines was GRO alpha > GRO gamma > ENA-78 both for intact and truncated forms. However, truncated GRO alpha (4,5,6-73), GRO gamma (5-73) and ENA-78(8,9-78) were 30-fold, fivefold and threefold more active than the corresponding intact chemokine. As a consequence, truncated GRO alpha (4,5,6-73) was 300-fold more potent than intact ENA-78 indicating that both the type of chemokine and its mode of processing determine the chemotactic potency. Similar observations were made when intact and truncated GRO alpha, GRO gamma and ENA-78 were compared for their capacity to induce an increase in the intracellular calcium concentration in neutrophilic granulocytes, and to desensitize the calcium response towards the CXC chemokine granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 (GCP-2). It must be concluded that physiological proteolytic cleavage of CXC chemokines in general enhances the inflammatory response, whereas for CC chemokines NH2-terminal processing mostly results in reduced chemotactic potency.  (+info)

NH2- and COOH-terminal truncations of murine granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 augment the in vitro and in vivo neutrophil chemotactic potency. (2/90)

Chemokines are important mediators of leukocyte migration during the inflammatory response. Post-translational modifications affect the biological potency of chemokines. In addition to previously identified NH2-terminally truncated forms, COOH-terminally truncated forms of the CXC chemokine murine granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 (GCP-2) were purified from conditioned medium of stimulated fibroblasts. The truncations generated 28 natural murine GCP-2 isoforms containing 69-92 residues, including most intermediate forms. Both NH2- and COOH-terminal truncations of GCP-2 resulted in enhanced chemotactic potency for human and murine neutrophils in vitro. The truncated isoform GCP-2(9-78) was 30-fold more potent than intact GCP-2(1-92)/LPS-induced CXC chemokine (LIX) at inducing an intracellular calcium increase in human neutrophils. After intradermal injection in mice, GCP-2(9-78) was also more effective than GCP-2(1-92)/LIX at inducing neutrophil infiltration. Similar to human IL-8 and GCP-2, murine GCP-2(9-78) and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) induced calcium increases in both CXCR1 and CXCR2 transfectants. Murine GCP-2(9-78) could desensitize the calcium response induced by MIP-2 in human neutrophils and vice versa. Furthermore, MIP-2 and truncated GCP-2(9-78), but not intact GCP-2(1-92)/LIX, partially desensitized the calcium response to human IL-8 in human neutrophils. Taken together, these findings point to an important role of post-translationally modified GCP-2 to replace IL-8 in the mouse.  (+info)

GCP-2-induced internalization of IL-8 receptors: hierarchical relationships between GCP-2 and other ELR(+)-CXC chemokines and mechanisms regulating CXCR2 internalization and recycling. (3/90)

The chemotactic potencies of ELR(+)-CXC chemokines during acute inflammation are regulated by their binding affinities and by their ability to activate, desensitize, and internalize their specific receptors, CXCR1 and CXCR2. To gain insight into the fine mechanisms that control acute inflammatory processes, we have focused in this study on the highly potent ELR(+)-CXC chemokine Granulocyte Chemotactic Protein 2 (GCP-2), and on its ability to control the cell surface expression of CXCR1 and CXCR2. Although GCP-2 has been considered an effective ligand for both CXCR1 and CXCR2, our findings demonstrated that it was a potent inducer of CXCR2 internalization only. A functional hierarchy was shown to exist between GCP-2 and 2 other ELR(+)-CXC chemokines, IL-8 and NAP-2, in their abilities to induce CXCR1 and CXCR2 internalization, according to the following: IL-8 > GCP-2 > NAP-2. By the use of pertussis toxin (PTx), it was demonstrated that the actual events of G(alphai)-coupling to CXCR2 do not have a major role in the regulation of its internalization. Rather, CXCR2 internalization was shown to be negatively controlled by induction of signaling events, as indicated by the promotion of CXCR2 internalization following exposure to wortmannin, a potent inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3 kinases and PI4 kinases. Furthermore, our results suggest that rab11(+)-endosomes participate in the trafficking of CXCR2 through the endocytic pathway, to eventually allow its recycling back to the plasma membrane. To conclude, our findings shed light on the interrelationships between GCP-2 and other ELR(+)-CXC chemokines, and determine the mechanisms involved in the regulation of GCP-2-induced internalization and recycling of CXCR2. (Blood. 2000;95:1551-1559)  (+info)

Identification of a blood-derived chemoattractant for neutrophils and lymphocytes as a novel CC chemokine, Regakine-1. (4/90)

Chemokines constitute a large family of chemotactic cytokines that selectively attract different blood cell types. Although most inflammatory chemoattractants are only induced and released in the circulation during acute infection, a restricted number of CXC and CC chemokines are constitutively present in normal plasma at high concentrations. Here, such a chemotactic protein was purified to homogeneity from serum and fully identified as a novel CC chemokine by mass spectrometry and amino acid sequence analysis. The protein, tentatively designated Regakine-1, shows less than 50% sequence identity with any known chemokine. This novel CC chemokine chemoattracts both neutrophils and lymphocytes but not monocytes or eosinophils. Its modest chemotactic potency but high blood concentration is similar to that of other chemokines present in the circulation, such as hemofiltrate CC chemokine-1, platelet factor-4, and beta-thromboglobulin. Regakine-1 did not induce neutrophil chemokinesis. However, it synergized with the CXC chemokines interleukin-8 and granulocyte chemotactic protein-2, and the CC chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein-3, resulting in an at least a 2-fold increase of the neutrophil and lymphocyte chemotactic response, respectively. The biologic effects of homogeneous natural Regakine-1 were confirmed with chemically synthesized chemokine. Like other plasma chemokines, it is expected that Regakine-1 plays a unique role in the circulation during normal or pathologic conditions.  (+info)

Tumor angiogenesis induced by granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 as a countercurrent principle. (5/90)

Chemokine production by tumors is a well-known phenomenon, but its role in tumor biology remains debatable. Although intratumoral injection of granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 (GCP-2) had no effect on tumor parameters, needle-free stable expression of the chemokine resulted in enhanced tumor growth. It is shown here that tumors that express a potent form of GCP-2 induce a strong influx and activation of tumor-associated neutrophils. The production of GCP-2 leads to intratumoral expression of gelatinase B and advantage for tumor growth by increased angiogenesis. These results are in line with the countercurrent principle of chemokine action and support the notion that paraneoplastic expression of ELR-positive CXC chemokines has to be blocked rather than stimulated in cancer therapy.  (+info)

Differential regulation of ENA-78 and GCP-2 gene expression in human corneal keratocytes and epithelial cells. (6/90)

PURPOSE: To determine whether interleukin (IL)-1alpha- and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-stimulated human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) and human corneal keratocytes (HCKs) produce the alpha-chemokines epithelial cell-derived neutrophil attractant (ENA)-78 and granulocyte chemotactic protein (GCP)-2. METHODS: Cultures of HCECs and HCKs were stimulated with either human recombinant IL-1alpha or TNF-alpha. At selected times after stimulation, culture supernatants were harvested and assayed for ENA-78 and GCP-2 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RNA was extracted from cell cultures to measure steady state levels of intracellular ENA-78 and GCP-2 pre-mRNA and mRNA by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Exposure of HCECs to either IL-1alpha or TNF-alpha stimulated a more than 4.5-fold increase in ENA-78 RNA and protein synthesis without stimulating a significant increase in either GCP-2 RNA synthesis or protein production. Exposure of HCK to IL-1alpha stimulated a 10-fold increase in ENA-78 and GCP-2 RNA synthesis and a more than 300-fold increase in ENA-78 and GCP-2 protein production. In contrast, exposure of keratocytes to TNF-alpha significantly enhanced ENA-78 RNA synthesis, resulting in a more than 68-fold increase in ENA-78 protein synthesis without significantly enhancing either GCP-2 gene expression or protein secretion. CONCLUSIONS: ENA-78 gene expression is significantly enhanced in both HCECs and HCKs in response to either IL-1alpha or TNF-alpha stimulation. In contrast, GCP-2 synthesis is only inducible in IL-1alpha-stimulated HCKs. The results suggest that GCP-2 gene expression is more tightly regulated in diseased or injured corneal tissue than is ENA-78 gene expression.  (+info)

Cutting edge: SR-PSOX/CXC chemokine ligand 16 mediates bacterial phagocytosis by APCs through its chemokine domain. (7/90)

SR-PSOX and CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL)16, which were originally identified as a scavenger receptor and a transmembrane-type chemokine, respectively, are indicated to be identical. In this study, we demonstrate that membrane-bound SR-PSOX/CXCL16 mediates adhesion and phagocytosis of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Importantly, our prepared anti-SR-PSOX mAb, which suppressed chemotactic activity of SR-PSOX, significantly inhibited bacterial phagocytosis by human APCs including dendritic cells. Various scavenger receptor ligands inhibited the bacterial phagocytosis of SR-PSOX. In addition, the recognition specificity for bacteria was determined by only the chemokine domain of SR-PSOX/CXCL16. Thus, SR-PSOX/CXCL16 may play an important role in facilitating uptake of various pathogens and chemotaxis of T and NKT cells by APCs through its chemokine domain.  (+info)

GCP II (NAALADase) inhibition suppresses mossy fiber-CA3 synaptic neurotransmission by a presynaptic mechanism. (8/90)

We tested the hypothesis that endogenous N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) presynaptically inhibits glutamate release at mossy fiber-CA3 synapses. For this purpose, we made use of 2-(3-mercaptopropyl)pentanedioic acid (2-MPPA), an inhibitor of glutamate carboxypeptidase II [GCP II; also known as N-acetylated alpha-linked acidic dipeptidase (NAALADase)], the enzyme that hydrolyzes NAAG into N-acetylaspartate and glutamate. Application of 2-MPPA (1-20 microM) had no effect on intrinsic membrane properties of CA3 pyramidal neurons recorded in vitro in whole cell current- or voltage-clamp mode. Bath application of 10 microM 2-MPPA suppressed evoked excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) amplitudes. Attenuation of EPSC amplitudes was accompanied by a significant increase in paired-pulse facilitation (50-ms interpulse intervals), suggesting that a presynaptic mechanism is involved. The group II metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) antagonist 2S-2-amino-2-(1S,2S-2-carboxycyclopropyl-1-yl)-3-(xanth-9-y l) propanoic acid (LY341495) prevented the 2-MPPA-dependent suppression of EPSC amplitudes. 2-MPPA reduced the frequencies of TTX-insensitive miniature EPSCs (mEPSC), without affecting their amplitudes, further supporting a presynaptic action for GCP II inhibition. 2-MPPA-induced reduction of mEPSC frequencies was prevented by LY341495, reinforcing the role of presynaptic group II mGluR. Because GCP II inhibition is thought to increase NAAG levels, these results suggest that NAAG suppresses synaptic transmission at mossy fiber-CA3 synapses through presynaptic activation of group II mGluRs.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Beta-adrenergic receptor agonists induce the release of granulocyte chemotactic protein-2, oncostatin M, and vascular endothelial growth factor from macrophages. AU - Verhoeckx, K.C.M.. AU - Doornbos, R.P.. AU - Witkamp, R.F.. AU - de Greef, J.. AU - Rodenburg, R.J.T.. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. N2 - Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), oncostatin M (OSM), and granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 (GCP-2/CXCL6) are up-regulated in U937 macrophages and peripheral blood macrophages exposed to LPS, beta-adrenergic receptor (ß2-AR) agonists (e.g. zilpaterol, and clenbuterol) and some other agents that induce intracellular cAMP (prostaglandin E2, forskolin, and butyryl cAMP). LPS in combination with ß2-agonists and cAMP elevating agents had an additional effect on the release of VEGF, OSM, and CXCL6. These proteins are up-regulated after 16-24 h of exposure and this is mediated by the ß2-AR, as determined by time course experiments and the use of a specific ß2-AR antagonist (ICI ...
Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6 (CXCL6) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also known as granulocyte chemotactic protein 2 (GCP-2). As its former name suggests, CXCL6 is a chemoattractant for neutrophilic granulocytes. It elicits its chemotactic effects by interacting with the chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2. The gene for CXCL6 is located on human chromosome 4 in a cluster with other CXC chemokine genes. Proost P, Wuyts A, Conings R, Lenaerts J, Billiau A, Opdenakker G, Van Damme J (1993). Human and bovine granulocyte chemotactic protein-2: complete amino acid sequence and functional characterization as chemokines. Biochemistry. 32 (38): 10170-7. doi:10.1021/bi00089a037. PMID 8399143. Wuyts A, Van Osselaer N, Haelens A, Samson I, Herdewijn P, Ben-Baruch A, Oppenheim J, Proost P, Van Damme J (1997). Characterization of synthetic human granulocyte chemotactic protein 2: usage of chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2 and in vivo inflammatory properties. ...
CXCL10 (chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10), Authors: Frank Antonicelli, Philippe Bernard. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that was previously called GRO1 oncogene, GROα, KC, Neutrophil-activating protein 3 (NAP-3) and melanoma growth stimulating activity, alpha (MSGA-α). In humans, this protein is encoded by the CXCL1 gene.
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 8--also known as monocyte chemoattractant protein 2 (MCP-2), HC14, SCYA8, or SCYA10--is a protein encoded by the CCL8 gene. The precursor protein (109 amino acids) is cleaved to produce mature CCL8 (75 amino acids). CCL8 activates many different immune cells, including mast cells, eosinophils, and basophils (implicated in allergic responses), and monocytes, T cells, and NK cells (involved in the inflammatory response). CCL8 acts through binding to several different cell surface chemokine receptors, including CCR1, CCR2B, and CCR5 (one of the major co-receptors for HIV-1).. ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in negative regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
The multi-domain CX3CL1 transmembrane chemokine triggers leukocyte adherence without rolling and migration by presentingits chemokine domain (CD) to its receptor CX3CR1. Through the combination of functional adhesion assays with structural analysis using FRAP, we investigated the functional role of the other domains of CX3CL1, i.e., its mucin stalk, transmembrane domain and cytosolic domain. Our results indicate that the CX3CL1 molecular structure is finely adapted to capture CX3CR1 incirculating cells and that each domain has a specific purpose: the mucin stalk is stiffened by its high glycosylation to present the CD away from the membrane, the transmembrane domain generates the permanent aggregation of an adequate amount of monomers to guarantee adhesion and prevent rolling, and the cytosolic domain ensures adhesive robustness by interacting with the cytoskeleton. We propose a model in which quasi-immobile CX3CL1 bundles are organized to quickly generate adhesive patches with sufficiently high
Recombinant mouse Cxcl3 protein, fused to His-tag at N-terminus, was expressed in E. coli and purified by using conventional chromatography techniques.
Multiple studies have shown that CC motif chemokine ligand 19 (CCL19) promotes cell proliferation in several human cancers. The aim of this study was
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PE anti-mouse CCL5 (RANTES) Antibody - Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5), also known as regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), is a 10 kD protein primarily produced by CD8+ T cells.
Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-PPBP Antibody against Human pro-platelet basic protein (chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 7). Validated for Immunohistochemistry and Western Blot
SDF1 antibody (chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12) for ELISA, Neut, WB. Anti-SDF1 pAb (GTX10395) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
MIP1 alpha antibody (chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3) for ELISA, Neut, WB. Anti-MIP1 alpha pAb (GTX10381) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
小鼠CXCL5 ELISA试剂盒(GCP-2) ELISA试剂盒datasheet (ab100719).Abcam抗体、ELISA、激动剂拮抗剂、表观遗传试剂、蛋白多肽,使用效果保证,中国70%以上现货。
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antiproteinuric effect of chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 inhibition in subjects with acute proliferative lupus nephritis. AU - Ble, Alessandro. AU - Mosca, Marta. AU - Di Loreto, Giorgio. AU - Guglielmotti, Angelo. AU - Biondi, Giuseppe. AU - Bombardieri, Stefano. AU - Remuzzi, Giuseppe. AU - Ruggenenti, Piero. PY - 2011/10. Y1 - 2011/10. N2 - Background/Aims: To test the role of chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2) in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis (LN), we evaluated the effects of CCL2 inhibition by bindarit therapy in patients with systemic lupus and active renal disease. Methods: In this proof-of-concept, prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical study, 22 subjects with acute LN were assigned on a 1:1 ratio to 24-week treatment with bindarit (1,200 mg/day) or matching placebo. All subjects were on the same standardized steroid background therapy. Urinary CCL2, urinary albumin excretion (UAE), estimated glomerular filtration rate, time to remission and time to relapse ...
Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6 (CXCL6) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also known as granulocyte chemotactic protein 2 (GCP-2). As its former name suggests, CXCL6 is a chemoattractant for neutrophilic granulocytes.[1][2] It elicits its chemotactic effects by interacting with the chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2.[2] The gene for CXCL6 is located on human chromosome 4 in a cluster with other CXC chemokine genes.[3][4] ...
Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 (CXCL9) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also known as Monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG). CXCL9 is a T-cell chemoattractant, which is induced by IFN-γ. It is closely related to two other CXC chemokines called CXCL10 and CXCL11, whose genes are located near the gene for CXCL9 on human chromosome 4. CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 all elicit their chemotactic functions by interacting with the chemokine receptor CXCR3. Neutrophil collagenase/matrix metalloproteinase 8 (MMP-8) degrades CXCL9 and cleaves CXCL10 at two positions. Gelatinase B/matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) degrades CXCL10 and cleaves CXCL9 at three different sites in its extended carboxy-terminal region ...
Mouse macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2, also known as MIP-2-alpha) is the homolog of human chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2) protein, a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine subfamily. MIP-2 is also homologous to rat CINC-2. MIP-2 is expressed by activated monocytes and neutrophils at sites of inflammation. It has also been shown to control mucosal lymphocyte migration in mice. MIP-2/CXCL2 is also known as GRO2 oncogene, GRO-beta, SCYB, SCYB2, and melanoma growth stimulating activity beta (MSGA-beta).. ...
Background: Despite the importance of inflammation in cancer, the role of the cytokine IL-33, and its receptor ST2, in colon cancer is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of IL-33, and its receptor isoforms (ST2 and ST2L), in colon cancer. Methods: Serum levels of IL-33 and sST2 were determined with ELISA. ST2 and IL-33 expression was detected with quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), western blotting and immunohistochemistry. ST2 expression in CT26 cells was stably suppressed using ST2-specific shRNA. Cytokine and chemokine gene expression was detected with qRT-PCR. Results: Human colon tumours showed lower expression of ST2L as compared with adjacent non-tumour tissue (P,0.01). Moreover, the higher the tumour grade, the lower the expression of ST2L (P=0.026). Colon cancer cells expressed ST2 and IL-33 in vitro. Functional analyses showed that stimulation of tumour cells with IL-33 induced the expression of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2). Knockdown of ST2 in ...
The blood-brain barrier (BBB), made up of endothelial cells of capillaries in the brain, maintains the microenvironment of the central nervous system. During ischemia and traumatic brain injury (TBI), cellular disruption leading to mechanical insult results to the BBB being compromised. Oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) is the most commonly used in vitro model for ischemia. On the other hand, stretch injury is currently being used to model TBI in vitro. In this paper, the two methods are used alone or in combination, to assess their effects on cerebrovascular endothelial cells cEND in the presence or absence of astrocytic factors. Applying severe stretch and/or OGD to cEND cells in our experiments resulted to cell swelling and distortion. Damage to the cells induced release of lactate dehydrogenase enzyme (LDH) and nitric oxide (NO) into the cell culture medium. In addition, mRNA expression of inflammatory markers interleukin (I L)-6, IL-1\(\alpha\) chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and tumor ...
Rat CXCL5/ENA-78 ELISA Kit assay has a sensitivity of 9.375pg/ml.. Measure Rat CXCL5/ENA-78 in serum, blood, plasma, cell supernatant samples.
Results The serum levels of sCXCL16 in jSLE patients were higher than controls (p,0.001), they were also siginificantly higher in patients with alopecia or malar rash than other jSLE .Positive correlation was identified between serum levels of sCXCL16 and SLEDAI score. There was a significant positive correlation between sCXCL16 levels and severity of lupus nephritis as assessed by renal biopsy. Serum levels of sCXCL16 were positively significantly correlated with the 24 hour urine protein,ANA, SBP, DBP AND ESR 1st hour. Serum sCXCL16 level was significanly negatively correlated with C3 serum level. ...
Cell-based therapies have intriguing potential for the treatment of a variety of neurological disorders. One such example is genetically engineered cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) that are being investigated in brain tumor clinical trials. The development of methods for CTL delivery is critical to their use in the laboratory and clinical setting. In our study, we determined whether CTLs can migrate through fibrin matrices and if their migration, survival, and function could be modulated by adding chemokines to the matrix. Our results indicated that CTLs can freely migrate through fibrin matrices. As expected, the addition of the monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), also known as chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2), to the surrounding media increased egress of the CTLs out of the fibrin clot. Interleukin (IL) -2 and/or IL-15 embedded in the matrix enhanced T cell survival and further promoted T cell migration. The interleukin-13 receptor alpha 2 specific (IL-13R alpha2) T cells that traveled out of the
ENCODES a protein that exhibits kinase activity (ortholog); protein kinase activity (ortholog); protein kinase binding (ortholog); INVOLVED IN cellular hypotonic response (ortholog); cellular response to chemokine (ortholog); chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 signaling pathway (ortholog); ASSOCIATED WITH Animal Disease Models (ortholog); autistic disorder (ortholog); hypertension (ortholog); FOUND IN apical plasma membrane (ortholog); basolateral plasma membrane (ortholog); cytoplasm (ortholog)
The chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) is also referred to as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) and small inducible cytokine A2. CCL2 is a small cytokine that belongs to the CC chemokine family. CCL2 recruits monocytes, memory T cells, and dendritic cells to the sites of inflammation produced by either tissue injury or infection ...
Chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1 (CX3CL1) is a large cytokine protein of 373 amino acids. It contains multiple domains and is the only known member of the CX3C chemokine family. It is also commonly known under the names fractalkine (in humans) and neurotactin (in mice). The polypeptide structur...
Recombinant Human CXCL5 (ENA-78) (ELISA Std.) - CXCL5 is a member of the CXC family of chemokines, also known as epithelial activated peptide 78 (ENA-78).
Summary of CXCL8 (3-10C, AMCF-I, b-ENAP, GCP-1, GCP1, IL-8, IL8, K60, LECT, LUCT, LYNAP, MDNCF, MONAP, NAF, NAP-1, NAP1, SCYB8, TSG-1) expression in human tissue. Cytoplasmic expression in several lymphoid tissues.
Chicken polyclonal CXCL16 antibody validated for WB and tested in Human. With 1 independent review. Immunogen corresponding to recombinant fragment
Objective. Synovial fibroblasts share a number of phenotype markers with fibroblasts derived from bone marrow. In this study we investigated the role of matched fibroblasts obtained from 3 different sources (bone marrow, synovium, and skin) to test the hypothesis that synovial fibroblasts share similarities with bone marrow-derived fibroblasts in terms of their ability to support survival of T cells and neutrophils. Methods. Matched synovial, bone marrow, and skin fibroblasts were established from 8 different patients with rheumatoid arthritis who were undergoing knee or hip surgery. Resting or activated fibroblasts were cocultured with either CD4 T cells or neutrophils, and the degree of leukocyte survival, apoptosis, and proliferation were measured. Results. Fibroblasts derived from all 3 sites supported increased survival of CD4 T cells, mediated principally by interferon-beta. However, synovial and bone marrow fibroblasts shared an enhanced site-specific ability to maintain CD4 T cell ...
Lipid transporter involved in lipid countertransport between the endoplasmic reticulum and the plasma membrane: specifically exchanges phosphatidylserine with phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P), delivering phosphatidylserine to the plasma membrane in exchange for PI4P, which is degraded by the SAC1/SACM1L phosphatase in the endoplasmic reticulum. Binds phosphatidylserine and PI4P in a mutually exclusive manner (PubMed:23934110, PubMed:26206935). May cooperate with NPC1 to mediate the exit of cholesterol from endosomes/lysosomes (PubMed:21220512). Binds 25-hydroxycholesterol and cholesterol (PubMed:17428193).
Infobox_gene}} Interleukin 8 (IL8 or chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8, CXCL8) is a [[chemokine]] produced by [[macrophages]] and other cell types such as [[epithelial cells]], airway smooth muscle cells,ref name=pmid10873157>{{cite journal , vauthors = Hedges JC, Singer CA, Gerthoffer WT , title = Mitogen-activated protein kinases regulate cytokine gene expression in human airway myocytes , journal = Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. , volume = 23 , issue = 1 , pages = 86-94 , year = 2000 , pmid = 10873157 , doi = 10.1165/ajrcmb.23.1.4014 }},/ref> and endothelial cells. [[Endothelial cells]] store IL-8 in their storage vesicles, the [[Weibel-Palade bodies]].,ref name=pmid9802987>{{cite journal , vauthors = Wolff B, Burns AR, Middleton J, Rot A , title = Endothelial cell memory of inflammatory stimulation: human venular endothelial cells store interleukin 8 in Weibel-Palade bodies , journal = J. Exp. Med. , volume = 188 , issue = 9 , pages = 1757-62 , year = 1998 , pmid = ...
Rabbit polyclonal CXCL11 antibody validated for WB, ELISA, IHC, Neut, ICC/IF and tested in Human. Referenced in 3 publications and 1 independent review.
TY - JOUR. T1 - CXCL3 positively regulates adipogenic differentiation. AU - Kusuyama, Joji. AU - Komorizono, Anna. AU - Bandow, Kenjiro. AU - Ohnishi, Tomokazu. AU - Matsuguchi, Tetsuya. PY - 2016/10. Y1 - 2016/10. N2 - Chemokines are a family of cytokines inducing cell migration and inflammation. Recent reports have implicated the roles of chemokines in cell differentiation. However, little is known about the functional roles of chemokines in adipocytes. Here, we explored gene expression levels of chemokines and chemokine receptors during adipogenic differentiation. We have found that two chemokines, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 3 (CXCL3) and CXCL13, as well as CXC chemokine receptor 2(CXCR2), a CXCL3 receptor, are highly expressed in mature adipocytes. When 3T3-L1 cells and ST2 cells were induced to differentiate, both the number of lipid droplets and the expression levels of adipogenic markers were significantly promoted by the addition of CXCL3, but not CXCL13. Conversely, gene knockdown ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulated C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2) in luteal cells contributes to macrophage infiltration into the human corpus luteum during luteolysis. AU - Nio-Kobayashi, Junko. AU - Kudo, Masataka. AU - Sakuragi, Noriaki. AU - Kimura, Shunsuke. AU - Iwanaga, Toshihiko. AU - Colin Duncan, W.. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © The Author 2015.. PY - 2015/3/10. Y1 - 2015/3/10. N2 - Intense macrophage infiltration is observed during luteolysis in various animals including women; however, we still do not know how macrophage infiltration into the human corpus luteum (CL) during luteolysis is regulated. In this study, we examined the expression, localization and regulation of an important chemokine for the recruitment of monocyte/macrophage lineages,C-Cmotif ligand 2 (CCL2), in thehuman CL across the luteal phase and in cultured human luteinized granulosa cells (LGCs), with special reference to the number of infiltrating macrophages and luteal cell function. CCL2 mRNA increased in the non-functional ...
article{a4a89a77-6245-40ad-adfc-12ba8e92c5b8, abstract = {OBJECTIVE: Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease. Several chemokines are important for monocyte/macrophage and T-cell recruitment to the lesion. CXCL16 is a recently discovered chemokine that is expressed in soluble and transmembrane forms, ligates CXCR6 chemokine receptor, and guides migration of activated Th1 and Tc1 cells. It is identical to scavenger receptor SR-PSOX, which mediates uptake of oxidized low-density lipoprotein. We investigated whether CXCL16 expression is controlled by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-cytokine abundant in atherosclerotic lesions. METHODS AND RESULTS: CXCL16 and CXCR6 expression was identified by polymerase chain reaction and histochemistry in atherosclerotic lesions from humans and apolipoprotein-E-deficient mice. In vitro IFN-gamma induced CXCL16 in human monocytic THP-1 cells and primary human monocytes, which led to increased uptake of oxidized low-density lipoprotein in THP-1 cells, which could be ...
Psoriatic arthritis (PsA), an inflammatory musculoskeletal disease, develops in approximately 30% of patients with psoriasis. Previously, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10) was identified as a predictive biomarker of PsA in patients with psoriasis and was reduced after development of PsA. The purpose of the present study was to explore messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of CXCL10 and its receptor, chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 3 (CXCR3), in the joints of patients with PsA to gain insight into their role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Sera from 47 patients with PsA and 33 healthy control subjects were compared for expression of CXCL10 by Luminex assay. Synovial fluid (SF) was obtained from patients with PsA (n = 40), osteoarthritis (OA; n = 14), gout (n = 8), and rheumatoid arthritis (RA; n = 11) during clinical care. SF mRNA and protein expression of CXCL10, interleukin-17A (IL-17A), CXCR3, TBX21, RORC and/or interferon γ (IFNγ) were compared among the above-mentioned disease
Chemokines are a large group of chemotactic cytokines that play an important pathogenic role in inflammatory diseases and autoimmune disorders by enhancement of leukocyte recruitment and activation at inflammatory sites [3-6]. ENA-78 is a CXC chemokine that attracts neutrophils during inflammation [7].. In this work, serum levels of ENA-78 were significantly higher in autistic children than healthy control children (P , 0.001). In addition, 69.35% of autistic children had increased serum levels of ENA-78. This study was the first to investigate serum levels of ENA-78 in autistic children. ENA-78 is an inflammatory C-X-C chemokine that is encoded by the CXCL5 gene [28]. Its levels are elevated in myriad inflammatory conditions [29-32].. ENA-78 is an α chemokine which is produced concomitantly with IL-8 and melanoma growth stimulating activity [7]. The main stimuli for secretion of chemokines, including ENA-78, are the early signals elicited during innate immune response such as bacterial ...
History & Aims Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)induced angiogenesis is implicated in fibrogenesis and portal hypertension. motif) ligand 9. Conclusions In a mouse model of liver fibrosis resolution, VEGF promoted fibrogenesis, but was required for hepatic tissue repair and fibrosis resolution also. We noticed that VEGF regulates vascular permeability, monocyte infiltration, and scar-associated macrophages function. evaluation and check of variance when appropriate. Differences were regarded as significant when < .05. Outcomes VEGF-Neutralizing Antibody Impairs Fibrosis Quality in Vivo We 1st founded a murine style of fibrosis quality through the use of the gallbladder dilation occurring after BDL in mice, to accomplish an usage of reconstruct bile movement by virtue of CJ. Sham or CJ medical procedures was performed 14 days after BDL. Fourteen days after CJ, the complete bile duct program was drained through the built anastomosis with nearly complete hepatic cells repair (Shape 1ACC). ...
Abstract. Pentoxifylline is a tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) inhibitor that also attenuates the immune response and decreases tissue inflammation. The association of pentoxifylline with antimony improves the cure rate of mucosal and cutaneous leishmaniasis. In this randomized and double blind pilot trial, cure rate was higher, although not significant, in patients who received antimony plus pentoxifylline than in those patients receiving antimony plus placebo. A significant decrease in TNF-α and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) levels during therapy was more pronounced in the antimony plus pentoxifylline group, whereas CCL-3 (Chemokine [C-C motif] ligand 3) decreased similarly in both groups. The increased levels of CXCL-9 (Chemokine [C-X-C motif] ligand 9) during therapy were lower in the antimony plus pentoxifylline group. Therapy with pentoxifylline modifies cytokines and chemokines production, which may be associated with therapeutic outcome.
Chemokines mediate diverse fundamental biological processes, including combating infection. Multiple chemokines are expressed at the site of infection; thus chemokine synergy by heterodimer formation may play a role in determining function. Chemokine function involves interactions with G-protein-coupled receptors and sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAG). However, very little is known regarding heterodimer structural features and receptor and GAG interactions. Solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and molecular dynamics characterization of platelet-derived chemokine CXCL7 heterodimerization with chemokines CXCL1, CXCL4, and CXCL8 indicated that packing interactions promote CXCL7-CXCL1 and CXCL7-CXCL4 heterodimers, and electrostatic repulsive interactions disfavor the CXCL7-CXCL8 heterodimer. As characterizing the native heterodimer is challenging due to interference from monomers and homodimers, we engineered a
CXCL12 izaziva potentnu hemotaksu limfocita.[4][5][6][7] Tokom embriogeneze on usmerava migraciju hematopoetskih ćelija i formiranje velikih krvnih sudova. Miševi bez CXCL12 gena su letalni pre rođenja, ili u toku prvog sata života. Kod odraslih CXCL12 igra važnu ulogu u angiogenezi putem regrutovanja endotelnih progenitorskih ćelija (EPC) iz koštane srži kroz CXCR4 zavistan mehanizam.[8] Ova funkcija čini CXCL12 veoma važnim faktorom u karcinogenezi i neovaskularizaciji vezanoj za progresiju tumora.[9] CXCL12 takođe ima ulogu u metastazi tumora gde su ćelije raka koje izražavaju CXCR4 receptor privučene ka metastaznim ciljnim tkivima koja oslobađaju ligand, CXCL12.[10] Kod raka dojke, međutim, povećano CXCL12 izražavanje određuje umanjeni rizik od metastaze.[11][12] ...
Mhedbi-Hajri N, Hajri A, Boureau T, Darrasse A, Durand K, Brin C, Saux MF, Manceau C, Poussier S, Pruvost O, Lemaire C, Jacques MA ...
MCP-1 (5); Monoclonal anti-Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 antibody can be used in western blotting. Bulk and Prepack available at Sigmaaldrich.com.
Complete information for CXCL9 gene (Protein Coding), C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 9, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Aortic and plasma expression levels of IL-18 and CXCL16.(A) Reduced aortic mRNA expression of IL-18 and CXCL16, but no change in the expression of IFN-γ is obs
人生长调节致癌基因γ(GRO-γ/CXCL3) (Human)首选赛业生物,380余种细胞因子囊括生长调节致癌基因、生长因子、干扰素、白细胞介素、肿瘤坏死因子等所有细胞因子家族,种属齐包括人、鼠、恒河猴及其他种属。赛业提供的生长调节致癌基因品质优良:高活性、高纯度、高稳定性、无热源、无外源因子污染。
Preferred Name: CCL21-expressing H1944 Cell Vaccine Definition: A cancer cell vaccine comprised of the allogeneic human lung adenocarcinoma cell line H1944 that has been transduced ex vivo with adenoviral vector encoding human cytokine chemokine C-C motif ligand 21 (CCL21), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, CCL21-expressing H1944 cell vaccine expresses the chemokine CCL21, which may induce an antitumoral cytotoxic T-lymphocyte immune response in the tumor microenvironment. CCL21 has been shown to attract antigen presenting cells (APCs), like leukocytes and DCs, and natural killer (NK) cells and their T-cell effectors to induce a cytotoxic immune response. H1944 cells contain tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) overexpressed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Display Name: CCL21-expressing H1944 Cell Vaccine Label: CCL21-expressing H1944 Cell Vaccine NCI Thesaurus Code: C98281 (Search for linked caDSR metadata) (search value sets) NCI ...
It is well-documented that both chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19 (CCL19) and 21 (CCL21) mediate cell migration and angiogenesis in many diseases. However, these ligands precise pathological role in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) has not been elucidated. The objective of this study was to examine the expression of CCL19 and CCL21 (CCL19/CCL21) in AS hip ligament tissue (LT) and determine their pathological functions. The expression levels of CCL19, CCL21 and their receptor CCR7 in AS (n = 31) and osteoarthritis (OA, n = 21) LT were analyzed via real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The expression of CCL19, CCL21 and CCR7 in AS ligament fibroblasts was also detected. The proliferation of ligament fibroblasts was measured via a cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) assay after exogenous CCL19/CCL21 treatment. Additionally, the role of CCL19/CCL21 in osteogenesis was evaluated via RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in individual AS fibroblast cultures. Furthermore,
Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are rare, malignant tumors of mesenchymal origin that manifest in the connective tissues, including muscle, adipose and deep skin tissue, nerves, and joint tissue. Complications from primary or recurrent sarcomas often lead to increased morbidity, but the most lethal aspect of sarcomas is their propensity for hematogenous dissemination leading to metastatic disease. After development of distant metastases, the median survival for patients with STS is merely 11 to 15 months1,2. Therefore, gaining a better understanding of the metastatic environment is essential to developing new therapies. The tumor microenvironment has been implicated as an essential component for metastatic progression and one of the most prominent cell types of the tumor microenvironment is the cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF)3,4. CAFs promote tumor progression by stimulating angiogenesis, cancer cell growth, invasion and metastasis, and through evasion of the immune response5,6. Studies clearly ...
CXCL16, hemokin (C-X-C motiv) ligand 16, je mali citokin iz CXC hemokin familije. On je veći od drugih hemokina (sadrži 254 aminokiselina). CXCL16 se sastoji od CXC hemokin domaina, mucinu-slične stabljike, transmembranskog domaina i citoplazmatičnog repa koji sadrži potentno mesto tirozin fosforilacije koje može da veže SH2.[1] Ovo su neuobičajene osobine za hemokin, i omobućavaju CXCL16 da bude izražen kao molekul na ćelijskoj površini, kao i rastvorni hemokin.[2] CXCL16 proizvode dendritiske ćelije koje se mogu naći u T ćelijskim zonama limfoidnih organa, i ćelije iz crvene pulpe slezine.[1] Među ćelijama koje se vezuju i migriraju u responsu na CXCL16 su nekoliko podgrupa T ćelija, i NKT ćelije.[1] CXCL16 interaguje sa hemokin receptorom CXCR6, takođe poznatim kao Bonzo.[3][1] Ekspresiju CXCL16 indukuju inflamatorni citokini IFN-gama i TNF-alfa.[2] Gen za ljudski CXCL16 je lociran na hromozomu 17.[1][4] ...
CXCL12 izaziva potentnu hemotaksu limfocita.[4][5][6][7] Tokom embriogeneze on usmerava migraciju hematopoetskih ćelija i formiranje velikih krvnih sudova. Miševi bez CXCL12 gena su letalni pre rođenja, ili u toku prvog sata života. Kod odraslih CXCL12 igra važnu ulogu u angiogenezi putem regrutovanja endotelnih progenitorskih ćelija (EPC) iz koštane srži kroz CXCR4 zavistan mehanizam.[8] Ova funkcija čini CXCL12 veoma važnim faktorom u karcinogenezi i neovaskularizaciji vezanoj za progresiju tumora.[9] CXCL12 takođe ima ulogu u metastazi tumora gde su ćelije raka koje izražavaju CXCR4 receptor privučene ka metastaznim ciljnim tkivima koja oslobađaju ligand, CXCL12.[10] Kod raka dojke, međutim, povećano CXCL12 izražavanje određuje umanjeni rizik od metastaze.[11][12] ...
Monoclonal Anti-Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-2 antibody produced in mouse is suitable for indirect ELISA, western blot, neutralization
Cxcl14 - Cxcl14 (Myc-DDK-tagged) - Mouse chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 14 (Cxcl14) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Cxcl16 - Cxcl16 (GFP-tagged) - Mouse chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 16 (Cxcl16) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Speakers Nathalie Grün Human Papillomavirus in healthy youth Elin Sjöberg A novel role for the chemokine CXCL14 in epithelial to mesenchymal transition Chair Hanif Rassoolzadeh Welcome!
"Gelatinase B/MMP-9 and neutrophil collagenase/MMP-8 process the chemokines human GCP-2/CXCL6, ENA-78/CXCL5 and mouse GCP-2/LIX ...
... chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 5, scyb5 CXCL6: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6, scyb6 CXCL7: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 7 ... chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1, scyb1 CXCL2: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2, scyb2 CXCL3: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 3 ... chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9, scyb9 CXCL10: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10, scyb10 CXCL11: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ... scyb3 CXCL4: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 4, Platelet factor-4, PF-4, scyb4 CXCL5: ...
Cryptotope CX3CL1 CX3CR1 CXC chemokine receptors CXCL1 CXCL10 CXCL11 CXCL13 CXCL14 CXCL15 CXCL16 CXCL17 CXCL2 CXCL3 CXCL5 CXCL6 ... Breakthrough infection Broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies Bursa of Fabricius C-C chemokine receptor type 6 C-C chemokine ... CD4 CD4+ T cells and antitumor immunity CD74 CD94/NKG2 Cell-mediated immunity CELSR1 Central tolerance Chemokine Chemokine ... 7 Calreticulin Cancer immunology Cancer immunoprevention Cancer immunotherapy Cantuzumab ravtansine Cathelicidin CC chemokine ...
Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6 (CXCL6) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also known as ... The gene for CXCL6 is located on human chromosome 4 in a cluster with other CXC chemokine genes. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Modi W, Chen Z (1998). "Localization of the human CXC chemokine subfamily on the long arm of chromosome 4 using radiation ... O'Donovan N, Galvin M, Morgan J (1999). "Physical mapping of the CXC chemokine locus on human chromosome 4". Cytogenet Cell ...
CXCL8 (otherwise known as interleukin-8) and CXCL6 can both bind CXCR1 in humans, while all other ELR-positive chemokines, such ... CXC chemokine receptors are integral membrane proteins that specifically bind and respond to cytokines of the CXC chemokine ... However, CXCR6 is more closely related in structure to CC chemokine receptors than to other CXC chemokine receptors. ACKR3 was ... within the chemokine receptor cluster on human chromosome 3p21) and its similarity to other chemokine receptors in its gene ...
... is an antiviral or antineoplastic drug. It is a recombinant form of the protein Interferon alpha-2 that was originally sequenced and produced recombinantly in E. coli[1] in the laboratory of Charles Weissmann at the University of Zurich, in 1980.[2][3] It was developed at Biogen, and ultimately marketed by Schering-Plough under the trade name Intron-A. It was also produced in 1986 in recombinant human form, in the Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology of Havana, Cuba, under the name Heberon Alfa R.[4] It has been used for a wide range of indications, including viral infections and cancers. This drug is approved around the world for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C, chronic hepatitis B, hairy cell leukemia, Behçet's disease, chronic myelogenous leukemia, multiple myeloma, follicular lymphoma, carcinoid tumor, mastocytosis and malignant melanoma.[citation needed] The medication is being used in clinical trials to treat patients with SARS-CoV-2[5] and there are ...
... chemokine, IL-6, and interleukin 8 (IL-8).[82][80] IL-6 and IL-8 are the most conserved and robust features of SASP.[83] ...
Query Trace: Death and CXCL6[original query] Polymorphisms of key chemokine genes and survival of non-small cell lung cancer in ...
... chemokines, growth factors and ligands according to established SOPs.[6,9] For more information regarding limit of detection, ... CXCL6. 0.9588. ns. CXCL10. 0.0443. *. 4E-BP1. 0.2019. ns. SIRT2. 0.6022. ns. ...
Query Trace: Lung Neoplasms and CXCL6[original query] Polymorphisms of key chemokine genes and survival of non-small cell lung ...
The gene for CXCL6 is located on human chromosome 4 in a cluster with other CXC chemokine genes. ... CXCL6) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also known as granulocyte chemotactic protein 2 (GCP-2 ... It elicits its chemotactic effects by interacting with the chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2. ... As its former name suggests, CXCL6 is a chemoattractant for neutrophilic granulocytes. ...
Interferons were first described in 1957 by Alick Isaacs and Jean Lindenmann at the National Institute for Medical Research in London;[53][54][55] the discovery was a result of their studies of viral interference. Viral interference refers to the inhibition of virus growth caused by previous exposure of cells to an active or a heat-inactivated virus. Isaacs and Lindenmann were working with a system that involved the inhibition of the growth of live influenza virus in chicken embryo chorioallantoic membranes by heat-inactivated influenza virus. Their experiments revealed that this interference was mediated by a protein released by cells in the heat-inactivated influenza virus-treated membranes. They published their results in 1957 naming the antiviral factor they had discovered interferon.[54] The findings of Isaacs and Lindenmann have been widely confirmed and corroborated in the literature.[56] Furthermore, others may have made observations on interferons before the 1957 publication of Isaacs ...
CXCL6. C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 6 [Source.... 6373. 6373. CXCL11. C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 11 [Sourc.... ...
LIX contains the four conserved cysteine residues present in CXC chemokines, and also contains the 'ELR' motif common to CXC ... Recombinant Murine LIX (CXCL6) [93a.a] Protein. PROTP50228-3 BosterBio 20ug. EUR 317 ... Description: LIX is a CXC chemokine that signals through the CXCR2 receptor. It is expressed in monocytes, platelets, ... Description: A sandwich ELISA kit for quantitative measurement of Mouse LIX (Liposaccharide-Induced CXC chemokine) in samples ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (also CCL5) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CCL5 gene.[1] It is also known as ... Chemokine. References. *↑ 1.0 1.1 Donlon TA, Krensky AM, Wallace MR, Collins FS, Lovett M, Clayberger C (March 1990). " ... Alan M. Krensky (1995). Biology of the Chemokine in Rantes (Molecular Biology Intelligence Unit). R G Landes Co. ISBN 1-57059- ... This chemokine has been localized to chromosome 17 in humans.[1] RANTES was first identified in a search for genes expressed " ...
The CXC chemokine GCP-2/CXCL6 is predominantly induced in mesenchymal cells by interleukin-1beta and is down-regulated by ... The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of relevant CXC and CC chemokines, cytokines and chemokine ... Neutrophilic chemokines and their receptors. Immunohistochemical expression of neutrophilic chemokines and their receptors in ... Several chemokines of the CXC and CC family are involved in neutrophil chemotaxis.10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 ...
ACKR1 - Chemokine receptors. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical relevance of ... CXCL5 (CXCL5, P42830), CXCL6 (CXCL6, P80162), CXCL8 (CXCL8, P10145), CXCL11 (CXCL11, O14625), CCL2 (CCL2, P13500), CCL5 (CCL5, ... Duffy antigen/chemokine receptor , atypical chemokine receptor 1 , CD234 , Dfy , Duffy blood group, atypical chemokine receptor ... atypical chemokine receptor 1 (Duffy blood group) Mouse. 7. 334. 1 80.33 cM. Ackr1 atypical chemokine receptor 1 (Duffy blood ...
IL-20 is involved in many stages of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) progression.[15] IL-20 stimulates the secretion of chemokines MCP ...
Lymphotoxin beta is a type II membrane protein of the TNF family. It anchors lymphotoxin-alpha to the cell surface through heterotrimer formation. The predominant form on the lymphocyte surface is the lymphotoxin-alpha 1/beta 2 complex (e.g. 1 molecule alpha/2 molecules beta) and this complex is the primary ligand for the lymphotoxin-beta receptor. The minor complex is lymphotoxin-alpha 2/beta 1. LTB is an inducer of the inflammatory response system and involved in normal development of lymphoid tissue. Lymphotoxin-beta isoform b is unable to complex with lymphotoxin-alpha suggesting a function for lymphotoxin-beta which is independent of lymphotoxin-alpha. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms.[3] Pro-tumorigenic function of membrane LT is clearly established: mice with overexpression of LTα or LTβ showed increased tumor growth and metastasis in several models of cancer. However, these studies utilized mice with complete LTα gene deficiency ...
In particular, we found that the composition effectively suppressed LPS-activated gene expression of chemokines, including ... CCL17, CXCL6 and LTB(4) associated with pathways involved in inflammation and apoptosis. Our data support the hypothesis that ...
... the most enriched pathways included activation of chemokines and cytokines such as for example IL-8 CXCL1 IL-6 IL-1β and CXCL6 ... Tumour-derived LT and tumour-derived LT plus sT increased expression of multiple cytokines and chemokines which resulted in ... 6b). Elevated appearance of chemokines and cytokines is connected with cellular proliferation activation of cells motion/ ...
Serum amounts of CXCL6, IFN-γ, Galectin-1, -3, -9, IL-1α, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, IL-17, MICA, MIP-2 (CXCL2), ... Proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine activation. *. Antigen presenting cells engulf and process SARS-CoV-2 antigens ...
A number of key chemokines (CCL2, CCL5, CCL20, CXCL5, CXCL6, CXCL8) and NF-ĸB pathway were identified to be robust in the liver ... Indeed, the knockdown of CYLD resulted in sustained activation of NF-ĸB in macrophages and enhanced chemokines and inflammatory ... in line with the well-established role of CYLD in regulating most of the chemokines and pro-inflammatory cytokines (CCL2, CCL5 ... CCL20, CXCL5, CXCL6, CXCL8, IL-6, IL-1β) via inhibition of NF-ĸB. ...
Anti Human Chemokine. *Anti Human Cytokine. *Anti Human Heat Shock Protein. *Anti Human Enzyme ... CXCL6. *ENA-78 (CXCL5). *Eotaxin (CCL11,24,26). *Exodus-2 (CCL21). *Fractalkine (CX3CL1) ...
CXCL6. 6372. CXCL6. C-X-C motif chemokine liga.... CXCR2. 3579. CXCR2. C-X-C motif chemokine rece.... ...
Chemokine CXCL2 [D23.529.374.200.120.100] * Chemokine CXCL5 [D23.529.374.200.120.250] * Chemokine CXCL6 [D23.529.374.200. ... Chemokines [D12.644.276.374.200] * Chemokines, CXC [D12.644.276.374.200.120] * Chemokine CXCL1 [D12.644.276.374.200.120.050] ... Chemokines [D12.776.467.374.200] * Chemokines, CXC [D12.776.467.374.200.120] * Chemokine CXCL1 [D12.776.467.374.200.120.050] ... Chemokines [D23.529.374.200] * Chemokines, CXC [D23.529.374.200.120] * Chemokine CXCL1 [D23.529.374.200.120.050] ...
IL6, interleukin 6; CXCL8, interleukin 8; CXCL6, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6; ADAMTS4, A disintegrin and metalloproteinase ... IL6, interleukin 6; CXCL8, interleukin 8; CXCL6, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6; ADAMTS4, A disintegrin and metalloproteinase ... CXCL6 (Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6). 10.21. 1.35E-72. 3.34E-70. ... IL6, interleukin 6; CXCL6, Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6; ADAMTS4, A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin ...
It functions as one of the natural ligands for the chemokine receptor chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (CCR5), and it ... This chemokine, a member of the CC subfamily, functions as a chemoattractant for blood monocytes, memory T helper cells and ... Chemokines form a superfamily of secreted proteins involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. The superfamily is ... This gene is one of several chemokine genes clustered on the q-arm of chromosome 17. ...
Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6 (CXCL6) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also known as ... The gene for CXCL6 is located on human chromosome 4 in a cluster with other CXC chemokine genes. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Modi W, Chen Z (1998). "Localization of the human CXC chemokine subfamily on the long arm of chromosome 4 using radiation ... ODonovan N, Galvin M, Morgan J (1999). "Physical mapping of the CXC chemokine locus on human chromosome 4". Cytogenet Cell ...
... is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also called Interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant ... chemokine activity. Ccl12; IL8L2; CXCL32B.1; CXCL6; CCL18; CCL25B; CCL16; CCL26; CCL38.1; CKLF. ... chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11. Background. Chemokine (C-X-C motif); ligand 11 (CXCL11); is a small cytokine belonging to ... CXCL11 has several biochemical functions, for example, CXCR3 chemokine receptor binding, chemokine activity, heparin binding. ...
CXC chemokine characterized by a Glu-Leu-Arg (ELR) motif preceding the characteristic CXC sequence. CXCL5 chemoattracts and ... LPS-induced CXC chemokine (LIX), granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 (GCP-2), alveolar macrophage chemotactic factor-II (AMCF-II ... Mouse CXCL5 is the ortholog of human CXCL6.. Product Details Technical data sheet ... Chemokine Distribution Endothelial cells, fibroblasts, monocytes, macrophages, platelets, alveolar type II cells ...
The gene for CXCL6 is located on human chromosome 4 in a cluster with other CXC chemokine genes. ... CXCL6) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also known as granulocyte chemotactic protein 2 (GCP-2 ... It elicits its chemotactic effects by interacting with the chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2. ... As its former name suggests, CXCL6 is a chemoattractant for neutrophilic granulocytes. ...
In the last decades, it is emerging that the chemokine system represents a potential target for immunotherapy. Chemokines, a ... Chemokines, a large family of cytokines with chemotactic activity, and their cognate receptors are expressed by both cancer and ... Here, we review first attempts to inhibit the chemokine system in cancer as a monotherapy or in combination with canonical or ... Here, we review first attempts to inhibit the chemokine system in cancer as a monotherapy or in combination with canonical or ...
The CXC chemokine GCP-2/CXCL6 is predominantly induced in mesenchymal cells by interleukin-1beta and is down-regulated by ... The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of relevant CXC and CC chemokines, cytokines and chemokine ... Neutrophilic chemokines and their receptors. Immunohistochemical expression of neutrophilic chemokines and their receptors in ... Several chemokines of the CXC and CC family are involved in neutrophil chemotaxis.10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 ...
Chemokine receptors bind chemokines (Homo sapiens) * Receptor CXCR1 binds CXCL6 and CXCL8 ligands (Homo sapiens) * CXCR1 ... Homologues of CXCL6(38-114) [extracellular region] (Danio rerio) Homologues of CXCL6(38-114) [extracellular region] (Xenopus ...
Human Chemokine Array 1 Kit. Detects 40 Human Chemokines. Suitable for all liquid sample types. ... CXCL6 , IFNL1 , IFNL2 , IL17F , IL18BP , IL31 , IL9 , LIF , MIF , MST1 , PF4 , PPBP , SPP1 , TNFSF14 , TSLP , XCL1  View ... Quantibody® Human Chemokine Array 1 Kit. Detects 40 Human Chemokines. Suitable for all liquid sample types. ...
Query Trace: Death and CXCL6[original query] Polymorphisms of key chemokine genes and survival of non-small cell lung cancer in ...
CXCL6. 6372. CXCL6. C-X-C motif chemokine liga.... CXCR2. 3579. CXCR2. C-X-C motif chemokine rece.... ...
CXCR1 - Chemokine receptors. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical relevance of ... CXCL6 {Sp: Human} Hs. Full agonist. 7.0 pKi 57 ⤻. pKi 7.0 [57] ... chemokine receptor activity. TAS. GO:0016493. C-C chemokine ... CXCR1 is one of more than 20 distinct chemokine receptors expressed in human leukocytes. Chemokines primarily act to promote ... Update on the extended family of chemokine receptors and introducing a new nomenclature for atypical chemokine receptors. ...
RNAdjuvant® was the only one to induce most of the cytokines/chemokines tested with a pronounced Th1 cytokine pattern. ... cytokine and chemokine production was evaluated by Bio-Plex ProTM. Treatment with RNAdjuvant® induced the strongest response in ... α-chemokines (CX3CL1, CXCL1, CXCL10, CXCL11, CXCL12, CXCL13, CXCL16, CXCL2, CXCL5, CXCL6) and β-chemokines (CCL1 CCL11, CCL13, ... Cytokine and chemokine production was assessed by Bio-Plex Pro Human Chemokine 40-plex Panel (BioRad) in supernatant of PBMCs ...
IL6, interleukin 6; CXCL8, interleukin 8; CXCL6, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6; ADAMTS4, A disintegrin and metalloproteinase ... IL6, interleukin 6; CXCL8, interleukin 8; CXCL6, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6; ADAMTS4, A disintegrin and metalloproteinase ... CXCL6 (Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6). 10.21. 1.35E-72. 3.34E-70. ... IL6, interleukin 6; CXCL6, Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6; ADAMTS4, A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin ...
CXCL6. chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6 (granulocyte chemotactic protein 2). 0.015. ...
... and CXCL6) and cell adhesion molecules (VCAM1, ICAM1, and ITGB3) was explicitly obvious post-challenge with E. coli inducing a ... An immediate and strong up-regulation of genes encoding cytokines (IL1A and IL8), chemokines (CCL2, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, ... chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2, CCL2; chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligands CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, and CXCL6; interleukin 1 alpha, IL1A ... The higher up-regulation of chemokines that target mononuclear leukocytes by LPS than by S. aureus culture supernatant is ...
CXCL1 CXCL2 CXCL3 CXCL5 CXCL6 CXCL7 and CXCL8) [4-6] however not angiostatic (i.e. CXCL4 CXCL9 CXCL10 and CXCL11) CXC ... History Interleukin-8 (IL-8/CXCL-8) is a prototype of the ELR+CXC chemokines that. * Post author By conferencedequebec ... The CXC chemokine family is the unique group of cytokines known for their ability LY2886721 to act within a disparate way in ... History Interleukin-8 (IL-8/CXCL-8) is a prototype of the ELR+CXC chemokines that play an important role in the promotion and ...
... probably through the secretion of chemokines such as CXCL8/IL-8, CXCL1-2-3/GRO and CXCL6/GCP-2. Considering that HCC-stimulated ... Cytokine and chemokine antibody array. The presence of soluble factors in the CM were detected using the RayBio Human Chemokine ... probably due to an increase in chemokines such as CXCL8/IL-8, CXCL1-2-3/GRO and CXCL6/GCP-2. ... Figure 5: HCC CM modulated MSC chemokine profile. Antibody array of CM from unstimulated MSCs A., HC-PT-5-stimulated MSCs B., ...
In addition, (R)-TML104 significantly inhibited the expression of pancreatic chemokines C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 and ... 포함 단백질 1(CDCP1), 인터류킨(IL)-18R1, CXCL11, CCL3, IL8, IL12B, 종양 괴사 인자-베타, CXCL6, 골프로테게린, IL10, fms-related tyrosine kinase-3 리간드, ... Cmotif chemokine 10 (CXCL10), caspase 8, C‐C motif chemokine 20 (CCL20), CCL19, interferon γ, CUB domain‐containing protein 1 ( ... chemokine (C‐X‐C motif) ligand 9 (CXCL9), macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha (MIP1α), keratinocyte‐derived chemokine (KC ...
Chemokine CXCL2 [D23.529.374.200.120.100] * Chemokine CXCL5 [D23.529.374.200.120.250] * Chemokine CXCL6 [D23.529.374.200. ... Chemokines [D12.644.276.374.200] * Chemokines, CXC [D12.644.276.374.200.120] * Chemokine CXCL1 [D12.644.276.374.200.120.050] ... Chemokines [D12.776.467.374.200] * Chemokines, CXC [D12.776.467.374.200.120] * Chemokine CXCL1 [D12.776.467.374.200.120.050] ... Chemokines [D23.529.374.200] * Chemokines, CXC [D23.529.374.200.120] * Chemokine CXCL1 [D23.529.374.200.120.050] ...
CXCL6, INHBE, LEPR, PRL, and TNFRSF9 found in the cytokine-cytokine receptor pathway were up-regulated in the HC-fed cows, ... Cattle and chemokines: evidence for species-specific evolution of the bovine chemokine system. Anim Genet. 2011;42:341-53. ... Of the 13 DEGs involved in this pathway, 11 genes (such as IL-1β, IL-2, CCL19, CCL8, CX3CR1, CXCL6, IL-22, INHBE, LEPR, PRL, ... the receptor of chemokine CX3CL1, was also classified as an inflammatory chemokine [43]. In the present study, up-regulated ...
... which is also used by CXCL6, and through CXCR2/IL-8 RB, which is used by multiple CXC chemokines (1). These receptors associate ... is a widely expressed proinflammatory member of the CXC family of chemokines. Near its N-terminus, this 8-9 kDa chemokine ... 3-10C, AMCF-I, C-X-C motif chemokine 8, CXCL8, CXCL8SCYB8, Emoctakin, GCP-1TSG-1, GCP1, IL-8, IL8, K60, LAI, LECT, LUCT, LYNAP ...
ELR+ CXC chemokines have been associated with inflammatory arthritis due to their capacity to attract inflammatory cells. Here ... Results CXCL6 was expressed in healthy cartilage and was retained through binding to heparan sulfate proteoglycans. CXCR2−/− ... ELR+ CXC chemokines have been associated with inflammatory arthritis due to their capacity to attract inflammatory cells. Here ... ELR+ CXC chemokines have been associated with inflammatory arthritis due to their capacity to attract inflammatory cells. Here ...
In this study we show that LMW HA (4.3kDa) induced pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 and chemokines IL-8, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL6 and ... The blockage of CD44 expression by siRNA resulted in the attenuation of IL-6 and chemokines expression in LMW HA treated NHDF ... Conversely, NHDF treated by HMW HA revealed a tendency to decrease the gene expression of these cytokine and chemokines when ... Low molecular weight hyaluronan mediated CD44 dependent induction of IL-6 and chemokines in human dermal fibroblasts ...
... the most enriched pathways included activation of chemokines and cytokines such as for example IL-8 CXCL1 IL-6 IL-1β and CXCL6 ... Tumour-derived LT and tumour-derived LT plus sT increased expression of multiple cytokines and chemokines which resulted in ... 6b). Elevated appearance of chemokines and cytokines is connected with cellular proliferation activation of cells motion/ ...
A number of key chemokines (CCL2, CCL5, CCL20, CXCL5, CXCL6, CXCL8) and NF-ĸB pathway were identified to be robust in the liver ... Indeed, the knockdown of CYLD resulted in sustained activation of NF-ĸB in macrophages and enhanced chemokines and inflammatory ... in line with the well-established role of CYLD in regulating most of the chemokines and pro-inflammatory cytokines (CCL2, CCL5 ... CCL20, CXCL5, CXCL6, CXCL8, IL-6, IL-1β) via inhibition of NF-ĸB. ...
In particular, we found that the composition effectively suppressed LPS-activated gene expression of chemokines, including ... CCL17, CXCL6 and LTB(4) associated with pathways involved in inflammation and apoptosis. Our data support the hypothesis that ...
... showed an upregulation of chemokines such as CCL2, CXCL5, and CXCL6 that attract cytotoxic immune cells. This suggests the ... This study also investigated the induction of chemokine and cytokine production due to infection, which triggered an immune ...
Chemokines. Chemokines are small proteins best known for their role in controlling the migration of diverse cells, particularly ... and migration of the cells along chemokine gradients. Depending on the cell type, chemokines also induce many other types of ... "Chemokine oligomerization in cell signaling and migration." Progress in molecular biology and translational science 117 (2013 ... "Chemokines modulate immune surveillance in tumorigenesis, metastasis, and response to immunotherapy." Frontiers in immunology ...
  • Chemokines, are a family of small, secreted, and structurally related cytokines with a crucial role in inflammation and immunity ( 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Inflammatory CC (CCL2, CCL3, CCL5) and CXC (CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL5, CXCL6, and CXCL8) chemokines recruit at the tumor site CCR2 + monocytes and CXCR2 + neutrophils that differentiate into tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) and tumor associated neutrophils (TANs), exerting pro- or anti-tumoral role ( 7 - 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Interleukin-8 (IL-8), also known as CXCL8, GCP-1, and NAP-1, is a widely expressed proinflammatory member of the CXC family of chemokines. (bio-techne.com)
  • CXCL8 effects are mediated through CXCR1/IL-8 RA, which is also used by CXCL6, and through CXCR2/IL-8 RB, which is used by multiple CXC chemokines (1). (bio-techne.com)
  • A number of key chemokines (CCL2, CCL5, CCL20, CXCL5, CXCL6, CXCL8) and NF-ĸB pathway were identified to be robust in the liver samples from HBV-ACLF patients. (pubmed.pro)
  • Interestingly, cylindromatosis (CYLD) was found to be downregulated in the liver of HBV-ACLF patients, in line with the well-established role of CYLD in regulating most of the chemokines and pro-inflammatory cytokines (CCL2, CCL5, CCL20, CXCL5, CXCL6, CXCL8, IL-6, IL-1β) via inhibition of NF-ĸB. (pubmed.pro)
  • CXCL5 is an ELR-CXC chemokine characterized by a Glu-Leu-Arg (ELR) motif preceding the characteristic CXC sequence. (biolegend.com)
  • CXCL5 regulates the availability of binding sites for other ELR-CXC chemokines released during inflammation, through its interaction with erythrocyte duffy antigen receptor (DARC). (biolegend.com)
  • Therefore, CXCL5 acts as a regulator of chemokine scavenging and pulmonary host defense to bacterial infection. (biolegend.com)
  • Mouse CXCL5 is the ortholog of human CXCL6. (biolegend.com)
  • An immediate and strong up-regulation of genes encoding cytokines (IL1A and IL8), chemokines (CCL2, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, and CXCL6) and cell adhesion molecules (VCAM1, ICAM1, and ITGB3) was explicitly obvious post-challenge with E. coli inducing a rapid recruitment and activation of cells of host defense mediated by IL1B and TNF signaling. (biomedcentral.com)
  • nevertheless the most enriched pathways included activation of chemokines and cytokines such as for example IL-8 CXCL1 IL-6 IL-1β and CXCL6 (Fig. 6b). (buenavidaestudio.com)
  • It elicits its chemotactic effects by interacting with the chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conclusion Our results indicated that this polymorphisms in IL-8 and CXCR2 genes are associated with increased breast cancer risk as well as disease progress supporting our hypothesis for IL-8 and ELR+CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR2) involvement in breast cancer pathogenesis. (conferencedequebec.org)
  • Objective ELR+ CXC chemokines are heparin-binding cytokines signalling through the CXCR1 and CXCR2 receptors. (elsevier.com)
  • Description: LIX is a CXC chemokine that signals through the CXCR2 receptor. (fgf-4.com)
  • LIX contains the four conserved cysteine residues present in CXC chemokines, and also contains the 'ELR' motif common to CXC chemokine that bind to the CXCR1 and CXCR2 receptors. (fgf-4.com)
  • We selected most pathways CXCL11 participated on our site, such as Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, Chemokine signaling pathway, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, which may be useful for your reference. (creativebiomart.net)
  • A CXCR6 receptor-binding chemokine that functions as a scavenger receptor for oxidized low density lipoprotein (OxLDL) when expressed by MACROPHAGES. (jefferson.edu)
  • C-C motif chemokine receptor 9 [Source. (gsea-msigdb.org)
  • Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (also CCL5 ) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CCL5 gene . (wikidoc.org)
  • CCL5 is an 8kDa protein classified as a chemotactic cytokine or chemokine . (wikidoc.org)
  • IL-2 and IFN-γ ) that are released by T cells , CCL5 also induces the proliferation and activation of certain natural-killer ( NK ) cells to form CHAK (CC-Chemokine-activated killer) cells. (wikidoc.org)
  • Methods Chemokine receptors and ligands were detected by immunohistochemistry, western blotting and RT-PCR. (elsevier.com)
  • The panel included cytokines, chemokines, growth factors and ligands according to established SOPs. (medscape.com)
  • Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6 (CXCL6) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also known as granulocyte chemotactic protein 2 (GCP-2). (wikipedia.org)
  • The fetal outcomes, the apoptosis in placenta and JEG-3 cells, the expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (KC), and expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers were evaluated. (academic-accelerator.com)
  • Upon binding to their G-protein-coupled receptors on the leukocytes, chemokines stimulate the signaling events that cause cytoskeletal rearrangements involved in cell movement, and migration of the cells along chemokine gradients. (genscript.com)
  • On the contrary, chemokines, such as CCL21 and ELR − chemokines (CXCL4, CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11) inhibit angiogenesis and endothelial cell proliferation ( 26 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • cytokine and chemokine production was evaluated by Bio-Plex ProTM. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Tumour-derived LT and tumour-derived LT plus sT increased expression of multiple cytokines and chemokines which resulted in elevated levels of secreted IL-8. (buenavidaestudio.com)
  • We also provide recent findings about the role in cancer of atypical chemokine receptors that could become future targets for immunotherapy. (frontiersin.org)
  • PAMPs) and induce the innate immune response by activation of a signaling cascade resulting in the upregulation of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and type I IFNs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • ELR+ CXC chemokines have been associated with inflammatory arthritis due to their capacity to attract inflammatory cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Indeed, the knockdown of CYLD resulted in sustained activation of NF-ĸB in macrophages and enhanced chemokines and inflammatory cytokines production, which in turn enhanced chemotactic migration of neutrophil, monocyte, T lymphocytes, and NK cell. (pubmed.pro)
  • Chemokines produced by tumor itself, cancer-associated fibroblasts and infiltrating leukocytes ( 27 , 28 ), through the binding of chemokine receptors expressed by tumor cells, directly promote cancer cell proliferation activating different signaling pathways, such as PI3K/AKT/NF-κB and MAPK/ERK pathway ( 29 - 31 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • CXCR1 is one of more than 20 distinct chemokine receptors expressed in human leukocytes. (guidetoimmunopharmacology.org)
  • CXCL6 antibody neutralization prevents lung inflammation and fibrosis in mice in the bleomycin model. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Chemokines primarily act to promote leukocyte chemotaxis to sites of inflammation. (guidetoimmunopharmacology.org)
  • In particular, we found that the composition effectively suppressed LPS-activated gene expression of chemokines, including CCL17, CXCL6 and LTB(4) associated with pathways involved in inflammation and apoptosis. (hairloss-research.org)
  • Chemokines form nanoparticles with DNA and can superinduce TLR-driven immune inflammation. (peprotech.com)
  • RNAdjuvant ® was the only one to induce most of the cytokines/chemokines tested with a pronounced Th1 cytokine pattern. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Depending on the cell type, chemokines also induce many other types of cellular responses including those related to defense mechanisms, cell proliferation, survival, and development [1][2] . (genscript.com)
  • Also, other proteins which involved in the same pathway with CXCL6 were listed below. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Some of the functions are cooperated with other proteins, some of the functions could acted by CXCL6 itself. (creativebiomart.net)
  • We selected most functions CXCL6 had, and list some proteins which have the same functions with CXCL6. (creativebiomart.net)
  • CXCL6 has direct interactions with proteins and molecules. (creativebiomart.net)
  • We selected proteins and molecules interacted with CXCL6 here. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Chemokines are small proteins best known for their role in controlling the migration of diverse cells, particularly leukocytes. (genscript.com)
  • The gene for CXCL6 is located on human chromosome 4 in a cluster with other CXC chemokine genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polymorphisms of key chemokine genes and survival of non-small cell lung cancer in Chinese. (cdc.gov)
  • Some chemokines present at tumor site can modify leukocyte activation, for instance CXCL16 acting on CXCR6 induces macrophage polarization toward a pro-tumoral phenotype in solid tumors ( 11 , 12 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Both CC and CXC chemokines play a critical role in tumor angiogenesis, essential for tumor growth and metastatic spreading ( 19 , 20 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • ELR+ CXC chemokines play a significant function in tumor development and progression in several tumor model systems [8]. (conferencedequebec.org)
  • Chemokine CXCL16" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (jefferson.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Chemokine CXCL16" by people in this website by year, and whether "Chemokine CXCL16" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (jefferson.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Chemokine CXCL16" by people in Profiles. (jefferson.edu)
  • As its former name suggests, CXCL6 is a chemoattractant for neutrophilic granulocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • To investigate the expression of neutrophilic chemokines and adhesion molecules in bronchial biopsies from patients with stable COPD of different severity (GOLD stages I-IV) compared with age-matched control subjects, smokers with normal lung function and never smokers. (bmj.com)
  • HIF-1 alpha Plays a Role in the Chemotactic Migration of Hepatocarcinoma Cells Through the Modulation of CXCL6 Expression. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The proper movement of immune cells is orchestrated by the spatial and temporal expression of chemokines. (frontiersin.org)
  • Fewer studies have investigated the expression of CC chemokines in COPD. (bmj.com)
  • Moreover, the expression of C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 6 (CXCL6), a factor interplayed with BRD4, was increased in hepatic tissues of the patients with liver fibrosis. (figshare.com)
  • Elevated appearance of chemokines and cytokines is connected with cellular proliferation activation of cells motion/chemotaxis and. (buenavidaestudio.com)
  • The CXC chemokine family is the unique group of cytokines known for their ability LY2886721 to act within a disparate way in angiogenesis legislation. (conferencedequebec.org)
  • Several members from the CXC chemokine are powerful promoters of angiogenesis whereas others inhibit the angiogenic procedure. (conferencedequebec.org)
  • Quantibody ® Human Chemokine Array 1 Kit. (raybiotech.com)
  • Detects 40 Human Chemokines. (raybiotech.com)
  • History Interleukin-8 (IL-8/CXCL-8) is a prototype of the ELR+CXC chemokines that play an important role in the promotion and progression of many human cancers including breast cancer. (conferencedequebec.org)
  • It was subsequently determined to be a CC chemokine and expressed in more than 100 human diseases. (wikidoc.org)
  • This chemokine has been localized to chromosome 17 in humans. (wikidoc.org)
  • Chemokine oligomerization in cell signaling and migration. (genscript.com)
  • Chemokines, a large family of cytokines with chemotactic activity, and their cognate receptors are expressed by both cancer and stromal cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Several chemokines of the CXC and CC family are involved in neutrophil chemotaxis. (bmj.com)
  • The disparity in angiogenic activity among CXC chemokine family is related to three amino acidity structural domains on the N terminus Glu-Leu-Arg (ELR) which exists in angiogenic (i.e. (conferencedequebec.org)
  • Here, we review first attempts to inhibit the chemokine system in cancer as a monotherapy or in combination with canonical or immuno-mediated therapies. (frontiersin.org)
  • Conclusions Our study demonstrates an important physiological role for CXCR1/2 signalling in maintaining cartilage homeostasis and suggests that the loss of ELR+ CXC chemokines during cartilage breakdown in osteoarthritis contributes to the characteristic loss of chondrocyte phenotypic stability. (elsevier.com)