A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.
An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.
Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.
A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.
CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.
A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.
Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.
The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.
CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.
Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Proteins that specifically inhibit the growth of new blood vessels (ANGIOGENESIS, PHYSIOLOGIC).
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
The passage of cells across the layer of ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, i.e., the ENDOTHELIUM; or across the layer of EPITHELIAL CELLS, i.e. the EPITHELIUM.

Isolation of the CXC chemokines ENA-78, GRO alpha and GRO gamma from tumor cells and leukocytes reveals NH2-terminal heterogeneity. Functional comparison of different natural isoforms. (1/143)

Chemokines are a family of chemotactic peptides affecting leukocyte migration during the inflammatory response. Post-translational modification of chemokines has been shown to affect their biological potency. Here, the isolation and identification of natural isoforms of the neutrophil chemoattractants GRO alpha and GRO gamma and the epithelial-cell-derived neutrophil attractant-78 (ENA-78), is reported. Cultured tumor cells produced predominantly intact chemokine forms, whereas peripheral blood monocytes secreted mainly NH2-terminally truncated forms. The order of neutrophil chemotactic potency of these CXC chemokines was GRO alpha > GRO gamma > ENA-78 both for intact and truncated forms. However, truncated GRO alpha (4,5,6-73), GRO gamma (5-73) and ENA-78(8,9-78) were 30-fold, fivefold and threefold more active than the corresponding intact chemokine. As a consequence, truncated GRO alpha (4,5,6-73) was 300-fold more potent than intact ENA-78 indicating that both the type of chemokine and its mode of processing determine the chemotactic potency. Similar observations were made when intact and truncated GRO alpha, GRO gamma and ENA-78 were compared for their capacity to induce an increase in the intracellular calcium concentration in neutrophilic granulocytes, and to desensitize the calcium response towards the CXC chemokine granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 (GCP-2). It must be concluded that physiological proteolytic cleavage of CXC chemokines in general enhances the inflammatory response, whereas for CC chemokines NH2-terminal processing mostly results in reduced chemotactic potency.  (+info)

The role of an epithelial neutrophil-activating peptide-78-like protein in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis. (2/143)

The chemokine, epithelial neutrophil-activating peptide-78 (ENA-78), is a potent neutrophil chemotaxin whose expression is increased in inflamed synovial tissue and fluid in human rheumatoid arthritis compared with osteoarthritis. Since ENA-78 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of RA, we examined the expression of an ENA-78-like protein during the development of rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA). Using an ELISA assay, we found increased levels of antigenic ENA-78-like protein in the sera of AIA animals compared with control normal animals by day 7 postadjuvant injection. ENA-78-like protein levels continued to increase as AIA developed. ENA-78-like protein levels in joint homogenates were increased in AIA animals later in the development of the disease, by day 18 during maximal arthritis, compared with control animals. Expression of ENA-78-like protein in both the AIA serum and joint correlated with the progression of inflammation of the joints. Anti-human ENA-78 administered before disease onset modified the severity of AIA, while administration of anti-ENA-78 after clinical onset of AIA did not modify the disease. These data support a role for an ENA-78-like protein as an important chemokine in the progression and maintenance of AIA.  (+info)

Novel CXCR2-dependent liver regenerative qualities of ELR-containing CXC chemokines. (3/143)

Severe acute liver injury due to accidental or intentional acetaminophen overdose presents a major clinical dilemma often requiring liver transplantation. In the present study, liver regeneration after profound liver injury in mice challenged with acetaminophen was facilitated by the exogenous addition of ELR-containing CXC chemokines such as macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), epithelial neutrophil-activating protein-78 (ENA-78), or interleukin 8. Intravenous administration of ELR-CXC chemokines or N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) immediately after acetaminophen challenge in mice significantly reduced histological and biochemical markers of hepatic injury. However, when the intervention was delayed until 10 h after acetaminophen challenge, only ELR-CXC chemokines significantly reduced liver injury and mouse mortality. The delayed addition of ELR-CXC chemokines to cultured hepatocytes maintained the proliferation of these cells in a CXCR2-dependent fashion after acetaminophen challenge whereas delayed NAC treatment did not. These observations demonstrate that ELR-CXC chemokines represent novel hepatic regenerative factors that exhibit prolonged therapeutic effects after acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity.  (+info)

CXC-chemokines, a new group of cytokines in congestive heart failure--possible role of platelets and monocytes. (4/143)

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to examine the circulating levels of CXC-chemokines in patients with various degree of congestive heart failure (CHF). BACKGROUND: CXC-chemokines may be important mediators in the persistent immune activation observed in CHF patients by activation of circulating neutrophils, T-cells and monocytes and possibly by the recruitment of these cells into the failing myocardium. METHODS: Levels of interleukin (IL)-8, growth-regulated oncogene (GRO) alpha and epithelial neutrophil activating peptide (ENA)-78 were measured both in serum and in platelet-free plasma by enzyme immunoassay in 47 patients with CHF and in 20 healthy controls. RESULTS: (i) CHF patients had significantly elevated levels of all the three CXC-chemokines with IL-8 and GRO alpha showing a gradual increase along with increasing NYHA class. (ii) There was an inverse correlation between IL-8 and left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) and cardiac index (CI). (iii) Both unstimulated and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated monocytes from CHF patients released markedly elevated amounts of all three CXC-chemokines. (iv) Platelets from patients with severe CHF were characterised by decreased content of GRO alpha and ENA-78 as well as decreased release of these chemokines upon thrombin receptor stimulation. (v) Activated platelets stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro to enhanced release of IL-8, and neutralising antibodies against ENA-78 inhibited this interaction. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates for the first time elevated levels of CXC-chemokines in CHF, which may be of importance for progression of heart failure. Our findings further suggest that activated monocytes and platelets may contribute to enhanced CXC-chemokine levels in CHF.  (+info)

Differential ability of exogenous chemotactic agents to disrupt transendothelial migration of flowing neutrophils. (5/143)

Neutrophils migrate through endothelium using an ordered sequence of adhesive interactions and activating signals. To investigate the consequences of disruption of this sequence, we characterized adhesion and migration of neutrophils perfused over HUVEC that had been treated with TNF-alpha for 4 h and evaluated changes caused by exogenously added chemotactic agents. When HUVEC were treated with 2 U/ml TNF, flowing neutrophils adhered, with the majority rolling and relatively few migrating through the monolayer. If fMLP, IL-8, zymosan-activated plasma (a source of activated complement factor C5a), epithelial cell-derived neutrophil-activating peptide (ENA-78), or growth-regulating oncogene, GRO-alpha, was perfused over these neutrophils, they stopped rolling and rapidly migrated over the monolayer, but did not penetrate it. When HUVEC were treated with 100 U/ml TNF, the majority of adherent neutrophils transmigrated. If neutrophils were treated with fMLP, IL-8, C5a, ENA-78, or GRO-alpha just before perfusion over this HUVEC, transmigration, but not adhesion, was abolished. However, when platelet-activating factor was used to activate neutrophils, migration through HUVEC treated with 100 U/ml TNF was not impaired, and migration through HUVEC treated with 2 U/ml TNF was actually increased. Transmigration required ligation of CXC chemokine receptor-2 on neutrophils, and differential desensitization of this receptor (e.g., by fMLP but not platelet-activating factor) may explain the pattern of disruption of migration. Thus, transmigration may require presentation of the correct activators in the correct sequence, and inappropriate activation (e.g., by systemic activators) could cause pathological accumulation of neutrophils in the vessel lumen.  (+info)

Reduction of inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandin E2 by IL-13 gene therapy in rheumatoid arthritis synovium. (6/143)

The rheumatoid arthritis (RA) joint is characterized by an inflammatory synovial pannus which mediates tissue destruction. IL-13 is a cytokine that inhibits activated monocytes/macrophages from secreting a variety of proinflammatory molecules. The aim of this study was to examine whether gene therapy-delivered IL-13 could reduce the production of key proinflammatory mediators in RA synovial tissue (ST) explants. Adenoviral vectors encoding the genes for human IL-13 (AxCAIL-13) and bacterial beta-galactosidase were generated and examined for protein production. Vectors were used to infect RA ST explants and RA synovial fibroblasts, and conditioned medium (CM) was collected at various times for analysis by ELISA and competitive immunoassay. AxCAIL-13 decreased the production of RA ST explant proinflammatory IL-1beta by 85% after 24 h. Likewise, TNF-alpha levels were decreased by 82 and 75% whereas IL-8 levels were reduced 54 and 82% after 24 and 48 h, respectively, in RA ST explant CM. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 concentrations were decreased by 88% after 72 h in RA ST explant CM. RA ST explant epithelial neutrophil-activating peptide-78 concentrations were decreased 85 and 94% whereas growth-related gene product-alpha levels were decreased by 77 and 85% at 24 and 48 h, respectively, by AxCAIL-13. Further, IL-13 significantly decreased PGE2 and macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha production. These results demonstrate that increased expression of IL-13 via gene therapy may decrease RA-associated inflammation by reducing secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and PGE2.  (+info)

Reduced ex vivo chemokine production by polymorphonuclear cells after in vivo exposure of normal humans to endotoxin. (7/143)

Monocytes from patients with sepsis have a reduced capacity to produce cytokines, a state referred to as immunoparalysis. To determine whether polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) can be rendered hyporesponsive, PMNL from 6 healthy volunteers intravenously challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 4 ng/kg) were stimulated ex vivo with heat-killed bacteria or LPS, and the release of the CXC chemokines interleukin-8, epithelial-derived neutrophil attractant-78, and growth-related oncogen-alpha was measured. At 1 and 2 h after LPS administration in vivo, PMNL produced fewer CXC chemokines after stimulation with bacteria or LPS (all P<.05). Serum obtained 2 h after in vivo administration of LPS did not influence chemokine production by PMNL from 6 healthy volunteers not previously exposed to LPS. Thus, intravenous injection of LPS induces a refractory state of PMNL that is not caused by soluble factors produced in response to in vivo exposure to LPS.  (+info)

Chemotactic activity of CXC chemokines interleukin-8, growth-related oncogene-alpha, and epithelial cell-derived neutrophil-activating protein-78 in urine of patients with urosepsis. (8/143)

CXC chemokines are chemotactic cytokines that specifically act on neutrophils. To obtain insight into the extent of local production of CXC chemokines during acute pyelonephritis, interleukin (IL)-8, growth-related oncogene (GRO)-alpha, and epithelial cell-derived neutrophil-activating protein (ENA)-78 were measured in urine and plasma samples from patients with culture-proven urosepsis (n=33), healthy human control subjects with sterile urine (n=31), and human volunteers intravenously injected with endotoxin (n=11). Patients had profoundly elevated urine concentrations of chemokines with no (GRO-alpha and ENA-78) or little (IL-8) elevation in plasma. Endotoxin-challenged subjects demonstrated transient increases in plasma chemokine concentrations, with no (GRO-alpha) or little (IL-8 and ENA-78) elevation in urine. Urine from patients exerted chemotactic activity toward neutrophils, which was partially inhibited by neutralizing antibodies against IL-8, GRO-alpha, or ENA-78. During urosepsis, CXC chemokines are predominantly produced within the urinary tract, where they are involved in the recruitment of neutrophils to the urinary compartment.  (+info)

There are several key features of inflammation:

1. Increased blood flow: Blood vessels in the affected area dilate, allowing more blood to flow into the tissue and bringing with it immune cells, nutrients, and other signaling molecules.
2. Leukocyte migration: White blood cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes, migrate towards the site of inflammation in response to chemical signals.
3. Release of mediators: Inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines, are released by immune cells and other cells in the affected tissue. These molecules help to coordinate the immune response and attract more immune cells to the site of inflammation.
4. Activation of immune cells: Immune cells, such as macrophages and T cells, become activated and start to phagocytose (engulf) pathogens or damaged tissue.
5. Increased heat production: Inflammation can cause an increase in metabolic activity in the affected tissue, leading to increased heat production.
6. Redness and swelling: Increased blood flow and leakiness of blood vessels can cause redness and swelling in the affected area.
7. Pain: Inflammation can cause pain through the activation of nociceptors (pain-sensing neurons) and the release of pro-inflammatory mediators.

Inflammation can be acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is a short-term response to injury or infection, which helps to resolve the issue quickly. Chronic inflammation is a long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases such as arthritis, asthma, and cancer.

There are several types of inflammation, including:

1. Acute inflammation: A short-term response to injury or infection.
2. Chronic inflammation: A long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases.
3. Autoimmune inflammation: An inappropriate immune response against the body's own tissues.
4. Allergic inflammation: An immune response to a harmless substance, such as pollen or dust mites.
5. Parasitic inflammation: An immune response to parasites, such as worms or fungi.
6. Bacterial inflammation: An immune response to bacteria.
7. Viral inflammation: An immune response to viruses.
8. Fungal inflammation: An immune response to fungi.

There are several ways to reduce inflammation, including:

1. Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs).
2. Lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management, and getting enough sleep.
3. Alternative therapies, such as acupuncture, herbal supplements, and mind-body practices.
4. Addressing underlying conditions, such as hormonal imbalances, gut health issues, and chronic infections.
5. Using anti-inflammatory compounds found in certain foods, such as omega-3 fatty acids, turmeric, and ginger.

It's important to note that chronic inflammation can lead to a range of health problems, including:

1. Arthritis
2. Diabetes
3. Heart disease
4. Cancer
5. Alzheimer's disease
6. Parkinson's disease
7. Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.

Therefore, it's important to manage inflammation effectively to prevent these complications and improve overall health and well-being.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

The gene for CXCL5 has four exons and is located on human chromosome 4 amongst several other CXC chemokine genes. CXCL5 has ... C-X-C motif chemokine 5 (CXCL5 or ENA78) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CXCL5 gene. The protein encoded by this ... 2003). "Chemokine-cytokine cross-talk. The ELR+ CXC chemokine LIX (CXCL5) amplifies a proinflammatory cytokine response via a ... "Entrez Gene: CXCL5 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 5". Chang MS, McNinch J, Basu R, Simonet S (1994). "Cloning and ...
It was shown that the kinin B1 receptor recruits neutrophil via the chemokine CXCL5 production. Moreover, endothelial cells ... role for the kinin B1 receptor and the chemokine CXCL5". Journal of Immunology. 179 (7): 4849-56. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.179.7. ... have been described as a potential source for this B1 receptor-CXCL5 pathway. The B2 receptor is constitutively expressed and ...
... role for the kinin B1 receptor and the chemokine CXCL5". J. Immunol. 179 (7): 4849-56. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.179.7.4849. PMC ...
IL-17F can also induce expression of chemokines, such as CXCL1, CXCL5, interleukin 8, CCL7 and others, thereby promoting ... and TRAF6 as its signal transducers to induce the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in many different ... it can also resist bacteria through production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines that attract neutrophils and other ...
DARC has also been linked to rheumatoid arthritis (RA), possibly displaying chemokines such as CXCL5 on the surface of ... It mediates chemokine transcytosis, which leads to apical retention of intact chemokines and more leukocyte migration. Binding ... "Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines and CXCL5 are essential for the recruitment of neutrophils in a multicellular model of ... "Expression of chemokines and chemokine receptors during human renal transplant rejection". Am. J. Kidney Dis. 37 (3): 518-31. ...
"Gelatinase B/MMP-9 and neutrophil collagenase/MMP-8 process the chemokines human GCP-2/CXCL6, ENA-78/CXCL5 and mouse GCP-2/LIX ...
... scyb4 CXCL5: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 5, scyb5 CXCL6: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6, scyb6 CXCL7: chemokine (C-X-C ... chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1, scyb1 CXCL2: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2, scyb2 CXCL3: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 3 ... chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9, scyb9 CXCL10: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10, scyb10 CXCL11: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ... ligand 11, scyb11 CXCL13: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 13, scyb13 CYTL1: Cytokine-like 1 DCUN1D4: Defective in cullin ...
... is a chemokine receptor. IL8RB is also known as CXCR2, and CXCR2 is now the IUPHAR Committee on ... In addition, it binds ligands CXCL2, CXCL3, and CXCL5. The angiogenic effects of IL8 in intestinal microvascular endothelial ... Brandt E, Ludwig A, Petersen F, Flad HD (Oct 2000). "Platelet-derived CXC chemokines: old players in new games". Immunological ... Ahuja SK, Lee JC, Murphy PM (Jan 1996). "CXC chemokines bind to unique sets of selectivity determinants that can function ...
Cryptotope CX3CL1 CX3CR1 CXC chemokine receptors CXCL1 CXCL10 CXCL11 CXCL13 CXCL14 CXCL15 CXCL16 CXCL17 CXCL2 CXCL3 CXCL5 CXCL6 ... Breakthrough infection Broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies Bursa of Fabricius C-C chemokine receptor type 6 C-C chemokine ... CD4 CD4+ T cells and antitumor immunity CD74 CD94/NKG2 Cell-mediated immunity CELSR1 Central tolerance Chemokine Chemokine ... 7 Calreticulin Cancer immunology Cancer immunoprevention Cancer immunotherapy Cantuzumab ravtansine Cathelicidin CC chemokine ...
Other molecular signals for megakaryocyte differentiation include GM-CSF, IL-3, IL-6, IL-11, chemokines (SDF-1, FGF-4) and ... Other signals such as PF4, CXCL5, CXCL7, and CCL5 inhibit platelet formation. Megakaryocytes are directly responsible for ... "Chemokine-mediated interaction of hematopoietic progenitors with the bone marrow vascular niche is required for thrombopoiesis ...
The 2014 Ju-Jitsu World Championship were the 12th edition of the Ju-Jitsu World Championships, and were held in Paris, France from November 28 to November 30, 2014. 28.11.2014 - Men's and Women's Fighting System, Men's and Women's Jiu-Jitsu (ne-waza), Men's Duo System - Classic 29.11.2014 - Men's and Women's Fighting System, Men's and Women's Jiu-Jitsu (ne-waza), Women's Duo System - Classic 30.11.2014 - Men's Jiu-Jitsu (ne-waza), Mixed Duo System - Classic, Team event Vincent MATCZAK (2014-09-30). "4TH INVITAION TO WORLD CHAMPIONSHIP 2014" (PDF). Retrieved 2019-11-28.[dead link] Online results Official results (PDF) Mixed team event results (PDF) (All articles with dead external links, Articles with dead external links from April 2022, Ju-Jitsu World Championships, 2014 in French sport ...
Bolley L. "Bo" Johnson (born November 15, 1951) is an American politician from the state of Florida. A member of the Democratic Party, Johnson was a member of the Florida House of Representatives, and served as the Speaker of the Florida House of Representatives. Johnson is from Milton, Florida. His father and grandfather served as county commissioners for Santa Rosa County, Florida. Johnson graduated from Milton High School, and became the first member of his family to attend college. He received his bachelor's degree from Florida State University. Johnson volunteered for Mallory Horne when Horne served as the president of the Florida Senate. At the age of 22, Johnson met Lawton Chiles, then a member of the United States Senate, who hired him as a legislative aide in 1973. Johnson was elected to the Florida House of Representatives, representing the 4th district from November 7, 1978 to November 3, 1992. He also served the 1st district from November 3, 1992 to November 8, 1994. He became the ...
... may refer to: Don't Say No (Billy Squier album), a 1981 album by American rock singer Billy Squier, and its title track Don't Say No (Seohyun EP), a 2016 extended play by South Korean pop singer Seohyun, and its title track "Don't Say No" (Tom Tom Club song), from the 1988 album Boom Boom Chi Boom Boom "Don't Say No", by Robbie Williams from the 2005 album Intensive Care "Don't Say No Tonight", a 1985 single by Eugene Wilde This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Don't Say No. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. (Disambiguation pages with short descriptions, Short description is different from Wikidata, All article disambiguation pages, All disambiguation pages, Disambiguation pages ...
The Dewoitine 37 was the first of a family of 1930s French-built monoplane fighter aircraft. The D.37 was a single-seat aircraft of conventional configuration. Its fixed landing gear used a tailskid. The open cockpit was located slightly aft of the parasol wing. The radial engine allowed for a comparatively wide fuselage and cockpit. Design of this machine was by SAF-Avions Dewoitine but owing to over work at that companies plant at the time, manufacture of the D.37/01 was transferred to Lioré et Olivier. They were high-wing monoplanes of all-metal construction with valve head blisters on their engine cowlings. The first prototype flew in October 1931. Flight testing resulted in the need for multiple revisions in both engine and airframe, so it was February 1934 before the second prototype flew. Its performance prompted the French government to order for 28 for the Armée de l'Air and Aéronavale. The Lithuanian government ordered 14 that remained in service with their Air Force until 1936, ...
The Noor-ul-Ain (Persian: نور العين, lit. 'the light of the eye') is one of the largest pink diamonds in the world, and the centre piece of the tiara of the same name. The diamond is believed to have been recovered from the mines of Golconda, Hyderabad in India. It was first in possession with the nizam Abul Hasan Qutb Shah, later it was given as a peace offering to the Mughal emperor Aurangazeb when he defeated him in a siege. It was brought into the Iranian Imperial collection after the Persian king Nader Shah Afshar looted Delhi in the 18th century.[citation needed] The Noor-ul-Ain is believed to have once formed part of an even larger gem called the Great Table diamond. That larger diamond is thought to have been cut in two, with one section becoming the Noor-ul-Ain and the other the Daria-i-Noor diamond. Both of these pieces are currently part of the Iranian Crown Jewels. The Noor-ul-Ain is the principal diamond mounted in a tiara of the same name made for Iranian Empress Farah ...
The Benoist Land Tractor Type XII was one of the first enclosed cockpit, tractor configuration aircraft built. Benoist used "Model XII" to several aircraft that shared the same basic engine and wing design, but differed in fuselage and control surfaces. The Type XII was a tractor-engined conversion of the model XII headless pusher aircraft that resembled the Curtiss pusher aircraft. Demonstration pilots used Benoist aircraft to demonstrate the first parachute jumps, and the tractor configuration was considered much more suitable for the task. The first example named the "Military Plane" had a small box frame covered fuselage that left the occupants mostly exposed to the wind. The later model XII "Cross Country Plane" had a full fuselage that occupants sat inside of. The first tractor biplane used a wooden fuselage with a small seat on top. The wings were covered with a Goodyear rubberized cloth. The first model XII was built in the spring of 1912. On 1 March 1912, Albert Berry used a headless ...
... (also known as Yalmotx in Qʼanjobʼal) is a town, with a population of 17,166 (2018 census), and a municipality in the Guatemalan department of Huehuetenango. It is situated at 1450 metres above sea level. It covers a terrain of 1,174 km². The annual festival is April 29-May 4. Barillas has a tropical rainforest climate (Af) with heavy to very heavy rainfall year-round and extremely heavy rainfall from June to August. Citypopulation.de Population of departments and municipalities in Guatemala Citypopulation.de Population of cities & towns in Guatemala "Climate: Barillas". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved July 26, 2020. Muni in Spanish Website of Santa Cruz Barillas Coordinates: 15°48′05″N 91°18′45″W / 15.8014°N 91.3125°W / 15.8014; -91.3125 v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox settlement with no coordinates, Articles containing Q'anjob'al-language text, Coordinates on Wikidata, ...
Maria Margaret La Primaudaye Pollen (10 April 1838 - c. 1919), known as Minnie, was a decorative arts collector. As Mrs John Hungerford Pollen, she became known during the early-twentieth century as an authority on the history of textiles, publishing Seven Centuries of Lace in 1908. Maria Margaret La Primaudaye was born into a Huguenot family on 10 April 1838, the third child of the Revd Charles John La Primaudaye, a descendant of Pierre de La Primaudaye. She was educated in Italy. Her family converted to Catholicism in 1851, and it was in Rome that her father met another recent English convert, John Hungerford Pollen, previously an Anglican priest and a decorative artist. She became engaged to Pollen, who was then seventeen years her senior, in the summer of 1854, and was married in the church of Woodchester monastery, near Stroud, Gloucester, on 18 September 1855. The Pollens initially settled in Dublin, where John Hungerford Pollen had been offered the professorship of fine arts at the ...
Ronald Robert Fogleman (born January 27, 1942) is a retired United States Air Force general who served as the 15th Chief of Staff of the Air Force from 1994 to 1997 and as Commanding General of the United States Transportation Command from 1992 to 1994. A 1963 graduate from the United States Air Force Academy, he holds a master's degree in military history and political science from Duke University. A command pilot and a parachutist, he amassed more than 6,800 flying hours in fighter, transport, tanker and rotary wing aircraft. He flew 315 combat missions and logged 806 hours of combat flying in fighter aircraft. Eighty of his missions during the Vietnam War were as a "Misty FAC" in the F-100F Super Sabre at Phù Cát Air Base, South Vietnam between 25 December 1968 and 23 April 1969. Fogleman was shot down in Vietnam in 1968, while piloting an F-100. He was rescued by clinging to an AH-1 Cobra attack helicopter that landed at the crash site. In early assignments he instructed student pilots, ...
Peachtree Street" is a 1950 song co-written and recorded by Frank Sinatra in a duet with Rosemary Clooney. The song was released as a Columbia Records single. Frank Sinatra co-wrote the song with Leni Mason and Jimmy Saunders. Mason composed the music while Sinatra and Saunders wrote the lyrics. The song was arranged by George Siravo The song was released as an A side Columbia 10" 78 single, Catalog Number 38853, Matrix Number CO-43100-1 and as a 7" 33, 1-669. The B side was the re-issued "This Is the Night." Neither of the songs charted. The subject of the song is a stroll down the street in Atlanta, Georgia of the same name. Sinatra originally intended Dinah Shore to sing the duet with him. When Shore declined, Clooney was asked. The song was recorded on April 8, 1950. The song features spoken asides by Sinatra and Clooney. Rosemary Clooney asks: "Say, Frank, you wanna take a walk?" Frank Sinatra replies: "Sure, sweetie, just pick a street." He noted how there were no peach trees on the ...
... is a painting by American illustrator Norman Rockwell that depicts a Boy Scout in full uniform standing in front of a waving American flag. It was originally created by Rockwell in 1942 for the 1944 Brown & Bigelow Boy Scout Calendar. The model, Bob Hamilton, won a contest to be in the painting and personally delivered a print to the Vice President of the United States at the time, Henry A. Wallace. The painting was created to encourage Scouts to participate in the war effort during World War II. The name of the painting, We, Too, Have a Job to Do, comes from a slogan that the Boy Scouts of America used in 1942 to rally scouts to support the troops by collecting metal and planting victory gardens. The model, Bob Hamilton, won a contest with his local council in Albany, New York, to be depicted in the painting. He traveled to Rockwell's studio in Arlington, Vermont, to model for Rockwell. Since Hamilton was a scout, the uniform shown in the painting was his, unlike some ...
At least 33[failed verification] people were killed by a fuel tanker explosion in Tleil, Akkar District, Lebanon on 15 August 2021. The disaster was reportedly exacerbated by the ongoing Lebanese liquidity crisis; in which the Lebanese pound has plummeted and fuel has been in short supply. The survivors were evacuated by the Lebanese Red Cross. An investigation is underway. The fuel tanker had been confiscated by the Lebanese Armed Forces from black marketeers, the fuel was then distributed/taken by the locals. The son of the man whose land the fuel tanker was located on, was later arrested, accused of deliberately causing the explosion. Agencies (2021-08-15). "At least 20 killed and 79 injured in fuel tank explosion in Lebanon". the Guardian. Retrieved 2021-08-15. "Lebanon fuel explosion kills 22 and injures dozens more". The Independent. 2021-08-15. Archived from the original on 2021-08-15. Retrieved 2021-08-15. "Lebanon: At least 20 dead and dozens injured after fuel tank explodes as ...
The Straubing Tigers are a professional men's ice hockey team, based in Straubing, Germany, that competes in the Deutsche Eishockey Liga. Straubing plays its home games at the Eisstadion am Pulverturm, which has a capacity of 5,800 spectators. Promoted to the DEL in 2006, and operating with one of the league's smallest budgets, the team could finish no better than twelfth before the 2011-12 DEL season, when it reached the semi-finals of the playoffs. Their greatest success so far is the qualification for the season 2020-21 of the Champions Hockey League. In 1941, the then 14-year-old Max Pielmaier and his friends Max Pellkofer and Harry Poiger founded the first hockey team in Straubing. The first official game took place on the first of February 1942 in Hof and was lost by a score of 0:1. In the following year there were several games against other Bavarian teams. The game against Landshut on 31 January. 1943 was the last game during the second World War, because the young players also had to ...
Leina is a village in Saaremaa Parish, Saare County in western Estonia. Before the administrative reform in 2017, the village was in Pihtla Parish. "Lisa. Asustusüksuste nimistu" (PDF). haldusreform.fin.ee (in Estonian). Rahandusministeerium. Retrieved 5 December 2017. "Saaremaa külad endiste valdade piires". www.saaremaa.ee (in Estonian). Archived from the original on 3 December 2017. Retrieved 5 December 2017. Coordinates: 58°17′10″N 22°46′26″E / 58.28611°N 22.77389°E / 58.28611; 22.77389 v t e (CS1 Estonian-language sources (et), Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox settlement with no map, Pages using infobox settlement with no coordinates, Saaremaa Parish, Coordinates on Wikidata, Villages in Saare County, All stub articles, Saare County geography stubs ...
A sestiere (plural: sestieri) is a subdivision of certain Italian towns and cities. The word is from sesto ('sixth'), so it is thus used only for towns divided into six districts. The best-known example is the sestieri of Venice, but Ascoli Piceno, Genoa, Milan and Rapallo, for example, were also divided into sestieri. The medieval Lordship of Negroponte, on the island of Euboea, was also at times divided into six districts, each with a separate ruler, through the arbitration of Venice, which were known as sestieri. The island of Crete, a Venetian colony (the "Kingdom of Candia") from the Fourth Crusade, was also divided into six parts, named after the sestieri of Venice herself, while the capital Candia retained the status of a comune of Venice. The island of Burano north of Venice is also subdivided into sestieri. A variation of the word is occasionally found: the comune of Leonessa, for example, is divided into sesti or sixths. Other Italian towns with fewer than six official districts are ...
The Island Image is a Chesapeake Bay log canoe, built in 1885 at Elliot's Island, Maryland, by Herman Jones and Isaac Moore. She is 29'-8½" long with a beam of 5-10¼", and has a straight, raking stem and a sharp stern. It is privately owned, and races under No. 17. She one of the last 22 surviving traditional Chesapeake Bay racing log canoes that carry on a tradition of racing on the Eastern Shore of Maryland that has existed since the 1840s. She is located at Chestertown, Kent County, Maryland. She was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1985. "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. April 15, 2008. "Maryland Historical Trust". ISLAND IMAGE (log canoe). Maryland Historical Trust. 2008-06-14. "Island Image #17 , CBLCSA". Island Image. Chesapeake Bay Log Sailing Canoe Association. 2010-07-24. Archived from the original on 2011-07-08. Retrieved 2010-07-29. ISLAND IMAGE (log canoe), Kent County, including photo in 1984, ...
... (Persian: دهستان بردخون) is a rural district (dehestan) in the Bord Khun District of Deyr County, Bushehr Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 1,115, in 234 families. The rural district has 14 villages. "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)" (Excel). Statistical Center of Iran. Archived from the original on 2011-11-11. Coordinates: 27°58′N 51°32′E / 27.967°N 51.533°E / 27.967; 51.533 v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Pages using infobox settlement with no map, Pages using infobox settlement with no coordinates, Articles containing Persian-language text, Coordinates on Wikidata, Rural Districts of Bushehr Province, Deyr County, All stub articles, Deyr County geography stubs ...
... is a disease of camels caused by the camelpox virus (CMPV) of the family Poxviridae, subfamily Chordopoxvirinae, and the genus Orthopoxvirus. It causes skin lesions and a generalized infection. Approximately 25% of young camels that become infected will die from the disease, while infection in older camels is generally more mild. Although rare, the infection may spread to the hands of those that work closely with camels. The camelpox virus that causes camelpox is an orthopoxvirus that is very closely related to the variola virus that causes smallpox. It is a large, brick-shaped, enveloped virus that ranges in size from 265-295 nm. The viral genetic material is contained in a linear double-stranded DNA consisting of 202,182 tightly packed base pairs. The DNA is encased in the viral core. Two lateral bodies are found outside the viral core, and are believed to hold the enzymes required for viral reproduction. The camelpox virus most often affects members of family Camelidae. However, ...
... s (/ˈfɛzənt/ FEH-zənt) are birds of several genera within the family Phasianidae in the order Galliformes. Although they can be found all over the world in introduced (and captive) populations, the pheasant genera native range is restricted to Eurasia. The classification "pheasant" is paraphyletic, as birds referred to as pheasants are included within both the subfamilies Phasianinae and Pavoninae, and in many cases are more closely related to smaller phasianids, grouse, and turkey (formerly classified in Perdicinae, Tetraoninae, and Meleagridinae) than to other pheasants. Pheasants are characterised by strong sexual dimorphism, males being highly decorated with bright colours and adornments such as wattles. Males are usually larger than females and have longer tails. Males play no part in rearing the young. A pheasants call or cry can be recognised due to the fact it sounds like a rusty sink or valve being turned. Pheasants eat mostly seeds, grains, roots, and berries, while in the ...
Paul S. Mischel (born July 13, 1962) is an American physician-scientist whose laboratory has made pioneering discoveries in the pathogenesis of human cancer. He is currently a Professor and Vice Chair of Research for the Department of Pathology and Institute Scholar of ChEM-H, Stanford University. Mischel was elected into the American Society for Clinical Investigation (ASCI), serving as ASCI president in 2010/11. He was inducted into the Association of American Physicians, and was elected as a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Mischel was born on July 13, 1962. After losing his father to cancer, he became committed to a career in cancer research. He attended the University of Pennsylvania and received his M.D. from Cornell University Medical College in 1991, graduating Alpha Omega Alpha. Mischel completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology and Neuropathology at UCLA, followed by post-doctoral research training with Louis Reichardt at HHMI-UCSF. Mischel ...
Also Th2 type chemokines CCL24, CCL3 and CXCL5 were increased in the skin of Smad3-/- mice compared with wild-type mice. In the ... The number of neutrophils and expression of the chemokines CCL3 and CXCL5, which are both involved in neutrophil recruitment, ... The expression of the Th1 type cytokine IFN-gamma and the chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10 was, however, unaffected by the lack of ... Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify mRNA expression of cytokines, chemokines and ...
... chemokines, CXCLl-3 and CXCL5 (5). These multiple factors lead to an imbalance in the number and function of immune effector ...
Recombinant Human C-X-C motif chemokine 5(CXCL5),partial. CSB-EP006250HU1. E.coli. ... Recombinant Human C-C chemokine receptor type 8(CCR8) referenced in "The chemokine CCL1 triggers an AMFR-SPRY1 pathway that ... Chemokines. CD Antigen. FC Receptor. Immune Checkpoint. Colony Stimulating Factors. Growth Factors. Tumor Necrosis Factors. ... Recombinant Human C-C motif chemokine 5(CCL5). CSB-EP004800HU. E.coli. ...
TAN recruitment involved SOX2-mediated production of the chemokine CXCL5. Deletion of Nkx2-1 in SL mice (SNL) revealed that ...
Chemokine CXCL5 Entry term(s). CXCL5 Chemokine CXCL5, Chemokine Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 5 Protein Chemokine, CXCL5 ENA ... Chimiokine CXCL5 Entry term(s):. CXCL5 Chemokine. CXCL5, Chemokine. Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 5 Protein. Chemokine, CXCL5 ... Chemokine CXCL5 - Preferred Concept UI. M0504388. Scope note. A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL ... ENA 78 Chemokine. ENA-78 Chemokine. Endothelial Neutrophil Activating Peptide 78. Endothelial Neutrophil-Activating Peptide 78 ...
... including ELR-CXC chemokines (CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL5), CC chemokines (CCL2, CCL3, CCL4), cytokines (IL-1B, IL-6, G-CSF, VEGF-A), ... Altered Cytokine and Chemokine Expression Promotes Healing. Studies show that the early pro-angiogenic and pro-inflammatory ... and CXC-chemokines at the wound margin.6 This may indicate a change from a chronic, nonhealing wound to a natural healing state ...
CXCL5. ENSG00000163735. 73995642. 73998677. GTEx V9. CXCL5. ENSG00000163735. 73995641. 73998779. Gencode v40. CXCL5. ... Gene Name : C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 5. GTEx V8 NCBI GeneID : 6374. NCBI : NM_002994.5. NCBI : NP_002985.1. ...
Query Trace: Colorectal Neoplasms and CXCL5[original query]. Expression and gene polymorphisms of the chemokine CXCL5 in ...
... and chemokine receptors, CCR2, CCR4, CXCR5. In human PC cells, IL30 improved the release of IGF1 and CXCL5, which mediated, via ... Deletion of IL30 dramatically downregulated BCL2, NFKB1, STAT3, IGF1 and CXCL5, whereas tumor suppressors, primarily SOCS3, ... CXCL5 autocrine loop contributes to IL30 driven proliferation of human PC cells. Through its interaction with C-X-C chemokine ... Jacquelot N, Duong CPM, Belz GT, Zitvogel L. Targeting chemokines and chemokine receptors in melanoma and other cancers. Front ...
HN - 2008 BX - CXCL5 Chemokine MH - Chemokine CXCL6 UI - D054427 MN - D12.644.276.374.200.120.300 MN - D12.776.467.374.200.120. ... CCL3 Chemokine BX - CCL3L1 Chemokine BX - CCL3L2 Chemokine BX - CCL3L3 Chemokine BX - Chemokine CCL3L1 BX - Chemokine CCL3L2 BX ... CCL4L1 Chemokine BX - CCL4L2 Chemokine BX - Chemokine CCL4L1 BX - Chemokine CCL4L2 MH - Chemokine CCL11 UI - D054413 MN - ... HN - 2008(1990) BX - CXCL2 Chemokine MH - Chemokine CXCL5 UI - D054365 MN - D12.644.276.374.200.120.250 MN - D12.776.467.374. ...
CXCL5 and interleukin 6. Treatment with these cytokines increased the clonogenic activity and phenotypic expression of eMSCs. ... The chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1), CXCL5, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin-6 ( ... CXCL5 is known to be essential for bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) invasion and migration [35]. Whether CXCL5 has a ... Addition of CXCL5 (Fig. 5d, e), CXCLl (Fig. 5h, i) and IL-6 (Fig. 5j, k) significantly increased the colony formation (n = 4, P ...
CINC-2 and C-X-C motif chemokine 5 (CXCL5), which correlated with lung tissue gene expression, were observed in bronchoalveolar ...
... although other chemokines elevated by the injury were not significantly changed. The reduction in hepatic chemokine synthesis ... such as the chemokines CCL-2, CXCL-5, and CXCL-10, ... such as the chemokines CCL-2, CXCL-5, and CXCL-10, although ... The reduction in hepatic chemokine synthesis results in reduced numbers of circulating neutrophils, and also a reduction in the ... Acute Disease, Acute-Phase Reaction, Animals, Brain, Brain Injuries, Chemokines, Disease Models, Animal, Encephalitis, ...
Chemokines and their receptors promoting the recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells into the tumor. Mol Immunol. 2020; ... intra-tumor levels of CXCL5 and CXCL8 were significantly correlated with the degree of MDSC infiltration [38]. In ... MDSCs can be recruited to the primary and metastatic tumor sites by chemokines released by the tumor. In ovarian cancer cells, ... Resident stroma-secreted chemokine CCL2 governs myeloid-derived suppressor cells in the tumor microenvironment. JCI Insight. ...
CXCL5 CXCL9 CXCL10 CXCL13 DDX5 F4/80 FcepsilonRIalpha FGF-6 FOXP3 I-A/I-E I-Ak IFN-gamma Ig light chain kappa Ig light chain ... Cytokine/Chemokine Antibodies (80) ELISA MAX/LEGEND MAX/RAPID MAX (7) Human Immunology Antibodies (1) LEGENDplex (13) ...
LIF is often added to stem cell culture media as an alternative to feeder cell culture, due to the limitation that feeder cells present by only producing LIF on their cell surfaces. Feeder cells lacking the LIF gene do not effectively support stem cells.[3] LIF promotes self-renewal by recruiting signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3). Stat3 is recruited to the activated LIF receptor and phosphorylated by Janus kinase. It bears noting that LIF and Stat3 are not sufficient to inhibit stem cell differentiation, as cells will differentiate upon removal of serum. During the reversibility phase of differentiation from naive pluripotency, it is possible to revert cells back to naive pluripotency through the addition of LIF.[4] Removal of LIF pushes stem cells toward differentiation, however genetic manipulation of embryonic stem cells allows for LIF independent growth, notably overexpression of the gene Nanog. LIF is typically added to stem cell culture medium to reduce spontaneous ...
Its murine homologues are KC/CXCL1, MIP-2/CXCL2 and LIX/CXCL5, which vary temporally, spatially and in intensity when released ... Rovai LE, Herschman HR, Smith JB: The murine neutrophil-chemoattractant chemokines LIX, KC, and MIP-2 have distinct induction ... Reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine, chemokine, and EC adhesion molecule levels are usually associated with better radiotoxicity ... selective reduction of chemokine and receptor mRNA expression in irradiated skin but not in irradiated mammary tumor. Am J Clin ...
Implication of CXCL5 (Epithelial neutrophil-activating peptide 78) in the Development of Insulin Resistance in Patients with ... Epithelial Neutrophil-Activating Peptide 78/C-X-C Motif Chemokine 5 in the Insulin Resistance of Patients with Rheumatoid ...
Chemokine CXCL2. Quimiocina CXCL2. Quimiocina CXCL5. Chemokine CXCL5. Quimiocina CXCL5. Quimiocina CXCL6. Chemokine CXCL6. ...
Chemokine stromal derived issue 1 (SDF-1) is concerned in trafficking of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from the bone marrow ( ...
The chemokine CXCL5 which is expressed by epithelial cells within colorectal mucosa is a chemoattractant for neutrophil … ... Several studies indicate that chemokines play important roles in colorectal mucosal immunity by recruiting leukocytes into and ... Expression and gene polymorphisms of the chemokine CXCL5 in colorectal cancer patients Jan Dimberg et al. Int J Oncol. 2007 Jul ... Expression and gene polymorphisms of the chemokine CXCL5 in colorectal cancer patients Jan Dimberg 1 , Olaf Dienus, Sture ...
CXCL5. Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 5. Chemoattractant. IFN-α. No change. ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4. IFN-stimulated gene. IFN-α and IFN-λ. Infected only. ... Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10. Chemoattractant. IFN-λ. Infected , Uninfected cells. ...
CXCL5. C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 5. G-protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway. −. 3.4. ,. 0.0001. ... C-C motif chemokine ligand 13. G-protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway. −. 9.8. ,. 0.0001. ...
The levels of CXCL5, a chemokine inhibited by INF-γ, were significantly low in all time intervals, further supporting INF-γ ... Serum Cytokine/Chemokine Levels Cytokine/chemokine values varied both over time and between patient and control groups (Table 3 ... CXCL5 was the only chemokine that correlated with hemoglobin and ESR levels. ... Cytokine/Chemokine Profiling. We studied serum cytokine/chemokine levels from the serum samples collected 8-12, 48-60, and 96- ...
Chemokine CCL20/biosynthesis*; Chemokine CCL20/genetics; Chemokine CXCL5/biosynthesis*; Chemokine CXCL5/genetics; Epithelial ... The induction of CXCL5 and CCL20 via PAR2 was inhibited by PAR2 siRNA. These findings indicate an active role in innate immune ... Induction of CXCL5 via PAR1 was inhibited in the presence of PAR1 cleavage blocking antibodies and by PAR1 siRNA. ... Activation of PAR via proteolytic activity of thrombin and trypsin induces expression of CXCL5/ENA-78 and CCL20/MIP3alpha in a ...
CXCL5 and CXCL8 and CCL1, CCL3 and CCL5 chemokines. Disposable immunoaffinity disks with immobilized antibodies were used to ... Chemokines eluted in the following order: 1. CXCL8, 2. CCL5, 3. CXCL1, 4. CXCL5, 5. CCL3, 6. CCL1, *free dye. ... Assessment of chemokine profiles in human skin biopsies by an immunoaffinity capillary electrophoresis chip Heather Kalish 1 , ... Assessment of chemokine profiles in human skin biopsies by an immunoaffinity capillary electrophoresis chip Heather Kalish et ...
1. Expression and gene polymorphisms of the chemokine CXCL5 in colorectal cancer patients.. Dimberg J; Dienus O; Löfgren S; ... ELR+ CXC chemokine expression in benign and malignant colorectal conditions.. Rubie C; Frick VO; Wagner M; Schuld J; Gräber S; ... 8. Chemokines in human colorectal carcinoma.. Baier PK; Eggstein S; Wolff-Vorbeck G; Baumgartner U; Hopt UT. Anticancer Res; ... 9. CXCL5, a promoter of cell proliferation, migration and invasion, is a novel serum prognostic marker in patients with ...
CXCL5 is a biomarker being researched by EDRN ... CXCL5 is a biomarker being researched by EDRN ... From NCBI Gene: This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the CXC subfamily of chemokines. Chemokines, which recruit and ... This protein is proposed to bind the G-protein coupled receptor chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 2 to recruit neutrophils, to ...
CXCL5 Chemokine Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 5 Protein ENA-78 Chemokine Endothelial Neutrophil-Activating Peptide 78 ... Chemokine CXCL5 Preferred Concept UI. M0504388. Registry Number. 0. Scope Note. A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed ... Chemokines [D12.644.276.374.200] * Chemokines, CXC [D12.644.276.374.200.120] * Chemokine CXCL1 [D12.644.276.374.200.120.050] ... Chemokines [D12.776.467.374.200] * Chemokines, CXC [D12.776.467.374.200.120] * Chemokine CXCL1 [D12.776.467.374.200.120.050] ...
CXCL5 Chemokine Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 5 Protein ENA-78 Chemokine Endothelial Neutrophil-Activating Peptide 78 ... Chemokine CXCL5 Preferred Concept UI. M0504388. Registry Number. 0. Scope Note. A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed ... Chemokines [D12.644.276.374.200] * Chemokines, CXC [D12.644.276.374.200.120] * Chemokine CXCL1 [D12.644.276.374.200.120.050] ... Chemokines [D12.776.467.374.200] * Chemokines, CXC [D12.776.467.374.200.120] * Chemokine CXCL1 [D12.776.467.374.200.120.050] ...
Cxcl5. C-X-C motif chemokine 5 P50228. neutrophils. Cxcl9. C-X-C motif chemokine 9 P18340. activated T lymphocytes. ... C-C motif chemokine 17 F6R5P4. memory T-helper cells. Ccl19. C-C motif chemokine 19 O70460. CD4 T-cells, CD8 T-cells, resting B ... C-C motif chemokine 27 Q9Z1X0. skin-associated memory T-lymphocytes. Ccl28. C-C motif chemokine 28 Q9JIL2. resting CD4, CD8 T- ... C-C motif chemokine 21a P84444. thymocytes and activated T-cells. Ccl21b. C-C motif chemokine 21b P86792. thymocytes and ...
Query Trace: Colitis and CXCL5[original query] Expression and gene polymorphisms of the chemokine CXCL5 in colorectal cancer ...
This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the CXC subfamily of chemokines. Chemokines, which recruit and activate ... This protein is proposed to bind the G-protein coupled receptor chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 2 to recruit neutrophils, to ... This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the CXC subfamily of chemokines. Chemokines, which recruit and activate ... This protein is proposed to bind the G-protein coupled receptor chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 2 to recruit neutrophils, to ...
These included the up-regulated expression of (i) pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-17A, TNF), (ii) CXC chemokines and receptors ... that mediate neutrophil recruitment (CXCL5, CXCR2), (iii) vascular adhesion molecules (VCAM1), and (iv) colony-stimulating ...
TAN recruitment involved SOX2-mediated production of the chemokine CXCL5. Deletion of Nkx2-1 in SL mice (SNL) revealed that ...
Chemokine CXCL12 N0000178765 Chemokine CXCL13 N0000178594 Chemokine CXCL2 N0000178764 Chemokine CXCL5 N0000178659 Chemokine ... Chemokine CCL1 N0000178629 Chemokine CCL11 N0000178818 Chemokine CCL17 N0000178670 Chemokine CCL19 N0000171247 Chemokine CCL2 ... Chemokine CCL21 N0000178711 Chemokine CCL22 N0000178667 Chemokine CCL24 N0000178820 Chemokine CCL27 N0000178616 Chemokine CCL3 ... Autologous N0000171242 Chemokines, CX3C N0000178661 Chemokine CX3CL1 N0000171245 Chemokines, CXC N0000178595 Chemokine CXCL1 ...
Chemokine C-X-C Motif Ligand 5 (CXCL5/LIX). Chemokine C-X-C Motif Ligand 10/Interferon gamma-Induced Protein 10 (CXCL10/IP-10) ... Chemokine C-C Motif Ligand 5 (CCL5)/Regulated on Activation Normal T Cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES) ... Chemokine C-X-C Motif Ligand 2/Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 2 (CXCL2/MIP2) ... Chemokine C-C Motif Ligand 2/Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 (CCL2/MCP1) ...
Chemokine CXCL5 [D12.644.276.374.200.120.250] Chemokine CXCL5 * Chemokine CXCL6 [D12.644.276.374.200.120.300] ... Chemokine CXCL1 Entry term(s). CXCL1 Chemokine CXCL1, Chemokine Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 1 Chemokine, CXCL1 Chemokine, ... CXCL1 Chemokine. CXCL1, Chemokine. Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 1. Chemokine, CXCL1. Chemokine, MGSA-alpha. GROalpha Protein ... Chemokine CXCL1 - Preferred Concept UI. M0504367. Scope note. A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has ...
HN - 2008 BX - CXCL5 Chemokine MH - Chemokine CXCL6 UI - D054427 MN - D12.644.276.374.200.120.300 MN - D12.776.467.374.200.120. ... CCL3 Chemokine BX - CCL3L1 Chemokine BX - CCL3L2 Chemokine BX - CCL3L3 Chemokine BX - Chemokine CCL3L1 BX - Chemokine CCL3L2 BX ... CCL4L1 Chemokine BX - CCL4L2 Chemokine BX - Chemokine CCL4L1 BX - Chemokine CCL4L2 MH - Chemokine CCL7 UI - D054410 MN - ... HN - 2008(1990) BX - CXCL2 Chemokine MH - Chemokine CXCL5 UI - D054365 MN - D12.644.276.374.200.120.250 MN - D12.776.467.374. ...
Chemokine CXCL1 Chemokine CXCL10 Chemokine CXCL11 Chemokine CXCL12 Chemokine CXCL13 Chemokine CXCL2 Chemokine CXCL5 Chemokine ... Chemokine CCL1 Chemokine CCL11 Chemokine CCL17 Chemokine CCL19 Chemokine CCL2 Chemokine CCL20 Chemokine CCL21 Chemokine CCL22 ... Chemokine CCL24 Chemokine CCL27 Chemokine CCL3 Chemokine CCL4 Chemokine CCL5 Chemokine CCL7 Chemokine CCL8 Chemokine CX3CL1 ... CXCL6 Chemokine CXCL9 Chemokines Chemokines, C Chemokines, CC Chemokines, CX3C Chemokines, CXC Chemoprevention ...
... pyronia purpurogallin bayberry enumeration inupiat inupiaq supercomputing cxcl9 diannexin reinhardtii cxcl8 cxcl7 cxcl6 cxcl5 ... epidermis luymesi epidermin corneoretinal pendetide century bottom polysulfone diluted temensis pvo2 immunoadhesins chemokine ... lupus buddleia tataricus tataricum cimicifuga estuary trityloxymethyl orthoptic pseudendoclonium lalia iridovirus chemokines ...
  • Here, RNA sequencing of human asthmatic bronchial brushing cells stimulated with APOE identified increased expression of mRNA transcripts encoding multiple proinflammatory genes, including CXCL5 (C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 5), an epithelial-derived chemokine that promotes neutrophil activation and chemotaxis. (nih.gov)
  • Another reported that IL-10, C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL-10, formerly IFN-γ inducible protein 10) and CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2, formerly monocyte chemoattractant protein 1) levels were higher in patients with high viral loads ( 12 ), but patients with severe disease had higher levels of CXCL10 and CCL2 than did patients with less-severe cases. (cdc.gov)
  • In DARC-transfected cells, DARC is internalized following ligand binding and this led to the hypothesis that expression of DARC on the surface of erythocytes, endothelial, neuronal cells and epithelial cells may act as a sponge and provide a mechanism by which inflammatory chemokines may be removed from circulation as well as their concentration modified in the local environment. (dadamo.com)
  • Modulation of expression of innate immunity markers CXCL5/ENA-78 and CCL20/MIP3alpha by protease-activated receptors (PARs) in human gingival epithelial cells. (nih.gov)
  • chemokine] receptors and the receptor for the human malarial parasite Plasmodium vivax and the simian malarial parasite Plasmodium knowlesi. (dadamo.com)
  • These included the up-regulated expression of (i) pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-17A, TNF), (ii) CXC chemokines and receptors that mediate neutrophil recruitment (CXCL5, CXCR2), (iii) vascular adhesion molecules (VCAM1), and (iv) colony-stimulating factors that prolong neutrophil survival (G-CSF). (nih.gov)
  • 8. Differential expression and responsiveness of chemokine receptors (CXCR1-3) by human microvascular endothelial cells and umbilical vein endothelial cells. (nih.gov)
  • CXCL5 chemoattracts and activates neutrophils during inflammation, and it is induced by LPS and inflammatory cytokines. (biolegend.com)
  • Interferon pathway-related cytokines/chemokines, including interleukin (IL) 18, macrophage inflammatory protein 3α, and IL-33, were elevated, but tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, CXCL8 (formerly IL-8), and cytokines acting through C-C chemokine receptor 2 and CCR5 were lower among case-patients than controls. (cdc.gov)
  • Interferon pathway activation and cytokines/chemokines acting through CCR2 and CCR5 improved health results among children with severe CCHF. (cdc.gov)
  • We found that 23 analytes were significantly higher in those participants that reported symptoms at the time of the first positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR compared with asymptomatic participants, including mostly chemokines and cytokines associated with inflammatory response or immune activation (i.e. (mssm.edu)
  • CXCL5 is an inflammatory cytokine which binds to the cell surface receptor CXCR2 and induces chemotaxis of neutrophils to a target site. (biolegend.com)
  • We examined cytokine/chemokine profiles of 9/12 case-patients compared with healthy controls at 3 time intervals. (cdc.gov)
  • 1. Chemokine CXCL7 Heterodimers: Structural Insights, CXCR2 Receptor Function, and Glycosaminoglycan Interactions. (nih.gov)
  • 10. Neutrophil recruitment by chemokines Cxcl1/KC and Cxcl2/MIP2: Role of Cxcr2 activation and glycosaminoglycan interactions. (nih.gov)
  • 14. Heparin-bound chemokine CXCL8 monomer and dimer are impaired for CXCR1 and CXCR2 activation: implications for gradients and neutrophil trafficking. (nih.gov)
  • 18. Chemokine CXCL1 dimer is a potent agonist for the CXCR2 receptor. (nih.gov)
  • Posee especificidad por los RECEPTORES CXCR2 y está implicada en el reclutamiento y activación de los NEUTRÓFILOS. (bvsalud.org)
  • 7. Human Brain Endothelial CXCR2 is Inflammation-Inducible and Mediates CXCL5- and CXCL8-Triggered Paraendothelial Barrier Breakdown. (nih.gov)
  • 14. A combination of in vitro techniques for efficient discovery of functional monoclonal antibodies against human CXC chemokine receptor-2 (CXCR2). (nih.gov)
  • This protein is proposed to bind the G-protein coupled receptor chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 2 to recruit neutrophils, to promote angiogenesis and to remodel connective tissues. (nih.gov)
  • The reduction in hepatic chemokine synthesis results in reduced numbers of circulating neutrophils, and also a reduction in the numbers recruited to the liver as a consequence of brain injury. (ox.ac.uk)
  • IL-13 also induces secretion of chemokines that are required for recruitment of allergic effector cells to the lung. (wikidoc.org)
  • 16. Chemokine CXCL1 mediated neutrophil recruitment: Role of glycosaminoglycan interactions. (nih.gov)
  • 20. Heterodimerization of CCR2 chemokines and regulation by glycosaminoglycan binding. (nih.gov)
  • This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the CXC subfamily of chemokines. (nih.gov)
  • The precursor of CXCL5 contains 114 amino acids, with a signal peptide of 36 amino acids which is cleaved to generate the 78 amino acid mature protein (8 kD). (biolegend.com)
  • The Duffy gene codes for a protein known as a chemokine receptor, which is important in the inflammatory process. (dadamo.com)
  • The team of investigators identified CXCL9, an inflammatory protein that biologists call chemokines, as the strongest contributor to iAge. (resveratrolnews.com)
  • Although little is known about the mechanisms of pyrexia caused by D + T combination therapy, a recent report suggested that sCD163, as well as interferon-inducible chemokines (CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11), might correlate with pyrexia caused by encorafenib plus binimetinib combination therapy. (elsevierpure.com)
  • NIH researchers report resveratrol inhibits pro-inflammatory proteins CXCL9, CXCL 2, CXCL5 and CXCL11 in human retinal cells. (resveratrolnews.com)
  • 7. Molecular basis of glycosaminoglycan heparin binding to the chemokine CXCL1 dimer. (nih.gov)
  • 9. Distinct Differences in Structural States of Conserved Histidines in Two Related Proteins: NMR Studies of the Chemokines CXCL1 and CXCL8 in the Free Form and Macromolecular Complexes. (nih.gov)
  • interleukin-8] (IL-8, CXCL8), growth related gene alpha (GRO-α, CXCL1), neutrophil activating peptide-2 (NAP-2, CXCL7) and ENA-78 (CXCL5). (dadamo.com)
  • JUN, VNN1) and neutrophil-attractant chemokines (CXCL5, CXCL6, IL-8), whereas HPCs in HCV were identified by T- and B-lymphocyte infiltration. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Activation of PAR via proteolytic activity of thrombin and trypsin induces expression of CXCL5/ENA-78 and CCL20/MIP3alpha in a concentration-dependent manner. (nih.gov)
  • 10. Electronegative low-density lipoprotein induces cardiomyocyte apoptosis indirectly through endothelial cell-released chemokines. (nih.gov)
  • 8. Platelet-Derived Chemokine CXCL7 Dimer Preferentially Exists in the Glycosaminoglycan-Bound Form: Implications for Neutrophil-Platelet Crosstalk. (nih.gov)
  • 15. Dynamics and thermodynamic properties of CXCL7 chemokine. (nih.gov)
  • Further, PACE ® treatment significantly decreased neutrophil and macrophage (white blood cell) infiltration into the wound, attenuating both CC- and CXC-chemokines at the wound margin. (sanuwave.com)
  • CXCL5 is a member of the CXC family of chemokines also known as epithelial activated peptide 78 (ENA-78). (biolegend.com)
  • A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS . (nih.gov)
  • The induction of CXCL5 and CCL20 via PAR2 was inhibited by PAR2 siRNA. (nih.gov)
  • 3. Solution NMR characterization of chemokine CXCL8/IL-8 monomer and dimer binding to glycosaminoglycans: structural plasticity mediates differential binding interactions. (nih.gov)
  • 11. Differential binding of chemokines to glycosaminoglycan subpopulations. (nih.gov)
  • In vivo führte eine Deletion von Cxcl5 zu einer reduzierten PMN-Migration in den Alveolarraum, was im Infektionsmodell mit einer Erhöhung der bakteriellen Last einherging. (tu-berlin.de)
  • Serum CXCL5 Detects Early Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Indicates Tumor Progression. (nih.gov)
  • For measuring human CXCL5 in serum, plasma or cell culture supernatant, LEGEND MAX™ Human CXCL5 ELISA Kit with Pre-coated Plates (Cat. (biolegend.com)
  • As these chemokines recruit Th1, Th17, and activated CD8+ T cells, increased serum levels of these chemokines might correlate with the positive feedback of inflammatory reactions related to AEs. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Expression and gene polymorphisms of the chemokine CXCL5 in colorectal cancer patients. (cdc.gov)
  • We also show an attenuation in the levels of hepatic mRNA including TNF-alpha mRNA and of TNF-alpha-induced genes, such as the chemokines CCL-2, CXCL-5, and CXCL-10, although other chemokines elevated by the injury were not significantly changed. (ox.ac.uk)
  • High levels of CXCL5 have been associated with prostate, gastric, and pancreatic cancer progression. (biolegend.com)
  • In human PC cells, IL30 improved the release of IGF1 and CXCL5, which mediated, via autocrine loops, its potent proliferative effect. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recombinant Human C-C chemokine receptor type 8(CCR8) referenced in "The chemokine CCL1 triggers an AMFR-SPRY1 pathway that promotes differentiation of lung fibroblasts into myofibroblasts and drives pulmonary fibrosis", Immunity , 2021. (cusabio.com)
  • To measure human CXCL5, this antibody can be used as a detection antibody in sandwich ELISA format and paired with the purified J1119G12 antibody (Cat. (biolegend.com)
  • Recombinant Human CXCL5 (ELISA Std. (biolegend.com)
  • Targeting CXCL5 in Pancreatic Cancer Cells Inhibits Cancer Xenograft Growth by Reducing Proliferation and Inhibiting EMT Progression. (nih.gov)
  • The parasite-specific binding site, the binding site for chemokines and the major antigenic domains are located in overlapping regions at the exocellular N-terminal terminus. (dadamo.com)
  • Chemokines, which recruit and activate leukocytes, are classified by function (inflammatory or homeostatic) or by structure. (nih.gov)
  • 6. Role of CXC chemokine receptor-2 in a murine model of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. (nih.gov)
  • In addition to these soluble factors, CXCL5 is a biomarker for predicting immune-related AEs in melanoma patients treated with nivolumab. (elsevierpure.com)