Chemokine CXCL12: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.Chemokine CXCL13: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CXCL10: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemokine CXCL6: A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CXCL11: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemokine CXCL1: A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.Chemokine CXCL9: An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemokines, CXC: Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.Receptors, Chemokine: Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Receptors, CXCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.Chemokine CXCL5: A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.Receptors, CXCR4: CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Receptors, CXCR3: CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Chemokine CCL5: A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.Receptors, CXCR5: CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.Receptors, Interleukin-8B: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.Chemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CXCL2: A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CCL21: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Chemokine CCL4: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Chemokine CCL22: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.Chemokine CCL3: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Chemokine CCL17: A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Receptors, Scavenger: A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.Chemokine CCL19: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CX3CL1: A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.Chemokines, CC: Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Heterocyclic Compounds: Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Mice, Inbred C57BLPlatelet Factor 4: A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.Chemokine CCL7: A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CCL20: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Chemokine CCL11: A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Chemokine CCL1: A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.Neutrophil Infiltration: The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Chemokine CCL27: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Receptors, CCR2: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.Receptors, CCR1: CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Receptors, CCR5: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.Chemokine CCL8: A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins: Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Receptors, CCR4: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.Receptors, Interleukin-8A: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.Mice, Inbred BALB CT-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Receptors, CCR3: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Receptors, CCR7: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Receptors, CCR10: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Receptors, CCR8: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Chemokine CCL24: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Receptors, Cytokine: Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Monocyte Chemoattractant Proteins: Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Receptors, CCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Chemokines, CX3C: Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.Chemotactic Factors: Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.Receptors, CCR6: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Monokines: Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Receptors, HIV: Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Duffy Blood-Group System: A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Cell Migration Inhibition: Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Chemotactic Factors, Eosinophil: Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Angiostatic Proteins: Proteins that specifically inhibit the growth of new blood vessels (ANGIOGENESIS, PHYSIOLOGIC).Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Transendothelial and Transepithelial Migration: The passage of cells across the layer of ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, i.e., the ENDOTHELIUM; or across the layer of EPITHELIAL CELLS, i.e. the EPITHELIUM.

Isolation of the CXC chemokines ENA-78, GRO alpha and GRO gamma from tumor cells and leukocytes reveals NH2-terminal heterogeneity. Functional comparison of different natural isoforms. (1/143)

Chemokines are a family of chemotactic peptides affecting leukocyte migration during the inflammatory response. Post-translational modification of chemokines has been shown to affect their biological potency. Here, the isolation and identification of natural isoforms of the neutrophil chemoattractants GRO alpha and GRO gamma and the epithelial-cell-derived neutrophil attractant-78 (ENA-78), is reported. Cultured tumor cells produced predominantly intact chemokine forms, whereas peripheral blood monocytes secreted mainly NH2-terminally truncated forms. The order of neutrophil chemotactic potency of these CXC chemokines was GRO alpha > GRO gamma > ENA-78 both for intact and truncated forms. However, truncated GRO alpha (4,5,6-73), GRO gamma (5-73) and ENA-78(8,9-78) were 30-fold, fivefold and threefold more active than the corresponding intact chemokine. As a consequence, truncated GRO alpha (4,5,6-73) was 300-fold more potent than intact ENA-78 indicating that both the type of chemokine and its mode of processing determine the chemotactic potency. Similar observations were made when intact and truncated GRO alpha, GRO gamma and ENA-78 were compared for their capacity to induce an increase in the intracellular calcium concentration in neutrophilic granulocytes, and to desensitize the calcium response towards the CXC chemokine granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 (GCP-2). It must be concluded that physiological proteolytic cleavage of CXC chemokines in general enhances the inflammatory response, whereas for CC chemokines NH2-terminal processing mostly results in reduced chemotactic potency.  (+info)

The role of an epithelial neutrophil-activating peptide-78-like protein in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis. (2/143)

The chemokine, epithelial neutrophil-activating peptide-78 (ENA-78), is a potent neutrophil chemotaxin whose expression is increased in inflamed synovial tissue and fluid in human rheumatoid arthritis compared with osteoarthritis. Since ENA-78 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of RA, we examined the expression of an ENA-78-like protein during the development of rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA). Using an ELISA assay, we found increased levels of antigenic ENA-78-like protein in the sera of AIA animals compared with control normal animals by day 7 postadjuvant injection. ENA-78-like protein levels continued to increase as AIA developed. ENA-78-like protein levels in joint homogenates were increased in AIA animals later in the development of the disease, by day 18 during maximal arthritis, compared with control animals. Expression of ENA-78-like protein in both the AIA serum and joint correlated with the progression of inflammation of the joints. Anti-human ENA-78 administered before disease onset modified the severity of AIA, while administration of anti-ENA-78 after clinical onset of AIA did not modify the disease. These data support a role for an ENA-78-like protein as an important chemokine in the progression and maintenance of AIA.  (+info)

Novel CXCR2-dependent liver regenerative qualities of ELR-containing CXC chemokines. (3/143)

Severe acute liver injury due to accidental or intentional acetaminophen overdose presents a major clinical dilemma often requiring liver transplantation. In the present study, liver regeneration after profound liver injury in mice challenged with acetaminophen was facilitated by the exogenous addition of ELR-containing CXC chemokines such as macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), epithelial neutrophil-activating protein-78 (ENA-78), or interleukin 8. Intravenous administration of ELR-CXC chemokines or N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) immediately after acetaminophen challenge in mice significantly reduced histological and biochemical markers of hepatic injury. However, when the intervention was delayed until 10 h after acetaminophen challenge, only ELR-CXC chemokines significantly reduced liver injury and mouse mortality. The delayed addition of ELR-CXC chemokines to cultured hepatocytes maintained the proliferation of these cells in a CXCR2-dependent fashion after acetaminophen challenge whereas delayed NAC treatment did not. These observations demonstrate that ELR-CXC chemokines represent novel hepatic regenerative factors that exhibit prolonged therapeutic effects after acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity.  (+info)

CXC-chemokines, a new group of cytokines in congestive heart failure--possible role of platelets and monocytes. (4/143)

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to examine the circulating levels of CXC-chemokines in patients with various degree of congestive heart failure (CHF). BACKGROUND: CXC-chemokines may be important mediators in the persistent immune activation observed in CHF patients by activation of circulating neutrophils, T-cells and monocytes and possibly by the recruitment of these cells into the failing myocardium. METHODS: Levels of interleukin (IL)-8, growth-regulated oncogene (GRO) alpha and epithelial neutrophil activating peptide (ENA)-78 were measured both in serum and in platelet-free plasma by enzyme immunoassay in 47 patients with CHF and in 20 healthy controls. RESULTS: (i) CHF patients had significantly elevated levels of all the three CXC-chemokines with IL-8 and GRO alpha showing a gradual increase along with increasing NYHA class. (ii) There was an inverse correlation between IL-8 and left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) and cardiac index (CI). (iii) Both unstimulated and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated monocytes from CHF patients released markedly elevated amounts of all three CXC-chemokines. (iv) Platelets from patients with severe CHF were characterised by decreased content of GRO alpha and ENA-78 as well as decreased release of these chemokines upon thrombin receptor stimulation. (v) Activated platelets stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro to enhanced release of IL-8, and neutralising antibodies against ENA-78 inhibited this interaction. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates for the first time elevated levels of CXC-chemokines in CHF, which may be of importance for progression of heart failure. Our findings further suggest that activated monocytes and platelets may contribute to enhanced CXC-chemokine levels in CHF.  (+info)

Differential ability of exogenous chemotactic agents to disrupt transendothelial migration of flowing neutrophils. (5/143)

Neutrophils migrate through endothelium using an ordered sequence of adhesive interactions and activating signals. To investigate the consequences of disruption of this sequence, we characterized adhesion and migration of neutrophils perfused over HUVEC that had been treated with TNF-alpha for 4 h and evaluated changes caused by exogenously added chemotactic agents. When HUVEC were treated with 2 U/ml TNF, flowing neutrophils adhered, with the majority rolling and relatively few migrating through the monolayer. If fMLP, IL-8, zymosan-activated plasma (a source of activated complement factor C5a), epithelial cell-derived neutrophil-activating peptide (ENA-78), or growth-regulating oncogene, GRO-alpha, was perfused over these neutrophils, they stopped rolling and rapidly migrated over the monolayer, but did not penetrate it. When HUVEC were treated with 100 U/ml TNF, the majority of adherent neutrophils transmigrated. If neutrophils were treated with fMLP, IL-8, C5a, ENA-78, or GRO-alpha just before perfusion over this HUVEC, transmigration, but not adhesion, was abolished. However, when platelet-activating factor was used to activate neutrophils, migration through HUVEC treated with 100 U/ml TNF was not impaired, and migration through HUVEC treated with 2 U/ml TNF was actually increased. Transmigration required ligation of CXC chemokine receptor-2 on neutrophils, and differential desensitization of this receptor (e.g., by fMLP but not platelet-activating factor) may explain the pattern of disruption of migration. Thus, transmigration may require presentation of the correct activators in the correct sequence, and inappropriate activation (e.g., by systemic activators) could cause pathological accumulation of neutrophils in the vessel lumen.  (+info)

Reduction of inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandin E2 by IL-13 gene therapy in rheumatoid arthritis synovium. (6/143)

The rheumatoid arthritis (RA) joint is characterized by an inflammatory synovial pannus which mediates tissue destruction. IL-13 is a cytokine that inhibits activated monocytes/macrophages from secreting a variety of proinflammatory molecules. The aim of this study was to examine whether gene therapy-delivered IL-13 could reduce the production of key proinflammatory mediators in RA synovial tissue (ST) explants. Adenoviral vectors encoding the genes for human IL-13 (AxCAIL-13) and bacterial beta-galactosidase were generated and examined for protein production. Vectors were used to infect RA ST explants and RA synovial fibroblasts, and conditioned medium (CM) was collected at various times for analysis by ELISA and competitive immunoassay. AxCAIL-13 decreased the production of RA ST explant proinflammatory IL-1beta by 85% after 24 h. Likewise, TNF-alpha levels were decreased by 82 and 75% whereas IL-8 levels were reduced 54 and 82% after 24 and 48 h, respectively, in RA ST explant CM. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 concentrations were decreased by 88% after 72 h in RA ST explant CM. RA ST explant epithelial neutrophil-activating peptide-78 concentrations were decreased 85 and 94% whereas growth-related gene product-alpha levels were decreased by 77 and 85% at 24 and 48 h, respectively, by AxCAIL-13. Further, IL-13 significantly decreased PGE2 and macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha production. These results demonstrate that increased expression of IL-13 via gene therapy may decrease RA-associated inflammation by reducing secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and PGE2.  (+info)

Reduced ex vivo chemokine production by polymorphonuclear cells after in vivo exposure of normal humans to endotoxin. (7/143)

Monocytes from patients with sepsis have a reduced capacity to produce cytokines, a state referred to as immunoparalysis. To determine whether polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) can be rendered hyporesponsive, PMNL from 6 healthy volunteers intravenously challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 4 ng/kg) were stimulated ex vivo with heat-killed bacteria or LPS, and the release of the CXC chemokines interleukin-8, epithelial-derived neutrophil attractant-78, and growth-related oncogen-alpha was measured. At 1 and 2 h after LPS administration in vivo, PMNL produced fewer CXC chemokines after stimulation with bacteria or LPS (all P<.05). Serum obtained 2 h after in vivo administration of LPS did not influence chemokine production by PMNL from 6 healthy volunteers not previously exposed to LPS. Thus, intravenous injection of LPS induces a refractory state of PMNL that is not caused by soluble factors produced in response to in vivo exposure to LPS.  (+info)

Chemotactic activity of CXC chemokines interleukin-8, growth-related oncogene-alpha, and epithelial cell-derived neutrophil-activating protein-78 in urine of patients with urosepsis. (8/143)

CXC chemokines are chemotactic cytokines that specifically act on neutrophils. To obtain insight into the extent of local production of CXC chemokines during acute pyelonephritis, interleukin (IL)-8, growth-related oncogene (GRO)-alpha, and epithelial cell-derived neutrophil-activating protein (ENA)-78 were measured in urine and plasma samples from patients with culture-proven urosepsis (n=33), healthy human control subjects with sterile urine (n=31), and human volunteers intravenously injected with endotoxin (n=11). Patients had profoundly elevated urine concentrations of chemokines with no (GRO-alpha and ENA-78) or little (IL-8) elevation in plasma. Endotoxin-challenged subjects demonstrated transient increases in plasma chemokine concentrations, with no (GRO-alpha) or little (IL-8 and ENA-78) elevation in urine. Urine from patients exerted chemotactic activity toward neutrophils, which was partially inhibited by neutralizing antibodies against IL-8, GRO-alpha, or ENA-78. During urosepsis, CXC chemokines are predominantly produced within the urinary tract, where they are involved in the recruitment of neutrophils to the urinary compartment.  (+info)

Buy ENA-78 elisa kit, Porcine Epithelial Neutrophil Activating Peptide 78 ELISA Kit-CAA55355.1 (MBS028798) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ELISA Kits
Our studies demonstrate that H. pylori LPS stimulates the release of both neutrophil-activating, C-X-C chemokines (IL-8 and ENA-78) and the monocyte-activating C-C chemokine MCP-1 from human monocytes. These chemokines are potent leukocyte chemoattractants and may play an important role in regulating inflammatory cell infiltration of H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa (7, 11, 14, 15,20, 21, 23, 27, 37, 40, 48). We found that H. pyloriLPS is less potent than Salmonella lipid A in inducing monocyte chemokine production. This finding agrees with previous studies showing low potency for H. pylori LPS in the induction of a wide variety of host inflammatory responses (9, 18,19, 34, 36, 38, 39, 42). However, when the actions of H. pylori LPS were specifically inhibited by using either an LPS antagonist or CD14 receptor blockade, the monocyte-activating potential of H. pylori water extract was almost completely abolished. These findings suggest that H. pylori LPS may be the primary monocyte-activating ...
HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A) reductase inhibitors (statins) have been suggested to attenuate abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) growth. However, the effects of statins in human AAA tissues are not fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the direct effects of statins on proinflammatory molecules in human AAA walls in ex vivo culture. Simvastatin strongly inhibited the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in human AAA walls, but showed little effect on c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. Simvastatin, as well as pitavastatin significantly reduced the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-2 and epithelial neutrophil-activating peptide (CXCL5) under both basal and TNF-α-stimulated conditions. Similar to statins, the Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 significantly inhibited the activation of NF-κB, accompanied by a decreased secretion of MMP-9, MCP-2 and CXCL5. Moreover, the effect of
Chemokines are a large group of chemotactic cytokines that play an important pathogenic role in inflammatory diseases and autoimmune disorders by enhancement of leukocyte recruitment and activation at inflammatory sites [3-6]. ENA-78 is a CXC chemokine that attracts neutrophils during inflammation [7].. In this work, serum levels of ENA-78 were significantly higher in autistic children than healthy control children (P , 0.001). In addition, 69.35% of autistic children had increased serum levels of ENA-78. This study was the first to investigate serum levels of ENA-78 in autistic children. ENA-78 is an inflammatory C-X-C chemokine that is encoded by the CXCL5 gene [28]. Its levels are elevated in myriad inflammatory conditions [29-32].. ENA-78 is an α chemokine which is produced concomitantly with IL-8 and melanoma growth stimulating activity [7]. The main stimuli for secretion of chemokines, including ENA-78, are the early signals elicited during innate immune response such as bacterial ...
Tubular cells contribute to inflammation. The tubular epithelium is not merely a passive victim of injury but also an active participant in the inflammatory response in kidney IRI. In addition to generating proinflammatory and chemotactic cytokines such as TNF-α, MCP-1, IL-8, IL-6, IL-1β, TGF-β, RANTES, and epithelial neutrophil-activating protein 78 (ENA-78), which activate inflammatory cells (26), tubular cells also express Toll-like receptors (TLRs), complement and complement receptors, and costimulatory molecules, which regulate T lymphocyte activity (Figure 4). TLRs are a family of evolutionarily conserved transmembrane receptors and prototypic pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which detect exogenous microbial products (37) or endogenous ligands from host material released during injury, including high-mobility group box 1, hyaluronan, and biglycan (38). During AKI, renal tubular epithelial cells express increased amounts of both TLR2 and TLR4, which modulate the degree of injury ...
Recombinant Human CXCL5 (ENA-78) (ELISA Std.) - CXCL5 is a member of the CXC family of chemokines, also known as epithelial activated peptide 78 (ENA-78).
CXCL5 protein is expressed in E. coli, processed, refolded and purified to yield the native, secreted form of the mature chemokine. C-X-C motif chemokine 5 (CXCL5) or epithelial-derived neutrophil-activating peptide 78 (ENA-78) is a protein that in humans
Power C.A., Furness R.B., Brawand C., Wells T.N.C. (1994). Cloning of a full-length cDNA encoding the neutrophil-activating peptide ENA-78 from human platelets.. Gene 151: 333 - 334. PubMed DOI:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90682-3 ...
IL-33 is an IL-1 family cytokine that may exert a broad spectrum of effects extending from early immune development to atopic disease exacerbations. IL-33 was initially named "nuclear factor in high endothelial venules" (NF-HEV) based on its high expression in the nucleus of HEVs (55). The link between IL-33 and type 2 immune responses was established when IL-33 was identified as the ligand for suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (ST2; sometimes referred to as IL-1RL1, T1, or IL-33R) (56), which had been characterized previously as an orphan receptor important in type 2 responses in the lungs (57, 58). Genetic studies have reproducibly demonstrated significant associations between IL33 and IL1RL1 genetic variants and asthma in humans (59-66). Genetic variants in IL1RL1 are also associated with AD risk (67), and genetic variants in the IL33 and IL1RL1 loci are associated with EoE risk (68, 69).. Epithelial cells at barrier surfaces and endothelial cells, both of which express IL-33 constitutively in ...
Rat CXCL5/ENA-78 ELISA Kit assay has a sensitivity of 9.375pg/ml.. Measure Rat CXCL5/ENA-78 in serum, blood, plasma, cell supernatant samples.
Neutrophil-activating protein-2 (NAP-2) is a 72 residue protein demonstrating a range of proinflammatory activities. The solution structure of monomeric NAP-2 has been investigated by two-dimensional 1H-n.m.r. spectroscopy. Sequence-specific proton resonance assignments have been made and secondary structural elements have been identified on the basis of nuclear Overhauser data, coupling constants and amide hydrogen/deuteron exchange. The NAP-2 monomer consists of a triple-stranded anti-parallel beta-sheet arranged in a Greek key and a C-terminal helix (residues 59-70) and is very similar to that found in the n.m.r. solution conformation of dimeric interleukin-8 and the crystal structure of tetrameric bovine platelet factor-4. Results are discussed in terms of heparin binding and neutrophil-activation properties of NAP-2. ...
Polymorphic markers at bovine gene loci facilitate the integration of cattle genetic maps with those of humans and mice. To this end, 31 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were developed for seven bovine chemokine genes. Loci were amplified from bovine genomic DNA by the polymerase chain reaction, and candidate amplicons were sequenced to determine their identity. Amplified loci from 24 founding parents and select progeny from a beef cattle reference population were sequenced and analyzed for SNPs. SNP haplotype alleles were determined by examining segregation patterns and used to establish the locus position on the bovine linkage map. Loci for growth-related proteins (GRO3, GRO1, and GROX) were clustered with the related CXC chemokine genes, interleukin (IL) 8, and epithelial cell inflammatory protein 1, at 84 cM from the centromeric end of the bovine chromosome (BTA) 6 linkage group. Bovine loci for a cluster of IL8 receptors, a stromal cell-derived factor 1, interferong, and tumor necrosis
, LIX Recombinant Protein (Active), GTX48052-PRO, Applications: ELISA, WB, Functional Assay; ELISA, Western Blot (WB), Functional Assay; CrossReactivity:
Hola, me llamo Rosa y el PSP es uno de mis hobbys al que dedico parte de mi tiempo libre. Aqui encontrarás mis tags y más relacionado con el mundo del PSP. Si me sigues, gracias por hacerlo ...
Hola, me llamo Rosa y el PSP es uno de mis hobbys al que dedico parte de mi tiempo libre. Aqui encontrarás mis tags y más relacionado con el mundo del PSP. Si me sigues, gracias por hacerlo ...
小鼠CXCL5 ELISA试剂盒(GCP-2) ELISA试剂盒datasheet (ab100719).Abcam抗体、ELISA、激动剂拮抗剂、表观遗传试剂、蛋白多肽,使用效果保证,中国70%以上现货。
Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6 (CXCL6) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also known as granulocyte chemotactic protein 2 (GCP-2). As its former name suggests, CXCL6 is a chemoattractant for neutrophilic granulocytes. It elicits its chemotactic effects by interacting with the chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2. The gene for CXCL6 is located on human chromosome 4 in a cluster with other CXC chemokine genes. Proost P, Wuyts A, Conings R, Lenaerts J, Billiau A, Opdenakker G, Van Damme J (1993). "Human and bovine granulocyte chemotactic protein-2: complete amino acid sequence and functional characterization as chemokines". Biochemistry. 32 (38): 10170-7. doi:10.1021/bi00089a037. PMID 8399143. Wuyts A, Van Osselaer N, Haelens A, Samson I, Herdewijn P, Ben-Baruch A, Oppenheim J, Proost P, Van Damme J (1997). "Characterization of synthetic human granulocyte chemotactic protein 2: usage of chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2 and in vivo inflammatory properties". ...
Chemokine ligand 5 is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also known as epithelial-derived neutrophil-activating peptide 78.
Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that was previously called GRO1 oncogene, GROα, KC, Neutrophil-activating protein 3 (NAP-3) and melanoma growth stimulating activity, alpha (MSGA-α). In humans, this protein is encoded by the CXCL1 gene.
CXCL10 / IP10 antibody [15J7] (chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10) for Neut, WB. Anti-CXCL10 / IP10 mAb (GTX53293) is tested in Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
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The U.S. Bureau of Mines studied the extraction of copper (II) from acidic sulfate solutions using commercial extractants lix 84, p5100, and pt5050. Mathematical models, consisting of sets of nonlinear mass action and mass balance equations, were solved using a commercial equation-solving program on a personal computer. The models suggest that lix 84 is a mixture of monomeric and dimeric extract
SEA080Hu, ELISA Kit for Interleukin 8 (IL8), Homo sapiens (Human), Sandwich ELISA, CXCL8, AMCF-I, GCP1, K60, LECT, LUCT, LYNAP, MDNCF, MONAP, NAF, NAP1, SCYB8, TSG1, B-ENAP, Neutrophil-Activating Protein 1, Granulocyte Chemotactic Protein 1, Designed by Cloud-Clone Corp.
Mhedbi-Hajri N, Hajri A, Boureau T, Darrasse A, Durand K, Brin C, Saux MF, Manceau C, Poussier S, Pruvost O, Lemaire C, Jacques MA ...
Introduction This concept identifies and briefly describes the measures of comorbidity investigated in the Cancer Data Linkage in Manitoba: Expanding the Infrastructure for Research deliverable by Lix et al. (2016). Some of these measures have been used extensively in MCHP research over time, and some are used for the first time in this research. The concept also provides links to more detailed information where available, as well as the relevant section in Lix et al. (2016) that describes the methodology for developing these measures of comorbidity ...
This abstract was presented today at the Association for Research in Vision and Opthalmology (ARVO) meetings in Seattle, Washington by Robert E. Marc, Felix R. Vazquez-Chona, John V. Hoang, Crystal Sigulinsky, Carl B. Watt, Bryan W. Jones, James R. Anderson and J. Scott Lauritzen. ...
Hola, me llamo Rosa y el PSP es uno de mis hobbys al que dedico parte de mi tiempo libre. Aqui encontrarás mis tags y más relacionado con el mundo del PSP. Si me sigues, gracias por hacerlo ...
[45 Pages Report] Check for Discount on C-X-C Chemokine Receptor Type 1 (CDw128a or High Affinity Interleukin 8 Receptor A or IL8 Receptor Type 1 or CD181 or CXCR1) - Pipeline Review, H2 2017 report by Global Markets Direct. According to the recently published report C-X-C Chemokine...
Ischemic stroke is major cause of disability and mortality worldwide, and aging is strong risk factor for poor post-stroke outcome. Neutrophils traffic rapidly to the brain following ischemic stroke, and recent evidence has suggested that aging may alter neutrophil function after tissue injury. In this study, we hypothesize that aging enhances the pro-inflammatory function of neutrophils, directly contributing to the poorer outcomes seen in aging patients. We utilized demographic data and biological specimens from ischemic stroke patients and an experimental mouse model to determine the correlation between age, neutrophil function and stroke outcomes. In ischemic stroke patients, age was associated with increased mortality and morbidity and higher levels of neutrophil-activating cytokines. In mice, aged animals had higher stroke mortality and morbidity, higher levels of neutrophil-activating cytokines and enhanced generation of neutrophil reactive oxygen species compared to young mice. Finally,
|p|Recombinant Rat CXCL1/GRO alpha/KC is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 72 amino acids.|/p| |p|Background: Rat CXCL1, also known as CINC-1, belongs to the CXC chemokine family. It is encoded by the GRO gene now designated CXCL1.
Read Chapter LIX of Of Human Bondage by William Somerset Maugham. The text begins: Philip passed the evening wretchedly. He had told his landlady that he would not be in, so there was nothing for him to eat, and he had to go to Gattis for dinner. Afterwards he went back to his rooms, but Griffiths on the floor above him was having a party, and the noisy merriment made his own misery more hard to bear. He went to a music-hall, but it was Saturday night and there was standing-room only: after half an hour of boredom his legs grew tired and he went home. He tried to read, but he could not fix his attention; and yet it was necessary that he should work hard. His examination in biology was ...
小鼠GRO alpha ELISA试剂盒(CXCL1) ELISA试剂盒datasheet (ab100717).Abcam抗体、ELISA、激动剂拮抗剂、表观遗传试剂、蛋白多肽,使用效果保证,中国70%以上现货。
BIENVENUE | WELCOME to our only LAtelier dArt ✪ Maïclo & Félix ~ a very special group dedicated to art in all its forms. Please visit also other great images in the group and post at least two or more comments to offer your appreciation and support. THANKS | MERCI
Éric Naggar, Actor: 3 Days to Kill. Éric Naggar was born on December 3, 1957 in Neuilly-sur-Seine, Hauts-de-Seine, France as Eric Félix Naggar. He is an actor and writer, known for 3 Days to Kill (2014), Tell No One (2006) and Mic Macs à Tire-Larigot (2009).
Cell transplantation therapy is emerging as a promising mode of treatment following myocardial infarction. Of the various cell types that can potentially be used for transplantation, autologous skeletal myoblasts appear particularly attractive, because this would avoid issues of immunogenicity, tumorigenesis, ethics and donor availability. Additionally, skeletal myoblasts display much higher levels of ischemic tolerance and graft survival compared to other cell types. There is some evidence for improvement in heart function with skeletal myoblast transplantation. However, histological analysis revealed that transplanted myoblasts do not transdifferentiate into functional cardiomyocytes in situ. This is evident by the lack of expression of cardiac-specific antigens, and the absence of intercalated disc formation. Instead, there is differentiation into myotubes that are not electromechanically coupled to neighboring cardiomyocytes. This could in turn limit the clinical efficacy of treatment. This ...
C-X-C Chemokine Receptor Type 2 (CDw128b or GRO/MGSA Receptor or High Affinity Interleukin 8 Receptor B or IL8 Receptor Type 2 or CD182 or CXCR2) - Pipeline Review, ...
Sébastien Igonet, Marie-Christine Vaney, Clemens Vonrhein, Gérard Bricogne, Enrico A. Stura, Hans Hengartner, Bruno Eschli, and Félix A. Rey ...
Previous investigations have demonstrated a link between elevated levels of eosinophils, eosinophil activation, and adult IBD. However, there have been conflicting data regarding the individual contribution of the eosinophil-selective chemokines eotaxin-1 and eotaxin-2 in eosinophil recruitment in IBD. In the present study we demonstrate the following: 1) that eosinophil numbers are elevated in pediatric UC and that their level correlates with disease severity; 2) eotaxin-1 and not eotaxin-2 or eotaxin-3 is up-regulated in lesional colonic biopsy samples of pediatric UC patients; and 3) eotaxin-1 mRNA expression correlates with colonic eosinophil levels in pediatric UC. Using a chemical-induced colonic injury model, we define that eotaxin-1, and not eotaxin-2, is critical for eosinophil recruitment and that eotaxin-1 is predominantly derived from intestinal macrophages. Consistent with our experimental analysis, we show that eotaxin-1 is predominantly expressed by intestinal macrophages; ...
Clinical studies have demonstrated a link between the eosinophil-selective chemokines, eotaxins (eotaxin-1/CCL11 and eotaxin-2/CCL24), eosinophils, and the inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis (UC). However, the cellular source and individual contribution of the eotaxins to colonic eosinophilic accumulation in inflammatory bowel diseases remain unclear. In this study we demonstrate, by gene array and quantitative PCR, elevated levels of eotaxin-1 mRNA in the rectosigmoid colon of pediatric UC patients. We show that elevated levels of eotaxin-1 mRNA positively correlated with rectosigmoid eosinophil numbers. Further, colonic eosinophils appeared to be degranulating, and the levels positively correlated with disease severity. Using the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced intestinal epithelial injury model, we show that DSS treatment of mice strongly induced colonic eotaxin-1 and eotaxin-2 expression and eosinophil levels. Analysis of eosinophil-deficient mice ...
Cxcl12 - Cxcl12 (untagged ORF) - Rat chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (stromal cell-derived factor 1) (Cxcl12), transcript variant 3, (10 ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Cxcl14 - Cxcl14 (Myc-DDK-tagged) - Mouse chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 14 (Cxcl14) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Summary of CXCL8 (3-10C, AMCF-I, b-ENAP, GCP-1, GCP1, IL-8, IL8, K60, LECT, LUCT, LYNAP, MDNCF, MONAP, NAF, NAP-1, NAP1, SCYB8, TSG-1) expression in human tissue. Cytoplasmic expression in several lymphoid tissues.
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The chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that was previously called GRO1 oncogene, GROα, KC, neutrophil-activating protein 3 (NAP-3) and melanoma growth stimulating activity, alpha (MSGA-α). In humans, this protein is encoded by the CXCL1 gene. CXCL1 is secreted by human melanoma cells, has mitogenic properties and is implicated in melanoma pathogenesis. CXCL1 is expressed by macrophages, neutrophils and epithelial cells, and has neutrophil chemoattractant activity. CXCL1 plays a role in spinal cord development by inhibiting the migration of oligodendrocyte precursors and is involved in the processes of angiogenesis, arteriogenesis, inflammation, wound healing, and tumorigenesis. This chemokine elicits its effects by signaling through the chemokine receptor CXCR2. The gene for CXCL1 is located on human chromosome 4 amongst genes for other CXC chemokines. An initial study in mice showed evidence that CXCL1 decreased the severity of ...
LAA080Ca81, FITC-Linked Polyclonal Antibody to Interleukin 8 (IL8), 白介素8(IL8)多克隆抗体(异硫氰酸荧光素标记), CXCL8; AMCF-I; GCP1; K60; LECT; LUCT; LYNAP; MDNCF; MONAP; NAF; NAP1; SCYB8; TSG1; B-ENAP; Neutrophil-Activating Protein 1; Granulocyte Chemotactic Protein 1 | 仅供体外研究使用,不用于临床诊断!请索取进口关税税单及报关单!
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the G-protein-coupled receptor family. This protein is a receptor for interleukin 8 (IL8). It binds to IL8 with high affinity, and transduces the signal through a G-protein activated second messenger system. Knockout studies in mice suggested that this protein inhibits embryonic oligodendrocyte precursor migration in developing spinal cord. This gene, IL8RB, a gene encoding another high affinity IL8 receptor, as well as IL8RBP, a pseudogene of IL8RB, form a gene cluster in a region mapped to chromosome 2q33-q36. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
CXCL12 izaziva potentnu hemotaksu limfocita.[4][5][6][7] Tokom embriogeneze on usmerava migraciju hematopoetskih ćelija i formiranje velikih krvnih sudova. Miševi bez CXCL12 gena su letalni pre rođenja, ili u toku prvog sata života. Kod odraslih CXCL12 igra važnu ulogu u angiogenezi putem regrutovanja endotelnih progenitorskih ćelija (EPC) iz koštane srži kroz CXCR4 zavistan mehanizam.[8] Ova funkcija čini CXCL12 veoma važnim faktorom u karcinogenezi i neovaskularizaciji vezanoj za progresiju tumora.[9] CXCL12 takođe ima ulogu u metastazi tumora gde su ćelije raka koje izražavaju CXCR4 receptor privučene ka metastaznim ciljnim tkivima koja oslobađaju ligand, CXCL12.[10] Kod raka dojke, međutim, povećano CXCL12 izražavanje određuje umanjeni rizik od metastaze.[11][12] ...
CXCL2, hemokin (C-X-C motiv) ligand 2, je mali citokin koji pripada CXC hemokin familiji. Os se takođe zove makrofagni inflamatorni protein 2-alfa (MIP2-alfa), rast-regulisani protein beta (Gro-beta) i Gro onkogen-2 (Gro-2). CXCL2 is 90% identičan u aminokiselinskoj sekvenci sa hemokinom, CXCL1. Ovaj hemokin izlučuju monociti i makrofage i on izaziva hemotaksu polimorfonuclearnih leukocita i hematopoetskih stem ćelija.[1][2][3] Gen za CXCL2 je lociran na ljudskom hromozomu 4 u klasteru sa drugim CXC hemokinima.[4] CXCL2 mobiliše ćelije putem interakcije sa hemokin receptorom na ćelijskoj površini koji se zove CXCR2.[3][5] ...
This ELISA kit shows no cross-reactivity with the following cytokines tested: human Angiogenin, BDNF, BLC, ENA-78, FGF- 4, IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-11, IL-12 p70, IL-12 p40, IL-13, IL-15, I-309, IP-10, G-CSF, GM-CSF, IFN-gamma, Leptin (OB), MCP-1, MCP-3, MDC, MIP-1 alpha, MIP-1 beta, MIP-1 delta, MMP-1, - 2, -3, -10, PARC, RANTES, SCF, TARC, TGF-beta, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, TNF-alpha, TNF-beta, TPO, VEGF. ...
Polyclonal antibody for GRO alpha/CXCL1 detection. Host: Rabbit.Size: 100μg/vial. Tested applications: WB. Reactive species: Human. GRO alpha/CXCL1 information: Molecular Weight: 11301 MW; Subcellular Localization: Secreted.
Rabbit polyclonal CXCL11 antibody validated for WB, ELISA, IHC, Neut, ICC/IF and tested in Human. Referenced in 3 publications and 1 independent review.
Chicken polyclonal CXCL16 antibody validated for WB and tested in Human. With 1 independent review. Immunogen corresponding to recombinant fragment
Aortic and plasma expression levels of IL-18 and CXCL16.(A) Reduced aortic mRNA expression of IL-18 and CXCL16, but no change in the expression of IFN-γ is obs
Andreas BergerPaolo Vavassori Rainer Hillenbrand Alexander Bittner Raúl Pérez-Jiménez Luis HuesoFèlix Casanova Andrey Chuvilin Mato Knez Emilio Artacho José Ignacio Pascual Andreas Seifert
Crous, Pedro W.; Carnegie, A.J.; Wingfield, MJ; Sharma, R.; Mughini, G.; Noordeloos, Machiel E.; Santini, A; Shouche, YS; Bezerra, JDP; Dima, B*; Guarnaccia, V; Imrefi, I; Jurjevic, Z; Knapp, DG; Kovács, Gabor G.; Magistà, D; Perrone, G; Rämä, Teppo; Rebriev, Y.A.; Shivas, R.G.; Singh, S.M.; Souza-Motta, C.M.; Thangavel, R.; Adhapure, N.N.; Alexandrova, A.V.; Alfenas, A.C.; Alfenas, R.F.; Alvarado, P.; Alves, A.L.; Andrade, D.A.; Andrade, J.P.; Barbosa, R.N.; Barili, A.; Barnes, C.W.; Baseia, I.G.; Bellanger, J.-M.; Berlanas, C.; Bessette, A.E.; Bessette, A.R.; Biketova, A.Yu.; Bomfim, F.S.; Brandrud, T.E.; Bransgrove, K.; Brito, A.C.Q.; Cano- Lira, J.F.; Cantillo, T.; Cavalcanti, A.D.; Cheewangkoon, R.; Chikowski, R.S.; Conforto, C.; Cordeiro, T.R.L.; Craine, J.D.; Cruz, R.; Damm, U.; de Oliveira, R.J.V.; de Souza, J.T.; de Souza, H.G.; Dearnaley, J.D.W.; Dimitrov, R.A.; Dovana, F.; Erhard, A.; Esteve- Raventós, F.; Félix, C.R.; Ferisin, G.; Fernandes, R.A.; Ferreira, R.J.; Ferro, L.O.; ...
Essentially pure preparations of normal density eosinophils obtained from patients with hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) were stimulated with complement factor 5a (C5a), platelet-activating factor (PAF), FMLP and neutrophil-activating peptide (NAP-1/IL-8). Three responses were studied, the transient rise in cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) (derived from indo-1 fluorescence), shape changes (measured by laser turbidimetry), and exocytosis of eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) (assessed by H2O2/luminol-dependent chemiluminescence). Responses were obtained with all four agonists, but C5a and PAF were by far more potent than FMLP and NAP-1/IL-8, which induced only minor effects. Pretreatment of the cells with pertussis toxin attenuated [Ca2+]i changes, EPO release and, to a lesser extent, shape changes, indicating that GTP-binding proteins of Gi-type are involved in receptor-dependent signal transduction processes leading to these responses. A clear dissociation was observed in the control of ...
CXCL16, hemokin (C-X-C motiv) ligand 16, je mali citokin iz CXC hemokin familije. On je veći od drugih hemokina (sadrži 254 aminokiselina). CXCL16 se sastoji od CXC hemokin domaina, mucinu-slične stabljike, transmembranskog domaina i citoplazmatičnog repa koji sadrži potentno mesto tirozin fosforilacije koje može da veže SH2.[1] Ovo su neuobičajene osobine za hemokin, i omobućavaju CXCL16 da bude izražen kao molekul na ćelijskoj površini, kao i rastvorni hemokin.[2] CXCL16 proizvode dendritiske ćelije koje se mogu naći u T ćelijskim zonama limfoidnih organa, i ćelije iz crvene pulpe slezine.[1] Među ćelijama koje se vezuju i migriraju u responsu na CXCL16 su nekoliko podgrupa T ćelija, i NKT ćelije.[1] CXCL16 interaguje sa hemokin receptorom CXCR6, takođe poznatim kao Bonzo.[3][1] Ekspresiju CXCL16 indukuju inflamatorni citokini IFN-gama i TNF-alfa.[2] Gen za ljudski CXCL16 je lociran na hromozomu 17.[1][4] ...
Géographie physique et Quaternaire, 2006, vol. 60, n o 2, p , 14 fig., 1 tabl. FÉLIX: A LATE PLEISTOCENE WHITE WHALE (DELPHINAPTERUS LEUCAS) SKELETON FROM CHAMPLAIN SEA DEPOSITS AT SAINT-FÉLIX-DE-VALOIS,
Human C-X-C Motif Chemokine 9 / Monokine Induced by Gamma Interferon (CXCL9 / MIG) standard, for use in running standard curves in AlphaLISA no-wash detection assay
Moossavi S, Sepehri S, Robertson B, Bode L, Goruk S, Field CJ, Lix LM, de Souza RJ, Becker AB, Mandhane PJ, Turvey SE, Subbarao P, Moraes TJ, Lefebvre DL, Sears MR, Khafipour E, Azad MB. Composition and Variation of the Human Milk Microbiota Are Influenced by Maternal and Early-Life Factors. Cell Host Microbe. 2019 02 13; 25(2):324-335.e4 ...
Author(s): Laurent Mouchiroud, Vincenzo Sorrentino, Evan G. Williams, Matteo Cornaglia, Michael V. Frochaux, Tao Lin, Amandine A. Nicolet‐dit‐Félix, Gopal Krishnamani, Tarik Ouhmad, Martin A.M. Gijs, Bart Deplancke, Johan Auwerx ...
Nico auf Instagram: http://nico.thesimpleclub.de. » WAS IST THE SIMPLE CLUB?. Wir sind der Meinung, dass Bildung Spaß machen muss. Deswegen bieten wir dir auf 4 Kanälen die beste und unterhaltsamste Nachhilfe die du im Netz finden kannst: Und das in Mathematik, Biologie, Chemie und Physik.. In verschiedenen Kategorien und Schwierigkeitsgraden bereiten wir dich auf deine Prüfung vor. Egal ob Schüler oder Student, ob jung oder alt, bei uns findet jeder die passenden Videos.. Und das Beste: TheSimpleClub ist und bleibt komplett kostenlos!. » CREDITS. Ein Konzept von Alexander Giesecke und Nicolai Schork. Geschrieben von: Félix ...
... role for the kinin B1 receptor and the chemokine CXCL5". Journal of Immunology. 179 (7): 4849-56. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.179.7. ... it has been shown that the kinin B1 receptor recruits neutrophil via the chemokine CXCL5 production. Moreover, endothelial ... cells have been described as a potential source for this B1 receptor-CXCL5 pathway.[11] ...
... role for the kinin B1 receptor and the chemokine CXCL5". J. Immunol. 179 (7): 4849-56. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.179.7.4849. PMID ...
DARC has also been linked to rheumatoid arthritis (RA), possibly displaying chemokines such as CXCL5 on the surface of ... It mediates chemokine transcytosis, which leds to apical retention of intact chemokines and more leukocyte migration. Binding ... "Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines and CXCL5 are essential for the recruitment of neutrophils in a multicellular model of ... "Expression of chemokines and chemokine receptors during human renal transplant rejection". Am. J. Kidney Dis. 37 (3): 518-31. ...
Role for the Kinin B1 Receptor and the Chemokine CXCL5". The Journal of Immunology.. ... Nedavno je bilo pokazano da kinin B1 receptor regrutuje neutrofile putem produkcije hemokina CXCL5. Endotelne ćelije su bile ... opisane kao potentni izvori tog B1 receptor-CXCL5 puta.[8]. *B2 receptor je konstitutivno izražen i učestvuje u bradikininovoj ...
"Gelatinase B/MMP-9 and neutrophil collagenase/MMP-8 process the chemokines human GCP-2/CXCL6, ENA-78/CXCL5 and mouse GCP-2/LIX ...
... is a chemokine receptor. IL8RB is also known as CXCR2, and CXCR2 is now the IUPHAR Committee on ... In addition, it binds ligands CXCL2, CXCL3, and CXCL5. The angiogenic effects of IL8 in intestinal microvascular endothelial ... Brandt E, Ludwig A, Petersen F, Flad HD (Oct 2000). "Platelet-derived CXC chemokines: old players in new games". Immunological ... Ahuja SK, Lee JC, Murphy PM (Jan 1996). "CXC chemokines bind to unique sets of selectivity determinants that can function ...
... scyb4 CXCL5: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 5, scyb5 CXCL6: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6, scyb6 CXCL7: chemokine (C-X-C ... chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1, scyb1 CXCL2: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2, scyb2 CXCL3: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 3 ... chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9, scyb9 CXCL10: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10, scyb10 CXCL11: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ... ligand 11, scyb11 CXCL13: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 13, scyb13 CYTL1: Cytokine-like 1 DCUN1D4: Defective in cullin ...
Cryptotope CX3CL1 CX3CR1 CXC chemokine receptors CXCL1 CXCL10 CXCL11 CXCL13 CXCL14 CXCL15 CXCL16 CXCL17 CXCL2 CXCL3 CXCL5 CXCL6 ... C-C chemokine receptor type 6 C-C chemokine receptor type 7 Calreticulin Cancer immunology Cancer immunoprevention Cancer ... CD4 CD4+ T cells and antitumor immunity CD74 CD94/NKG2 Cell-mediated immunity CELSR1 Central tolerance Chemokine Chemokine ... immunotherapy Cantuzumab ravtansine Cathelicidin CC chemokine receptors CCBP2 CCL1 CCL11 CCL12 CCL13 CCL14 CCL15 CCL16 CCL17 ...
C-X-C motif chemokine 5 (CXCL5 or ENA78) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CXCL5 gene. The protein encoded by this ... 2003). "Chemokine-cytokine cross-talk. The ELR+ CXC chemokine LIX (CXCL5) amplifies a proinflammatory cytokine response via a ... The gene for CXCL5 is encoded on four exons and is located on human chromosome 4 amongst several other CXC chemokine genes. ... "Entrez Gene: CXCL5 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 5". Chang MS, McNinch J, Basu R, Simonet S (1994). "Cloning and ...
CXCL5. Scyb5. ENA-78. CXCR2. P42830 CXCL6. Scyb6. GCP-2. CXCR1, CXCR2. P80162 ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ...
chemokine receptor activity. • receptor activity. • protein binding. • C-C chemokine receptor activity. • C-C chemokine binding ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene.[5] CCR6 ... "Entrez Gene: CCR6 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6".. *^ Wang K, Zhang H, Kugathasan S, Annese V, Bradfield JP, Russell RK, ... "Chemokine Receptors: CCR6". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
CXCL5 (англ. C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 5) - білок, який кодується однойменним геном, розташованим у людей на короткому плечі ... Sepuru K.M., Poluri K.M., Rajarathnam K. (2014). Solution structure of CXCL5--a novel chemokine and adipokine implicated in ... chemokine-mediated signaling pathway. • cell chemotaxis. • neutrophil mediated immunity. • Хемотаксис. • defense response. • ... Struyf S., Proost P., Van Damme J. (2003). Regulation of the immune response by the interaction of chemokines and proteases.. ...
Other signals such as PF4, CXCL5, CXCL7, and CCL5 inhibit platelet formation. Thrombopoietin (TPO) is a 353-amino acid protein ... Other molecular signals for megakaryocyte differentiation include GM-CSF, IL-3, IL-6, IL-11, chemokines (SDF-1, FGF-4). and ... "Chemokine-mediated interaction of hematopoietic progenitors with the bone marrow vascular niche is required for thrombopoiesis ...
CXCL1 · CXCL2 · CXCL3 · CXCL4 · CXCL5 · CXCL6 · CXCL7 · CXCL8/IL8 · CXCL9 · CXCL10 · CXCL11 · CXCL12 · CXCL13 · CXCL14 · CXCL15 ... Chemokine. CCL. CCL1 · CCL2 · CCL3 · CCL4 · CCL5 · CCL6 · CCL7 · CCL8 · CCL9 · CCL11 · CCL12 · CCL13 · CCL14 · CCL15 · CCL16 · ...
positive regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production. • positive regulation of JUN kinase activity. • positive ... positive regulation of chemokine production. • cellular extravasation. • negative regulation of lipid storage. • negative ... positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • epithelial cell proliferation involved in salivary gland morphogenesis ...
... s are a subset of cytokines that are produced by a type of immune cell known as a lymphocyte.[1] They are protein mediators typically produced by T cells to direct the immune system response by signaling between its cells. Lymphokines have many roles, including the attraction of other immune cells, including macrophages and other lymphocytes, to an infected site and their subsequent activation to prepare them to mount an immune response. Circulating lymphocytes can detect a very small concentration of lymphokine and then move up the concentration gradient towards where the immune response is required. Lymphokines aid B cells to produce antibodies. Important lymphokines secreted by the T helper cell include:[2] ...
... binds to the death receptors DR4 (TRAIL-RI) and DR5 (TRAIL-RII). The process of apoptosis is caspase-8-dependent. Caspase-8 activates downstream effector caspases including procaspase-3, -6, and -7, leading to activation of specific kinases.[11] TRAIL also binds the receptors DcR1 and DcR2, which do not contain a cytoplasmic domain (DcR1) or contain a truncated death domain (DcR2). DcR1 functions as a TRAIL-neutralizing decoy-receptor. The cytoplasmic domain of DcR2 is functional and activates NFkappaB. In cells expressing DcR2, TRAIL binding therefore activates NFkappaB, leading to transcription of genes known to antagonize the death signaling pathway and/or to promote inflammation. Application of engineered ligands that have variable affinity for different death (DR4 and DR5) and decoy receptors (DCR1 and DCR2) may allow selective targeting of cancer cells by controlling activation of Type 1/Type 2 pathways of cell death and single cell fluctuations. Luminescent iridium complex-peptide ...
... (IL-24) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL24 gene. IL-24 is a cytokine belonging to the IL-10 family of cytokines that signals through two heterodimeric receptors: IL-20R1/IL-20R2 and IL-22R1/IL-20R2. This interleukin is also known as melanoma differentiation-associated 7 (mda-7) due to its discovery as a tumour suppressing protein. IL-24 appears to control in cell survival and proliferation by inducing rapid activation of particular transcription factors called STAT1 and STAT3. This cytokine is predominantly released by activated monocytes, macrophages and T helper 2 (Th2) cells[5] and acts on non-haematopoietic tissues such as skin, lung and reproductive tissues. IL-24 performs important roles in wound healing, arthritis, psoriasis and cancer.[6][7][8] Several studies have shown that cell death occurs in cancer cells/cell lines following exposure to IL-24.[9][10] The gene for IL-24 is located on chromosome 1 in humans.[11] ...
... as well as chemokine and cytokine production, and expression of adhesion molecules such as E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. This ...
positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • regulation of insulin secretion. • extrinsic apoptotic signaling ... Copeland KF (2006). "Modulation of HIV-1 transcription by cytokines and chemokines". Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry. 5 (12 ...
... is sometimes used interchangeably among scientists with the term cytokine.[3] Historically, cytokines were associated with hematopoietic (blood and lymph forming) cells and immune system cells (e.g., lymphocytes and tissue cells from spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes). For the circulatory system and bone marrow in which cells can occur in a liquid suspension and not bound up in solid tissue, it makes sense for them to communicate by soluble, circulating protein molecules. However, as different lines of research converged, it became clear that some of the same signaling proteins which the hematopoietic and immune systems use were also being used by all sorts of other cells and tissues, during development and in the mature organism. While growth factor implies a positive effect on cell division, cytokine is a neutral term with respect to whether a molecule affects proliferation. While some cytokines can be growth factors, such as G-CSF and GM-CSF, others have an inhibitory effect on ...
chemokine activity. • cytokine activity. • heparin binding. • protein binding. • CXCR3 chemokine receptor binding. ... C-X-C motif chemokine 11 is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also called Interferon-inducible T- ... "Entrez Gene: CXCL11 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11".. *^ a b Cole KE, Strick CA, Paradis TJ, Ogborne KT, Loetscher M, Gladue ... This chemokine elicits its effects on its target cells by interacting with the cell surface chemokine receptor CXCR3, with a ...
Interferon alfa 2b is an antiviral or antineoplastic drug, that was originally discovered in the laboratory of Charles Weissmann at the University of Zurich. It was developed at Biogen, and ultimately marketed by Schering-Plough under the tradename Intron-A. It has been used for a wide range of indications, including viral infections and cancers. This drug is approved around the world for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C, chronic hepatitis B, hairy cell leukemia, Behçet's disease, chronic myelogenous leukemia, multiple myeloma, follicular lymphoma, carcinoid tumor, mastocytosis and malignant melanoma. ...
4-1BB is a type 2 transmembrane glycoprotein receptor belonging to the TNF superfamily, expressed on activated T Lymphocytes.[1] 4-1BBL (4-1BB ligand) is found on APCs (antigen presenting cells) and binds to 4-1BB. ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the interleukin 1 cytokine family. Protein structure modeling indicated that this cytokine may contain a 12-stranded beta-trefoil structure that is conserved between IL1A (IL-A alpha) and IL1B (IL-1 beta). This gene and eight other interleukin 1 family genes form a cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 2. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported.[8]. ...
C-X-C chemokine receptor activity. • interleukin-8 binding. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. • chemokine receptor ... This name and the corresponding gene symbol IL8RA have been replaced by the HGNC approved name C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 1 ... "Chemokine Receptors: CXCR1". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... chemokine-mediated signaling pathway. • interleukin-8-mediated signaling pathway. • neutrophil degranulation. • chemotaxis. ...
Cxcl5 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 5 [Mus musculus] Cxcl5 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 5 [Mus musculus]. Gene ID:20311 ... Chemokine receptors bind chemokines, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME) Chemokine receptors bind chemokines, organism- ... Cxcl5provided by MGI. Official Full Name. chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 5provided by MGI. Primary source. MGI:MGI:1096868 See ... Cxcl5 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 5 [ Mus musculus (house mouse) ] Gene ID: 20311, updated on 12-Aug-2018 ...
Cxcl5 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 5 [ Mus musculus ]. Synonyms:. Cxcl5; chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 5; LIX; GCP-2; Scyb5 ... Recombinant Murine Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 5, 70aa. Download Datasheet See All Cxcl5 Products. Bring this labeled ... CXC Chemokines and Receptors Proteins CXCL1 CXCR4 CXCL5 CXCR3 CXCR5 CXCR6 CXCL17 LIX1L ... Cxcl5-97M)Recombinant Murine Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 5, 70aa ...
... Dimberg, Jan Högskolan i Jönköping, ... Adult, Aged, Aged; 80 and over, Chemokines; CXC/*analysis/*genetics/metabolism, Colorectal Neoplasms/*chemistry/*genetics/ ...
C-X-C motif chemokine 5 protein (CXCL5) Active Protein-NP_002985.1 (MBS969186) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Active ... Chemokine Signaling Pathway antibodies. Chemokine Signaling Pathway Diagram. Chemokine Signaling Pathway antibodies. Chemokine ... Chemokine Receptors Bind Chemokines Pathway antibodies. Chemokine Receptors Bind Chemokines Pathway Diagram. ... NCBI Summary for CXCL5. This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the CXC subfamily of chemokines. Chemokines, which ...
CXCL5, in prostate cancer. The main goal of this study is to determine the role of the angiogenic chemokine, CXCL5, in prostat ... CXCL5, in prostate cancer. The main goal of this study is to determine the role of the angiogenic chemokine, CXCL5, in prostate ... CXCL5 is a member of CXC family of chemokines with the three amino acid motif, glutamic acid-leucine-arginine (ELR+) and is a ... Role of the Angiogenic Chemokine, CXCL5, in Prostate Cancer Simon, Liz Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL, United States ...
Compare C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 5 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations ... CXCL5/LIX, BioAssay™ ELISA Kit (Rat) (C-X-C Motif Chemokine 5) ... chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6 (granulocyte chemotactic *. ... C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 5 ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established antibody-based ... Your search returned 288 C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 5 ELISA ELISA Kit across 26 suppliers. ...
Chemokines and proteinases. Human CCL2/MCP-1, CCL8/MCP-3, CCL7/MCP-2, CCL13/MCP-4, CXCL1/Groα, CXCL2/Groβ, CXCL3/Groγ, CXCL5/ ... MMP-12 processing of human ELR+ CXC chemokines. All 7 of the human ELR+ CXC chemokines tested were processed by human MMP-12 ... MMP-1 and -9 processing of human ELR+ CXC chemokines. The ELR motif in ELR+ CXC chemokines is crucial in cognate receptor ... MMP-12 processing of the murine CXCL5 chemokine. Infiltrating monocytes, macrophages, and tissue-resident activated macrophages ...
This review will focus on recent murine and human studies that use chemokines as therapeutic anti-cancer vaccine adjuvants. ... Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing ... This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential ... CXCL5. ENA-78. CXCR2. inflammatory and angiogenic. CXCL6. GCP-2. CXCR1, CXCR2. inflammatory and angiogenic. ...
CXCL5 regulates chemokine scavenging and pulmonary host defense to bacterial infection. Immunity. 2010;33(1):106-117.. View ... Prostate cancer growth in bone vossicles is hindered in CXCL5-/- mice. (A) WT (CXCL5+/+) and CXCL5-/- recipient mice (7wk males ... vossicles from CXCL5-/- mice were inoculated with the RM1-iC9 cells and implanted in CXCL5-/- mice. Similarly, WT (CXCL5+/+) ... CXCL5 deficiency hinders tumor growth and bone osteolysis in the intratibial model. Both WT (n = 8) and CXCL5-/- (n = 7) mice ...
Buy our Recombinant human CXCL5 protein. Ab73316 is an active full length protein produced in Escherichia coli and has been ... C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 5. *chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 5 ... Recombinant human CXCL5 protein. See all CXCL5 proteins and ...
c) Type II pneumocytes positive for CXCL5. (d) Alveolar macrophages positive for CXCL5. ... To determine if the influence of pseudomonas isolation and ELR(+) CXC chemokines on the subsequent development of BOS and the ... The likelihood of transition from transplant to BOS was increased by acute rejection, CXCL5, and the interaction between ... Immunohistochemistry sections from patients with recent pseudomonas infections stained for CXCL1 and CXCL5. (a) CXCL1 ...
Although the expression of CXC chemokines was modestly up-regulated in ECs, the expression of CXCL1, CXCL5, and CXCL8 was ... Expression of the chemokine transporter Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) is also up-regulated in early RA. The aim ... Anti-CXCL5 antibody abolished neutrophil recruitment by neutralizing CXCL5 expressed on ECs or when used to immunodeplete ... The roles of CXCL5 and DARC were determined by incorporating cocultures into a flow-based adhesion assay, in which their ...
... Posted on June 24, 2019. by techuniq ... C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 5 (CXCL5) is a CXC-type chemokine that is a crucial inflammatory mediator and a powerful ... CXCL5 may have an important role in the occurrence and progression of tumors by cooperating with its receptor C-X-C chemokine ... 9) reported that high expression of C-X-C motif chemokine ligand (CXCL) 8 in ovarian cancer epithelial cells resulted in an ...
Sex differences in neutrophil kinetics were correlated with sustained induction of chemokine Cxcl5 in the tissue, circulation, ... Our study reveals that sex-specific induction of chemokine Cxcl5/CXCL6 contributes to sexual dimorphism in neutrophil ... implicating a greater sensitivity of male leukocytes to Cxcl5-mediated activation. Differential induction of Cxcl5 (human CXCL6 ... Conversely, administration of Cxcl5 to males in the absence of I/R was sufficient to increase levels of systemic neutrophils. ...
Gelatinase B/MMP-9 and neutrophil collagenase/MMP-8 process the chemokines human GCP-2/CXCL6, ENA-78/CXCL5 and mouse GCP-2/LIX ...
Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines and CXCL5 are essential for the recruitment of neutrophils in a multicellular model of ... Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines and CXCL5 are essential for the recruitment of neutrophils in a multicellular model of ...
CXCL5 is a member of the CXC family of chemokines, also known as epithelial activated peptide 78 (ENA-78). ... CXCL5 is a member of the CXC family of chemokines, also known as epithelial activated peptide 78 (ENA-78). The precursor of ... Note: For measuring human CXCL5 in serum, plasma or cell culture supernatant, LEGEND MAX™ Human CXCL5 ELISA Kit with Pre-coated ... Cytokines/Chemokines Antigen References 1. Walz A, et al. 1991. J. Exp. Med. 174:1355. 2. Wuyts A, et al. 1999. J. Immunol. 163 ...
CXCL5. Scyb5. ENA-78. CXCR2. P42830 CXCL6. Scyb6. GCP-2. CXCR1, CXCR2. P80162 ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ...
C-X-C motif chemokine 5 (CXCL5 or ENA78) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CXCL5 gene. The protein encoded by this ... 2003). "Chemokine-cytokine cross-talk. The ELR+ CXC chemokine LIX (CXCL5) amplifies a proinflammatory cytokine response via a ... The gene for CXCL5 is encoded on four exons and is located on human chromosome 4 amongst several other CXC chemokine genes. ... "Entrez Gene: CXCL5 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 5". Chang MS, McNinch J, Basu R, Simonet S (1994). "Cloning and ...
It binds the chemokines CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL5. "We have seen that the concentration of the chemokines in the bone marrow, ... IFN-beta interferes with this communication: it makes the cells in the tumour produce fewer chemokines and no chemokine ... Neutrophils migrate along the chemokine gradient into the tumour and once there, they themselves release the same chemokines in ... Neutrophils normally circulate in the blood until--attracted by so-called chemokines--they enter the tissue where they ingest ...
CXCL5. chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 5 nascent-polypeptide-associated complex alpha polypeptide. 6374. 1.30. ...
CXCLs: CXCL1, CXCL3, CXCL5 and CXCL7. Data represent the mean with SD (n = 3). *P , 0.01; Students t-test. (C) Top, effect of ... B) Effect of chemokines on mouse primary esophageal epithelial cell (mpEEC) proliferation. The isolated esophageal cells were ... Heap map of gene expression of SASP-related chemokines described in Fig. E ... Heat map of common upregulated chemokine genes in Fig. 3C ...
PeproTechs chemokines include proteins that act through G protein-coupled receptors and conform to the prototypical chemokine ... Recombinant Human ENA-78 (CXCL5) (8-78 a.a.). 카다로그 번호: 300-22B ... Chemokines. This Chemokine category includes proteins that act through G protein-coupled receptors and conform to the ... with the exception of Lymphotactin that contains only one disulfide bond but is still considered a chemokine). ...
PeproTechs chemokines include proteins that act through G protein-coupled receptors and conform to the prototypical chemokine ... Recombinant Human ENA-78 (CXCL5) (8-78 a.a.). Numéro Catalogue: 300-22B ...
... the expression of chemokines CXCL1 and CXCL5.. To determine the clinical relevance of this gene expression profile, Moses and ... Bierie examined gene expression in these cell lines and found that TGF-β signaling regulates the expression of chemokines, ... The results also point to several potential therapeutic approaches, including the inhibition of chemokines or their receptors, ... Moses and colleagues previously found that inhibiting certain chemokines in a mouse model of breast cancer significantly ...
  • Differential induction of Cxcl5 (human CXCL6) between the sexes was also evident in murine renal I/R, rat pleurisy, and human skin blisters and correlated with the magnitude of neutrophil accumulation in tissues. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Interleukin (IL)-6, a multifunctional cytokine with regulatory functions in wound healing, and several chemokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) after rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). (arvojournals.org)
  • OBJECTIVE: The role of chemokines and their transporters in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is poorly described. (ox.ac.uk)
  • CXCL5 is a member of the CXC family of chemokines, also known as epithelial activated peptide 78 (ENA-78). (biolegend.com)
  • The results strongly suggest that TGF-β signaling mediates intrinsic, stromal-epithelial, and host-tumor interactions during breast cancer progression, at least in part, by regulating basal and oncostatin M-induced CXCL1, CXCL5, and CCL20 chemokine expression. (jci.org)
  • later observed that chlamydial infection of epithelial cells in vitro resulted in the production of interleukin 8 (IL-8), an important chemokine for PMNs, 20 to 24 h postinfection and required that the organisms be viable ( 26 ). (asm.org)
  • These data identify the induction of intratumoral expression of chemokines as a novel cell-extrinsic mechanism of action of chemotherapy that results in the recruitment of immune cells with antitumor activity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The LEGENDplex™ Human Proinflammatory Chemokine Standard product is intended for use with the Mix and Match Human Proinflammatory Chemokine Panel of products. (biolegend.com)
  • Sex differences in neutrophil kinetics were correlated with sustained induction of chemokine Cxcl5 in the tissue, circulation, and bone marrow of males but not females. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Some chemokines are considered pro- inflammatory and can be induced during an immune response to recruit cells of the immune system to a site of infection , while others are considered homeostatic and are involved in controlling the migration of cells during normal processes of tissue maintenance or development . (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence suggests that CXCL5 plays an important role, because it is abundant in RA tissue, and its neutralization moderates joint damage in animal models of arthritis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • CXCL5 has been implicated in connective tissue remodelling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further studies of serum chemokines and placenta tissue could provide a better understanding of the cells involved in the pathogenesis of maternal erythrocyte alloimmunization. (frontiersin.org)
  • There have been numerous in vitro studies showing that chlamydiae can elicit various chemokines and cytokines from tissue culture cells (reviewed in reference 19 ). (asm.org)
  • Chemokine pathways are co-opted by pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) to facilitate myeloid cell recruitment from the bone marrow to establish an immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment (TME). (nih.gov)
  • Role of CXCL5 in leukocyte recruitment to the lungs during secondhand smoke exposure. (nih.gov)
  • Chemokines are chemoattractive small molecules that were initially discovered to be involved in recruitment and trafficking of leucocytes to inflammatory sites. (grantome.com)
  • Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing recruitment of antigen presenting cells (APCs) and effector cells to appropriate anatomical sites. (mdpi.com)
  • CONCLUSION: This study is the first to demonstrate, in a model of human disease, that the function of DARC is essential for editing the chemokine signals presented by ECs and for promoting unwanted leukocyte recruitment. (ox.ac.uk)
  • T-cell recruitment to the tumor is one of the potential rate-limiting steps in immunotherapy, and thus, intratumoral chemokines are likely to have a major impact ( 11, 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The genes for IL-8 , as well as PTGS2 , TPR , JUN , CXCL1 , CXCL3 , CXCL5 and PARD3 were highly expressed in schizophrenia patients. (dovepress.com)
  • Fig. 3 depicts the cytokine and chemokine data for each class of DO mice (supersusceptible, susceptible, resistant and non-infected) and for the C57BL/6J founder strain for comparison. (nih.gov)
  • Lung cytokine and chemokine correlations with survival were nearly identical to those for the other indicators (not shown). (nih.gov)
  • Infiltration of T cells into the CNS is dictated by the secretion of chemokines that are expressed early in response to MHV infection ( 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Some chemokines control cells of the immune system during processes of immune surveillance, such as directing lymphocytes to the lymph nodes so they can screen for invasion of pathogens by interacting with antigen-presenting cells residing in these tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main goal of this study is to determine the role of the angiogenic chemokine, CXCL5, in prostate cancer progression. (grantome.com)
  • Understanding the mechanisms of angiogenic chemokine signaling pathways and approaches to inhibit these pathways will help to develop therapeutic strategies to inhibit or prevent prostate cancer progression. (grantome.com)
  • A multiplex immunoassay was used to determine levels of 15 different chemokines and IL-6 in subretinal fluid samples obtained during scleral buckling surgery for primary RRD. (arvojournals.org)
  • Cell-free culture supernatants from multiple donors were assayed for 37 different chemokines by using a RayBio human chemokine Ab array according to the manufacturer's protocol. (jimmunol.org)
  • These results highlight the importance of the chemokine induction activity of host defense peptides and demonstrate that the optimization of the ex vivo chemokine-induction properties of peptides is a promising method for the rational development of immunomodulatory IDR peptides with enhanced anti-infective activity. (jimmunol.org)
  • Various chemokines and IL-6 are upregulated in patients in whom fibrotic membranes develop after primary RRD repair and may therefore be involved in the future development of postoperative PVR. (arvojournals.org)
  • There has been a great deal of work published on the induction of various chemokines and cytokines using in vitro culture systems. (asm.org)
  • In addition to IL-17, Th17 cells produce IL-17F, IL-22, IL-26, TNFα and various chemokines [ 25 - 27 ], which act in concert to mediate the pro-inflammatory effects of this population. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)