A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.
An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.
Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.
A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.
CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.
A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.
Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.
The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.
The techniques used to select and/or place only one embryo from FERTILIZATION IN VITRO into the uterine cavity to establish a singleton pregnancy.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.
CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.
Infection by flukes of the genus Echinostoma.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Proteins that specifically inhibit the growth of new blood vessels (ANGIOGENESIS, PHYSIOLOGIC).
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
The passage of cells across the layer of ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, i.e., the ENDOTHELIUM; or across the layer of EPITHELIAL CELLS, i.e. the EPITHELIUM.

Macrophage inflammatory protein-2 is required for neutrophil passage across the epithelial barrier of the infected urinary tract. (1/731)

IL-8 is a major human neutrophil chemoattractant at mucosal infection sites. This study examined the C-X-C chemokine response to mucosal infection, and, specifically, the role of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2, one of the mouse IL-8 equivalents, for neutrophil-epithelial interactions. Following intravesical Escherichia coli infection, several C-X-C chemokines were secreted into the urine, but only MIP-2 concentrations correlated to neutrophil numbers. Tissue quantitation demonstrated that kidney MIP-2 production was triggered by infection, and immunohistochemistry identified the kidney epithelium as a main source of MIP-2. Treatment with anti-MIP-2 Ab reduced the urine neutrophil numbers, but the mice had normal tissue neutrophil levels. By immunohistochemistry, the neutrophils were found in aggregates under the pelvic epithelium, but in control mice the neutrophils crossed the urothelium into the urine. The results demonstrate that different chemokines direct neutrophil migration from the bloodstream to the lamina propria and across the epithelium and that MIP-2 serves the latter function. These findings suggest that neutrophils cross epithelial cell barriers in a highly regulated manner in response to chemokines elaborated at this site. This is yet another mechanism that defines the mucosal compartment and differentiates the local from the systemic host response.  (+info)

A functional granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor is required for normal chemoattractant-induced neutrophil activation. (2/731)

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a hematopoietic growth factor that is widely used to treat neutropenia. In addition to stimulating polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) production, G-CSF may have significant effects on PMN function. Because G-CSF receptor (G-CSFR)-deficient mice do not have the expected neutrophilia after administration of human interleukin-8 (IL-8), we examined the effect of the loss of G-CSFR on IL-8-stimulated PMN function. Compared with wild-type PMNs, PMNs isolated from G-CSFR-deficient mice demonstrated markedly decreased chemotaxis to IL-8. PMN emigration into the skin of G-CSFR-deficient mice in response to IL-8 was also impaired. Significant chemotaxis defects were also seen in response to N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, zymosan-activated serum, or macrophage inflammatory protein-2. The defective chemotactic response to IL-8 does not appear to be due to impaired chemoattractant receptor function, as the number of IL-8 receptors and chemoattractant-induced calcium influx, actin polymerization, and release of gelatinase B were comparable to those of wild-type PMNs. Chemoattractant-induced adhesion of G-CSFR-deficient PMNs was significantly impaired, suggesting a defect in beta2-integrin activation. Collectively, these data demonstrate that selective defects in PMN activation are present in G-CSFR-deficient mice and indicate that G-CSF plays an important role in regulating PMN chemokine responsiveness.  (+info)

Regulation of early peritoneal neutrophil migration by macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and mast cells in experimental peritonitis. (3/731)

Neutrophil (PMN) migration into the peritoneal cavity in response to fecal peritonitis is an important mechanism of host defense against bacterial invasion. We show that the murine C-X-C (PMN-specific) chemokine, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), on intraperitoneal injection in mice, causes PMN migration into the peritoneum. MIP-2 mRNA and protein were expressed by peritoneal leukocytes after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in mice and neutralization of MIP-2 reduced peritoneal PMN migration. A prerequisite for neutrophil-endothelial adhesion and subsequent migration from the circulation is selectin-mediated rolling. Pretreatment of mice with an anti-P-selectin antibody before intraperitoneal injection of MIP-2 significantly reduced peritoneal PMN migration. However, there are no reports that a C-X-C chemokine can up-regulate endothelial selectins. We postulated that MIP-2, when injected intraperitoneally, interacts with a cell that is known to release factors that up-regulate endothelial selectins. A likely candidate is the mast cell, which contains histamine and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and both of these factors induce selectins. Intraperitoneally injected MIP-2 caused an early significant increase in peritoneal TNF-alpha, whereas histamine levels were unaffected. In a subsequent experiment, mast cell-deficient mice and their normal controls were then injected intraperitoneally with MIP-2 or underwent CLP. Significantly fewer PMNs migrated into the peritoneal cavity in the mast cell-deficient mice after MIP-2 injection or CLP. Thus, our findings indicate that mast cells and MIP-2 are necessary for PMN migration into the peritoneum in response to intra-abdominal infection, and that MIP-2 appears to facilitate this through an increase in TNF-alpha release.  (+info)

Intracellular oxidant production and cytokine responses in lung macrophages: evaluation of fluorescent probes. (4/731)

The fluorescent probes dichlorofluorescin (DCFH), dihydrorhodamine (DHR), and hydroethidine (HE) allow convenient assay of alveolar macrophage (AM) oxidant responses to enviromental particulates and pathogens. We sought to more precisely define the relationship of these measures of oxidant stress to production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Normal AMs were challenged in vitro with a panel of soluble or particulate stimuli in the presence of DCFH, HE, or DHR. Flow cytometry measured cell-associated fluorescence and relative particle uptake. Tumor necrosis factor alpha and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 expression were quantitated in the same experiments. We observed variable and complex correlations between intracellular oxidant production as reported by these probes and subsequent cytokine response, including examples of striking discordance (e.g., lipopolysaccharide induced large cytokine responses with minimal probe oxidation, whereas fly ash particles caused marked oxidation of DCFH but trivial TNF release; TiO2 caused oxidation of DHR and HE, but not DCFH, and also did not increase cytokine production). Although fluorescent probes offer many advantages in analysis of intracellular oxidant responses, the data indicate that they cannot be used reliably as quantitative predictors of AM cytokine responses to environmental particulates or other stimuli.  (+info)

Upregulation of the chemokines Rantes, MCP-1, MIP-1a and MIP-2 in early infection with Trypanosoma brucei brucei and inhibition by sympathetic denervation of the spleen. (5/731)

We examined the induction of 4 chemokines during early experimental African trypanosomiasis using in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry. mRNA expression and protein production of Rantes, MCP-1, MIP-1a and MIP-2 were studied in splenocytes obtained at 0 h, 4 h and 12 h post-infection. Splenic denervation was performed to study the role of the central nervous system in early infection. The mRNA for Rantes increased at 4 h and declined at 12 h, but the protein level was high at both time-points. MCP-1 and MIP-la had elevated mRNA and protein levels at 12 h post-infection. MIP-2 mRNA was high at both 4 h and 12 h, but the protein level was only increased at 12 h. Splenic denervation, but not sham operation, suppressed these responses. The upregulation of these chemokines during very early infection suggests a chemokine role in the developing immunopathology The sympathetic nervous system may, however, participate in modulation of such early immune responses.  (+info)

Neutralization of macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) and MIP-1alpha attenuates neutrophil recruitment in the central nervous system during experimental bacterial meningitis. (6/731)

Chemokines are low-molecular-weight chemotactic cytokines that have been shown to play a central role in the perivascular transmigration and accumulation of specific subsets of leukocytes at sites of tissue damage. Using in situ hybridization (ISH), we investigated the mRNA induction of macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2), MIP-1alpha, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), and RANTES. Challenge of infant rats' brains with Haemophilus influenzae type b intraperitoneally resulted in the time-dependent expression of MIP-2, MIP-1alpha, MCP-1, and RANTES, which was maximal 24 to 48 h postinoculation. Immunohistochemistry showed significant increases in neutrophils and macrophages infiltrating the meninges, the ventricular system, and the periventricular area. The kinetics of MIP-2, MIP-1alpha, MCP-1, and RANTES mRNA expression paralleled those of the recruitment of inflammatory cells and disease severity. Administration of anti-MIP-2 or anti-MIP-1alpha antibodies (Abs) resulted in significant reduction of neutrophils. Administration of anti-MCP-1 Abs significantly decreased macrophage infiltration. Combined studies of ISH and immunohistochemistry showed that MIP-2- and MIP-1alpha-positive cells were neutrophils and macrophages. MCP-1-positive cells were neutrophils, macrophages, and astrocytes. Expression of RANTES was localized predominantly to resident astrocytes and microglia. The present study indicates that blocking of MIP-2 or MIP-1alpha bioactivity in vivo results in decreased neutrophil influx. These data are also the first demonstration that the C-C chemokine MIP-1alpha is involved in neutrophil recruitment in vivo.  (+info)

Neutralization of the CXC chemokine, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. (7/731)

Few studies have addressed the importance of vascular remodeling in the lung during the development of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. For fibroplasia and deposition of extracellular matrix to occur, there must be a geometric increase in neovascularization. We hypothesized that net angiogenesis during the pathogenesis of fibroplasia and deposition of extracellular matrix during bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis are dependent in part upon an overexpression of the angiogenic CXC chemokine, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2). To test this hypothesis, we measured MIP-2 by specific ELISA in whole lung homogenates in either bleomycin-treated or control CBA/J mice and correlated these levels with lung hydroxyproline. We found that lung tissue from mice treated with bleomycin, compared with that from saline-treated controls, demonstrated a significant increase in the presence of MIP-2 that was correlated to a greater angiogenic response and total lung hydroxyproline content. Neutralizing anti-MIP-2 Abs inhibited the angiogenic activity of day 16 bleomycin-treated lung specimens using an in vivo angiogenesis bioassay. Furthermore, when MIP-2 was depleted in vivo by passive immunization, bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis was significantly reduced without a change in the presence of pulmonary neutrophils, fibroblast proliferation, or collagen gene expression. This was also paralleled by a reduction in angiogenesis. These results demonstrate that the angiogenic CXC chemokine, MIP-2, is an important factor that regulates angiogenesis/fibrosis in pulmonary fibrosis.  (+info)

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor modulates the pulmonary host response to endotoxin in the absence and presence of acute ethanol intoxication. (8/731)

Alcohol impairs neutrophil function and predisposes the host to infectious complications. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) increases both the number and functional activities of neutrophils. This study investigated the effects of G-CSF on the pulmonary response to endotoxin in rats with or without acute ethanol intoxication. Acute ethanol intoxication inhibited tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 production in the lung and suppressed the recruitment of neutrophils into the lung. Ethanol also inhibited CD11b/c expression on recruited neutrophils and suppressed the phagocytic activity of circulating neutrophils. G-CSF pretreatment up-regulated CD11b/c expression on circulating polymorphonuclear leukocytes, augmented the recruitment of neutrophils into the lung, and enhanced the phagocytic activity of circulating and recruited neutrophils in both the absence and presence of acute ethanol intoxication. G-CSF inhibited MIP-2 but not TNF-alpha production in the lung. These data suggest that G-CSF may be useful in the prevention or treatment of infections in persons immunocompromised by alcohol.  (+info)

Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha, CCL3, MIP-1a) is one of two MIP proteins that are the major factors produced by macrophages following
Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1 beta (MIP-1 beta, CCL4, MIP-1ß) is one of two major factor MIP proteins produced by macrophages following their stimulat
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential regulation of the expression of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant by mouse macrophages. AU - Crippen, Tawni L.. AU - Riches, David W H. AU - Hyde, Dallas M.. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - The production of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC) by functionally diverse mouse bone-marrow-derived macrophages was determined. Studies showed that β1,3-glucan, IL-1β, TNFα and IFNγ/TNFα induced expression and production of CINC in macrophages while neither IFNγ nor TGFβ alone induced detectable CINC expression. Pretreatment or simultaneous treatment of macrophages with TGFβ resulted in suppression of CINC protein production. These studies demonstrate that IFNγ and TNFα, found early during the inflammatory response, induce production of CINC, as well as induce macrophages into a cytocidal state that are capable of killing transformed cells, parasites and bacteria, and recruiting neutrophils. In contrast, TGFβ, found during reparative stages of ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Potassium atom in PDB 3kbx: Human Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1 Alpha L3M_V63M
Differential neutrophil mobilization in response to human granulocyte-colony stimulation factor (huG-CSF) in B6 and B6.Sle2c2 mice. Percentage of Ly6G+ CD11b+ n
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Product Name: Mouse mAb anti- human Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1 alpha (MIP-1α), Clone 199Collection: AntibodySub Category: Monoclonal AntibodyImmunogen:
Product Name: Mouse mAb anti- human Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1 alpha (MIP-1α), Clone 426Collection: AntibodySub Category: Monoclonal AntibodyImmunogen:
MACROPHAGE INFLAMMATORY PROTEIN 1 ALPHA (MIP-1a) Antibody, Purified Sheep Polyclonal Antibody validated in WB, IHC, E, DB (ARD10210), Abgent
There are no specific protocols for Recombinant Mouse Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 3 alpha (ab50168). Please download our general protocols booklet
Abcams Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 3 alpha ELISA Kit suitable for Cell culture extracts, Tissue Extracts in human. Reliably quantify 1.5 pg/ml of…
Mouse macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2, also known as MIP-2-alpha) is the homolog of human chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2) protein, a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine subfamily. MIP-2 is also homologous to rat CINC-2. MIP-2 is expressed by activated monocytes and neutrophils at sites of inflammation. It has also been shown to control mucosal lymphocyte migration in mice. MIP-2/CXCL2 is also known as GRO2 oncogene, GRO-beta, SCYB, SCYB2, and melanoma growth stimulating activity beta (MSGA-beta).. ...
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Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-5 Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing 92 amino acids.
MIP-3α (RAT) Simoa® Assay Kit contains all the reagents necessary to run your assay on the HD-1, HD-X , SR-X or SP-X platforms.
Looking for online definition of Macrophage inflammatory proteins in the Medical Dictionary? Macrophage inflammatory proteins explanation free. What is Macrophage inflammatory proteins? Meaning of Macrophage inflammatory proteins medical term. What does Macrophage inflammatory proteins mean?
SEC091Hu, ELISA Kit for Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 4 Alpha (MIP4a), CCL26; SCYA26; IMAC; TSC-1; Eotaxin 3; Thymic stroma chemokine-1; Chemokine(C-C-Motif)ligand 26; Thymic Stroma Chemokine-1; Small Inducible Cytokine Subfamily A 26 | Products for research use only!
Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the Double-antibody Sandwich method for detection of Rat Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 3 Alpha (MIP3a) in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates and other biological fluids with no significant corss-reactivity with analogues from other species ...
Mouse macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2, also known as MIP-2-alpha) is the homolog of human chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2) protein, a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine subfamily. MIP-2 is also homologous to rat CINC-2. MIP-2 is expressed by activated monocytes and neutrophils at sites of inflammation. It has also been shown to control mucosal lymphocyte migration in mice. MIP-2/CXCL2 is also known as GRO2 oncogene, GRO-beta, SCYB, SCYB2, and melanoma growth stimulating activity beta (MSGA-beta).. ...
国内在庫あります!HRP標識済みウサギ・ポリクローナル抗体 ab106028 交差種: Hu 適用: WB,ELISA…Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 1 beta抗体一覧…
Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 1 beta兔多克隆抗体可与小鼠, 大鼠样本反应并经WB, IP, Neut, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被4篇文献引用。
All three isoforms of GRO are CXC chemokines that can signal through the CXCR1 or CXCR2 receptors. The GRO proteins chemoattract and activate neutrophils and basophils. Recombinant mouse MIP-2 is a 7.8 kDa protein consisting of 73 amino acids including the ELR motif common to the CXC chemokine family that bind to CXCR1 or CXCR2 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An essential role of macrophage inflammatory protein 1α/CCL3 on the expression of hosts innate immunities against infectious complications. AU - Takahashi, Hitoshi. AU - Tashiro, Tsuguhiko. AU - Miyazaki, Masaru. AU - Kobayashi, Makiko. AU - Pollard, Richard B.. AU - Suzuki, Fujio. PY - 2002/12/1. Y1 - 2002/12/1. N2 - Sepsis was induced by well-controlled cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α)/CCL3 knock-out (CCL3-/-) and severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. CCL3-/- mice and their littermates (CCL3+/+ mice) treated with anti-CCL3 monoclonal antibodies were susceptible (0-20% survival) to CLP-induced sepsis, and CCL3-/- mice supplemented with recombinant (r)CCL3 (250 ng/mouse) and CCL3+/+ mice were resistant (70-80% survival). The resistance of SCID mice to CLP was markedly improved by the rCCL3 administration (88% survival), and SCID mice treated with saline were shown to be middling resistant to the same CLP (45% survival). ...
Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 1 alpha / CCL3兔多克隆抗体(ab25128)可与小鼠, 大鼠样本反应并经WB, IP, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被4篇文献引用并得到1个独立的用户反馈。
Pulmonary infection is normally a major reason behind mortality and morbidity as well as the magnitude from the lung inflammatory response correlates with affected person survival. and peptidoglycan (PGN) implemented intratracheally significantly elevated the amounts of neutrophils retrieved in the bronchoalveolar lavage liquid (BALF). F344 got approximately 10-flip even more neutrophils in the BALF weighed against DA (< 0.001) and higher BALF concentrations of total proteins tumor necrosis aspect-α and macrophage inflammatory proteins 2. LTA/PGN administration in DA×F344 congenic strains (with LTA/PGN created significantly higher degrees of keratinocyte-derived chemokine and macrophage inflammatory proteins 2 than alveolar macrophages from DA rats. The distinctions had been linked to differential mitogen-activated proteins kinase phosphorylation. We conclude the fact that factors adding to irritation could be site and problem dependent. A better knowledge of site-specific irritation can lead ...
Rat CXCL2/MIP-2 (macrophage inflammatory protein-2) is a 69-amino acid CXC chemokine. MIP-2 is induced during acute inflammation in rat models of disease. It is a potent neutrophil chemotactic factor both |i|in vitro|/i| and|i| in vivo|/i|.
Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins (MIP) belong to the family of chemotactic cytokines known as chemokines. In humans, there are two major forms, MIP-1α and MIP-1β that are now officially named CCL3 and CCL4, respectively. Both are major factors produced by macrophages after they are stimulated with bacterial endotoxins. They are crucial for immune responses towards infection and inflammation. They activate human granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils) which can lead to acute neutrophilic inflammation. They also induce the synthesis and release of other pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1 (IL-1), IL-6 and TNF-α from fibroblasts and macrophages. The genes for CCL3 and CCL4 are both located on human chromosome 17. They are produced by many cells, particularly macrophages, dendritic cells, and lymphocytes. MIP-1 are best known for their chemotactic and proinflammatory effects but can also promote homoeostasis. Biophysical analyses and mathematical modelling has shown ...
A cytotoxic cycle triggered by DNA single-strand breakage and poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase activation has been shown to contribute to the cellular injury during various forms of oxidant stress in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase (PARS) in the process of neutrophil recruitment and in development of local and systemic inflammation. In pharmacological studies, PARS was inhibited by 3-aminobenzamide (10-20 mg/kg) in rats and mice. In other sets of studies, inflammatory responses in PARS?/? mice were compared with the responses in corresponding wild-type controls. Inhibition of PARS reduced neutrophil recruitment and reduced the extent of edema in zymosan- and carrageenan-triggered models of local inflammation. Moreover, inhibition of PARS prevented neutrophil recruitment, and reduced organ injury in rodent models of inflammation and multiple organ failure elicited by intraperitoneal injection of zymosan. Inhibition of PARS also reduced the ...
GRO (Growth Related Oncogene) belonging to IL-8 family is polypeptide which has three isoforms α, β and γ, and it inhibits proliferation of endothelial cells. GRO/CINC-1 (cytokine-induced neutrophil chemo attractant 1) was originally purified from media conditioned by IL-1β stimulated rat kidney epithelioid cells (NRK-52E.) Amino acid sequence that encodes rat CINC-1 was identified in 1989 by Watanabes group at Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University. CINC-1 is a member of the alpha (CXC) subfamily of chemokines. Three additional rat CXC chemokines (CINC-2α, CINC-2β, CINC-3/MIP-2) have been identified. The protein sequence of CINC-1 is 63 - 67% identical to that of CINC-2α, CINC-2β and CINC-3/MIP-2. In addition, each of GROα, GROβ and GROγ is sharing 68%, 71% and 69% identity with CINC-1. This has been suggested that CINCs are the rat counterparts of human GROs. GROα/MGSA has a high homology with IL-8 in amino acid sequences. It has been reported that it also has a similar ...
Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1 alpha belongs to a family of chemotactic cytokines known as chemokines. MIP-1 alpha and MIP-1 beta are the 2 major forms, officially named CCL3, and CCL4, respectively.
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CCL3 is expressed during experimental GVHD and may be important for the inflammatory response caused by acute GVHD (12, 13). The results reported herewith confirm the relevance of CCL3 in mediating GVHD in mice. Moreover, we report for the first time that blockade of CCL3 with a CBP, evasin-1, which prevents CCL3 function (17), ameliorated GVHD and prevented death. Treatment with evasin-1 prevented the influx of leukocytes, especially CD8+, CD4+ cells and macrophages, to the small intestine and decreased tissue damage in the liver. Mechanistically, inhibition of leukocyte influx to the intestine was due to inhibition by evasin-1 of the ability of leukocytes to adhere to endothelial cells in affected tissues. The latter results suggest that mediation of leukocyte adherence and subsequent migration is the major mechanism by which CCL3 participates in murine GVHD. Finally, the protective effects of evasin-1 against GVHD did not interfere with the beneficial effect of the graft against a leukemic ...
... it can also induce the production of chemokines such as IL-8 and MIP-2 / CXCL2. IL-32 can also support osteoclast ...
MIP-2 belongs to the CXC chemokine family, is named CXCL2 and acts through binding of CXCR1 and CXCR2. It is produced mainly by ... There are two chemokines in the MIP-3 group. MIP-3α (CCL20) and MIP-3β (CCL19). MIP-3α is binding to receptor CCR6. CCL20 is ... Chemokine Czaplewski LG, McKeating J, Craven CJ, Higgins LD, Appay V, Brown A, et al. (June 1999). "Identification of amino ... These chemokines affect monocytes, T lymphocytes, dendritic cells, NK cells and platelets. They, too, activate human ...
... and C-X-C Chemokine Ligand 12 (CXCL2). An example of an RNA aptamer therapy includes Pegaptanib (aka Macugen ® ), the only FDA- ... NOX-A12 acts as antagonist for CXCL12/SDF-1, a chemokine involved in tumor growth. While the high-selectivity and tight-binding ...
... is a chemokine receptor. IL8RB is also known as CXCR2, and CXCR2 is now the IUPHAR Committee on ... In addition, it binds ligands CXCL2, CXCL3, and CXCL5. The angiogenic effects of IL8 in intestinal microvascular endothelial ... Brandt E, Ludwig A, Petersen F, Flad HD (Oct 2000). "Platelet-derived CXC chemokines: old players in new games". Immunological ... Ahuja SK, Lee JC, Murphy PM (Jan 1996). "CXC chemokines bind to unique sets of selectivity determinants that can function ...
Activation of dectin-1 also triggers expression of many protecting antifungal cytokines and chemokines (TNF, CXCL2, IL-1b, IL- ... This transcription factor is responsible for the production of numerous inflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as TNF, IL- ...
... chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1, scyb1 CXCL2: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2, scyb2 CXCL3: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 3 ... chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 5, scyb5 CXCL6: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6, scyb6 CXCL7: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 7 ... chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9, scyb9 CXCL10: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10, scyb10 CXCL11: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ... scyb3 CXCL4: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 4, Platelet factor-4, PF-4, scyb4 CXCL5: ...
... self epitopes Cryptotope CX3CL1 CX3CR1 CXC chemokine receptors CXCL1 CXCL10 CXCL11 CXCL13 CXCL14 CXCL15 CXCL16 CXCL17 CXCL2 ... Breakthrough infection Broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies Bursa of Fabricius C-C chemokine receptor type 6 C-C chemokine ... CD4 CD4+ T cells and antitumor immunity CD74 CD94/NKG2 Cell-mediated immunity CELSR1 Central tolerance Chemokine Chemokine ... 7 Calreticulin Cancer immunology Cancer immunoprevention Cancer immunotherapy Cantuzumab ravtansine Cathelicidin CC chemokine ...
CXCL1/CXCL2 and the angiogenic CXC chemokines: Growth related gene alpha (GRO-α) - CXCL1 Platelet factor 4 - CXCL4 ENA-78 - ... It mediates chemokine transcytosis, which leads to apical retention of intact chemokines and more leukocyte migration. Binding ... "Expression of chemokines and chemokine receptors during human renal transplant rejection". Am. J. Kidney Dis. 37 (3): 518-31. ... Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines). The chemokine binding site on the receptor appears to be localised to the amino ...
Typical inflammatory chemokines include: CCL2, CCL3 and CCL5, CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL8. A typical example is CXCL-8, which acts ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines in that it has ... CCL1 for the ligand 1 of the CC-family of chemokines, and CCR1 for its respective receptor. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) ...
... mobilizes cells by interacting with a cell surface chemokine receptor called CXCR2. CXCL2, like related chemokines, is ... Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also called ... CXCL2 is 90% identical in amino acid sequence as a related chemokine, CXCL1. This chemokine is secreted by monocytes and ... The gene for CXCL2 is located on human chromosome 4 in a cluster of other CXC chemokines. ...
O'Donovan, N., Galvin, M., Morgan, J. G. (1999). „Physical mapping of the CXC chemokine locus on human chromosome 4". Cytogenet ... Gen za CXCL2 je lociran na ljudskom hromozomu 4 u klasteru sa drugim CXC hemokinima.[4] CXCL2 mobiliše ćelije putem interakcije ... CXCL2, hemokin (C-X-C motiv) ligand 2, je mali citokin koji pripada CXC hemokin familiji. Os se takođe zove makrofagni ... inflamatorni protein 2-alfa (MIP2-alfa), rast-regulisani protein beta (Gro-beta) i Gro onkogen-2 (Gro-2). CXCL2 is 90% ...
Typical inflammatory chemokines include: CCL2, CCL3 and CCL5, CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL8. A typical example is CXCL-8, which acts ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ...
chemokine receptor activity. • receptor activity. • protein binding. • C-C chemokine receptor activity. • C-C chemokine binding ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene.[5] CCR6 ... "Entrez Gene: CCR6 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6".. *^ Wang K, Zhang H, Kugathasan S, Annese V, Bradfield JP, Russell RK, ... "Chemokine Receptors: CCR6". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
chemokine-mediated signaling pathway. • regulation of chemokine production. • G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway. • ... melanoma growth stimulatory activity (MSGA-α), KC, neutrophil-activating protein 3 (NAP-3) - CXCL1/CXCL2[27] ... DARC has been shown to internalise chemokines but does not scavenge them.[44] It mediates chemokine transcytosis, which leads ... Consequently, the Fy protein is also known as DARC (Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines). The chemokine binding site on the ...
CXCL1 · CXCL2 · CXCL3 · CXCL4 · CXCL5 · CXCL6 · CXCL7 · CXCL8/IL8 · CXCL9 · CXCL10 · CXCL11 · CXCL12 · CXCL13 · CXCL14 · CXCL15 ... Chemokine. CCL. CCL1 · CCL2 · CCL3 · CCL4 · CCL5 · CCL6 · CCL7 · CCL8 · CCL9 · CCL11 · CCL12 · CCL13 · CCL14 · CCL15 · CCL16 · ...
positive regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production. • positive regulation of JUN kinase activity. • positive ... positive regulation of chemokine production. • cellular extravasation. • negative regulation of lipid storage. • negative ... positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • epithelial cell proliferation involved in salivary gland morphogenesis ...
... s are a subset of cytokines that are produced by a type of immune cell known as a lymphocyte.[1] They are protein mediators typically produced by T cells to direct the immune system response by signaling between its cells. Lymphokines have many roles, including the attraction of other immune cells, including macrophages and other lymphocytes, to an infected site and their subsequent activation to prepare them to mount an immune response. Circulating lymphocytes can detect a very small concentration of lymphokine and then move up the concentration gradient towards where the immune response is required. Lymphokines aid B cells to produce antibodies. Important lymphokines secreted by the T helper cell include:[2] ...
... binds to the death receptors DR4 (TRAIL-RI) and DR5 (TRAIL-RII). The process of apoptosis is caspase-8-dependent. Caspase-8 activates downstream effector caspases including procaspase-3, -6, and -7, leading to activation of specific kinases.[11] TRAIL also binds the receptors DcR1 and DcR2, which do not contain a cytoplasmic domain (DcR1) or contain a truncated death domain (DcR2). DcR1 functions as a TRAIL-neutralizing decoy-receptor. The cytoplasmic domain of DcR2 is functional and activates NFkappaB. In cells expressing DcR2, TRAIL binding therefore activates NFkappaB, leading to transcription of genes known to antagonize the death signaling pathway and/or to promote inflammation. Application of engineered ligands that have variable affinity for different death (DR4 and DR5) and decoy receptors (DCR1 and DCR2) may allow selective targeting of cancer cells by controlling activation of Type 1/Type 2 pathways of cell death and single cell fluctuations. Luminescent iridium complex-peptide ...
... (IL-24) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL24 gene. IL-24 is a cytokine belonging to the IL-10 family of cytokines that signals through two heterodimeric receptors: IL-20R1/IL-20R2 and IL-22R1/IL-20R2. This interleukin is also known as melanoma differentiation-associated 7 (mda-7) due to its discovery as a tumour suppressing protein. IL-24 appears to control in cell survival and proliferation by inducing rapid activation of particular transcription factors called STAT1 and STAT3. This cytokine is predominantly released by activated monocytes, macrophages and T helper 2 (Th2) cells[5] and acts on non-haematopoietic tissues such as skin, lung and reproductive tissues. IL-24 performs important roles in wound healing, arthritis, psoriasis and cancer.[6][7][8] Several studies have shown that cell death occurs in cancer cells/cell lines following exposure to IL-24.[9][10] The gene for IL-24 is located on chromosome 1 in humans.[11] ...
... as well as chemokine and cytokine production, and expression of adhesion molecules such as E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. This ...
positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • regulation of insulin secretion. • extrinsic apoptotic signaling ... Copeland KF (2006). "Modulation of HIV-1 transcription by cytokines and chemokines". Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry. 5 (12 ...
... is sometimes used interchangeably among scientists with the term cytokine.[3] Historically, cytokines were associated with hematopoietic (blood and lymph forming) cells and immune system cells (e.g., lymphocytes and tissue cells from spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes). For the circulatory system and bone marrow in which cells can occur in a liquid suspension and not bound up in solid tissue, it makes sense for them to communicate by soluble, circulating protein molecules. However, as different lines of research converged, it became clear that some of the same signaling proteins which the hematopoietic and immune systems use were also being used by all sorts of other cells and tissues, during development and in the mature organism. While growth factor implies a positive effect on cell division, cytokine is a neutral term with respect to whether a molecule affects proliferation. While some cytokines can be growth factors, such as G-CSF and GM-CSF, others have an inhibitory effect on ...
chemokine activity. • cytokine activity. • heparin binding. • protein binding. • CXCR3 chemokine receptor binding. ... C-X-C motif chemokine 11 is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also called Interferon-inducible T- ... "Entrez Gene: CXCL11 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11".. *^ a b Cole KE, Strick CA, Paradis TJ, Ogborne KT, Loetscher M, Gladue ... This chemokine elicits its effects on its target cells by interacting with the cell surface chemokine receptor CXCR3, with a ...
Interferon alfa 2b is an antiviral or antineoplastic drug, that was originally discovered in the laboratory of Charles Weissmann at the University of Zurich. It was developed at Biogen, and ultimately marketed by Schering-Plough under the tradename Intron-A. It has been used for a wide range of indications, including viral infections and cancers. This drug is approved around the world for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C, chronic hepatitis B, hairy cell leukemia, Behçet's disease, chronic myelogenous leukemia, multiple myeloma, follicular lymphoma, carcinoid tumor, mastocytosis and malignant melanoma. ...
4-1BB is a type 2 transmembrane glycoprotein receptor belonging to the TNF superfamily, expressed on activated T Lymphocytes.[1] 4-1BBL (4-1BB ligand) is found on APCs (antigen presenting cells) and binds to 4-1BB. ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the interleukin 1 cytokine family. Protein structure modeling indicated that this cytokine may contain a 12-stranded beta-trefoil structure that is conserved between IL1A (IL-A alpha) and IL1B (IL-1 beta). This gene and eight other interleukin 1 family genes form a cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 2. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported.[8]. ...
C-X-C chemokine receptor activity. • interleukin-8 binding. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. • chemokine receptor ... This name and the corresponding gene symbol IL8RA have been replaced by the HGNC approved name C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 1 ... "Chemokine Receptors: CXCR1". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... chemokine-mediated signaling pathway. • interleukin-8-mediated signaling pathway. • neutrophil degranulation. • chemotaxis. ...
Inggris)Role of chemokines in CNS health and pathology: a focus on the CCL2/CCR2 and CXCL8/CXCR2 networks ... CXCL2 dan CXCL5 pada otak[11] - yang meningkat pada granulosit seiring dengan migrasi, pada model tikus, terbukti menurunkan ... "A protective role for ELR+ chemokines during acute viral encephalomyelitis.". Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry ...
A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. ... CXCL2, Chemokine; Chemokine, CXCL2; Chemokine, MIP-2; Inflammatory Protein-2alpha, Macrophage; MIP 2 Chemokine; MIP 2alpha; ... Chemokine CXCL2. Subscribe to New Research on Chemokine CXCL2 A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and ... Chemokines: 8631*CXC Chemokines: 425*Chemokine CXCL2: 170*mouse Cxcl2 protein: 1 ...
CXCL2), GROb; SCYB2; MIP2; GRO2; MIP2a; MGSAb; CINC2a; HSF; Macrophage inflammatory protein 2-alpha; Hematopoietic synergistic ... Polyclonal Antibody to Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 2 ( ... ELISA Kit for Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 2 (CXCL2). Enzyme- ... Immunogen EPB603Mu51-Eukaryotic Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 2 (CXCL2) *Buffer FormulationPBS, pH7.4, containing 0.02% NaN3, ... STORAGE of the of the Polyclonal Antibody to Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 2 (CXCL2). Store at 4°C for frequent use. Stored at ...
Compare X-C motif chemokine ligand 2 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, ... CXCL2 / GRO beta / MIP-2 / CINC-3. *. Detection Range: 7.80 - 500 pg/mL ... X-C motif chemokine ligand 2 ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established antibody-based ... Your search returned 394 X-C motif chemokine ligand 2 ELISA Kit across 24 suppliers. ...
CXCL2 C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 2 [Homo sapiens] CXCL2 C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 2 [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID:2920 ... CXCL2provided by HGNC. Official Full Name. C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 2provided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:4603 See ... CXCL2 C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ] Gene ID: 2920, updated on 8-Jul-2021 ... Title: Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 and CXCL2 produced by tumor promote the generation of monocytic myeloid-derived ...
CXCL2, CXCL9 and CXCL10 in comparison to LTB and/or HC individuals. PTB individuals with bilateral or cavitary disease ... Whether chemokines can perform the same role in PTB is not known. We examined the plasma levels of chemokines in individuals ... Finally, the chemokines were significantly reduced following successful ATT. Our data demonstrate that PTB is associated with ... We also examined the chemokines in PTB individuals at the end of anti-tuberculous chemotherapy (ATT). PTB individuals exhibited ...
This review will focus on recent murine and human studies that use chemokines as therapeutic anti-cancer vaccine adjuvants. ... Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing ... This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential ... CXCL2. GROβ/MGSA-β. CXCR2. inflammatory and angiogenic. CXCL3. GROγ/MGSA-γ. CXCR2. inflammatory and angiogenic. ...
CXCL2 and GRO,i,γ,/i,/CXCL3), HCC-1/CCL14, HCC-4/CCL16, IL-9, IL-17F, IL18-BPa, IL-28A, IL-29, IL-31, IP-10/CXCL10, I-TAC/ ... which allows the simultaneous determination of 40 chemokines per sample. The sets consist of the following chemokines: 6Ckine/ ... i,Results.,/i, We showed possible implication of 4 chemokines, that is, HCC-4, I-TAC, MIP-3,i,α,/i,, and TARC in women with ... i,Conclusion.,/i, On the basis of our findings, it seems that the chemokines may play role in the pathogenesis of preterm labor ...
4. CXC Chemokines and Thyroid Hormone Analogues. 4.1. CXCL2. A product of microglia, chemokine CXCL2 has important chemotactic ... 5. C Chemokines. The C chemokines are XCL1 (lymphotactin-α) and XCL2 (lymphotactin-β). The single receptor to which these ... Tetrac also affects expression of the genes for other CNS-relevant chemokines, including CCL20, CCL26, CXCL2, CXCL3, and CXCL10 ... 3. CC Chemokines and Thyroid Hormone Analogues. 3.1. CCL20. Among the homeostatic chemokines in the CNS that contribute to ...
CXCL2 mobilizes cells by interacting with a cell surface chemokine receptor called CXCR2. CXCL2, like related chemokines, is ... Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also called ... CXCL2 is 90% identical in amino acid sequence as a related chemokine, CXCL1. This chemokine is secreted by monocytes and ... The gene for CXCL2 is located on human chromosome 4 in a cluster of other CXC chemokines. ...
Another important chemokine in T1D is Cxcl2. Cxcl2 gene was overexpressed by betamethasone in the three different substrates, ... After exposure to betamethasone, a significant upregulation of Gad1, Ccl2, Cxcl2, Cd14, Il22ra1, Tcf7l2, Pcsk1, and Ptprj and a ... According to the effect of betametasone in the islets, Cd44, Ccl2 and Igfr1 genes were downregulated and Gad1 and Cxcl2 were ... This chemokine is involved in the recruitment of monocytes, macrophages, DCs, and activated T-cells, thus leading to islet ...
CXCL2. Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2. DDs. Dentin disks. GH. Glycosyl hydrolase ...
Typical inflammatory chemokines include: CCL2, CCL3 and CCL5, CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL8. A typical example is CXCL-8, which acts ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines in that it has ... CCL1 for the ligand 1 of the CC-family of chemokines, and CCR1 for its respective receptor. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) ...
Chemokine CCL4 * Chemokine CXCL1 * Chemokine CXCL2 * Chemokines, CXC* * Chemotactic Factors / genetics * Chemotactic Factors / ... The MIP proteins are members of a superfamily of cytokines called chemokines, many of which have been shown to possess ... While MIPs were originally identified as secretory products of endotoxin-stimulated mouse macrophages, these chemokines are ... it is likely these chemokines play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses and may contribute to the pathogenesis of ...
Chemokine CCL4 * Chemokine CXCL2 * Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly / genetics* * Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein ...
Buy our Recombinant human CXCL2 protein. Ab9842 is an active full length protein produced in Escherichia coli and has been ... Hematoregulatory chemokine, which, in vitro, suppresses hematopoietic progenitor cell proliferation. GRO-beta(5-73) shows a ...
Typical inflammatory chemokines include: CCL2, CCL3 and CCL5, CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL8. A typical example is CXCL-8, which acts ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ...
C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4; CXCL2, C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 2; and FOS, Fos proto-oncogene). Four of these were ... C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4; CXCL2, C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 2; and FOS, Fos proto-oncogene in diabetic gastroparesis ... C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4; CXCL2, C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 2; and FOS, Fos proto-oncogene. ... C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 2); CXCL8 (C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 8) chemotactic factor for neutrophils, basophils, and T- ...
Ausgesuchte Qualitäts-Hersteller für CXCL2 Antikörper. Hier bestellen. ... Monoklonale und polyklonale CXCL2 Antikörper für viele Methoden. ... anti-CXCL2 (CXCL2) Antikörper. Bezeichnung:. anti-Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 2 Antikörper (CXCL2). Auf www.antikoerper- ... Show all anti-Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 2 (CXCL2) Antikörper with Pubmed References. * Mouse (Murine) Polyclonal CXCL2 ...
COX-2−/− deficiency down-regulated the expression of neutrophil-activating CXCL2 chemokine in liver I/R injury. Leukocyte ... Chemokine gene expression in COX-2−/− and WT livers. Real-time PCR of chemokine gene expression shows that the mRNA levels of ... The lack of COX-2 expression resulted in decreased levels of CXCL2, a neutrophil-activating chemokine, reduced infiltration of ... 8⇑). CXC chemokines are considered to act predominantly on neutrophils (39). In mice, the two major CXC chemokines are cytokine ...
0 (CXCL2 protein, human); 0 (Chemokine CXCL2); 0 (Cxcl2 protein, mouse); 0 (KHSRP protein, human); 0 (KSRP protein, mouse); 0 ( ... Quimiocina CXCL2/gen tica. Regula o para Baixo. Feminino. Gastrite/gen tica. Gastrite/imunologia. Gastrite/patologia. Infec es ... Intriguingly, CXCL-2 and HMOX-1 were upregulated in H. pylori infected mice after KSRP overexpression. This difference in ... and that KSRP overexpression repressed upregulation of CXCL-2 expression induced by H. pylori and facilitated H. pylori ...
0 (Antigen-Antibody Complex); 0 (CXCL2 protein, human); 0 (Chemokine CXCL2); 0 (Inflammation Mediators); 0 (RNA, Messenger). ... Quimiocina CXCL2/metabolismo. Dermatite/imunologia. Doen as do Complexo Imune/imunologia. Neutr filos/imunologia. ... Quimiocina CXCL2/imunologia. Dermatite/metabolismo. Modelos Animais de Doen as. Ensaio de Imunoadsor o Enzim tica. Feminino. ... Neutrophils Self-Regulate Immune Complex-Mediated Cutaneous Inflammation through CXCL2.. [So] Source:. J Invest Dermatol;136(2 ...
Chemokine (C-X-C motif) Ligand 1 (CXCL1) and Chemokine (C-X-C motif) Ligand 2 (CXCL2) Gene Polymorphisms Testing. Kim et al ( ... and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2) genes and the development of AA in the Korean population. A total of 235 AA ... The specific SNPs occurring in the promoter regions of the CXCL1 and CXCL2 genes (rs3117604, -429C/T and rs3806792, -264T/C, ... Polymorphisms in the promoter regions of the CXCL1 and CXCL2 genes contribute to increased risk of alopecia areata in the ...
It binds the chemokines CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL5. "We have seen that the concentration of the chemokines in the bone marrow, ... IFN-beta interferes with this communication: it makes the cells in the tumour produce fewer chemokines and no chemokine ... Neutrophils migrate along the chemokine gradient into the tumour and once there, they themselves release the same chemokines in ... Neutrophils normally circulate in the blood until--attracted by so-called chemokines--they enter the tissue where they ingest ...
CXCL2, CXCL3 and CXC motif chemokine receptor 1 (CXCR1) expression in a CBRH-7919 mouse model (24). Additionally, silencing of ... Among the four types of chemokines, there are two highly homologous XC chemokines: XC motif chemokine ligand 1 (XCL1) and XCL2 ... Chemokine receptors. Chemokines. Functions. Signaling pathways. Role in HCC. (Refs.). CXCR1. CXCL6,. Chemotactic neutrophils. - ... chemokines can bind to the atypical chemokine receptor (ACKR) subfamily, which is a key regulator of the chemokine network, and ...
These results identify CC family members and CXCL2 chemokines as novel regulators of axon morphogenesis downstream of HGF ... These results identify CC family members and CXCL2 chemokines as novel regulators of axon morphogenesis downstream of HGF ... Experiments using blocking antibodies and chemokine receptor antagonists demonstrate that chemokines act downstream of HGF ... Experiments using blocking antibodies and chemokine receptor antagonists demonstrate that chemokines act downstream of HGF ...
An IFNγ/CXCL2 regulatory pathway determines lesion localization during EAE.. Stoolman JS, Duncker PC, Huber AK, Giles DA, ... Search: Segal B[Author] AND chemokine[Title] OR Segal BM[Author] NOT Russian[Language] NOT "Soviet"[Title] NOT ("ethanol"[MeSH ... Segal B[Author] AND chemokine[Title] OR Segal BM[Author] NOT Russian[Language] NOT "Soviet"[Title] NOT ("ethanol"[MeSH Terms] ... Search: Segal B[Author] AND chemokine[Title] OR Segal BM[Author] NOT R... ...
... generation of an intravascular chemokine gradient (e.g., CXCL2) directed neutrophil migration toward damage foci (Figure 2); ... Antagonism of the chemokine Ccl5 ameliorates experimental liver fibrosis in mice. J Clin Invest. 2010;120(11):4129-4140.. View ... A TLR2/S100A9/CXCL-2 signaling network is necessary for neutrophil recruitment in acute and chronic liver injury in the mouse. ... Furthermore, the TLR4 ligand S100A9 protein secreted in NASH was a key regulator of hepatic CXCL2 expression and neutrophil ...
114105 Cxcl2; C-X-C motif chemokine 2 precursor 171551 Cxcl3; C-X-C motif chemokine 3 precursor 60665 Cxcl6; C-X-C motif ... C-C motif chemokine 5 K22671 CCL9; C-C motif chemokine 9 K05510 CCL6; C-C motif chemokine 6 K05509 CCL7; C-C motif chemokine 7 ... C-C motif chemokine 3 K22671 CCL9; C-C motif chemokine 9 K05510 CCL6; C-C motif chemokine 6 K05509 CCL7; C-C motif chemokine 7 ... C-C motif chemokine 1 K14624 CCL2; C-C motif chemokine 2 K14624 CCL2; C-C motif chemokine 2 K05408 CCL3; C-C motif chemokine 3 ...
... and dendritic cells is thought to create inflammatory and pro-proliferative circuits mediated by chemokines and cytokines. ... induces the expression of chemokines (i.e., CCL20), neutrophil chemoattractans (i.e., CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL8), MMPs (i.e., MMP3), ... CC chemokine ligands; CCR: C-C chemokine receptor; CXCL: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand; CXCR: C-X-C motif chemokine receptor; ... CC chemokine ligands; CCR: C-C chemokine receptor; CXCL: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand; CXCR: C-X-C motif chemokine receptor; ...
Chemokines and their receptors play essential roles in immunology during inflammation and in homeostasis. ... Chemokines are a class of secreted molecules that induce chemotaxis (migration) of target cells. ... CXCL2. b. a. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. ... Chemokine Receptor Biology poster. Order your copy of our ... Chemokines are also involved in the orchestration of wound healing.. For more information on inflammatory chemokines, see the ...
  • CXCL2 mobilizes cells by interacting with a cell surface chemokine receptor called CXCR2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vallès, Grijpink-Ongering, de Bree, Tuinstra, Ronken: Differential regulation of the CXCR2 chemokine network in rat brain trauma: implications for neuroimmune interactions and neuronal survival. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • [4] CXCL2 mobiliše ćelije putem interakcije sa hemokin receptorom na ćelijskoj površini koji se zove CXCR2 . (wikipedia.org)
  • IFNβ markedly upregulated CXCR3 ligand chemokines (SCYB11, SCYB10 and SCYB9) chiefly active on effector T helper type 1 (Th1) T cells, and CCR2 ligand chemokines (SCYA8 and SCYA2) effective on monocytes, whereas it downregulated CXCR2 ligand chemokines (SCYB2, SCYB1 and IL8) primarily active on neutrophils. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The receptor for this cytokine is the chemokine receptor CXCR2. (prospecbio.com)
  • Both CXCL2 and CXCL3 also bind to chemokine receptor CXCR2. (prospecbio.com)
  • This inflammation was characterised by the CXCR2-dependent influx of MDSCs, whose migration was induced via the IL-22-dependent production of CXCL2 by gastric epithelial cells. (bmj.com)
  • The secreted chemokines not only signal through endothelial CXCR2 receptor in a paracrine manner to promote endothelial tube formation, but also act as autocrine growth factors for GAB2-induced transformation of fallopian tube secretory epithelial cells and clonogenic growth of ovarian cancer cells overexpressing GAB2. (selleckchem.com)
  • Blockade or genetic silencing of CXCR2, a major receptor for these chemokines in mice, abrogates blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, CNS infiltration by leukocytes, and the development of clinical deficits during the presentation as well as relapses of EAE. (rupress.org)
  • Hence, in mouse models of pulmonary aspergillosis (toxoplasmosis and staphylococcal cerebritis), expression of CXCR2, a major receptor for ELR + CXC chemokines in mice, is critical for the accumulation of PMN at sites of inflammation and, consequently, eradication of microbial pathogens ( 11 - 13 ). (rupress.org)
  • Your search returned 394 X-C motif chemokine ligand 2 ELISA Kit across 24 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • Most chemokines bind to more than one receptor, while most receptors also display overlapping ligand specificity [ 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also called macrophage inflammatory protein 2-alpha (MIP2-alpha), Growth-regulated protein beta (Gro-beta) and Gro oncogene-2 (Gro-2). (wikipedia.org)
  • Auf www.antikoerper-online.de finden Sie aktuell 177 Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 2 (CXCL2) Antikörper von 20 unterschiedlichen Herstellern. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • CXCL2 , hemokin (C-X-C motiv) ligand 2 , je mali citokin koji pripada CXC hemokin familiji. (wikipedia.org)
  • CXCL1 is defined as being a chemokine ligand 1. (prospecbio.com)
  • Roles of chemokine ligand-2 (CXCL2) and neutrophils in influencing endothelial cell function and inflammation of human adipose tissue. (abcam.com)
  • The role of the CC chemokine ligand-5 (CCL5/RANTES) and its receptors CCR1 and CCR5 in atherosclerosis have been addressed in a number of studies. (ahajournals.org)
  • HTVV alone increased IL-1β, IL-6 and the chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2) mRNA expression. (ovid.com)
  • Your search returned 1131 C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 ELISA ELISA Kit across 31 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • To date, there are more than 50 chemokines and 18 chemokine receptors identified [ 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • All of these proteins exert their biological effects by interacting with G protein-linked transmembrane receptors called chemokine receptors, that are selectively found on the surfaces of their target cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among other homeostatic chemokine receptors include: CCR9, CCR10, and CXCR5, which are important as part of the cell addresses for tissue-specific homing of leukocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been found that chemokines and their receptors serve a pivotal role in HCC progression. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Thus, chemokines and their receptors directly or indirectly shape the tumor cell microenvironment, and regulate the biological behavior of the tumor. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Exosomes containing chemokines or expressing receptors for chemokines may improve chemotaxis to HCC and may thus be exploited for targeted drug delivery. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chemokines bind to a variety of different receptors, which belong to the G-protein-binding receptor family, and there are ~23 types of chemokine receptors that have been discovered ( 10 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chemokines and their receptors were initially thought to allow for an interaction between immune cells and the inflammatory sites ( 11 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • After binding to the receptors, chemokines primarily serve a role in migration of leukocytes, such as monocytes, eosinophils and dendritic cells (DCs) ( 11 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chemokines receptors are seven transmembrane spanning G protein-coupled receptors that allow cells to migrate towards increasing chemokine gradients. (biolegend.com)
  • Specific chemokine receptors are often required to gain entry (or exit) from certain organs and tissues like the thymus and bone marrow. (biolegend.com)
  • To test the involvement of CXC chemokines in cells irradiated with low doses, we irradiated HFLIII cells with 1 to 20 cGy X-rays and transferred the media from HFLIII culture to two melanoma cell lines characteristic of excessive numbers of the CXC chemokine-specific receptors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Chemotaxis typically requires the stimulation of 7 transmembrane pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive G protein-coupled chemokine receptors (GPCR) [ 19 , 20 , 21 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In this update, we will highlight these recent developments, in particular the identification of components regulating the transcriptional machinery of the proatherogenic chemokine CCL5, distinct roles of its receptors CCR1 and CCR5 in plaque formation and immunobalance, and differential site- and stage-specific effects of T cell-activating chemokines and their receptors, eg, CXCL10 and CXCR3. (ahajournals.org)
  • The contribution of the transmembrane chemokines CX 3 CL1 and CXCL16 with their respective receptors CX 3 CR1 and CXCR6 in the recruitment of T cell and monocyte subsets and shear-mediated plaque modulation will be discussed. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1,2 By signaling through G protein-coupled chemokine receptors, chemokines govern a variety of cell responses including cell activation and transmigration in leukocytes, as well as in nonhematopoietic cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • As CC chemokine receptors (CCRs) are involved in monocyte recruitment to injured tissue, we analysed the contribution of these receptors to the pathogenesis of HUS. (portlandpress.com)
  • Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was collected to quantitate leukocyte influx and cytokine/chemokine (TNF-a, IL-6, chemokine [C-X-C motif] ligands [CXCL1 and CXCL2]) concentrations. (cdc.gov)
  • Cytokine proteins are classified as chemokines according to behavior and structural characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokines are a class of small molecular proteins with similar structures, functions and chemotactic properties, and their molecular weights are ~10 kDa, and chemokines represent the largest member of the cytokine family ( 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Magnetic bead-based assays for detecting 46 mouse cytokine, chemokine, and growth factor biomarkers. (bio-rad.com)
  • It's a tiny cytokine that's a member of the CXC chemokine family. (prospecbio.com)
  • It is considered a small cytokine, especially when compared to other cytokines in other chemokine families. (prospecbio.com)
  • The CXCL2 cytokine is produced by macrophages and monocytes and helps with the chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and hematopoietic stem cells. (prospecbio.com)
  • Growth Regulated Oncogene Beta (GROb) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family which produced by activated monocytes and neutrophils and expressed at sites of inflammation. (uscnk.com)
  • ODE-induced AHR was significantly attenuated in MyD88 KO mice, and neutrophil influx and cytokine/chemokine production were nearly absent in MyD88 KO animals after ODE challenges. (cdc.gov)
  • Mice deficient in TLR9, TLR4, and IL-18R, but not IL-1IR, demonstrated partial protection against ODE-induced neutrophil influx and cytokine/chemokine production. (cdc.gov)
  • Fig. 3 depicts the cytokine and chemokine data for each class of DO mice (supersusceptible, susceptible, resistant and non-infected) and for the C57BL/6J founder strain for comparison. (nih.gov)
  • Lung cytokine and chemokine correlations with survival were nearly identical to those for the other indicators (not shown). (nih.gov)
  • Infection/inflammation and mechanical ventilation have both independently been shown to increase cytokine/chemokine levels in lung tissue and blood samples of premature patients. (ovid.com)
  • We tested whether pre-existing inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure would modify cytokine/chemokine response in newborn rat lungs to high tidal volume ventilation (HTVV). (ovid.com)
  • Thus, a subtle pre-existing inflammation combined with HTVV amplifies the proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine expression in the newborn rat lung compared with HTVV alone. (ovid.com)
  • In vivo, mast cell inhibition was observed to decrease CXCL2 expression, limit early neutrophil infiltration, and reduce inflammatory cytokine expression by the cornea. (arvojournals.org)
  • This chemokine, a member of the CXC subfamily, is expressed at sites of inflammation and may suppress hematopoietic progenitor cell proliferation. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Given the bioactivities of MIP-1 alpha and beta and MIP-2 and the recent studies demonstrating their association with lung inflammation, it is likely these chemokines play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses and may contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory lung disease. (nih.gov)
  • While some chemotaxis is induced by inflammation or damaged cells, other chemokines function in homeostasis. (biolegend.com)
  • Chemokines are small secreted proteins that function in leukocyte trafficking, recruitment, and activation and have a role in many pathophysiological processes such as infectious and autoimmune diseases, inflammation, cancer, and vascular disease. (rndsystems.com)
  • Chemokines are derived from heterogeneous sources and direct leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Mast cell and macrophage chemokines CXCL1/CXCL2 control the early stage of neutrophil recruitment during tissue inflammation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Chemokines can be located in different vascular cell types, eg, endothelial cells (ECs) but also inflammatory cells and can be detected within atherosclerotic lesions, where they function as messengers to direct leukocytes to sites of inflammation but may also control homeostasis and other activities of emigrated cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • PTB individuals exhibited significantly higher levels of CCL1, CCL3, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL9 and CXCL10 in comparison to LTB and/or HC individuals. (nature.com)
  • It binds the chemokines CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL5. (eurekalert.org)
  • Using a disulfide-trapped Cxcl1-Cxcl2 heterodimer, we characterized its binding to free heparin using nuclear magnetic resonance and isothermal titration calorimetry, and to immobilized heparin and heparan sulfate using surface plasmon resonance. (portlandpress.com)
  • Three of the 10 transcripts encoded CXC chemokines (CXCL1, CXCL2, and CXCL6). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Organic dust extracts obtained from swine confinement facilities induced neutrophil chemokine production (human IL-8, murine CXCL1/CXCL2). (cdc.gov)
  • Intranasal inhalation of organic dust extract induced neutrophil influx, and CXCL1/CXCL2 release was also decreased in mice fed a relatively high vitamin D diet as compared to mice fed a low vitamin D diet. (cdc.gov)
  • Overexpression of GAB2 upregulated the secretion of several chemokines from ovarian cancer cells, including CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL8. (selleckchem.com)
  • Taken together, these findings suggest that overexpression of GAB2 in ovarian cancer cells promotes tumor growth and angiogenesis by upregulating expression of CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL8 that is IKKβ-dependent. (selleckchem.com)
  • Statistically significant, very strong or strong disease correlates in DO mouse lungs were dead cells, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL5 and TNF, which supports previous studies from inbred mice and humans (Bekker et al. (nih.gov)
  • This antimicrobial gene is part of a chemokine superfamily that encodes secreted proteins involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The MIP proteins are members of a superfamily of cytokines called chemokines, many of which have been shown to possess chemotactic activity for inflammatory and immune effector cells. (nih.gov)
  • Chemokines (Greek -kinos, movement) are a family of small cytokines, or signaling proteins secreted by cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokines are a family of small cytokines , or proteins secreted by cells . (wikidoc.org)
  • Proteins are classified as chemokines according to shared structural characteristics such as small size (they are all approximately 8-10 kilodaltons in size), and the presence of four cysteine residues in conserved locations that are key to forming their 3-dimensional shape. (wikidoc.org)
  • Proteins are classified into the chemokine family based on their structural characteristics, not just their ability to attract cells. (wikidoc.org)
  • Typical chemokine proteins are produced as pro-peptides , beginning with a signal peptide of approximately 20 amino acids that gets cleaved from the active (mature) portion of the molecule during the process of its secretion from the cell. (wikidoc.org)
  • Chemokines are a family of small cytokines, or proteins secreted by cells, with a molecular mass between 8 and 10 kDa. (genscript.com)
  • GenScript offers a comprehensive catalog of chemokine proteins with excellent lot-to-lot consistency, superior activity and significantly low endotoxin levels. (genscript.com)
  • Over 50 chemokines have been identified in humans and are characterized as small proteins ranging in size from 8 to 10 kDa [ 1 , 2 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • IL-10 treatment improved pulmonary architecture and was associated with a reduction in inflammatory markers, including bronchoalveolar lavage fluid total protein, pulmonary myeloperoxidase activity (a biochemical marker of neutrophils), and the chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein 2. (curehunter.com)
  • Rat CXCL2/MIP-2 (macrophage inflammatory protein-2) is a 69-amino acid CXC chemokine. (cellsciences.com)
  • A gene on chromosome 3p21 that encodes a member of the beta chemokine receptor family, whose ligands include macrophage inflammatory protein 1 (MIP-1) alpha, regulated on activation normal T expressed and secreted protein (RANTES), monocyte chemoattractant protein 3 (MCP-3) and myeloid progenitor inhibitory factor-1 (MPIF-1). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We have demonstrated that chemokine ligands CCL2 and CCL3 are biomarkers that correlate with pelvic pain symptoms. (jove.com)
  • CCL2/MCP- 1, CXCL1/KC, and CXCL2/MIP-2) from a large variety of cells [ 4 , 5 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Consequently, a large body of research has focused on the role of ML chemokines (particularly CCL1, CCL2, CCL3, and CCL5) and ELR − CXC chemokines (such as CXCL10) in the recruitment of circulating lymphocytes and monocytes to the CNS during EAE and MS ( 3 , 4 ). (rupress.org)
  • IL8 , CXCL2 , CCL2 , and CCL8 transcripts were rapidly increased following PGF treatment in vivo and. (unl.edu)
  • ELR + CXC chemokines, such as CXCL1 and CXCL2 in mice and CXCL8 in humans, are also up-regulated in EAE lesions (where they localize to astrocytes and, to some extent, microglia) and in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells and cerebrospinal fluid of MS patients ( 5 - 10 ). (rupress.org)
  • Production of chemoattractant molecules by the parasites could explain the presence of eosinophils in the infected tissues of mice with attenuated chemokine expression. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • To decipher the role of chemokines in TB infection and disease, we measured the levels of chemokines in PTB, LTB and HC individuals. (nature.com)
  • The major role of chemokines is to act as a chemoattractant to guide the migration of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the role of chemokines in atherosclerotic vascular disease has been reviewed in this journal, significant progress has been accomplished in defining the regulation of chemokine expression and function in atherosclerosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • The considerable leap in insight over recent years leads us to anticipate further advances in comprehending the role of chemokines in atherosclerosis, allowing targeted interventions for its prevention and therapy. (ahajournals.org)
  • A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. (curehunter.com)
  • This chemokine is secreted by monocytes and macrophages and is chemotactic for polymorphonuclear leukocytes and hematopoietic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inflammatory chemokines function mainly as chemoattractants for leukocytes, recruiting monocytes, neutrophils and other effector cells from the blood to sites of infection or tissue damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokine elevations were accompanied by increases in mast cells and B cells at 5 days, monocytes and neutrophils at day 10, CD4+ T cells at day 20, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells at day 30. (jove.com)
  • For example, in addition to chemotaxis, chemokines modulate lymphocyte development, priming and effector function [ 2 ] and play a critical role in immune surveillance. (mdpi.com)
  • In addition to being known for mediating chemotaxis, chemokines are all approximately 8-10 kilodaltons in mass and have four cysteine residues in conserved locations that are key to forming their 3-dimensional shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the potential application of chemokines in chemotaxis of exosomes as drug vehicles is discussed. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chemokines are a class of cytokines that induce chemotaxis (migration) of target cells. (biolegend.com)
  • While a function of chemokines is to regulate lymphocyte trafficking, the view that chemokines act simply as "chemotactic cytokines" has evolved to include the many critical roles they play in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses. (mdpi.com)
  • Appreciation of the existence of a plasma membrane receptor for thyroid hormone analogues on the extracellular domains of a structural plasma membrane protein, integrin α v β 3 [ 1 - 3 ], has permitted recognition of new control mechanisms for the release of cytokines, including chemotactic cytokines or chemokines [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Chemokines belong to a large group of structurally related and secretable, largely basic, chemotactic cytokines, which can be divided into 4 families (CC, CXC, CX 3 C, XC) based on the position of the first 2 cysteine residues. (ahajournals.org)
  • Some inflammatory chemokines have proven essential in memory T cell generation [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Certain inflammatory chemokines activate cells to initiate an immune response or promote wound healing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inflammatory: inflammatory chemokines are produced in high concentrations during infection or injury and determine the migration of inflammatory leukocytes into the damaged area. (wikipedia.org)
  • These chemokines also have a more diverse range of functions compared to inflammatory chemokines. (biolegend.com)
  • In the event of infection, injury, or tissue damage, inflammatory chemokines are often released to address the problem. (biolegend.com)
  • Many inflammatory chemokines attract a wide variety of cells in both the innate and adaptive arms of immunity. (biolegend.com)
  • A study was published in 2013 testing the role of CXCL2, CXCL3, and CXCL1 in the migration of airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) migration which plays a significant role in asthma. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results of this study showed that CXCL2 and CXCL3 both help with the mediation of normal and asthmatic ASMC migration through different mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other members of the CXC chemokine family that are similar to CXCL1 include CXCL2 and CXCL3. (prospecbio.com)
  • CXCL2 acts as a mobilizer for nearby cells, while CXCL3 mainly helps with cell migration and adhesion. (prospecbio.com)
  • 4/5 highly differentially expressed genes (SGK1, APOLD1, CXCR4, CXCL2, and FOS) in diabetic gastroparesis were validated in a separate cohort of patients using RT-PCR. (springer.com)
  • This Competitive Intelligence report analyzes the competitive field of modulators of the tumor microenvironment via IDO & TDO, TGF-beta/R, CXCR4, novel chemokines, CSF-1R, CD47-SIRPalpha, adenosine pathway incl. (pipelinereview.com)
  • The report includes a compilation of currently active projects in research and development of new molecular entities modulating the tumor microenvironment by targeting IDO & TDO, TGF-beta/R, CXCR4, novel chemokines, CSF-1R, CD47-SIRPalpha, adenosine pathway incl. (pipelinereview.com)
  • Chemokines Cxcl1/KC and Cxcl2/MIP2 play a crucial role in coordinating neutrophil migration to the insult site. (portlandpress.com)
  • CXCL2 antibody LS-C536399 is an FITC-conjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to rat CXCL2 (MIP2 / GRO2). (lsbio.com)
  • Identification of genes and pathways, including the CXCL2 axis, altered by DNA methylation in hepatocellular carcinoma. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Chemokines are involved in the inflammatory response, tumor immune response, proliferation, invasion and metastasis via modulation of various signaling pathways. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • They will provide evidence that the presence of commensal bacteria influences the location of neutrophils and associated ligands CXCL2 but not CXCL1 when examining tissue from the root associated mesial (anterior) of the second molar to the root associated distal (posterior) of the second molar, with increased expression in the tissue associated with the mesial and distal. (washington.edu)
  • In addition, qPCR data demonstrates that CXCL2 and CCL5 expression is stimulated by HGF through Met/b-catenin/TCF pathway. (frontiersin.org)
  • In humans, dermal expression of both eotaxin/CCL11 and RANTES/CCL5 correlates with the numbers of dermal eosinophils associated with the early phases of Onchocerca volvulus infection, suggesting the importance of host expressed chemokines in directing this response [ 8 , 9 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Our data demonstrate that chemokines are markers of disease severity, predicting increased bacterial burden and delayed culture conversion in PTB. (nature.com)
  • Experiments using blocking antibodies and chemokine receptor antagonists demonstrate that chemokines act downstream of HGF signaling during axon morphogenesis. (frontiersin.org)
  • for example, CCL20 can act also as pro-inflammatory chemokine. (wikipedia.org)
  • In line with this, CCL7, CCL20, and CXCL2 significantly increase axon outgrowth in hippocampal neurons. (frontiersin.org)
  • The present invention provides a means of inhibiting the growth and metastasis of cancer cells by administering anti-chemokine antibodies. (google.com)
  • Association between the rs9131 and rs3806792 polymorphisms of the CXCL2 gene and the risk of HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma in a Guangxi population. (beds.ac.uk)
  • This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential vaccine adjuvants. (mdpi.com)
  • We propose that actions of thyroid hormone and hormone analogues on chemokine gene expression contribute to regulation of inflammatory processes in brain and of brain blood vessel formation and maintenance. (hindawi.com)
  • The gene for CXCL2 is located on human chromosome 4 in a cluster of other CXC chemokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using this novel technology, we did comparative analyses of gene expression for ∼23,000 transcripts in normal human fibroblasts and found that low-dose X-rays up-regulated a distinct set of chemokines that have not been shown to be associated with radiation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • IFNβ immediately induces a burst of gene expression of proinflammatory chemokines in vitro that have potential relevance to IFNβ-related early adverse effects in MS patients in vivo . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using a mouse ( Mus musculus ) model of asthma applied to the Collaborative Cross population, we previously identified a lung gene expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) for Zinc finger protein 30 ( Zfp30 ) that was also a QTL for neutrophil recruitment and the hallmark neutrophil chemokine CXCL1. (g3journal.org)
  • It is possible to identify the particular chemokines which are over-expressed in the tumor using methods of the invention and administer antibodies against that over-expressed chemokine. (google.com)
  • This invention relates to antibodies or the use of antibodies directed against certain chemokines. (google.com)
  • Neutrophil chemokines (CXCL1, CXCL5) were quantified in plasma, but CXCL2 was not detectable. (nih.gov)
  • From right to left, molecular features are grouped as follows: T-cell cytokines (IL-2, IFN-γ), macrophage cytokines (IL-12, TNF, IL-10) and neutrophil chemokines (CXCL1, CXCL5, CXCL2). (nih.gov)
  • Macrophage accumulation and contact with Candida were both markedly reduced in mice lacking chemokine receptor CX3CR1, which was found almost exclusively on resident macrophages in uninfected kidneys. (nih.gov)
  • The importance of chemokines is underscored by the fact that eotaxin-1/CCL11 knockout mice exhibit decreased eosinophil tissue influx and an inability to clear infection with Brugia malayi microfilariae [ 10 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Using data from infected DO mice, the following chemokines and cytokines were tested for correlations with disease indicators (percentage of peak body weight at euthanasia, bacterial burden, survival): lung, blood and plasma. (nih.gov)
  • Our findings reveal that a Th17-ELR + CXC chemokine pathway is critical for granulocyte mobilization, BBB compromise, and the clinical manifestation of autoimmune demyelination in myelin peptide-sensitized mice, and suggest new therapeutic targets for diseases such as MS. (rupress.org)
  • Production of several inflammatory cytokines (TNF, IL-1β, IL-17, and IL-23) and the chemokine CXCL1, as well as cellular apoptosis in immune tissues, kidney, and liver, are markedly decreased in PLD2 −/− mice. (rupress.org)
  • Further analysis revealed transient expression of several chemokines (e.g. (asm.org)
  • Once at the site of injury, immune cells can react by releasing additional cytokines and chemokines, bringing more cells into the fold. (biolegend.com)
  • Cytokines and chemokines were quantified in homogenized lung. (nih.gov)
  • Lastly, lung and blood and plasma cytokines and chemokines were correlated with each other. (nih.gov)
  • The fundamental importance of chemokines for atherogenesis, progression, and destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques is now widely appreciated, but the degree of complexity, specificity, and cooperativity harnessed by these signal molecules to govern atherogenic cell recruitment and homeostasis is still being refined. (ahajournals.org)
  • The antibody is a rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against CXCL2. (uscnk.com)
  • We have seen that the concentration of the chemokines in the bone marrow, where the neutrophils originate, is low," says Dr Siegfried Weiss, head of the department in which Jablonska-Koch works. (eurekalert.org)
  • Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing recruitment of antigen presenting cells (APCs) and effector cells to appropriate anatomical sites. (mdpi.com)
  • In the context of cancer, the chemokine-chemokine receptor system plays paradoxical roles. (mdpi.com)
  • In the present review, the literature on the multifactorial roles of exosomes in HCC from PubMed, Cochrane library and Embase were obtained, with a specific focus on the functions and mechanisms of chemokines in HCC. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • It has been found that chemokine networks may serve pivotal roles in inducing organ-specific metastasis ( 8 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Overexpression of CXCL2 inhibits cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma. (beds.ac.uk)
  • On one hand, the chemokine network is used by tumors to evade immune surveillance, resist apoptosis, and metastasize. (mdpi.com)
  • Antibody neutralization of CXCL1 and CXCL2 did not affect TcdA-induced local pathology or neutrophil infiltration, but it did decrease the peripheral blood neutrophil count. (asm.org)
  • Their homeostatic function in homing is best exemplified by the chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 (expressed within lymph nodes and on lymphatic endothelial cells) and their receptor CCR7 (expressed on cells destined for homing in cells to these organs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Some chemokines are considered pro-inflammatory and can be induced during an immune response to recruit cells of the immune system to a site of infection, while others are considered homeostatic and are involved in controlling the migration of cells during normal processes of tissue maintenance or development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neutrophils normally circulate in the blood until--attracted by so-called chemokines--they enter the tissue where they ingest and destroy intruding pathogens. (eurekalert.org)
  • Evaluation of CXCL2 mRNA and protein expression levels demonstrated augmented expression by injured corneal tissue relative to naïve corneal tissue. (arvojournals.org)
  • Mast cells were observed to constitutively express CXCL2, with significantly higher expression of CXCL2 protein compared with naïve corneal tissue. (arvojournals.org)
  • Chemokines are a group of related chemoattractant peptides that are essential regulators of the immune system, both during homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. (mdpi.com)
  • On the other hand, the chemokine system also plays a crucial role in the induction of antitumor immune responses and optimal effector function regulation of immune cells [ 1 , 4 , 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • CXCL2, like related chemokines, is also a powerful neutrophil chemoattractant and is involved in many immune responses including wound healing, cancer metastasis, and angiogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some chemokines control cells of the immune system during processes of immune surveillance, such as directing lymphocytes to the lymph nodes so they can screen for invasion of pathogens by interacting with antigen-presenting cells residing in these tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1 , 2 The innate immune defense relies on polymorphonuclear neutrophilic granulocytes (PMN), 3 which are recruited by chemokines, of which CXCL2 (MIP-2) is especially important. (asnjournals.org)
  • These data implicate a complex cascade of events during luteolysis involving chemokine signaling, neutrophil recruitment, and immune cell action within the corpus luteum. (unl.edu)
  • To date, >50 chemokines have been found, which can be divided into four families: CXC, CX3C, CC and XC, according to the different positions of the conserved N‑terminal cysteine residues. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • 50 chemokines have been identified, which can be divided into four families: CXC, CX3C, CC and XC, based on the different positions of the conserved N-terminal cysteine residues ( 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • All chemokines share a typical Greek key structure that is stabilised by disulphide bonds between conserved cysteine residues. (wikidoc.org)
  • Intramolecular disulphide bonds typically join the first to third, and the second to fourth cysteine residues, numbered as they appear in the protein sequence of the chemokine. (wikidoc.org)
  • The first two cysteines, in a chemokine, are situated close together near the N-terminal end of the mature protein, with the third cysteine residing in the centre of the molecule and the fourth close to the C-terminal end . (wikidoc.org)
  • Members of the chemokine family are divided into four groups depending on the location of their first two cysteine residues. (genscript.com)
  • The lack of COX-2 expression resulted in decreased levels of CXCL2, a neutrophil-activating chemokine, reduced infiltration of MMP-9-positive neutrophils, and impaired late macrophage activation in livers after I/R injury. (jimmunol.org)
  • Compared to the relatively uniform structure of mammalian chemokines, chemoattractants derived from parasites are a more biochemically diverse collection of molecules. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Pharmacological inhibition of inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit β (IKKβ), but not PI3K, mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK), could effectively suppress GAB2-induced chemokine expression. (selleckchem.com)
  • In this study, we show an important role of GAB2 overexpression in promoting tumor angiogenesis by upregulating expression of multiple chemokines. (selleckchem.com)
  • This review will focus on recent murine and human studies that use chemokines as therapeutic anti-cancer vaccine adjuvants. (mdpi.com)
  • Chemokines are functionally divided into two groups: Homeostatic: are constitutively produced in certain tissues and are responsible for basal leukocyte migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • While MIPs were originally identified as secretory products of endotoxin-stimulated mouse macrophages, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including neutrophils, fibroblasts, and epithelial cells. (nih.gov)
  • Macrophages followed 3 hours later and contributed much less to both CXCL2 production and bacterial phagocytosis. (asnjournals.org)
  • In addition, it will be shown that individual species of bacteria can induce a migration pattern of neutrophils and CXCL2 similar to the normal oral flora, and that this is different than the pattern expressed when no bacteria are present. (washington.edu)
  • We show that transfer of encephalitogenic CD4 + Th17 cells is sufficient to induce CXCL1 and CXCL2 transcription in the spinal cords of naive, syngeneic recipients. (rupress.org)
  • Attracted cells move toward areas of higher concentrations of the chemokine. (biolegend.com)
  • These are known as homeostatic chemokines and are produced and secreted without any need to stimulate their source cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main function of chemokines is to manage the migration of leukocytes (homing) in the respective anatomical locations in inflammatory and homeostatic processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Basal: homeostatic chemokines are basal produced in the thymus and lymphoid tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Homeostatic chemokines are constitutively expressed in particular organs or tissues. (biolegend.com)
  • Due to their function of targeting cells to specific organs, homeostatic chemokines can also be involved in cancer and metastasis. (biolegend.com)
  • The chemokine products of these genes are important to vascularity of the brain, particularly of the choroid plexus, to inflammatory processes in the CNS and, in certain cases, to neuroprotection. (hindawi.com)
  • Our objective was to identify chemokines induced by PGF in vivo and to determine the effects of IL8 on specific luteal cell types in vitro . (unl.edu)
  • In vitro expression of IL8 was analyzed after PGF administration and with cell signaling inhibitors to determine the mechanism of PGF-induced chemokine expression. (unl.edu)
  • 4 - 6 Tubular epithelial cells can produce this chemokine, but their contribution to PMN attraction is unclear. (asnjournals.org)
  • Chemokines are felt to play a major role latent TB infection (LTB) as they appear to be critical in the formation and maintenance of quiescent granulomas 4 and in the recruitment of cells from the periphery for positioning within the granuloma 5 . (nature.com)
  • Chemokines' recruitment activity is regulated by monomer-dimer equilibrium and binding to glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). (portlandpress.com)
  • Our data suggest that mast cell activation after corneal injury amplifies their secretion of CXCL2 and promotes the initiation of early neutrophil recruitment. (arvojournals.org)