Chemokine CXCL12: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.Chemokine CXCL13: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CXCL10: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemokine CXCL6: A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CXCL11: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemokine CXCL1: A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.Chemokine CXCL9: An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemokines, CXC: Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.Receptors, Chemokine: Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Receptors, CXCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.Chemokine CXCL5: A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.Receptors, CXCR4: CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Receptors, CXCR3: CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Chemokine CCL5: A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.Receptors, CXCR5: CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.Receptors, Interleukin-8B: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.Chemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CXCL2: A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CCL21: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Chemokine CCL4: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Chemokine CCL22: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.Chemokine CCL3: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Chemokine CCL17: A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Receptors, Scavenger: A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.Chemokine CCL19: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CX3CL1: A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.Chemokines, CC: Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Heterocyclic Compounds: Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Mice, Inbred C57BLPlatelet Factor 4: A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.Chemokine CCL7: A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CCL20: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Chemokine CCL11: A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Chemokine CCL1: A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.Neutrophil Infiltration: The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Chemokine CCL27: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Receptors, CCR2: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.Receptors, CCR1: CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Receptors, CCR5: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.Chemokine CCL8: A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins: Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Receptors, CCR4: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.Receptors, Interleukin-8A: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.Mice, Inbred BALB CT-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Receptors, CCR3: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Receptors, CCR7: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Receptors, CCR10: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Receptors, CCR8: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Chemokine CCL24: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Receptors, Cytokine: Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Monocyte Chemoattractant Proteins: Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Receptors, CCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Chemokines, CX3C: Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.Chemotactic Factors: Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.Receptors, CCR6: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Monokines: Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Receptors, HIV: Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Duffy Blood-Group System: A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Cell Migration Inhibition: Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Chemotactic Factors, Eosinophil: Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Angiostatic Proteins: Proteins that specifically inhibit the growth of new blood vessels (ANGIOGENESIS, PHYSIOLOGIC).Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Transendothelial and Transepithelial Migration: The passage of cells across the layer of ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, i.e., the ENDOTHELIUM; or across the layer of EPITHELIAL CELLS, i.e. the EPITHELIUM.

TCL1 oncogene expression in AIDS-related lymphomas and lymphoid tissues. (1/214)

AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (AIDS NHL) comprises a diverse and heterogeneous group of high-grade B cell tumors. Certain classes of AIDS NHL are associated with alterations in oncogenes or tumor-suppressor genes or infections by oncogenic herpesviruses. However, the clinically significant class of AIDS NHL designated immunoblastic lymphoma plasmacytoid (AIDS IBLP) lacks any consistent genetic alterations. We identified the TCL1 oncogene from a set of AIDS IBLP-associated cDNA fragments generated by subtractive hybridization with non-AIDS IBLP. Aberrant TCL1 expression has been implicated in T cell leukemia/lymphoma development, and its expression also has been seen in many established B cell tumor lines. However, TCL1 expression has not been reported in AIDS NHL. We find that TCL1 is expressed in the majority of AIDS IBLP tumors examined. TCL1 protein expression is restricted to tumor cells in AIDS IBLP tissue samples analyzed with immunohistochemical staining. Hyperplastic lymph node and tonsil also exhibit strong TCL1 protein expression in mantle zone B cells and in rare interfollicular zone cells, whereas follicle-center B cells (centroblasts and centrocytes) show weaker expression. These results establish TCL1 as the most prevalent of all of the surveyed oncogenes associated with AIDS IBLP. They also indicate that abundant TCL1 expression in quiescent mantle zone B cells is down-regulated in activated germinal center follicular B cells in parallel to the known expression pattern of BCL-2. High-level expression in nonproliferating B cells suggests that TCL1 may function in protecting naive preactivated B cells from apoptosis.  (+info)

In vivo-activated CD4 T cells upregulate CXC chemokine receptor 5 and reprogram their response to lymphoid chemokines. (2/214)

Migration of antigen-activated CD4 T cells to B cell areas of lymphoid tissues is important for mounting T cell-dependent antibody responses. Here we show that CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR)5, the receptor for B lymphocyte chemoattractant (BLC), is upregulated on antigen-specific CD4 T cells in vivo when animals are immunized under conditions that promote T cell migration to follicles. In situ hybridization of secondary follicles for BLC showed high expression in mantle zones and low expression in germinal centers. When tested directly ex vivo, CXCR5(hi) T cells exhibited a vigorous chemotactic response to BLC. At the same time, the CXCR5(hi) cells showed reduced responsiveness to the T zone chemokines, Epstein-Barr virus-induced molecule 1 (EBI-1) ligand chemokine (ELC) and secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine (SLC). After adoptive transfer, CXCR5(hi) CD4 T cells did not migrate to follicles, indicating that additional changes may occur after immunization that help direct T cells to follicles. To further explore whether T cells could acquire an intrinsic ability to migrate to follicles, CD4(-)CD8(-) double negative (DN) T cells from MRL-lpr mice were studied. These T cells normally accumulate within follicles of MRL-lpr mice. Upon transfer to wild-type recipients, DN T cells migrated to follicle proximal regions in all secondary lymphoid tissues. Taken together, our findings indicate that reprogramming of responsiveness to constitutively expressed lymphoid tissue chemokines plays an important role in T cell migration to the B cell compartment of lymphoid tissues.  (+info)

BCA-1 is highly expressed in Helicobacter pylori-induced mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue and gastric lymphoma. (3/214)

Infection with Helicobacter pylori (Hp) induces the formation of lymphoid tissue in the stomach and the occasional development of primary gastric B-cell lymphomas. We have studied the expression of 2 chemokines that attract B lymphocytes, BCA-1 and SLC, in gastric tissue samples obtained from patients with chronic gastritis induced by Hp infection or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, as well as from patients with Hp-associated low-grade and high-grade gastric lymphomas. High-level expression of BCA-1 and its receptor, CXCR5, was observed in all mucosal lymphoid aggregates and in the mantle zone of all secondary lymphoid follicles in Hp-induced gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Follicular dendritic cells and B lymphocytes are possible sources of BCA-1, which is not expressed by T lymphocytes, macrophages, or CD1a(+) dendritic cells. Strong expression of BCA-1 and CXCR5 was also detected in the transformed B cells of gastric MALT lymphomas. By contrast, SLC was confined almost exclusively to endothelial cells in and outside the lymphoid tissue. Only scant, occasional SLC expression was observed in the marginal zone of MALT follicles. Our findings indicate that BCA-1, which functions as a homing chemokine in normal lymphoid tissue, is induced in chronic Hp gastritis and is involved in the formation of lymphoid follicles and gastric lymphomas of the MALT type.  (+info)

Distinct activities of p52/NF-kappa B required for proper secondary lymphoid organ microarchitecture: functions enhanced by Bcl-3. (4/214)

Mice rendered deficient in p52, a subunit of NF-kappa B, or in Bcl-3, an I kappa B-related regulator that associates with p52 homodimers, share defects in the microarchitecture of secondary lymphoid organs. The mutant mice are impaired in formation of B cell follicles and are unable to form proper follicular dendritic cell (FDC) networks upon antigenic challenge. The defects in formation of B cell follicles may be attributed, at least in part, to impaired production of the B lymphocyte chemoattractant (BLC) chemokine, possibly a result of defective FDCs. The p52- and Bcl-3-deficient mice exhibit additional defects within the splenic marginal zone, including reduced numbers of metallophilic macrophages, reduced deposition of the laminin-beta 2 chain and impaired expression of a mucosal addressin marker on sinus-lining cells. Whereas p52-deficient mice are severely defective in all of these aspects, Bcl-3-deficient mice are only partially defective. We determined that FDCs or other non-hemopoietic cells that underlie FDCs are intrinsically impaired in p52-deficient mice. Adoptive transfers of wild-type bone marrow into p52-deficient mice failed to restore FDC networks or follicles. The transfers did restore metallophilic macrophages to the marginal zone, however. Together, the results suggest that p52 carries out functions essential for a proper splenic microarchitecture in both hemopoietic and non-hemopoietic cells and that Bcl-3 is important in enhancing these essential activities of p52.  (+info)

Lymphoid tissue homing chemokines are expressed in chronic inflammation. (5/214)

Secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine (SLC) and B lymphocyte chemoattractant (BLC) are homing chemokines that have been implicated in the trafficking of lymphocytes and dendritic cells in lymphoid organs. Lymphotoxin-alpha (LTalpha), a cytokine crucial for development of lymphoid organs, is important for expression of SLC and BLC in secondary lymphoid organs during development. Here we report that transgenic expression of LTalpha induces inflammation and ectopic expression of SLC and BLC in the adult animal. LTbeta was not necessary for induction of BLC and SLC in inflamed tissues, whereas, in contrast, tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 was found to be important for the LTalpha-mediated induction of these chemokines. The ectopic expression of LTalpha is associated with a chronic inflammation that closely resembles organized lymphoid tissue and this lymphoid neogenesis can also be seen in several chronic inflammatory diseases, including in the pancreas of the prediabetic nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse. Expression of SLC was also observed in the pancreas of prediabetic NOD mice. This study implicates BLC and SLC in chronic inflammation and presents further evidence that LTalpha orchestrates lymphoid organogenesis both during development and in inflammatory processes.  (+info)

CC chemokine receptor (CCR)2 is required for langerhans cell migration and localization of T helper cell type 1 (Th1)-inducing dendritic cells. Absence of CCR2 shifts the Leishmania major-resistant phenotype to a susceptible state dominated by Th2 cytokines, b cell outgrowth, and sustained neutrophilic inflammation. (6/214)

There is growing evidence that chemokines and their receptors regulate the movement and interaction of antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells. We tested the hypothesis that the CC chemokine receptor (CCR)2 and CCR5 and the chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha, a ligand for CCR5, influence DC migration and localization. We found that deficiency of CCR2 but not CCR5 or MIP-1alpha led to distinct defects in DC biology. Langerhans cell (skin DC) density in CCR2-null mice was normal, and their ability to migrate into the dermis was intact; however, their migration to the draining lymph nodes was markedly impaired. CCR2-null mice had lower numbers of DCs in the spleen, and this was primarily due to a reduction in the CD8alpha(1) T helper cell type 1 (Th1)-inducing subset of DCs. Additionally, there was a block in the Leishmania major infection-induced relocalization of splenic DCs from the marginal zone to the T cell areas. We propose that these DC defects, in conjunction with increased expression of B lymphocyte chemoattractant, a B cell-specific chemokine, may collectively contribute to the striking B cell outgrowth and Th2 cytokine-biased nonhealing phenotype that we observed in CCR2-deficient mice infected with L. major. This disease phenotype in mice with an L. major-resistant genetic background but lacking CCR2 is strikingly reminiscent of that observed typically in mice with an L. major-susceptible genetic background. Thus, CCR2 is an important determinant of not only DC migration and localization but also the development of protective cell-mediated immune responses to L. major.  (+info)

CXC chemokine receptor 5 expression defines follicular homing T cells with B cell helper function. (7/214)

Leukocyte traffic through secondary lymphoid tissues is finely tuned by chemokines. We have studied the functional properties of a human T cell subset marked by the expression of CXC chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5). Memory but not naive T cells from tonsils are CXCR5(+) and migrate in response to the B cell-attracting chemokine 1 (BCA-1), which is selectively expressed by reticular cells and blood vessels within B cell follicles. Tonsillar CXCR5(+) T cells do not respond to other chemokines present in secondary lymphoid tissues, including secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine (SLC), EBV-induced molecule 1 ligand chemokine (ELC), and stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1). The involvement of tonsillar CXCR5(+) T cells in humoral immune responses is suggested by their localization in the mantle and light zone germinal centers of B cell follicles and by the concomitant expression of activation and costimulatory markers, including CD69, HLA-DR, and inducible costimulator (ICOS). Peripheral blood CXCR5(+) T cells also belong to the CD4(+) memory T cell subset but, in contrast to tonsillar cells, are in a resting state and migrate weakly to chemokines. CXCR5(+) T cells are very inefficient in the production of cytokines but potently induce antibody production during coculture with B cells. These properties portray CXCR5(+) T cells as a distinct memory T cell subset with B cell helper function, designated here as follicular B helper T cells (T(FH)).  (+info)

Lymphoid chemokine B cell-attracting chemokine-1 (CXCL13) is expressed in germinal center of ectopic lymphoid follicles within the synovium of chronic arthritis patients. (8/214)

A unique feature in inflammatory tissue of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the formation of ectopic lymphoid aggregates with germinal center (GC)-like structures that can be considered to contribute to the pathogenesis of RA, because local production of the autoantibody, rheumatoid factor, is thought to be a causative factor in tissue damage. However, the factors governing the formation of GC in RA are presently unknown. To begin to address this, the expression of B cell attracting chemokine (BCA-1) (CXCL13), a potent chemoattractant of B cells, was examined in the synovium of patients with RA or with osteoarthritis (OA). Expression of BCA-1 mRNA was detected in all RA samples, but in only one of five OA samples. Lymphoid follicles were observed in four of seven RA samples and in two of eight OA samples, and in most of them BCA-1 protein was detected in GC. BCA-1 was not detected in tissues lacking lymphoid follicles. Notably, BCA-1 was detected predominantly in follicular dendritic cells in GC. CD20-positive B cells were aggregated in regions of BCA-1 expression, but not T cells or macrophages. These data suggest that BCA-1 produced by follicular dendritic cells may attract B cells and contribute to the formation of GC-like structures in chronic arthritis.  (+info)

*Lymph node stromal cell

FDCs produce chemokine CXCL13 which promotes migration of B lymphocytes to the primary B cell follicle. B lymphocytes need a ... and B cells exhibit CXCR5 receptors for chemokine CXCL13. The lymph from the peripheral tissues contains soluble antigens and ... Lymphocytes have receptors for such chemokines. For example, Naive T cells express the CCR7 receptor for the chemokine CCL21. ... FRCs express chemokines such as CCL21 and CCL19 which assist the movement of T cells and dentritic cells with CCR7 receptors. ...

*Lyme disease

New research indicates chemokine CXCL13 may also be a possible marker for neuroborreliosis. Some laboratories offer Lyme ...

*Follicular dendritic cells

In a number of chronic inflammatory conditions, cells producing CXCL13 chemokine and carrying such FDCs markers as VCAM-1 and ... FDCs, in turn, attract B cells with chemoattractant CXCL13. B cells lacking CXCR5, the receptor for CXCL13, still enter the ... FDCs are among main producers of the chemokine CXCL13 which attracts and organises lymphoid cells. Follicular DCs receptors CR1 ... The stimulation of CXCR5 on B cells upregulates LT production, which leads to FDCs activation and stimulates further CXCL13 ...

*TP53

... to lead to increased CXCR5 chemokine receptor gene expression and activated cell migration in response to chemokine CXCL13. One ... "p53-dependent expression of CXCR5 chemokine receptor in MCF-7 breast cancer cells". Scientific Reports. 5 (5): 9330. doi: ...

*T helper 17 cell

Th17 cells are involved in B cell recruitment through CXCL13 chemokine signaling, and Th17 activity may encourage antibody ...

*CXCR5

... is a G protein-coupled seven transmembrane receptor for chemokine CXCL13 (also known as BLC) and belongs to the CXC chemokine ... Carlsen HS, Baekkevold ES, Johansen FE, Haraldsen G, Brandtzaeg P (September 2002). "B cell attracting chemokine 1 (CXCL13) and ... "Human osteoblasts express functional CXC chemokine receptors 3 and 5: activation by their ligands, CXCL10 and CXCL13, ... C-X-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CXC-R5) also known as CD185 (cluster of differentiation 185) or Burkitt lymphoma receptor 1 ( ...

*CXCL13

The gene for CXCL13 is located on human chromosome 4 in a cluster of other CXC chemokines. In T lymphocytes, CXCL13 expression ... chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 13 (CXCL13), also known as B lymphocyte chemoattractant (BLC) or B cell-attracting chemokine 1 ( ... CXCL13 is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family. As its name suggests, this chemokine is selectively ... Human CXCL13 genome location and CXCL13 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser.. ...

*Ibrutinib

... has been reported to reduce chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell chemotaxis towards the chemokines CXCL12 and CXCL13, ... and chemokine-controlled adhesion and migration in chronic lymphocytic leukemia". Blood. 119 (11): 2590-2594. doi:10.1182/blood ...

*CXC chemokine receptors

Its principle ligand is CXCL13 (or BLC). CXCR6 was formerly called three different names (STRL33, BONZO, and TYMSTR) before ... CXC chemokine receptors are integral membrane proteins that specifically bind and respond to cytokines of the CXC chemokine ... However, CXCR6 is more closely related in structure to CC chemokine receptors than to other CXC chemokine receptors. CXCR7 was ... The chemokine receptor CXCR5 is expressed on B cells and CD4+ Tfh cells and is involved in lymphocyte homing and the ...

*Index of immunology articles

... presentation Cross-reactivity Cryptic self epitopes Cryptotope CX3CL1 CX3CR1 CXC chemokine receptors CXCL1 CXCL10 CXCL11 CXCL13 ... C-C chemokine receptor type 6 C-C chemokine receptor type 7 Calreticulin Cancer immunology Cancer immunoprevention Cancer ... CD4 CD4+ T cells and antitumor immunity CD74 CD94/NKG2 Cell-mediated immunity CELSR1 Central tolerance Chemokine Chemokine ... immunotherapy Cantuzumab ravtansine Cathelicidin CC chemokine receptors CCBP2 CCL1 CCL11 CCL12 CCL13 CCL14 CCL15 CCL16 CCL17 ...

*Chemokine

Other CXC chemokines that lack the ELR motif, such as CXCL13, tend to be chemoattractant for lymphocytes. CXC chemokines bind ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines in that it has ... CCL1 for the ligand 1 of the CC-family of chemokines, and CCR1 for its respective receptor. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) ...

*Dock2

... -dependent chemotaxis has been reported in response to the chemokines CXCL12/SDF-1 in T lymphocytes, CXCL13/BLC in B ... 2007). "DOCK2 is required for chemokine-promoted human T lymphocyte adhesion under shear stress mediated by the integrin ...

*Chromosome 4 (human)

... chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10, scyb10 CXCL11: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11, scyb11 CXCL13: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ... chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1, scyb1 CXCL2: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2, scyb2 CXCL3: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 3 ... chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 5, scyb5 CXCL6: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6, scyb6 CXCL7: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 7 ... PPBP, scyb7 CXCL8: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8, interleukin 8 (IL-8), scyb8 CXCL9: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9, scyb9 ...

*Sergio A. Lira

"CXCL13 expression in the gut promotes accumulation of IL-22-producing lymphoid tissue-inducer cells, and formation of isolated ... 2005). "The chemokine receptor D6 limits the inflammatory response in vivo". Nat Immunol. 6 (4): 403-411. doi:10.1038/ni1182. ... His early studies were the first to show that chemokines played a major role on leukocyte trafficking to the brain, the lung ... 1994). "Expression of the chemokine N51/KC in the thymus and epidermis of transgenic mice results in marked infiltration of a ...

*Pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis

Release of chemokines allow for the activation of adhesion molecules on the lymphocytes and monocytes, resulting in an ... and which could be related to the behavior of CXCL13 under methylprednisolone therapy. Some molecular biochemical models for ... IL-10 and CCL2 chemokine in patients with multiple sclerosis in relapse". Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery. 110 (10): 992-6 ...
Human ANGIE ELISA Kit;Human b cell-attracting chemokine 1 ELISA Kit;Human BCA-1 ELISA Kit;Human b lymphocyte chemoattractant ELISA Kit;Human CXC chemokine BLC ELISA Kit;Human small-inducible cytokine B13 ELISA Kit;Human BCA1 ELISA Kit;Human BLC ELISA Kit;Human SCYB13 ELISA Kit;Human ANGIE2 ELISA Kit;Human BLR1L ELISA Kit;Human C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 13 ELISA Kit;Human C-X-C motif chemokine 13 ELISA Kit;Human B-cell chemoattractant ELISA Kit;Human B-cell-attracting chemokine 1 ELISA Kit;Human B-cell-homing chemokine (ligand for Burkitts lymphoma receptor-1) ELISA Kit;Human B-lymphocyte chemoattractant ELISA Kit;Human chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 13 (B-cell chemoattractant) ELISA Kit;Human small inducible cytokine B subfamily (Cys-X-Cys motif), member 13 (B-cell chemoattractant) ELISA Kit ...
Intended Use: This kit is used to assay the sample of Serum, blood plasma,Saliva, Urine, and other related tissue Liquid. Test principle The kit uses a double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to assay the level of Chicken...
Cytokine or chemokine encoded by a viral vector is currently regarded as a promising way of cancer gene immunotherapy. Researchers have paid attention to chemotactic activity of chemokines for immune cells and expected that they may be able to play an important role in cancer treatment, because the basis and premise of immunotherapy is the accumulation of immune cells in tumor tissues.. The CC chemokine ILC, also called cutaneous T cell-attracting chemokine or CCL27, was reported to recruit T cells to the site of its injection (27) . The CX3C family chemokine FKN (also called CX3CL1) could also attract a variety of cytotoxic lymphocytes (13 , 14 , 28) and enhance the cytotoxicity of NK cells (29) . In the present study, we hypothesized that the transfer of the mILC or mFKN gene to tumor cells, by using recombinant adenovirus in vitro, could render the tumor to express the chemokine in vivo. The chemokine would consequently induce the accumulation of immune cells in the tumor tissue and initiate ...
Results Filgotinib treatment induced a dose-dependent and significant decrease in a variety of biomarkers implicated in RA pathogenesis including inflammation (IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα and SAA), matrix degradation and cartilage destruction (MMP1 and MMP3), immune cell trafficking (CXCL10, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) and angiogenesis (VEGF). Cytokines involved in TH1 (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-12) and TH17 (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-21, IL-23) cell subset differentiation and activity were significantly decreased. Additionally, decrease in the B-cell chemoattractant CXCL13 and the myeloid growth factor GM-CSF supports the anti-inflammatory effects of filgotinib treatment. ...
Several lines of evidence indicate a requirement for LTα1β2 in splenic T zone development that is fixed during the first few weeks after birth. First, in contrast to the severely defective splenic T zones of mice congenitally deficient in LTα1β2, in studies where LTα1β2 function was blocked in adult animals, effects on T zone organization were minimal (45) and T zone chemokine expression was only mildly diminished (14). Second, when adult mice are depleted of LTα-expressing cells by irradiation and reconstitution with LTα-deficient bone marrow, T zones remain visible (data not shown and see reference 46) and there is little reduction in CCL21 expression (Fig. 4). Therefore, once the splenic CCL21-expressing T zone stromal network has developed, it has only a weak requirement for continued LTβR-signaling to be maintained. By contrast, treatment of newborn mice with LTα1β2 antagonist had a marked inhibitory effect on subsequent CCL21 and gp38 expression in the adult (Figs. 5 and 6). ...
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Christine Mayr: Substrate Specificity of the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase BIRC3 Is Determined by Its 3UTR and Regulates CXCR4 Recycling During B Cell Migration ...
Re-imagining Learning with collaborative technology Julia Leong [email_address] Presentation will be available at slideshare.net/JuLeong source:gettyimages.co…
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Samples from 17 patients showed the presence of grade 2 and/or 3 aggregates; in three cases only perivascular cuffing was demonstrated. Fully formed follicular-like structures, with centrally located CD21+ FDC and T/B segregation, were seen in 7 of the 20 patients (35%). BCA-1 and SLC were expressed within lymphocytic clusters in 18 of 20 and 15 of 20 patients, respectively. BCA-1 and SLC expression was associated with mature follicular organisations. However they were detected also in the absence of fully formed lymphoid-like structures. Production of BCA-1 and SLC was established by in situ hybridisation to localize within lymphocytic clusters but even in the absence of mature follicles. ...
Chemoattractants control lymphocyte recruitment from the blood, contributing to the systemic organization of the immune system. The G protein-linked receptor GPR15 mediates lymphocyte homing to the large intestines and skin. Here we show that the 9 kDa CC-motif containing cationic polypeptide AP57/colon-derived SUSD2 binding factor (CSBF), encoded by C10orf99 in the human and 2610528A11Rik in the mouse, functions as a chemokine ligand for GPR15 (GPR15L). GPR15L binds GPR15 and attracts GPR15-expressing T cells including lymphocytes in colon draining lymph nodes and Vγ3+ thymic precursors of dermal epithelial T cells. Patterns of GPR15L expression by epithelial cells in adult mice and humans suggest a homeostatic role for the chemokine in lymphocyte localization to the large intestines, as well as a role in homing to the epidermis during wound healing or inflammation. GPR15L is also significantly expressed in squamous mucosa of the oral cavity and esophagus with still poorly defined regulation.
The angiogenic microenvironment has been known to be a component of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma since its initial characterization. We have shown that angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma endothelial cells produce vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGFA), and participate in lymphoma progression. In squamous cell carcinoma, endothelial BCL2 expression induces a crosstalk with tumor cells through VEGFA, a major mediator of tumoral angiogenesis. In the present study, we analyzed BCL2 and VEGFA in 30 angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphomas, using triple immunofluorescence to identify protein coexpression in well-characterized lymphoma cells and microenvironment neoangiogenic endothelial cells. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we assessed mRNA expression levels in laser-microdissected endothelial and lymphoma cells. In lymphoma cells, as in endothelial cells, BCL2 and VEGFA proteins were coexpressed. BCL2 was expressed only in neoangiogenic CD34(+)CD105(+) endothelial cells. In laser-microdissected
Chemokines mediate diverse fundamental biological processes, including combating infection. Multiple chemokines are expressed at the site of infection; thus chemokine synergy by heterodimer formation may play a role in determining function. Chemokine function involves interactions with G-protein-coupled receptors and sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAG). However, very little is known regarding heterodimer structural features and receptor and GAG interactions. Solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and molecular dynamics characterization of platelet-derived chemokine CXCL7 heterodimerization with chemokines CXCL1, CXCL4, and CXCL8 indicated that packing interactions promote CXCL7-CXCL1 and CXCL7-CXCL4 heterodimers, and electrostatic repulsive interactions disfavor the CXCL7-CXCL8 heterodimer. As characterizing the native heterodimer is challenging due to interference from monomers and homodimers, we engineered a
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Aortic and plasma expression levels of IL-18 and CXCL16.(A) Reduced aortic mRNA expression of IL-18 and CXCL16, but no change in the expression of IFN-γ is obs
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Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) is an aggressive subtype of peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) that accounts for approximately 20% of all T-cell lymphomas. Although recurrent mutations in TET2, IDH2, and DNMT3A that are common in other hematologic malignancies have been identified in AITL, the molecular mechanisms that specifically promote AITL development are unknown. Sakata-Yanagimoto and colleagues performed whole-exome sequencing on 6 AITL samples and identified a recurrent RHOA G17V mutation in 3 AITL samples. Targeted RHOA sequencing in an extended AITL cohort identified RHOA G17V mutations in 49 of 72 (68%) AITLs. Similarly, Palomero and colleagues analyzed the exomes of 12 PTCL cases and identified recurrent RHOA G17V mutations in 22 of 35 (67%) AITLs. No RHOA G17V mutations were identified in other hematologic malignancies other than in a subset of PTCL not otherwise specified that shared AITL features, suggesting that somatic RHOA mutations are a specific feature of AITL. Of ...
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RANK and its ligand RANKL play important roles in the development and regulation of the immune system. We show that mice transgenic for Rank in hair follicles display massive postnatal growth of skin-draining lymph nodes. The proportions of hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic stromal cells and their organization are maintained, with the exception of an increase in B cell follicles. The hematopoietic cells are not activated and respond to immunization by foreign Ag and adjuvant. We demonstrate that soluble RANKL is overproduced from the transgenic hair follicles and that its neutralization normalizes lymph node size, inclusive area, and numbers of B cell follicles. Reticular fibroblastic and vascular stromal cells, important for secondary lymphoid organ formation and organization, express RANK and undergo hyperproliferation, which is abrogated by RANKL neutralization. In addition, they express higher levels of CXCL13 and CCL19 chemokines, as well as MAdCAM-1 and VCAM-1 cell-adhesion molecules. ...
Natural killer (NK) cells constitute a first line of anti-viral host defence and tobacco smoke may cause reduced cytotoxicity. Among the cytokines expressed in NK cells, interleukin-16 (IL-16) is of interest since it is known that the extracellular concentrations of this CD4 cell chemoattractant are increased in the airways of long-term smokers. Here, we investigated whether long-term smoking alters the number and IL-16 content of circulating NK cells.. Never-smokers (NS) and asymptomatic smokers (AS) with a normal ventilatory capacity plus a normal diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) were included. We also examined smokers with COPD (GOLD stages 2 & 3) with reduced DLCO (,2SD from the predicted mean). In each subject, a peripheral, venous blood sample was taken during clinically stable conditions for flow cytometry analysis of intracellular IL-16 in NK cells (IL-16+ NK cells; IL-16+CD3-CD16+CD56+). The relative and absolute number of NK cells (CD3-CD16+CD56+) was determined.. Smokers ...
Mouse anti Rat reticulum cells antibody, clone ED11 recognizes reticular elements in the T cell areas and B cell follicles of spleen, lymp
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References for Abcams Recombinant human CXCL5 protein (ab50039). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL, sometimes misspelled AILT) (formerly known as "angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy with dysproteinemia") is a mature T-cell lymphoma of blood or lymph vessel immunoblasts characterized by a polymorphous lymph node infiltrate showing a marked increase in follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) and high endothelial venules (HEVs) and systemic involvement. Patients with this disease usually present at an advanced stage and show systemic involvement. The clinical findings typically include a pruritic skin rash and possibly edema, ascites, pleural effusions, and arthritis. Due to the systemic nature of this disease, neoplastic cells can be found in lymph nodes, liver, spleen, skin, and bone marrow. This disease was originally thought to be a premalignant condition, termed angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy, and this atypical reactive lymphadenopathy carried a risk for transformation into a lymphoma. Currently, it is postulated that the originating cell for this ...
Thank you very much for your kind words. T-Cell Lymphomas are so rare, so aggressive, and so difficult to treat, that I try to reposnd quickly when I see another case. My doctor is Dr. Andrei Shustov at Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, which is the treatment arm of Fred Hutchinson. In conjunction with his peers, he formulated the regimen that, against odds, placed me initially in full response. Not completely unexpected was that some cells survived, demonstrating that the variety I had was highly resistant to all chemotherapy. He also researched and offered me the clinical trial in which I yet participate in the long-term study. Your doctor could certainly consult with him regarding your husbands options as, with all T-Cell Lymphomas, a second opinion on both diagnosis and treatment is a very good idea. I rather doubt that Health Canada would pay for any portion of US treatment. Are there any clinical trials for AITL (or any T-Cell Lymphoma) in Canada? It is good to have a plan B in reserve, as ...
Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) is one of the manifestations of Lyme disease. Although it is known that immune reaction of LNB patients is dominated by Th1 and Th2 responses and patients have elevated numbers of B cells in their cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), not all the cells involved in inflammation and cytokine secretion have been characterized. The current diagnostics of LNB is based on intrathecal production of antibodies. In recent years, the measurement of chemokine CXCL13 concentration from the CSF has been introduced as a new promising diagnostic tool for LNB to complement the antibody-based diagnostic methods. A few other cytokines have also been analyzed as possible diagnostic markers. However, multiplex analyses simultaneously evaluating the concentrations of a large number of different cytokines in the CSF of LNB patients have been lacking thus far. Extensive cytokine profiling CSF samples of LNB patients would also help in understanding the complex immunopathogenesis of LNB. CSF samples were
Complete information for CXCL9 gene (Protein Coding), C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 9, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
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Speakers Nathalie Grün Human Papillomavirus in healthy youth Elin Sjöberg A novel role for the chemokine CXCL14 in epithelial to mesenchymal transition Chair Hanif Rassoolzadeh Welcome!
Histologic changes: At low power, this non-distended biopsy shows patchy alveolar collapse--an artifact of preparation, which could have been prevented by distending the unfixed biopsy with formalin. Two abnormalities are present. Several dark blue, lymphoid aggregates suggest chronic inflammation, and the bronchiole to the left of the large artery has an irregularly-shaped lumen with surrounding fibrosis.. ...
Background Ulcerative colitis is characterized by relapsing mucosal inflammation where the lesions include tissue-damaging granulocytes. In addition, T cells and natural killer (NK) cells play important pathophysiologic roles. Chemokines are a large family of peptides that play key roles in the regulation of inflammation. The CXC-chemokines, growth-related oncogene (GRO)-α/CXCL1 and interleukin (IL)-8/CXCL8, both recruit neutrophils and possess mitogenic properties, whereas the interferon-dependent CXC-chemokines monokine induced by gamma-interferon (MIG)/CXCL9, interferon-γ inducible protein of 10 kD/CXCL10, and IFN-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant/CXCL11 recruit and activate T cells and NK cells. Materials and methods The expression of CXC-chemokines was studied in eight controls and in 11 patients suffering from ulcerative colitis in the distal part of the colon, before and during topical treatment with corticosteroids. Perfusates (obtained before, after 7 days, and after 28 days of ...
CXCL13 is a small chemokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family. As its name suggests, this chemokine is selectively chemotactic for B cells belonging to both the B-1 and B-2 subsets, and elicits its effects by interacting with chemokine receptor CXCR5.[1][3] CXCL13 and its receptor CXCR5 control the organization of B cells within follicles of lymphoid tissues.[4] and is expressed highly in the liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and gut of humans.[1] The gene for CXCL13 is located on human chromosome 4 in a cluster of other CXC chemokines.[2] In T lymphocytes, CXCL13 expression is thought to reflect a germinal center origin of the T cell, particularly a subset of T cells called follicular B helper T cells (or TFH cells). Hence, expression of CXCL13 in T-cell lymphomas, such as Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma, is thought to reflect a germinal center origin of the neoplastic T-cells.[5] ...
The purpose of this Phase 1/2, multi-center study is to evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and clinical activity of AG-221 in subjects with advanced solid tumors, including glioma, and with angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL), with an IDH2 mutation. The first portion of the study is a dose escalation phase where cohorts of patients will receive ascending oral doses of AG-221 to determine maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and/or the recommended Phase 2 dose. The second portion of the study is a planned dose expansion phase where three cohorts of patients will receive AG-221 to further evaluate the safety, tolerability, and clinical activity. Anticipated time on study treatment is until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity occurs ...
Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) has been classified as a subtype of mature T-cell neoplasms. The recent revision of the WHO classification proposed a new category of nodal T-cell lymphoma with follicular helper T (TFH)-cell phenotype, which was classified into three diseases: AITL, follicular T-cell lymphoma, and nodal peripheral T-cell lymphoma with TFH phenotype. These lymphomas are defined by the expression of TFH-related antigens, CD279/PD-1, CD10, BCL6, CXCL13, ICOS, SAP, and CXCR5. Although recurrent mutations in TET2, IDH2, DNMT3A, RHOA, and CD28, as well as gene fusions, such as ITK-SYK and CTLA4-CD28, were not diagnostic criteria, they may be considered as novel criteria in the near future ...
CXCL2_HUMAN (P19875 ), CXCL2_MOUSE (P10889 ), CXCL2_RAT (P30348 ), CXCL3_HUMAN (P19876 ), CXCL3_MOUSE (Q6W5C0 ), CXCL3_RAT (Q10746 ), CXCL5_HUMAN (P42830 ), CXCL5_MOUSE (P50228 ), CXCL5_RAT (P97885 ), CXCL6_BOVIN (P80221 ), CXCL6_HORSE (Q8MIN2 ), CXCL6_HUMAN (P80162 ), CXCL7_HUMAN (P02775 ), CXCL7_PIG (P43030 ), CXCL9_BOVIN (A9QWP9 ), CXCL9_HUMAN (Q07325 ), CXCL9_MOUSE (P18340 ), CXL10_BOVIN (Q2KIQ8 ), CXL10_CANLF (Q5KSV9 ), CXL10_HUMAN (P02778 ), CXL10_MACMU (Q8MIZ1 ), CXL10_MACNE (Q865F5 ), CXL10_MOUSE (P17515 ), CXL10_RAT (P48973 ), CXL11_BOVIN (A9QWQ1 ), CXL11_HUMAN (O14625 ), CXL11_MOUSE (Q9JHH5 ), CXL13_HUMAN (O43927 ), CXL13_MOUSE (O55038 ), CXL15_MOUSE (Q9WVL7 ), GRO2_RABIT (P47854 ), GROA_BOVIN (O46676 ), GROA_CAVPO (O55235 ), GROA_CRIGR (P09340 ), GROA_HUMAN (P09341 ), GROA_MOUSE (P12850 ), GROA_RAT (P14095 ), GROA_SHEEP (O46678 ), GROB_BOVIN (O46677 ), GROG_BOVIN (O46675 ), IL8_BOVIN (P79255 ), IL8_CANLF (P41324 ), IL8_CAVPO (P49113 ), IL8_CERAT (P46653 ), IL8_CHICK (P08317 ), ...
A previously-demonstrated correlation between the density of CRC-infiltrating effector T cells and long-term outcomes (Galon et al., 2006; Pages et al., 2005) has been established. In preclinical ex vivo studies performed using explants of resected metastatic CRC, the combination of IFNα with nonselective or COX2-selective inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis resulted in elevated production of the effector T cell-attracting chemokines CXCL10 and CCL5. This was associated with concomitant suppression of the intratumoral expression of CCL22, a Treg-attracting chemokine (Muthuswamy et al 2008 Canc Res, and Muthuswamy et al, submitted to Canc Res 2011). However, in a subset of patients, the optimal results, particularly with regard to CCL5 induction, required additional stimulation by a third agent, poly-I:C (a toll-like receptor -TLR Ligand).. Therefore, the investigators seek to establish the safety profile of a novel chemokine regimen consisting of IFN, celecoxib and poly-I:C. The investigators ...
CXCL10 improves outcome by decreasing bacteremia in IFNAR−/− mice. (A) SEV129 wild-type mice (n = 10), IFNAR−/− mice (n = 11), or IFNAR−/− mice with
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The present work also yields potentially valuable insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of RA. Although synovial ELSs are known to correlate with lymphoid infiltrates and disease severity, the cellular factors that control ELS formation have only recently begun to be appreciated. The authors implicate IL-27 by demonstrating an inverse relationship between cytokine production and the appearance of synovial ELS, which, notably, are highly enriched for IL-27R-expressing T cells. Based on loss-of-function studies in mice, they propose a causal link and go one step further to endorse IL-27 as a predictive biomarker for stratifying RA patients into ELS-negative and -positive subtypes. The ability to make this distinction at early stages of disease could provide both a rationale for selective deployment of ELS-targeting drugs and an impetus for development of IL-27-based biologics. Differences between ELS-negative and -positive forms of disease may also explain why IL-27 appears to limit ...
We finally have some pictures, description, and a few short videos up for people to see what went on at the BLC Greek Immersion Workshop "Jesus in Jerusalem 2012 ...
Human CXCL16 ELISA Kit is a sandwich ELISA kit for use with Serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates and other biological fluids. This assay has high sensitivity and excellent specificity for detection of CXCL16|br/|N
Recombinant Human CXCL5 (ENA-78) (ELISA Std.) - CXCL5 is a member of the CXC family of chemokines, also known as epithelial activated peptide 78 (ENA-78).
Human C-X-C Motif Chemokine 9 / Monokine Induced by Gamma Interferon (CXCL9 / MIG) standard, for use in running standard curves in AlphaLISA no-wash detection assay
小鼠CXCL5 ELISA试剂盒(GCP-2) ELISA试剂盒datasheet (ab100719).Abcam抗体、ELISA、激动剂拮抗剂、表观遗传试剂、蛋白多肽,使用效果保证,中国70%以上现货。
References for Abcams Recombinant Mouse CXCL5 protein (ab57029). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. CXCL8 ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. CXCL2 ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
US pharmaceutical major, Schering-Plough, has agreed to buy NeoGenesis Pharmaceuticals, a company focusing on drug discovery technologies, for an undisclosed sum. - News - PharmaTimes
Dr. Kevin C. OConnor is an Associate Professor of Neurology at Yale School of Medicine. His laboratory studies the immune response that occurs in autoimmune disease and cancer. Dr. OConnor earned a Bachelor of Science degree in Chemistry from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst and his Ph.D. in Biochemistry at Tufts Medical School. While at Tufts he studied the role of the developing immune system in autoimmune pathology. In 2000 he joined the laboratory of Dr. David Hafler at Harvard Medical School to begin his post-doctoral training. During this period he initiated a program aimed at understanding the role that B cells and autoantibodies play in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). His group helped define the autoantibody repertoire in MS and a number of inflammatory neurologic diseases. In 2007 he became an Assistant Professor of Neurology at Harvard Medical School. He and his team were among the first to characterize tertiary lymphoid tissue in germ cell tumors. They also ...
Cross-cultural validation of the Italian version of the Cumulated Ambulation Score. Translocation of N-acetyl-Phe-Phe-tRNA(Phe yeast) and N-acetyl-Phe-Leu-tRNA(Leu E. The growth patterns of a child changes from when does the generic cialis patent expire uterine life until the end of puberty. Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma: still a dismal prognosis with current treatment approaches. Our objective was to evaluate a palatal implant system in the treatment of snoring caused specifically by retrovelar collapse. The patient representative as change master-an important marketing idea.. This pattern of development is in apparent contrast to other organisms from Drosophila to higher vertebrates. The Comparison of what is generic cialis called Biodistribution, Efficacy and Toxicity of Two PEGylated Liposomal Doxorubicin Formulations in Mice Bearing C-26 Colon Carcinoma: a Preclinical Study. Although reliable and reproducible, ETT is not a sensitive measure of changes in myocardial ischemia. Aminergic ...
We found that, in our cohort, elevated CXCL12 levels were strongly associated with future ischemic stroke even after adjusting for traditional risk factors and the Framingham Stroke Risk Profile. CXCL12 may be an important biomarker for stroke risk stratification particularly in patients in whom traditional risk factors are equivocal and may identify individuals in whom more aggressive risk factor modification, diagnostic evaluation, or even intervention is warranted.. To date only 2 publications have reported data regarding CXCL12 levels in patients with stroke, but both studies measured CXCL12 levels during the acute stroke phase.12,13 In the first article, there was no significant difference in circulating CXCL12 levels between patients with stroke and normal control subjects.13 However, the investigators did find a significant correlation between CXCL12 levels and peak C-reactive protein levels. In the second study, investigators found an inverse relationship between plasma CXCL12 levels and ...
Cardiology news, research and treatment articles offering cardiology healthcare professionals cardiology information and resources to keep them informed.
Abnova Human CXCL1 Partial ORF (AAH11976, 36 a.a. - 107 a.a.) Recombinant Protein with GST-tag at N-terminal 10µg Life Sciences:Protein Biology:Proteins:Proteins A-Z:Proteins
If you are extremely oily skinned I do not recommend this product at all! However if you get a little oily on the T zone it should be right for a few hours wear. Ill still wear this product, But ONLY if Im only going to be out for an hour or so! Definitely not for all day wear and I couldnt imagine how this product would work in the summer time! ...
Explore the Panasonic PI-SPN400 - SHINRAI Series - • 1/3 progressive scan CMOS • Support H.264 & MJPEG dual codec • Max [email protected](2688×1520) & 25/[email protected](2304×1296) • Smart Detection supported • WDR(120dB), Day/Night(ICR), 3DNR,AWB,AGC,BLC • Multiple network monitoring: Web viewer, CMS(PVMS) & Smart Phone(PMOB)
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OBJECTIVE: To estimate long term survival, health, and educational/social functioning in patients with Lyme neuroborreliosis compared with the general population.. DESIGN: Nationwide population based cohort study using national registers.. SETTING: Denmark.. PARTICIPANTS: All Danish residents diagnosed during 1986-2016 as having Lyme neuroborreliosis (n=2067), defined as a positive Borrelia burgdorferi intrathecal antibody test and a clinical diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis, and a comparison cohort from the general population matched on sex and date of birth (n=20 670).. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mortality rate ratios, incidence rate ratios of comorbidities, and differences in educational and social outcomes.. RESULTS: Mortality among patients with Lyme neuroborreliosis was not higher than in the general population (mortality rate ratio 0.90, 95% confidence interval 0.79 to 1.03). Lyme neuroborreliosis patients had increased risk of haematological (incidence rate ratio 3.07, 2.03 to 4.66) and ...
Most patients with type 1 diabetes are considered to have a T-cell mediated autoimmune disease. The chemokine CXCL10 promotes the migration of activated T-cells. Virus infections might contribute to the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes and enterovirus protein and/or genome have been detected in beta-cells from a majority of tested newly diagnosed children with type 1 diabetes. The chemokine CXCL10 is induced in human islet cells by enterovirus infections in vivo and in vitro, but is not expressed in islets from normal organ donors. Since CXCL10 is a chemokine known to be induced by virus infections and/or cellular damage, our aim was to study if levels of CXCL10 are elevated in serum from children with type 1 diabetes and whether it correlates to the presence of enterovirus markers. CXCL10, neutralizing antibody titer rises against certain enterovirus, and antibodies against GAD65 were measured in serum, and enterovirus PCR was performed on whole blood from 83 type 1 diabetes patients at onset, ...
Oxidative stress (OS), when oxidative forces outweigh endogenous and nutritional antioxidant defenses, contributes to the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). Evidence of OS is found during acute relapses, in active inflammatory lesions, and in chronic, longstanding plaques. OS results in both ongoing inflammation and neurodegeneration. Antioxidant therapies are a rational strategy for people with MS with all phenotypes and disease durations. PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To understand the function of OS in health and disease, to examine the contributions of OS to MS pathophysiology, and to review current evidence for the effects of selected antioxidant therapies in people with MS (PwMS) with a focus on lipoic acid (LA). RECENT FINDINGS: Studies of antioxidant interventions in both animal and in vivo models result in reductions in serum markers of OS and increases in levels and activity of antioxidant enzymes. Antioxidant trials in PwMS, while generally underpowered, detect short-term improvements ...
ACD congratulates the team of scientists, led by Jacob D. Estes on their publication Defining HIV and SIV Reservoirs in Lymphoid Tissues DOI 10.20411/pai.v1i1.100.. The authors aimed to track and discriminate HIV-1/SIV viral reservoirs within tissue compartments and thus applied a specific and sensitive next-generation in situ hybridization approach. The authors demonstrated:. 1) that an optimized next-generation ISH platform RNAscope Assay for the rapid detection of vRNA (with results obtained within 1 day) has sufficient sensitivity to reliably detect single virions in B cell follicles (BCF) in FFPE tissue sections,. 2) that an approach for the detection of vDNA in situ (referred to as DNAscope) reliably and readily detects vDNA+ cells, and. 3) that they have developed an in situ method to simultaneously visualize vRNA and vDNA in the same tissue section and thereby identify transcriptionally latent infections (vDNA+/vRNA- cells) in lymphoid tissues.. The team of researchers then applied ...
CXCL12/SDF-1 alpha ELISA Kits for quantification of target antigens. Browse our CXCL12/SDF-1 alpha ELISA Kits backed by our 100% Guarantee.
Human CXCL9 standard, lyophilized, for use in running standard curves in LANCE Ultra TR-FRET assays. This standard is already provided in the LANCE Ultra human CXCL9/MIG Detection Kit, but can be ordered separately.
Summary of CXCL8 (3-10C, AMCF-I, b-ENAP, GCP-1, GCP1, IL-8, IL8, K60, LECT, LUCT, LYNAP, MDNCF, MONAP, NAF, NAP-1, NAP1, SCYB8, TSG-1) expression in human tissue. Cytoplasmic expression in several lymphoid tissues.
Expression of CXCL2 (CINC-2a, GRO2, GROb, MGSA-b, MIP-2a, SCYB2) in lung tissue. Antibody staining with in immunohistochemistry.
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Hi Everyone, Im just kinda looking for a laymans explanation of the results of my Ultrasound. The only thing that came out of it that seemed unusual was Mildly heterogeneous liver parenchyma. My...

Lymph node stromal cell - WikipediaLymph node stromal cell - Wikipedia

FDCs produce chemokine CXCL13 which promotes migration of B lymphocytes to the primary B cell follicle. B lymphocytes need a ... and B cells exhibit CXCR5 receptors for chemokine CXCL13. The lymph from the peripheral tissues contains soluble antigens and ... Lymphocytes have receptors for such chemokines. For example, Naive T cells express the CCR7 receptor for the chemokine CCL21. ... FRCs express chemokines such as CCL21 and CCL19 which assist the movement of T cells and dentritic cells with CCR7 receptors. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lymph_node_stromal_cell

Human CXCL13 ELISA Kit | biobool.comHuman CXCL13 ELISA Kit | biobool.com

Human CXCL13 ELISA Kit Contact Us * Alternative name. Human ANGIE ELISA Kit;Human b cell-attracting chemokine 1 ELISA Kit;Human ... Other Species Human Cxcl13 / Blc / Scyb13 ELISA KitMouse Cxcl13 ELISA KitMouse Cxcl13 / Blc / Scyb13 ELISA Kit ... Intended UseHuman CXCL13 ELISA Kit allows for the in vitro quantitative determination of CXCL13 , concentrations in serum, ... Human C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 13 ELISA Kit;Human C-X-C motif chemokine 13 ELISA Kit;Human B-cell chemoattractant ELISA Kit ...
more infohttps://www.biobool.com/elisa_kit/7987.html

Chemokine CXCL13 is essential for lymph node initiation and is induced by retinoic acid and neuronal stimulationChemokine CXCL13 is essential for lymph node initiation and is induced by retinoic acid and neuronal stimulation

Here we demonstrate that both the chemokine CXCL13 and the chemokine CCL21 attracted LTi cells at embryonic days 12.5-14.5 and ... Here we demonstrate that both the chemokine CXCL13 and the chemokine CCL21 attracted LTi cells at embryonic days 12.5-14.5 and ... Here we demonstrate that both the chemokine CXCL13 and the chemokine CCL21 attracted LTi cells at embryonic days 12.5-14.5 and ... Chemokine CXCL13 is essential for lymph node initiation and is induced by retinoic acid and neuronal stimulation. van de Pavert ...
more infohttps://lup.lub.lu.se/search/publication/1506008

The chemokine CXCL13 is a key regulator of B cell recruitment to the cerebrospinal fluid in acute Lyme neuroborreliosis |...The chemokine CXCL13 is a key regulator of B cell recruitment to the cerebrospinal fluid in acute Lyme neuroborreliosis |...

Measurements of chemokine levels revealed an increase in three of the four known major B cell chemoattractants CXCL13, CCL19 ... we assessed the role of CXCL13 - in comparison to other chemokines - in the recruitment of B cells to the CSF of patients with ... The CXCL13 CSF:serum ratio, as a measure of the chemotactic gradient, was substantially higher than that of CCL19 and CXCL12. ... Measurement of chemokines was done by ELISA. B cells were isolated from whole blood using magnetic cell separation (MACS). For ...
more infohttps://jneuroinflammation.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1742-2094-6-42

WikiGenes - CXCL13 - chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 13WikiGenes - CXCL13 - chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 13

Disease relevance of CXCL13. *Expression of B-cell-attracting chemokine 1 (CXCL13) by malignant lymphocytes and vascular ... Chemokines in multiple sclerosis: CXCL12 and CXCL13 up-regulation is differentially linked to CNS immune cell recruitment. ... Human B cell-attracting chemokine 1 (BCA-1; CXCL13) is an agonist for the human CXCR3 receptor. Jenh, C.H., Cox, M.A., Hipkin, ... Chemokines in multiple sclerosis: CXCL12 and CXCL13 up-regulation is differentially linked to CNS immune cell recruitment [4]. ...
more infohttps://www.wikigenes.org/e/gene/e/10563.html

Reagena - Reagena has released for sale a rapid test for the determination of chemokine CXCL13 in human cerebrospinal fluidReagena - Reagena has released for sale a rapid test for the determination of chemokine CXCL13 in human cerebrospinal fluid

Reagena has released for sale a rapid test for the determination of chemokine CXCL13 in human cerebrospinal fluid. ReaScan ... CXCL13 is a CE marked easy-to-use, fast and effective test supporting the early diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB). ...
more infohttps://reagena.com/en/news/news/reagena-has-released-sale-rapid-test-determination-chemokine-cxcl13-human-cerebrospinal-fluid/?ccm_paging_p_b2542=5

Serum levels of the chemokine CXCL13, genetic variation in CXCL13 and its receptor CXCR5, and HIV-associated non-hodgkin B-cell...Serum levels of the chemokine CXCL13, genetic variation in CXCL13 and its receptor CXCR5, and HIV-associated non-hodgkin B-cell...

Serum levels of the chemokine CXCL13, genetic variation in CXCL13 and its receptor CXCR5, and HIV-associated non-hodgkin B-cell ... Serum levels of the chemokine CXCL13, genetic variation in CXCL13 and its receptor CXCR5, and HIV-associated non-Hodgkin B cell ... Serum levels of the chemokine CXCL13, genetic variation in CXCL13 and its receptor CXCR5, and HIV-associated non-Hodgkin B cell ... Serum levels of the chemokine CXCL13, genetic variation in CXCL13 and its receptor CXCR5, and HIV-associated non-Hodgkin B cell ...
more infohttps://phgkb.cdc.gov/PHGKB/phgHome.action?action=forward&dbsource=huge&id=79318

Bio-Plex Pro Human Chemokine BCA-1 / CXCL13 SetBio-Plex Pro Human Chemokine BCA-1 / CXCL13 Set

CXCL13, requires reagent kit C III (171-304090 for vacuum separation or 171-304090M for magnetic separation) and a vial of ... 171bk12mr2-bio-plex-pro-human-chemokine-bca-1-cxcl13-set. 171BK12MR2. Bio-Plex Pro Human Chemokine BCA-1 / CXCL13 Set. Bio-Plex ... 171BK12MR2, bio-plex, pro, human, chemokine, bca-1/cxcl13, set, bca1/cxcl13, bca-1, cxcl13, bca1, bioplex, premade, pre-made, ... view/global/bio-plex-pro-human-chemokine-bca-1-cxcl13-set-bk12mr2.jpg. Bio-Plex Pro Human Chemokine BCA-1 / CXCL13 Set. preview ...
more infohttp://www.bio-rad.com/en-us/sku/171bk12mr2-bio-plex-pro-human-chemokine-bca-1-cxcl13-set?ID=171bk12mr2

Expression and function of the chemokine, CXCL13, and its receptor, CXCR5, in AIDS-associated non-Hodgkins lymphoma |...Expression and function of the chemokine, CXCL13, and its receptor, CXCR5, in AIDS-associated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma |...

Recent studies have suggested that the chemokine, CXCL13, and its receptor, CXCR5 may play a role in B cell tumors (non-AIDS- ... Expression and function of the chemokine, CXCL13, and its receptor, CXCR5, in AIDS-associated non-Hodgkins lymphoma. ... AIDS-NHL cell lines also demonstrated chemotaxis towards CXCL13.. These results indicate that CXCL13 and CXCR5 may play a role ... The mean CXCL13 level in the AIDS-NHL group (158 pg/ml, SD = 153) was ~50 percent higher than the AIDS control group (98.4 pg/ ...
more infohttps://infectagentscancer.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1750-9378-4-S2-O24

Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 13 (CXCL13) (Active) Protein</span...Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 13 (CXCL13) (Active) Protein</span...

CXCL13) Protein. Species: Human. Source: Escherichia coli (E. coli). Order product ABIN2712673. ... Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 13 (CXCL13) (Active) Protein Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 13 (CXCL13) (Active) Protein. ... Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 13 (CXCL13) show synonyms for this antigen * 4631412M08Rik ... Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 10 Proteins * Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 1 (Melanoma Growth Stimulating Activity, Alpha) ...
more infohttps://www.antibodies-online.com/protein/2712673/Chemokine+C-X-C+Motif+Ligand+13+CXCL13+Active+protein/

Lyme disease - WikipediaLyme disease - Wikipedia

New research indicates chemokine CXCL13 may also be a possible marker for neuroborreliosis. Some laboratories offer Lyme ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lyme_disease

CXCR5 | Cancer Genetics WebCXCR5 | Cancer Genetics Web

Anti-CXCR5 chemokine receptor antibody abrogates CXCL13-induced RANKL expression in these cells. Also, CXCL13 stimulated (3.0- ... RESULTS: Results of qRT-PCR showed that all chemokines, in particular MCP-1, IL-8, SDF-1 and CXCL13, and chemokine receptors ... We investigated the expression of -CXC chemokine ligand 13 (CXCL13) and its receptor -CXC chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5) in 98 ... UNLABELLED: The CXCL13-CXCR5 is a chemokine axis that is activated in some breast cancers. A total of 321 tissue blocks from a ...
more infohttp://www.cancerindex.org/geneweb/CXCR5.htm

Thoracic and abdominal aorta media of aged apoE−/−  | Open-iThoracic and abdominal aorta media of aged apoE−/− | Open-i

... to express the lymphorganogenic chemokines CXCL13 and CCL21. These signals in turn trigger the development of elaborate bona ... to express the lymphorganogenic chemokines CXCL13 and CCL21. These signals in turn trigger the development of elaborate bona ... Treatment of apoE(-/-) mice with LTbetaR-Ig to interrupt LTbetaR signaling in SMCs strongly reduced HEV abundance, CXCL13, and ... Treatment of apoE(-/-) mice with LTbetaR-Ig to interrupt LTbetaR signaling in SMCs strongly reduced HEV abundance, CXCL13, and ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC2626665_jem2060233f09&req=4

angioimmunoblastic t cell lymphoma in remission 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engineangioimmunoblastic t cell lymphoma in remission 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engine

CXCL13 protein, human; 0 / Chemokine CXCL13; 0 / PDCD1 protein, human; 0 / Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor; 0 / Proto-Oncogene ... Chemokine CXCL13 / biosynthesis. Female. Gene Rearrangement, T-Lymphocyte. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization ... including the TFH cell markers CXCL13, CD10, and BCL6. ...
more infohttp://www.bmlsearch.com/?kwr=angioimmunoblastic+t+cell+lymphoma+in+remission+2005:2010%5Bpubdate%5D&cxts=100&stmp=b0

angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy aild 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engineangioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy aild 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engine

Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CXCL13 protein, human; 0 / Chemokine CXCL13; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; ... CXCL13 protein, human; 0 / Chemokine CXCL13; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / PDCD1 protein, human; 0 / Programmed Cell Death 1 ... MeSH-minor] Chemokine CXCL13 / analysis. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Humans. ... Chemokine CXCL13 / biosynthesis. DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Gene ...
more infohttp://www.bmlsearch.com/?kwr=angioimmunoblastic+lymphadenopathy+aild+2005:2010%5Bpubdate%5D&cxts=100&stmp=b0

Ellen McPhail, MD - Research Output
     - Mayo ClinicEllen McPhail, MD - Research Output - Mayo Clinic

Expression of CXCL13, a chemokine highly upregulated in germinal center T-helper cells, distinguishes angioimmunoblastic T-cell ...
more infohttps://mayoclinic.pure.elsevier.com/en/persons/ellen-mcphail/publications/?ordering=type&descending=false

www.Lymenet.de - Frühere Bekanntmachungenwww.Lymenet.de - Frühere Bekanntmachungen

which produce the B-cell-attracting chemokine CXCL13 *B cells immigrate into the CSF and mature to plasma cells (more ...) ...
more infohttp://lymenet.de/altebekannte.htm

Frontiers | Early IL-1 Signaling Promotes iBALT Induction after Influenza Virus Infection | ImmunologyFrontiers | Early IL-1 Signaling Promotes iBALT Induction after Influenza Virus Infection | Immunology

... a B cell attracting chemokine, in Il1r-/- mice during the early innate phase of IAV infection. These experiments demonstrate ... IAV clearance and at the same time instructs the formation of organized tertiary lymphoid tissues through induction of CXCL13 ... Mechanistically, Q-PCR analysis of lung homogenates revealed a strongly diminished production of CXCL13, ... T cells and DCs are attracted by chemokine CC ligand (CCL)19 and CCL21; B cells are attracted by chemokine CXC ligand (CXCL)13 ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2016.00312/full

000646 - A/J000646 - A/J

The chemokine CXCL13 in lung cancers associated with environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pollution. Elife 4PubMed: ...
more infohttps://www.jax.org/strain/000646

Comprehensive Immunophenotyping of Cerebrospinal Fluid Cells in Patients with Neuroimmunological Diseases | The Journal of...Comprehensive Immunophenotyping of Cerebrospinal Fluid Cells in Patients with Neuroimmunological Diseases | The Journal of...

Chemokines in multiple sclerosis: CXCL12 and CXCL13 up-regulation is differentially linked to CNS immune cell recruitment. ... Increased cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of the chemokine CXCL13 in active MS. Neurology 73: 2003-2010. ... CXCL13 is the major determinant for B cell recruitment to the CSF during neuroinflammation. J. Neuroinflammation 9: 93. ... Cerebrospinal fluid IL-12p40, CXCL13 and IL-8 as a combinatorial biomarker of active intrathecal inflammation. PLoS ONE 7: ...
more infohttps://www.jimmunol.org/content/192/6/2551?ijkey=a295c53fdd0da68bf0190a002895e273c992a94d&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

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Chemokine CXCL13 is overexpressed in the tumour tissue and in the peripheral blood of breast cancer patients. ... Overexpression of the CXCR5 chemokine receptor, and its ligand, CXCL13 in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. ... Serum BLC/CXCL13 concentrations and renal expression of CXCL13/CXCR5 in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus ... CXCL13-CXCR5 co-expression regulates epithelial to mesenchymal transition of breast cancer cells during lymph node metastasis. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?linkname=pubmed_pubmed&from_uid=25010623

Borrelia miyamotoi-Associated Neuroborreliosis in Immunocompromised Person - Volume 22, Number 9-September 2016 - Emerging...Borrelia miyamotoi-Associated Neuroborreliosis in Immunocompromised Person - Volume 22, Number 9-September 2016 - Emerging...

To further substantiate the LNB diagnosis, we determined the B-cell attractant chemokine CXCL13 from CSF. The measured value of ... In recent years, CXCL13 has been identified as a potentially sensitive and specific biomarker for diagnosing acute LNB. It was ... CXCL13 and neopterin concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Lyme neuroborreliosis and other diseases that cause ... In addition, protein, Qalb, and CXCL13 had decreased (Table). However, we remained unable to detect B. burgdorferi-specific ...
more infohttps://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/22/9/15-2034

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Genomic instability of the chemokine CXCL13 was a mechanism associated with Tfh and B cell infiltration. CXCL13 and IL21 were ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24138885?dopt=Abstract
  • Intended Use Human CXCL13 ELISA Kit allows for the in vitro quantitative determination of CXCL13 , concentrations in serum, Plasma , tissue homogenates and Cell culture supernates and Other biological fluids. (biobool.com)
  • Specificity This assay has high sensitivity and excellent specificity for detection of Human CXCL13. (biobool.com)
  • No significant cross-reactivity or interference between Human CXCL13 and analogues was observed. (biobool.com)
  • These experiments demonstrate that appropriate innate IL-1α-IL-1R signaling is necessary for IAV clearance and at the same time instructs the formation of organized tertiary lymphoid tissues through induction of CXCL13 early after infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • The principal statistical tests used were one-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni test (chemokine measurements) as well as paired Student's t-test (migration experiments). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Combined, our study suggests a key role of CXCL13 in B cell migration to sites of infection as shown here for the CSF of LNB patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, our data show that the initiation of lymph node development is controlled by RA-mediated expression of CXCL13 and suggest that RA may be provided by adjacent neurons. (lu.se)
  • Mixed linear regression was used to estimate mean ratios (MR) for the association between tagSNPs and CXCL13 levels. (cdc.gov)
  • Mechanistically, Q-PCR analysis of lung homogenates revealed a strongly diminished production of CXCL13, a B cell-attracting chemokine, in Il1r −/− mice during the early innate phase of IAV infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • Genomic instability of the chemokine CXCL13 was a mechanism associated with Tfh and B cell infiltration. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, stimulation of parasymphathetic neural output in adults led to RA receptor (RAR)-dependent induction of CXCL13 in the gut. (lu.se)
  • To further substantiate the LNB diagnosis, we determined the B-cell attractant chemokine CXCL13 from CSF. (cdc.gov)
  • CXCL13 and IL21 were pivotal factors for the Tfh/B cell axis correlating with survival. (nih.gov)