A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.
An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.
Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.
A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.
CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.
A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.
Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.
The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.
CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.
Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Proteins that specifically inhibit the growth of new blood vessels (ANGIOGENESIS, PHYSIOLOGIC).
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
The passage of cells across the layer of ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, i.e., the ENDOTHELIUM; or across the layer of EPITHELIAL CELLS, i.e. the EPITHELIUM.

TCL1 oncogene expression in AIDS-related lymphomas and lymphoid tissues. (1/214)

AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (AIDS NHL) comprises a diverse and heterogeneous group of high-grade B cell tumors. Certain classes of AIDS NHL are associated with alterations in oncogenes or tumor-suppressor genes or infections by oncogenic herpesviruses. However, the clinically significant class of AIDS NHL designated immunoblastic lymphoma plasmacytoid (AIDS IBLP) lacks any consistent genetic alterations. We identified the TCL1 oncogene from a set of AIDS IBLP-associated cDNA fragments generated by subtractive hybridization with non-AIDS IBLP. Aberrant TCL1 expression has been implicated in T cell leukemia/lymphoma development, and its expression also has been seen in many established B cell tumor lines. However, TCL1 expression has not been reported in AIDS NHL. We find that TCL1 is expressed in the majority of AIDS IBLP tumors examined. TCL1 protein expression is restricted to tumor cells in AIDS IBLP tissue samples analyzed with immunohistochemical staining. Hyperplastic lymph node and tonsil also exhibit strong TCL1 protein expression in mantle zone B cells and in rare interfollicular zone cells, whereas follicle-center B cells (centroblasts and centrocytes) show weaker expression. These results establish TCL1 as the most prevalent of all of the surveyed oncogenes associated with AIDS IBLP. They also indicate that abundant TCL1 expression in quiescent mantle zone B cells is down-regulated in activated germinal center follicular B cells in parallel to the known expression pattern of BCL-2. High-level expression in nonproliferating B cells suggests that TCL1 may function in protecting naive preactivated B cells from apoptosis.  (+info)

In vivo-activated CD4 T cells upregulate CXC chemokine receptor 5 and reprogram their response to lymphoid chemokines. (2/214)

Migration of antigen-activated CD4 T cells to B cell areas of lymphoid tissues is important for mounting T cell-dependent antibody responses. Here we show that CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR)5, the receptor for B lymphocyte chemoattractant (BLC), is upregulated on antigen-specific CD4 T cells in vivo when animals are immunized under conditions that promote T cell migration to follicles. In situ hybridization of secondary follicles for BLC showed high expression in mantle zones and low expression in germinal centers. When tested directly ex vivo, CXCR5(hi) T cells exhibited a vigorous chemotactic response to BLC. At the same time, the CXCR5(hi) cells showed reduced responsiveness to the T zone chemokines, Epstein-Barr virus-induced molecule 1 (EBI-1) ligand chemokine (ELC) and secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine (SLC). After adoptive transfer, CXCR5(hi) CD4 T cells did not migrate to follicles, indicating that additional changes may occur after immunization that help direct T cells to follicles. To further explore whether T cells could acquire an intrinsic ability to migrate to follicles, CD4(-)CD8(-) double negative (DN) T cells from MRL-lpr mice were studied. These T cells normally accumulate within follicles of MRL-lpr mice. Upon transfer to wild-type recipients, DN T cells migrated to follicle proximal regions in all secondary lymphoid tissues. Taken together, our findings indicate that reprogramming of responsiveness to constitutively expressed lymphoid tissue chemokines plays an important role in T cell migration to the B cell compartment of lymphoid tissues.  (+info)

BCA-1 is highly expressed in Helicobacter pylori-induced mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue and gastric lymphoma. (3/214)

Infection with Helicobacter pylori (Hp) induces the formation of lymphoid tissue in the stomach and the occasional development of primary gastric B-cell lymphomas. We have studied the expression of 2 chemokines that attract B lymphocytes, BCA-1 and SLC, in gastric tissue samples obtained from patients with chronic gastritis induced by Hp infection or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, as well as from patients with Hp-associated low-grade and high-grade gastric lymphomas. High-level expression of BCA-1 and its receptor, CXCR5, was observed in all mucosal lymphoid aggregates and in the mantle zone of all secondary lymphoid follicles in Hp-induced gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Follicular dendritic cells and B lymphocytes are possible sources of BCA-1, which is not expressed by T lymphocytes, macrophages, or CD1a(+) dendritic cells. Strong expression of BCA-1 and CXCR5 was also detected in the transformed B cells of gastric MALT lymphomas. By contrast, SLC was confined almost exclusively to endothelial cells in and outside the lymphoid tissue. Only scant, occasional SLC expression was observed in the marginal zone of MALT follicles. Our findings indicate that BCA-1, which functions as a homing chemokine in normal lymphoid tissue, is induced in chronic Hp gastritis and is involved in the formation of lymphoid follicles and gastric lymphomas of the MALT type.  (+info)

Distinct activities of p52/NF-kappa B required for proper secondary lymphoid organ microarchitecture: functions enhanced by Bcl-3. (4/214)

Mice rendered deficient in p52, a subunit of NF-kappa B, or in Bcl-3, an I kappa B-related regulator that associates with p52 homodimers, share defects in the microarchitecture of secondary lymphoid organs. The mutant mice are impaired in formation of B cell follicles and are unable to form proper follicular dendritic cell (FDC) networks upon antigenic challenge. The defects in formation of B cell follicles may be attributed, at least in part, to impaired production of the B lymphocyte chemoattractant (BLC) chemokine, possibly a result of defective FDCs. The p52- and Bcl-3-deficient mice exhibit additional defects within the splenic marginal zone, including reduced numbers of metallophilic macrophages, reduced deposition of the laminin-beta 2 chain and impaired expression of a mucosal addressin marker on sinus-lining cells. Whereas p52-deficient mice are severely defective in all of these aspects, Bcl-3-deficient mice are only partially defective. We determined that FDCs or other non-hemopoietic cells that underlie FDCs are intrinsically impaired in p52-deficient mice. Adoptive transfers of wild-type bone marrow into p52-deficient mice failed to restore FDC networks or follicles. The transfers did restore metallophilic macrophages to the marginal zone, however. Together, the results suggest that p52 carries out functions essential for a proper splenic microarchitecture in both hemopoietic and non-hemopoietic cells and that Bcl-3 is important in enhancing these essential activities of p52.  (+info)

Lymphoid tissue homing chemokines are expressed in chronic inflammation. (5/214)

Secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine (SLC) and B lymphocyte chemoattractant (BLC) are homing chemokines that have been implicated in the trafficking of lymphocytes and dendritic cells in lymphoid organs. Lymphotoxin-alpha (LTalpha), a cytokine crucial for development of lymphoid organs, is important for expression of SLC and BLC in secondary lymphoid organs during development. Here we report that transgenic expression of LTalpha induces inflammation and ectopic expression of SLC and BLC in the adult animal. LTbeta was not necessary for induction of BLC and SLC in inflamed tissues, whereas, in contrast, tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 was found to be important for the LTalpha-mediated induction of these chemokines. The ectopic expression of LTalpha is associated with a chronic inflammation that closely resembles organized lymphoid tissue and this lymphoid neogenesis can also be seen in several chronic inflammatory diseases, including in the pancreas of the prediabetic nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse. Expression of SLC was also observed in the pancreas of prediabetic NOD mice. This study implicates BLC and SLC in chronic inflammation and presents further evidence that LTalpha orchestrates lymphoid organogenesis both during development and in inflammatory processes.  (+info)

CC chemokine receptor (CCR)2 is required for langerhans cell migration and localization of T helper cell type 1 (Th1)-inducing dendritic cells. Absence of CCR2 shifts the Leishmania major-resistant phenotype to a susceptible state dominated by Th2 cytokines, b cell outgrowth, and sustained neutrophilic inflammation. (6/214)

There is growing evidence that chemokines and their receptors regulate the movement and interaction of antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells. We tested the hypothesis that the CC chemokine receptor (CCR)2 and CCR5 and the chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha, a ligand for CCR5, influence DC migration and localization. We found that deficiency of CCR2 but not CCR5 or MIP-1alpha led to distinct defects in DC biology. Langerhans cell (skin DC) density in CCR2-null mice was normal, and their ability to migrate into the dermis was intact; however, their migration to the draining lymph nodes was markedly impaired. CCR2-null mice had lower numbers of DCs in the spleen, and this was primarily due to a reduction in the CD8alpha(1) T helper cell type 1 (Th1)-inducing subset of DCs. Additionally, there was a block in the Leishmania major infection-induced relocalization of splenic DCs from the marginal zone to the T cell areas. We propose that these DC defects, in conjunction with increased expression of B lymphocyte chemoattractant, a B cell-specific chemokine, may collectively contribute to the striking B cell outgrowth and Th2 cytokine-biased nonhealing phenotype that we observed in CCR2-deficient mice infected with L. major. This disease phenotype in mice with an L. major-resistant genetic background but lacking CCR2 is strikingly reminiscent of that observed typically in mice with an L. major-susceptible genetic background. Thus, CCR2 is an important determinant of not only DC migration and localization but also the development of protective cell-mediated immune responses to L. major.  (+info)

CXC chemokine receptor 5 expression defines follicular homing T cells with B cell helper function. (7/214)

Leukocyte traffic through secondary lymphoid tissues is finely tuned by chemokines. We have studied the functional properties of a human T cell subset marked by the expression of CXC chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5). Memory but not naive T cells from tonsils are CXCR5(+) and migrate in response to the B cell-attracting chemokine 1 (BCA-1), which is selectively expressed by reticular cells and blood vessels within B cell follicles. Tonsillar CXCR5(+) T cells do not respond to other chemokines present in secondary lymphoid tissues, including secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine (SLC), EBV-induced molecule 1 ligand chemokine (ELC), and stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1). The involvement of tonsillar CXCR5(+) T cells in humoral immune responses is suggested by their localization in the mantle and light zone germinal centers of B cell follicles and by the concomitant expression of activation and costimulatory markers, including CD69, HLA-DR, and inducible costimulator (ICOS). Peripheral blood CXCR5(+) T cells also belong to the CD4(+) memory T cell subset but, in contrast to tonsillar cells, are in a resting state and migrate weakly to chemokines. CXCR5(+) T cells are very inefficient in the production of cytokines but potently induce antibody production during coculture with B cells. These properties portray CXCR5(+) T cells as a distinct memory T cell subset with B cell helper function, designated here as follicular B helper T cells (T(FH)).  (+info)

Lymphoid chemokine B cell-attracting chemokine-1 (CXCL13) is expressed in germinal center of ectopic lymphoid follicles within the synovium of chronic arthritis patients. (8/214)

A unique feature in inflammatory tissue of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the formation of ectopic lymphoid aggregates with germinal center (GC)-like structures that can be considered to contribute to the pathogenesis of RA, because local production of the autoantibody, rheumatoid factor, is thought to be a causative factor in tissue damage. However, the factors governing the formation of GC in RA are presently unknown. To begin to address this, the expression of B cell attracting chemokine (BCA-1) (CXCL13), a potent chemoattractant of B cells, was examined in the synovium of patients with RA or with osteoarthritis (OA). Expression of BCA-1 mRNA was detected in all RA samples, but in only one of five OA samples. Lymphoid follicles were observed in four of seven RA samples and in two of eight OA samples, and in most of them BCA-1 protein was detected in GC. BCA-1 was not detected in tissues lacking lymphoid follicles. Notably, BCA-1 was detected predominantly in follicular dendritic cells in GC. CD20-positive B cells were aggregated in regions of BCA-1 expression, but not T cells or macrophages. These data suggest that BCA-1 produced by follicular dendritic cells may attract B cells and contribute to the formation of GC-like structures in chronic arthritis.  (+info)

Human ANGIE ELISA Kit;Human b cell-attracting chemokine 1 ELISA Kit;Human BCA-1 ELISA Kit;Human b lymphocyte chemoattractant ELISA Kit;Human CXC chemokine BLC ELISA Kit;Human small-inducible cytokine B13 ELISA Kit;Human BCA1 ELISA Kit;Human BLC ELISA Kit;Human SCYB13 ELISA Kit;Human ANGIE2 ELISA Kit;Human BLR1L ELISA Kit;Human C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 13 ELISA Kit;Human C-X-C motif chemokine 13 ELISA Kit;Human B-cell chemoattractant ELISA Kit;Human B-cell-attracting chemokine 1 ELISA Kit;Human B-cell-homing chemokine (ligand for Burkitts lymphoma receptor-1) ELISA Kit;Human B-lymphocyte chemoattractant ELISA Kit;Human chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 13 (B-cell chemoattractant) ELISA Kit;Human small inducible cytokine B subfamily (Cys-X-Cys motif), member 13 (B-cell chemoattractant) ELISA Kit ...
Tfh Cells in Chronic Inflammation Lymphocytes migrating into chronically inflamed tissue form ectopic lymphoid structures with functional GCs, also known as tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS). T cells that interact with B cells in these sites, named Tfh-like cells, produce factors associated with B cell help, including IL-21 and the B cell chemoattractant CXCL13, yet vary dramatically in their resemblance to Tfh cells found in secondary lymphoid organs, e.g., surface phenotype, migratory capacity, and transcriptional regulation (10). The review article by Rao discusses observations from multiple diseases and models in which tissue-infiltrating T cells play a significant role in TLS formation. Hutloff also summarize findings on this topic discovered by studies on experimental animal models as well as some autoimmune and malignant diseases. Both reviews provide an interesting insight into a deeper understanding of these mechanisms in chronically swollen tissues and recommend approaches to focus on ...
Intended Use: This kit is used to assay the sample of Serum, blood plasma,Saliva, Urine, and other related tissue Liquid. Test principle The kit uses a double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to assay the level of Chicken...
Cytokine or chemokine encoded by a viral vector is currently regarded as a promising way of cancer gene immunotherapy. Researchers have paid attention to chemotactic activity of chemokines for immune cells and expected that they may be able to play an important role in cancer treatment, because the basis and premise of immunotherapy is the accumulation of immune cells in tumor tissues.. The CC chemokine ILC, also called cutaneous T cell-attracting chemokine or CCL27, was reported to recruit T cells to the site of its injection (27) . The CX3C family chemokine FKN (also called CX3CL1) could also attract a variety of cytotoxic lymphocytes (13 , 14 , 28) and enhance the cytotoxicity of NK cells (29) . In the present study, we hypothesized that the transfer of the mILC or mFKN gene to tumor cells, by using recombinant adenovirus in vitro, could render the tumor to express the chemokine in vivo. The chemokine would consequently induce the accumulation of immune cells in the tumor tissue and initiate ...
Results Filgotinib treatment induced a dose-dependent and significant decrease in a variety of biomarkers implicated in RA pathogenesis including inflammation (IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα and SAA), matrix degradation and cartilage destruction (MMP1 and MMP3), immune cell trafficking (CXCL10, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) and angiogenesis (VEGF). Cytokines involved in TH1 (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-12) and TH17 (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-21, IL-23) cell subset differentiation and activity were significantly decreased. Additionally, decrease in the B-cell chemoattractant CXCL13 and the myeloid growth factor GM-CSF supports the anti-inflammatory effects of filgotinib treatment. ...
Several lines of evidence indicate a requirement for LTα1β2 in splenic T zone development that is fixed during the first few weeks after birth. First, in contrast to the severely defective splenic T zones of mice congenitally deficient in LTα1β2, in studies where LTα1β2 function was blocked in adult animals, effects on T zone organization were minimal (45) and T zone chemokine expression was only mildly diminished (14). Second, when adult mice are depleted of LTα-expressing cells by irradiation and reconstitution with LTα-deficient bone marrow, T zones remain visible (data not shown and see reference 46) and there is little reduction in CCL21 expression (Fig. 4). Therefore, once the splenic CCL21-expressing T zone stromal network has developed, it has only a weak requirement for continued LTβR-signaling to be maintained. By contrast, treatment of newborn mice with LTα1β2 antagonist had a marked inhibitory effect on subsequent CCL21 and gp38 expression in the adult (Figs. 5 and 6). ...
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Agricultural workers have high rates of airway and skeletal health disease. Studies recently demonstrated that inhaled agricultural organic dust extract (ODE)-induced airway injury is associated with bone deterioration in an animal model. However, the effect of age in governing these responses to organic dusts is unclear, but might be important in future approaches. Young (7-9 wk) and older (12-14,o) male C57BL/6 mice received intranasal (i.n.) inhalation exposure to ODE from swine confinement facilities once or daily for 3 wk. Acute ODE-induced neutrophil influx and cytokine and chemokine (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-6, keratinocyte chemoattractant [CXCL1], macrophage inflammatory protein-2 [CXCL2]) airway production were reduced in older compared to young mice. Repetitive ODE treatment, however, increased lymphocyte recruitment and alveolar compartment histopathologic inflammatory changes in older mice. Whole lung cell infiltrate analysis revealed that young, but not ...
BCA-1/BLC, a CXC chemokine, is expressed in the liver, spleen, lymph nodes, appendix and stomach. It exerts its activities through its only
BCA-1 Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain topological domain containing 110 amino acids (23-109 a.a).
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Christine Mayr: Substrate Specificity of the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase BIRC3 Is Determined by Its 3UTR and Regulates CXCR4 Recycling During B Cell Migration ...
Re-imagining Learning with collaborative technology Julia Leong [email_address] Presentation will be available at slideshare.net/JuLeong source:gettyimages.co…
Tumour infiltrating lymphocytes influence colorectal cancer (CRC) progression. However, lymphocyte infiltration comes in different flavours and evidence has been provided that the spatial distribution of immune cells within the tumour tissue is an important immunological feature. The aim of this thesis was to investigate how the dual localization of tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) can affect their function in the tumour microenvironment. The project started with the analysis of the CD3 compartment, as CD3+ T cell infiltration (CD3-TILs) is a recognized positive prognostic factor for CRC patients. Results here presented show that CD3+ tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes are present both interspersed in the tumour tissue or scattered throughout the stroma (CD3-TILs) and also aggregated in lymphoid structures showing features of tertiary lymphoid tissue (CD3-TLT). Tumour-associated TLT had a peculiar compartmentalization, with CD3+ T cells and CD20+ B lymphocytes holding complementary positions ...
Bachem offers H-4606 Interferon-Inducible T Cell α-Chemoattractant (human) for your research. Find all specific details here. Find product specific information including available pack sizes, CAS, detailed description and references here.
Samples from 17 patients showed the presence of grade 2 and/or 3 aggregates; in three cases only perivascular cuffing was demonstrated. Fully formed follicular-like structures, with centrally located CD21+ FDC and T/B segregation, were seen in 7 of the 20 patients (35%). BCA-1 and SLC were expressed within lymphocytic clusters in 18 of 20 and 15 of 20 patients, respectively. BCA-1 and SLC expression was associated with mature follicular organisations. However they were detected also in the absence of fully formed lymphoid-like structures. Production of BCA-1 and SLC was established by in situ hybridisation to localize within lymphocytic clusters but even in the absence of mature follicles. ...
Chemoattractants control lymphocyte recruitment from the blood, contributing to the systemic organization of the immune system. The G protein-linked receptor GPR15 mediates lymphocyte homing to the large intestines and skin. Here we show that the 9 kDa CC-motif containing cationic polypeptide AP57/colon-derived SUSD2 binding factor (CSBF), encoded by C10orf99 in the human and 2610528A11Rik in the mouse, functions as a chemokine ligand for GPR15 (GPR15L). GPR15L binds GPR15 and attracts GPR15-expressing T cells including lymphocytes in colon draining lymph nodes and Vγ3+ thymic precursors of dermal epithelial T cells. Patterns of GPR15L expression by epithelial cells in adult mice and humans suggest a homeostatic role for the chemokine in lymphocyte localization to the large intestines, as well as a role in homing to the epidermis during wound healing or inflammation. GPR15L is also significantly expressed in squamous mucosa of the oral cavity and esophagus with still poorly defined regulation.
The angiogenic microenvironment has been known to be a component of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma since its initial characterization. We have shown that angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma endothelial cells produce vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGFA), and participate in lymphoma progression. In squamous cell carcinoma, endothelial BCL2 expression induces a crosstalk with tumor cells through VEGFA, a major mediator of tumoral angiogenesis. In the present study, we analyzed BCL2 and VEGFA in 30 angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphomas, using triple immunofluorescence to identify protein coexpression in well-characterized lymphoma cells and microenvironment neoangiogenic endothelial cells. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we assessed mRNA expression levels in laser-microdissected endothelial and lymphoma cells. In lymphoma cells, as in endothelial cells, BCL2 and VEGFA proteins were coexpressed. BCL2 was expressed only in neoangiogenic CD34(+)CD105(+) endothelial cells. In laser-microdissected
Chemokines mediate diverse fundamental biological processes, including combating infection. Multiple chemokines are expressed at the site of infection; thus chemokine synergy by heterodimer formation may play a role in determining function. Chemokine function involves interactions with G-protein-coupled receptors and sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAG). However, very little is known regarding heterodimer structural features and receptor and GAG interactions. Solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and molecular dynamics characterization of platelet-derived chemokine CXCL7 heterodimerization with chemokines CXCL1, CXCL4, and CXCL8 indicated that packing interactions promote CXCL7-CXCL1 and CXCL7-CXCL4 heterodimers, and electrostatic repulsive interactions disfavor the CXCL7-CXCL8 heterodimer. As characterizing the native heterodimer is challenging due to interference from monomers and homodimers, we engineered a
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SEC091Hu, ELISA Kit for Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 4 Alpha (MIP4a), CCL26; SCYA26; IMAC; TSC-1; Eotaxin 3; Thymic stroma chemokine-1; Chemokine(C-C-Motif)ligand 26; Thymic Stroma Chemokine-1; Small Inducible Cytokine Subfamily A 26 | Products for research use only!
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Aortic and plasma expression levels of IL-18 and CXCL16.(A) Reduced aortic mRNA expression of IL-18 and CXCL16, but no change in the expression of IFN-γ is obs
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Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) is an aggressive subtype of peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) that accounts for approximately 20% of all T-cell lymphomas. Although recurrent mutations in TET2, IDH2, and DNMT3A that are common in other hematologic malignancies have been identified in AITL, the molecular mechanisms that specifically promote AITL development are unknown. Sakata-Yanagimoto and colleagues performed whole-exome sequencing on 6 AITL samples and identified a recurrent RHOA G17V mutation in 3 AITL samples. Targeted RHOA sequencing in an extended AITL cohort identified RHOA G17V mutations in 49 of 72 (68%) AITLs. Similarly, Palomero and colleagues analyzed the exomes of 12 PTCL cases and identified recurrent RHOA G17V mutations in 22 of 35 (67%) AITLs. No RHOA G17V mutations were identified in other hematologic malignancies other than in a subset of PTCL not otherwise specified that shared AITL features, suggesting that somatic RHOA mutations are a specific feature of AITL. Of ...
Tumor cell metastasis is facilitated by premetastatic niches formed in destination organs by invading bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs). Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is critical for premetastatic niche formation. LOX secreted by hypoxic breast tumor cells accumulates at premetastatic sites, crosslinks collagen IV in the basement membrane, and is essential for CD11b+ myeloid cell recruitment. CD11b+ cells adhere to crosslinked collagen IV and produce matrix metalloproteinase-2, which cleaves collagen, enhancing the invasion and recruitment of BMDCs and metastasizing tumor cells. LOX inhibition prevents CD11b+ cell recruitment and metastatic growth. CD11b+ cells and LOX also colocalize in biopsies of human metastases. Our findings demonstrate a critical role for LOX in premetastatic niche formation and support targeting LOX for the treatment and prevention of metastatic disease.
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RANK and its ligand RANKL play important roles in the development and regulation of the immune system. We show that mice transgenic for Rank in hair follicles display massive postnatal growth of skin-draining lymph nodes. The proportions of hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic stromal cells and their organization are maintained, with the exception of an increase in B cell follicles. The hematopoietic cells are not activated and respond to immunization by foreign Ag and adjuvant. We demonstrate that soluble RANKL is overproduced from the transgenic hair follicles and that its neutralization normalizes lymph node size, inclusive area, and numbers of B cell follicles. Reticular fibroblastic and vascular stromal cells, important for secondary lymphoid organ formation and organization, express RANK and undergo hyperproliferation, which is abrogated by RANKL neutralization. In addition, they express higher levels of CXCL13 and CCL19 chemokines, as well as MAdCAM-1 and VCAM-1 cell-adhesion molecules. ...
Natural killer (NK) cells constitute a first line of anti-viral host defence and tobacco smoke may cause reduced cytotoxicity. Among the cytokines expressed in NK cells, interleukin-16 (IL-16) is of interest since it is known that the extracellular concentrations of this CD4 cell chemoattractant are increased in the airways of long-term smokers. Here, we investigated whether long-term smoking alters the number and IL-16 content of circulating NK cells.. Never-smokers (NS) and asymptomatic smokers (AS) with a normal ventilatory capacity plus a normal diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) were included. We also examined smokers with COPD (GOLD stages 2 & 3) with reduced DLCO (,2SD from the predicted mean). In each subject, a peripheral, venous blood sample was taken during clinically stable conditions for flow cytometry analysis of intracellular IL-16 in NK cells (IL-16+ NK cells; IL-16+CD3-CD16+CD56+). The relative and absolute number of NK cells (CD3-CD16+CD56+) was determined.. Smokers ...
CXCL12 izaziva potentnu hemotaksu limfocita.[4][5][6][7] Tokom embriogeneze on usmerava migraciju hematopoetskih ćelija i formiranje velikih krvnih sudova. Miševi bez CXCL12 gena su letalni pre rođenja, ili u toku prvog sata života. Kod odraslih CXCL12 igra važnu ulogu u angiogenezi putem regrutovanja endotelnih progenitorskih ćelija (EPC) iz koštane srži kroz CXCR4 zavistan mehanizam.[8] Ova funkcija čini CXCL12 veoma važnim faktorom u karcinogenezi i neovaskularizaciji vezanoj za progresiju tumora.[9] CXCL12 takođe ima ulogu u metastazi tumora gde su ćelije raka koje izražavaju CXCR4 receptor privučene ka metastaznim ciljnim tkivima koja oslobađaju ligand, CXCL12.[10] Kod raka dojke, međutim, povećano CXCL12 izražavanje određuje umanjeni rizik od metastaze.[11][12] ...
Mouse anti Rat reticulum cells antibody, clone ED11 recognizes reticular elements in the T cell areas and B cell follicles of spleen, lymp
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References for Abcams Recombinant human CXCL5 protein (ab50039). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL, sometimes misspelled AILT) (formerly known as angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy with dysproteinemia) is a mature T-cell lymphoma of blood or lymph vessel immunoblasts characterized by a polymorphous lymph node infiltrate showing a marked increase in follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) and high endothelial venules (HEVs) and systemic involvement. Patients with this disease usually present at an advanced stage and show systemic involvement. The clinical findings typically include a pruritic skin rash and possibly edema, ascites, pleural effusions, and arthritis. Due to the systemic nature of this disease, neoplastic cells can be found in lymph nodes, liver, spleen, skin, and bone marrow. This disease was originally thought to be a premalignant condition, termed angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy, and this atypical reactive lymphadenopathy carried a risk for transformation into a lymphoma. Currently, it is postulated that the originating cell for this ...
Thank you very much for your kind words. T-Cell Lymphomas are so rare, so aggressive, and so difficult to treat, that I try to reposnd quickly when I see another case. My doctor is Dr. Andrei Shustov at Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, which is the treatment arm of Fred Hutchinson. In conjunction with his peers, he formulated the regimen that, against odds, placed me initially in full response. Not completely unexpected was that some cells survived, demonstrating that the variety I had was highly resistant to all chemotherapy. He also researched and offered me the clinical trial in which I yet participate in the long-term study. Your doctor could certainly consult with him regarding your husbands options as, with all T-Cell Lymphomas, a second opinion on both diagnosis and treatment is a very good idea. I rather doubt that Health Canada would pay for any portion of US treatment. Are there any clinical trials for AITL (or any T-Cell Lymphoma) in Canada? It is good to have a plan B in reserve, as ...
Thank you very much for your kind words. T-Cell Lymphomas are so rare, so aggressive, and so difficult to treat, that I try to reposnd quickly when I see another case. My doctor is Dr. Andrei Shustov at Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, which is the treatment arm of Fred Hutchinson. In conjunction with his peers, he formulated the regimen that, against odds, placed me initially in full response. Not completely unexpected was that some cells survived, demonstrating that the variety I had was highly resistant to all chemotherapy. He also researched and offered me the clinical trial in which I yet participate in the long-term study. Your doctor could certainly consult with him regarding your husbands options as, with all T-Cell Lymphomas, a second opinion on both diagnosis and treatment is a very good idea. I rather doubt that Health Canada would pay for any portion of US treatment. Are there any clinical trials for AITL (or any T-Cell Lymphoma) in Canada? It is good to have a plan B in reserve, as ...
Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) is one of the manifestations of Lyme disease. Although it is known that immune reaction of LNB patients is dominated by Th1 and Th2 responses and patients have elevated numbers of B cells in their cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), not all the cells involved in inflammation and cytokine secretion have been characterized. The current diagnostics of LNB is based on intrathecal production of antibodies. In recent years, the measurement of chemokine CXCL13 concentration from the CSF has been introduced as a new promising diagnostic tool for LNB to complement the antibody-based diagnostic methods. A few other cytokines have also been analyzed as possible diagnostic markers. However, multiplex analyses simultaneously evaluating the concentrations of a large number of different cytokines in the CSF of LNB patients have been lacking thus far. Extensive cytokine profiling CSF samples of LNB patients would also help in understanding the complex immunopathogenesis of LNB. CSF samples were
Weighed against tumor cells, the LP EpCAM+ cells indicated very high degrees of the chemokines CXCL3 and CXCL5, as well as the BAL fluid included raised CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL5, and CXCL7. have already been utilized and described to build up approaches for targeted treatments, the genomic surroundings of lung SCC is emerging now. There arent yet any authorized targeted therapies for lung SCC. Sadly, therapeutic focuses on in lung ADC, such as for example and (also called serine-threonine kinase 11 [mutations have become rarely within human being squamous lung tumors. Lately, it had been reported that kinase-dead was within reduction is probable a significant determinant of lung squamous tumorigenesis. Despite signs that reduction may be central towards the era of squamous cell malignancies, deletion of only struggles to travel tumor development (Ji et al., 2007). (phosphatase and tensin homolog) can be another frequently mutated, erased, or epigenetically silenced tumor suppressor in human being ...
CXCL16, hemokin (C-X-C motiv) ligand 16, je mali citokin iz CXC hemokin familije. On je veći od drugih hemokina (sadrži 254 aminokiselina). CXCL16 se sastoji od CXC hemokin domaina, mucinu-slične stabljike, transmembranskog domaina i citoplazmatičnog repa koji sadrži potentno mesto tirozin fosforilacije koje može da veže SH2.[1] Ovo su neuobičajene osobine za hemokin, i omobućavaju CXCL16 da bude izražen kao molekul na ćelijskoj površini, kao i rastvorni hemokin.[2] CXCL16 proizvode dendritiske ćelije koje se mogu naći u T ćelijskim zonama limfoidnih organa, i ćelije iz crvene pulpe slezine.[1] Među ćelijama koje se vezuju i migriraju u responsu na CXCL16 su nekoliko podgrupa T ćelija, i NKT ćelije.[1] CXCL16 interaguje sa hemokin receptorom CXCR6, takođe poznatim kao Bonzo.[3][1] Ekspresiju CXCL16 indukuju inflamatorni citokini IFN-gama i TNF-alfa.[2] Gen za ljudski CXCL16 je lociran na hromozomu 17.[1][4] ...
CXCL12 izaziva potentnu hemotaksu limfocita.[4][5][6][7] Tokom embriogeneze on usmerava migraciju hematopoetskih ćelija i formiranje velikih krvnih sudova. Miševi bez CXCL12 gena su letalni pre rođenja, ili u toku prvog sata života. Kod odraslih CXCL12 igra važnu ulogu u angiogenezi putem regrutovanja endotelnih progenitorskih ćelija (EPC) iz koštane srži kroz CXCR4 zavistan mehanizam.[8] Ova funkcija čini CXCL12 veoma važnim faktorom u karcinogenezi i neovaskularizaciji vezanoj za progresiju tumora.[9] CXCL12 takođe ima ulogu u metastazi tumora gde su ćelije raka koje izražavaju CXCR4 receptor privučene ka metastaznim ciljnim tkivima koja oslobađaju ligand, CXCL12.[10] Kod raka dojke, međutim, povećano CXCL12 izražavanje određuje umanjeni rizik od metastaze.[11][12] ...
CXCL10, hemokin (C-X-C motiv) ligand 10, ili IP-10[1] je mali citokin iz CXC hemokin familije koji je takođe poznat kao 10 kDa interferon-gama-inducirani protein (γ-IP10 ili IP-10). CXCL10 luči nekoliko ćelijski tipova u responsu na IFN-γ. U te ćelijske tipove spadaju monociti, endotelijalne ćelije i fibroblasti.[2] CXCL10 hemokinu je bilo pripisano nekoliko uloga, kao što su hemoatrakcija monocita/makrofaga, T ćelija, NK ćelija, i dendritskih ćelija, promocija adhezije T ćelija na endotelijalne ćelije, antitumorska aktivnost, i inhibicija formiranja kolonija kičmene moždine i angiogeneze.[3][4] CXCL10 gen je lociran na ljudskom hromozomu 4 u klasteru sa nekoliko drugih CXC hemokina.[5] Ovaj hemokin dejstvuje putem vezivanja na CXCR3 hemokin receptore na ćelijskoj površini.[6]. Tri-dimenzionalna kristalna struktura ovog hemokina je bila utvrđena u 3 različite grupe uslova u rezoluciji do 1.92 A.[7] PDB pristupni kodovi za CXCL10 strukture su: 1lv9, 1o7y, 1o7z i 1o80.[8] ...
Human CXCL10 (IP-10) ELISA MAX™ Deluxe - CXCL10, also known as IP-10, is a glutamic acid-leucine-arginine motif negative chemokine structurally and functionally related to MIG (CXCL9) and ITAC (CXCL11).
Complete information for CXCL9 gene (Protein Coding), C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 9, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Cxcl12 - Cxcl12 (untagged ORF) - Rat chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (stromal cell-derived factor 1) (Cxcl12), transcript variant 3, (10 ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Cxcl11 - Cxcl11 (Myc-DDK-tagged) - Mouse chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11 (Cxcl11), transcript variant 1 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Speakers Nathalie Grün Human Papillomavirus in healthy youth Elin Sjöberg A novel role for the chemokine CXCL14 in epithelial to mesenchymal transition Chair Hanif Rassoolzadeh Welcome!
Recombinant Human IP-10/CXCL10 produced inE. coliis a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 77 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 8.5 kDa.
Human IL-8/CXCL8 HEK293 Cells Overexpression Lysate 10098-HNCH1L is validated in western blot (WB) as positive control. Sino Biological offers bulk order for high quality cell lysates which are produced in house.
人生长调节致癌基因γ(GRO-γ/CXCL3) (Human)首选赛业生物,380余种细胞因子囊括生长调节致癌基因、生长因子、干扰素、白细胞介素、肿瘤坏死因子等所有细胞因子家族,种属齐包括人、鼠、恒河猴及其他种属。赛业提供的生长调节致癌基因品质优良:高活性、高纯度、高稳定性、无热源、无外源因子污染。
Histologic changes: At low power, this non-distended biopsy shows patchy alveolar collapse--an artifact of preparation, which could have been prevented by distending the unfixed biopsy with formalin. Two abnormalities are present. Several dark blue, lymphoid aggregates suggest chronic inflammation, and the bronchiole to the left of the large artery has an irregularly-shaped lumen with surrounding fibrosis.. ...
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Just yesterday Neogenesis, the latest EARC in the Liaden Universe series by Sharon Lee and Steve Miller came out. And, Im happy to say, Ive finished reading it. EARCs, if you arent familar, are a publishing innovation pioneered by Baen. ARC stands for Advance Reader Copy, which is a pre-publication, unproofed version of the book…
FDCs produce chemokine CXCL13 which promotes migration of B lymphocytes to the primary B cell follicle. B lymphocytes need a ... and B cells exhibit CXCR5 receptors for chemokine CXCL13. The lymph from the peripheral tissues contains soluble antigens and ... Lymphocytes have receptors for such chemokines. For example, Naive T cells express the CCR7 receptor for the chemokine CCL21. ... FRCs express chemokines such as CCL21 and CCL19 which assist the movement of T cells and dendritic cells with CCR7 receptors. ...
Carlsen H.S., Baekkevold E.S., Johansen F.E., Haraldsen G., Brandtzaeg P. B cell attracting chemokine 1 (CXCL13) and its ... Chan C.C., Shen D., Hackett J.J., Buggage R.R., Tuaillon N. Expression of chemokine receptors, CXCR4 and CXCR5, and chemokines ... CXCR5, BLR1, CD185, MDR15, C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 5, C-X-C chemokine receptor type 5. ... Gunn M.D., Ngo V.N., Ansel K.M., Ekland E.H., Cyster J.G., Williams L.T. A B-cell-homing chemokine made in lymphoid follicles ...
In a number of chronic inflammatory conditions, cells producing CXCL13 chemokine and carrying such FDCs markers as VCAM-1 and ... FDCs, in turn, attract B cells with chemoattractant CXCL13. B cells lacking CXCR5, the receptor for CXCL13, still enter the ... FDCs are among main producers of the chemokine CXCL13 which attracts and organises lymphoid cells. Follicular DCs receptors CR1 ... The stimulation of CXCR5 on B cells upregulates LT production, which leads to FDCs activation and stimulates further CXCL13 ...
Th17 cells are involved in B cell recruitment through CXCL13 chemokine signaling, and Th17 activity may encourage antibody ... The mechanism of Treg17 cell action is expression of chemokine receptor CCR6, which facilitates trafficking into areas of Th17 ...
... is a G protein-coupled seven transmembrane receptor for chemokine CXCL13 (also known as BLC) and belongs to the CXC chemokine ... Carlsen HS, Baekkevold ES, Johansen FE, Haraldsen G, Brandtzaeg P (September 2002). "B cell attracting chemokine 1 (CXCL13) and ... "Human osteoblasts express functional CXC chemokine receptors 3 and 5: activation by their ligands, CXCL10 and CXCL13, ... that could lead to decreased autoimmune response While chemokines and chemokine receptors have been thought to be involved in ...
"Chemokines in multiple sclerosis: CXCL12 and CXCL13 up-regulation is differentially linked to CNS immune cell recruitment". ... The stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF1), also known as C-X-C motif chemokine 12 (CXCL12), is a chemokine protein that in ... Chemokines and chemokine receptors, of which CXCR stands out, regulate multiple processes such as morphogenesis, angiogenesis, ... The chemokines are characterized by the presence of 4 conserved cysteines that form 2 disulfide bonds. They can be classified ...
... to lead to increased CXCR5 chemokine receptor gene expression and activated cell migration in response to chemokine CXCL13. One ... "p53-dependent expression of CXCR5 chemokine receptor in MCF-7 breast cancer cells". Scientific Reports. 5 (5): 9330. Bibcode: ...
... or CXCL13), a chemokine selectively chemotactic for B lymphocytes Bachelor of Canon Law, a degree in ecclesiastical studies ...
... presentation Cross-reactivity Cryptic self epitopes Cryptotope CX3CL1 CX3CR1 CXC chemokine receptors CXCL1 CXCL10 CXCL11 CXCL13 ... Breakthrough infection Broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies Bursa of Fabricius C-C chemokine receptor type 6 C-C chemokine ... CD4 CD4+ T cells and antitumor immunity CD74 CD94/NKG2 Cell-mediated immunity CELSR1 Central tolerance Chemokine Chemokine ... 7 Calreticulin Cancer immunology Cancer immunoprevention Cancer immunotherapy Cantuzumab ravtansine Cathelicidin CC chemokine ...
... has been reported to reduce chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell chemotaxis towards the chemokines CXCL12 and CXCL13, ... and chemokine-controlled adhesion and migration in chronic lymphocytic leukemia". Blood. 119 (11): 2590-2594. doi:10.1182/blood ...
... -dependent chemotaxis has been reported in response to the chemokines CXCL12/SDF-1 in T lymphocytes, CXCL13/BLC in B ... 2007). "DOCK2 is required for chemokine-promoted human T lymphocyte adhesion under shear stress mediated by the integrin ...
Other CXC chemokines that lack the ELR motif, such as CXCL13, tend to be chemoattractant for lymphocytes. CXC chemokines bind ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines in that it has ... CCL1 for the ligand 1 of the CC-family of chemokines, and CCR1 for its respective receptor. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) ...
... is a small chemokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family. As its other names suggest, this chemokine is selectively ... The gene for CXCL13 is located on human chromosome 4 in a cluster of other CXC chemokines. In T lymphocytes, CXCL13 expression ... Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 13 (CXCL13), also known as B lymphocyte chemoattractant (BLC) or B cell-attracting chemokine 1 ( ... Human CXCL13 genome location and CXCL13 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Overview of all the structural ...
Its principal ligand is CXCL13 (or BLC). CXCR6 was formerly called three different names (STRL33, BONZO, and TYMSTR) before ... CXC chemokine receptors are integral membrane proteins that specifically bind and respond to cytokines of the CXC chemokine ... However, CXCR6 is more closely related in structure to CC chemokine receptors than to other CXC chemokine receptors. ACKR3 was ... The chemokine receptor CXCR5 is expressed on B cells and CD4+ Tfh cells and is involved in lymphocyte homing and the ...
chemokine receptor activity. • receptor activity. • protein binding. • C-C chemokine receptor activity. • C-C chemokine binding ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene.[5] CCR6 ... "Entrez Gene: CCR6 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6".. *^ Wang K, Zhang H, Kugathasan S, Annese V, Bradfield JP, Russell RK, ... "Chemokine Receptors: CCR6". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
Other CXC chemokines that lack the ELR motif, such as CXCL13, tend to be chemoattractant for lymphocytes. CXC chemokines bind ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ...
... chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10, scyb10 CXCL11: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11, scyb11 CXCL13: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ... chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1, scyb1 CXCL2: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2, scyb2 CXCL3: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 3 ... chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 5, scyb5 CXCL6: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6, scyb6 CXCL7: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 7 ... PPBP, scyb7 CXCL8: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8, interleukin 8 (IL-8), scyb8 CXCL9: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9, scyb9 ...
C-X-C chemokine receptor activity. • interleukin-8 binding. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. • chemokine receptor ... This name and the corresponding gene symbol IL8RA have been replaced by the HGNC approved name C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 1 ... "Chemokine Receptors: CXCR1". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... chemokine-mediated signaling pathway. • interleukin-8-mediated signaling pathway. • neutrophil degranulation. • chemotaxis. ...
chemokine activity. • cytokine activity. • heparin binding. • protein binding. • CXCR3 chemokine receptor binding. ... C-X-C motif chemokine 11 is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also called Interferon-inducible T- ... "Entrez Gene: CXCL11 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11".. *^ a b Cole KE, Strick CA, Paradis TJ, Ogborne KT, Loetscher M, Gladue ... This chemokine elicits its effects on its target cells by interacting with the cell surface chemokine receptor CXCR3, with a ...
2005). "The chemokine receptor D6 limits the inflammatory response in vivo". Nat Immunol. 6 (4): 403-411. doi:10.1038/ni1182. ... Marchesi F, Martin AP, Thirunarayanan N, Devany E, Mayer L, Grisotto MG, Furtado GC, Lira SA (November 2009). "CXCL13 ... His early studies were the first to show that chemokines played a major role on leukocyte trafficking to the brain, the lung ... "Wiley::Chemokine Receptors as Drug Targets". Retrieved April 26, 2011. "Mount Sinai School of Medicine - Faculty profile". ...
She found that rituximab therapy led to decreased markers of inflammation and higher IgG and CXCL13 in the cerebrospinal fluid ... And T-lymphocyte and Chemokine Levels With Rituximab Treatment in Multiple Sclerosis". Archives of neurology. PMID 20558389. ... Predicting optimal response to B cell depletion with rituximab in Multiple Sclerosis using CXCL13 index, MRI and clinical ... "Predicting Optimal Response to B-cell Depletion With Rituximab in Multiple Sclerosis Using CXCL13 Index, Magnetic Resonance ...
Their production is stimulated by retinoic acid, CXCL13, RANK-L, and the cytokines IL-1B, IL-23, and IL-6. They express c- Kit ... They express characteristic surface markers and receptors for chemokines, which are involved in the distribution of lymphoid ... coded for by adhesion molecules and chemokines. However, it has also been shown that the maturation of the ILCs can take place ...
CXCL1 · CXCL2 · CXCL3 · CXCL4 · CXCL5 · CXCL6 · CXCL7 · CXCL8/IL8 · CXCL9 · CXCL10 · CXCL11 · CXCL12 · CXCL13 · CXCL14 · CXCL15 ... Chemokine. CCL. CCL1 · CCL2 · CCL3 · CCL4 · CCL5 · CCL6 · CCL7 · CCL8 · CCL9 · CCL11 · CCL12 · CCL13 · CCL14 · CCL15 · CCL16 · ...
Release of chemokines allow for the activation of adhesion molecules on the lymphocytes and monocytes, resulting in an ... and which could be related to the behavior of CXCL13 under methylprednisolone therapy. Some molecular biochemical models for ...
positive regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production. • positive regulation of JUN kinase activity. • positive ... positive regulation of chemokine production. • cellular extravasation. • negative regulation of lipid storage. • negative ... positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • epithelial cell proliferation involved in salivary gland morphogenesis ...
... s are a subset of cytokines that are produced by a type of immune cell known as a lymphocyte.[1] They are protein mediators typically produced by T cells to direct the immune system response by signaling between its cells. Lymphokines have many roles, including the attraction of other immune cells, including macrophages and other lymphocytes, to an infected site and their subsequent activation to prepare them to mount an immune response. Circulating lymphocytes can detect a very small concentration of lymphokine and then move up the concentration gradient towards where the immune response is required. Lymphokines aid B cells to produce antibodies. Important lymphokines secreted by the T helper cell include:[2] ...
... binds to the death receptors DR4 (TRAIL-RI) and DR5 (TRAIL-RII). The process of apoptosis is caspase-8-dependent. Caspase-8 activates downstream effector caspases including procaspase-3, -6, and -7, leading to activation of specific kinases.[11] TRAIL also binds the receptors DcR1 and DcR2, which do not contain a cytoplasmic domain (DcR1) or contain a truncated death domain (DcR2). DcR1 functions as a TRAIL-neutralizing decoy-receptor. The cytoplasmic domain of DcR2 is functional and activates NFkappaB. In cells expressing DcR2, TRAIL binding therefore activates NFkappaB, leading to transcription of genes known to antagonize the death signaling pathway and/or to promote inflammation. Application of engineered ligands that have variable affinity for different death (DR4 and DR5) and decoy receptors (DCR1 and DCR2) may allow selective targeting of cancer cells by controlling activation of Type 1/Type 2 pathways of cell death and single cell fluctuations. Luminescent iridium complex-peptide ...
... (IL-24) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL24 gene. IL-24 is a cytokine belonging to the IL-10 family of cytokines that signals through two heterodimeric receptors: IL-20R1/IL-20R2 and IL-22R1/IL-20R2. This interleukin is also known as melanoma differentiation-associated 7 (mda-7) due to its discovery as a tumour suppressing protein. IL-24 appears to control in cell survival and proliferation by inducing rapid activation of particular transcription factors called STAT1 and STAT3. This cytokine is predominantly released by activated monocytes, macrophages and T helper 2 (Th2) cells[5] and acts on non-haematopoietic tissues such as skin, lung and reproductive tissues. IL-24 performs important roles in wound healing, arthritis, psoriasis and cancer.[6][7][8] Several studies have shown that cell death occurs in cancer cells/cell lines following exposure to IL-24.[9][10] The gene for IL-24 is located on chromosome 1 in humans.[11] ...
... as well as chemokine and cytokine production, and expression of adhesion molecules such as E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. This ...
positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • regulation of insulin secretion. • extrinsic apoptotic signaling ... Copeland KF (2006). "Modulation of HIV-1 transcription by cytokines and chemokines". Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry. 5 (12 ...
... chemokine activity, CXCR chemokine receptor binding, CXCR3 chemokine receptor binding, CXCR5 chemokine receptor binding, ... chemokine activity Source: RGDInferred from sequence orthologyi*. "Human B cell-attracting chemokine 1 (BCA-1; CXCL13) is an ... chemokine activity Source: RGDInferred from sequence orthologyi*. "Human B cell-attracting chemokine 1 (BCA-1; CXCL13) is an ... cd00273, Chemokine_CXC, 1 hit. InterProi. View protein in InterPro. IPR001089, Chemokine_CXC. IPR001811, Chemokine_IL8-like ...
Disease relevance of CXCL13. *Expression of B-cell-attracting chemokine 1 (CXCL13) by malignant lymphocytes and vascular ... Chemokines in multiple sclerosis: CXCL12 and CXCL13 up-regulation is differentially linked to CNS immune cell recruitment. ... Human B cell-attracting chemokine 1 (BCA-1; CXCL13) is an agonist for the human CXCR3 receptor. Jenh, C.H., Cox, M.A., Hipkin, ... Chemokines in multiple sclerosis: CXCL12 and CXCL13 up-regulation is differentially linked to CNS immune cell recruitment [4]. ...
CXCL13) Protein. Species: Human. Source: Escherichia coli (E. coli). Order product ABIN2712673. ... Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 13 (CXCL13) (Active) Protein Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 13 (CXCL13) (Active) Protein. ... Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 13 (CXCL13) show synonyms for this antigen * 4631412M08Rik ... Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 10 Proteins * Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 1 (Melanoma Growth Stimulating Activity, Alpha) ...
Here we demonstrate that both the chemokine CXCL13 and the chemokine CCL21 attracted LTi cells at embryonic days 12.5-14.5 and ... Here we demonstrate that both the chemokine CXCL13 and the chemokine CCL21 attracted LTi cells at embryonic days 12.5-14.5 and ... Here we demonstrate that both the chemokine CXCL13 and the chemokine CCL21 attracted LTi cells at embryonic days 12.5-14.5 and ... Chemokine CXCL13 is essential for lymph node initiation and is induced by retinoic acid and neuronal stimulation. van de Pavert ...
CXCL13, requires reagent kit C III (171-304090 for vacuum separation or 171-304090M for magnetic separation) and a vial of ... 171bk12mr2-bio-plex-pro-human-chemokine-bca-1-cxcl13-set. 171BK12MR2. Bio-Plex Pro Human Chemokine BCA-1 / CXCL13 Set. Bio-Plex ... 171BK12MR2, bio-plex, pro, human, chemokine, bca-1/cxcl13, set, bca1/cxcl13, bca-1, cxcl13, bca1, bioplex, premade, pre-made, ... view/global/bio-plex-pro-human-chemokine-bca-1-cxcl13-set-bk12mr2.jpg. Bio-Plex Pro Human Chemokine BCA-1 / CXCL13 Set. preview ...
Measurements of chemokine levels revealed an increase in three of the four known major B cell chemoattractants CXCL13, CCL19 ... we assessed the role of CXCL13 - in comparison to other chemokines - in the recruitment of B cells to the CSF of patients with ... The CXCL13 CSF:serum ratio, as a measure of the chemotactic gradient, was substantially higher than that of CCL19 and CXCL12. ... Measurement of chemokines was done by ELISA. B cells were isolated from whole blood using magnetic cell separation (MACS). For ...
Research shows that CXCL13 in CSF is a promising biomarker in MS.ResponseThe results are reported ... ... CXCL13 level is measured in CSF in cases of suspected neuroborreliosis or neuroinflammation. ... CXCL13 - Neuroborreliosis biomarker/chemokine IndicationCXCL13 level is measured in CSF in cases of suspected neuroborreliosis ... InterpretationCXCL13 is a chemokine that attracts B-lymphocytes. Elevated levels of CXCl13 is seen in neuroinflammation with B- ...
Our study purpose was to assess the regulatory response of the chemokine CXCL13 in the serum of patients with systemic lupus ... Furthermore, HA IgG ANAs might affect the circulation of CXCL13. Therefore, the chemokine CXCL13 might be a risk factor ... The CXCL13 chemokine serves as a potential biomarker to diagnose systemic lupus erythaematosus with disease activity ... Objectives: Our study purpose was to assess the regulatory response of the chemokine CXCL13 in the serum of patients with ...
Recent studies have suggested that the chemokine, CXCL13, and its receptor, CXCR5 may play a role in B cell tumors (non-AIDS- ... Expression and function of the chemokine, CXCL13, and its receptor, CXCR5, in AIDS-associated non-Hodgkins lymphoma. ... AIDS-NHL cell lines also demonstrated chemotaxis towards CXCL13.. These results indicate that CXCL13 and CXCR5 may play a role ... The mean CXCL13 level in the AIDS-NHL group (158 pg/ml, SD = 153) was ~50 percent higher than the AIDS control group (98.4 pg/ ...
chemokine receptor activity. • receptor activity. • protein binding. • C-C chemokine receptor activity. • C-C chemokine binding ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene.[5] CCR6 ... "Entrez Gene: CCR6 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6".. *^ Wang K, Zhang H, Kugathasan S, Annese V, Bradfield JP, Russell RK, ... "Chemokine Receptors: CCR6". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
View our 32 CXCL13/BLC/BCA-1 products for your research including CXCL13/BLC/BCA-1 Primary Antibodies, ELISAs, Proteins and ... CXCL13/BLC/BCA-1: Products. CXCL13/BLC/BCA-1 is a constitutively expressed chemokine that plays an important role in B and T ... Proteome Profiler Mouse Chemokine Array Kit Contains 4 membranes - each spotted in duplicate with 25 different chemokine ... CXCL13 induces the migration of naive B cells and a subset of memory T cells to lymphoid tissue. It also promotes B1 cell ...
B-Cells in ocular adnexal lymphoproliferative lesions express B-cell attracting chemokine 1 (CXCL13). In: American Journal of ... B-Cells in ocular adnexal lymphoproliferative lesions express B-cell attracting chemokine 1 (CXCL13). American Journal of ... B-Cells in ocular adnexal lymphoproliferative lesions express B-cell attracting chemokine 1 (CXCL13). / Falkenhagen, Katherine ... title = "B-Cells in ocular adnexal lymphoproliferative lesions express B-cell attracting chemokine 1 (CXCL13).", ...
This review will focus on recent murine and human studies that use chemokines as therapeutic anti-cancer vaccine adjuvants. ... Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing ... This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential ... CXCL13. BCA-1. CXCR5, CXCR3. homeostatic. CXCL14. BRAK/bolekine. unknown. Homeostatic. CXCL16. SR-PSOX. CXCR6. inflammatory. ...
B cell-attracting chemokine-1/CXCL13); but not to ligands for other chemokine receptors. Two NKT cell subsets migrated in ... thymus-expressed chemokine (TECK)/CCL25, cutaneous T cell-attracting chemokine (CTACK)/CCL27, BCA-1/CXCL13, CXCL16, fractalkine ... and responded to the B cell chemokine BCA-1/CXCL13. These studies demonstrate a restricted repertoire of chemokine receptor ... Human B cell-attracting chemokine 1 (BCA-1; CXCL13) is an agonist for the human CXCR3 receptor. Cytokine 15:113. ...
PeproTechs chemokines include proteins that act through G protein-coupled receptors and conform to the prototypical chemokine ... Chemokine Subfamilies and Nomenclature. C Chemokines - Contain only two conserved cysteine residues linked by a single ... Chemokines and their receptors otherwise tend to interact indiscriminately to stimulate upregulation of adherent chemokines, co ... including a special class of small cytokines called chemokines.. Representing the largest class of cytokines, chemokines play ...
PeproTechs chemokines include proteins that act through G protein-coupled receptors and conform to the prototypical chemokine ... Recombinant Murine BCA-1/BLC (CXCL13). Numéro Catalogue: 250-24 See Pricing ...
Reagena has released for sale a rapid test for the determination of chemokine CXCL13 in human cerebrospinal fluid. ReaScan ... CXCL13 is a CE marked easy-to-use, fast and effective test supporting the early diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB). ...
Chemokine cooperativity is specific for certain chemokine combinations. We then tested whether the cooperative effect of CXCL13 ... How would chemokine cooperativity influence chemokine function, and how will chemokine cooperativity be altered by (patho) ... Chemokine cooperativity is mediated by both chemokine monomers and dimers. Chemokine heterodimerization has previously been ... We became interested in chemokine cooperativity while testing the ability of several chemokines to activate the chemokine ...
Carlsen H.S., Baekkevold E.S., Johansen F.E., Haraldsen G., Brandtzaeg P. B cell attracting chemokine 1 (CXCL13) and its ... Chan C.C., Shen D., Hackett J.J., Buggage R.R., Tuaillon N. Expression of chemokine receptors, CXCR4 and CXCR5, and chemokines ... CXCR5, BLR1, CD185, MDR15, C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 5, C-X-C chemokine receptor type 5. ... Gunn M.D., Ngo V.N., Ansel K.M., Ekland E.H., Cyster J.G., Williams L.T. A B-cell-homing chemokine made in lymphoid follicles ...
... one of these chemokines is B cell-attracting chemokine-13 [CXCL13]. CXCL13 is a major regulator of B-cell trafficking. This ... study of serum levels of B cell-attracting chemokine-13 [CXCL 13] and rheumatologic manifestations of chronic hepatitis C virus ... A, study of serum levels of B cell-attracting chemokine-13 [CXCL 13] and rheumatologic ma ... CXCL13 serum levels were significantly high in the patient group especially in the MC positive group compared to controls. The ...
Are CSF CXCL13 concentrations solely dependent on intrathecal production? A commentary on "Chemokine CXCL13 in serum, CSF, and ... Are CSF CXCL13 concentrations solely dependent on intrathecal production? A commentary on "Chemokine CXCL13 in serum, CSF, and ... Among all CXCL13 teams, their outcomes confirmed no correlation between CSF CXCL13 concentrations and serum CXCL13 or Qalbumin ... serum CXCL13 concentrations on CSF CXCL13 in sufferers with decrease intrathecal CXCL13 manufacturing and thus decrease CXCL13 ...
chemokine CXCL13 is predominantly produced by Kupffer cells in the liver of PBC mice established by Poly IC injection. ... Objective The expression of chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 13 (CXCL13) within liver in primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) patients ... Expression of intrahepatic chemokine CXCL13 in a mouse model of primary biliary cholangitis / 医学研究生学报 ... Expression of intrahepatic chemokine CXCL13 in a mouse model of primary biliary cholangiti ...
Serum levels of the chemokine CXCL13, genetic variation in CXCL13 and its receptor CXCR5, and HIV-associated non-hodgkin B-cell ... Serum levels of the chemokine CXCL13, genetic variation in CXCL13 and its receptor CXCR5, and HIV-associated non-Hodgkin B cell ... Serum levels of the chemokine CXCL13, genetic variation in CXCL13 and its receptor CXCR5, and HIV-associated non-Hodgkin B cell ... Serum levels of the chemokine CXCL13, genetic variation in CXCL13 and its receptor CXCR5, and HIV-associated non-Hodgkin B cell ...
The homeostatic chemokines CXCL13 and CCL21 are expressed independently of TNFalpha and lymphotoxin at sites of iBALT formation ...
Other CXC chemokines that lack the ELR motif, such as CXCL13, tend to be chemoattractant for lymphocytes. CXC chemokines bind ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ...
Expression of the consitutive chemokines CXCL13 and CXCL12 contributes to the characteristic pattern of lymphocyte infiltration ... Expression of the consitutive chemokines CXCL13 and CXCL12 contributes to the characteristic pattern of lymphocyte infiltration ...
CXC chemokine BLC. *CXCL13 *SCYB13. *Small inducible cytokine B subfamily (Cys X Cys motif) member 13 (B cell chemoattractant) ... B lymphocyte chemoattractant, independently cloned and named Angie, is a CXC chemokine strongly expressed in the follicles of ...
CXCL-13. CXC chemokine ligand 13. IL-10. interleukin 10. ROC. receiver operating characteristic. AUC. area under the curve. ... CXC chemokine ligand 13 (CXCL-13), a mediator of B-cell migration, and interleukin 10 (IL-10), an anti-inflammatory cytokine, ... ROC curves of ADCavg (A), CXCL-13 (B), IL-10 (C), and ADCavg with CXCL-13 and IL-10 (D). All ROCs are statistically significant ... Boxplots of ADCavg, CSF CXCL-13, and CSF IL-10. ADCavg is statistically significantly lower, and CSF CXCL-13 and IL-10 are ...
0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (Ccl19 protein, mouse); 0 (Chemokine CCL19); 0 (Chemokine CCL21); 0 (Chemokine CXCL13); 0 (Cxcl13 ... Quimiocina CXCL13/gen tica. Quimiocina CXCL13/inmunolog a. Enfermedad Cr nica. Regulaci n de la Expresi n G nica. Interfer n ... and CXCL13 chemokine mRNA expression. Our results suggest that MZ macrophage populations are particularly sensitive to ... This phenomenon has been linked to reduced chemokine secretion by stromal cells. spp. are the causative agent of brucellosis, a ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 18; CXCL13: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 13; S100A12: S100 calcium-binding protein A12; IL-8: ... CCL18 and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 13 (CXCL13), are influential in the migration of B-lymphocytes and macrophages ... C-X-C motif chemokine13 (CXCL13) is a prognostic biomarker of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. ... Serum CC-chemokine ligand 18 concentration predicts outcome in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. ...
  • To date, there are more than 50 chemokines and 18 chemokine receptors identified [ 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Most chemokines bind to more than one receptor, while most receptors also display overlapping ligand specificity [ 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • but not to ligands for other chemokine receptors. (jimmunol.org)
  • a trait that enables the recruitment of diverse populations of well-defined chemokine subsets and receptors. (peprotech.com)
  • In order to exert biological effect, chemokines will bind with receptors of the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, which possess seven conserved transmembrane domains with which chemokines can interact. (peprotech.com)
  • Classified into subfamilies based on the motifs of their ligands, these receptors tend to interact with the chemokines of their eponymous subfamilies. (peprotech.com)
  • Chemokines and their receptors otherwise tend to interact indiscriminately to stimulate upregulation of adherent chemokines, co-stimulatory cytokines and signaling cascades that polarizes cells to direct chemotaxis. (peprotech.com)
  • Chemokines comprise a family of secreted proteins that activate G protein-coupled chemokine receptors and thereby control the migration of leukocytes during inflammation or immune surveillance. (jimmunol.org)
  • The chemokine family encompasses nearly 50 members, which are classified based on the relative position of their conserved N-terminal cysteine residues (CC, CXC, CX 3 C, and C). Chemokines elicit intracellular responses via G protein-coupled receptors. (jimmunol.org)
  • Upon ligand binding, chemokine receptors activate G proteins of the Gα i family, leading to inhibition of adenylyl cyclases and mobilization of Ca 2+ from intracellular stores. (jimmunol.org)
  • Furthermore, activated chemokine receptors bind to the scaffolding protein β-arrestin ( 1 - 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • All of these proteins exert their biological effects by interacting with G protein -linked transmembrane receptors called chemokine receptors , that are selectively found on the surfaces of their target cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been found that chemokines and their receptors serve a pivotal role in HCC progression. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Thus, chemokines and their receptors directly or indirectly shape the tumor cell microenvironment, and regulate the biological behavior of the tumor. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Exosomes containing chemokines or expressing receptors for chemokines may improve chemotaxis to HCC and may thus be exploited for targeted drug delivery. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chemokines bind to a variety of different receptors, which belong to the G-protein-binding receptor family, and there are ~23 types of chemokine receptors that have been discovered ( 10 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chemokines and their receptors were initially thought to allow for an interaction between immune cells and the inflammatory sites ( 11 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • After binding to the receptors, chemokines primarily serve a role in migration of leukocytes, such as monocytes, eosinophils and dendritic cells (DCs) ( 11 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • CXC chemokine receptors are integral membrane proteins that specifically bind and respond to cytokines of the CXC chemokine family. (wikipedia.org)
  • They represent one subfamily of chemokine receptors, a large family of G protein-linked receptors that are known as seven transmembrane (7-TM) proteins, since they span the cell membrane seven times. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are currently six known CXC chemokine receptors in mammals, named CXCR1 through CXCR6. (wikipedia.org)
  • CXCR1 and CXCR2 are closely related receptors that recognize CXC chemokines that possess an E-L-R amino acid motif immediately adjacent to their CXC motif. (wikipedia.org)
  • CXCR6 was formerly called three different names (STRL33, BONZO, and TYMSTR) before being assigned CXCR6 based on its chromosomal location (within the chemokine receptor cluster on human chromosome 3p21) and its similarity to other chemokine receptors in its gene sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, CXCR6 is more closely related in structure to CC chemokine receptors than to other CXC chemokine receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, global transcriptomics highlight differences between T PH cells and T follicular helper cells, including altered expression of BCL6 and BLIMP1 and unique expression of chemokine receptors that direct migration to inflamed sites, such as CCR2, CX3CR1, and CCR5, in T PH cells. (nih.gov)
  • Chemokines receptors are seven transmembrane spanning G protein-coupled receptors that allow cells to migrate towards increasing chemokine gradients. (biolegend.com)
  • Specific chemokine receptors are often required to gain entry (or exit) from certain organs and tissues like the thymus and bone marrow. (biolegend.com)
  • Chemokine signals are transduced by G-protein coupled receptors, which dissociate to activate diverse downstream pathways resulting in cellular polarization and actin reorganization. (wikipathways.org)
  • Lymphocytes have receptors for such chemokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • and B cells exhibit CXCR5 receptors for chemokine CXCL13. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokine and chemokine receptors could have played an important role in tumor angiogenesis and distant metastasis. (cancerindex.org)
  • The mechanism of inflammation, expression and function of chemokines and chemokine receptors in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa) remain unclear. (cancerindex.org)
  • The purpose of present study is to detect differential expression and function of chemokines and chemokine receptors (CCRs) in BPH and PCa. (cancerindex.org)
  • Chemokine receptors are all members of the seven-transmembrane family of heterotrimeric G-protein-coupled receptors. (rupress.org)
  • Malignant cells exhibit aberrant expression of particular chemokine receptors relative to their normal counterparts [ 10 - 15 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Lymphocyte trafficking is orchestrated by chemokine and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptors that enable homing and egress from secondary lymphoid organs (SLO). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Lymphocyte homing is regulated by chemokine receptors that respond to stromal ligands ( 1, 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • qPCR was used to measure mRNA of nitric oxide synthases, antioxidant enzymes, chemokines, and their receptors. (hindawi.com)
  • We measured the enzymatic activity of SOD and GPx and protein levels of chemokines and their receptors by ELISA. (hindawi.com)
  • Recent studies have suggested that the chemokine, CXCL13, and its receptor, CXCR5 may play a role in B cell tumors (non-AIDS-associated). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Normally, CXCL13 is expressed in secondary lymphoid tissues and directs the homeostatic movement of CXCR5(+) B cells through these areas. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To evaluate the role that CXCL13 and CXCR5 might play in AIDS-NHL, serum of individuals (n = 46) who ultimately developed AIDS-NHL was obtained from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) at UCLA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • By immunohistochemistry, all primary AIDS-NHLs (24/24) expressed CXCR5, and 22/24 of the AIDS-NHL specimens also showed expression of CXCL13. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cell lines derived from primary AIDS-NHL tumors also showed strong expression of CXCR5, and occasionally, low levels of expression of CXCL13. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These results indicate that CXCL13 and CXCR5 may play a role in the biology of AIDS-NHL, possibly by affecting the movement of pre-malignant and/or malignant B cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Serum levels of the chemokine CXCL13, genetic variation in CXCL13 and its receptor CXCR5, and HIV-associated non-hodgkin B-cell lymphoma risk. (cdc.gov)
  • CXCL13 and CXCR5 are a chemokine and receptor pair whose interaction is critical for naïve B-cell trafficking and activation within germinal centers. (cdc.gov)
  • We sought to determine whether CXCL13 levels are elevated before HIV-associated non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma (AIDS-NHL), and whether polymorphisms in CXCL13 or CXCR5 are associated with AIDS-NHL risk and CXCL13 levels in a large cohort of HIV-infected men. (cdc.gov)
  • TagSNPs in CXCL13 (n = 16) and CXCR5 (n = 11) were genotyped in 183 AIDS-NHL cases and 533 controls. (cdc.gov)
  • CXCL13 levels were elevated preceding an AIDS-NHL diagnosis, genetic variation in CXCL13 may contribute to AIDS-NHL risk, and CXCL13 levels may be associated with genetic variation in CXCL13 and CXCR5. (cdc.gov)
  • Mitkin N.A., Hook C.D., Schwartz A.M., Biswas S., Kochetkov D.V., Muratova A.M., Afanasyeva M.A., Kravchenko J.E., Bhattacharyya A., Kuprash D.V. p53-dependent expression of CXCR5 chemokine receptor in MCF-7 breast cancer cells (англ. (wikipedia.org)
  • Legler D.F., Loetscher M., Roos R.S., Clark-Lewis I., Baggiolini M., Moser B. B cell-attracting chemokine 1, a human CXC chemokine expressed in lymphoid tissues, selectively attracts B lymphocytes via BLR1/CXCR5 (англ. (wikipedia.org)
  • Müller G., Lipp M. Signal transduction by the chemokine receptor CXCR5: structural requirements for G protein activation analyzed by chimeric CXCR1/CXCR5 molecules (англ. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chemokine receptor CXCR5 is expressed on B cells and CD4+ Tfh cells and is involved in lymphocyte homing and the development of normal lymphoid tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rather, using multidimensional cytometry, transcriptomics, and functional assays, we define a population of PD-1 hi CXCR5 - 'peripheral helper' T (T PH ) cells that express factors enabling B-cell help, including IL-21, CXCL13, ICOS, and MAF. (nih.gov)
  • As its name suggests, this chemokine is selectively chemotactic for B cells belonging to both the B-1 and B-2 subsets , and elicits its effects by interacting with chemokine receptor CXCR5 . (wikidoc.org)
  • [1] [3] CXCL13 and its receptor CXCR5 control the organization of B cells within follicles of lymphoid tissues . (wikidoc.org)
  • Neoplastic Cells of Primary Cutaneous CD4+ Small/Medium-sized Pleomorphic T-cell Lymphoma Lack the Expression of Follicular T-helper Cell Defining Chemokine Receptor CXCR5. (cancerindex.org)
  • The Differential Expression and Function of the Inflammatory Chemokine Receptor CXCR5 in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Prostate Cancer. (cancerindex.org)
  • CXCL13 and CXCR5 contribute to orofacial pain via ERK-mediated proinflammatory cytokines production. (genscript.com)
  • Title: Chemokine CXCL13 mediates orofacial neuropathic pain via CXCR5/ERK pathway in the trigeminal ganglion of mice. (genscript.com)
  • At the same time, they downregulate CXCR5 and CCR7 and have reduced responsiveness to the B and T zone chemokines CXCL13, CCL19, and CCL21. (rupress.org)
  • As they mature to an IgD + stage, B cells upregulate CXCR5 and acquire responsiveness to CXCL13 (BLC), a chemokine made in follicles of secondary lymphoid organs ( 22 ). (rupress.org)
  • Pointing toward the possibility that changes in chemokine responsiveness are important in directing plasma cell movements, an analysis of mouse and human plasmacytomas showed that, compared with naive B cells, they had downregulated CXCR5 ( 23 )( 24 ). (rupress.org)
  • Plasma cells are shown to downregulate CXCR5 and CCR7 and have reduced responsiveness to B and T zone chemokines CXCL13, CCL19, and CCL21. (rupress.org)
  • We have previously shown that PCa tissue and cell lines express high levels of the chemokine receptor CXCR5, than compared to their normal counterparts, and interaction of CXCR5 with its specific ligand (CXCL13) promoted PCa cell invasion, migration, and differential matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This study dissects some of the molecular mechanisms following CXCL13-CXCR5 interaction that mediate PCa cell migration and invasion. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • CXCL13 caused CXCR5-dependent activation of the PI3Kp85α in LNCaP cells, and p85α as well as -p101 in PC3 cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • CXCL13-CXCR5 interaction regulated LNCaP and PC3 cell migration and invasion through extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation that was primarily dependent on the PI3Kp110 isoform(s), Src, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK), but not DOCK2. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • CXCR5 is a seven transmembrane G-protein coupled receptor for the chemokine CXCL13. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • CXCL13 is a small-molecule cytokine and belongs to the chemokine family, which can regulate transport of various types of white blood cells by binding to its receptor, CXCR5. (hindawi.com)
  • CLL cells express increased surface CXCR4/CCR7 and CXCR5, which favors their bone marrow and SLO homing and their positioning close to CXCL13-secreting stromal cells, respectively ( 7, 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • To determine whether CD8 T cells could be engineered to enter B-cell follicles, we genetically modified unselected CD8 T cells to express CXC chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5), the chemokine receptor implicated in cellular entry into B-cell follicles. (asm.org)
  • Here we demonstrate that both the chemokine CXCL13 and the chemokine CCL21 attracted LTi cells at embryonic days 12.5-14.5 and that initial clustering depended exclusively on CXCL13. (lu.se)
  • The homeostatic chemokines CXCL13 and CCL21 are expressed independently of TNFalpha and lymphotoxin at sites of iBALT formation. (nih.gov)
  • For example, Naive T cells express the CCR7 receptor for the chemokine CCL21. (wikipedia.org)
  • This type of receptor interacts with the chemokine CCL21, produced by fibroblastic reticular cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mature B cells also express CCR7, a receptor for the T zone chemokines CCL19 (ELC) and CCL21 (SLC), and they are able to migrate to these chemokines ( 17 ). (rupress.org)
  • We show that in aged apoE(-/-) mice, medial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) beneath intimal plaques in abdominal aortae become activated through lymphotoxin beta receptor (LTbetaR) to express the lymphorganogenic chemokines CXCL13 and CCL21. (nih.gov)
  • Treatment of apoE(-/-) mice with LTbetaR-Ig to interrupt LTbetaR signaling in SMCs strongly reduced HEV abundance, CXCL13, and CCL21 expression, and disrupted the structure and maintenance of ATLOs. (nih.gov)
  • 14 In addition, medial SMC underlying intimal plaques became activated and expressed the lymphorganogenic chemokines CXCL13 (B-lymphocyte chemoattractant) and CCL21 (secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine). (ahajournals.org)
  • B-Cells in ocular adnexal lymphoproliferative lesions express B-cell attracting chemokine 1 (CXCL13). (edu.au)
  • However accumulating evidences indicate that certain chemokines play a critical role in providing the appropriate environment for activation and expansion of naive lymphocytes , one of these chemokines is B cell -attracting chemokine-13 [CXCL13]. (bvsalud.org)
  • chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 13 (CXCL13), also known as B lymphocyte chemoattractant (BLC) or B cell-attracting chemokine 1 (BCA-1), is a protein ligand that in humans is encoded by the CXCL13 gene . (wikidoc.org)
  • Mechanistically, Q-PCR analysis of lung homogenates revealed a strongly diminished production of CXCL13, a B cell-attracting chemokine, in Il1r −/− mice during the early innate phase of IAV infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • AIDS-NHL cell lines also demonstrated chemotaxis towards CXCL13. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For example, in addition to chemotaxis, chemokines modulate lymphocyte development, priming and effector function [ 2 ] and play a critical role in immune surveillance. (mdpi.com)
  • Representing the largest class of cytokines, chemokines play an essential role in both physiological and pathological activities by stimulating the migration of certain leukocytes through concentration gradients in a process known as chemotaxis. (peprotech.com)
  • Chemokines are 8- to 12-kDa-sized secreted proteins that mediate the directed migration (chemotaxis) of leukocytes. (jimmunol.org)
  • Chemokine receptor activation mediates leukocyte chemotaxis toward lymphoid organs or sites of inflammation along a chemokine gradient that is established by binding of chemokines to membrane-tethered and extracellular matrix-associated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) ( 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In addition to being known for mediating chemotaxis, chemokines are all approximately 8-10 kilodaltons in mass and have four cysteine residues in conserved locations that are key to forming their 3-dimensional shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the potential application of chemokines in chemotaxis of exosomes as drug vehicles is discussed. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chemokines are a class of cytokines that induce chemotaxis (migration) of target cells. (biolegend.com)
  • While some chemotaxis is induced by inflammation or damaged cells, other chemokines function in homeostasis. (biolegend.com)
  • Thus, we speculated that an abnormally increased serum CXCL13 level could induce excessive chemotaxis of B cells, T cells, and dendritic cells into renal tissues of LN and subsequent excessive ELT formation, which promotes a vicious cycle of the expansion and perpetuation of inflammatory cell aggregates resulting in persistence and chronicity of the renal inflammation in LN patients. (hindawi.com)
  • Measurements of chemokine levels revealed an increase in three of the four known major B cell chemoattractants CXCL13, CCL19 and CXCL12 in LNB CSF. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The CXCL13 CSF:serum ratio, as a measure of the chemotactic gradient, was substantially higher than that of CCL19 and CXCL12. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, the chemotactic activity of LNB CSF was reduced up to 56% after preincubation with a neutralizing CXCL13 antibody, while combined preincubation with antibodies against CXCL13, CCL19, and CXCL12 did not lead to further reduction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CXCR4 (also known as fusin) is the receptor for a chemokine known as CXCL12 (or SDF-1) and, as with CCR5, is utilized by HIV-1 to gain entry into target cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Progenitor, immature, and mature B cells express the chemokine receptor CXCR4, and its ligand, CXCL12 (previously called stromal cell-derived factor [SDF]-1), is highly expressed by bone marrow stromal cells ( 18 )( 19 ). (rupress.org)
  • Chemokines are a group of related chemoattractant peptides that are essential regulators of the immune system, both during homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. (mdpi.com)
  • The major role of chemokines is to act as a chemoattractant to guide the migration of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • B lymphocyte chemoattractant, independently cloned and named Angie, is a CXC chemokine strongly expressed in the follicles of the spleen, lymph nodes, and Peyer's patches. (abcam.com)
  • The chemokine, B Lymphocyte Chemoattractant (BLC)/CXCL13, was the most significantly upregulated cytokine across all patients. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The invention provides methods for identifying agents which modulate the interaction of a chemokine receptor of previously unknown function, Burkitt's Lymphoma Receptor 1 (BLR1), with its ligand, B Lymphocyte Chemoattractant (BLC). (google.com)
  • Evidence suggests the involvement of chemokines (1-5), but no chemokine has been shown to have the required expression pattern or chemoattractant activity (6). (google.com)
  • Here we describe a chemokine, B Lymphocyte Chemoattractant (BLC), that is highly expressed in the follicles of Peyer's patches, spleen and lymph nodes. (google.com)
  • Background: BCA-1/BLC/CXCL13, also known as B-lymphocyte chemoattractant (BLC), is a CXC chemokine that is constitutively expressed in secondary lymphoid organs. (cellsciences.com)
  • Recombinant human CXCL13 / BCA1 protein expressed in E. coli. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • 1997). "CCR6, a CC chemokine receptor that interacts with macrophage inflammatory protein 3alpha and is highly expressed in human dendritic cells" . (wikipedia.org)
  • This study evaluates circulating levels of CXCL13 protein in chronically HCV-infected Egyptian patients compared with healthy controls and its association with articular synovial hypertrophy . (bvsalud.org)
  • This is why we offer customized antibody production that can be tailored to detect a specific cytokine protein or chemokines protein that is necessary for the success of your research. (prosci-inc.com)
  • This gene encodes a multi-pass membrane protein that belongs to the CXC chemokine receptor family. (cancerindex.org)
  • These sequences represent the protein coding region of the Cxcl13 cDNA ORF which is encoded by the open reading frame (ORF) sequence. (genscript.com)
  • Mature human BCA-1 shares 64% amino acid sequence similarity with the mouse protein and 23 - 34% amino acid sequence identity with other known CXC chemokines. (cellsciences.com)
  • Recombinant murine BLC is a 9.8 kDa protein containing 88 amino acid residues including the four highly conserved cysteine residues present in CXC chemokines. (mpbio.com)
  • Some chemokines are considered pro- inflammatory and can be induced during an immune response to recruit cells of the immune system to a site of infection , while others are considered homeostatic and are involved in controlling the migration of cells during normal processes of tissue maintenance or development . (wikipedia.org)
  • These are known as homeostatic chemokines and are produced and secreted without any need to stimulate their source cell(s). (wikipedia.org)
  • Homeostatic chemokines are constitutively expressed in particular organs or tissues. (biolegend.com)
  • Due to their function of targeting cells to specific organs, homeostatic chemokines can also be involved in cancer and metastasis. (biolegend.com)
  • Increased levels of the homeostatic chemokine CXCL13 in human atherosclerosis - Potential role in pl. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Microarrays showed that simultaneous TNFR-1/LTβR activation resulted in elevated mRNA encoding leukocyte homeostatic chemokines CCL2, CCL5, CXCL1, and CX3CL1. (ahajournals.org)
  • Homeostatic chemokines are chemokines that are responsible for basal leukocyte migration. (biology-online.org)
  • In previous studies, we showed that (I) CXCL13 levels are markedly increased in the B cell-rich cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with acute Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB), and (II) CXCL13 is released by monocytes upon recognition of borrelial outer surface proteins by Toll-like receptor 2. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Rupprecht TA, Plate A, Adam M, Wick M, Kast Bauer S, Schmidt C, Klein M, Pfister HW, Koedel U. The chemokine CXCL13 is a key regulator of B cell recruitment to the cerebrospinal fluid in acute Lyme neuroborreliosis. (svarlifescience.com)
  • The chemokine CXCL13 is elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of LNB patients. (asm.org)
  • Diagnostic performance of cerebrospinal fluid chemokine CXCL13 and antibodies to the C6-peptide in Lyme neuroborreliosis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The new point-of-care test measures CXCL13 concentration in cerebrospinal fluid, since a high CXCL13 concentration is almost exclusively related to untreated neuroborreliosis. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Therefore, the CXCL13 chemokine concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid is a new, important biomarker in the diagnostics of neuroborreliosis. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The CXCL13 concentration increases more rapidly in early neuroborreliosis than the antibody concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid, and on the other hand, it declines rapidly after the initiation of antibiotic treatment. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • As a result, we suggest that the diagnostic practice for neuroborreliosis in Finland would be reorganised so that the CXCL13 concentration would be measured immediately after the lumbar puncture for cerebrospinal fluid. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The aim of this review is to discuss the diagnostic potential of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) CXCL13 in patients with CNS infections. (medworm.com)
  • The invasion of such matter generates an onslaught of inflammatory responses, recruiting several immune cells and proteins, including a special class of small cytokines called chemokines. (peprotech.com)
  • The authors argue that, in distinction to different proteins, CXCL13 passage throughout the BCSFB doesn't happen, no matter BCSFB perform, and is as an alternative solely influenced by intrathecal manufacturing. (cellxerum.com)
  • Chemokines (Greek -kinos , movement) are a family of small cytokines , or signaling proteins secreted by cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytokine proteins are classified as chemokines according to behavior and structural characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokines are a class of small molecular proteins with similar structures, functions and chemotactic properties, and their molecular weights are ~10 kDa, and chemokines represent the largest member of the cytokine family ( 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chemokines are small cytokines, or signaling proteins, secreted by cells. (wikipathways.org)
  • Reactome pathway analyses identified cytokine signaling, chemokine signaling, and the complement cascade as the most enriched pathways compared to the background proteins assayed. (bloodjournal.org)
  • TNFR-1/LTβR cross-talk resulted in augmented secretion of lymphorganogenic chemokine proteins. (ahajournals.org)
  • The present invention provides a means of inhibiting the growth and metastasis of cancer cells by administering anti-chemokine antibodies. (google.com)
  • It is possible to identify the particular chemokines which are over-expressed in the tumor using methods of the invention and administer antibodies against that over-expressed chemokine. (google.com)
  • This invention relates to antibodies or the use of antibodies directed against certain chemokines. (google.com)
  • Using antibodies to study cytokines and chemokines has given us a far greater understanding into signaling pathways. (prosci-inc.com)
  • Our cytokine and chemokine antibodies are quality controlled and tested in the application such as western blotting, ELISA, IF, IHC, and ICC. (prosci-inc.com)
  • Results The chemokines, CCL18, CCL19 and CXCL13, were upregulated in dcSSc skin, and CCL18 in lcSSc skin. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions CCL18, CCL19 and CXCL13-chemoattractants for macrophage and T cell recruitment-were three of six chemokines with the highest expression in dcSSc skin. (bmj.com)
  • Importantly, SMC acquired features of lymphoid tissue organizers, which control tertiary lymphoid organogenesis in autoimmune diseases through hyperinduction of CCL7, CCL9, CXCL13, CCL19, CXCL16, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. (ahajournals.org)
  • Once at the site of injury, immune cells can react by releasing additional cytokines and chemokines, bringing more cells into the fold. (biolegend.com)
  • Cytokines and chemokines are the primary form of signaling between a wide variety of cells. (prosci-inc.com)
  • An important step forward in revealing the role of central sensitization in widespread chronic pain is to demonstrate direct involvement of cytokines and chemokines (small cytokines) in the induction and maintenance of central sensitization. (medscape.com)
  • CXC chemokine ligand 13 and interleukin 10 have emerged as CSF biomarkers for the diagnosis of CNS lymphoma. (ajnr.org)
  • Our hypothesis is that the combined use of ADC, CXC chemokine ligand 13, and interleukin 10 will result in increased diagnostic performance compared with the use of ADC values alone. (ajnr.org)
  • Group means were compared via t tests for average ADC, CXC chemokine ligand 13, and interleukin 10. (ajnr.org)
  • The combined use of ADC, CSF CXC chemokine ligand 13, and interleukin 10 results in increased diagnostic performance for the diagnosis of CNS lymphoma. (ajnr.org)
  • 3 kDa abrogated the chemotactic activity, further not yet identified chemokines seem to be involved in B cell recruitment to LNB CSF. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While a function of chemokines is to regulate lymphocyte trafficking, the view that chemokines act simply as "chemotactic cytokines" has evolved to include the many critical roles they play in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses. (mdpi.com)
  • Therefore, chemokine receptor expression and chemotactic responses of murine TCRαβ NKT cells were examined to define their homing potential. (jimmunol.org)
  • We have demonstrated that chemokine ligands CCL2 and CCL3 are biomarkers that correlate with pelvic pain symptoms. (jove.com)
  • The principal statistical tests used were one-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni test (chemokine measurements) as well as paired Student's t-test (migration experiments). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Combined, our study suggests a key role of CXCL13 in B cell migration to sites of infection as shown here for the CSF of LNB patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • BCA-1/CXCL13, which mediates homing to B cell zones, elicited migration of Vα14 i -positive and -negative NKT cells in the spleen. (jimmunol.org)
  • CXCL13 induces the migration of naive B cells and a subset of memory T cells to lymphoid tissue. (rndsystems.com)
  • In this study, we have used GAG binding-deficient chemokine mutants and cell-based functional (migration) assays to demonstrate that chemokine cooperativity is caused by competitive binding of chemokines to GAGs. (jimmunol.org)
  • Förster R., Mattis A.E., Kremmer E., Wolf E., Brem G., Lipp M. A putative chemokine receptor, BLR1, directs B cell migration to defined lymphoid organs and specific anatomic compartments of the spleen (англ. (wikipedia.org)
  • A major rol of chemokines is to act as chemoattractants in guiding migration of cells. (wikipathways.org)
  • Title: Quantitative analysis of B-lymphocyte migration directed by CXCL13. (genscript.com)
  • DOCK2-mediated) and -dependent events that dictate PCa cell responsiveness to CXCL13, these data provide evidence of the existence of cell type- and stimulus-specific signaling events that support migration and invasion of PCa cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • BLC strongly attracts B lymphocytes while promoting migration of only small numbers of T cells and macrophages and therefore is the first chemokine identified with selectivity for B cells. (google.com)
  • The molecular signaling systems (chemokines) that distribute lymphocytes to appropriate localities within the lymph node (T and B cell segregation) are also created by lymph node stromal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • conversely several genes expressed in stromal cells ( CCL5, CXCL13, IGF-1, FGF-2 , and IGFBP3 ) were more highly expressed in non-neoplastic than in neoplastic tissues. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Because of the ability to attract B cells, it is also known as a B-lymphocyte chemokine (BLC). (hindawi.com)
  • Research performed in NZB/W-F1 mice and LN patients [ 4 ] suggested that CXCL13 played an important role in the initiation and development of LN as a B-lymphocyte chemokine. (hindawi.com)
  • Whether CXCL13 is related to the renal pathological damage observed in LN and the formation of abnormal B-lymphocyte infiltration-related ELT have not been reported in detail [ 8 , 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Conclusion- SMC may participate in the formation of tertiary lymphoid tissue in atherosclerosis by upregulation of lymphorganogenic chemokines involved in T-lymphocyte, B-lymphocyte, and macrophage/dendritic cell attraction. (ahajournals.org)
  • This pathway was inferred from Mus musculus pathway "Chemokine signaling pathway", WP2292 revision 89521, with a 91.0% conversion rate. (wikipathways.org)
  • We selected most pathways CCL14 participated on our site, such as Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, Chemokine signaling pathway, which may be useful for your reference. (creativebiomart.net)
  • CXCL13/BLC/BCA-1 is a constitutively expressed chemokine that plays an important role in B and T cell homing. (rndsystems.com)
  • Research shows that CXCL13 in CSF is a promising biomarker in MS. Response The results are reported quantitatively as ng/L. Reference value is 7.8 ng/L. Interpretation CXCL13 is a chemokine that attracts B-lymphocytes. (svarlifescience.com)
  • Some chemokines control cells of the immune system during processes of immune surveillance, such as directing lymphocytes to the lymph nodes so they can screen for invasion of pathogens by interacting with antigen-presenting cells residing in these tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • In T lymphocytes, CXCL13 expression is thought to reflect a germinal center origin of the T cell, particularly a subset of T cells called follicular B helper T cells (or T FH cells). (wikidoc.org)
  • Methods We investigated chemokine mRNA expression in the skin through quantitative PCR analysis comparing patients with diffuse cutaneous (dcSSc) or limited cutaneous (lcSSc) disease with healthy controls. (bmj.com)
  • Additionally, a chemokine and chemokine receptor array run on mRNA from spinal cords revealed that genes associated with regulatory T cells and macrophage recruitment were strongly upregulated in the antibiotic pretreated mice. (springer.com)
  • Classified into subfamilies by the structural conservation of both cysteine residues and disulfide bonds, chemokine nomenclature reflects several cysteine-grouping motifs and arrangements. (peprotech.com)
  • C Chemokines - Contain only two conserved cysteine residues linked by a single disulfide bond. (peprotech.com)
  • CC Chemokines - Contain four conserved cysteine residues of which the first two, closest to the N-terminal, are adjacent to one another. (peprotech.com)
  • CXC Chemokines - Contain four conserved cysteine residues of which the first two, closest to the N-terminal, are separated by a single amino acid. (peprotech.com)
  • To date, >50 chemokines have been found, which can be divided into four families: CXC, CX3C, CC and XC, according to the different positions of the conserved N‑terminal cysteine residues. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • 50 chemokines have been identified, which can be divided into four families: CXC, CX3C, CC and XC, based on the different positions of the conserved N-terminal cysteine residues ( 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • [email protected]#To investigate the correlation between serum chemokine CXCL13 (CXCL-13), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), interleukin-6 ( IL-6 ) levels and liver function damage and hepatitis B virus replication in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). (bvsalud.org)
  • CXCL8 (otherwise known as interleukin-8) and CXCL6 can both bind CXCR1 in humans, while all other ELR-positive chemokines, such as CXCL1 to CXCL7 bind only CXCR2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines, such as interleukin 8 (IL-8), are secreted by gastric epithelial cells in response to H pylori infection, leading to immune cell recruitment. (bmj.com)
  • Measurement of chemokines was done by ELISA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Forskning visar att CXCL13 i likvor är en lovande biomarkör vid MS. Metod ELISA Svar Resultatet anges kvantitativt som ng/L. Referensvärde är 7,8 ng/L. Tolkning CXCL13 är ett kemokin som attraherar B-lymfocyter. (svarlifescience.com)
  • Methods: Serum samples from 97 SLE patients, 49 non-SLE patients (23 patients with other autoimmune diseases and 26 patients with rheumatoid arthritis ) and 50 healthy controls were analysed for the concentration of CXCL13 using ELISA. (authorea.com)
  • Here, we compared the performances of the Euroimmun CXCL13 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CXCL13 ELISA) and the ReaScan CXCL13 lateral flow immunoassay (CXCL13 LFA), a rapid point-of-care test, to support the. (asm.org)
  • Serum CXCL13 levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). (hindawi.com)
  • We tested correlations between the most regulated chemokines and vascular inflammation and macrophage recruitment. (bmj.com)
  • Retinoic acid (RA) induced early CXCL13 expression in stromal organizer cells independently of lymphotoxin signaling. (lu.se)
  • Therefore, our data show that the initiation of lymph node development is controlled by RA-mediated expression of CXCL13 and suggest that RA may be provided by adjacent neurons. (lu.se)
  • Hence, expression of CXCL13 in T-cell lymphomas, such as Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma, is thought to reflect a germinal center origin of the neoplastic T-cells. (wikidoc.org)
  • High glucose could inhibit osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells by lncRNA AK028326 mediated down-regulation of CXCL13 expression. (genscript.com)
  • Title: Chemokine CXCL13 expression was up-regulated in Clostridium difficile infection. (genscript.com)
  • LN patients with positive CD20 expression (CD20+ LN) had a longer disease course and poorer response to combination therapy and higher serum CXCL13 levels than CD20− LN patients. (hindawi.com)
  • Objective To characterise global chemokine expression in systemic sclerosis (SSc) skin in order to better understand the relationship between chemokine expression and vascular inflammation in this disease. (bmj.com)
  • We also identified CD40L as the responsible T-cell factor that mediated recruitment, and showed that recruitment critically depended on the C-C-motif-chemokine-receptor-2 axis. (haematologica.org)
  • Therefore, targeted inhibition of CD40L or C-C-motif-chemokine-receptor-2 may be relevant therapeutic options. (haematologica.org)
  • This means immune cells may leave the lymph node along a chemokine gradient. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chemokine CXCL13 is known to dictate homing and motility of B cells in lymphoid tissue and has been implicated in the formation of ectopic lymphoid tissue in chronic inflammation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we assessed the role of CXCL13 - in comparison to other chemokines - in the recruitment of B cells to the CSF of patients with acute LNB. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Csv-CXCL13 may also be elevated in other neuroinflammatory diseases involving B-cells, including Neuromyelitis Optica and various forms of encephalitis. (svarlifescience.com)
  • 1997). "Cloning and characterization of a specific receptor for the novel CC chemokine MIP-3alpha from lung dendritic cells" . (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing recruitment of antigen presenting cells (APCs) and effector cells to appropriate anatomical sites. (mdpi.com)
  • On the other hand, the chemokine system also plays a crucial role in the induction of antitumor immune responses and optimal effector function regulation of immune cells [ 1 , 4 , 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • In the fetus, CXCL13 attracts CD4+ CD3- IL-7 R alpha+ hematopoietic cells to sites of future Peyer's patch development. (rndsystems.com)
  • Chemokines released by infected or damaged cells form a concentration gradient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Attracted cells move through the gradient towards the higher concentration of chemokine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells that are attracted by chemokines follow a signal of increasing chemokine concentration towards the source of the chemokine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other chemokines are inflammatory and are released from a wide variety of cells in response to bacterial infection, viruses and agents that cause physical damage such as silica or the urate crystals that occur in gout . (wikipedia.org)
  • Inflammatory chemokines function mainly as chemoattractants for leukocytes , recruiting monocytes , neutrophils and other effector cells from the blood to sites of infection or tissue damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain inflammatory chemokines activate cells to initiate an immune response or promote wound healing . (wikipedia.org)
  • Attracted cells move toward areas of higher concentrations of the chemokine. (biolegend.com)
  • Many inflammatory chemokines attract a wide variety of cells in both the innate and adaptive arms of immunity. (biolegend.com)
  • Upon sensing the inflammatory chemokine, cells will extravasate from the blood vessel and follow the gradient to its source. (biolegend.com)
  • Title: High glucose prevents osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells via lncRNA AK028326/CXCL13 pathway. (genscript.com)
  • Our findings indicate that as B cells differentiate into plasma cells they undergo a coordinated change in chemokine responsiveness that regulates their movements in secondary lymphoid organs and promotes lodgment within the bone marrow. (rupress.org)
  • Moreover, the serum CXCL13 level was positively correlated with the number of B cells/HP in the renal tissue of LN patients. (hindawi.com)
  • Chemokine elevations were accompanied by increases in mast cells and B cells at 5 days, monocytes and neutrophils at day 10, CD4+ T cells at day 20, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells at day 30. (jove.com)
  • Magnetic bead-based assays for detecting 46 mouse cytokine, chemokine, and growth factor biomarkers. (bio-rad.com)
  • There is mounting evidence that the host inflammatory response, driven by cytokines, chemokines and associated mediators, may play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of encephalitis [ 11 - 14 ], and that some may represent biomarkers of subtypes of disease within a given aetiology [ 15 , 16 ]. (plos.org)
  • Chemokines represent potential candidates as biomarkers, since they are an important pillar of the host immune response. (medworm.com)
  • CXCL13) is an agonist for the human CXCR3 receptor. (uniprot.org)
  • Magnetic bead-based assays for the detection and measurement of 46 mouse cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. (bio-rad.com)
  • Recent studies have highlighted the importance of members of the chemokine family in guiding cell movements within primary and secondary lymphoid organs ( 17 ). (rupress.org)
  • This mechanistic explanation of chemokine cooperativity provides insight into chemokine gradient formation in the context of inflammation, in which multiple chemokines are secreted simultaneously. (jimmunol.org)
  • For instance, CCL20 is also associated with inflammation since it can act as pro-inflammatory chemokine as well. (biology-online.org)
  • Intrathecal Th17- and B cell-associated cytokine and chemokine responses in relation to clinical outcome in Lyme neuroborreliosis: a large retrospective study. (liu.se)
  • The positional information required for such migratory behavior is governed by the binding of chemokines to membrane-tethered glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which establishes a chemokine concentration gradient. (jimmunol.org)
  • Chemokines work through concentration gradients. (biolegend.com)
  • The concentration of the chemokine CCL20 is dramatically increased in the gastric mucosa of patients infected by H pylori and the vast majority of mucosal Tregs express its receptor CCR6. (bmj.com)
  • Chemokine-triggered immune responses often require co-stimulation by primary proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1α, IFN-γ and TNF-α. (peprotech.com)
  • Chemokines are involved in the inflammatory response, tumor immune response, proliferation, invasion and metastasis via modulation of various signaling pathways. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • It has been found that chemokine networks may serve pivotal roles in inducing organ-specific metastasis ( 8 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Most prostate cancer (PCa)-related deaths are due to metastasis, which is mediated in part by chemokine receptor and corresponding ligand interaction. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • ReaScan CXCL13 is a CE marked easy-to-use, fast and effective test supporting the early diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB). (reagena.com)
  • On one hand, the chemokine network is used by tumors to evade immune surveillance, resist apoptosis, and metastasize. (mdpi.com)
  • Critical to maintaining hemostasis through hematopoietic differentiation and immune surveillance, chemokines also help orchestrate both innate and adaptive immune responses. (peprotech.com)
  • This study aimed to determine if the cytokine/chemokine-mediated host response can distinguish infectious from immune-mediated cases, and whether this may give a clue to aetiology in those of unknown cause. (plos.org)
  • CXCL13 serum levels were significantly high in the patient group especially in the MC positive group compared to controls. (bvsalud.org)
  • This study suggested that increased serum levels of CXCL13 might be involved in renal ELT formation and renal impairment process in LN. (hindawi.com)
  • In a February 2013 study, researchers measured serum levels of the chemokine CXCL13 in 179 men diagnosed with HIV-associated non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma (AIDS-NHL) and 179 male controls to determine whether levels are elevated before an AIDS-NHL diagnosis. (medscape.com)
  • These experiments demonstrate that appropriate innate IL-1α-IL-1R signaling is necessary for IAV clearance and at the same time instructs the formation of organized tertiary lymphoid tissues through induction of CXCL13 early after infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • This suggests the macrophages recruited to the spinal cord by chemokines are subsequently polarized toward an anti-inflammatory phenotype. (springer.com)