A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.
An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.
Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.
A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.
CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.
A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.
Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.
The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.
CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.
Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Proteins that specifically inhibit the growth of new blood vessels (ANGIOGENESIS, PHYSIOLOGIC).
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
The passage of cells across the layer of ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, i.e., the ENDOTHELIUM; or across the layer of EPITHELIAL CELLS, i.e. the EPITHELIUM.

TCL1 oncogene expression in AIDS-related lymphomas and lymphoid tissues. (1/214)

AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (AIDS NHL) comprises a diverse and heterogeneous group of high-grade B cell tumors. Certain classes of AIDS NHL are associated with alterations in oncogenes or tumor-suppressor genes or infections by oncogenic herpesviruses. However, the clinically significant class of AIDS NHL designated immunoblastic lymphoma plasmacytoid (AIDS IBLP) lacks any consistent genetic alterations. We identified the TCL1 oncogene from a set of AIDS IBLP-associated cDNA fragments generated by subtractive hybridization with non-AIDS IBLP. Aberrant TCL1 expression has been implicated in T cell leukemia/lymphoma development, and its expression also has been seen in many established B cell tumor lines. However, TCL1 expression has not been reported in AIDS NHL. We find that TCL1 is expressed in the majority of AIDS IBLP tumors examined. TCL1 protein expression is restricted to tumor cells in AIDS IBLP tissue samples analyzed with immunohistochemical staining. Hyperplastic lymph node and tonsil also exhibit strong TCL1 protein expression in mantle zone B cells and in rare interfollicular zone cells, whereas follicle-center B cells (centroblasts and centrocytes) show weaker expression. These results establish TCL1 as the most prevalent of all of the surveyed oncogenes associated with AIDS IBLP. They also indicate that abundant TCL1 expression in quiescent mantle zone B cells is down-regulated in activated germinal center follicular B cells in parallel to the known expression pattern of BCL-2. High-level expression in nonproliferating B cells suggests that TCL1 may function in protecting naive preactivated B cells from apoptosis.  (+info)

In vivo-activated CD4 T cells upregulate CXC chemokine receptor 5 and reprogram their response to lymphoid chemokines. (2/214)

Migration of antigen-activated CD4 T cells to B cell areas of lymphoid tissues is important for mounting T cell-dependent antibody responses. Here we show that CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR)5, the receptor for B lymphocyte chemoattractant (BLC), is upregulated on antigen-specific CD4 T cells in vivo when animals are immunized under conditions that promote T cell migration to follicles. In situ hybridization of secondary follicles for BLC showed high expression in mantle zones and low expression in germinal centers. When tested directly ex vivo, CXCR5(hi) T cells exhibited a vigorous chemotactic response to BLC. At the same time, the CXCR5(hi) cells showed reduced responsiveness to the T zone chemokines, Epstein-Barr virus-induced molecule 1 (EBI-1) ligand chemokine (ELC) and secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine (SLC). After adoptive transfer, CXCR5(hi) CD4 T cells did not migrate to follicles, indicating that additional changes may occur after immunization that help direct T cells to follicles. To further explore whether T cells could acquire an intrinsic ability to migrate to follicles, CD4(-)CD8(-) double negative (DN) T cells from MRL-lpr mice were studied. These T cells normally accumulate within follicles of MRL-lpr mice. Upon transfer to wild-type recipients, DN T cells migrated to follicle proximal regions in all secondary lymphoid tissues. Taken together, our findings indicate that reprogramming of responsiveness to constitutively expressed lymphoid tissue chemokines plays an important role in T cell migration to the B cell compartment of lymphoid tissues.  (+info)

BCA-1 is highly expressed in Helicobacter pylori-induced mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue and gastric lymphoma. (3/214)

Infection with Helicobacter pylori (Hp) induces the formation of lymphoid tissue in the stomach and the occasional development of primary gastric B-cell lymphomas. We have studied the expression of 2 chemokines that attract B lymphocytes, BCA-1 and SLC, in gastric tissue samples obtained from patients with chronic gastritis induced by Hp infection or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, as well as from patients with Hp-associated low-grade and high-grade gastric lymphomas. High-level expression of BCA-1 and its receptor, CXCR5, was observed in all mucosal lymphoid aggregates and in the mantle zone of all secondary lymphoid follicles in Hp-induced gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Follicular dendritic cells and B lymphocytes are possible sources of BCA-1, which is not expressed by T lymphocytes, macrophages, or CD1a(+) dendritic cells. Strong expression of BCA-1 and CXCR5 was also detected in the transformed B cells of gastric MALT lymphomas. By contrast, SLC was confined almost exclusively to endothelial cells in and outside the lymphoid tissue. Only scant, occasional SLC expression was observed in the marginal zone of MALT follicles. Our findings indicate that BCA-1, which functions as a homing chemokine in normal lymphoid tissue, is induced in chronic Hp gastritis and is involved in the formation of lymphoid follicles and gastric lymphomas of the MALT type.  (+info)

Distinct activities of p52/NF-kappa B required for proper secondary lymphoid organ microarchitecture: functions enhanced by Bcl-3. (4/214)

Mice rendered deficient in p52, a subunit of NF-kappa B, or in Bcl-3, an I kappa B-related regulator that associates with p52 homodimers, share defects in the microarchitecture of secondary lymphoid organs. The mutant mice are impaired in formation of B cell follicles and are unable to form proper follicular dendritic cell (FDC) networks upon antigenic challenge. The defects in formation of B cell follicles may be attributed, at least in part, to impaired production of the B lymphocyte chemoattractant (BLC) chemokine, possibly a result of defective FDCs. The p52- and Bcl-3-deficient mice exhibit additional defects within the splenic marginal zone, including reduced numbers of metallophilic macrophages, reduced deposition of the laminin-beta 2 chain and impaired expression of a mucosal addressin marker on sinus-lining cells. Whereas p52-deficient mice are severely defective in all of these aspects, Bcl-3-deficient mice are only partially defective. We determined that FDCs or other non-hemopoietic cells that underlie FDCs are intrinsically impaired in p52-deficient mice. Adoptive transfers of wild-type bone marrow into p52-deficient mice failed to restore FDC networks or follicles. The transfers did restore metallophilic macrophages to the marginal zone, however. Together, the results suggest that p52 carries out functions essential for a proper splenic microarchitecture in both hemopoietic and non-hemopoietic cells and that Bcl-3 is important in enhancing these essential activities of p52.  (+info)

Lymphoid tissue homing chemokines are expressed in chronic inflammation. (5/214)

Secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine (SLC) and B lymphocyte chemoattractant (BLC) are homing chemokines that have been implicated in the trafficking of lymphocytes and dendritic cells in lymphoid organs. Lymphotoxin-alpha (LTalpha), a cytokine crucial for development of lymphoid organs, is important for expression of SLC and BLC in secondary lymphoid organs during development. Here we report that transgenic expression of LTalpha induces inflammation and ectopic expression of SLC and BLC in the adult animal. LTbeta was not necessary for induction of BLC and SLC in inflamed tissues, whereas, in contrast, tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 was found to be important for the LTalpha-mediated induction of these chemokines. The ectopic expression of LTalpha is associated with a chronic inflammation that closely resembles organized lymphoid tissue and this lymphoid neogenesis can also be seen in several chronic inflammatory diseases, including in the pancreas of the prediabetic nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse. Expression of SLC was also observed in the pancreas of prediabetic NOD mice. This study implicates BLC and SLC in chronic inflammation and presents further evidence that LTalpha orchestrates lymphoid organogenesis both during development and in inflammatory processes.  (+info)

CC chemokine receptor (CCR)2 is required for langerhans cell migration and localization of T helper cell type 1 (Th1)-inducing dendritic cells. Absence of CCR2 shifts the Leishmania major-resistant phenotype to a susceptible state dominated by Th2 cytokines, b cell outgrowth, and sustained neutrophilic inflammation. (6/214)

There is growing evidence that chemokines and their receptors regulate the movement and interaction of antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells. We tested the hypothesis that the CC chemokine receptor (CCR)2 and CCR5 and the chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha, a ligand for CCR5, influence DC migration and localization. We found that deficiency of CCR2 but not CCR5 or MIP-1alpha led to distinct defects in DC biology. Langerhans cell (skin DC) density in CCR2-null mice was normal, and their ability to migrate into the dermis was intact; however, their migration to the draining lymph nodes was markedly impaired. CCR2-null mice had lower numbers of DCs in the spleen, and this was primarily due to a reduction in the CD8alpha(1) T helper cell type 1 (Th1)-inducing subset of DCs. Additionally, there was a block in the Leishmania major infection-induced relocalization of splenic DCs from the marginal zone to the T cell areas. We propose that these DC defects, in conjunction with increased expression of B lymphocyte chemoattractant, a B cell-specific chemokine, may collectively contribute to the striking B cell outgrowth and Th2 cytokine-biased nonhealing phenotype that we observed in CCR2-deficient mice infected with L. major. This disease phenotype in mice with an L. major-resistant genetic background but lacking CCR2 is strikingly reminiscent of that observed typically in mice with an L. major-susceptible genetic background. Thus, CCR2 is an important determinant of not only DC migration and localization but also the development of protective cell-mediated immune responses to L. major.  (+info)

CXC chemokine receptor 5 expression defines follicular homing T cells with B cell helper function. (7/214)

Leukocyte traffic through secondary lymphoid tissues is finely tuned by chemokines. We have studied the functional properties of a human T cell subset marked by the expression of CXC chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5). Memory but not naive T cells from tonsils are CXCR5(+) and migrate in response to the B cell-attracting chemokine 1 (BCA-1), which is selectively expressed by reticular cells and blood vessels within B cell follicles. Tonsillar CXCR5(+) T cells do not respond to other chemokines present in secondary lymphoid tissues, including secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine (SLC), EBV-induced molecule 1 ligand chemokine (ELC), and stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1). The involvement of tonsillar CXCR5(+) T cells in humoral immune responses is suggested by their localization in the mantle and light zone germinal centers of B cell follicles and by the concomitant expression of activation and costimulatory markers, including CD69, HLA-DR, and inducible costimulator (ICOS). Peripheral blood CXCR5(+) T cells also belong to the CD4(+) memory T cell subset but, in contrast to tonsillar cells, are in a resting state and migrate weakly to chemokines. CXCR5(+) T cells are very inefficient in the production of cytokines but potently induce antibody production during coculture with B cells. These properties portray CXCR5(+) T cells as a distinct memory T cell subset with B cell helper function, designated here as follicular B helper T cells (T(FH)).  (+info)

Lymphoid chemokine B cell-attracting chemokine-1 (CXCL13) is expressed in germinal center of ectopic lymphoid follicles within the synovium of chronic arthritis patients. (8/214)

A unique feature in inflammatory tissue of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the formation of ectopic lymphoid aggregates with germinal center (GC)-like structures that can be considered to contribute to the pathogenesis of RA, because local production of the autoantibody, rheumatoid factor, is thought to be a causative factor in tissue damage. However, the factors governing the formation of GC in RA are presently unknown. To begin to address this, the expression of B cell attracting chemokine (BCA-1) (CXCL13), a potent chemoattractant of B cells, was examined in the synovium of patients with RA or with osteoarthritis (OA). Expression of BCA-1 mRNA was detected in all RA samples, but in only one of five OA samples. Lymphoid follicles were observed in four of seven RA samples and in two of eight OA samples, and in most of them BCA-1 protein was detected in GC. BCA-1 was not detected in tissues lacking lymphoid follicles. Notably, BCA-1 was detected predominantly in follicular dendritic cells in GC. CD20-positive B cells were aggregated in regions of BCA-1 expression, but not T cells or macrophages. These data suggest that BCA-1 produced by follicular dendritic cells may attract B cells and contribute to the formation of GC-like structures in chronic arthritis.  (+info)

Human ANGIE ELISA Kit;Human b cell-attracting chemokine 1 ELISA Kit;Human BCA-1 ELISA Kit;Human b lymphocyte chemoattractant ELISA Kit;Human CXC chemokine BLC ELISA Kit;Human small-inducible cytokine B13 ELISA Kit;Human BCA1 ELISA Kit;Human BLC ELISA Kit;Human SCYB13 ELISA Kit;Human ANGIE2 ELISA Kit;Human BLR1L ELISA Kit;Human C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 13 ELISA Kit;Human C-X-C motif chemokine 13 ELISA Kit;Human B-cell chemoattractant ELISA Kit;Human B-cell-attracting chemokine 1 ELISA Kit;Human B-cell-homing chemokine (ligand for Burkitts lymphoma receptor-1) ELISA Kit;Human B-lymphocyte chemoattractant ELISA Kit;Human chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 13 (B-cell chemoattractant) ELISA Kit;Human small inducible cytokine B subfamily (Cys-X-Cys motif), member 13 (B-cell chemoattractant) ELISA Kit ...
Tfh Cells in Chronic Inflammation Lymphocytes migrating into chronically inflamed tissue form ectopic lymphoid structures with functional GCs, also known as tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS). T cells that interact with B cells in these sites, named Tfh-like cells, produce factors associated with B cell help, including IL-21 and the B cell chemoattractant CXCL13, yet vary dramatically in their resemblance to Tfh cells found in secondary lymphoid organs, e.g., surface phenotype, migratory capacity, and transcriptional regulation (10). The review article by Rao discusses observations from multiple diseases and models in which tissue-infiltrating T cells play a significant role in TLS formation. Hutloff also summarize findings on this topic discovered by studies on experimental animal models as well as some autoimmune and malignant diseases. Both reviews provide an interesting insight into a deeper understanding of these mechanisms in chronically swollen tissues and recommend approaches to focus on ...
Intended Use: This kit is used to assay the sample of Serum, blood plasma,Saliva, Urine, and other related tissue Liquid. Test principle The kit uses a double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to assay the level of Chicken...
Cytokine or chemokine encoded by a viral vector is currently regarded as a promising way of cancer gene immunotherapy. Researchers have paid attention to chemotactic activity of chemokines for immune cells and expected that they may be able to play an important role in cancer treatment, because the basis and premise of immunotherapy is the accumulation of immune cells in tumor tissues.. The CC chemokine ILC, also called cutaneous T cell-attracting chemokine or CCL27, was reported to recruit T cells to the site of its injection (27) . The CX3C family chemokine FKN (also called CX3CL1) could also attract a variety of cytotoxic lymphocytes (13 , 14 , 28) and enhance the cytotoxicity of NK cells (29) . In the present study, we hypothesized that the transfer of the mILC or mFKN gene to tumor cells, by using recombinant adenovirus in vitro, could render the tumor to express the chemokine in vivo. The chemokine would consequently induce the accumulation of immune cells in the tumor tissue and initiate ...
Results Filgotinib treatment induced a dose-dependent and significant decrease in a variety of biomarkers implicated in RA pathogenesis including inflammation (IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα and SAA), matrix degradation and cartilage destruction (MMP1 and MMP3), immune cell trafficking (CXCL10, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) and angiogenesis (VEGF). Cytokines involved in TH1 (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-12) and TH17 (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-21, IL-23) cell subset differentiation and activity were significantly decreased. Additionally, decrease in the B-cell chemoattractant CXCL13 and the myeloid growth factor GM-CSF supports the anti-inflammatory effects of filgotinib treatment. ...
Several lines of evidence indicate a requirement for LTα1β2 in splenic T zone development that is fixed during the first few weeks after birth. First, in contrast to the severely defective splenic T zones of mice congenitally deficient in LTα1β2, in studies where LTα1β2 function was blocked in adult animals, effects on T zone organization were minimal (45) and T zone chemokine expression was only mildly diminished (14). Second, when adult mice are depleted of LTα-expressing cells by irradiation and reconstitution with LTα-deficient bone marrow, T zones remain visible (data not shown and see reference 46) and there is little reduction in CCL21 expression (Fig. 4). Therefore, once the splenic CCL21-expressing T zone stromal network has developed, it has only a weak requirement for continued LTβR-signaling to be maintained. By contrast, treatment of newborn mice with LTα1β2 antagonist had a marked inhibitory effect on subsequent CCL21 and gp38 expression in the adult (Figs. 5 and 6). ...
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Agricultural workers have high rates of airway and skeletal health disease. Studies recently demonstrated that inhaled agricultural organic dust extract (ODE)-induced airway injury is associated with bone deterioration in an animal model. However, the effect of age in governing these responses to organic dusts is unclear, but might be important in future approaches. Young (7-9 wk) and older (12-14,o) male C57BL/6 mice received intranasal (i.n.) inhalation exposure to ODE from swine confinement facilities once or daily for 3 wk. Acute ODE-induced neutrophil influx and cytokine and chemokine (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-6, keratinocyte chemoattractant [CXCL1], macrophage inflammatory protein-2 [CXCL2]) airway production were reduced in older compared to young mice. Repetitive ODE treatment, however, increased lymphocyte recruitment and alveolar compartment histopathologic inflammatory changes in older mice. Whole lung cell infiltrate analysis revealed that young, but not ...
BCA-1/BLC, a CXC chemokine, is expressed in the liver, spleen, lymph nodes, appendix and stomach. It exerts its activities through its only
BCA-1 Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain topological domain containing 110 amino acids (23-109 a.a).
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Christine Mayr: Substrate Specificity of the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase BIRC3 Is Determined by Its 3UTR and Regulates CXCR4 Recycling During B Cell Migration ...
Re-imagining Learning with collaborative technology Julia Leong [email_address] Presentation will be available at slideshare.net/JuLeong source:gettyimages.co…
Tumour infiltrating lymphocytes influence colorectal cancer (CRC) progression. However, lymphocyte infiltration comes in different flavours and evidence has been provided that the spatial distribution of immune cells within the tumour tissue is an important immunological feature. The aim of this thesis was to investigate how the dual localization of tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) can affect their function in the tumour microenvironment. The project started with the analysis of the CD3 compartment, as CD3+ T cell infiltration (CD3-TILs) is a recognized positive prognostic factor for CRC patients. Results here presented show that CD3+ tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes are present both interspersed in the tumour tissue or scattered throughout the stroma (CD3-TILs) and also aggregated in lymphoid structures showing features of tertiary lymphoid tissue (CD3-TLT). Tumour-associated TLT had a peculiar compartmentalization, with CD3+ T cells and CD20+ B lymphocytes holding complementary positions ...
Bachem offers H-4606 Interferon-Inducible T Cell α-Chemoattractant (human) for your research. Find all specific details here. Find product specific information including available pack sizes, CAS, detailed description and references here.
Samples from 17 patients showed the presence of grade 2 and/or 3 aggregates; in three cases only perivascular cuffing was demonstrated. Fully formed follicular-like structures, with centrally located CD21+ FDC and T/B segregation, were seen in 7 of the 20 patients (35%). BCA-1 and SLC were expressed within lymphocytic clusters in 18 of 20 and 15 of 20 patients, respectively. BCA-1 and SLC expression was associated with mature follicular organisations. However they were detected also in the absence of fully formed lymphoid-like structures. Production of BCA-1 and SLC was established by in situ hybridisation to localize within lymphocytic clusters but even in the absence of mature follicles. ...
Chemoattractants control lymphocyte recruitment from the blood, contributing to the systemic organization of the immune system. The G protein-linked receptor GPR15 mediates lymphocyte homing to the large intestines and skin. Here we show that the 9 kDa CC-motif containing cationic polypeptide AP57/colon-derived SUSD2 binding factor (CSBF), encoded by C10orf99 in the human and 2610528A11Rik in the mouse, functions as a chemokine ligand for GPR15 (GPR15L). GPR15L binds GPR15 and attracts GPR15-expressing T cells including lymphocytes in colon draining lymph nodes and Vγ3+ thymic precursors of dermal epithelial T cells. Patterns of GPR15L expression by epithelial cells in adult mice and humans suggest a homeostatic role for the chemokine in lymphocyte localization to the large intestines, as well as a role in homing to the epidermis during wound healing or inflammation. GPR15L is also significantly expressed in squamous mucosa of the oral cavity and esophagus with still poorly defined regulation.
The angiogenic microenvironment has been known to be a component of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma since its initial characterization. We have shown that angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma endothelial cells produce vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGFA), and participate in lymphoma progression. In squamous cell carcinoma, endothelial BCL2 expression induces a crosstalk with tumor cells through VEGFA, a major mediator of tumoral angiogenesis. In the present study, we analyzed BCL2 and VEGFA in 30 angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphomas, using triple immunofluorescence to identify protein coexpression in well-characterized lymphoma cells and microenvironment neoangiogenic endothelial cells. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we assessed mRNA expression levels in laser-microdissected endothelial and lymphoma cells. In lymphoma cells, as in endothelial cells, BCL2 and VEGFA proteins were coexpressed. BCL2 was expressed only in neoangiogenic CD34(+)CD105(+) endothelial cells. In laser-microdissected
Chemokines mediate diverse fundamental biological processes, including combating infection. Multiple chemokines are expressed at the site of infection; thus chemokine synergy by heterodimer formation may play a role in determining function. Chemokine function involves interactions with G-protein-coupled receptors and sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAG). However, very little is known regarding heterodimer structural features and receptor and GAG interactions. Solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and molecular dynamics characterization of platelet-derived chemokine CXCL7 heterodimerization with chemokines CXCL1, CXCL4, and CXCL8 indicated that packing interactions promote CXCL7-CXCL1 and CXCL7-CXCL4 heterodimers, and electrostatic repulsive interactions disfavor the CXCL7-CXCL8 heterodimer. As characterizing the native heterodimer is challenging due to interference from monomers and homodimers, we engineered a
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SEC091Hu, ELISA Kit for Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 4 Alpha (MIP4a), CCL26; SCYA26; IMAC; TSC-1; Eotaxin 3; Thymic stroma chemokine-1; Chemokine(C-C-Motif)ligand 26; Thymic Stroma Chemokine-1; Small Inducible Cytokine Subfamily A 26 | Products for research use only!
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Aortic and plasma expression levels of IL-18 and CXCL16.(A) Reduced aortic mRNA expression of IL-18 and CXCL16, but no change in the expression of IFN-γ is obs
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Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) is an aggressive subtype of peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) that accounts for approximately 20% of all T-cell lymphomas. Although recurrent mutations in TET2, IDH2, and DNMT3A that are common in other hematologic malignancies have been identified in AITL, the molecular mechanisms that specifically promote AITL development are unknown. Sakata-Yanagimoto and colleagues performed whole-exome sequencing on 6 AITL samples and identified a recurrent RHOA G17V mutation in 3 AITL samples. Targeted RHOA sequencing in an extended AITL cohort identified RHOA G17V mutations in 49 of 72 (68%) AITLs. Similarly, Palomero and colleagues analyzed the exomes of 12 PTCL cases and identified recurrent RHOA G17V mutations in 22 of 35 (67%) AITLs. No RHOA G17V mutations were identified in other hematologic malignancies other than in a subset of PTCL not otherwise specified that shared AITL features, suggesting that somatic RHOA mutations are a specific feature of AITL. Of ...
Tumor cell metastasis is facilitated by premetastatic niches formed in destination organs by invading bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs). Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is critical for premetastatic niche formation. LOX secreted by hypoxic breast tumor cells accumulates at premetastatic sites, crosslinks collagen IV in the basement membrane, and is essential for CD11b+ myeloid cell recruitment. CD11b+ cells adhere to crosslinked collagen IV and produce matrix metalloproteinase-2, which cleaves collagen, enhancing the invasion and recruitment of BMDCs and metastasizing tumor cells. LOX inhibition prevents CD11b+ cell recruitment and metastatic growth. CD11b+ cells and LOX also colocalize in biopsies of human metastases. Our findings demonstrate a critical role for LOX in premetastatic niche formation and support targeting LOX for the treatment and prevention of metastatic disease.
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RANK and its ligand RANKL play important roles in the development and regulation of the immune system. We show that mice transgenic for Rank in hair follicles display massive postnatal growth of skin-draining lymph nodes. The proportions of hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic stromal cells and their organization are maintained, with the exception of an increase in B cell follicles. The hematopoietic cells are not activated and respond to immunization by foreign Ag and adjuvant. We demonstrate that soluble RANKL is overproduced from the transgenic hair follicles and that its neutralization normalizes lymph node size, inclusive area, and numbers of B cell follicles. Reticular fibroblastic and vascular stromal cells, important for secondary lymphoid organ formation and organization, express RANK and undergo hyperproliferation, which is abrogated by RANKL neutralization. In addition, they express higher levels of CXCL13 and CCL19 chemokines, as well as MAdCAM-1 and VCAM-1 cell-adhesion molecules. ...
Natural killer (NK) cells constitute a first line of anti-viral host defence and tobacco smoke may cause reduced cytotoxicity. Among the cytokines expressed in NK cells, interleukin-16 (IL-16) is of interest since it is known that the extracellular concentrations of this CD4 cell chemoattractant are increased in the airways of long-term smokers. Here, we investigated whether long-term smoking alters the number and IL-16 content of circulating NK cells.. Never-smokers (NS) and asymptomatic smokers (AS) with a normal ventilatory capacity plus a normal diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) were included. We also examined smokers with COPD (GOLD stages 2 & 3) with reduced DLCO (,2SD from the predicted mean). In each subject, a peripheral, venous blood sample was taken during clinically stable conditions for flow cytometry analysis of intracellular IL-16 in NK cells (IL-16+ NK cells; IL-16+CD3-CD16+CD56+). The relative and absolute number of NK cells (CD3-CD16+CD56+) was determined.. Smokers ...
CXCL12 izaziva potentnu hemotaksu limfocita.[4][5][6][7] Tokom embriogeneze on usmerava migraciju hematopoetskih ćelija i formiranje velikih krvnih sudova. Miševi bez CXCL12 gena su letalni pre rođenja, ili u toku prvog sata života. Kod odraslih CXCL12 igra važnu ulogu u angiogenezi putem regrutovanja endotelnih progenitorskih ćelija (EPC) iz koštane srži kroz CXCR4 zavistan mehanizam.[8] Ova funkcija čini CXCL12 veoma važnim faktorom u karcinogenezi i neovaskularizaciji vezanoj za progresiju tumora.[9] CXCL12 takođe ima ulogu u metastazi tumora gde su ćelije raka koje izražavaju CXCR4 receptor privučene ka metastaznim ciljnim tkivima koja oslobađaju ligand, CXCL12.[10] Kod raka dojke, međutim, povećano CXCL12 izražavanje određuje umanjeni rizik od metastaze.[11][12] ...
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Mouse anti Rat reticulum cells antibody, clone ED11 recognizes reticular elements in the T cell areas and B cell follicles of spleen, lymp
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References for Abcams Recombinant human CXCL5 protein (ab50039). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL, sometimes misspelled AILT) (formerly known as angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy with dysproteinemia) is a mature T-cell lymphoma of blood or lymph vessel immunoblasts characterized by a polymorphous lymph node infiltrate showing a marked increase in follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) and high endothelial venules (HEVs) and systemic involvement. Patients with this disease usually present at an advanced stage and show systemic involvement. The clinical findings typically include a pruritic skin rash and possibly edema, ascites, pleural effusions, and arthritis. Due to the systemic nature of this disease, neoplastic cells can be found in lymph nodes, liver, spleen, skin, and bone marrow. This disease was originally thought to be a premalignant condition, termed angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy, and this atypical reactive lymphadenopathy carried a risk for transformation into a lymphoma. Currently, it is postulated that the originating cell for this ...
Top 10 cancers for NM_000215 (Homo sapiens, RefSeq): angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma, angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma, malignant lymphoma, follicular, NOS, unstated behavior, angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma, unstated behavior, Hodgkin lymphoma, Hodgkin�s disease, NOS, anaplastic large cell lymphoma, T-cell and Null cell type, malignant lymphoma, follicular, NOS, metastatic, other mature T/NK-cell lymphoma, other specified types of T/NK-cell lymphoma
Thank you very much for your kind words. T-Cell Lymphomas are so rare, so aggressive, and so difficult to treat, that I try to reposnd quickly when I see another case. My doctor is Dr. Andrei Shustov at Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, which is the treatment arm of Fred Hutchinson. In conjunction with his peers, he formulated the regimen that, against odds, placed me initially in full response. Not completely unexpected was that some cells survived, demonstrating that the variety I had was highly resistant to all chemotherapy. He also researched and offered me the clinical trial in which I yet participate in the long-term study. Your doctor could certainly consult with him regarding your husbands options as, with all T-Cell Lymphomas, a second opinion on both diagnosis and treatment is a very good idea. I rather doubt that Health Canada would pay for any portion of US treatment. Are there any clinical trials for AITL (or any T-Cell Lymphoma) in Canada? It is good to have a plan B in reserve, as ...
Thank you very much for your kind words. T-Cell Lymphomas are so rare, so aggressive, and so difficult to treat, that I try to reposnd quickly when I see another case. My doctor is Dr. Andrei Shustov at Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, which is the treatment arm of Fred Hutchinson. In conjunction with his peers, he formulated the regimen that, against odds, placed me initially in full response. Not completely unexpected was that some cells survived, demonstrating that the variety I had was highly resistant to all chemotherapy. He also researched and offered me the clinical trial in which I yet participate in the long-term study. Your doctor could certainly consult with him regarding your husbands options as, with all T-Cell Lymphomas, a second opinion on both diagnosis and treatment is a very good idea. I rather doubt that Health Canada would pay for any portion of US treatment. Are there any clinical trials for AITL (or any T-Cell Lymphoma) in Canada? It is good to have a plan B in reserve, as ...
Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) is one of the manifestations of Lyme disease. Although it is known that immune reaction of LNB patients is dominated by Th1 and Th2 responses and patients have elevated numbers of B cells in their cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), not all the cells involved in inflammation and cytokine secretion have been characterized. The current diagnostics of LNB is based on intrathecal production of antibodies. In recent years, the measurement of chemokine CXCL13 concentration from the CSF has been introduced as a new promising diagnostic tool for LNB to complement the antibody-based diagnostic methods. A few other cytokines have also been analyzed as possible diagnostic markers. However, multiplex analyses simultaneously evaluating the concentrations of a large number of different cytokines in the CSF of LNB patients have been lacking thus far. Extensive cytokine profiling CSF samples of LNB patients would also help in understanding the complex immunopathogenesis of LNB. CSF samples were
Weighed against tumor cells, the LP EpCAM+ cells indicated very high degrees of the chemokines CXCL3 and CXCL5, as well as the BAL fluid included raised CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL5, and CXCL7. have already been utilized and described to build up approaches for targeted treatments, the genomic surroundings of lung SCC is emerging now. There arent yet any authorized targeted therapies for lung SCC. Sadly, therapeutic focuses on in lung ADC, such as for example and (also called serine-threonine kinase 11 [mutations have become rarely within human being squamous lung tumors. Lately, it had been reported that kinase-dead was within reduction is probable a significant determinant of lung squamous tumorigenesis. Despite signs that reduction may be central towards the era of squamous cell malignancies, deletion of only struggles to travel tumor development (Ji et al., 2007). (phosphatase and tensin homolog) can be another frequently mutated, erased, or epigenetically silenced tumor suppressor in human being ...
CXCL16, hemokin (C-X-C motiv) ligand 16, je mali citokin iz CXC hemokin familije. On je veći od drugih hemokina (sadrži 254 aminokiselina). CXCL16 se sastoji od CXC hemokin domaina, mucinu-slične stabljike, transmembranskog domaina i citoplazmatičnog repa koji sadrži potentno mesto tirozin fosforilacije koje može da veže SH2.[1] Ovo su neuobičajene osobine za hemokin, i omobućavaju CXCL16 da bude izražen kao molekul na ćelijskoj površini, kao i rastvorni hemokin.[2] CXCL16 proizvode dendritiske ćelije koje se mogu naći u T ćelijskim zonama limfoidnih organa, i ćelije iz crvene pulpe slezine.[1] Među ćelijama koje se vezuju i migriraju u responsu na CXCL16 su nekoliko podgrupa T ćelija, i NKT ćelije.[1] CXCL16 interaguje sa hemokin receptorom CXCR6, takođe poznatim kao Bonzo.[3][1] Ekspresiju CXCL16 indukuju inflamatorni citokini IFN-gama i TNF-alfa.[2] Gen za ljudski CXCL16 je lociran na hromozomu 17.[1][4] ...
CXCL12 izaziva potentnu hemotaksu limfocita.[4][5][6][7] Tokom embriogeneze on usmerava migraciju hematopoetskih ćelija i formiranje velikih krvnih sudova. Miševi bez CXCL12 gena su letalni pre rođenja, ili u toku prvog sata života. Kod odraslih CXCL12 igra važnu ulogu u angiogenezi putem regrutovanja endotelnih progenitorskih ćelija (EPC) iz koštane srži kroz CXCR4 zavistan mehanizam.[8] Ova funkcija čini CXCL12 veoma važnim faktorom u karcinogenezi i neovaskularizaciji vezanoj za progresiju tumora.[9] CXCL12 takođe ima ulogu u metastazi tumora gde su ćelije raka koje izražavaju CXCR4 receptor privučene ka metastaznim ciljnim tkivima koja oslobađaju ligand, CXCL12.[10] Kod raka dojke, međutim, povećano CXCL12 izražavanje određuje umanjeni rizik od metastaze.[11][12] ...
CXCL10, hemokin (C-X-C motiv) ligand 10, ili IP-10[1] je mali citokin iz CXC hemokin familije koji je takođe poznat kao 10 kDa interferon-gama-inducirani protein (γ-IP10 ili IP-10). CXCL10 luči nekoliko ćelijski tipova u responsu na IFN-γ. U te ćelijske tipove spadaju monociti, endotelijalne ćelije i fibroblasti.[2] CXCL10 hemokinu je bilo pripisano nekoliko uloga, kao što su hemoatrakcija monocita/makrofaga, T ćelija, NK ćelija, i dendritskih ćelija, promocija adhezije T ćelija na endotelijalne ćelije, antitumorska aktivnost, i inhibicija formiranja kolonija kičmene moždine i angiogeneze.[3][4] CXCL10 gen je lociran na ljudskom hromozomu 4 u klasteru sa nekoliko drugih CXC hemokina.[5] Ovaj hemokin dejstvuje putem vezivanja na CXCR3 hemokin receptore na ćelijskoj površini.[6]. Tri-dimenzionalna kristalna struktura ovog hemokina je bila utvrđena u 3 različite grupe uslova u rezoluciji do 1.92 A.[7] PDB pristupni kodovi za CXCL10 strukture su: 1lv9, 1o7y, 1o7z i 1o80.[8] ...
Human CXCL10 (IP-10) ELISA MAX™ Deluxe - CXCL10, also known as IP-10, is a glutamic acid-leucine-arginine motif negative chemokine structurally and functionally related to MIG (CXCL9) and ITAC (CXCL11).
Complete information for CXCL9 gene (Protein Coding), C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 9, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Cxcl12 - Cxcl12 (untagged ORF) - Rat chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (stromal cell-derived factor 1) (Cxcl12), transcript variant 3, (10 ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Cxcl11 - Cxcl11 (Myc-DDK-tagged) - Mouse chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11 (Cxcl11), transcript variant 1 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Speakers Nathalie Grün Human Papillomavirus in healthy youth Elin Sjöberg A novel role for the chemokine CXCL14 in epithelial to mesenchymal transition Chair Hanif Rassoolzadeh Welcome!
Recombinant Human IP-10/CXCL10 produced inE. coliis a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 77 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 8.5 kDa.
Human IL-8/CXCL8 HEK293 Cells Overexpression Lysate 10098-HNCH1L is validated in western blot (WB) as positive control. Sino Biological offers bulk order for high quality cell lysates which are produced in house.
人生长调节致癌基因γ(GRO-γ/CXCL3) (Human)首选赛业生物,380余种细胞因子囊括生长调节致癌基因、生长因子、干扰素、白细胞介素、肿瘤坏死因子等所有细胞因子家族,种属齐包括人、鼠、恒河猴及其他种属。赛业提供的生长调节致癌基因品质优良:高活性、高纯度、高稳定性、无热源、无外源因子污染。
Histologic changes: At low power, this non-distended biopsy shows patchy alveolar collapse--an artifact of preparation, which could have been prevented by distending the unfixed biopsy with formalin. Two abnormalities are present. Several dark blue, lymphoid aggregates suggest chronic inflammation, and the bronchiole to the left of the large artery has an irregularly-shaped lumen with surrounding fibrosis.. ...
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Just yesterday Neogenesis, the latest EARC in the Liaden Universe series by Sharon Lee and Steve Miller came out. And, Im happy to say, Ive finished reading it. EARCs, if you arent familar, are a publishing innovation pioneered by Baen. ARC stands for Advance Reader Copy, which is a pre-publication, unproofed version of the book…
Use different methods to obtain different types of information about block-level compressed tables. Estimated Space Savings Percentage for Manually Compressed Tables To see the estimated space savings percentage for manually compressed BLC tables, issue a SELECT request on the BLCCompRatio column of the DBC.StatsV, DBC...
FDCs produce chemokine CXCL13 which promotes migration of B lymphocytes to the primary B cell follicle. B lymphocytes need a ... and B cells exhibit CXCR5 receptors for chemokine CXCL13. The lymph from the peripheral tissues contains soluble antigens and ... Lymphocytes have receptors for such chemokines. For example, Naive T cells express the CCR7 receptor for the chemokine CCL21. ... FRCs express chemokines such as CCL21 and CCL19 which assist the movement of T cells and dendritic cells with CCR7 receptors. ...
In a number of chronic inflammatory conditions, cells producing CXCL13 chemokine and carrying such FDCs markers as VCAM-1 and ... FDCs, in turn, attract B cells with chemoattractant CXCL13. B cells lacking CXCR5, the receptor for CXCL13, still enter the ... FDCs are among main producers of the chemokine CXCL13 which attracts and organises lymphoid cells. Follicular DCs receptors CR1 ... The stimulation of CXCR5 on B cells upregulates LT production, which leads to FDCs activation and stimulates further CXCL13 ...
Th17 cells are involved in B cell recruitment through CXCL13 chemokine signaling, and Th17 activity may encourage antibody ... The mechanism of Treg17 cell action is expression of chemokine receptor CCR6, which facilitates trafficking into areas of Th17 ...
... is a G protein-coupled seven transmembrane receptor for chemokine CXCL13 (also known as BLC) and belongs to the CXC chemokine ... Carlsen HS, Baekkevold ES, Johansen FE, Haraldsen G, Brandtzaeg P (September 2002). "B cell attracting chemokine 1 (CXCL13) and ... "Human osteoblasts express functional CXC chemokine receptors 3 and 5: activation by their ligands, CXCL10 and CXCL13, ... that could lead to decreased autoimmune response While chemokines and chemokine receptors have been thought to be involved in ...
"Chemokines in multiple sclerosis: CXCL12 and CXCL13 up-regulation is differentially linked to CNS immune cell recruitment". ... The stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1), also known as C-X-C motif chemokine 12 (CXCL12), is a chemokine protein that in ... Chemokines and chemokine receptors, of which CXCR stands out, regulate multiple processes such as morphogenesis, angiogenesis, ... The chemokines are characterized by the presence of 4 conserved cysteines that form 2 disulfide bonds. They can be classified ...
... to lead to increased CXCR5 chemokine receptor gene expression and activated cell migration in response to chemokine CXCL13. One ... "p53-dependent expression of CXCR5 chemokine receptor in MCF-7 breast cancer cells". Scientific Reports. 5 (5): 9330. Bibcode: ...
... or CXCL13), a chemokine selectively chemotactic for B lymphocytes Bachelor of Canon Law, a degree in ecclesiastical studies ...
... presentation Cross-reactivity Cryptic self epitopes Cryptotope CX3CL1 CX3CR1 CXC chemokine receptors CXCL1 CXCL10 CXCL11 CXCL13 ... Breakthrough infection Broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies Bursa of Fabricius C-C chemokine receptor type 6 C-C chemokine ... CD4 CD4+ T cells and antitumor immunity CD74 CD94/NKG2 Cell-mediated immunity CELSR1 Central tolerance Chemokine Chemokine ... 7 Calreticulin Cancer immunology Cancer immunoprevention Cancer immunotherapy Cantuzumab ravtansine Cathelicidin CC chemokine ...
... has also been reported to reduce chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell chemotaxis towards the chemokines CXCL12 and CXCL13, and ... and chemokine-controlled adhesion and migration in chronic lymphocytic leukemia". Blood. 119 (11): 2590-2594. doi:10.1182/blood ...
... -dependent chemotaxis has been reported in response to the chemokines CXCL12/SDF-1 in T lymphocytes, CXCL13/BLC in B ... 2007). "DOCK2 is required for chemokine-promoted human T lymphocyte adhesion under shear stress mediated by the integrin ...
Other CXC chemokines that lack the ELR motif, such as CXCL13, tend to be chemoattractant for lymphocytes. CXC chemokines bind ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines in that it has ... CCL1 for the ligand 1 of the CC-family of chemokines, and CCR1 for its respective receptor. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) ...
... is a small chemokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family. As its other names suggest, this chemokine is selectively ... The gene for CXCL13 is located on human chromosome 4 in a cluster of other CXC chemokines. In T lymphocytes, CXCL13 expression ... Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 13 (CXCL13), also known as B lymphocyte chemoattractant (BLC) or B cell-attracting chemokine 1 ( ... Human CXCL13 genome location and CXCL13 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Overview of all the structural ...
Its principal ligand is CXCL13 (or BLC). CXCR6 was formerly called three different names (STRL33, BONZO, and TYMSTR) before ... CXC chemokine receptors are integral membrane proteins that specifically bind and respond to cytokines of the CXC chemokine ... However, CXCR6 is more closely related in structure to CC chemokine receptors than to other CXC chemokine receptors. ACKR3 was ... The chemokine receptor CXCR5 is expressed on B cells and CD4+ Tfh cells and is involved in lymphocyte homing and the ...
... chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10, scyb10 CXCL11: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11, scyb11 CXCL13: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ... chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1, scyb1 CXCL2: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2, scyb2 CXCL3: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 3 ... chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 5, scyb5 CXCL6: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6, scyb6 CXCL7: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 7 ... PPBP, scyb7 CXCL8: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8, interleukin 8 (IL-8), scyb8 CXCL9: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9, scyb9 ...
2005). "The chemokine receptor D6 limits the inflammatory response in vivo". Nat Immunol. 6 (4): 403-411. doi:10.1038/ni1182. ... Marchesi F, Martin AP, Thirunarayanan N, Devany E, Mayer L, Grisotto MG, Furtado GC, Lira SA (November 2009). "CXCL13 ... His early studies were the first to show that chemokines played a major role on leukocyte trafficking to the brain, the lung ... "Wiley::Chemokine Receptors as Drug Targets". Retrieved April 26, 2011. "Mount Sinai School of Medicine - Faculty profile". ...
She found that rituximab therapy led to decreased markers of inflammation and higher IgG and CXCL13 in the cerebrospinal fluid ... And T-lymphocyte and Chemokine Levels With Rituximab Treatment in Multiple Sclerosis". Archives of Neurology. 67 (6): 707-714. ... Predicting optimal response to B cell depletion with rituximab in Multiple Sclerosis using CXCL13 index, MRI and clinical ... "Predicting Optimal Response to B-cell Depletion With Rituximab in Multiple Sclerosis Using CXCL13 Index, Magnetic Resonance ...
Their production is stimulated by retinoic acid, CXCL13, RANK-L, and the cytokines IL-1B, IL-23, and IL-6. They express c- Kit ... They express characteristic surface markers and receptors for chemokines, which are involved in the distribution of lymphoid ... coded for by adhesion molecules and chemokines. However, it has also been shown that the maturation of the ILCs can take place ...
Release of chemokines allow for the activation of adhesion molecules on the lymphocytes and monocytes, resulting in an ... and which could be related to the behavior of CXCL13 under methylprednisolone therapy. Some molecular biochemical models for ...
March 2020). "CXCL13-mediated recruitment of intrahepatic CXCR5+CD8+ T cells favors viral control in chronic HBV infection". ... Kabelitz D, Wesch D (2003). "Features and functions of gamma delta T lymphocytes: focus on chemokines and their receptors". ... Also, an increase of CXCL13 levels facilitated the recruitment of intrahepatic CXCR5+CD8+T cells and, these types of cells ... and chemokines (IP-10, lymphotactin), trigger cytolysis of target cells (perforins, granzymes...), and interact with other ...
... chemokine, IL-6, and interleukin 8 (IL-8).[82][80] IL-6 and IL-8 are the most conserved and robust features of SASP.[83] ...
Serum Levels of the Chemokine CXCL13, Genetic Variation in CXCL13 and Its Receptor CXCR5, and HIV-Associated Non-Hodgkin B-Cell ...
Serum Levels of the Chemokine CXCL13, Genetic Variation in CXCL13 and Its Receptor CXCR5, and HIV-Associated Non-Hodgkin B-Cell ... In a February 2013 study, researchers measured serum levels of the chemokine CXCL13 in 179 men diagnosed with HIV-associated ... Results showed that CXCL13 levels were elevated for more than 3 years, 1 to 3 years, and 0 to 1 year before diagnosis, ... suggesting CXCL13 may serve as a biomarker for early AIDS-NHL detection. [16] ...
Serum Levels of the Chemokine CXCL13, Genetic Variation in CXCL13 and Its Receptor CXCR5, and HIV-Associated Non-Hodgkin B-Cell ...
A prospective study on the role of CXCL13 in Lyme neuroborreliosis. Neurology. 2011 Mar 22. 76 (12):1051-8. [QxMD MEDLINE Link] ... The chemokine IL-8 mediates neutrophil chemoattractant responses induced by TNF-α and IL-1. ... Remy MM, Schöbi N, Kottanattu L, Pfister S, Duppenthaler A, Suter-Riniker F. Cerebrospinal fluid CXCL13 as a diagnostic marker ... Specificity and Diagnostic Utility of Cerebrospinal Fluid CXCL13 in Lyme Neuroborreliosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2021 May 18. 72 (10 ...
A prospective study on the role of CXCL13 in Lyme neuroborreliosis. Neurology. 2011 Mar 22. 76 (12):1051-8. [QxMD MEDLINE Link] ... The chemokine IL-8 mediates neutrophil chemoattractant responses induced by TNF-α and IL-1. ... Remy MM, Schöbi N, Kottanattu L, Pfister S, Duppenthaler A, Suter-Riniker F. Cerebrospinal fluid CXCL13 as a diagnostic marker ... Specificity and Diagnostic Utility of Cerebrospinal Fluid CXCL13 in Lyme Neuroborreliosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2021 May 18. 72 (10 ...
Serum Levels of the Chemokine CXCL13, Genetic Variation in CXCL13 and Its Receptor CXCR5, and HIV-Associated Non-Hodgkin B-Cell ...
Serum Levels of the Chemokine CXCL13, Genetic Variation in CXCL13 and Its Receptor CXCR5, and HIV-Associated Non-Hodgkin B-Cell ...
Serum Levels of the Chemokine CXCL13, Genetic Variation in CXCL13 and Its Receptor CXCR5, and HIV-Associated Non-Hodgkin B-Cell ...
A prospective study on the role of CXCL13 in Lyme neuroborreliosis. Neurology. 2011 Mar 22. 76 (12):1051-8. [QxMD MEDLINE Link] ... The chemokine IL-8 mediates neutrophil chemoattractant responses induced by TNF-α and IL-1. ... Remy MM, Schöbi N, Kottanattu L, Pfister S, Duppenthaler A, Suter-Riniker F. Cerebrospinal fluid CXCL13 as a diagnostic marker ... Specificity and Diagnostic Utility of Cerebrospinal Fluid CXCL13 in Lyme Neuroborreliosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2021 May 18. 72 (10 ...
Serum Levels of the Chemokine CXCL13, Genetic Variation in CXCL13 and Its Receptor CXCR5, and HIV-Associated Non-Hodgkin B-Cell ...
... chemokine (CC motif) ligand 2; CSF1 = colony-stimulating factor 1; CXCL1 = chemokine (CXC motif) ligand 1; CXCL13 = chemokine ( ... CXC motif) ligand 13; CXCR5 = CXC chemokine receptor type 5; CX3CL1 = chemokine CX3C ligand 1; CX3CR1 = CX3C chemokine receptor ... and proinflammatory chemokines (e.g., [CC motif] ligand 2, CXC motif chemokine 5)[3,10,11] that directly bind and stimulate G- ... chemokines, and Toll-like receptors that are essential for immune modulation.[19,30-32] Release of cytokines and chemokines ...
Diagnostic performance of cerebrospinal fluid chemokine CXCL13 and antibodies to the C6-peptide in Lyme neuroborreliosis. J ... Cytokine and Chemokine Determinations. We assessed the levels of 17 mediators associated with innate (CC motif chemokine ligand ... Cerar T, Ogrinc K, Lotric-Furlan S, Kobal J, Levicnik-Stezinar S, Strle F, et al. Diagnostic value of cytokines and chemokines ... Rupprecht TA, Manz KM, Fingerle V, Lechner C, Klein M, Pfirrmann M, et al. Diagnostic value of cerebrospinal fluid CXCL13 for ...
PD98059 partially blocked CXCL13-induced cognitive dysfunction as well as production of IL-1β and TNF-α. CXCL13-induced ... Surgery impaired learning and memory, and it increased expression of CXCL13 and CXCR5 in the hippocampus. CXCL13 knockdown ... Mice were pretreated via intracerebroventricular injection with recombinant CXCL13, short hairpin RNA against CXCL13 or a ... Recombinant CXCL13 induced cognitive deficits and increased the expression of phospho-ERK as well as IL-1β and TNF-α in ...
Its principal ligand is CXCL13 (or BLC). CXCR6 was formerly called three different names (STRL33, BONZO, and TYMSTR) before ... CXC chemokine receptors are integral membrane proteins that specifically bind and respond to cytokines of the CXC chemokine ... However, CXCR6 is more closely related in structure to CC chemokine receptors than to other CXC chemokine receptors. ACKR3 was ... The chemokine receptor CXCR5 is expressed on B cells and CD4+ Tfh cells and is involved in lymphocyte homing and the ...
Chemokine CXCL13 * Chemokines / genetics * Chemokines / metabolism * Chemokines, CXC / genetics * Chemokines, CXC / metabolism ... restore the expression of CXCL13 and VCAM-1/ICAM-1 in FDCs, and lead to productive GCs. Notably, FDC-specific disruption of ...
New scheme: Chemokine CXCL13. Labquality is announcing a new EQA scheme for Chemokine CXCL13, a biomarker for neuroborreliosis. ... Immunology: Chemokine CXCL13, biomarker for neuroborreliosis Microbiology: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, rifampicin and isoniazid ...
Serum Levels of the Chemokine CXCL13, Genetic Variation in CXCL13 and Its Receptor CXCR5, and HIV-Associated Non-Hodgkin B-Cell ... In a February 2013 study, researchers measured serum levels of the chemokine CXCL13 in 179 men diagnosed with HIV-associated ... Results showed that CXCL13 levels were elevated for more than 3 years, 1 to 3 years, and 0 to 1 year before diagnosis, ... suggesting CXCL13 may serve as a biomarker for early AIDS-NHL detection. [16] ...
12 and CXCL13 and T-cell-associated mediators CXCL9, CXCL10, and interleukin 17, compared with those without radicular pain. ... patients with meningoradiculoneuritis had higher levels of B-cell chemoattractants CXC motif chemokine ligand (CXCL) ...
12 and CXCL13 and T-cell-associated mediators CXCL9, CXCL10, and interleukin 17, compared with those without radicular pain. ... patients with meningoradiculoneuritis had higher levels of B-cell chemoattractants CXC motif chemokine ligand (CXCL) ...
In this literature review, we address the roles of CCR7 in the pathophysiology of CLL, and how this chemokine receptor is of ... In this literature review, we address the roles of CCR7 in the pathophysiology of CLL, and how this chemokine receptor is of ... Within the multitude of signaling pathways aberrantly regulated in CLL the homeostatic axis composed by the chemokine receptor ... Within the multitude of signaling pathways aberrantly regulated in CLL the homeostatic axis composed by the chemokine receptor ...
Increased cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of the chemokine CXCL13 in active MS. Neurology. 2009;73(23):2003-2010. ... and increased CSF levels of CXCL13, a chemokine that directs the migration of B-cells.64,65,67,68 Interestingly, intrathecal ... Cerebrospinal fluid CXCL13 in clinically isolated syndrome patients: association with oligoclonal IgM bands and prediction of ... and CXCL-13, whose levels decrease in response to treatment.3,14,15 In addition, biomarkers are needed that reflect the ongoing ...
Serum Levels of the Chemokine CXCL13, Genetic Variation in CXCL13 and Its Receptor CXCR5, and HIV-Associated Non-Hodgkin B-Cell ...
... since a high CXCL13 concentration is almost exclusively related to untreated neuroborreliosis. Therefore, the CXCL13 chemokine ... The CXCL13 concentration increases more rapidly in early neuroborreliosis than the antibody concentration in the cerebrospinal ... As a result, we suggest that the diagnostic practice for neuroborreliosis in Finland would be reorganised so that the CXCL13 ... The new point-of-care test measures CXCL13 concentration in cerebrospinal fluid, ...
... is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also called Interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant ... CXCR3 chemokine receptor binding. PF4; CXCL11; CXCL13; CXCL10; CXCL9; CXCL11.8. chemokine activity. Ccl12; IL8L2; CXCL32B.1; ... chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11. Background. Chemokine (C-X-C motif); ligand 11 (CXCL11); is a small cytokine belonging to ... CXCL11 has several biochemical functions, for example, CXCR3 chemokine receptor binding, chemokine activity, heparin binding. ...
Serum Levels of the Chemokine CXCL13, Genetic Variation in CXCL13 and Its Receptor CXCR5, and HIV-Associated Non-Hodgkin B-Cell ...
CXCL13. BLC/BCA-1. 20ug. CN-12. CXCL13. BLC/BCA-1. 100ug. CN-12. ... Chemokine Ligand. Chemokine Name. Size. Catalogue code. (Click ... Human Native Chemokines. Almac presents a series of native human chemokines, produced by chemical synthesis to ensure high ... Chemokine & Histone online shop. Comprehensive range of Chemokine and Histone products with worldwide shipping and online ... Chemokine & Histone online shop. Comprehensive range of Chemokine and Histone products with worldwide shipping and online ...
4J), Integrin α-D (Itgad), CXC chemokine ligand 13 (Cxcl13), and interleukin 17α (Il17a) (Fig. S11) were decreased in both ... S8), including Cxcl13, Defb14, and Gsdmc as targets (Supplementary Tables S6, S7) altering cytokine signaling and bone healing ... Tian, F., Ji, X. L., Xiao, W. A., Wang, B. & Wang, F. CXCL13 promotes the effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) ... SMOC2-dependent inflammatory cytokine and chemokine induction is followed by myofibroblast migration, collagen synthesis, and ...
Chemokine CXCL13 as a New Systemic Biomarker for B-Cell Involvement in Acute T Cell-Mediated Kidney Allograft Rejection. Int J ... C-C motif chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1) chemokine receptor binding and the receptor of advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) ... Besides, it is reported that Fingolimod can increase the C-C motif chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5) in peripheral blood to inhibit the ... Additionally, the misbalanced level of chemokines like CCL5 is associated with the activation and function of cytotoxic T ...
Diagnostic performance of cerebrospinal fluid chemokine CXCL13 and antibodies to the C6-peptide in Lyme neuroborreliosis. J ... Cytokine and Chemokine Determinations. We assessed the levels of 17 mediators associated with innate (CC motif chemokine ligand ... Cerar T, Ogrinc K, Lotric-Furlan S, Kobal J, Levicnik-Stezinar S, Strle F, et al. Diagnostic value of cytokines and chemokines ... Rupprecht TA, Manz KM, Fingerle V, Lechner C, Klein M, Pfirrmann M, et al. Diagnostic value of cerebrospinal fluid CXCL13 for ...
CXCR5 (C-X-Chemokine Receptor Type 5, CD185) also known as Burkitt lymphoma receptor 1 (BLR1) belongs to the CXC chemokine ... in particular T cell migration into the B cell follicles of germinal centers in response to CXCL13, making CD185 an established ... CD185, which is also known as C-X-C chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5) and Burkitt lymphoma receptor 1 (BLR1), is a seven ... CXCR5 is a G protein-coupled seven transmembrane receptor for chemokine BLC. CXCR5 gene is specifically expressed in Burkitt′s ...
Chemokines, CXCL13, Cytokine, Demyelination, Depression, Dexamethasone, Disability, Drugs, Encephalopathy, Facial Nerve, ... Chemokines such as IL-8 and CCL2 are known to mediate the influx of immune cells in the central nervous system compartment ... Significantly elevated levels of the inflammatory mediators interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, CCL2, and CXCL13 were observed, as well ... during bacterial meningitis, and CXCL13 is the major determinant of B cell recruitment into the cerebrospinal fluid during ...
Many homeostatic chemokines are expressed on the vasculature of the blood brain barrier (BBB) including CXCL12, CCL19, CCL20, ... Many homeostatic chemokines are expressed on the vasculature of the blood brain barrier including CXCL12, CCL19, CCL20, and ... In this review, we explore the diverse roles of these and other homeostatic chemokines expressed within the CNS, including the ... In this review, we explore the diverse roles of these and other homeostatic chemokines expressed within the CNS, including the ...
CPTC-CXCL13-1. C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 13 Peptide 1 ...
Increased levels of the homeostatic chemokine CXCL13 in human atherosclerosis - Potential role in plaque stabilization. ... Endonuclease V Regulates Atherosclerosis Through C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 2-Mediated Monocyte Infiltration. J Am Heart Assoc ... monocyte expression of CXCR5 through prostaglandin E2-related mechanisms and enhance the anti-inflammatory effects of CXCL13. ...
It elicits its chemotactic effects by interacting with the chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2. The gene for CXCL6 is located ... is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also known as granulocyte chemotactic protein 2 (GCP-2). As ... on human chromosome 4 in a cluster with other CXC chemokine genes. ... chemokine activity. CCL1; CCL7; CCL26; CXCL9; CCL33.3; IL-8; CCL19; CXCL13; CCL6; CCL20. ...
Serum levels of the chemokine CXCL13, genetic variation in CXCL13 and its receptor CXCR5, and HIV-associated non-hodgkin B-cell ... Query Trace: Lymphoma and CXCL13[original query] CXC Chemokine Receptor Type 5 Gene Polymorphisms in a Cohort of Egyptian ...
Chemotactic cytokines or chemokines play pivotal roles in various processes such as immune surveillance, organ development, ... Mouse Proinflammatory Chemokine Panel (13-plex) with V-bottom Plate - ... CXCL13, MDC, CCL22 Ave. Rating Submit a Review Product Citations publications ... Cytokines/Chemokines Gene ID 20302 View all products for this Gene ID 20302 View all products for this Gene ID 20303 View all ...
Cxcl13. chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 13. 0.010. Napsa. napsin A aspartic peptidase. 0.010. ... chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (melanoma growth stimulating activity, alpha). 0.011. ...
  • CXC chemokine receptors are integral membrane proteins that specifically bind and respond to cytokines of the CXC chemokine family. (wikipedia.org)
  • They represent one subfamily of chemokine receptors, a large family of G protein-linked receptors that are known as seven transmembrane (7-TM) proteins, since they span the cell membrane seven times. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are currently six known CXC chemokine receptors in mammals, named CXCR1 through CXCR6. (wikipedia.org)
  • CXCR1 and CXCR2 are closely related receptors that recognize CXC chemokines that possess an E-L-R amino acid motif immediately adjacent to their CXC motif. (wikipedia.org)
  • CXCR6 was formerly called three different names (STRL33, BONZO, and TYMSTR) before being assigned CXCR6 based on its chromosomal location (within the chemokine receptor cluster on human chromosome 3p21) and its similarity to other chemokine receptors in its gene sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, CXCR6 is more closely related in structure to CC chemokine receptors than to other CXC chemokine receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the adult central nervous system (CNS), chemokines and their receptors are involved in developmental, physiological and pathological processes. (frontiersin.org)
  • These chemokines and their receptors are therefore involved in a range of homeostatic processes including immune surveillance, neuro/gliogenesis and modulation of synaptic transmission. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition to these anatomical barriers, the expression of chemokines and chemokine receptors at the BBB and blood-CSF barrier serves as an immunological checkpoint and prevents (during non-inflammatory/homeostatic conditions) or promotes (during neuroinflammation) the infiltration of circulating leukocytes into the deeper CNS parenchyma and ventricular or subarachnoid CSF spaces (Figure 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • It elicits its chemotactic effects by interacting with the chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2. (creativebiomart.net)
  • GRA-induced changes in cytokine expression in intestinal tissue.Results GRA Induces Transcription of a Specific Pattern of Genes Encoding Chemokine Receptors and Corresponding Ligands in the Small IntestineThe ability of orally delivered GRA to modulate immune system activity at the gut mucosa initially was analyzed by measuring cytokine gene expression in small intestinal tissue. (bet-bromodomain.com)
  • GRA-induced transcripts included chemokine receptor CXCR5 and its ligand CXCL13, receptor CCR7 and its ligands CCL19 and CCL21b, and receptors CCR6 and CCR9. (bet-bromodomain.com)
  • Upon binding to their G-protein-coupled receptors on the leukocytes, chemokines stimulate the signaling events that cause cytoskeletal rearrangements involved in cell movement, and migration of the cells along chemokine gradients. (genscript.com)
  • Extracellular matrix and adhesion molecules, as well as chemokines and their receptors, are important in adult HSC migration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) array the expression pattern of extracellular matrix and adhesion molecules as well as chemokines and chemokine receptors in Lineage - Sca-1 + c-Kit + (LSK) cells at different stages of development, in order to characterize the role played by these molecules in LSK. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our results show marked changes in the expression pattern of extracellular matrix, adhesion molecules, chemokines and their receptors with developmental age, particularly in later stages of development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CCRL2 is a 7-transmembrane domain receptor that shares structural and functional similarities with the family of atypical chemokine receptors (ACKRs). (ashpublications.org)
  • MIP-1 Ž± binds the chemokine receptors CCR1, CCR4 and CCR5 to induce inflammatory responses, including the recruitment of granulocytes and neutrophil superoxide production. (shenandoah-bt.com)
  • The chemokine receptor CXCR5 is expressed on B cells and CD4+ Tfh cells and is involved in lymphocyte homing and the development of normal lymphoid tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serum Levels of the Chemokine CXCL13, Genetic Variation in CXCL13 and Its Receptor CXCR5, and HIV-Associated Non-Hodgkin B-Cell Lymphoma Risk. (medscape.com)
  • CD185, which is also known as C-X-C chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5) and Burkitt lymphoma receptor 1 (BLR1), is a seven transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor originally identified in Burkitt′s lymphoma. (fishersci.com)
  • CXCR5 (C-X-Chemokine Receptor Type 5, CD185) also known as Burkitt lymphoma receptor 1 (BLR1) belongs to the CXC chemokine receptor family. (fishersci.com)
  • CXCR5 is a G protein-coupled seven transmembrane receptor for chemokine BLC. (fishersci.com)
  • Furthermore, modified expression of the chemokine receptor/ligand pair CXCR5/CXCL13, important for homing of B cells, has been reported during. (ivachtin.com)
  • Here, we show that human follicular B helper T (T(FH)) cells are characterized by high expression of the homeostatic chemokine receptor CXCR5 and the costimulatory molecule ICOS, but not CD57 expression. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • CXCR5(hi)ICOS(hi) CD4 T cells are the most potent inducers of IgG production that also secrete large amounts of the B cell-attracting chemokine CXCL13. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • Oddly enough, while distinctive regulatory cytokine/chemokine circuits (such as for example IL-7, LT, CXCL13/CXCR5) control MLN function and company, their absence will not hinder MLN advancement (9C12). (arcillaresearch.com)
  • When stratified by specific clinical manifestation, patients with meningoradiculoneuritis had higher levels of B-cell chemoattractants CXC motif chemokine ligand (CXCL) 12 and CXCL13 and T-cell-associated mediators CXCL9, CXCL10, and interleukin 17, compared with those without radicular pain. (cdc.gov)
  • In AH patients and HBV-inoculated chimpanzees with HBsAg loss, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, CXCL13, and IL-21 were elevated at hepatitis with subsequent decline of HBsAg. (jci.org)
  • Elevation of serum CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, CXCL13, and IL-21 might be a hallmark of functional cure of AH or CH patients. (jci.org)
  • In our genomewide expression profiles of malaria-infected placentas from primigravidae, transcription of chemokines, including CXCL13, CXCL9, and CCL18, was significantly upregulated and was negatively correlated with birth weight (18). (ranscombehouseglynde.com)
  • In today's study, we analyzed the independent jobs of IFN- and TNF- systems in placental malaria by calculating chemokines induced by TNF- (CCL20, CCL18, CXCL1, and CXCL13), IFN- (CXCL9), or both (CCL2). (ranscombehouseglynde.com)
  • In univariate analyses, CXCL13 and CXCL9 were connected with LBW. (ranscombehouseglynde.com)
  • Within the multitude of signaling pathways aberrantly regulated in CLL the homeostatic axis composed by the chemokine receptor CCR7 and its ligands is the main driver for directing immune cells to home into the LN. In this literature review, we address the roles of CCR7 in the pathophysiology of CLL, and how this chemokine receptor is of critical importance to develop more rational and effective therapies for this malignancy. (frontiersin.org)
  • Many homeostatic chemokines are expressed on the vasculature of the blood brain barrier (BBB) including CXCL12, CCL19, CCL20, and CCL21. (frontiersin.org)
  • Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21 (CCL21) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. (rockland.com)
  • CXC chemokine ligand 13 (CXCL13), CC chemokine ligand 21 (CCL21), and CCL19 are constitutively expressed in secondary lymphoid organs, where they control the placement of lymphocytes and dendritic cells. (rockland.com)
  • CXCL12, CXCL13, CCL19 and CCL21) which sustain the ongoing process [16-18]. (alexjordan.org)
  • CXCL8 (otherwise known as interleukin-8) and CXCL6 can both bind CXCR1 in humans, while all other ELR-positive chemokines, such as CXCL1 to CXCL7 bind only CXCR2. (wikipedia.org)
  • A characteristic feature of neuroinflammation is the activation of glial cells, such as microglia and astrocytes, in the spinal cord and brain, leading to the release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. (medscape.com)
  • Recent studies suggest that central cytokines and chemokines are powerful neuromodulators and play a sufficient role in inducing hyperalgesia and allodynia after central nervous system administration. (medscape.com)
  • Sustained increase of cytokines and chemokines in the central nervous system also promotes chronic widespread pain that affects multiple body sites. (medscape.com)
  • Moreover, the investigation of soluble factors, mainly SR1078 cytokines and chemokines, which could be involved in leukemic cell survival, was performed. (alexjordan.org)
  • Although most lines of investigation focus on their ability to induce the migration of cells, recent studies indicate that chemokines also promote cellular interactions and activate signaling pathways that maintain CNS homeostatic functions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Depending on the cell type, chemokines also induce many other types of cellular responses including those related to defense mechanisms, cell proliferation, survival, and development [1][2] . (genscript.com)
  • Peyer patches, that are dispersed along the anti-mesenteric boundary of the tiny intestine, drain towards the mesenteric lymphatic program efferent lymphatic vessels and straight sample antigen in the gut lumen the choice NFB pathway to induce CXCL13 and recruit LTi and CXCR5+ B cells for PP maturation (6, 18). (arcillaresearch.com)
  • The Mouse Proinflammatory Chemokine panel is a multiplex bead-based assay panel, using fluorescence-encoded beads suitable for use on various flow cytometers. (biolegend.com)
  • The LEGENDplex™ Mouse Proinflammatory Chemokine Detection Antibodies product is intended for use with the Mix and Match Mouse Proinflammatory Chemokine Panel of products. (biolegend.com)
  • We selected most pathways CXCL11 participated on our site, such as Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, Chemokine signaling pathway, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, which may be useful for your reference. (creativebiomart.net)
  • CXC Chemokine Receptor Type 5 Gene Polymorphisms in a Cohort of Egyptian Patients with Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma. (cdc.gov)
  • CC chemokine receptor type 5 ( CCR5 ) is a chemokine receptor that influences the immune response to infectious and parasitic diseases. (transhumanist.ru)
  • Significantly elevated levels of the inflammatory mediators interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, CCL2, and CXCL13 were observed, as well as pleocytosis (increased cell counts, primarily white blood cells) in the cerebrospinal fluid of all infected animals - except in those treated with dexamethasone. (news-medical.net)
  • Chemokines such as IL-8 and CCL2 are known to mediate the influx of immune cells in the central nervous system compartment during bacterial meningitis, and CXCL13 is the major determinant of B cell recruitment into the cerebrospinal fluid during neuroinflammation,' explained Dr. Philipp. (news-medical.net)
  • We report on a patient presenting with basal leptomeningoencephalitis associated with vasculopathy where the chemokine CXCL13 in cerebrospinal fluid played an important diagnostic role. (sciencegate.app)
  • Recent studies have suggested a diagnostic role of the B-lymphocyte attracting chemokine (CXCL13) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB). (scandtick.com)
  • Here we show that FDC-specific expression of p55TNFR is necessary and sufficient to promote FDC network and B cell follicle formation, restore the expression of CXCL13 and VCAM-1/ICAM-1 in FDCs, and lead to productive GCs. (nih.gov)
  • While endothelial cell expression of these chemokines is known to regulate the entry of leukocytes into the CNS during immunosurveillance, new data indicate that CXCL12 is also involved in diverse cellular activities including adult neurogenesis and neuronal survival, having an opposing role to the homeostatic chemokine, CXCL14, which appears to regulate synaptic inputs to neural precursors. (frontiersin.org)
  • Neuronal expression of CX 3 CL1, yet another homeostatic chemokine that promotes neuronal survival and communication with microglia, is partly regulated by CXCL12. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our understanding of the role of chemokine expression in the adult central nervous system (CNS) has shifted away from viewing these molecules primarily as proinflammatory mediators and more towards their ability to exert neuroprotective and reparative functions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Expression profiling of chemokines, especially those involved in inflammation and immune disorders, is important in achieving a deeper understanding of disease states. (biolegend.com)
  • FALCs contributed to the retention of B-1 cells in the peritoneal cavity through high expression of the chemokine CXCL13, and they supported B cell proliferation and germinal center differentiation during peritoneal immunological challenges. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Anti-PD-L1 induced the expression of several chemokines that are associated with the recruitment of cytotoxic T cells, with a further increase in expression after combination therapy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The clearance of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) loss, defined as functional cure, is a clinical target in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CH). To understand the immune responses underlying functional cure, we evaluated cytokine and chemokine expression profiles from patients with resolving and nonresolving acute hepatitis B (AH). (jci.org)
  • Expression of genes encoding these chemokine receptor.Nly was administered by oral gavage according to the timetable dictated by the experiment. (bet-bromodomain.com)
  • It was demonstrate that the local expression of homeostatic chemokines in nonlymphoid organs, such as the lung, plays an important role in protective immune responses. (rockland.com)
  • mice neglect to develop supplementary lymph nodes (SLO), in the placing of extreme TNF creation during intestinal irritation, TNF- (transgenic over-expression in TNFARE/+ mice) over-rides the canonical requirement of LTi cells and drives a lymphoid neogenesis plan, like DY131 the induction of homeostatic chemokines (13). (arcillaresearch.com)
  • Furthermore, we show that the expression of the chemokines Ccl4 , Ccl9 , Il18 and the chemokine receptor Cxcr4 increases in LSK cells during development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In lymph nodes with paracortical hyperplasia, the expression of CXCL13, CD10 and bcl-6 were restricted to the germinal centers. (bvsalud.org)
  • In AITL, 96.5% (111/115) of cases showed CXCL13 expression, in contrast to 26.7% (8/30) of PTCL, NOS. (bvsalud.org)
  • Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6 (CXCL6) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also known as granulocyte chemotactic protein 2 (GCP-2). (creativebiomart.net)
  • Chemotactic cytokines or chemokines play pivotal roles in various processes such as immune surveillance, organ development, angiogenesis, and immune responses. (biolegend.com)
  • CCL5 is an 8kDa protein classified as a chemotactic cytokine or chemokine . (wikidoc.org)
  • hypothesized that circulating LT-HSC, although chemotactic by 14.5 dpc to the bone marrow recruiting chemokine stromal cell derived factor-1α (SDF-1α), would not colonize the fetal bone marrow until a suitable microenvironment is present [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although improves of https://www.selleckchem.com/products/DAPT-GSI-IX.html immunological cellular material and several chemokines are present in Gaucher ailment, the specific chemoattractants that can cause the improved increase regarding immunological cellular material are not totally described. (skku.edu)
  • Labquality is announcing a new EQA scheme for Chemokine CXCL13, a biomarker for neuroborreliosis. (labquality.fi)
  • Results showed that CXCL13 levels were elevated for more than 3 years, 1 to 3 years, and 0 to 1 year before diagnosis, suggesting CXCL13 may serve as a biomarker for early AIDS-NHL detection. (medscape.com)
  • Recent surveys recommended how the chemokine CXCL13 inside the cerebrospinal smooth (CSF) can be a biomarker for lively LNB. (plkpathway.com)
  • In a February 2013 study, researchers measured serum levels of the chemokine CXCL13 in 179 men diagnosed with HIV-associated non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma (AIDS-NHL) and 179 male controls to determine whether levels are elevated before an AIDS-NHL diagnosis. (medscape.com)
  • The gene for CXCL6 is located on human chromosome 4 in a cluster with other CXC chemokine genes. (creativebiomart.net)
  • This is particularly the case of chemokine CXCL13 and certain somatic or genetic anomalies of TNFAIP3 (A20), a gene controlling the activation of NF Kappa B. (cea.fr)
  • The TNF- network involves activated macrophages and B cells, resulting in solid upregulation in the gene appearance of many chemokines, specifically CXCL13 (19). (ranscombehouseglynde.com)
  • Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (also CCL5 ) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CCL5 gene . (wikidoc.org)
  • CCR5 chemokine receptor gene polymorphisms in ocular toxoplasmosis. (transhumanist.ru)
  • Chemokines are small proteins best known for their role in controlling the migration of diverse cells, particularly leukocytes. (genscript.com)
  • Chemokines are a family of proteins that direct leukocyte migration and activation to inflammatory stimuli. (rockland.com)
  • Unmanipulated individual GC Tfh cells certainly are a significant way to obtain CXCL13 proteins, as determined on the one cell level (Fig. 4CXCR5 surface area appearance in na?ve Compact disc4 T cells. (uitest.info)
  • Combination treatment led to upregulation of immune response genes, including multiple chemokine genes such as CCL5, in macrophages, and downregulation of extracellular matrix genes in fibroblasts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Analysis of publicly available tumor transcriptome profiles showed that the chemokine CCL5 was strongly associated with immune cell infiltration in various human cancers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • IL-2 and IFN-γ ) that are released by T cells , CCL5 also induces the proliferation and activation of certain natural-killer ( NK ) cells to form CHAK (CC-Chemokine-activated killer) cells. (wikidoc.org)
  • Cryptopatches are aggregates of around 1000 cells made up of LTi cells and chemokine making dendritic (DC) and stromal cells discovered throughout the crypts of the tiny intestine (21, 22). (arcillaresearch.com)
  • Individual Tfh cells however, not murine, also particularly exhibit the chemokine CXCL13 (32, 34, 36), a B cell appealing to molecule usually created by stromal cells (59). (uitest.info)
  • TECK is a CC chemokine, specifically expressed by thymic stromal cells, and signals through the CCR9 receptor. (peprotech.com)
  • Twenty CLAD lungs explanted for retransplantation were immunohistochemically examined for lymphoid neogenesis, ectopic lymphoid chemokines, and dendritic cells (DCs). (elsevier.com)
  • Description: Description of target: Cytokine that induces the release of T-cell-attracting chemokines from monocytes and, in particular, enhances the maturation of CD11c+ dendritic cells. (cromauv.org)
  • It mainly impacts myeloid cells and induces the release of T cell-attracting chemokines from monocytes and enhances the maturation of CD11c(+) dendritic cells. (cromauv.org)
  • Furthermore, this chemokine receptor plays a critical role in lymphocyte trafficking, in particular T cell migration into the B cell follicles of germinal centers in response to CXCL13, making CD185 an established marker of follicular helper T cells. (fishersci.com)
  • Background: Chemokines are important in cell migration and are thought to play a key role in metastasis. (ucy.ac.cy)
  • Chemokine oligomerization in cell signaling and migration. (genscript.com)
  • Alternatively, LT-HSCs circulating in fetal blood might not possess the appropriate chemokine receptor or adhesion molecule repertoire required for bone marrow homing and migration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • More recently, several small molecules have been developed to inhibit a variety of kinases in the BCR pathway, including Lyn, Syk, Btk and PI3K, which are crucial not only for the activation of multiple survival pathways (such as Akt, Erk, NF-kB) but also for chemokine-mediated migration and adhesion of B cells in the microenvironment [22]. (alexjordan.org)
  • This chemokine is also known as 6Ckine (because it has six conserved cysteine residues instead of the four cysteines typical to chemokines), exodus-2, and secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine (SLC). (rockland.com)
  • Recombinant Human TECK is a 14.2 kDa protein containing 127 amino acid residues, including the four conserved cysteine residues present in CC chemokines. (peprotech.com)
  • ve and 4T1 tumor-bearing mice as referred to previously, and chemokines had been examined with an R&D Systems Mouse Cytokine Array, -panel A (Catalog # ARY006) based on the producers instructions. (87paydays.info)
  • Chemokines modulate immune surveillance in tumorigenesis, metastasis, and response to immunotherapy. (genscript.com)
  • CXCR4 (also known as fusin) is the receptor for a chemokine known as CXCL12 (or SDF-1) and, as with CCR5, is utilized by HIV-1 to gain entry into target cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mean CSF CXCL13 was higher in definite LNB (3524 ng/g CSF protein) than in MS (27 ng/g) and non-Lyme meningitis (23 ng/g) (p (scandtick.com)
  • In neurological Lyme patients, higher levels of inflammatory compounds including IL-6, IL-2, Interleukin-5 (IL-5), Interleukin-10 (IL-10), and CXCL13 were found in spinal fluid 13 . (goodbyelyme.com)
  • It is well documented that epigenetic and genetic alterations including transcription factors, growth factors, cytokines, chemokines and proteases are critically involved in cancer progression under specific microenvironment [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our aim was to evaluate diagnostic accuracy of CSF CXCL13 in a cohort of 59 consecutive patients referred to hospital for suspected LNB. (scandtick.com)
  • Several studies have implicated the improved secretion of chemokines and also infiltration of a selection of immunological tissue straight into tissue regarding Gaucher condition individuals. (skku.edu)
  • stromal-derived LTR using its ligand, lymphotoxin-12 (LT12) on LTis, drives a cascade of chemokine and stromal markers, which recruit and organize immune system cells in to the developing DY131 lymphoid tissues (2). (arcillaresearch.com)
  • Appearance from the chemokine receptor CCR6 by B cells is crucial for extension of ILFs. (arcillaresearch.com)
  • In recent years growing evidence suggests that cell trafficking orchestrated by the chemokine receptor CCR7 plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of CLL. (frontiersin.org)
  • Chemokines expressed by the CNS vasculature have a role in regulating immune cell and neural progenitor cell occupancy within perivascular spaces. (frontiersin.org)
  • To study the value of immunomarkers CXCL13, CD10, bcl-6 in pathologic diagnosis of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL). (bvsalud.org)
  • We cross-sectionally evaluated 41 chemokines and cytokines at the peak of hepatitis in the sera from 41 self-limited AH patients who achieved HBsAg seroconversion, 8 AH patients who failed to clear HBsAg within 1 year after the diagnosis, 8 CH patients with hepatic flare, and 14 healthy volunteers. (jci.org)