Chemokine CXCL12: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.Chemokine CXCL13: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CXCL10: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemokine CXCL6: A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CXCL11: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemokine CXCL1: A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.Chemokine CXCL9: An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemokines, CXC: Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.Receptors, Chemokine: Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Receptors, CXCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.Chemokine CXCL5: A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.Receptors, CXCR4: CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Receptors, CXCR3: CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Chemokine CCL5: A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.Receptors, CXCR5: CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.Receptors, Interleukin-8B: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.Chemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CXCL2: A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CCL21: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Chemokine CCL4: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Chemokine CCL22: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.Chemokine CCL3: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Chemokine CCL17: A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Receptors, Scavenger: A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.Chemokine CCL19: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CX3CL1: A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.Chemokines, CC: Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Heterocyclic Compounds: Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Mice, Inbred C57BLPlatelet Factor 4: A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.Chemokine CCL7: A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CCL20: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Chemokine CCL11: A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Chemokine CCL1: A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.Neutrophil Infiltration: The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Chemokine CCL27: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Receptors, CCR2: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.Receptors, CCR1: CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Receptors, CCR5: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.Chemokine CCL8: A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins: Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Receptors, CCR4: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.Receptors, Interleukin-8A: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.Mice, Inbred BALB CT-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Receptors, CCR3: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Receptors, CCR7: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Receptors, CCR10: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Receptors, CCR8: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Chemokine CCL24: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Receptors, Cytokine: Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Monocyte Chemoattractant Proteins: Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Receptors, CCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Chemokines, CX3C: Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.Chemotactic Factors: Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.Receptors, CCR6: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Monokines: Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Receptors, HIV: Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Duffy Blood-Group System: A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Cell Migration Inhibition: Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Chemotactic Factors, Eosinophil: Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Angiostatic Proteins: Proteins that specifically inhibit the growth of new blood vessels (ANGIOGENESIS, PHYSIOLOGIC).Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Transendothelial and Transepithelial Migration: The passage of cells across the layer of ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, i.e., the ENDOTHELIUM; or across the layer of EPITHELIAL CELLS, i.e. the EPITHELIUM.

The T cell-specific CXC chemokines IP-10, Mig, and I-TAC are expressed by activated human bronchial epithelial cells. (1/169)

Recruitment of activated T cells to mucosal surfaces, such as the airway epithelium, is important in host defense and for the development of inflammatory diseases at these sites. We therefore asked whether the CXC chemokines IFN-induced protein of 10 kDa (IP-10), monokine induced by IFN-gamma (Mig), and IFN-inducible T-cell alpha-chemoattractant (I-TAC), which specifically chemoattract activated T cells by signaling through the chemokine receptor CXCR3, were inducible in respiratory epithelial cells. The effects of proinflammatory cytokines, including IFN-gamma (Th1-type cytokine), Th2-type cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13), and dexamethasone were studied in normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBEC) and in two human respiratory epithelial cell lines, A549 and BEAS-2B. We found that IFN-gamma, but not TNF-alpha or IL-1 beta, strongly induced IP-10, Mig, and I-TAC mRNA accumulation mainly in NHBEC and that TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta synergized with IFN-gamma induction in all three cell types. High levels of IP-10 protein (> 800 ng/ml) were detected in supernatants of IFN-gamma/TNF-alpha-stimulated NHBEC. Neither dexamethasone nor Th2 cytokines modulated IP-10, Mig, or I-TAC expression. Since IFN-gamma is up-regulated in tuberculosis (TB), using in situ hybridization we studied the expression of IP-10 in the airways of TB patients and found that IP-10 mRNA was expressed in the bronchial epithelium. In addition, IP-10-positive cells obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage were significantly increased in TB patients compared with normal controls. These results show that activated bronchial epithelium is an important source of IP-10, Mig, and I-TAC, which may, in pulmonary diseases such as TB (in which IFN-gamma is highly expressed) play an important role in the recruitment of activated T cells.  (+info)

Gene expression and production of the monokine induced by IFN-gamma (MIG), IFN-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC), and IFN-gamma-inducible protein-10 (IP-10) chemokines by human neutrophils. (2/169)

Monokine induced by IFN-gamma (MIG), IFN-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC), and IFN-gamma-inducible protein of 10 kDa (IP-10) are related members of the CXC chemokine subfamily that bind to a common receptor, CXCR3, and that are produced by different cell types in response to IFN-gamma. We have recently reported that human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) have the capacity to release IP-10. Herein, we show that PMN also have the ability to produce MIG and to express I-TAC mRNA in response to IFN-gamma in combination with either TNF-alpha or LPS. While IFN-gamma, alone or in association with agonists such as fMLP, IL-8, granulocyte (G)-CSF and granulocyte-macrophage (GM)-CSF, failed to influence MIG, IP-10, and I-TAC gene expression, IFN-alpha, in combination with TNF-alpha, LPS, or IL-1beta, resulted in a considerable induction of IP-10 release by neutrophils. Furthermore, IL-10 and IL-4 significantly suppressed the expression of MIG, IP-10, and I-TAC mRNA and the extracellular production of MIG and IP-10 in neutrophils stimulated with IFN-gamma plus either LPS or TNF-alpha. Finally, supernatants harvested from stimulated PMN induced migration and rapid integrin-dependent adhesion of CXCR3-expressing lymphocytes; these activities were significantly reduced by neutralizing anti-MIG and anti-IP-10 Abs, suggesting that they were mediated by MIG and IP-10 present in the supernatants. Since MIG, IP-10, and I-TAC are potent chemoattractants for NK cells and Th1 lymphocytes, the ability of neutrophils to produce these chemokines might contribute not only to the progression and evolution of the inflammatory response, but also to the regulation of the immune response.  (+info)

Human IP-9: A keratinocyte-derived high affinity CXC-chemokine ligand for the IP-10/Mig receptor (CXCR3). (3/169)

Chemokines and their receptors play a crucial part in the recruitment of leukocytes into inflammatory sites. The CXC chemokines IP-10 and Mig are selective attractants for activated (memory) T cells, the predominant cell type in skin infiltrates in many inflammatory dermatoses. The selectivity for activated T cells can be explained by the fact that both chemokines exert their effects through a common receptor, CXCR3, which is nearly exclusively expressed on activated T cells. The aim of this study was to identify biologically active CXCR3 ligands produced by keratinocytes. To that end, Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing a cDNA encoding CXCR3 were challenged with proteins obtained from interferon-gamma stimulated keratinocytes and subsequently monitored for effects on second messenger systems. By this approach we were able to isolate IP-10 and Mig, and in addition identified a novel highly potent ligand for the CXCR3 receptor, designated interferon-gamma-inducible protein-9, which proved to be chemotactic for activated T cells expressing CXCR3. Protein sequence and mass spectrometric analysis followed by molecular cloning of the cDNA encoding interferon-gamma-inducible protein-9, revealed that interferon-gamma-inducible protein-9 is a CXC chemokine with a molecular mass of 8303 Da. From a GenBank database query it became clear that interferon-gamma-inducible protein-9 is in fact the protein encoded by the cDNA sequence also known as beta-R1, H174 or I-TAC. In situ hybridization experiments showed that interferon-gamma-inducible protein-9 mRNA is expressed by basal layer keratinocytes in a variety of skin disorders, including allergic contact dermatitis, lichen planus, and mycosis fungoides suggesting a functional role for this chemokine in skin immune responses.  (+info)

Genomic organization, sequence and transcriptional regulation of the human CXCL 11(1) gene. (4/169)

CXCL 11, encoded by the cDNA sequences designated beta-R1, H-174, or I-TAC, is a CXC chemokine ligand for CXCR3 and assumed to be involved in inflammatory diseases characterized by the presence of activated T-cells. We here describe the genomic organization (four exons interrupted by three introns of 585, 98 and 230 bp) and sequence including 960 bp from the immediate 5'-upstream region of the human CXCL 11 gene. Within the promoter region, consensus sequences for regulatory elements (ISRE, GAS, NF-kappaB) important for cytokine-induced gene transcription were identified. The effect of (pro)inflammatory cytokines on CXCL 11 mRNA expression in monocytic cell lines (THP-1, U937) and primary cultures of dermal fibroblasts and endothelial cells were examined using Northern blot analysis. For these cell types, IFN-gamma was a potent inducer of CXCL 11 transcription, which was synergistically enhanced by TNF-alpha.  (+info)

The CXCR3 activating chemokines IP-10, Mig, and IP-9 are expressed in allergic but not in irritant patch test reactions. (5/169)

Differentiation between allergic and irritant contact dermatitis reactions is difficult, as both inflammatory diseases are clinically, histologically, and immunohistologically very similar. Previous studies in mice revealed that the chemokine IP-10 is exclusively expressed in allergic contact dermatitis reactions. In the present study, we investigated whether the mRNA expression of IP-10 and the related CXCR3 activating chemokines, Mig and IP-9 are also differentially expressed in human allergic contact dermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis reactions. Skin biopsies from allergic (13 cases) and sodium lauryl sulfate-induced irritant patch test reactions (13 cases), obtained 1-72 h after patch testing, were studied by means of an in situ hybridization technique. Results of chemokine mRNA expression were correlated with clinical scoring, histology, and immunohistochemical data including the proportion of inflammatory cells expressing CXCR3, the receptor for IP-10, Mig, and IP-9, and ICAM-1 and HLA-DR expression on keratinocytes. IP-10, Mig, and IP-9 mRNA were detected in seven of nine allergic contact dermatitis reactions after 24-72 h, but not in sodium lauryl sulfate-induced irritant contact dermatitis reactions. ICAM-1 expression by keratinocytes was only found in allergic contact dermatitis reactions and correlated with chemokine expression. Moreover, up to 50% of the infiltrating cells in allergic contact dermatitis expressed CXCR3, in contrast to only 20% in irritant contact dermatitis reactions. In conclusion, we have demonstrated differences in chemokine expression between allergic contact dermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis reactions, which might reflect different regulatory mechanisms operating in these diseases and may be an important clue for differentiation between allergic contact dermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis reactions.  (+info)

Differential expression of three T lymphocyte-activating CXC chemokines by human atheroma-associated cells. (6/169)

Activated T lymphocytes accumulate early in atheroma formation and persist at sites of lesion growth and rupture, suggesting that they may play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Moreover, atherosclerotic lesions contain the Th1-type cytokine IFN-gamma, a potentiator of atherosclerosis. The present study demonstrates the differential expression of the 3 IFN-gamma-inducible CXC chemokines--IFN-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), monokine induced by IFN-gamma (Mig), and IFN-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC)--by atheroma-associated cells, as well as the expression of their receptor, CXCR3, by all T lymphocytes within human atherosclerotic lesions in situ. Atheroma-associated endothelial cells (ECs), smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and macrophages (MO) all expressed IP-10, whereas Mig and I-TAC were mainly expressed in ECs and MO, as detected by double immunofluorescence staining. ECs of microvessels within lesions also expressed abundant I-TAC. In vitro experiments supported these results and showed that IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and CD40 ligand potentiated IP-10 expression from IFN-gamma-stimulated ECs. In addition, nitric oxide (NO) treatment decreased IFN-gamma induction of IP-10. Our findings suggest that the differential expression of IP-10, Mig, and I-TAC by atheroma-associated cells plays a role in the recruitment and retention of activated T lymphocytes observed within vascular wall lesions during atherogenesis.  (+info)

Expression of IFN-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant by human endothelial cells is cyclosporin A-resistant and promotes T cell adhesion: implications for cyclosporin A-resistant immune inflammation. (7/169)

IFN-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC) is a recently discovered member of the CXC chemokine family. It is a potent T cell chemoattractant expressed by IFN-gamma-treated astrocytes, monocytes, keratinocytes, bronchial epithelial cells, and neutrophils. In this study, we show that I-TAC is also expressed by IFN-gamma-treated endothelial cells (EC), both at the mRNA and protein levels. Induction of the I-TAC message is rapid and sustained over 24 h. TNF-alpha does not induce I-TAC mRNA alone, but does act synergistically with IFN-gamma. Blocking Abs to I-TAC, or to its receptor, CXCR3, reduce T cell adhesion to EC monolayers demonstrating that the expressed protein is functional. Finally, the expression of I-TAC by EC is resistant to the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin A, suggesting that I-TAC may contribute to the chronic immune inflammation characteristic of graft arteriosclerosis.  (+info)

The murine chemokine CXCL11 (IFN-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant) is an IFN-gamma- and lipopolysaccharide-inducible glucocorticoid-attenuated response gene expressed in lung and other tissues during endotoxemia. (8/169)

A new murine chemokine was identified in a search for glucocorticoid-attenuated response genes induced in the lung during endotoxemia. The first 73 residues of the predicted mature peptide are 71% identical and 93% similar to human CXCL11/IFN-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC) (alias beta-R1, H174, IFN-inducible protein 9 (IP-9), and SCYB9B). The murine chemokine has six additional residues at the carboxyl terminus not present in human I-TAC. Identification of this cDNA as murine CXCL11/I-TAC is supported by phylogenetic analysis and by radiation hybrid mapping of murine I-TAC (gene symbol Scyb11) to mouse chromosome 5 close to the genes for monokine induced by IFN-gamma (MIG) and IP10. Murine I-TAC mRNA is induced in RAW 264.7 macrophages by IFN-gamma or LPS and is weakly induced by IFN-alphabeta. IFN-gamma induction of murine I-TAC is markedly enhanced by costimulation with LPS or IL-1beta in RAW cells and by TNF-alpha in both RAW cells and Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts. Murine I-TAC is induced in multiple tissues during endoxemia, with strongest expression in lung, heart, small intestine, and kidney, a pattern of tissue expression different from those of MIG and IP10. Peak expression of I-TAC message is delayed compared with IP10, both in lung after i.v. LPS and in RAW 264.7 cells treated with LPS or with IFN-gamma. Pretreatment with dexamethasone strongly attenuates both IFN-gamma-induced I-TAC expression in RAW cells and endotoxemia-induced I-TAC expression in lung and small intestine. The structural and regulatory similarities of murine and human I-TAC suggest that mouse models will be useful for investigating the role of this chemokine in human biology and disease.  (+info)

*CXCL11

C-X-C motif chemokine 11 (CXCL11) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CXCL11 gene. C-X-C motif chemokine 11 is a ... Gene expression of CXCL11 is strongly induced by IFN-γ and IFN-β, and weakly induced by IFN-α. This chemokine elicits its ... Human CXCL11 genome location and CXCL11 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Rani MR, Foster GR, Leung S, Leaman D, ... GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000169248 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: CXCL11 chemokine (C-X- ...

*ACKR3

It is now classified as a chemokine receptor able to bind the chemokines CXCL12/SDF-1 and CXCL11. The protein is also a ... Atypical chemokine receptor 3 also known as C-X-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CXCR-7) and G-protein coupled receptor 159 (GPR159 ... "Entrez Gene: CXCR7 chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 7". * Rajagopal S, Kim J, Ahn S, Craig S, Lam CM, Gerard NP, Gerard C, ... "A novel chemokine receptor for SDF-1 and I-TAC involved in cell survival, cell adhesion, and tumor development". The Journal of ...

*CXCL9

It is closely related to two other CXC chemokines called CXCL10 and CXCL11, whose genes are located near the gene for CXCL9 on ... Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 (CXCL9) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also known as ... Campbell JD, Stinson MJ, Simons FE, Rector ES, HayGlass KT (July 2001). "In vivo stability of human chemokine and chemokine ... Shields PL, Morland CM, Salmon M, Qin S, Hubscher SG, Adams DH (December 1999). "Chemokine and chemokine receptor interactions ...

*Immunoediting

... as well as promoting the production of chemokines CXCL10, CXCL9 and CXCL11. These chemokines play an important role in ... The recruitment of more immune cells also occurs and is mediated by the chemokines produced during the inflammatory process. In ...

*Index of immunology articles

Cross-presentation Cross-reactivity Cryptic self epitopes Cryptotope CX3CL1 CX3CR1 CXC chemokine receptors CXCL1 CXCL10 CXCL11 ... C-C chemokine receptor type 6 C-C chemokine receptor type 7 Calreticulin Cancer immunology Cancer immunoprevention Cancer ... CD4 CD4+ T cells and antitumor immunity CD74 CD94/NKG2 Cell-mediated immunity CELSR1 Central tolerance Chemokine Chemokine ... immunotherapy Cantuzumab ravtansine Cathelicidin CC chemokine receptors CCBP2 CCL1 CCL11 CCL12 CCL13 CCL14 CCL15 CCL16 CCL17 ...

*CXC chemokine receptors

There are two isoforms, CXCR3-A and CXCR3-B. It has three highly related ligands in mammals, CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11. CXCR4 ( ... CXC chemokine receptors are integral membrane proteins that specifically bind and respond to cytokines of the CXC chemokine ... However, CXCR6 is more closely related in structure to CC chemokine receptors than to other CXC chemokine receptors. CXCR7 was ... within the chemokine receptor cluster on human chromosome 3p21) and its similarity to other chemokine receptors in its gene ...

*Chemokine

CXCL10 and CXCL11 are secreted. Mast cells: on their surface express several receptors for chemokines: CCR1, CCR2, CCR3, CCR4, ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines in that it has ... CCL1 for the ligand 1 of the CC-family of chemokines, and CCR1 for its respective receptor. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) ...

*CXCR3

... -A binds to the CXC chemokines CXCL9 (MIG), CXCL10 (IP-10), and CXCL11 (I-TAC) whereas CXCR3-B can also bind to CXCL4 in ... Chemokine receptor CXCR3 is a Gαi protein-coupled receptor in the CXC chemokine receptor family. Other names for CXCR3 are G ... Chemokine receptors Chemokine Cluster of differentiation GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000186810 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38 ... "Expression of specific chemokines and chemokine receptors in the central nervous system of multiple sclerosis patients". The ...

*Chromosome 4 (human)

... chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9, scyb9 CXCL10: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10, scyb10 CXCL11: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ... chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1, scyb1 CXCL2: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2, scyb2 CXCL3: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 3 ... chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 5, scyb5 CXCL6: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6, scyb6 CXCL7: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 7 ... scyb3 CXCL4: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 4, Platelet factor-4, PF-4, scyb4 CXCL5: ...

*CXCL10

C-X-C motif chemokine 10 is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family. The gene for CXCL10 is located on human ... CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 have proven to be valid biomarkers for the development of heart failure and left ventricular ... This chemokine elicits its effects by binding to the cell surface chemokine receptor CXCR3. The three-dimensional crystal ... C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10) also known as Interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10) or small-inducible cytokine B10 is ...
Bachem offers H-4606 Interferon-Inducible T Cell α-Chemoattractant (human) for your research. Find all specific details here. Find product specific information including available pack sizes, CAS, detailed description and references here.
Background Ulcerative colitis is characterized by relapsing mucosal inflammation where the lesions include tissue-damaging granulocytes. In addition, T cells and natural killer (NK) cells play important pathophysiologic roles. Chemokines are a large family of peptides that play key roles in the regulation of inflammation. The CXC-chemokines, growth-related oncogene (GRO)-α/CXCL1 and interleukin (IL)-8/CXCL8, both recruit neutrophils and possess mitogenic properties, whereas the interferon-dependent CXC-chemokines monokine induced by gamma-interferon (MIG)/CXCL9, interferon-γ inducible protein of 10 kD/CXCL10, and IFN-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant/CXCL11 recruit and activate T cells and NK cells. Materials and methods The expression of CXC-chemokines was studied in eight controls and in 11 patients suffering from ulcerative colitis in the distal part of the colon, before and during topical treatment with corticosteroids. Perfusates (obtained before, after 7 days, and after 28 days of ...
Lemongrass ( Cymbopogon flexuosus ) essential oil (LEO), which has citral as its main component, has exhibited anti-inflammatory effect in both animal and human cells. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of a commercially available LEO in pre-inflamed human dermal fibroblasts. We first studied the impact of LEO on 17 protein biomarkers that are critically associated with inflammation and tissue remodeling. LEO significantly inhibited production of the inflammatory biomarkers vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10), interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC), and monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG); decreased levels of the tissue remodeling biomarkers collagen-I and III, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1); and inhibited the immunomodulatory biomarker macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Intrahepatic levels of CXCR3-associated chemokines correlate with liver inflammation and fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C. AU - Zeremski, Marija. AU - Petrovic, Lydia M.. AU - Chiriboga, Luis. AU - Brown, Queenie B.. AU - Yee, Herman T.. AU - Kinkhabwala, Milan. AU - Jacobson, Ira M.. AU - Dimova, Rositsa. AU - Markatou, Marianthi. AU - Talal, Andrew H.. PY - 2008/11/1. Y1 - 2008/11/1. N2 - Chemokines, chemotactic cytokines, may promote hepatic inflammation in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection through the recruitment of lymphocytes to the liver parenchyma. We evaluated the association between inflammation and fibrosis and CXCR3-associated chemokines, interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-inducible protein 10 (IP-10/CXCL10), monokine induced by IFN-γ(Mig/CXCL9), and interferon-inducible T cell α chemoattractant (I-TAC/CXCL11), in HCV infection. Intrahepatic mRNA expression of these chemokines was analyzed in 106 chronic HCV-infected patients by real-time PCR. The intrahepatic ...
|p|Recombinant Human I-TAC is a single non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 73 amino acids.|/p| |p|Background: I-TAC/CXCL11 cDNA encodes a 94 amino acid (aa) residue precursor protein with a 21 aa residue putative signal sequence, which is cleav
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Joachim Frank (Columbia University, New York, USA) is a pioneer of single particle reconstruction, which is the most used reconstruction method for 3DEM structures in EMDB and EM entries in PDB. And also, he is a develper of Spider, which is one of the most famous software in this field, and is used for some EM Navigor data (e.g. map projection/slice images ...
购买我们的重组小鼠MIG蛋白。Ab50083为有活性的全长蛋白,在大肠杆菌中生产并经过SDS-PAGE, Functional Studies实验验证。中国80%以上现货。
This study provides extensive characterization of the novel high affinity SDF-1 (CXCL12)-binding receptor that we reported in an earlier publication (14). The novel receptor, initially designated CCX CKR2 (14) but renamed CXCR7 in this paper, is a 7-transmembrane receptor encoded by RDC1 (21, 22), a gene that, before our initial report (14), belonged to the family of orphan receptors with unknown ligands (20). In addition to binding SDF-1, CXCR7 is also a high affinity receptor for I-TAC (CXCL11) that, before our investigations, was regarded as a ligand for CXCR3 only. Our data show that CXCR7 regulates several important biological processes including cell survival, cell adhesion, and tumor development in animal models. CXCR7 is expressed on many tumor cells but not on most nontransformed cells. Although not expressed on unstimulated endothelial cells, CXCR7 can be induced, in vitro, on cells that form the neovasculature, a finding that is consistent with the independent studies of Madden et ...
Les chimiokines sont des petites protéines secrétées dont la fonction principale est la stimulation de la migration de cellules immunitaires vers différents organes et tissus. Elles sont souvent impliquées lors des maladies inflammatoires, auto-immunes et des cancers. Ainsi, les chimiokines et leurs récepteurs couplés aux protéines G (RCPG) sont la cible pharmacologique de plusieurs molécules, actuellement testées en essais cliniques. Nous avons pris comme modèle, lors de notre étude, le récepteur atypique CXCR7. Ce récepteur est dit atypique, car il ne signalise pas via la voie classique des protéines G, mais plutôt via la voie de la β-arrestine. CXCR7 est impliqué dans de nombreux cancers, favorise la progression métastatique et est un co-récepteur pour le virus de limmunodéficience humaine (VIH). Cependant, aucune donnée sur son mode de liaison avec ses ligands CXCL11/ITAC et CXCL12/SDF-1 nexiste à date. Nous pensons que cette information est essentielle pour le ...
Human C-X-C Motif Chemokine 9 / Monokine Induced by Gamma Interferon (CXCL9 / MIG) standard, for use in running standard curves in AlphaLISA no-wash detection assay
IP-10 has been detected in the CSF and brain parenchyma of patients with a variety of neuroinflammatory diseases (15, 26, 43, 44) and is a potent chemoattractant for activated T lymphocytes and NK cells (11). In EAE, an animal model for MS, IP-10 levels in the CNS have been correlated with the development of clinical disease and the recruitment of CXCR3-expressing pathogenic T cells (19, 20, 45). Treatment of SJL mice with Abs to IP-10 before adoptive transfer of encephalitogenic T cells or immunizing mice with naked IP-10 DNA decreased the severity of EAE (29). Based on these observations, IP-10 is thought to be essential for the development of CNS mononuclear infiltrates, and its receptor CXCR3, is considered a putative therapeutic target for diseases involving the trafficking of inflammatory T cells. However, the absolute requirement for IP-10 in EAE has never been directly examined.. In this study, we sought to determine whether IP-10 is required for the development of EAE by analyzing ...
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Aortic and plasma expression levels of IL-18 and CXCL16.(A) Reduced aortic mRNA expression of IL-18 and CXCL16, but no change in the expression of IFN-γ is obs
Chemokines mediate diverse fundamental biological processes, including combating infection. Multiple chemokines are expressed at the site of infection; thus chemokine synergy by heterodimer formation may play a role in determining function. Chemokine function involves interactions with G-protein-coupled receptors and sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAG). However, very little is known regarding heterodimer structural features and receptor and GAG interactions. Solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and molecular dynamics characterization of platelet-derived chemokine CXCL7 heterodimerization with chemokines CXCL1, CXCL4, and CXCL8 indicated that packing interactions promote CXCL7-CXCL1 and CXCL7-CXCL4 heterodimers, and electrostatic repulsive interactions disfavor the CXCL7-CXCL8 heterodimer. As characterizing the native heterodimer is challenging due to interference from monomers and homodimers, we engineered a
HEK293T-HuCXCR4-FLAG cell line is a hypotriploid human cell line, which has been transfected with a Human chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4) tagged in the N-terminus with FLAG to allow stably express of the human CXCR4 tagged in the N-terminus with FLAG protein. It is an example of a cell line transfected using our proprietary CBTGS gene screening and amplification system.
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the G-protein-coupled receptor family. This protein is a receptor for interleukin 8 (IL8). It binds to IL8 with high affin
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the G-protein-coupled receptor family. This protein is a receptor for interleukin 8 (IL8). It binds to IL8 with high affin
References for Abcams Recombinant human CXCL5 protein (ab50039). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
p53 protein levels increase in HDFs, such as IMR90 and MRC5, during replicative senescence (8-11). Moreover, p53 sequence-specific DNA-binding activity and transcriptional activity also increase during replicative senescence (9, 12). These studies (8-12) have suggested a role for p53 in the onset and maintenance of cellular senescence. Consistent with this idea, the p53-mediated induction of p21 and Gadd45 genes in normal human cells is known (13, 16, 17) to play a role in cell growth arrest. However, the number of p53 target genes whose expression is induced during cellular senescence in HDFs remains rather limited. Therefore, our observations that p53 activates the transcription of IFI16, a candidate cellular senescence gene, in response to certain DNA damage signals in normal human fibroblasts are important.. The IFI16 protein is an IFN-inducible protein and treatment of a variety of cells with IFNs (α, β, or γ) has been shown to result in up-regulation of the IFI16 mRNA and protein (21). ...
GPR-9-6 is a chemokine receptor for TECK. (A) GPR-9-6 transfectants were examined for chemotactic responses to various concentrations of TECK and I-TAC ranging
Thursday, July 20, 1950 ER War Could Hurt Arkansas Balance of Agri-Industry Note: Thi. k itac I»s( X * Kritc of ftorta discussing Arkansu economic, induclrul and business raini) BT RAKI.KV PCKSHING KOCK, July 20. (AP) - Where would Arkansa. Edition of The Courier News
The anaerobic bacterium Finegoldia magna is part of the human commensal microbiota, but is also an important opportunistic pathogen. This bacterium expresses a subtilisin-like serine proteinase, SufA, which partially degrade the antibacterial chemokine MIG/CXCL9. Here, we show that MIG/CXCL9 is produced by human keratinocytes in response to inflammatory stimuli. In contrast to the virulent human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes, the presence of F. magna had no enhancing effect on the MIG/CXCL9 expression by keratinocytes, suggesting poor detection of the latter by pathogen-recognition receptors. When MIG/CXCL9 was exposed to SufA-expressing F. magna, the molecule was processed into several smaller fragments. Analysis by mass spectrometry showed that SufA cleaves MIG/CXCL9 at several sites in the COOH-terminal region of the molecule. At equimolar concentrations, SufA-generated MIG/CXCL9 fragments were not bactericidal against F. magna, but retained their ability to kill S. pyogenes. Moreover, the ...
Cxcl12 - Cxcl12 (untagged ORF) - Rat chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (stromal cell-derived factor 1) (Cxcl12), transcript variant 3, (10 ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. CXCL8 ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. CXCL2 ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
Complete information for CXCL9 gene (Protein Coding), C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 9, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Cxcl11 - Cxcl11 (Myc-DDK-tagged) - Mouse chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11 (Cxcl11), transcript variant 1 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
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human CXCL9 / MIG ELISA pair set and full ELISA kit. Detection range:15.63-1000 pg/mL . Save up to 60%. Bulk at deep discounts. High quality quaranteed.

ACKR3 - Atypical chemokine receptor 3 - Homo sapiens (Human) - ACKR3 gene & proteinACKR3 - Atypical chemokine receptor 3 - Homo sapiens (Human) - ACKR3 gene & protein

... or chemokine-scavenging receptor or chemokine decoy receptor. Acts as a receptor for chemokines CXCL11 and CXCL12/SDF1. ... Chemokine binding does not activate G-protein-mediated signal transduction but instead induces beta-arrestin recruitment, ... Not involved in cell migration, adhesion or proliferation of normal hematopoietic progenitors but activated by CXCL11 in ... Required for regulation of CXCR4 protein levels in migrating interneurons, thereby adapting their chemokine responsiveness. In ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P25106

Interferon-Inducible T Cell α-Chemoattractant (human) H-4606 | BachemInterferon-Inducible T Cell α-Chemoattractant (human) H-4606 | Bachem

The chemokine I-TAC (interferon-inducible T cell α-chemoattractant), a non-ELR C-X-C chemokine, is regulated by interferon and ... Synonyms I-TAC (human), CXCL11 (human) Molecular Formula C₃₆₈H₆₁₉N₁₀₇O₉₈S₆ Relative Molecular Mass 8303.02 ...
more infohttp://shop.bachem.com/h-4606.html

Developmental expression patterns of chemokines CXCL11, CXCL12 and their receptor CXCR7 in testes of common marmoset and human....Developmental expression patterns of chemokines CXCL11, CXCL12 and their receptor CXCR7 in testes of common marmoset and human....

The chemokine receptor CXCR7 interacts with the chemokines CXCL11 and CXCL12. During development, this ligand receptor system ( ... Developmental expression patterns of chemokines CXCL11, CXCL12 and their receptor CXCR7 in testes of common marmoset and human. ... Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed in monkeys to detect CXCL11, CXCL12 and CXCR7. At the protein ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/25810367

Table 3 RNAseq Profiling of Leukocyte Populations in Zebrafish Larvae Reveals a cxcl11 Chemokine Gene as a Marker of Macrophage...Table 3 RNAseq Profiling of Leukocyte Populations in Zebrafish Larvae Reveals a cxcl11 Chemokine Gene as a Marker of Macrophage...

RNAseq Profiling of Leukocyte Populations in Zebrafish Larvae Reveals a cxcl11 Chemokine Gene as a Marker of Macrophage ... Among the infection-induced genes, a homolog of the human CXCL11 chemokine gene, cxcl11aa, stood out as the most strongly ... Table_3_RNAseq Profiling of Leukocyte Populations in Zebrafish Larvae Reveals a cxcl11 Chemokine Gene as a Marker of Macrophage ...
more infohttps://frontiersin.figshare.com/articles/Table_3_RNAseq_Profiling_of_Leukocyte_Populations_in_Zebrafish_Larvae_Reveals_a_cxcl11_Chemokine_Gene_as_a_Marker_of_Macrophage_Polarization_During_Mycobacterial_Infection_XLSX/8003090/1

Recombinant Human Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 11, His-tagged CXCL11-270H - Creative BioMartRecombinant Human Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 11, His-tagged CXCL11-270H - Creative BioMart

Recombinant human CXCL11 protein, fused to His-tag at N-terminus, was expressed in E.coli and purified by conventional ... CXCL11. Synonyms:. CXCL11; IP9; Beta-R1; H174; IP-9; b-R1; ITAC; I-TAC; SCYB11; SCYB9B; MGC102770; C-X-C motif chemokine 11 ... Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11 (CXCL11) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also called ... Recombinant Human Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 11, His-tagged. Download Datasheet See All CXCL11 Products. Bring this labeled ...
more infohttps://www.creativebiomart.net/description_20261_7.htm

CXCL11 - WikipediaCXCL11 - Wikipedia

C-X-C motif chemokine 11 (CXCL11) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CXCL11 gene.[3] ... "Entrez Gene: CXCL11 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11".. *^ a b Cole KE, Strick CA, Paradis TJ, Ogborne KT, Loetscher M, Gladue ... Gene expression of CXCL11 is strongly induced by IFN-γ and IFN-β, and weakly induced by IFN-α.[5] This chemokine elicits its ... CXCL11, H174, I-TAC, IP-9, IP9, SCYB11, SCYB9B, b-R1, C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 11. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CXCL11

Recombinant Human Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 11, MIgG2a Fc-tagged CXCL11-167H - Creative BioMartRecombinant Human Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 11, MIgG2a Fc-tagged CXCL11-167H - Creative BioMart

The extracellular domain of human CXCL11 (AAH05292.1)(Phe22-Phe94) is fused to the N-terminus of the Fc region of mouse IgG2a ... CXCL11. Synonyms:. CXCL11; chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11; SCYB9B, SCYB11, small inducible cytokine subfamily B (Cys X Cys ... Recombinant Human Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 11, MIgG2a Fc-tagged. Download Datasheet See All CXCL11 Products. Bring this ... Chemokine receptors bind chemokines, organism-specific biosystem; Chemokine signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem; ...
more infohttps://www.creativebiomart.net/description_397206_12.htm

Recombinant Anti-chemokine (ccl2, ccl3, ccl5, cxcl11, cxcl12) single-domain Antibody scFv Fragment - Creative BiolabsRecombinant Anti-chemokine (ccl2, ccl3, ccl5, cxcl11, cxcl12) single-domain Antibody scFv Fragment - Creative Biolabs

... cxcl11, cxcl12) single-domain Antibody scFv Fragment is available from creative biolabs. ... chemokine (ccl2, ccl3, ccl5, cxcl11, cxcl12) single-domain; ccl2; ccl3; ccl5; cxcl11; cxcl12; chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2; ... Chemokine (ccl2, Ccl3, Ccl5, Cxcl11, Cxcl12) Single-domain. *Recombinant Anti-chemokine (ccl2, ccl3, ccl5, cxcl11, cxcl12) ... cxcl11, cxcl12) single-domain Antibody Fab Fragment ( MOB-198-F(E) ) Recombinant Human Anti-chemokine (ccl2, ccl3, ccl5, cxcl11 ...
more infohttps://www.creativebiolabs.net/Recombinant-Anti-chemokine-ccl2-ccl3-ccl5-cxcl11-cxcl12-single-domain-Antibody-scFv-Fragment-1361.htm

Ackr3 - Atypical chemokine receptor 3 - Rattus norvegicus (Rat) - Ackr3 gene & proteinAckr3 - Atypical chemokine receptor 3 - Rattus norvegicus (Rat) - Ackr3 gene & protein

... or chemokine-scavenging receptor or chemokine decoy receptor. Acts as a receptor for chemokines CXCL11 and CXCL12/SDF1. ... Chemokine binding does not activate G-protein-mediated signal transduction but instead induces beta-arrestin recruitment, ... Not involved in cell migration, adhesion or proliferation of normal hematopoietic progenitors but activated by CXCL11 in ... Required for regulation of CXCR4 protein levels in migrating interneurons, thereby adapting their chemokine responsiveness. In ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/O89039

Scientists solve the structure of a membrane protein that is increased in cancer: post #1Scientists solve the structure of a membrane protein that is increased in cancer: post #1

has solved the structure of a membrane protein called the atypical chemokine receptor 3 (ACKR3). The study, published online 18 ... ACKR3 is able to bind chemokines CXCL11 and CXCL12. ACKR3 is upregulated in many cancer types, making it a potential drug ... The interactions between chemokines and seven-transmembrane chemokine receptors are known to drive cell migration. Study co- ... has solved the structure of a membrane protein called the atypical chemokine receptor 3 (ACKR3). The study, published online 18 ...
more infohttp://www.protocol-online.org/forums/topic/35688-scientists-solve-the-structure-of-a-membrane-protein-that-is-increased-in-cancer/

Atypical Chemokine Receptor 3 CXC Chemokine Receptor Type 7 or Chemokine Orphan Receptor 1 or G Protein Coupled Receptor 159 or...Atypical Chemokine Receptor 3 CXC Chemokine Receptor Type 7 or Chemokine Orphan Receptor 1 or G Protein Coupled Receptor 159 or...

Atypical Chemokine Receptor 3 CXC Chemokine Receptor Type 7 or Chemokine Orphan Receptor 1 or G Protein Coupled Receptor 159 or ... It acts as a receptor for chemokines CXCL11 and CXCL12/SDF1. Chemokine binding does not activate Gproteinmediated signal ... Chemokine Receptor 3 CXC Chemokine Receptor Type 7 or Chemokine Orphan Receptor 1 or G Protein Coupled Receptor 159 or G ... Atypical Chemokine Receptor 3 CXC Chemokine Receptor Type 7 or Chemokine Orphan Receptor 1 or G Protein Coupled Receptor 159 or ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/news/article/3412105/Atypical-Chemokine-Receptor-3-CXC-Chemokine-Receptor-Type-7-or-Chemokine-Orphan.html

Ariane Jansma, Ph.D. | PLNUAriane Jansma, Ph.D. | PLNU

Characterization of the chemokine CXCL11 - heparin interaction suggests two different affinities for glycosaminoglycans. J. ... Homo- and hetero-oligomerization of chemokines. Methods Enzymol. 461, 31 - 50. *Winter, J. M.; Jansma, A.; Handel, T. M.; Moore ... NMR Analysis of the Structure, Dynamics, and Unique Oligomerization Properties of the Human Chemokine CCL27. J. Biol. Chem. 285 ... "Distinct signaling and glycosaminoglycan-binding properties of the CC chemokine receptor type 10 ligands, CCL27 and CCL28." ...
more infohttps://www.pointloma.edu/faculty/ariane-jansma-phd

Pulsed high-dose dexamethasone modulates Th1-/Th2-chemokine imbalance in immune thrombocytopenia | Journal of Translational...Pulsed high-dose dexamethasone modulates Th1-/Th2-chemokine imbalance in immune thrombocytopenia | Journal of Translational...

Plasma levels of CCL5 and CXCL11 (Th1-associated) and of CCL11 (Th2-associated) were determined by ELISA. Gene expression of ... Th1-/Th2-associated chemokine and chemokine receptor profiles in ITP patients before and after pulsed HD-DXM was studied. ... Th2-associated chemokines and chemokine receptors may play important roles in the pathogenesis of ITP. Importantly, regulating ... Our aim was to investigate the mechanism of pulsed HD-DXM for management of ITP, specifically regarding the chemokine pathways ...
more infohttps://translational-medicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12967-016-1064-9

Alternaria inhibits double-stranded RNA-induced cytokine production through toll-like receptor 3<...Alternaria inhibits double-stranded RNA-induced cytokine production through toll-like receptor 3<...

... chemokine CXCL10 (IP-10), chemokine CXCL11 (I-TAC) and IFN-β was measured by ELISA. Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) mRNA and ... chemokine CXCL10 (IP-10), chemokine CXCL11 (I-TAC) and IFN-β was measured by ELISA. Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) mRNA and ... chemokine CXCL10 (IP-10), chemokine CXCL11 (I-TAC) and IFN-β was measured by ELISA. Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) mRNA and ... chemokine CXCL10 (IP-10), chemokine CXCL11 (I-TAC) and IFN-β was measured by ELISA. Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) mRNA and ...
more infohttps://mayoclinic.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/alternaria-inhibits-double-stranded-rna-induced-cytokine-producti

Atypical Chemokine Receptor 3 (C-X-C Chemokine Receptor Type 7 or Chemokine Orphan Receptor 1 or G Protein Coupled Receptor 159...Atypical Chemokine Receptor 3 (C-X-C Chemokine Receptor Type 7 or Chemokine Orphan Receptor 1 or G Protein Coupled Receptor 159...

C-X-C Chemokine Receptor Type 7 or Chemokine Orphan Receptor 1 or G Protein Coupled Receptor 159 or G Protein Coupled Receptor ... It acts as a receptor for chemokines CXCL11 and CXCL12/SDF1. Chemokine binding does not activate G-protein-mediated signal ... Atypical Chemokine Receptor 3 (C-X-C Chemokine Receptor Type 7 or Chemokine Orphan Receptor 1 or G Protein Coupled Receptor 159 ... Product: Atypical Chemokine Receptor 3 (C-X-C Chemokine Receptor Type 7 or Chemokine Orphan Receptor 1 or G Protein Coupled ...
more infohttps://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/4518521/atypical-chemokine-receptor-3-c-x-c-chemokine

Frontiers | The Activity of CCL18 is Principally Mediated through Interaction with Glycosaminoglycans | ImmunologyFrontiers | The Activity of CCL18 is Principally Mediated through Interaction with Glycosaminoglycans | Immunology

In view of the lack of potent immunomodulatory properties, we wondered if binding to CCL18 by the tick chemokine binding ... In view of the lack of potent immunomodulatory properties, we wondered if binding to CCL18 by the tick chemokine binding ... The CC chemokine ligand 18 (CCL18) was first identified as a chemoattractant for naïve T cells. It has been reported to recruit ... The CC chemokine ligand 18 (CCL18) was first identified as a chemoattractant for naïve T cells. It has been reported to recruit ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2013.00193/full

Anti-Collagen IV antibody (ab19808) References | AbcamAnti-Collagen IV antibody (ab19808) References | Abcam

Yates CC et al. ELR-negative CXC chemokine CXCL11 (IP-9/I-TAC) facilitates dermal and epidermal maturation during wound repair. ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/collagen-iv-antibody-ab19808-references.html

Disrupted cardiac development but normal hematopoiesis in mice deficient in the second CXCL12/SDF-1 receptor, CXCR7 | PNASDisrupted cardiac development but normal hematopoiesis in mice deficient in the second CXCL12/SDF-1 receptor, CXCR7 | PNAS

CXCL12 and CXCL11 Are the Only Two Chemokine Ligands of CXCR7.. SLVs develop normally in Cxcl12 −/− mice (4), suggesting that a ... 12A ). Only CXCL12 (SDF-1) and CXCL11 (ITAC) could displace 125I-CXCL12 binding, and CXCL11 was not as efficient as cold CXCL12 ... Because C57BL/6 mice develop normally in the absence of a functional copy of Cxcl11, CXCL11/CXCR7 interaction is unlikely to ... Chemokine receptor heterodimerization increases the sensitivity and dynamic range of the chemokine response (35). We evaluated ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/104/37/14759.full

Disrupted cardiac development but normal hematopoiesis in mice deficient in the second CXCL12/SDF-1 receptor, CXCR7 | PNASDisrupted cardiac development but normal hematopoiesis in mice deficient in the second CXCL12/SDF-1 receptor, CXCR7 | PNAS

CXCL12 and CXCL11 Are the Only Two Chemokine Ligands of CXCR7.. SLVs develop normally in Cxcl12 −/− mice (4), suggesting that a ... 12A ). Only CXCL12 (SDF-1) and CXCL11 (ITAC) could displace 125I-CXCL12 binding, and CXCL11 was not as efficient as cold CXCL12 ... Because C57BL/6 mice develop normally in the absence of a functional copy of Cxcl11, CXCL11/CXCR7 interaction is unlikely to ... Chemokine receptor heterodimerization increases the sensitivity and dynamic range of the chemokine response (35). We evaluated ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/104/37/14759?ijkey=cae2d29502b696642c33e22dc629bb64d0ade0e2&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

TLR2-mediated inhibition of IFN-γ induction of CXCL11  | Open-iTLR2-mediated inhibition of IFN-γ induction of CXCL11 | Open-i

TLR2-mediated inhibition of IFN-γ induction of CXCL11 and CIITA decreases expression of protein products.A. BALB/c BMDM were ... CIITA and CXCL11. Surface expression of MHC class II and secretion of CXCL11 were greatly reduced as well, indicating that the ... CIITA and CXCL11. Surface expression of MHC class II and secretion of CXCL11 were greatly reduced as well, indicating that the ... Culture supernatants were harvested and assayed for CXCL11 by ELISA. Stimulation with IFN-γ resulted in secretion of CXCL11 ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC2710511_pone.0006329.g002&req=4

Evidence That the Lipid Phosphatase SHIP-1 Regulates T Lymphocyte Morphology and Motility | The Journal of ImmunologyEvidence That the Lipid Phosphatase SHIP-1 Regulates T Lymphocyte Morphology and Motility | The Journal of Immunology

6C). This reduction in basal motility reduced the number of cells that migrated to the chemokine CXCL11, although the ... D, Representative migration tracks of cells responding to CXCL11 (100 nM); the source of CXCL11 is indicated by a green bar; ... the ratio of the number of cells that migrated to the CXCL11/number of cells that migrated in the absence of chemokine). B, ... upon treatment with the chemokine CXCL11 as the cells flatten and polarize with membrane ruffling (Fig. 4). After a longer ...
more infohttps://www.jimmunol.org/content/186/8/4936?ijkey=891f01a3ef9ad8d00ca644262484e2f03cd59d50&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Intrahepatic levels of CXCR3-associated chemokines correlate with liver inflammation and fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C<...Intrahepatic levels of CXCR3-associated chemokines correlate with liver inflammation and fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C<...

I-TAC/CXCL11), in HCV infection. Intrahepatic mRNA expression of these chemokines was analyzed in 106 chronic HCV-infected ... I-TAC/CXCL11), in HCV infection. Intrahepatic mRNA expression of these chemokines was analyzed in 106 chronic HCV-infected ... I-TAC/CXCL11), in HCV infection. Intrahepatic mRNA expression of these chemokines was analyzed in 106 chronic HCV-infected ... I-TAC/CXCL11), in HCV infection. Intrahepatic mRNA expression of these chemokines was analyzed in 106 chronic HCV-infected ...
more infohttps://einstein.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/intrahepatic-levels-of-cxcr3-associated-chemokines-correlate-with-2

Mark Barr, MD | Keck School of Medicine of USCMark Barr, MD | Keck School of Medicine of USC

Rat chemokine CXCL11: structure, tissue distribution, function and expression in cardiac transplantation models Mol Cell ...
more infohttps://keck.usc.edu/faculty-search/mark-lee-barr/

Wijnands PG[au] - PubMed - NCBIWijnands PG[au] - PubMed - NCBI

The CXCR3 targeting chemokine CXCL11 has potent antitumor activity in vivo involving attraction of CD8+ T lymphocytes but not ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Wijnands+PG%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

Common variants of chemokine receptor gene CXCR3 and its ligands CXCL10 and CXCL11 associated with vascular permeability of...Common variants of chemokine receptor gene CXCR3 and its ligands CXCL10 and CXCL11 associated with vascular permeability of...

Evidence shows that chemokines CXCL10, CXCL11 and their receptor CXCR3 are involved in severity of dengue, but their genetic ... Common variants of chemokine receptor gene CXCR3 and its ligands CXCL10 and CXCL11 associated with vascular permeability of ... of CXCL11 were found to be significantly associated with vascular leakage (P=0.0154 and 0.0366 respectively). In summary, our ... while variants of CXCL11 showed moderate significance of association (P=0.0527). Haplotype blocks were constructed for genes ...
more infohttps://phgkb.cdc.gov/PHGKB/phgHome.action?action=forward&dbsource=huge&id=106337
  • Production of IL-6, chemokine CXCL10 (IP-10), chemokine CXCL11 (I-TAC) and IFN-β was measured by ELISA. (elsevier.com)
  • We evaluated the association between inflammation and fibrosis and CXCR3-associated chemokines, interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-inducible protein 10 (IP-10/CXCL10), monokine induced by IFN-γ(Mig/CXCL9), and interferon-inducible T cell α chemoattractant (I-TAC/CXCL11), in HCV infection. (elsevier.com)
  • We found elevated intrahepatic mRNA expression of all three chemokines, most markedly CXCL10, in chronic HCV-infected patients with higher necroinflammation and fibrosis. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusion: These findings suggest that the CXCR3-associated chemokines, particularly CXCL10, may play an important role in the development of necroinflammation and fibrosis in the liver parenchyma in chronic HCV infection. (elsevier.com)
  • Haplotype blocks were constructed for genes CXCL10 and CXCL11 (5 and 7 common variants respectively). (cdc.gov)
  • Haplotype association tests performed revealed that, "CCCCA" of gene CXCL10 and "AGTTTAC" of CXCL11 were found to be significantly associated with vascular leakage (P=0.0154 and 0.0366 respectively). (cdc.gov)
  • In summary, our association study further strengthens the evidence of the involvement of CXCL10 and CXCL11 in the pathogenesis of dengue infection. (cdc.gov)
  • In a second study, elevated CXCL11 or CXCL10 protein levels identified samples containing respiratory viruses, including viruses not on the initial test panel. (cdc.gov)
  • Lead researcher Tracy M. Handel and the team used several advanced methods, such as X-ray crystallography and mass spectrometry, to investigate the structure of ACKR3, its interaction with an experimental drug for glioblastoma, and its interaction with chemokines. (protocol-online.org)
  • Furthermore, TATA binding protein was unable to bind the TATA box of the CXCL11 promoter, suggesting that assembly of transcriptional machinery was disrupted. (nih.gov)
  • Pam(3)CSK(4) stimulation prior to IFN-gamma inhibited transcription of the unrelated IFN-gamma-inducible genes, CIITA and CXCL11. (nih.gov)
  • Since transcription of CXCL11 and CIITA was significantly reduced in TLR2 stimulated macrophages, we determined whether inhibition was reflected by reduction of the protein products of these genes. (nih.gov)
  • In view of the lack of potent immunomodulatory properties, we wondered if binding to CCL18 by the tick chemokine binding proteins Evasin-1 and -4 was an artifact of the methods used, but complex formation was confirmed by size exclusion chromatography, and abrogation of its binding to, and antagonism of, CCR3. (frontiersin.org)
  • Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we found that TLR2 stimulation inhibited IFN-gamma-induced RNA polymerase II binding to the CIITA and CXCL11 promoters. (nih.gov)
  • Stimulation with IFN-γ resulted in secretion of CXCL11 after 8 and 12 h of treatment (Fig. 2A). (nih.gov)
  • However, prior TLR2 stimulation inhibited IFN-γ-induced CXCL11 protein levels by over 80% at both of these time points. (nih.gov)
  • There were striking morphological changes, including a loss of microvilli projections, which mirrored changes in wild type cells after stimulation with the chemokine CXCL11. (jimmunol.org)
  • Intrahepatic mRNA expression of these chemokines was analyzed in 106 chronic HCV-infected patients by real-time PCR. (elsevier.com)
  • Recombinant human CXCL11 protein, fused to His-tag at N-terminus, was expressed in E.coli and purified by conventional chromatography, after refolding of the isolated inclusion bodies in a renaturation buffer. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The extracellular domain of human CXCL11 (AAH05292.1)(Phe22-Phe94) is fused to the N-terminus of the Fc region of mouse IgG2a was expressed in CHO cell. (creativebiomart.net)
  • NMR Analysis of the Structure, Dynamics, and Unique Oligomerization Properties of the Human Chemokine CCL27. (pointloma.edu)
  • By definition leukocyte chemoattraction is the hallmark function of chemokines, however chemokines also induce cellular responses that are unrelated to leukocyte migration such as cell differentiation and activation ( 1 ), apoptosis ( 2 ), development ( 3 ), angiogenesis ( 4 ), or tumor growth and metastasis ( 5 , 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Not involved in cell migration, adhesion or proliferation of normal hematopoietic progenitors but activated by CXCL11 in malignant hemapoietic cells, leading to phosphorylation of ERK1/2 (MAPK3/MAPK1) and enhanced cell adhesion and migration. (uniprot.org)
  • There was no defect in directional T cell migration toward CXCL11 in the SHIP-1-silenced cells but, importantly, there was a defect in the overall basal motility of SHIP-1 knockdown cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Surface expression of MHC class II and secretion of CXCL11 were greatly reduced as well, indicating that the reduction in transcripts had downstream effects. (nih.gov)
  • TLR2-mediated inhibition of IFN-γ induction of CXCL11 and CIITA decreases expression of protein products.A. BALB/c BMDM were treated with 10 ng/ml Pam3CSK4 for 8 h followed by 20 ng/ml IFN-γ for 4, 8, and 12 h. (nih.gov)
  • Strong CXCL11 expression was observed in almost all portal tracts, whereas CXCL9 expression varied considerably among portal tracts in the same individual. (elsevier.com)
  • Chemokines also play fundamental roles in the development, homeostasis, and function of the immune system, and they have effects on cells of the central nervous system as well as on endothelial cells involved in angiogenesis or angiostasis. (creativebiomart.net)