A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.
An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.
Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.
A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.
CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.
A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.
Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.
The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.
CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.
Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Proteins that specifically inhibit the growth of new blood vessels (ANGIOGENESIS, PHYSIOLOGIC).
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
The passage of cells across the layer of ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, i.e., the ENDOTHELIUM; or across the layer of EPITHELIAL CELLS, i.e. the EPITHELIUM.

The T cell-specific CXC chemokines IP-10, Mig, and I-TAC are expressed by activated human bronchial epithelial cells. (1/169)

Recruitment of activated T cells to mucosal surfaces, such as the airway epithelium, is important in host defense and for the development of inflammatory diseases at these sites. We therefore asked whether the CXC chemokines IFN-induced protein of 10 kDa (IP-10), monokine induced by IFN-gamma (Mig), and IFN-inducible T-cell alpha-chemoattractant (I-TAC), which specifically chemoattract activated T cells by signaling through the chemokine receptor CXCR3, were inducible in respiratory epithelial cells. The effects of proinflammatory cytokines, including IFN-gamma (Th1-type cytokine), Th2-type cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13), and dexamethasone were studied in normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBEC) and in two human respiratory epithelial cell lines, A549 and BEAS-2B. We found that IFN-gamma, but not TNF-alpha or IL-1 beta, strongly induced IP-10, Mig, and I-TAC mRNA accumulation mainly in NHBEC and that TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta synergized with IFN-gamma induction in all three cell types. High levels of IP-10 protein (> 800 ng/ml) were detected in supernatants of IFN-gamma/TNF-alpha-stimulated NHBEC. Neither dexamethasone nor Th2 cytokines modulated IP-10, Mig, or I-TAC expression. Since IFN-gamma is up-regulated in tuberculosis (TB), using in situ hybridization we studied the expression of IP-10 in the airways of TB patients and found that IP-10 mRNA was expressed in the bronchial epithelium. In addition, IP-10-positive cells obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage were significantly increased in TB patients compared with normal controls. These results show that activated bronchial epithelium is an important source of IP-10, Mig, and I-TAC, which may, in pulmonary diseases such as TB (in which IFN-gamma is highly expressed) play an important role in the recruitment of activated T cells.  (+info)

Gene expression and production of the monokine induced by IFN-gamma (MIG), IFN-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC), and IFN-gamma-inducible protein-10 (IP-10) chemokines by human neutrophils. (2/169)

Monokine induced by IFN-gamma (MIG), IFN-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC), and IFN-gamma-inducible protein of 10 kDa (IP-10) are related members of the CXC chemokine subfamily that bind to a common receptor, CXCR3, and that are produced by different cell types in response to IFN-gamma. We have recently reported that human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) have the capacity to release IP-10. Herein, we show that PMN also have the ability to produce MIG and to express I-TAC mRNA in response to IFN-gamma in combination with either TNF-alpha or LPS. While IFN-gamma, alone or in association with agonists such as fMLP, IL-8, granulocyte (G)-CSF and granulocyte-macrophage (GM)-CSF, failed to influence MIG, IP-10, and I-TAC gene expression, IFN-alpha, in combination with TNF-alpha, LPS, or IL-1beta, resulted in a considerable induction of IP-10 release by neutrophils. Furthermore, IL-10 and IL-4 significantly suppressed the expression of MIG, IP-10, and I-TAC mRNA and the extracellular production of MIG and IP-10 in neutrophils stimulated with IFN-gamma plus either LPS or TNF-alpha. Finally, supernatants harvested from stimulated PMN induced migration and rapid integrin-dependent adhesion of CXCR3-expressing lymphocytes; these activities were significantly reduced by neutralizing anti-MIG and anti-IP-10 Abs, suggesting that they were mediated by MIG and IP-10 present in the supernatants. Since MIG, IP-10, and I-TAC are potent chemoattractants for NK cells and Th1 lymphocytes, the ability of neutrophils to produce these chemokines might contribute not only to the progression and evolution of the inflammatory response, but also to the regulation of the immune response.  (+info)

Human IP-9: A keratinocyte-derived high affinity CXC-chemokine ligand for the IP-10/Mig receptor (CXCR3). (3/169)

Chemokines and their receptors play a crucial part in the recruitment of leukocytes into inflammatory sites. The CXC chemokines IP-10 and Mig are selective attractants for activated (memory) T cells, the predominant cell type in skin infiltrates in many inflammatory dermatoses. The selectivity for activated T cells can be explained by the fact that both chemokines exert their effects through a common receptor, CXCR3, which is nearly exclusively expressed on activated T cells. The aim of this study was to identify biologically active CXCR3 ligands produced by keratinocytes. To that end, Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing a cDNA encoding CXCR3 were challenged with proteins obtained from interferon-gamma stimulated keratinocytes and subsequently monitored for effects on second messenger systems. By this approach we were able to isolate IP-10 and Mig, and in addition identified a novel highly potent ligand for the CXCR3 receptor, designated interferon-gamma-inducible protein-9, which proved to be chemotactic for activated T cells expressing CXCR3. Protein sequence and mass spectrometric analysis followed by molecular cloning of the cDNA encoding interferon-gamma-inducible protein-9, revealed that interferon-gamma-inducible protein-9 is a CXC chemokine with a molecular mass of 8303 Da. From a GenBank database query it became clear that interferon-gamma-inducible protein-9 is in fact the protein encoded by the cDNA sequence also known as beta-R1, H174 or I-TAC. In situ hybridization experiments showed that interferon-gamma-inducible protein-9 mRNA is expressed by basal layer keratinocytes in a variety of skin disorders, including allergic contact dermatitis, lichen planus, and mycosis fungoides suggesting a functional role for this chemokine in skin immune responses.  (+info)

Genomic organization, sequence and transcriptional regulation of the human CXCL 11(1) gene. (4/169)

CXCL 11, encoded by the cDNA sequences designated beta-R1, H-174, or I-TAC, is a CXC chemokine ligand for CXCR3 and assumed to be involved in inflammatory diseases characterized by the presence of activated T-cells. We here describe the genomic organization (four exons interrupted by three introns of 585, 98 and 230 bp) and sequence including 960 bp from the immediate 5'-upstream region of the human CXCL 11 gene. Within the promoter region, consensus sequences for regulatory elements (ISRE, GAS, NF-kappaB) important for cytokine-induced gene transcription were identified. The effect of (pro)inflammatory cytokines on CXCL 11 mRNA expression in monocytic cell lines (THP-1, U937) and primary cultures of dermal fibroblasts and endothelial cells were examined using Northern blot analysis. For these cell types, IFN-gamma was a potent inducer of CXCL 11 transcription, which was synergistically enhanced by TNF-alpha.  (+info)

The CXCR3 activating chemokines IP-10, Mig, and IP-9 are expressed in allergic but not in irritant patch test reactions. (5/169)

Differentiation between allergic and irritant contact dermatitis reactions is difficult, as both inflammatory diseases are clinically, histologically, and immunohistologically very similar. Previous studies in mice revealed that the chemokine IP-10 is exclusively expressed in allergic contact dermatitis reactions. In the present study, we investigated whether the mRNA expression of IP-10 and the related CXCR3 activating chemokines, Mig and IP-9 are also differentially expressed in human allergic contact dermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis reactions. Skin biopsies from allergic (13 cases) and sodium lauryl sulfate-induced irritant patch test reactions (13 cases), obtained 1-72 h after patch testing, were studied by means of an in situ hybridization technique. Results of chemokine mRNA expression were correlated with clinical scoring, histology, and immunohistochemical data including the proportion of inflammatory cells expressing CXCR3, the receptor for IP-10, Mig, and IP-9, and ICAM-1 and HLA-DR expression on keratinocytes. IP-10, Mig, and IP-9 mRNA were detected in seven of nine allergic contact dermatitis reactions after 24-72 h, but not in sodium lauryl sulfate-induced irritant contact dermatitis reactions. ICAM-1 expression by keratinocytes was only found in allergic contact dermatitis reactions and correlated with chemokine expression. Moreover, up to 50% of the infiltrating cells in allergic contact dermatitis expressed CXCR3, in contrast to only 20% in irritant contact dermatitis reactions. In conclusion, we have demonstrated differences in chemokine expression between allergic contact dermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis reactions, which might reflect different regulatory mechanisms operating in these diseases and may be an important clue for differentiation between allergic contact dermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis reactions.  (+info)

Differential expression of three T lymphocyte-activating CXC chemokines by human atheroma-associated cells. (6/169)

Activated T lymphocytes accumulate early in atheroma formation and persist at sites of lesion growth and rupture, suggesting that they may play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Moreover, atherosclerotic lesions contain the Th1-type cytokine IFN-gamma, a potentiator of atherosclerosis. The present study demonstrates the differential expression of the 3 IFN-gamma-inducible CXC chemokines--IFN-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), monokine induced by IFN-gamma (Mig), and IFN-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC)--by atheroma-associated cells, as well as the expression of their receptor, CXCR3, by all T lymphocytes within human atherosclerotic lesions in situ. Atheroma-associated endothelial cells (ECs), smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and macrophages (MO) all expressed IP-10, whereas Mig and I-TAC were mainly expressed in ECs and MO, as detected by double immunofluorescence staining. ECs of microvessels within lesions also expressed abundant I-TAC. In vitro experiments supported these results and showed that IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and CD40 ligand potentiated IP-10 expression from IFN-gamma-stimulated ECs. In addition, nitric oxide (NO) treatment decreased IFN-gamma induction of IP-10. Our findings suggest that the differential expression of IP-10, Mig, and I-TAC by atheroma-associated cells plays a role in the recruitment and retention of activated T lymphocytes observed within vascular wall lesions during atherogenesis.  (+info)

Expression of IFN-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant by human endothelial cells is cyclosporin A-resistant and promotes T cell adhesion: implications for cyclosporin A-resistant immune inflammation. (7/169)

IFN-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC) is a recently discovered member of the CXC chemokine family. It is a potent T cell chemoattractant expressed by IFN-gamma-treated astrocytes, monocytes, keratinocytes, bronchial epithelial cells, and neutrophils. In this study, we show that I-TAC is also expressed by IFN-gamma-treated endothelial cells (EC), both at the mRNA and protein levels. Induction of the I-TAC message is rapid and sustained over 24 h. TNF-alpha does not induce I-TAC mRNA alone, but does act synergistically with IFN-gamma. Blocking Abs to I-TAC, or to its receptor, CXCR3, reduce T cell adhesion to EC monolayers demonstrating that the expressed protein is functional. Finally, the expression of I-TAC by EC is resistant to the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin A, suggesting that I-TAC may contribute to the chronic immune inflammation characteristic of graft arteriosclerosis.  (+info)

The murine chemokine CXCL11 (IFN-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant) is an IFN-gamma- and lipopolysaccharide-inducible glucocorticoid-attenuated response gene expressed in lung and other tissues during endotoxemia. (8/169)

A new murine chemokine was identified in a search for glucocorticoid-attenuated response genes induced in the lung during endotoxemia. The first 73 residues of the predicted mature peptide are 71% identical and 93% similar to human CXCL11/IFN-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC) (alias beta-R1, H174, IFN-inducible protein 9 (IP-9), and SCYB9B). The murine chemokine has six additional residues at the carboxyl terminus not present in human I-TAC. Identification of this cDNA as murine CXCL11/I-TAC is supported by phylogenetic analysis and by radiation hybrid mapping of murine I-TAC (gene symbol Scyb11) to mouse chromosome 5 close to the genes for monokine induced by IFN-gamma (MIG) and IP10. Murine I-TAC mRNA is induced in RAW 264.7 macrophages by IFN-gamma or LPS and is weakly induced by IFN-alphabeta. IFN-gamma induction of murine I-TAC is markedly enhanced by costimulation with LPS or IL-1beta in RAW cells and by TNF-alpha in both RAW cells and Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts. Murine I-TAC is induced in multiple tissues during endoxemia, with strongest expression in lung, heart, small intestine, and kidney, a pattern of tissue expression different from those of MIG and IP10. Peak expression of I-TAC message is delayed compared with IP10, both in lung after i.v. LPS and in RAW 264.7 cells treated with LPS or with IFN-gamma. Pretreatment with dexamethasone strongly attenuates both IFN-gamma-induced I-TAC expression in RAW cells and endotoxemia-induced I-TAC expression in lung and small intestine. The structural and regulatory similarities of murine and human I-TAC suggest that mouse models will be useful for investigating the role of this chemokine in human biology and disease.  (+info)

Bachem offers H-4606 Interferon-Inducible T Cell α-Chemoattractant (human) for your research. Find all specific details here. Find product specific information including available pack sizes, CAS, detailed description and references here.
C-X-C motif chemokine 11 (CXCL11) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CXCL11 gene.[3] C-X-C motif chemokine 11 is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also called Interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC) and Interferon-gamma-inducible protein 9 (IP-9). It is highly expressed in peripheral blood leukocytes, pancreas and liver, with moderate levels in thymus, spleen and lung and low expression levels were in small intestine, placenta and prostate.[4] Gene expression of CXCL11 is strongly induced by IFN-γ and IFN-β, and weakly induced by IFN-α.[5] This chemokine elicits its effects on its target cells by interacting with the cell surface chemokine receptor CXCR3, with a higher affinity than do the other ligands for this receptor, CXCL9 and CXCL10.[4][6] CXCL11 is chemotactic for activated T cells. Its gene is located on human chromosome 4 along with many other members of the CXC chemokine family.[7][8] ...
Background Ulcerative colitis is characterized by relapsing mucosal inflammation where the lesions include tissue-damaging granulocytes. In addition, T cells and natural killer (NK) cells play important pathophysiologic roles. Chemokines are a large family of peptides that play key roles in the regulation of inflammation. The CXC-chemokines, growth-related oncogene (GRO)-α/CXCL1 and interleukin (IL)-8/CXCL8, both recruit neutrophils and possess mitogenic properties, whereas the interferon-dependent CXC-chemokines monokine induced by gamma-interferon (MIG)/CXCL9, interferon-γ inducible protein of 10 kD/CXCL10, and IFN-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant/CXCL11 recruit and activate T cells and NK cells. Materials and methods The expression of CXC-chemokines was studied in eight controls and in 11 patients suffering from ulcerative colitis in the distal part of the colon, before and during topical treatment with corticosteroids. Perfusates (obtained before, after 7 days, and after 28 days of ...
Lemongrass ( Cymbopogon flexuosus ) essential oil (LEO), which has citral as its main component, has exhibited anti-inflammatory effect in both animal and human cells. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of a commercially available LEO in pre-inflamed human dermal fibroblasts. We first studied the impact of LEO on 17 protein biomarkers that are critically associated with inflammation and tissue remodeling. LEO significantly inhibited production of the inflammatory biomarkers vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10), interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC), and monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG); decreased levels of the tissue remodeling biomarkers collagen-I and III, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1); and inhibited the immunomodulatory biomarker macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Intrahepatic levels of CXCR3-associated chemokines correlate with liver inflammation and fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C. AU - Zeremski, Marija. AU - Petrovic, Lydia M.. AU - Chiriboga, Luis. AU - Brown, Queenie B.. AU - Yee, Herman T.. AU - Kinkhabwala, Milan. AU - Jacobson, Ira M.. AU - Dimova, Rositsa. AU - Markatou, Marianthi. AU - Talal, Andrew H.. PY - 2008/11/1. Y1 - 2008/11/1. N2 - Chemokines, chemotactic cytokines, may promote hepatic inflammation in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection through the recruitment of lymphocytes to the liver parenchyma. We evaluated the association between inflammation and fibrosis and CXCR3-associated chemokines, interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-inducible protein 10 (IP-10/CXCL10), monokine induced by IFN-γ(Mig/CXCL9), and interferon-inducible T cell α chemoattractant (I-TAC/CXCL11), in HCV infection. Intrahepatic mRNA expression of these chemokines was analyzed in 106 chronic HCV-infected patients by real-time PCR. The intrahepatic ...
|p|Recombinant Human I-TAC is a single non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 73 amino acids.|/p| |p|Background: I-TAC/CXCL11 cDNA encodes a 94 amino acid (aa) residue precursor protein with a 21 aa residue putative signal sequence, which is cleav
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Joachim Frank (Columbia University, New York, USA) is a pioneer of single particle reconstruction, which is the most used reconstruction method for 3DEM structures in EMDB and EM entries in PDB. And also, he is a develper of Spider, which is one of the most famous software in this field, and is used for some EM Navigor data (e.g. map projection/slice images ...
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This study provides extensive characterization of the novel high affinity SDF-1 (CXCL12)-binding receptor that we reported in an earlier publication (14). The novel receptor, initially designated CCX CKR2 (14) but renamed CXCR7 in this paper, is a 7-transmembrane receptor encoded by RDC1 (21, 22), a gene that, before our initial report (14), belonged to the family of orphan receptors with unknown ligands (20). In addition to binding SDF-1, CXCR7 is also a high affinity receptor for I-TAC (CXCL11) that, before our investigations, was regarded as a ligand for CXCR3 only. Our data show that CXCR7 regulates several important biological processes including cell survival, cell adhesion, and tumor development in animal models. CXCR7 is expressed on many tumor cells but not on most nontransformed cells. Although not expressed on unstimulated endothelial cells, CXCR7 can be induced, in vitro, on cells that form the neovasculature, a finding that is consistent with the independent studies of Madden et ...
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Les chimiokines sont des petites protéines secrétées dont la fonction principale est la stimulation de la migration de cellules immunitaires vers différents organes et tissus. Elles sont souvent impliquées lors des maladies inflammatoires, auto-immunes et des cancers. Ainsi, les chimiokines et leurs récepteurs couplés aux protéines G (RCPG) sont la cible pharmacologique de plusieurs molécules, actuellement testées en essais cliniques. Nous avons pris comme modèle, lors de notre étude, le récepteur atypique CXCR7. Ce récepteur est dit atypique, car il ne signalise pas via la voie classique des protéines G, mais plutôt via la voie de la β-arrestine. CXCR7 est impliqué dans de nombreux cancers, favorise la progression métastatique et est un co-récepteur pour le virus de limmunodéficience humaine (VIH). Cependant, aucune donnée sur son mode de liaison avec ses ligands CXCL11/ITAC et CXCL12/SDF-1 nexiste à date. Nous pensons que cette information est essentielle pour le ...
Human C-X-C Motif Chemokine 9 / Monokine Induced by Gamma Interferon (CXCL9 / MIG) standard, for use in running standard curves in AlphaLISA no-wash detection assay
IP-10 has been detected in the CSF and brain parenchyma of patients with a variety of neuroinflammatory diseases (15, 26, 43, 44) and is a potent chemoattractant for activated T lymphocytes and NK cells (11). In EAE, an animal model for MS, IP-10 levels in the CNS have been correlated with the development of clinical disease and the recruitment of CXCR3-expressing pathogenic T cells (19, 20, 45). Treatment of SJL mice with Abs to IP-10 before adoptive transfer of encephalitogenic T cells or immunizing mice with naked IP-10 DNA decreased the severity of EAE (29). Based on these observations, IP-10 is thought to be essential for the development of CNS mononuclear infiltrates, and its receptor CXCR3, is considered a putative therapeutic target for diseases involving the trafficking of inflammatory T cells. However, the absolute requirement for IP-10 in EAE has never been directly examined.. In this study, we sought to determine whether IP-10 is required for the development of EAE by analyzing ...
Purified Recombinant Human CXCR2 HEK293T cell lysate from Creative Biomart. Recombinant Human CXCR2 HEK293T cell lysate can be used for research.
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MIG (CXCL9) Bovine Recombinant is a non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 104 amino acids and having a molecular mass of about 18.0kDa.
Recombinant Human MIG/CXCL9 produced in E. coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 103 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 11.7 kDa.
Aortic and plasma expression levels of IL-18 and CXCL16.(A) Reduced aortic mRNA expression of IL-18 and CXCL16, but no change in the expression of IFN-γ is obs
Chemokines mediate diverse fundamental biological processes, including combating infection. Multiple chemokines are expressed at the site of infection; thus chemokine synergy by heterodimer formation may play a role in determining function. Chemokine function involves interactions with G-protein-coupled receptors and sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAG). However, very little is known regarding heterodimer structural features and receptor and GAG interactions. Solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and molecular dynamics characterization of platelet-derived chemokine CXCL7 heterodimerization with chemokines CXCL1, CXCL4, and CXCL8 indicated that packing interactions promote CXCL7-CXCL1 and CXCL7-CXCL4 heterodimers, and electrostatic repulsive interactions disfavor the CXCL7-CXCL8 heterodimer. As characterizing the native heterodimer is challenging due to interference from monomers and homodimers, we engineered a
This study examined the association of interferon-gamma-inducible protein-10 concentrations in serum and IL28B genotype associated with responses to pegylated
CXCL12 izaziva potentnu hemotaksu limfocita.[4][5][6][7] Tokom embriogeneze on usmerava migraciju hematopoetskih ćelija i formiranje velikih krvnih sudova. Miševi bez CXCL12 gena su letalni pre rođenja, ili u toku prvog sata života. Kod odraslih CXCL12 igra važnu ulogu u angiogenezi putem regrutovanja endotelnih progenitorskih ćelija (EPC) iz koštane srži kroz CXCR4 zavistan mehanizam.[8] Ova funkcija čini CXCL12 veoma važnim faktorom u karcinogenezi i neovaskularizaciji vezanoj za progresiju tumora.[9] CXCL12 takođe ima ulogu u metastazi tumora gde su ćelije raka koje izražavaju CXCR4 receptor privučene ka metastaznim ciljnim tkivima koja oslobađaju ligand, CXCL12.[10] Kod raka dojke, međutim, povećano CXCL12 izražavanje određuje umanjeni rizik od metastaze.[11][12] ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the G-protein-coupled receptor family. This protein is a receptor for interleukin 8 (IL8). It binds to IL8 with high affin
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the G-protein-coupled receptor family. This protein is a receptor for interleukin 8 (IL8). It binds to IL8 with high affin
References for Abcams Recombinant human CXCL5 protein (ab50039). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
The ESAB Aristo Mig 5000i is the ideal partner for when it comes to prefabrication of high alloyed materials with a high demand for the welding performance.
p53 protein levels increase in HDFs, such as IMR90 and MRC5, during replicative senescence (8-11). Moreover, p53 sequence-specific DNA-binding activity and transcriptional activity also increase during replicative senescence (9, 12). These studies (8-12) have suggested a role for p53 in the onset and maintenance of cellular senescence. Consistent with this idea, the p53-mediated induction of p21 and Gadd45 genes in normal human cells is known (13, 16, 17) to play a role in cell growth arrest. However, the number of p53 target genes whose expression is induced during cellular senescence in HDFs remains rather limited. Therefore, our observations that p53 activates the transcription of IFI16, a candidate cellular senescence gene, in response to certain DNA damage signals in normal human fibroblasts are important.. The IFI16 protein is an IFN-inducible protein and treatment of a variety of cells with IFNs (α, β, or γ) has been shown to result in up-regulation of the IFI16 mRNA and protein (21). ...
GPR-9-6 is a chemokine receptor for TECK. (A) GPR-9-6 transfectants were examined for chemotactic responses to various concentrations of TECK and I-TAC ranging
人生长调节致癌基因γ(GRO-γ/CXCL3) (Human)首选赛业生物,380余种细胞因子囊括生长调节致癌基因、生长因子、干扰素、白细胞介素、肿瘤坏死因子等所有细胞因子家族,种属齐包括人、鼠、恒河猴及其他种属。赛业提供的生长调节致癌基因品质优良:高活性、高纯度、高稳定性、无热源、无外源因子污染。
Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 (CXCL9) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also known as Monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG). CXCL9 is a T-cell chemoattractant, which is induced by IFN-γ. It is closely related to two other CXC chemokines called CXCL10 and CXCL11, whose genes are located near the gene for CXCL9 on human chromosome 4. CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 all elicit their chemotactic functions by interacting with the chemokine receptor CXCR3. Neutrophil collagenase/matrix metalloproteinase 8 (MMP-8) degrades CXCL9 and cleaves CXCL10 at two positions. Gelatinase B/matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) degrades CXCL10 and cleaves CXCL9 at three different sites in its extended carboxy-terminal region ...
Recent work identified the murine gene homologous to the human T cell attracting chemokine CXC receptor ligand 11 (CXCL11, also termed I-TAC, SCYB11, ss-R1, H174, IP-9). Here, the biological activity and expression patterns of murine CXCL11 relative to CXCL9 (MIG) and CXCL10 (IP-10/crg-2), the other …
CXCL16, hemokin (C-X-C motiv) ligand 16, je mali citokin iz CXC hemokin familije. On je veći od drugih hemokina (sadrži 254 aminokiselina). CXCL16 se sastoji od CXC hemokin domaina, mucinu-slične stabljike, transmembranskog domaina i citoplazmatičnog repa koji sadrži potentno mesto tirozin fosforilacije koje može da veže SH2.[1] Ovo su neuobičajene osobine za hemokin, i omobućavaju CXCL16 da bude izražen kao molekul na ćelijskoj površini, kao i rastvorni hemokin.[2] CXCL16 proizvode dendritiske ćelije koje se mogu naći u T ćelijskim zonama limfoidnih organa, i ćelije iz crvene pulpe slezine.[1] Među ćelijama koje se vezuju i migriraju u responsu na CXCL16 su nekoliko podgrupa T ćelija, i NKT ćelije.[1] CXCL16 interaguje sa hemokin receptorom CXCR6, takođe poznatim kao Bonzo.[3][1] Ekspresiju CXCL16 indukuju inflamatorni citokini IFN-gama i TNF-alfa.[2] Gen za ljudski CXCL16 je lociran na hromozomu 17.[1][4] ...
CXCL12 izaziva potentnu hemotaksu limfocita.[4][5][6][7] Tokom embriogeneze on usmerava migraciju hematopoetskih ćelija i formiranje velikih krvnih sudova. Miševi bez CXCL12 gena su letalni pre rođenja, ili u toku prvog sata života. Kod odraslih CXCL12 igra važnu ulogu u angiogenezi putem regrutovanja endotelnih progenitorskih ćelija (EPC) iz koštane srži kroz CXCR4 zavistan mehanizam.[8] Ova funkcija čini CXCL12 veoma važnim faktorom u karcinogenezi i neovaskularizaciji vezanoj za progresiju tumora.[9] CXCL12 takođe ima ulogu u metastazi tumora gde su ćelije raka koje izražavaju CXCR4 receptor privučene ka metastaznim ciljnim tkivima koja oslobađaju ligand, CXCL12.[10] Kod raka dojke, međutim, povećano CXCL12 izražavanje određuje umanjeni rizik od metastaze.[11][12] ...
Thursday, July 20, 1950 ER War Could Hurt Arkansas Balance of Agri-Industry Note: Thi. k itac I»s( X * Kritc of ftorta discussing Arkansu economic, induclrul and business raini) BT RAKI.KV PCKSHING KOCK, July 20. (AP) - Where would Arkansa. Edition of The Courier News
The anaerobic bacterium Finegoldia magna is part of the human commensal microbiota, but is also an important opportunistic pathogen. This bacterium expresses a subtilisin-like serine proteinase, SufA, which partially degrade the antibacterial chemokine MIG/CXCL9. Here, we show that MIG/CXCL9 is produced by human keratinocytes in response to inflammatory stimuli. In contrast to the virulent human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes, the presence of F. magna had no enhancing effect on the MIG/CXCL9 expression by keratinocytes, suggesting poor detection of the latter by pathogen-recognition receptors. When MIG/CXCL9 was exposed to SufA-expressing F. magna, the molecule was processed into several smaller fragments. Analysis by mass spectrometry showed that SufA cleaves MIG/CXCL9 at several sites in the COOH-terminal region of the molecule. At equimolar concentrations, SufA-generated MIG/CXCL9 fragments were not bactericidal against F. magna, but retained their ability to kill S. pyogenes. Moreover, the ...
CXCL10, hemokin (C-X-C motiv) ligand 10, ili IP-10[1] je mali citokin iz CXC hemokin familije koji je takođe poznat kao 10 kDa interferon-gama-inducirani protein (γ-IP10 ili IP-10). CXCL10 luči nekoliko ćelijski tipova u responsu na IFN-γ. U te ćelijske tipove spadaju monociti, endotelijalne ćelije i fibroblasti.[2] CXCL10 hemokinu je bilo pripisano nekoliko uloga, kao što su hemoatrakcija monocita/makrofaga, T ćelija, NK ćelija, i dendritskih ćelija, promocija adhezije T ćelija na endotelijalne ćelije, antitumorska aktivnost, i inhibicija formiranja kolonija kičmene moždine i angiogeneze.[3][4] CXCL10 gen je lociran na ljudskom hromozomu 4 u klasteru sa nekoliko drugih CXC hemokina.[5] Ovaj hemokin dejstvuje putem vezivanja na CXCR3 hemokin receptore na ćelijskoj površini.[6]. Tri-dimenzionalna kristalna struktura ovog hemokina je bila utvrđena u 3 različite grupe uslova u rezoluciji do 1.92 A.[7] PDB pristupni kodovi za CXCL10 strukture su: 1lv9, 1o7y, 1o7z i 1o80.[8] ...
Cxcl12 - Cxcl12 (untagged ORF) - Rat chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (stromal cell-derived factor 1) (Cxcl12), transcript variant 3, (10 ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10), or CXCL10, is a chemokine secreted by monocytes, endothelial cells and fibroblasts in response to interferon gamma (IFN-ɣ).
IP-10 (CXCL10) regulates innate and adaptive immunity by regulating T cells, natural killer cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, and B cells.
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. CXCL8 ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. CXCL2 ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
Complete information for CXCL9 gene (Protein Coding), C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 9, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Cxcl11 - Cxcl11 (Myc-DDK-tagged) - Mouse chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11 (Cxcl11), transcript variant 1 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
IL-8/CXCL8 Immunoprecipitation (IP) Kit are used for Immunoprecipitation of IL-8/CXCL8 protein which expressed in vitro expression systems.
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human CXCL9 / MIG ELISA pair set and full ELISA kit. Detection range:15.63-1000 pg/mL . Save up to 60%. Bulk at deep discounts. High quality quaranteed.
It is closely related to two other CXC chemokines called CXCL10 and CXCL11, whose genes are located near the gene for CXCL9 on ... Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 (CXCL9) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also known as ... Campbell JD, Stinson MJ, Simons FE, Rector ES, HayGlass KT (July 2001). "In vivo stability of human chemokine and chemokine ... Shields PL, Morland CM, Salmon M, Qin S, Hubscher SG, Adams DH (December 1999). "Chemokine and chemokine receptor interactions ...
It is now classified as a chemokine receptor able to bind the chemokines CXCL12/SDF-1 and CXCL11. The protein is also a ... Atypical chemokine receptor 3 also known as C-X-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CXCR-7) and G-protein coupled receptor 159 (GPR159 ... "Entrez Gene: CXCR7 chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 7". * Rajagopal S, Kim J, Ahn S, Craig S, Lam CM, Gerard NP, Gerard C, ... "A novel chemokine receptor for SDF-1 and I-TAC involved in cell survival, cell adhesion, and tumor development". The Journal of ...
... as well as promoting the production of chemokines CXCL10, CXCL9 and CXCL11. These chemokines play an important role in ... The recruitment of more immune cells also occurs and is mediated by the chemokines produced during the inflammatory process. In ...
... -A binds to the CXC chemokines CXCL9 (MIG), CXCL10 (IP-10), and CXCL11 (I-TAC) whereas CXCR3-B can also bind to CXCL4 in ... Chemokine receptor CXCR3 is a Gαi protein-coupled receptor in the CXC chemokine receptor family. Other names for CXCR3 are G ... Chemokine receptors Chemokine Cluster of differentiation GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000186810 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38 ... "Expression of specific chemokines and chemokine receptors in the central nervous system of multiple sclerosis patients". The ...
Cross-presentation Cross-reactivity Cryptic self epitopes Cryptotope CX3CL1 CX3CR1 CXC chemokine receptors CXCL1 CXCL10 CXCL11 ... C-C chemokine receptor type 6 C-C chemokine receptor type 7 Calreticulin Cancer immunology Cancer immunoprevention Cancer ... CD4 CD4+ T cells and antitumor immunity CD74 CD94/NKG2 Cell-mediated immunity CELSR1 Central tolerance Chemokine Chemokine ... immunotherapy Cantuzumab ravtansine Cathelicidin CC chemokine receptors CCBP2 CCL1 CCL11 CCL12 CCL13 CCL14 CCL15 CCL16 CCL17 ...
C-X-C motif chemokine 10 is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family. The gene for CXCL10 is located on human ... CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 have proven to be valid biomarkers for the development of heart failure and left ventricular ... This chemokine elicits its effects by binding to the cell surface chemokine receptor CXCR3. The three-dimensional crystal ... C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10) also known as Interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10) or small-inducible cytokine B10 is ...
C-X-C motif chemokine 11 (CXCL11) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CXCL11 gene. C-X-C motif chemokine 11 is a ... Gene expression of CXCL11 is strongly induced by IFN-γ and IFN-β, and weakly induced by IFN-α. This chemokine elicits its ... Human CXCL11 genome location and CXCL11 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Rani MR, Foster GR, Leung S, Leaman D, ... GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000169248 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: CXCL11 chemokine (C-X- ...
CXCL10 and CXCL11 are secreted. Mast cells: on their surface express several receptors for chemokines: CCR1, CCR2, CCR3, CCR4, ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines in that it has ... CCL1 for the ligand 1 of the CC-family of chemokines, and CCR1 for its respective receptor. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) ...
There are two isoforms, CXCR3-A and CXCR3-B. It has three highly related ligands in mammals, CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11. CXCR4 ( ... CXC chemokine receptors are integral membrane proteins that specifically bind and respond to cytokines of the CXC chemokine ... However, CXCR6 is more closely related in structure to CC chemokine receptors than to other CXC chemokine receptors. CXCR7 was ... within the chemokine receptor cluster on human chromosome 3p21) and its similarity to other chemokine receptors in its gene ...
... chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9, scyb9 CXCL10: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10, scyb10 CXCL11: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ... chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1, scyb1 CXCL2: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2, scyb2 CXCL3: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 3 ... chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 5, scyb5 CXCL6: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6, scyb6 CXCL7: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 7 ... scyb3 CXCL4: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 4, Platelet factor-4, PF-4, scyb4 CXCL5: ...
chemokine receptor activity. • receptor activity. • protein binding. • C-C chemokine receptor activity. • C-C chemokine binding ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene.[5] CCR6 ... "Entrez Gene: CCR6 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6".. *^ Wang K, Zhang H, Kugathasan S, Annese V, Bradfield JP, Russell RK, ... "Chemokine Receptors: CCR6". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
CXCL10 and CXCL11 are secreted.[6] ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CXC chemokinesEdit. The two N-terminal cysteines of CXC chemokines (or α-chemokines) are separated by one amino acid, ...
C-X-C chemokine receptor activity. • interleukin-8 binding. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. • chemokine receptor ... This name and the corresponding gene symbol IL8RA have been replaced by the HGNC approved name C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 1 ... "Chemokine Receptors: CXCR1". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... chemokine-mediated signaling pathway. • interleukin-8-mediated signaling pathway. • neutrophil degranulation. • chemotaxis. ...
CXCL1 · CXCL2 · CXCL3 · CXCL4 · CXCL5 · CXCL6 · CXCL7 · CXCL8/IL8 · CXCL9 · CXCL10 · CXCL11 · CXCL12 · CXCL13 · CXCL14 · CXCL15 ... Chemokine. CCL. CCL1 · CCL2 · CCL3 · CCL4 · CCL5 · CCL6 · CCL7 · CCL8 · CCL9 · CCL11 · CCL12 · CCL13 · CCL14 · CCL15 · CCL16 · ...
positive regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production. • positive regulation of JUN kinase activity. • positive ... positive regulation of chemokine production. • cellular extravasation. • negative regulation of lipid storage. • negative ... positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • epithelial cell proliferation involved in salivary gland morphogenesis ...
... s are a subset of cytokines that are produced by a type of immune cell known as a lymphocyte.[1] They are protein mediators typically produced by T cells to direct the immune system response by signaling between its cells. Lymphokines have many roles, including the attraction of other immune cells, including macrophages and other lymphocytes, to an infected site and their subsequent activation to prepare them to mount an immune response. Circulating lymphocytes can detect a very small concentration of lymphokine and then move up the concentration gradient towards where the immune response is required. Lymphokines aid B cells to produce antibodies. Important lymphokines secreted by the T helper cell include:[2] ...
... binds to the death receptors DR4 (TRAIL-RI) and DR5 (TRAIL-RII). The process of apoptosis is caspase-8-dependent. Caspase-8 activates downstream effector caspases including procaspase-3, -6, and -7, leading to activation of specific kinases.[11] TRAIL also binds the receptors DcR1 and DcR2, which do not contain a cytoplasmic domain (DcR1) or contain a truncated death domain (DcR2). DcR1 functions as a TRAIL-neutralizing decoy-receptor. The cytoplasmic domain of DcR2 is functional and activates NFkappaB. In cells expressing DcR2, TRAIL binding therefore activates NFkappaB, leading to transcription of genes known to antagonize the death signaling pathway and/or to promote inflammation. Application of engineered ligands that have variable affinity for different death (DR4 and DR5) and decoy receptors (DCR1 and DCR2) may allow selective targeting of cancer cells by controlling activation of Type 1/Type 2 pathways of cell death and single cell fluctuations. Luminescent iridium complex-peptide ...
... (IL-24) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL24 gene. IL-24 is a cytokine belonging to the IL-10 family of cytokines that signals through two heterodimeric receptors: IL-20R1/IL-20R2 and IL-22R1/IL-20R2. This interleukin is also known as melanoma differentiation-associated 7 (mda-7) due to its discovery as a tumour suppressing protein. IL-24 appears to control in cell survival and proliferation by inducing rapid activation of particular transcription factors called STAT1 and STAT3. This cytokine is predominantly released by activated monocytes, macrophages and T helper 2 (Th2) cells[5] and acts on non-haematopoietic tissues such as skin, lung and reproductive tissues. IL-24 performs important roles in wound healing, arthritis, psoriasis and cancer.[6][7][8] Several studies have shown that cell death occurs in cancer cells/cell lines following exposure to IL-24.[9][10] The gene for IL-24 is located on chromosome 1 in humans.[11] ...
... as well as chemokine and cytokine production, and expression of adhesion molecules such as E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. This ...
positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • regulation of insulin secretion. • extrinsic apoptotic signaling ... Copeland KF (2006). "Modulation of HIV-1 transcription by cytokines and chemokines". Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry. 5 (12 ...
... is sometimes used interchangeably among scientists with the term cytokine.[3] Historically, cytokines were associated with hematopoietic (blood and lymph forming) cells and immune system cells (e.g., lymphocytes and tissue cells from spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes). For the circulatory system and bone marrow in which cells can occur in a liquid suspension and not bound up in solid tissue, it makes sense for them to communicate by soluble, circulating protein molecules. However, as different lines of research converged, it became clear that some of the same signaling proteins which the hematopoietic and immune systems use were also being used by all sorts of other cells and tissues, during development and in the mature organism. While growth factor implies a positive effect on cell division, cytokine is a neutral term with respect to whether a molecule affects proliferation. While some cytokines can be growth factors, such as G-CSF and GM-CSF, others have an inhibitory effect on ...
Interferon alfa 2b is an antiviral or antineoplastic drug, that was originally discovered in the laboratory of Charles Weissmann at the University of Zurich. It was developed at Biogen, and ultimately marketed by Schering-Plough under the tradename Intron-A. It has been used for a wide range of indications, including viral infections and cancers. This drug is approved around the world for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C, chronic hepatitis B, hairy cell leukemia, Behçet's disease, chronic myelogenous leukemia, multiple myeloma, follicular lymphoma, carcinoid tumor, mastocytosis and malignant melanoma. ...
4-1BB is a type 2 transmembrane glycoprotein receptor belonging to the TNF superfamily, expressed on activated T Lymphocytes.[1] 4-1BBL (4-1BB ligand) is found on APCs (antigen presenting cells) and binds to 4-1BB. ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the interleukin 1 cytokine family. Protein structure modeling indicated that this cytokine may contain a 12-stranded beta-trefoil structure that is conserved between IL1A (IL-A alpha) and IL1B (IL-1 beta). This gene and eight other interleukin 1 family genes form a cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 2. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported.[8]. ...
Elevated serum levels of macrophage-derived chemokine and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine in autistic children, J ... CXCL11, CXCL12, CXCL16. ... focus on chemokines and their receptors. Lühikokkuvõte, Crit ...
C-X-C motif chemokine 11 (CXCL11) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CXCL11 gene.[3] ... "Entrez Gene: CXCL11 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11".. *^ a b Cole KE, Strick CA, Paradis TJ, Ogborne KT, Loetscher M, Gladue ... Gene expression of CXCL11 is strongly induced by IFN-γ and IFN-β, and weakly induced by IFN-α.[5] This chemokine elicits its ... CXCL11, H174, I-TAC, IP-9, IP9, SCYB11, SCYB9B, b-R1, C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 11. ...
The chemokine I-TAC (interferon-inducible T cell α-chemoattractant), a non-ELR C-X-C chemokine, is regulated by interferon and ... Synonyms I-TAC (human), CXCL11 (human) Molecular Formula C₃₆₈H₆₁₉N₁₀₇O₉₈S₆ Relative Molecular Mass 8303.02 ...
The chemokine receptor CXCR7 interacts with the chemokines CXCL11 and CXCL12. During development, this ligand receptor system ( ... Developmental expression patterns of chemokines CXCL11, CXCL12 and their receptor CXCR7 in testes of common marmoset and human. ... Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed in monkeys to detect CXCL11, CXCL12 and CXCR7. At the protein ...
Recombinant human CXCL11 protein, fused to His-tag at N-terminus, was expressed in E.coli and purified by conventional ... CXCL11. Synonyms:. CXCL11; IP9; Beta-R1; H174; IP-9; b-R1; ITAC; I-TAC; SCYB11; SCYB9B; MGC102770; C-X-C motif chemokine 11 ... Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11 (CXCL11) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also called ... Recombinant Human Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 11, His-tagged. Download Datasheet See All CXCL11 Products. Bring this labeled ...
The extracellular domain of human CXCL11 (AAH05292.1)(Phe22-Phe94) is fused to the N-terminus of the Fc region of mouse IgG2a ... CXCL11. Synonyms:. CXCL11; chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11; SCYB9B, SCYB11, small inducible cytokine subfamily B (Cys X Cys ... Recombinant Human Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 11, MIgG2a Fc-tagged. Download Datasheet See All CXCL11 Products. Bring this ... Chemokine receptors bind chemokines, organism-specific biosystem; Chemokine signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem; ...
What is C-X-C motif chemokine 11? Meaning of C-X-C motif chemokine 11 medical term. What does C-X-C motif chemokine 11 mean? ... Looking for online definition of C-X-C motif chemokine 11 in the Medical Dictionary? C-X-C motif chemokine 11 explanation free ... CXCL11. (redirected from C-X-C motif chemokine 11) CXCL11. A gene on chromosome 4q21 that encodes a CXC-type chemokine that is ... CXCL11 induces calcium release in activated T-cells, binds to CXCR3 and may play an important role in CNS diseases involving T- ...
Compare C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 11 ELISA Kits from antibodies-online from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View ... C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 11 ELISA Kits from antibodies-online. Clear ... Your search returned 19 C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 11 ELISA ELISA Kit across 1 supplier. ... C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 11 ELISA Kits from antibodies-online. ...
Compare C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 11 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations ... Rat C-X-C Motif Chemokine 11 / I-TAC (CXCL11) ELISA Kit ... C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 11 ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme- ... Your search returned 105 C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 11 ELISA ELISA Kit across 18 suppliers. ...
... cxcl11, cxcl12) single-domain Antibody scFv Fragment is available from creative biolabs. ... chemokine (ccl2, ccl3, ccl5, cxcl11, cxcl12) single-domain; ccl2; ccl3; ccl5; cxcl11; cxcl12; chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2; ... Chemokine (ccl2, Ccl3, Ccl5, Cxcl11, Cxcl12) Single-domain. *Recombinant Anti-chemokine (ccl2, ccl3, ccl5, cxcl11, cxcl12) ... cxcl11, cxcl12) single-domain Antibody Fab Fragment ( MOB-198-F(E) ) Recombinant Human Anti-chemokine (ccl2, ccl3, ccl5, cxcl11 ...
This review will focus on recent murine and human studies that use chemokines as therapeutic anti-cancer vaccine adjuvants. ... Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing ... This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential ... CXCL11. I-TAC. CXCR3, CXCR7. inflammatory and angiostatic. CXCL12. SDF-1. CXCR4, CXCR7. homeostatic. ...
I-TAC/CXCL11, LIF, LIGHT/TNFSF14, Lymphotactin/XCL1, MCP-2/CCL8, MCP-3/CCL7, MCP-4/CCL13, MDC/CCL22, MIF, MIP-3,i,α,/i,/CCL20, ... which allows the simultaneous determination of 40 chemokines per sample. The sets consist of the following chemokines: 6Ckine/ ... i,Results.,/i, We showed possible implication of 4 chemokines, that is, HCC-4, I-TAC, MIP-3,i,α,/i,, and TARC in women with ... i,Conclusion.,/i, On the basis of our findings, it seems that the chemokines may play role in the pathogenesis of preterm labor ...
This process is triggered by chemokines binding and signaling through their cognate G-protein-coupled receptors on leukocytes ... Chemokines mediate leukocyte emigration from blood into tissues. ... Chemokine CXCL11 / metabolism * Chemokine CXCL12 / metabolism * ... Other chemokine interceptors, D6 in particular, may act as scavenging decoys and are involved in clearance of chemokines. The ... Chemokines mediate leukocyte emigration from blood into tissues. This process is triggered by chemokines binding and signaling ...
Acts as a ligand for C-C chemokine receptor CCR3 which triggers Ca(2+) mobilization in eosinophils (PubMed:10415065, PubMed: ... CXCL11 [O14625]. 2. EBI-7783416,EBI-2871971. CXCL12 [P48061]. 2. EBI-7783416,EBI-3913254. ... IPR039809 Chemokine_b/g/d. IPR000827 Chemokine_CC_CS. IPR001811 Chemokine_IL8-like_dom. IPR036048 Interleukin_8-like_sf. ... IPR039809 Chemokine_b/g/d. IPR000827 Chemokine_CC_CS. IPR001811 Chemokine_IL8-like_dom. IPR036048 Interleukin_8-like_sf. ...
RNAseq Profiling of Leukocyte Populations in Zebrafish Larvae Reveals a cxcl11 Chemokine Gene as a Marker of Macrophage ... Among the infection-induced genes, a homolog of the human CXCL11 chemokine gene, cxcl11aa, stood out as the most strongly ... Table_3_RNAseq Profiling of Leukocyte Populations in Zebrafish Larvae Reveals a cxcl11 Chemokine Gene as a Marker of Macrophage ...
Evidence shows that chemokines CXCL10, CXCL11 and their receptor CXCR3 are involved in severity of dengue, but their genetic ... Common variants of chemokine receptor gene CXCR3 and its ligands CXCL10 and CXCL11 associated with vascular permeability of ... of CXCL11 were found to be significantly associated with vascular leakage (P=0.0154 and 0.0366 respectively). In summary, our ... while variants of CXCL11 showed moderate significance of association (P=0.0527). Haplotype blocks were constructed for genes ...
CXCL10 and CXCL11 are secreted.[6] ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CXC chemokinesEdit. The two N-terminal cysteines of CXC chemokines (or α-chemokines) are separated by one amino acid, ...
CCL5 (RANTES), and CCL8 (MCP-2); CXCR3 ligands: CXCL9 (MIG), CXCL10 (IP-10), and CXCL11 (I-TAC); CXCL1 ligands: CXCL-8 (IL-8); ... Chemokine Receptors on Blood and NK-Cells. Conventional and NK-cells present in the normal PB have different CKR repertoires ( ... 3.1.2. Chemokine Receptors on Conventional NK-Cells. In contrast to NK-cells, the majority of the NK-cells are CXCR1/CXCR2− and ... and the chemokine receptors CXCR3 and/or CCR5 (Figure 2): CD16+ CCR5/CXCR3− (or simply ), CD16+/− CCR5/CXCR3+ (or simply ), and ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 22. CTSB. Cathepsin B. CXCL-11. CXC-chemokine ligand 11 ... EBV microRNAs in primary lymphomas and targeting of CXCL-11 by ebv-mir- BHRF1-3. Cancer Res, 68: 1436-1442.PubMedPubMedCentral ... During EBV immune evasion, viral proteins, immune cells, chemokines, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and pro-apoptosis molecules ...
CXCL11. I-TAC. CXCR3. T, NK. ND. CXCL12. SDF-1. CXCR4. T, B, D, m. 11,376 ± 2,897. ... the CXC chemokines CXCL8, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL12; and CX3CL1. This set represented all chemokines present in the chemokine ... Generally, CC chemokines potently attract monocytes, T lymphocytes, eosinophils, and basophils, whereas CXC chemokines are ... Differences between our study and previous studies, chemokine function, and chemokine levels are summarized in Table 4. Before ...
... and CXCL11, which serves a key role in tumor development (14). In addition, ACKR4 primarily scavenges CC motif chemokine ligand ... Among the four types of chemokines, there are two highly homologous XC chemokines: XC motif chemokine ligand 1 (XCL1) and XCL2 ... Chemokine receptors. Chemokines. Functions. Signaling pathways. Role in HCC. (Refs.). CXCR1. CXCL6,. Chemotactic neutrophils. - ... chemokines can bind to the atypical chemokine receptor (ACKR) subfamily, which is a key regulator of the chemokine network, and ...
... the CXC chemokine interferon-inducible T cell α chemoattractant (I-TAC; also known as CXCL11) strongly displaced 125I SDF-1 ... The chemokine stromal cell-derived factor (SDF-1; also known as chemokine ligand 12 [CXCL12]) regulates many essential ... Abbreviations used: CXCL, chemokine ligand; CXCR, chemokine receptor; GPCR, G protein-coupled receptor; HUVEC, human umbilical ... HHV8-encoded vMIP-I selectively engages chemokine receptor CCR8. Agonist and antagonist profiles of viral chemokines. J. Biol. ...
CXCL10 and CXCL11 compared to those with unilateral or non-cavitary disease and also exhibited a significant positive ... Whether chemokines can perform the same role in PTB is not known. We examined the plasma levels of chemokines in individuals ... Finally, the chemokines were significantly reduced following successful ATT. Our data demonstrate that PTB is associated with ... We also examined the chemokines in PTB individuals at the end of anti-tuberculous chemotherapy (ATT). PTB individuals exhibited ...
LCLs: Lymphoblastoid Cell lines; OriP: Origin of replication P; CXCL11: C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 11. ... LCLs: Lymphoblastoid Cell lines; OriP: Origin of replication P; CXCL11: C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 11. ... miR-BHRF1-3 may also contribute to the down-regulation of the T-cell attracting chemokine CXCL11 [39]. In NPC lines, miR-BART5 ... EBV microRNAs in primary lymphomas and targeting of CXCL-11 by EBV-mir-BHRF1-3. Cancer Res. 2008, 68, 1436-1442. [Google ...
Amongst the chemokines being produced, we found that fibroblast-secreted CXCL11 promotes proliferation and migration of ovarian ... CXCL11 is highly expressed in CAFs in ovarian cancer biopsies, while CXCR3 is found in malignant cells in primary ovarian ... Keywords: CXCL11; CXCR3; Lymphotoxin; cancer-associated fibroblasts; ovarian cancer; tumour microenvironment; tumour-stromal ... On the other hand, our co-culture studies demonstrated that the cancer cell-derived lymphotoxin induces chemokine expression in ...
Chemokines and their receptors play essential roles in immunology during inflammation and in homeostasis. ... Chemokines are a class of secreted molecules that induce chemotaxis (migration) of target cells. ... CXCL11. b. b. a. b. b. b. a. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. ... Chemokine Receptor Biology poster. Order your copy of our ... Chemokines are also involved in the orchestration of wound healing.. For more information on inflammatory chemokines, see the ...
CXCL11. Scyb11. I-TAC, β-R1, IP-9. O14625 CXCL12. Scyb12. SDF-1, PBSF. P48061 ... C chemokines. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CC chemokines. The CC chemokines (or β-chemokines) have two adjacent cysteines near their amino terminus. There have been at ...
CXCL11. GNG7. ADCY4. Diacylglycerol. PLCB4. CCL27. Gm3785. Ccl2. GRK2. GNG13. GNG10. CCR8. GNGT1. MAPK3. GNB5. Cytokine- ... Chemokines are small cytokines, or signaling proteins, secreted by cells. A major rol of chemokines is to act as ... c-C motif chemokine 12-like. CXCL12. CCR1. CX3CR1. GNG2. DOCK2. RAC1. GNB4. Jak-STAT signaling pathway. CCR2. PIK3R2. HRAS. ... Ontology Term : chemokine mediated signaling pathway added !. 90740. view. 23:30, 13 December 2016. Khanspers. New pathway. ...
A chemokine receptor profile was initially evaluated by quantitative PCR in 4 normal adrenals, 18 ACC samples and human ACC ... A chemokine receptor profile was initially evaluated by quantitative PCR in 4 normal adrenals, 18 ACC samples and human ACC ... The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemokine receptor profile in ACC and to analyse its association with ... The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemokine receptor profile in ACC and to analyse its association with ...
Buy our Recombinant human CXCL11 protein. Ab9956 is an active full length protein produced in Escherichia coli and has been ... Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11. *Chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 11 ...
Recombinant Mouse CXCL11 protein is an Escherichia coli Full length protein 22 to 100 aa range, , 95% purity, , 0.100 Eu/µg ... Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11. *Chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 11 ...
  • C-X-C motif chemokine 11 (CXCL11) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CXCL11 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • C-X-C motif chemokine 11 is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also called Interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC) and Interferon-gamma-inducible protein 9 (IP-9). (wikipedia.org)
  • [5] This chemokine elicits its effects on its target cells by interacting with the cell surface chemokine receptor CXCR3 , with a higher affinity than do the other ligands for this receptor, CXCL9 and CXCL10 . (wikipedia.org)
  • [4] [6] CXCL11 is chemotactic for activated T cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • CXCL9, -10, -11 have proven to be valid biomarkers for the development of heart failure and left ventricular dysfunction, suggesting an underlining pathophysiological relation between levels of these chemokines and the development of adverse cardiac remodeling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its gene is located on human chromosome 4 along with many other members of the CXC chemokine family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human CXCL11 genome location and CXCL11 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser . (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11 (CXCL11) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also called Interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC) and Interferon-gamma-inducible protein 9 (IP-9). (creativebiomart.net)
  • Your search returned 19 C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 11 ELISA ELISA Kit across 1 supplier. (biocompare.com)
  • Your search returned 105 C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 11 ELISA ELISA Kit across 18 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • Most chemokines bind to more than one receptor, while most receptors also display overlapping ligand specificity [ 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Unlike many other chemokine receptors, ligand activation of CXCR7 does not cause Ca 2+ mobilization or cell migration. (rupress.org)
  • Its ligand CXCL12 (SDF-1) is highly abundant in tissues that are common sites of metastasis such as lymph nodes, lung or bone, suggesting a specific chemokine-mediated trafficking-pattern of circulating tumor cells ( 6 , 9 , 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Atypical chemokine receptor that controls chemokine levels and localization via high-affinity chemokine binding that is uncoupled from classic ligand-driven signal transduction cascades, resulting instead in chemokine sequestration, degradation, or transcytosis. (uniprot.org)
  • Chemokine binding does not activate G-protein-mediated signal transduction but instead induces beta-arrestin recruitment, leading to ligand internalization and activation of MAPK signaling pathway. (uniprot.org)
  • For this reason, the chemokine system is often thought to show significant redundancy, as one receptor can bind multiple ligands, and conversely, a single ligand can bind several chemokine receptors ( 4 , 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Upon ligand binding, chemokine receptors activate G proteins of the Gα i family, leading to inhibition of adenylyl cyclases and mobilization of Ca 2+ from intracellular stores. (jimmunol.org)
  • This antimicrobial gene encodes a chemokine of the CXC subfamily and ligand for the receptor CXCR3. (nih.gov)
  • Biochemical Analysis of C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 10 (CXCL10) as a Biomarker in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis. (nih.gov)
  • We confirmed that the principal chemokine ligand for CXCR7 was CXCL12/SDF-1, which also binds CXCR4. (pnas.org)
  • CXCR3 and other chemokine receptors may mediate tumor metastasis by supporting migration of tumor cells to sites of ligand expression including the lymph nodes, lungs, and bone marrow. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to explore the role of CXC chemokine receptor 3(CXCR3) and its ligand CXC motif chemokine 10(CXCL10) in the pathogenesis of OLP. (springer.com)
  • CD183 harbors seven-transmembrane α-helices, an extracellular N-terminal domain containing three loops involved in the chemokine ligand binding, an intracellular C-terminal domain involved in signal transduction. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • An increasing body of evidence shows the importance of the chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor (CXCR)3 and cognate chemokines (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 in the T helper 1 immune response, and in inflammatory diseases such as bowel inflammatory disorders, allograft rejection, thyroid autoimmune disorders, vascular and renal inflammation, and others. (eurekaselect.com)
  • CXCL10 (C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 10) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • ACKR3 binds the chemokine CXCL12 (stromal cell-derived factor 1, SDF-1 which is also a ligand for CXCR4). (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • IFNβ markedly upregulated CXCR3 ligand chemokines (SCYB11, SCYB10 and SCYB9) chiefly active on effector T helper type 1 (Th1) T cells, and CCR2 ligand chemokines (SCYA8 and SCYA2) effective on monocytes, whereas it downregulated CXCR2 ligand chemokines (SCYB2, SCYB1 and IL8) primarily active on neutrophils. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Developmental expression patterns of chemokines CXCL11, CXCL12 and their receptor CXCR7 in testes of common marmoset and human. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The chemokine receptor CXCR7 interacts with the chemokines CXCL11 and CXCL12. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed in monkeys to detect CXCL11, CXCL12 and CXCR7. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • CXCR7, an atypical chemokine receptor with a ten times higher affinity for CXCL12 compared to CXCR4, was detected at protein level in ACC metastases and correlated with CXCR4 expression ( 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Acts as a receptor for chemokines CXCL11 and CXCL12/SDF1. (uniprot.org)
  • C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), also known as fusin or CD184, is an alpha-chemokine receptor specific for stromal-derived-factor-1 (SDF-1 also called CXCL12). (dovepress.com)
  • 1 The CXC chemokine stromal-derived-factor-1 (SDF-1 or CXCL12) is expressed in a variety of cells, including stromal cells (fibroblasts and endothelial cells). (dovepress.com)
  • 4 , 5 The chemokine receptor CXCR4 is a 352-amino acid rhodopsin-like GPCR that selectively binds to the CXC chemokine SDF-1 or CXCL12. (dovepress.com)
  • However, recent studies show that CXCL12 binds to an additional chemokine receptor, CXCR7 (RDC1/Cmkor1) ( 8 , 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • In addition to CXCL12, CXCR7 binds to the chemokine CXCL11, although with a lower affinity ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • ACKR3 is able to bind chemokines CXCL11 and CXCL12. (protocol-online.org)
  • The homeostatic microenvironment chemokine CXCL12 binds the CXCR4 and CXCR7 receptors, activating divergent signals on multiple pathways, such as ERK1/2, p38, SAPK/JNK, AKT, mTOR, and the Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK). (aacrjournals.org)
  • how these receptors differentially mediate the functional and survival response to the chemokines CXCL11, CXCL12 and MIF. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • SDF-1α/CXCL12, CXCL11, MIF effects mediated through CXCR4 and CXCR7 may play a regulatory role at the site of vascular and tissue inflammation, immune defence and repair where activated platelets reach as forerunners and function as critical players. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Common variants of chemokine receptor gene CXCR3 and its ligands CXCL10 and CXCL11 associated with vascular permeability of dengue infection in pen. (cdc.gov)
  • Haplotype blocks were constructed for genes CXCL10 and CXCL11 (5 and 7 common variants respectively). (cdc.gov)
  • In summary, our association study further strengthens the evidence of the involvement of CXCL10 and CXCL11 in the pathogenesis of dengue infection. (cdc.gov)
  • PTB individuals with bilateral or cavitary disease displayed significantly elevated levels of CCL1, CCL3, CXCL1, CXCL10 and CXCL11 compared to those with unilateral or non-cavitary disease and also exhibited a significant positive relationship with bacterial burdens. (nature.com)
  • Infants born through CS had significantly lower levels of the Th1-associated chemokines CXCL10 and CXCL11 in blood. (bmj.com)
  • Cytokine proteins are classified as chemokines according to behavior and structural characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • These include chemokines (CK), such as MIP-1 α (macrophage inflammatory proteins-1 alpha, CCL3) and MIP-1 β (CCL4), RANTES (regulated activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted, CCL5), and ATAC (activation-induced, T cell derived, and chemokine-related cytokine, CXCL1). (hindawi.com)
  • Interleukin (IL)-6, a multifunctional cytokine with regulatory functions in wound healing, and several chemokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) after rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). (arvojournals.org)
  • Chemokines are a class of small molecular proteins with similar structures, functions and chemotactic properties, and their molecular weights are ~10 kDa, and chemokines represent the largest member of the cytokine family ( 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Expression of both CXCR3 and CXCL11 by the Th1-associated cytokine IFNγ creates an amplification loop of cell-mediated immune response between Th1 cells. (biolegend.com)
  • In addition, the upregulated ileal genes of the Lactobacillus -dominant calves were related to leukocyte and lymphocyte chemotaxis, the cytokine/chemokine-mediated signaling pathway, and inflammatory responses, while the upregulated ileal genes of the Bacteroides -dominant calves were related to cell adhesion, response to stimulus, cell communication and regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades. (asm.org)
  • Type I immune response cytokine-chemokine cascade is associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension. (nih.gov)
  • We analyzed cytokine and chemokine protein levels in plasma from 43 individuals with WHO Group 1 PAH by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay compared with 35 healthy individuals. (nih.gov)
  • CXCL10 an important chemokine associated with cytokine storm in COVID-19 infected patients. (nih.gov)
  • The cytokine storm in COVID-19: An overview of the involvement of the chemokine/chemokine-receptor system. (nih.gov)
  • Magnetic bead-based assays for detecting 46 mouse cytokine, chemokine, and growth factor biomarkers. (bio-rad.com)
  • Cells in the lamina propria, in turn, produce mediators (vii) that act on cytokine and chemokine receptors on intestinal epithelial cells. (jci.org)
  • Notably, endotoxemia induces adipose inflammation ( 27 ) with activation of several adipose inflammatory cascades, including cytokines, chemokines, and suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) molecules ( 26 ) that attenuate insulin signaling and are implicated in obesity and type 2 diabetes ( 28 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We report that glia within the rat nucleus accumbens (NAcc) respond to morphine with an increase in cytokine/chemokine expression, which predicts future reinstatement of morphine conditioned place preference (CPP) following a priming dose of morphine. (jneurosci.org)
  • This review aims to give a composed account of the cytokine/ chemokine responses, with special reference to the differences observed in various host-virus combinations. (omicsonline.org)
  • Handel, T.M. "Distinct signaling and glycosaminoglycan-binding properties of the CC chemokine receptor type 10 ligands, CCL27 and CCL28. (pointloma.edu)
  • 2016. Emerging importance of chemokine receptor CXCR3 and its ligands in cardiovascular diseases. (springer.com)
  • CXCL11 induces calcium release in activated T-cells, binds to CXCR3 and may play an important role in CNS diseases involving T-cell recruitment. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Chemokines are divided into 2 major subfamilies, CXC and CC. This gene is a CXC member of the chemokine superfamily. (creativebiomart.net)
  • A gene on chromosome 4q21 that encodes a CXC-type chemokine that is chemotactic for IL-activated T-cells but not unstimulated T-cells, neutrophils or monocytes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • C-X-C motif chemokine 11 (CXCL11) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CXCL11 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene expression of CXCL11 is strongly induced by IFN-γ and IFN-β , and weakly induced by IFN-α . (wikipedia.org)
  • Its gene is located on human chromosome 4 along with many other members of the CXC chemokine family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human CXCL11 genome location and CXCL11 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser . (wikipedia.org)
  • This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential vaccine adjuvants. (mdpi.com)
  • Among the infection-induced genes, a homolog of the human CXCL11 chemokine gene, cxcl11aa, stood out as the most strongly overexpressed M1 marker. (figshare.com)
  • Haplotype association tests performed revealed that, "CCCCA" of gene CXCL10 and "AGTTTAC" of CXCL11 were found to be significantly associated with vascular leakage (P=0.0154 and 0.0366 respectively). (cdc.gov)
  • Here, we report that the entry of diabetogenic CD4 T cells very rapidly triggered inflammatory gene expression changes in islets and vessels by up-regulating chemokines and adhesion molecules. (pnas.org)
  • Gene expression profiling studies have shown that intratumoral expression of chemokines, indeed, correlate with T-cell infiltration ( 13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • This gene encodes a G protein-coupled receptor with selectivity for three chemokines, termed IP10 (interferon-g-inducible 10 kDa protein), Mig (monokine induced by interferon-g) and I-TAC (interferon-inducible T cell a-chemoattractant). (fishersci.com)
  • Atypical Chemokine Receptor 3 CXC Chemokine Receptor Type 7 or Chemokine Orphan Receptor 1 or G Protein Coupled Receptor 159 or G Protein Coupled Receptor RDC1 Homolog or GPR159 or CXCR7 or ACKR3 Atypical chemokine receptor 3 is a protein encoded by the ACKR3 gene. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Gene expression of these three chemokines and their corresponding receptors CCR5, CXCR3, and CCR3, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was determined by quantitative RT-PCR. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include signaling receptor binding and chemokine activity . (genecards.org)
  • This gene encodes a multi-pass membrane protein that belongs to the CXC chemokine receptor family. (cancerindex.org)
  • Alternative splicing of the CXCR3 gene generates two distinct chemokine receptors. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • IFNβ immediately induces a burst of gene expression of proinflammatory chemokines in vitro that have potential relevance to IFNβ-related early adverse effects in MS patients in vivo . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chemokine gene expression during fatal murine cerebral malaria and protection due to CXCR3 deficiency. (rndsystems.com)
  • CXCR3 (C-X-C Motif Chemokine Receptor 3) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Chemokines are a group of related chemoattractant peptides that are essential regulators of the immune system, both during homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. (mdpi.com)
  • Some inflammatory chemokines have proven essential in memory T cell generation [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • For inflammatory chemokines this is accomplished by active transport involving Duffy antigen, an 'interceptor' expressed by venular endothelial cells. (nih.gov)
  • Some chemokines are considered pro- inflammatory and can be induced during an immune response to recruit cells of the immune system to a site of infection , while others are considered homeostatic and are involved in controlling the migration of cells during normal processes of tissue maintenance or development . (wikipedia.org)
  • Other chemokines are inflammatory and are released from a wide variety of cells in response to bacterial infection, viruses and agents that cause physical damage such as silica or the urate crystals that occur in gout . (wikipedia.org)
  • Inflammatory chemokines function mainly as chemoattractants for leukocytes , recruiting monocytes , neutrophils and other effector cells from the blood to sites of infection or tissue damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain inflammatory chemokines activate cells to initiate an immune response or promote wound healing . (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokines are involved in the inflammatory response, tumor immune response, proliferation, invasion and metastasis via modulation of various signaling pathways. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chemokines and their receptors were initially thought to allow for an interaction between immune cells and the inflammatory sites ( 11 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • These chemokines also have a more diverse range of functions compared to inflammatory chemokines. (biolegend.com)
  • In the event of infection, injury, or tissue damage, inflammatory chemokines are often released to address the problem. (biolegend.com)
  • Many inflammatory chemokines attract a wide variety of cells in both the innate and adaptive arms of immunity. (biolegend.com)
  • Upon sensing the inflammatory chemokine, cells will extravasate from the blood vessel and follow the gradient to its source. (biolegend.com)
  • The chemokine receptors CXCR3 and CCR5 mark subsets of T cells associated with certain inflammatory reactions. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The peptibodies BKT120Fc and BKT130Fc inhibited the ability of inflammatory chemokines to induce the adhesion and migration of immune cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • The role of chemokines has been thoroughly investigated in pathogen conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and multiple sclerosis (MS). RA is a chronic inflammatory disease that eventually leads to joint destruction. (frontiersin.org)
  • We propose that the macrophage, specifically through MMP-12, assists in orchestrating the regulation of acute inflammatory responses by precise proteolysis of ELR + CXC and CC chemokines. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 1997). "CCR6, a CC chemokine receptor that interacts with macrophage inflammatory protein 3alpha and is highly expressed in human dendritic cells" . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytokines, chemokines, and complement factors seem all to be part of a Th1-associated inflammatory reaction in preeclampsia, more pronounced in EOP than in late-onset preeclampsia (LOP), in line with a more homogeneous pathogenesis in EOP as based on placental pathology. (diva-portal.org)
  • The Differential Expression and Function of the Inflammatory Chemokine Receptor CXCR5 in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Prostate Cancer. (cancerindex.org)
  • In addition, IP10, Mig and I-TAC are commonly produced by local cells in inflammatory lesions, suggesting that CXCR3 and its chemokines participate in the recruitment of inflammatory cells. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing recruitment of antigen presenting cells (APCs) and effector cells to appropriate anatomical sites. (mdpi.com)
  • Thus, chemokines and their receptors directly or indirectly shape the tumor cell microenvironment, and regulate the biological behavior of the tumor. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • CXCR7 has been identified as an alternate receptor for CXCL11 and is involved in growth, survival, and adhesion of tumor cells. (biolegend.com)
  • Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) isolated from Camkk2 −/− mice expressed higher levels of chemokines involved in the recruitment of effector T cells compared to WT. (nature.com)
  • Chemokine receptors have a negative impact on tumor progression in several human cancers and have therefore been of interest for molecular imaging and targeted therapy. (frontiersin.org)
  • Treatment of tumor-bearing mice with chemotherapy induced intratumoral expression of these chemokines and favored T-cell infiltration into cutaneous tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In patients with melanoma, these chemokines were also upregulated in chemotherapy-sensitive lesions following chemotherapy, and correlated with T-cell infiltration, tumor control, and patient survival. (aacrjournals.org)
  • T-cell recruitment to the tumor is one of the potential rate-limiting steps in immunotherapy, and thus, intratumoral chemokines are likely to have a major impact ( 11, 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Specific genetic targeting of CXCR3 on murine mammary tumor cells was also used to examine the role of the tumor cell chemokine receptor on metastatic potential. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In rodents, modulation of toll-like receptor-4 ( 5 ), tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptors ( 6 ), chemokines, and downstream kinases ( 7 ) attenuate diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 2010. Transduction of tumor-specific T cells with CXCR2 chemokine receptor improves migration to tumor and antitumor immune responses. (springer.com)
  • Chemokine and chemokine receptors could have played an important role in tumor angiogenesis and distant metastasis. (cancerindex.org)
  • The data indicate that already in early stages of tumor development, the balance of lymphocyte-recruiting chemokines is altered possibly contributing to the observed shift toward higher frequencies of Treg. (diva-portal.org)
  • Atypical Chemokine Receptor 3 CXC Chemokine Receptor Type 7 or Chemokine Orphan Receptor 1 or G Protein Coupled Receptor 159 or G Protein Coupled Receptor RDC1 Homolog or GPR159 or CXCR7 or ACKR3 pipeline Target constitutes close to 6 molecules. (bioportfolio.com)
  • It also reviews key players involved in Atypical Chemokine Receptor 3 CXC Chemokine Receptor Type 7 or Chemokine Orphan Receptor 1 or G Protein Coupled Receptor 159 or G Protein Coupled Receptor RDC1 Homolog or GPR159 or CXCR7 or ACKR3 targeted therapeutics development with respective active and dormant or discontinued projects. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We noted differential expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR7 (RDC-1) on marginal zone B cells, a cell type associated with autoimmune diseases. (pnas.org)
  • Our results reveal a specialized role for CXCR7 in endothelial biology and valve development and highlight the distinct developmental role of evolutionary conserved chemokine receptors such as CXCR7 and CXCR4. (pnas.org)
  • Chemokines receptors are seven transmembrane spanning G protein-coupled receptors that allow cells to migrate towards increasing chemokine gradients. (biolegend.com)
  • 2 , 3 Chemokine receptors are a family of G protein-coupled cell surface receptors (GPCRs) with seven transmembrane-spanning domains. (dovepress.com)
  • Chemokines are chemoattractant cytokines that bind to G protein-coupled seven-transmembrane receptors (GPCRs). (pnas.org)
  • The interactions between chemokines and seven-transmembrane chemokine receptors are known to drive cell migration. (protocol-online.org)
  • Chemokines act on chemokine receptors (CKR), members of the seven-transmembrane domain G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily. (aacrjournals.org)
  • WB analysis of recombinant human ITAC and HeLa cell culture supernatant using CXCL11 antibody [22F1] at a dilution of 1:1000. (genetex.com)
  • Chemokines (Greek -kinos , movement) are a family of small cytokines , or signaling proteins secreted by cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • All of these proteins exert their biological effects by interacting with G protein -linked transmembrane receptors called chemokine receptors , that are selectively found on the surfaces of their target cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokines are a family of small cytokines , or proteins secreted by cells . (wikidoc.org)
  • Proteins are classified as chemokines according to shared structural characteristics such as small size (they are all approximately 8-10 kilodaltons in size), and the presence of four cysteine residues in conserved locations that are key to forming their 3-dimensional shape. (wikidoc.org)
  • Proteins are classified into the chemokine family based on their structural characteristics, not just their ability to attract cells. (wikidoc.org)
  • Typical chemokine proteins are produced as pro-peptides , beginning with a signal peptide of approximately 20 amino acids that gets cleaved from the active (mature) portion of the molecule during the process of its secretion from the cell. (wikidoc.org)
  • Chemokines are small cytokines, or signaling proteins, secreted by cells. (wikipathways.org)
  • Moreover, the binding of host atypical chemokine receptors to multiple chemokines as well as the binding of chemokine-binding proteins secreted by various pathogens can serve as a strategy for controlling inflammation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Chemokines are small (5-20 kDa, ~70-90 amino acids) proteins that are rich in basic amino acids and contain conserved cysteine motifs that form essential disulfide bonds between the first and third as well as the second and fourth cysteine residues. (frontiersin.org)
  • Chemokines comprise a family of secreted proteins that activate G protein-coupled chemokine receptors and thereby control the migration of leukocytes during inflammation or immune surveillance. (jimmunol.org)
  • Chemokines are small, structurally related proteins that play a significant role in leukocyte trafficking and are divided into four groups (CXC, CC, C, and CX3C) based on the position of the first two conserved cysteines. (dovepress.com)
  • These proteins act as chemical messengers and aid in viral clearance and cell death, such as, interferon-a (IFN-α), Tumour Necrosis Factor-a (TNF-α), interleukin-1 (IL-1) α and β, interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and monocyte-attracting chemokines. (omicsonline.org)
  • Once at the site of injury, immune cells can react by releasing additional cytokines and chemokines, bringing more cells into the fold. (biolegend.com)
  • Immunohistochemical studies on tissue specimens from WHO Group 1 PAH patients were performed for cytokines and chemokines and their respective receptors. (nih.gov)
  • These events are mediated via the generation of adhesion molecules, cytokines, and chemokines. (ahajournals.org)
  • Notably, glial cells are activated by drugs of abuse, and their activation and subsequent release of cytokines and chemokines can impact the physiological and addictive properties of drugs of abuse, including morphine. (jneurosci.org)
  • A team led by researchers from University of California, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, and ChemoCentryx Inc. has solved the structure of a membrane protein called the atypical chemokine receptor 3 (ACKR3). (protocol-online.org)
  • Chemokines mediate leukocyte emigration from blood into tissues. (nih.gov)
  • This process is triggered by chemokines binding and signaling through their cognate G-protein-coupled receptors on leukocytes and requires the involvement of leukocyte and endothelial cell adhesion molecules. (nih.gov)
  • The resulting chemokine gradients induce leukocyte emigration from blood and may also be necessary for directed leukocyte migration within tissues. (nih.gov)
  • Stromal cell-derived factor (SDF-1), a member of the superfamily of chemoattractant cytokines known as chemokines, is a key regulator of B cell lymphopoiesis ( 1 , 2 ), hematopoietic stem cell mobilization ( 3 ), and leukocyte migration. (rupress.org)
  • Chemokines have been shown to be selective chemo-attractants for leukocyte sub-populations in vitro and to elicit a selective accumulation of immune cells in vivo . (frontiersin.org)
  • In adult vertebrates, chemokines are essential for proper lymphoid organ architecture and for leukocyte trafficking ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • After the initial PMN influx, the next stage of inflammation is directed in part by CC chemokines consisting of CCL2/monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, CCL7/MCP-3, CCL8/MCP-2, and CCL13/MCP-4, which target multiple leukocyte subsets (monocytes, T lymphocytes, basophils, and eosinophils). (bloodjournal.org)
  • Chemokines are 8-12 kDa peptides that function as chemoattractant cytokines and are involved in cell activation, differentiation, and trafficking. (dovepress.com)
  • Chemokines are small chemoattractant cytokines that are expressed in discrete anatomical locations. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Chemokines are an important class of chemoattractant cytokines produced locally in tissues that provide the directional cues for the movement of blood-derived leukocytes in development, homeostasis, and inflammation. (bloodjournal.org)
  • On the basis of our findings, it seems that the chemokines may play role in the pathogenesis of preterm labor. (hindawi.com)
  • Chemokines have an important role in the pathogenesis of RA by recruiting leukocytes and by controlling other important processes, such as release of mediators of inflammation, cell proliferation, and angiogenesis. (frontiersin.org)
  • The abnormal profiles of Th1-/Th2-associated chemokines and chemokine receptors may play important roles in the pathogenesis of ITP. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cytokines/ chemokines are one such group of significance, which demands attention of immunologists and virologists, owing to their various roles in disease pathogenesis. (omicsonline.org)
  • Plasma levels of CCL5 and CXCL11 (Th1-associated) and of CCL11 (Th2-associated) were determined by ELISA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chemokines and their receptors play critical roles in the progression of autoimmunity and inflammation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Indeed, targeting single chemokines or chemokine receptors has failed to achieve significant clinical benefits in treating autoimmunity and inflammation. (frontiersin.org)
  • This mechanistic explanation of chemokine cooperativity provides insight into chemokine gradient formation in the context of inflammation, in which multiple chemokines are secreted simultaneously. (jimmunol.org)
  • The initial phase of inflammation involves a subset of CXC chemokines, which rapidly attract PMNs. (bloodjournal.org)
  • We demonstrate that the chemokine receptor CXCR3 is involved in promoting CD8 + T cell commitment to an effector fate rather than a memory fate by regulating T cell recruitment to an antigen/inflammation site. (rupress.org)
  • Silvia Martina Ferrari, Alessandro Antonelli, Andrea Di Domenicantonio, Andreina Manfredi, Clodoveo Ferri and Poupak Fallahi, "Modulatory Effects of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ on CXCR3 Chemokines", Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery (2014) 8: 132. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The mechanism of inflammation, expression and function of chemokines and chemokine receptors in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa) remain unclear. (cancerindex.org)
  • This pathway was inferred from Mus musculus pathway "Chemokine signaling pathway", WP2292 revision 89521, with a 91.0% conversion rate. (wikipathways.org)
  • MMP-12 specifically cleaves human ELR + CXC chemokines (CXCL1, -2, -3, -5, and -8) at E-LR, the critical receptor-binding motif or, for CXCL6, carboxyl-terminal to it. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Lead researcher Tracy M. Handel and the team used several advanced methods, such as X-ray crystallography and mass spectrometry, to investigate the structure of ACKR3, its interaction with an experimental drug for glioblastoma, and its interaction with chemokines. (protocol-online.org)
  • ACKR3 is one of more than 20 distinct chemokine receptors expressed in human leukocytes. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • 10707-1-AP targets CXCL11 in IHC,ELISA applications and shows reactivity with human samples. (ptglab.com)
  • Culture supernatants were collected and assayed for CXCL11 protein by ELISA. (nih.gov)
  • Culture supernatants were harvested and assayed for CXCL11 by ELISA. (nih.gov)
  • Production of IL-6, chemokine CXCL10 (IP-10), chemokine CXCL11 (I-TAC) and IFN-β was measured by ELISA. (elsevier.com)
  • Chemokines also play fundamental roles in the development, homeostasis, and function of the immune system, and they have effects on cells of the central nervous system as well as on endothelial cells involved in angiogenesis or angiostasis. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Additionally, in vivo chemokine activity depends on their interaction with "auxiliary" molecules expressed by the vascular endothelial cells. (nih.gov)
  • Secreted chemokines can be immobilized on the luminal and abluminal endothelial cell surfaces by glycosaminoglycans. (nih.gov)
  • In order to be targeted to their presentation sites on the luminal endothelial cell surface, the tissue-derived chemokines have to cross the endothelial cell barrier. (nih.gov)
  • CXCR3 chemokine receptor distribution in normal and inflamed tissues: expression on activated lymphocytes, endothelial cells, and dendritic cells. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Chemokines are a subset of cytokines, which, by their chemoattractant property promote the stable binding of leukocytes to vascular endothelial cells, thereby, directing their migration towards the infection site [ 7 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • CXCR3B-specific monoclonal antibodies reacted with neoplastic tissue endothelial cells, providing evidence that CXCR3-B is expressed in vivo and may account for the angiostatic effects of CXC chemokines. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Clone REA232 recognizes CD183, a 38 kDa G protein-coupled chemokine receptor. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Chemokines are a superfamily of small molecule chemoattractive cytokines that regulate many cellular functions. (dovepress.com)
  • The chemokine superfamily is composed of ∼40 low molecular weight cytokines that bind a family of 18 to 22 G-protein-coupled receptors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • On the other hand, our co-culture studies demonstrated that the cancer cell-derived lymphotoxin induces chemokine expression in stromal fibroblasts through LTBR-NF-κB signalling. (nih.gov)
  • Adenomas displayed an altered chemokine balance, with higher CCL17 and lower CXCL11 and CCL25 expression than in the unaffected tissue. (diva-portal.org)
  • Chemokines and their receptors play a major role in immune cell trafficking in both physiological and pathological settings ( 1 , 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • To date, >50 chemokines have been found, which can be divided into four families: CXC, CX3C, CC and XC, according to the different positions of the conserved N‑terminal cysteine residues. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • 50 chemokines have been identified, which can be divided into four families: CXC, CX3C, CC and XC, based on the different positions of the conserved N-terminal cysteine residues ( 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • All chemokines share a typical Greek key structure that is stabilised by disulphide bonds between conserved cysteine residues. (wikidoc.org)
  • Intramolecular disulphide bonds typically join the first to third, and the second to fourth cysteine residues, numbered as they appear in the protein sequence of the chemokine. (wikidoc.org)
  • The numbers and spacing of the first cysteine residues in the amino acid sequence are used to classify chemokines into four subfamilies: CXC (or α), CC (or β), CX 3 C, and C chemokines. (frontiersin.org)
  • The chemokine family encompasses nearly 50 members, which are classified based on the relative position of their conserved N-terminal cysteine residues (CC, CXC, CX 3 C, and C). Chemokines elicit intracellular responses via G protein-coupled receptors. (jimmunol.org)
  • Chemokines are classified according to their conserved N-terminal cysteine residues (C) that form the first disulfide bond. (aacrjournals.org)
  • SDF-1 has been thought to mediate all of these functions exclusively via a single cell surface receptor known as chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) ( 6 ). (rupress.org)
  • Currently, 20 chemokine receptors mediate the effects of more than 50 known chemokines ( 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The chemokines, by virtue of their specific cell receptor expression, can selectively mediate the local recruitment/activation of distinct leukocytes/cells, allowing for migration across the endothelium and beyond the vascular compartment. (ahajournals.org)
  • Furthermore, activated chemokine receptors bind to the scaffolding protein β-arrestin ( 1 - 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The major role of chemokines is to act as a chemoattractant to guide the migration of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amongst the chemokines being produced, we found that fibroblast-secreted CXCL11 promotes proliferation and migration of ovarian cancer cells via the chemokine receptor CXCR3. (nih.gov)
  • After binding to the receptors, chemokines primarily serve a role in migration of leukocytes, such as monocytes, eosinophils and dendritic cells (DCs) ( 11 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • A major rol of chemokines is to act as chemoattractants in guiding migration of cells. (wikipathways.org)
  • Not involved in cell migration, adhesion or proliferation of normal hematopoietic progenitors but activated by CXCL11 in malignant hemapoietic cells, leading to phosphorylation of ERK1/2 (MAPK3/MAPK1) and enhanced cell adhesion and migration. (uniprot.org)
  • In this study, we have used GAG binding-deficient chemokine mutants and cell-based functional (migration) assays to demonstrate that chemokine cooperativity is caused by competitive binding of chemokines to GAGs. (jimmunol.org)
  • Whether other chemokine receptors besides CXCR4 are involved in the regulation of ASC migration into the bone marrow and which molecules direct ASC into inflamed tissues, has not been clarified yet. (jimmunol.org)
  • The purpose of present study is to detect differential expression and function of chemokines and chemokine receptors (CCRs) in BPH and PCa. (cancerindex.org)
  • These data identify the induction of intratumoral expression of chemokines as a novel cell-extrinsic mechanism of action of chemotherapy that results in the recruitment of immune cells with antitumor activity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, expression of chemokines and chemokine receptors associated with the Th1/Th2 imbalance, particularly relating to immune regulation by modified application of glucocorticoids, has yet to be explored. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Additionally, the overexpression of CXCR3 is significantly associated with the tumour grade and lymph node metastasis of ovarian cancer, further supporting the role of CXCR3, which interacts with CXCL11, in promoting growth and metastasis of human ovarian cancer. (nih.gov)
  • It has been found that chemokine networks may serve pivotal roles in inducing organ-specific metastasis ( 8 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Due to their function of targeting cells to specific organs, homeostatic chemokines can also be involved in cancer and metastasis. (biolegend.com)
  • Evidence suggests that the CXC-chemokine receptor-4 pathway plays a role in cancer cell homing and metastasis, and thus represents a potential target for cancer therapy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These included established adipocytokines and chemokines implicated in recruitment and activation of lymphocytes, adhesion molecules, antioxidants, and several novel genes with unknown function. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • IHC-P analysis of rat kidney using CXCL11 antibody. (genetex.com)
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human colon cancer tissue slide using 10707-1-AP (CXCL11 antibody) at dilution of 1:200 (under 10x lens. (ptglab.com)
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human colon cancer tissue slide using 10707-1-AP (CXCL11 antibody) at dilution of 1:200 (under 40x lens. (ptglab.com)
  • In the early 1990s, my laboratory discovered that intestinal epithelial cells could alter their phenotype and produce proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines when stimulated by pathogenic enteric luminal microbes or proinflammatory agonists produced by cells in the underlying mucosa. (jci.org)
  • It is now well accepted that intestinal epithelial cells can be induced to express and secrete specific arrays of cytokines, chemokines, and antimicrobial defense molecules. (jci.org)
  • A ) Intestinal epithelial cells can be induced to express chemokines and cytokines in response to encounter with enteric microbial pathogens. (jci.org)
  • Epithelial cells also express TLRs that respond to microbial products (e.g., bacterial flagellin signals through TLR5) and chemokine receptors (CCR6, CXCR4, CCR5, and CX3CR1) and can be induced to produce antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), such as -defensins and cathelicidin (viii). (jci.org)
  • One of the isoforms (CXCR3-B) shows high affinity binding to chemokine, CXCL4/PF4 (PMID:12782716). (genecards.org)
  • On the other hand, the chemokine system also plays a crucial role in the induction of antitumor immune responses and optimal effector function regulation of immune cells [ 1 , 4 , 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Chemokine receptor expression on TILs was evaluated by flow cytometry on cell suspensions from digested tissues. (bmj.com)
  • These are known as homeostatic chemokines and are produced and secreted without any need to stimulate their source cell(s). (wikipedia.org)
  • Homeostatic chemokines are constitutively expressed in particular organs or tissues. (biolegend.com)
  • We examined the plasma levels of chemokines in individuals with PTB, latent TB (LTB) or healthy controls (HC) and their association with disease severity and mycobacterial burdens in PTB. (nature.com)
  • Our data demonstrate that PTB is associated with elevated levels of chemokines, which are partially reversed followed chemotherapy. (nature.com)
  • To decipher the role of chemokines in TB infection and disease, we measured the levels of chemokines in PTB, LTB and HC individuals. (nature.com)