Chemokine CXCL12: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.Chemokine CXCL13: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CXCL10: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemokine CXCL6: A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CXCL11: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemokine CXCL1: A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.Chemokine CXCL9: An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemokines, CXC: Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.Receptors, Chemokine: Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Receptors, CXCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.Chemokine CXCL5: A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.Receptors, CXCR4: CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Receptors, CXCR3: CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Autonomic Agents: Agents affecting the function of, or mimicking the actions of, the autonomic nervous system and thereby having an effect on such processes as respiration, circulation, digestion, body temperature regulation, certain endocrine gland secretions, etc.Receptors, CXCR5: CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.Receptors, Interleukin-8B: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.Chemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CXCL2: A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CCL21: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Automobile Driving: The effect of environmental or physiological factors on the driver and driving ability. Included are driving fatigue, and the effect of drugs, disease, and physical disabilities on driving.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Chemokine CCL22: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.Chemokine CCL3: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Chemokine CCL17: A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.N-Acetyllactosamine Synthase: The A protein of the lactose synthase complex. In the presence of the B protein (LACTALBUMIN) specificity is changed from N-acetylglucosamine to glucose. EC 2.4.1.90.Chemokine CCL19: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.Autonomic Nervous System: The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.Chemokines, CC: Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Heterocyclic Compounds: Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Mice, Inbred C57BLPlatelet Factor 4: A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.Chemokine CCL7: A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CCL20: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Chemokine CCL11: A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Chemokine CCL1: A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.Neutrophil Infiltration: The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Chemokine CCL27: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Receptors, CCR2: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.Receptors, CCR1: CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.Niacinamide: An important compound functioning as a component of the coenzyme NAD. Its primary significance is in the prevention and/or cure of blacktongue and PELLAGRA. Most animals cannot manufacture this compound in amounts sufficient to prevent nutritional deficiency and it therefore must be supplemented through dietary intake.Receptors, CCR5: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.Chemokine CCL8: A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins: Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Receptors, CCR4: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.Receptors, Interleukin-8A: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.Mice, Inbred BALB CT-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Receptors, CCR3: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Receptors, CCR7: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Receptors, CCR10: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.Receptors, CCR8: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Chemokine CCL24: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Receptors, Cytokine: Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Monocyte Chemoattractant Proteins: Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Deslanoside: Deacetyllanatoside C. A cardiotonic glycoside from the leaves of Digitalis lanata.Methionine SulfoximineReceptors, CCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Chemokines, CX3C: Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.Chemotactic Factors: Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.Receptors, CCR6: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Monokines: Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Receptors, HIV: Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Duffy Blood-Group System: A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Cell Migration Inhibition: Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Chemotactic Factors, Eosinophil: Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Nafenopin: A peroxisome proliferator that is used experimentally to promote liver tumors. It has been used as an antihyperlipoproteinemic agent.Glucosylceramides: Cerebrosides which contain as their polar head group a glucose moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramides. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in beta-glucosidase, is the cause of Gaucher's disease.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Angiostatic Proteins: Proteins that specifically inhibit the growth of new blood vessels (ANGIOGENESIS, PHYSIOLOGIC).Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Transendothelial and Transepithelial Migration: The passage of cells across the layer of ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, i.e., the ENDOTHELIUM; or across the layer of EPITHELIAL CELLS, i.e. the EPITHELIUM.

Expression of specific chemokines and chemokine receptors in the central nervous system of multiple sclerosis patients. (1/1046)

Chemokines direct tissue invasion by specific leukocyte populations. Thus, chemokines may play a role in multiple sclerosis (MS), an idiopathic disorder in which the central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory reaction is largely restricted to mononuclear phagocytes and T cells. We asked whether specific chemokines were expressed in the CNS during acute demyelinating events by analyzing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), whose composition reflects the CNS extracellular space. During MS attacks, we found elevated CSF levels of three chemokines that act toward T cells and mononuclear phagocytes: interferon-gamma-inducible protein of 10 kDa (IP-10); monokine induced by interferon-gamma (Mig); and regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES). We then investigated whether specific chemokine receptors were expressed by infiltrating cells in demyelinating MS brain lesions and in CSF. CXCR3, an IP-10/Mig receptor, was expressed on lymphocytic cells in virtually every perivascular inflammatory infiltrate in active MS lesions. CCR5, a RANTES receptor, was detected on lymphocytic cells, macrophages, and microglia in actively demyelinating MS brain lesions. Compared with circulating T cells, CSF T cells were significantly enriched for cells expressing CXCR3 or CCR5. Our results imply pathogenic roles for specific chemokine-chemokine receptor interactions in MS and suggest new molecular targets for therapeutic intervention.  (+info)

The T cell-specific CXC chemokines IP-10, Mig, and I-TAC are expressed by activated human bronchial epithelial cells. (2/1046)

Recruitment of activated T cells to mucosal surfaces, such as the airway epithelium, is important in host defense and for the development of inflammatory diseases at these sites. We therefore asked whether the CXC chemokines IFN-induced protein of 10 kDa (IP-10), monokine induced by IFN-gamma (Mig), and IFN-inducible T-cell alpha-chemoattractant (I-TAC), which specifically chemoattract activated T cells by signaling through the chemokine receptor CXCR3, were inducible in respiratory epithelial cells. The effects of proinflammatory cytokines, including IFN-gamma (Th1-type cytokine), Th2-type cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13), and dexamethasone were studied in normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBEC) and in two human respiratory epithelial cell lines, A549 and BEAS-2B. We found that IFN-gamma, but not TNF-alpha or IL-1 beta, strongly induced IP-10, Mig, and I-TAC mRNA accumulation mainly in NHBEC and that TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta synergized with IFN-gamma induction in all three cell types. High levels of IP-10 protein (> 800 ng/ml) were detected in supernatants of IFN-gamma/TNF-alpha-stimulated NHBEC. Neither dexamethasone nor Th2 cytokines modulated IP-10, Mig, or I-TAC expression. Since IFN-gamma is up-regulated in tuberculosis (TB), using in situ hybridization we studied the expression of IP-10 in the airways of TB patients and found that IP-10 mRNA was expressed in the bronchial epithelium. In addition, IP-10-positive cells obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage were significantly increased in TB patients compared with normal controls. These results show that activated bronchial epithelium is an important source of IP-10, Mig, and I-TAC, which may, in pulmonary diseases such as TB (in which IFN-gamma is highly expressed) play an important role in the recruitment of activated T cells.  (+info)

CD40 ligand-CD40 interaction induces chemokines in cervical carcinoma cells in synergism with IFN-gamma. (3/1046)

Cellular immunity plays a major role in controlling human papilloma virus infection and development of cervical carcinoma. Mononuclear cell infiltration possibly due to the action of chemokines becomes prominent in the tumor tissue. In fact, the macrophage chemoattractant protein-1, MCP-1, was detected in cervical squamous cell carcinoma in situ, whereas absent in cultured cells. From this, unknown environmental factors were postulated regulating chemokine expression in vivo. In this study, we show high CD40 expression on cervical carcinoma cells and CD40 ligand (CD40L) staining on attracted T cells in tumor tissue, suggesting a paracrine stimulation mechanism via CD40L-CD40 interactions. We therefore investigated chemokine synthesis in nonmalignant and malignant human papilloma virus-positive cell lines after CD40L exposure. Constitutive expression of MCP-1, MCP-3, RANTES, and IFN-gamma-inducible protein-10 was almost undetectable in all cell lines tested. CD40L was able to induce MCP-1 production; however, despite much higher CD40 expression in malignant cells, MCP-1 induction was significantly lower compared with nontumorigenic cells. After sensitization with IFN-gamma, another T cell-derived cytokine showing minimal effects on CD40 expression levels, CD40 ligation led to a more than 20-fold MCP-1 induction in carcinoma cell lines. An even stronger effect was observed for IFN-gamma-inducible protein-10. Our study highlights the synergism of T cell-derived mediators such as CD40L and IFN-gamma for chemokine responses in cervical carcinoma cells, helping to understand the chemokine expression patterns observed in vivo.  (+info)

Gene expression and production of the monokine induced by IFN-gamma (MIG), IFN-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC), and IFN-gamma-inducible protein-10 (IP-10) chemokines by human neutrophils. (4/1046)

Monokine induced by IFN-gamma (MIG), IFN-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC), and IFN-gamma-inducible protein of 10 kDa (IP-10) are related members of the CXC chemokine subfamily that bind to a common receptor, CXCR3, and that are produced by different cell types in response to IFN-gamma. We have recently reported that human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) have the capacity to release IP-10. Herein, we show that PMN also have the ability to produce MIG and to express I-TAC mRNA in response to IFN-gamma in combination with either TNF-alpha or LPS. While IFN-gamma, alone or in association with agonists such as fMLP, IL-8, granulocyte (G)-CSF and granulocyte-macrophage (GM)-CSF, failed to influence MIG, IP-10, and I-TAC gene expression, IFN-alpha, in combination with TNF-alpha, LPS, or IL-1beta, resulted in a considerable induction of IP-10 release by neutrophils. Furthermore, IL-10 and IL-4 significantly suppressed the expression of MIG, IP-10, and I-TAC mRNA and the extracellular production of MIG and IP-10 in neutrophils stimulated with IFN-gamma plus either LPS or TNF-alpha. Finally, supernatants harvested from stimulated PMN induced migration and rapid integrin-dependent adhesion of CXCR3-expressing lymphocytes; these activities were significantly reduced by neutralizing anti-MIG and anti-IP-10 Abs, suggesting that they were mediated by MIG and IP-10 present in the supernatants. Since MIG, IP-10, and I-TAC are potent chemoattractants for NK cells and Th1 lymphocytes, the ability of neutrophils to produce these chemokines might contribute not only to the progression and evolution of the inflammatory response, but also to the regulation of the immune response.  (+info)

Differential induction of adhesion molecule and chemokine expression by LTalpha3 and LTalphabeta in inflammation elucidates potential mechanisms of mesenteric and peripheral lymph node development. (5/1046)

Lymphotoxin (LT) is a member of the proinflammatory TNF family of cytokines that plays a critical role in the development of lymphoid tissue. It has previously been reported that the presence of the LTalpha transgene under the control of the rat insulin promoter results in inflammation at the sites of transgene expression. LTalpha transgene expression results in expression of the adhesion molecules VCAM, ICAM, peripheral node addressin (a marker of peripheral lymph nodes), and mucosal addressin cellular adhesion molecule (a marker of mucosal lymphoid tissue, including mesenteric lymph nodes). In this study to determine the mechanisms by which LT promotes inflammation and lymphoid tissue organization, we analyzed the regulation of expression of adhesion molecules and chemokines in LT transgenic mice. The results demonstrate that LTalpha3 induces expression of the adhesion molecules VCAM, ICAM, and mucosal addressin cellular adhesion molecule as well as the chemokines RANTES, IFN-inducible protein-10, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1, while LTalphabeta is required for the induction of peripheral node addressin that may contribute to the recruitment of L-selectinhigh CD44low naive T cells. These data provide candidate mediators of LT-induced inflammation as well as potential mechanisms by which LTalpha and LTalphabeta may differentially promote the development of mesenteric and peripheral lymph nodes.  (+info)

Early gene expression of NK cell-activating chemokines in mice resistant to Leishmania major. (6/1046)

Susceptibility of mice to Leishmania major is associated with an insufficient NK cell-mediated innate immune response. We analyzed the expression of NK cell-activating chemokines in vivo during the first days of infection in resistant and susceptible mice. The mRNA expression of gamma interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), and lymphotactin was upregulated 1 day after infection in the draining lymph nodes of resistant C57BL/6 mice but not in those of susceptible BALB/c mice. In vivo local treatment of BALB/c mice with recombinant IP-10 shortly after infection resulted in an enhanced NK cell activity in the draining lymph node. The data suggest that although the recruitment of NK cells is normal in susceptible mice, the lack of NK cell-activating chemokines is a factor resulting in a suboptimal NK cell-mediated defense.  (+info)

Acquisition of selectin binding and peripheral homing properties by CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. (7/1046)

Different T cell subsets exhibit distinct capacities to migrate into peripheral sites of inflammation, and this may in part reflect differential expression of homing receptors and chemokine receptors. Using an adoptive transfer approach, we examined the ability of functionally distinct subsets of T cells to home to a peripheral inflammatory site. The data directly demonstrate the inability of naive T cells and the ability of effector cells to home to inflamed peritoneum. Furthermore, interleukin (IL)-12 directs the differentiation of either CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells into effector populations that expresses functional E- and P-selectin ligand and that are preferentially recruited into the inflamed peritoneum compared with T cells differentiated in the presence of IL-4. Recruitment can be blocked by anti-E- and -P-selectin antibodies. The presence of antigen in the peritoneum promotes local proliferation of recruited T cells, and significantly amplifies the Th1 polarization of the lymphocytic infiltrate. Preferential recruitment of Th1 cells into the peritoneum is also seen when cytokine response gene 2 (CRG-2)/interferon gamma-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) is used as the sole inflammatory stimulus. We have also found that P-selectin binds only to antigen-specific T cells in draining lymph nodes after immunization, implying that both antigen- and cytokine-mediated signals are required for expression of functional selectin-ligand.  (+info)

CCR5(+) and CXCR3(+) T cells are increased in multiple sclerosis and their ligands MIP-1alpha and IP-10 are expressed in demyelinating brain lesions. (8/1046)

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a T cell-dependent chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. The role of chemokines in MS and its different stages is uncertain. Recent data suggest a bias in expression of chemokine receptors by Th1 vs. Th2 cells; human Th1 clones express CXCR3 and CCR5 and Th2 clones express CCR3 and CCR4. Chemokine receptors expressed by Th1 cells may be important in MS, as increased interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) precedes clinical attacks, and IFN-gamma injection induces disease exacerbations. We found CXCR3(+) T cells increased in blood of relapsing-remitting MS, and both CCR5(+) and CXCR3(+) T cells increased in progressive MS compared with controls. Furthermore, peripheral blood CCR5(+) T cells secreted high levels of IFN-gamma. In the brain, the CCR5 ligand, MIP-1alpha, was strongly associated with microglia/macrophages, and the CXCR3 ligand, IP-10, was expressed by astrocytes in MS lesions but not unaffected white matter of control or MS subjects. Areas of plaque formation were infiltrated by CCR5-expressing and, to a lesser extent, CXCR3-expressing cells; Interleukin (IL)-18 and IFN-gamma were expressed in demyelinating lesions. No leukocyte expression of CCR3, CCR4, or six other chemokines, or anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, and transforming growth factor-beta was observed. Thus, chemokine receptor expression may be used for immunologic staging of MS and potentially for other chronic autoimmune/inflammatory processes such as rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune diabetes, or chronic transplant rejection. Furthermore, these results provide a rationale for the use of agents that block CCR5 and/or CXCR3 as a therapeutic approach in the treatment of MS.  (+info)

*CXCL9

It is closely related to two other CXC chemokines called CXCL10 and CXCL11, whose genes are located near the gene for CXCL9 on ... Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 (CXCL9) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also known as ... Campbell JD, Stinson MJ, Simons FE, Rector ES, HayGlass KT (July 2001). "In vivo stability of human chemokine and chemokine ... Shields PL, Morland CM, Salmon M, Qin S, Hubscher SG, Adams DH (December 1999). "Chemokine and chemokine receptor interactions ...

*Transcription elongation regulator 1

2005). "Identification of genes differentially expressed in T cells following stimulation with the chemokines CXCL12 and CXCL10 ...

*Specialized pro-resolving mediators

... host-derived pro-inflammatory chemokines (e.g. CXCL8, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL11, CXCL10), platelet-activating factor, and ... stimulates their expression the chemokine receptor, CCR5, to inhibit chemokine signaling, enhances their phagocyte activity, ... CMKLR1 (chemokine receptor-like 1), also termed the ChemR23 or E series resolvin receptor (ERV), is expressed on inflammation- ...

*Periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and adenitis

Flares are accompanied by increased serum levels of activated T lymphocyte chemokines (IP-10/CXCL10, MIG/CXCL9), G-CSF and ... Activated CD4(+)/CD25(+) T-lymphocyte counts correlated negatively with serum concentrations of IP-10/CXCL10, whereas CD4(+)/ ... IP-10/CXCL10) genes. T cell associated genes (CD3, CD8B) are down regulated. ...

*Interleukin 12

It does this by increasing production of interferon gamma, which in turn increases the production of a chemokine called ... inducible protein-10 (IP-10 or CXCL10). IP-10 then mediates this anti-angiogenic effect. Because of its ability to induce ...

*Immunoediting

... as well as promoting the production of chemokines CXCL10, CXCL9 and CXCL11. These chemokines play an important role in ... The recruitment of more immune cells also occurs and is mediated by the chemokines produced during the inflammatory process. In ...

*CXCR3

... -A binds to the CXC chemokines CXCL9 (MIG), CXCL10 (IP-10), and CXCL11 (I-TAC) whereas CXCR3-B can also bind to CXCL4 in ... Chemokine receptor CXCR3 is a Gαi protein-coupled receptor in the CXC chemokine receptor family. Other names for CXCR3 are G ... Chemokine receptors Chemokine Cluster of differentiation GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000186810 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38 ... "Expression of specific chemokines and chemokine receptors in the central nervous system of multiple sclerosis patients". The ...

*CXCL11

C-X-C motif chemokine 11 (CXCL11) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CXCL11 gene. C-X-C motif chemokine 11 is a ... CXCL9 and CXCL10. CXCL11 is chemotactic for activated T cells. Its gene is located on human chromosome 4 along with many other ... This chemokine elicits its effects on its target cells by interacting with the cell surface chemokine receptor CXCR3, with a ... Luo Y, Kim R, Gabuzda D, Mi S, Collins-Racie LA, Lu Z, Jacobs KA, Dorf ME (December 1998). "The CXC-chemokine, H174: expression ...

*Andrew D. Luster

Over the past three decades, Luster has been intimately associated with the birth, growth and development of the chemokine ... of this important family of immunoregulatory chemotactic cytokines in health and diseases since his initial discovery of CXCL10 ... His laboratory is interested in defining the roles of chemokines and lipid chemoattractant molecules in autoimmune, allergic, ... According to Google Scholar, Luster's most cited paper, the review "Chemokines-chemotactic cytokines that mediate inflammation ...

*Immunological constant of rejection

Chemokines such as CXCR3 and CCR5, ligand chemokines (CXCL9, CXCL10, and CCL5) and other chemokines (CX3CL1 and CCL2) Adhesion ...

*Keratinocyte

... particularly chemokines such as CXCL10 and CCL2 which attract leukocytes to the site of pathogen invasion.[citation needed] A ... Keratinocytes also modulate the immune system: apart from the above-mentioned antimicrobial peptides and chemokines they are ...

*Eldelumab

"Anti-CXCL10 Therapeutic Antibody (eldelumab) - Creative Biolabs". www.creativebiolabs.net. Retrieved 2017-03-24. Sandborn, ... Eldelumab (alternative identifier BMS-936557) is a fully human monoclonal antibody (type IgG1 kappa) that targets chemokine (C- ... X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10)/Interferon-γ-inducible protein-10 (IP-10) designed for the treatment of Crohn's disease and ...

*Index of immunology articles

CroFab Cross-presentation Cross-reactivity Cryptic self epitopes Cryptotope CX3CL1 CX3CR1 CXC chemokine receptors CXCL1 CXCL10 ... C-C chemokine receptor type 6 C-C chemokine receptor type 7 Calreticulin Cancer immunology Cancer immunoprevention Cancer ... CD4 CD4+ T cells and antitumor immunity CD74 CD94/NKG2 Cell-mediated immunity CELSR1 Central tolerance Chemokine Chemokine ... immunotherapy Cantuzumab ravtansine Cathelicidin CC chemokine receptors CCBP2 CCL1 CCL11 CCL12 CCL13 CCL14 CCL15 CCL16 CCL17 ...

*CXCR5 - Википедия

Human osteoblasts express functional CXC chemokine receptors 3 and 5: activation by their ligands, CXCL10 and CXCL13, ... Chan C.C., Shen D., Hackett J.J., Buggage R.R., Tuaillon N. Expression of chemokine receptors, CXCR4 and CXCR5, and chemokines ... CXCR5, BLR1, CD185, MDR15, C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 5, C-X-C chemokine receptor type 5. ... Gunn M.D., Ngo V.N., Ansel K.M., Ekland E.H., Cyster J.G., Williams L.T. A B-cell-homing chemokine made in lymphoid follicles ...

*CXCL10

The gene for CXCL10 is located on human chromosome 4 in a cluster among several other CXC chemokines. CXCL10 is secreted by ... C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10) also known as Interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10) or small-inducible cytokine B10 is ... Booth V, Keizer DW, Kamphuis MB, Clark-Lewis I, Sykes BD (August 2002). "The CXCR3 binding chemokine IP-10/CXCL10: structure ... Human CXCL10 genome location and CXCL10 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Farber JM (March 1997). "Mig and IP-10: ...

*Chemokine

Examples are: CXCL-8, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL11, CXCL10. The main function of chemokines is to manage the migration of ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines in that it has ... CCL1 for the ligand 1 of the CC-family of chemokines, and CCR1 for its respective receptor. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) ...

*CXC chemokine receptors

The CXCR3 binding chemokine IP-10/CXCL10: structure and receptor interactions. Biochemistry 41: 10418-10425, 2002. Legler D.F ... CXC chemokine receptors are integral membrane proteins that specifically bind and respond to cytokines of the CXC chemokine ... However, CXCR6 is more closely related in structure to CC chemokine receptors than to other CXC chemokine receptors. CXCR7 was ... within the chemokine receptor cluster on human chromosome 3p21) and its similarity to other chemokine receptors in its gene ...

*CCL17

1999). "The assignment of chemokine-chemokine receptor pairs: TARC and MIP-1 beta are not ligands for human CC-chemokine ... CXCL10 release by TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma in HaCaT cell line". Cytokine. 20 (1): 1-6. doi:10.1006/cyto.2002.1965. PMID 12441140 ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 17 (CCL17) (also known as TARC) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family is also ... This chemokine specifically binds and induces chemotaxis in T cells and elicits its effects by interacting with the chemokine ...

*C-C chemokine receptor type 6

chemokine receptor activity. • receptor activity. • protein binding. • C-C chemokine receptor activity. • C-C chemokine binding ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene.[5] CCR6 ... "Entrez Gene: CCR6 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6".. *^ Wang K, Zhang H, Kugathasan S, Annese V, Bradfield JP, Russell RK, ... "Chemokine Receptors: CCR6". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...

*CXCR5

"Human osteoblasts express functional CXC chemokine receptors 3 and 5: activation by their ligands, CXCL10 and CXCL13, ... is a G protein-coupled seven transmembrane receptor for chemokine CXCL13 (also known as BLC) and belongs to the CXC chemokine ... C-X-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CXC-R5) also known as CD185 (cluster of differentiation 185) or Burkitt lymphoma receptor 1 ( ... Förster R, Mattis AE, Kremmer E, Wolf E, Brem G, Lipp M (December 1996). "A putative chemokine receptor, BLR1, directs B cell ...

*CXCL10 - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија

CXCL10 - chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10". Архивирано из оригинала на датум 20. 04. 2010. Приступљено 17. 07. 2010.. ... Swaminathan (2003). „Crystal structures of oligomeric forms of the IP-10/CXCL10 chemokine.". Structure. 11: 521-32. PMID ... Booth (2002). „The CXCR3 binding chemokine IP-10/CXCL10: structure and receptor interactions.". Biochemistry. 41. PMID 12173928 ... CXCL10, hemokin (C-X-C motiv) ligand 10, ili IP-10[1] je mali citokin iz CXC hemokin familije koji je takođe poznat kao 10 kDa ...

*Chemokine

CXCL10 and CXCL11 are secreted.[6] ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CXC chemokinesEdit. The two N-terminal cysteines of CXC chemokines (or α-chemokines) are separated by one amino acid, ...

*Chromosome 4 (human)

... chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9, scyb9 CXCL10: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10, scyb10 CXCL11: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ... chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1, scyb1 CXCL2: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2, scyb2 CXCL3: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 3 ... chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 5, scyb5 CXCL6: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6, scyb6 CXCL7: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 7 ... scyb3 CXCL4: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 4, Platelet factor-4, PF-4, scyb4 CXCL5: ...

*Thiamazole

It acts at CXCL10. "DrugBank: Methimazole (DB00763)". drugbank.ca. Retrieved 21 July 2015. Nakamura H, Noh JY, Itoh K, Fukata S ... October 2007). "Methimazole inhibits CXC chemokine ligand 10 secretion in human thyrocytes". J. Endocrinol. 195 (1): 145-55. ...

*Interleukin 8 receptor, alpha

C-X-C chemokine receptor activity. • interleukin-8 binding. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. • chemokine receptor ... This name and the corresponding gene symbol IL8RA have been replaced by the HGNC approved name C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 1 ... "Chemokine Receptors: CXCR1". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... chemokine-mediated signaling pathway. • interleukin-8-mediated signaling pathway. • neutrophil degranulation. • chemotaxis. ...

*साँचा:Cytokines - विकिपीडिया

CXCL1 · CXCL2 · CXCL3 · CXCL4 · CXCL5 · CXCL6 · CXCL7 · CXCL8/IL8 · CXCL9 · CXCL10 · CXCL11 · CXCL12 · CXCL13 · CXCL14 · CXCL15 ... Chemokine. CCL. CCL1 · CCL2 · CCL3 · CCL4 · CCL5 · CCL6 · CCL7 · CCL8 · CCL9 · CCL11 · CCL12 · CCL13 · CCL14 · CCL15 · CCL16 · ...

*Tumor necrosis factor alpha

positive regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production. • positive regulation of JUN kinase activity. • positive ... positive regulation of chemokine production. • cellular extravasation. • negative regulation of lipid storage. • negative ... positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • epithelial cell proliferation involved in salivary gland morphogenesis ...

*Lymphokine

... s are a subset of cytokines that are produced by a type of immune cell known as a lymphocyte.[1] They are protein mediators typically produced by T cells to direct the immune system response by signaling between its cells. Lymphokines have many roles, including the attraction of other immune cells, including macrophages and other lymphocytes, to an infected site and their subsequent activation to prepare them to mount an immune response. Circulating lymphocytes can detect a very small concentration of lymphokine and then move up the concentration gradient towards where the immune response is required. Lymphokines aid B cells to produce antibodies. Important lymphokines secreted by the T helper cell include:[2] ...
Inflammasomes sense diverse classes of foreign molecules in the cytoplasm and induce caspase-1 activation and IL-1β maturation. Whether such a sensing mechanism exists in the nucleus is not known. Nuclear replicating herpesvirus KSHV is associated with Kaposi Sarcoma (KS) that is characterized by a microenvironment of inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β. How the caspase-1 inflammasome, which is required for IL-1β maturation is induced during KSHV infection is not known. Here we demonstrate that during de novo KSHV infection of endothelial cells, interferon gamma-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) interacts with ASC and procaspase-1 to form a functional inflammasome. This complex was initially detected in the nucleus and subsequently in the peri-nuclear area. Caspase-1 activation by KSHV was reduced by IFI16 and ASC silencing but not by AIM2 knockdown. Our studies reveal a new function of IFI16 as a nuclear danger sensor and demonstrate that the inflammasomes danger sensing functions extend into ...
GILT antibody (interferon, gamma-inducible protein 30) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-GILT pAb (GTX103967) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Recombinant protein of human interferon, gamma-inducible protein 16 (IFI16), 20 ug available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
CXCL10 / IP10 antibody [15J7] (chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10) for Neut, WB. Anti-CXCL10 / IP10 mAb (GTX53293) is tested in Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Complete information for CXCL9 gene (Protein Coding), C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 9, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Aortic and plasma expression levels of IL-18 and CXCL16.(A) Reduced aortic mRNA expression of IL-18 and CXCL16, but no change in the expression of IFN-γ is obs
References for Abcams Recombinant human CXCL5 protein (ab50039). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Bachem offers H-4606 Interferon-Inducible T Cell α-Chemoattractant (human) for your research. Find all specific details here. Find product specific information including available pack sizes, CAS, detailed description and references here.
SAM domain and HD domain-containing protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SAMHD1 gene. SAMHD1 is a cellular enzyme, responsible for blocking replication of HIV in dendritic cells, macrophages and monocytes. It is an enzyme that exhibits phosphohydrolase activity, converting deoxynucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) to inorganic phosphate (iPPP) and a 2-deoxynucleoside (i.e. deoxynucleosides without a phosphate group). In doing so, SAMHD1 depletes the pool of dNTPs available to a reverse transcriptase for viral cDNA synthesis and thus prevents viral replication. SAMHD1 has also shown nuclease activity. Although a ribonuclease activity was described to be required for HIV-1 restriction, recent data confirmed that SAMHD1-mediated HIV-1 restriction in cells does not involve ribonuclease activity. The SAMHD1 protein is also known as: AGS5: Aicardi- Goutières syndrome type 5 DCIP: Dendritic cell-derived IFNG-induced protein2 Mg11: Interferon-gamma-inducible protein HDDC1: HD domain ...
Chemokines mediate diverse fundamental biological processes, including combating infection. Multiple chemokines are expressed at the site of infection; thus chemokine synergy by heterodimer formation may play a role in determining function. Chemokine function involves interactions with G-protein-coupled receptors and sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAG). However, very little is known regarding heterodimer structural features and receptor and GAG interactions. Solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and molecular dynamics characterization of platelet-derived chemokine CXCL7 heterodimerization with chemokines CXCL1, CXCL4, and CXCL8 indicated that packing interactions promote CXCL7-CXCL1 and CXCL7-CXCL4 heterodimers, and electrostatic repulsive interactions disfavor the CXCL7-CXCL8 heterodimer. As characterizing the native heterodimer is challenging due to interference from monomers and homodimers, we engineered a
Human C-X-C Motif Chemokine 9 / Monokine Induced by Gamma Interferon (CXCL9 / MIG) standard, for use in running standard curves in AlphaLISA no-wash detection assay
Chicken polyclonal CXCL16 antibody validated for WB and tested in Human. With 1 independent review. Immunogen corresponding to recombinant fragment
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The purpose of this study is to investigate T-cell mediated immune responses to HIV-1 and HCV and determine how these responses are affected by HCV treatment and correlates to response. Furthermore, to study Interferon-inducible protein-10 (IP-10) dynamics during HCV treatment, and correlate this to treatment outcome ...
The purpose of this study is to investigate T-cell mediated immune responses to HIV-1 and HCV and determine how these responses are affected by HCV treatment and correlates to response. Furthermore, to study Interferon-inducible protein-10 (IP-10) dynamics during HCV treatment, and correlate this to treatment outcome ...
IP-10 has been detected in the CSF and brain parenchyma of patients with a variety of neuroinflammatory diseases (15, 26, 43, 44) and is a potent chemoattractant for activated T lymphocytes and NK cells (11). In EAE, an animal model for MS, IP-10 levels in the CNS have been correlated with the development of clinical disease and the recruitment of CXCR3-expressing pathogenic T cells (19, 20, 45). Treatment of SJL mice with Abs to IP-10 before adoptive transfer of encephalitogenic T cells or immunizing mice with naked IP-10 DNA decreased the severity of EAE (29). Based on these observations, IP-10 is thought to be essential for the development of CNS mononuclear infiltrates, and its receptor CXCR3, is considered a putative therapeutic target for diseases involving the trafficking of inflammatory T cells. However, the absolute requirement for IP-10 in EAE has never been directly examined.. In this study, we sought to determine whether IP-10 is required for the development of EAE by analyzing ...
C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10) also known as Interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10) or small-inducible cytokine B10 is an 8.7 kDa protein that in humans is encoded by the CXCL10 gene. C-X-C motif chemokine 10 is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family. The gene for CXCL10 is located on human chromosome 4 in a cluster among several other CXC chemokines. CXCL10 is secreted by several cell types in response to IFN-γ. These cell types include monocytes, endothelial cells and fibroblasts. CXCL10 has been attributed to several roles, such as chemoattraction for monocytes/macrophages, T cells, NK cells, and dendritic cells, promotion of T cell adhesion to endothelial cells, antitumor activity, and inhibition of bone marrow colony formation and angiogenesis. This chemokine elicits its effects by binding to the cell surface chemokine receptor CXCR3. The three-dimensional crystal structure of this chemokine has been determined under 3 different conditions to a resolution of up to ...
CXCL2_HUMAN (P19875 ), CXCL2_MOUSE (P10889 ), CXCL2_RAT (P30348 ), CXCL3_HUMAN (P19876 ), CXCL3_MOUSE (Q6W5C0 ), CXCL3_RAT (Q10746 ), CXCL5_HUMAN (P42830 ), CXCL5_MOUSE (P50228 ), CXCL5_RAT (P97885 ), CXCL6_BOVIN (P80221 ), CXCL6_HORSE (Q8MIN2 ), CXCL6_HUMAN (P80162 ), CXCL7_HUMAN (P02775 ), CXCL7_PIG (P43030 ), CXCL9_BOVIN (A9QWP9 ), CXCL9_HUMAN (Q07325 ), CXCL9_MOUSE (P18340 ), CXL10_BOVIN (Q2KIQ8 ), CXL10_CANLF (Q5KSV9 ), CXL10_HUMAN (P02778 ), CXL10_MACMU (Q8MIZ1 ), CXL10_MACNE (Q865F5 ), CXL10_MOUSE (P17515 ), CXL10_RAT (P48973 ), CXL11_BOVIN (A9QWQ1 ), CXL11_HUMAN (O14625 ), CXL11_MOUSE (Q9JHH5 ), CXL13_HUMAN (O43927 ), CXL13_MOUSE (O55038 ), CXL15_MOUSE (Q9WVL7 ), GRO2_RABIT (P47854 ), GROA_BOVIN (O46676 ), GROA_CAVPO (O55235 ), GROA_CRIGR (P09340 ), GROA_HUMAN (P09341 ), GROA_MOUSE (P12850 ), GROA_RAT (P14095 ), GROA_SHEEP (O46678 ), GROB_BOVIN (O46677 ), GROG_BOVIN (O46675 ), IL8_BOVIN (P79255 ), IL8_CANLF (P41324 ), IL8_CAVPO (P49113 ), IL8_CERAT (P46653 ), IL8_CHICK (P08317 ), ...
Cxcl11 - Cxcl11 (Myc-DDK-tagged) - Mouse chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11 (Cxcl11), transcript variant 1 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
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PIG11 protein may play an important role by interaction with other biological molecules in the regulation of apoptosis and provided us a novel angel of view to explore the possible function of PIG11 in vivo ...
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CXCL12/SDF-1 alpha ELISA Kits for quantification of target antigens. Browse our CXCL12/SDF-1 alpha ELISA Kits backed by our 100% Guarantee.
CXCL10 improves outcome by decreasing bacteremia in IFNAR−/− mice. (A) SEV129 wild-type mice (n = 10), IFNAR−/− mice (n = 11), or IFNAR−/− mice with
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Chemokines are a family of cytokines involved in the extravasation of leukocytes to the site of inflammation. 4 CCL2/monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), which is chemotactic for monocytes, 5 and CXCL8/IL-8, which chemoattracts neutrophils, 6 have been reported to be elevated in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) or serum of patients with active pulmonary sarcoidosis. 7 8 9 10 CCL3/macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), CCL4/MIP-1β, and CCL5/regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) also have been shown to be elevated in the BALF of patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis. 11 12 13 As a result of the findings that CCL3 and CCL5 share the same CC chemokine receptor (CCR5) that is expressed abundantly on Th1-type cells and that CCR5 mRNA expression is upregulated in BALF of patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis, these chemokines have been suggested to be involved in the recruitment of Th1 cells 14 from the circulation to the granulomas in pulmonary ...
Among CXC chemokines, CXCL10 has been identified to play an important role in several endocrine eautoimmune diseases such as Hashimotos thyroiditis, Graves disease and Type 1 diabetes mellitus. The chemokine IP-10 (interferon-inducible protein of 10 kDa, CXCL10) is a chemoattractant for CXCR3+ T cells, binds to the G protein-coupled receptor CXCR3, which is found mainly on activated T cells and NK cells, and plays an important role in Th1-type inflammatory diseases. IP-10 also binds to glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), an interaction thought to be important for its sequestration on endothelial and other cells. Recombinant Mouse IP-10 produced in E. coli is a single non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 77 amino acids with a MW of 8,701 Da ...
Interferons play a critical role in regulating both the innate and adaptive immune responses. Previous reports have shown increased levels of IFN-γ, IFN-γ-inducing IL-12 and IFN-γ-inducible chemokine IP-10 in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The present study focuses on the regulation of the IP-10 secretion in co-cultures of lung epithelial cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). No IP-10 secretion was detected in cells cultured alone, whereas a significant increase in IP-10 levels was observed in epithelial cell/PBMC co-cultures. Furthermore, the results show that interactions between lung epithelial cells, lymphocytes and monocytes are needed for basal IP-10 secretion. Interestingly, we have also shown that incubation with IL-12 can induce an IFN-γ independent increase in IP-10 levels in co-cultures. Furthermore, inhibition studies supported the suggestion that different intracellular pathways are responsible of IFN-γ and IL-12 mediated IP-10 secretion.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Birgit Westernströer, Daniel Langenstroth, Sabine Kliesch, Britta Troppmann, Klaus Redmann, Joni Macdonald, Rod Mitchell, Joachim Wistuba, Stefan Schlatt, Nina Neuhaus].
These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain. These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above. ...
Human CXCL16 ELISA Kit is a sandwich ELISA kit for use with Serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates and other biological fluids. This assay has high sensitivity and excellent specificity for detection of CXCL16|br/|N
Recombinant Human CXCL5 (ENA-78) (ELISA Std.) - CXCL5 is a member of the CXC family of chemokines, also known as epithelial activated peptide 78 (ENA-78).
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Background Ulcerative colitis is characterized by relapsing mucosal inflammation where the lesions include tissue-damaging granulocytes. In addition, T cells and natural killer (NK) cells play important pathophysiologic roles. Chemokines are a large family of peptides that play key roles in the regulation of inflammation. The CXC-chemokines, growth-related oncogene (GRO)-α/CXCL1 and interleukin (IL)-8/CXCL8, both recruit neutrophils and possess mitogenic properties, whereas the interferon-dependent CXC-chemokines monokine induced by gamma-interferon (MIG)/CXCL9, interferon-γ inducible protein of 10 kD/CXCL10, and IFN-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant/CXCL11 recruit and activate T cells and NK cells. Materials and methods The expression of CXC-chemokines was studied in eight controls and in 11 patients suffering from ulcerative colitis in the distal part of the colon, before and during topical treatment with corticosteroids. Perfusates (obtained before, after 7 days, and after 28 days of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Intrahepatic levels of CXCR3-associated chemokines correlate with liver inflammation and fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C. AU - Zeremski, Marija. AU - Petrovic, Lydia M.. AU - Chiriboga, Luis. AU - Brown, Queenie B.. AU - Yee, Herman T.. AU - Kinkhabwala, Milan. AU - Jacobson, Ira M.. AU - Dimova, Rositsa. AU - Markatou, Marianthi. AU - Talal, Andrew H.. PY - 2008/11/1. Y1 - 2008/11/1. N2 - Chemokines, chemotactic cytokines, may promote hepatic inflammation in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection through the recruitment of lymphocytes to the liver parenchyma. We evaluated the association between inflammation and fibrosis and CXCR3-associated chemokines, interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-inducible protein 10 (IP-10/CXCL10), monokine induced by IFN-γ(Mig/CXCL9), and interferon-inducible T cell α chemoattractant (I-TAC/CXCL11), in HCV infection. Intrahepatic mRNA expression of these chemokines was analyzed in 106 chronic HCV-infected patients by real-time PCR. The intrahepatic ...
We found that, in our cohort, elevated CXCL12 levels were strongly associated with future ischemic stroke even after adjusting for traditional risk factors and the Framingham Stroke Risk Profile. CXCL12 may be an important biomarker for stroke risk stratification particularly in patients in whom traditional risk factors are equivocal and may identify individuals in whom more aggressive risk factor modification, diagnostic evaluation, or even intervention is warranted.. To date only 2 publications have reported data regarding CXCL12 levels in patients with stroke, but both studies measured CXCL12 levels during the acute stroke phase.12,13 In the first article, there was no significant difference in circulating CXCL12 levels between patients with stroke and normal control subjects.13 However, the investigators did find a significant correlation between CXCL12 levels and peak C-reactive protein levels. In the second study, investigators found an inverse relationship between plasma CXCL12 levels and ...
|p|Recombinant Human I-TAC is a single non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 73 amino acids.|/p| |p|Background: I-TAC/CXCL11 cDNA encodes a 94 amino acid (aa) residue precursor protein with a 21 aa residue putative signal sequence, which is cleav
p53 protein levels increase in HDFs, such as IMR90 and MRC5, during replicative senescence (8-11). Moreover, p53 sequence-specific DNA-binding activity and transcriptional activity also increase during replicative senescence (9, 12). These studies (8-12) have suggested a role for p53 in the onset and maintenance of cellular senescence. Consistent with this idea, the p53-mediated induction of p21 and Gadd45 genes in normal human cells is known (13, 16, 17) to play a role in cell growth arrest. However, the number of p53 target genes whose expression is induced during cellular senescence in HDFs remains rather limited. Therefore, our observations that p53 activates the transcription of IFI16, a candidate cellular senescence gene, in response to certain DNA damage signals in normal human fibroblasts are important.. The IFI16 protein is an IFN-inducible protein and treatment of a variety of cells with IFNs (α, β, or γ) has been shown to result in up-regulation of the IFI16 mRNA and protein (21). ...
|p|Recombinant Rat CXCL1/GRO alpha/KC is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 72 amino acids.|/p| |p|Background: Rat CXCL1, also known as CINC-1, belongs to the CXC chemokine family. It is encoded by the GRO gene now designated CXCL1.
Recombinant mouse Cxcl3 protein, fused to His-tag at N-terminus, was expressed in E. coli and purified by using conventional chromatography techniques.
Human CXCL9 standard, lyophilized, for use in running standard curves in LANCE Ultra TR-FRET assays. This standard is already provided in the LANCE Ultra human CXCL9/MIG Detection Kit, but can be ordered separately.
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. CXCL8 ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. CXCL2 ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
Abnova Human CXCL1 Partial ORF (AAH11976, 36 a.a. - 107 a.a.) Recombinant Protein with GST-tag at N-terminal 10µg Life Sciences:Protein Biology:Proteins:Proteins A-Z:Proteins
A single G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) can activate multiple signaling cascades based on the binding of different ligands. The biological relevance of this feature in immune regulation has not been evaluated. The chemokine-binding GPCR CXCR3 is preferentially expressed on CD4+ T cells, and canonically binds 3 structurally related chemokines: CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11. Here we have shown that CXCL10/CXCR3 interactions drive effector Th1 polarization via STAT1, STAT4, and STAT5 phosphorylation, while CXCL11/CXCR3 binding induces an immunotolerizing state that is characterized by IL-10hi (Tr1) and IL-4hi (Th2) cells, mediated via p70 kinase/mTOR in STAT3- and STAT6-dependent pathways. CXCL11 binds CXCR3 with a higher affinity than CXCL10, suggesting that CXCL11 has the potential to restrain inflammatory autoimmunity. We generated a CXCL11-Ig fusion molecule and evaluated its use in the EAE model of inflammatory autoimmune disease. Administration of CXCL11-Ig during the first episode of ...
HIV-associated neurological disorders (HAND) are estimated to affect 60% of the HIV infected population. HIV-encephalitis (HIVE), the pathological correlate of the most severe form of HAND is often characterized by glial activation, cytokine/chemokine dysregulation, and neuronal damage and loss. However, the severity of HIVE correlates better with glial activation rather than viral load. One of the characteristic features of HIVE is the increased amount of the neurotoxic chemokine, CXCL10. This chemokine can be released from astroglia activated with the pro-inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ and TNF-α, in conjunction with HIV-1 Tat, all of which are elevated in HIVE. In an effort to understand the pathogenesis of HAND, this study was aimed at exploring the regulation of CXCL10 by cellular and viral factors during astrocyte activation. Specifically, the data herein demonstrate that the combined actions of HIV-1 Tat and the pro-inflammatory cytokines, IFN-γ and TNF-α, result in the induction of CXCL10 at
Polyclonal antibody for GRO alpha/CXCL1 detection. Host: Rabbit.Size: 100μg/vial. Tested applications: WB. Reactive species: Human. GRO alpha/CXCL1 information: Molecular Weight: 11301 MW; Subcellular Localization: Secreted.
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Expression of CXCL2 (CINC-2a, GRO2, GROb, MGSA-b, MIP-2a, SCYB2) in lung tissue. Antibody staining with in immunohistochemistry.
Expression of CXCL2 (CINC-2a, GRO2, GROb, MGSA-b, MIP-2a, SCYB2) in stomach 1 tissue. Antibody staining with in immunohistochemistry.
Gene target information for IFI27L2 - interferon alpha inducible protein 27 like 2 (human). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay experiments.
The anaerobic bacterium Finegoldia magna is part of the human commensal microbiota, but is also an important opportunistic pathogen. This bacterium expresses a subtilisin-like serine proteinase, SufA, which partially degrade the antibacterial chemokine MIG/CXCL9. Here, we show that MIG/CXCL9 is produced by human keratinocytes in response to inflammatory stimuli. In contrast to the virulent human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes, the presence of F. magna had no enhancing effect on the MIG/CXCL9 expression by keratinocytes, suggesting poor detection of the latter by pathogen-recognition receptors. When MIG/CXCL9 was exposed to SufA-expressing F. magna, the molecule was processed into several smaller fragments. Analysis by mass spectrometry showed that SufA cleaves MIG/CXCL9 at several sites in the COOH-terminal region of the molecule. At equimolar concentrations, SufA-generated MIG/CXCL9 fragments were not bactericidal against F. magna, but retained their ability to kill S. pyogenes. Moreover, the ...
The chemokine CXCL12/SDF1a has first been described in the immune system where it functions include chemotaxis for lymphocytes and macrophages, migration of hematopoietic cells from fetal liver to bone marrow and the formation of large blood vessels. Among other chemokines, CXCL12 has recently attracted much attention in the brain as it has been shown that it can be produced not only by glial cells but also by neurons. In addition, its receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7, which are belonging to the G-protein coupled receptors family, are abundantly expressed in diverse brain area, CXCR4 being a major co-receptor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 entry. This chemokine system has been shown to play important roles in brain plasticity processes occurring during development but also in the physiology of the brain in normal and pathological conditions. For example, in neurons, CXCR4 stimulation has been shown regulate the synaptic release of glutamate and GABA. It can also act post-synaptically by activating a
CXCL5 protein is expressed in E. coli, processed, refolded and purified to yield the native, secreted form of the mature chemokine. C-X-C motif chemokine 5 (CXCL5) or epithelial-derived neutrophil-activating peptide 78 (ENA-78) is a protein that in humans
This antimicrobial gene is part of a chemokine superfamily that encodes secreted proteins involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. The superfamily is divided into four subfamilies based on the arrangement of the N-terminal cysteine residues of the mature peptide. This chemokine, a member of the CXC subfamily, is expressed at sites of inflammation and may suppress hematopoietic progenitor cell proliferation. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014 ...
BCA-1/BLC, a CXC chemokine, is expressed in the liver, spleen, lymph nodes, appendix and stomach. It exerts its activities through its only
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CCL21, CCL25, CXCL13) are constitutively expressed and control physiologic trafficking of cells of the adoptive immune system during hematopoiesis and immunosurveillance ...
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Atypical chemokine receptor that controls chemokine levels and localization via high-affinity chemokine binding that is uncoupled from classic ligand-driven signal transduction cascades, resulting instead in chemokine sequestration, degradation, or transcytosis. Also known as interceptor (internalizing receptor) or chemokine-scavenging receptor or chemokine decoy receptor. Acts as a receptor for chemokines CXCL11 and CXCL12/SDF1. Chemokine binding does not activate G-protein-mediated signal transduction but instead induces beta-arrestin recruitment, leading to ligand internalization and activation of MAPK signaling pathway. Required for regulation of CXCR4 protein levels in migrating interneurons, thereby adapting their chemokine responsiveness. In glioma cells, transduces signals via MEK/ERK pathway, mediating resistance to apoptosis. Promotes cell growth and survival. Not involved in cell migration, adhesion or proliferation of normal hematopoietic progenitors but activated by CXCL11 in malignant
TY - JOUR. T1 - CXCL10-induced cell death in neurons. T2 - Role of calcium dysregulation. AU - Sui, Yongjun. AU - Stehno-Bittel, Lisa. AU - Li, Shanping. AU - Loganathan, Rajprasad. AU - Dhillon, Navneet K.. AU - Pinson, David. AU - Nath, Avindra. AU - Kolson, Dennis. AU - Narayan, Opendra. AU - Buch, Shilpa. PY - 2006/2. Y1 - 2006/2. N2 - Chemokines play a key role in the regulation of central nervous system disease. CXCL10 over-expression has been observed in several neurodegenerative diseases, including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimers disease and HIV-associated dementia. More recent studies by others and us have shown that CXCL10 elicits apoptosis in fetal neurons. The mechanism of CXCL10-mediated neurotoxicity, however, remains unclear. In this study, we provide evidence for the direct role of Ca2+ dysregulation in CXCL10-mediated apoptosis. We demonstrate that treatment of fetal neuronal cultures with exogenous CXCL10 produced elevations in intracellular Ca2+ and that this effect was ...
cytoplasm, external side of plasma membrane, extracellular exosome, extracellular space, plasma membrane, chemoattractant activity, chemokine activity, chemokine receptor binding, CXCR chemokine receptor binding, adult locomotory behavior
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Recently, chemokine gradients have been directly visualized in vivo in the context of Ccl21‐mediated dendritic cell migration in mice (Weber et al, 2013) and in zebrafish, where Cxcl8 mediates neutrophil migration (Sarris et al, 2012) (Fig 2B). Cxcl8 forms an extracellular, matrix‐bound gradient that extends at least 100 μm around the cell that expresses the chemokine. Interestingly, Cxcl8 protein was detected beyond this local tissue gradient and was found to be enriched along the venous vasculature, which includes the CHT from which Cxcl8 meditates the mobilization of neutrophils into the vasculature (Sarris et al, 2012). Since Cxcl8 binding to the venous vasculature is also required for neutrophil arrest on the blood vessel wall and to facilitate the subsequent extravasation (Middleton et al, 1997), it appears that Cxcl8 acts at several stages of neutrophil recruitment to sites of infection.. Binding of Cxcl8 to the extracellular matrix, or more specifically to heparan sulfate ...
The LANCE® Ultra Human CXCL9/MIG Detection Kit is designed for detection and quantitation of human CXCL9/MIG in cell culture media using a homogeneous TR-FRET (no-wash steps, no separation steps) assay.
All three isoforms of GRO are CXC chemokines that can signal through the CXCR1 or CXCR2 receptors. The GRO proteins chemoattract and activate neutrophils and basophils. Recombinant mouse MIP-2 is a 7.8 kDa protein consisting of 73 amino acids including the ELR motif common to the CXC chemokine family that bind to CXCR1 or CXCR2 ...
Rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against synthetic peptide of CXCL9. A synthetic peptide corresponding to amino acids at N-terminus of human CXCL9. (PAB19516) - Products - Abnova
Speakers Nathalie Grün Human Papillomavirus in healthy youth Elin Sjöberg A novel role for the chemokine CXCL14 in epithelial to mesenchymal transition Chair Hanif Rassoolzadeh Welcome!
Complete information for PPBP gene (Protein Coding), Pro-Platelet Basic Protein, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
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Rat CXCL5/ENA-78 ELISA Kit assay has a sensitivity of 9.375pg/ml.. Measure Rat CXCL5/ENA-78 in serum, blood, plasma, cell supernatant samples.
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Catalog Number: 200-67 Alternate Names: CXCL12, PBSF Accession Number: P40224-2 Description: Stromal cell-derived factor-1 beta (SDF-1 β), also called CXCL12b, is one of two SDF-1 splice variants made by a wide variety of cells upon stimulation by inflammatory cytokines such as TNF, IL-1, and LPS. SDF-1 β signals through the G protein-coupled receptor CXCR4 to recruit activated leukocytes. Source: Genetically modified E.coli. Predicted MW: Monomer, 8.5 kDa (72 aa) ***Under non-reducing conditions, samples prepared at higher working concentrations are shown to produce a band of approximately 16 kDa on an SDS PAGE gel, which may represent dimer formation.AA Sequence: KPVSLSYRCP CRFFESHIAR ANVKHLKILN TPNCALQIVA RLKNNNRQVC IDPKLKWIQE YLEKALNKRL KM Formulation: Lyophilized from a sterile (0.2 micron) filtered aqueous solution containing 0.1% Trifluoroacetic Acid (TFA) Product Specifications**Lot-specific values for the following specifications are supplied with each product on its
CXCL7 (Human) ELISA Kit is a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for quantitative detection of human CXCL7 in cell culture supernates, cell lysates, serum and plasma (heparin, EDTA). (KA5605) - Products - Abnova
BioAssay record AID 297157 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of CXCL8-induced cell migration in human PMN cells at 0.01 uM by chemotaxis assay.
Detect and quantitate mouse Interferon Gamma Induced Protein 10 (mIP-10)/CXCL10 in serum, plasma, buffered solution, and cell culture supernatants using a homogeneous AlphaLISA no-wash assay.
The graphic displays domains and Protease cut sites on the protein sequence. Drag your mouse right/left over the graphic. Use the selection boxes on the right to select which annotations to view simultaneously. Combine annotation with multiple checkmarks.. ...
Finally, the mechanism by which p202 activates BMSC osteogenesis was determined. Runx2 is a critical transcription factor in osteogenesis. Previous study has detected the association of p204 with Runx2 [18]. However, in the present study, no interaction of p202 with Runx2 was seen (Figure 5C). p202 may lack an interacting structure with Runx2 protein. Id proteins are important suppressors in the differentiation of many cell types [13,20,21]. We found that Id proteins not only bound to Runx2, but also associated with p202 in the course of BMSC osteogenesis, and Id2 was a major associated family member (Figure 5A,B). It is possible that p202 disturbs the formation of Runx2/Ids complex and frees Runx2 to induce the differentiation process. Subsequent investigation demonstrated that this is the case. SiRNA-p202 dramatically lowered the p202-bound Id2, while enhanced the Runx2-associated Id2 content significantly. However, p202 overexpression increased the p202-bound Id2, but decreased the ...
Atypical chemokine receptor 3 also known as C-X-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CXCR-7) and G-protein coupled receptor 159 (GPR159) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACKR3 gene.[1][2] This gene encodes a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family. This protein was earlier thought to be a receptor for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and was considered to be an orphan receptor. It is now classified as a chemokine receptor able to bind the chemokines CXCL12/SDF-1 and CXCL11. The protein is also a coreceptor for human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV). Translocations involving this gene and HMGA2 on chromosome 12 have been observed in lipomas. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein isoform have been found for this gene. Whereas some reports claim that the receptor induces signaling following ligand binding, recent findings in zebrafish suggest that CXCR7 functions primarily by sequestering the chemokine CXCL12.[2] However, another recent study has provided ...
Successful curative treatment of severe pulmonary arterial hypertension with luminal obliteration will require a thorough understanding of the mechanism underlying the development and progression of pulmonary vascular lesions. But the cells that obliterate the pulmonary arterial lumen in severe pulmonary arterial hypertension are incompletely characterized. The goal of our study was to evaluate whether inhibition of CXC chemokine receptor 4 will prevent the accumulation of c-kit+ cells and severe pulmonary arterial hypertension. We detected c-kit+- cells expressing endothelial (von Willebrand Factor) or smooth muscle cell/myofibroblast (α-smooth muscle actin) markers in pulmonary arterial lesions of SU5416/chronic hypoxia rats. We found increased expression of CXC chemokine ligand 12 in the lung tissue of SU5416/chronic hypoxia rats. In our prevention study, AMD3100, an inhibitor of the CXC chemokine ligand 12 receptor, CXC chemokine receptor 4, only moderately decreased pulmonary arterial obliteration
The contribution of inflammation to the development of fibrosis varies in different conditions, and understanding the interaction between these processes is relevant to devise therapeutic strategies for chronic diseases such as pancreatitis. Identification of the chemokine system has elucidated the molecular mechanisms regulating leucocyte trafficking in a given tissue. Chemokines are a family of small cytokines that exert gradient dependent chemoattraction of cells bearing specific cognate receptors. The chemokine system is considerably complex, as indicated by the high number of ligands and receptors, and by the fact that the same chemokine may bind more than one receptor and the same receptor more than one chemokine.2 Additionally, the effects of chemokines are not limited to inflammation as the majority of cells express at least one chemokine receptor. A related aspect of chemokine biology is the distinction between "homeostatic" and "inflammatory" chemokines, where expression of the latter ...
Exposure of PC-3 cells to UNBS5162 (1 µM for 5 successive days) dramatically decreases the expression of the proangiogenic CXCL chemokines. UNBS5162 displays weak in vitro antiproliferative activity with IC50 values of 17.3 μM, 16 μM, 4.7 μM, 8.5 μM, 28.8 μM, 8.9 μM, 46.5 μM, 21.2 μM, 9.1 μM in PC-3, DU-145, U373-MG, Hs683, HCT-15, LoVo, MCF-7, A549 and Bx-PC-3 cells. At 10 µM UNBS5162 markedly impairs PC-3 tumor cell growth kinetics, without inducing senescence, whereas the reverse feature is observed with respect to DU-145 cells. This difference might result from their respective p53 status and/or the extent of p16 expression. At 1 µM, UNBS5162 induces no such antitumor effects. UNBS5162 at 10 µM markedly increased the levels of heterochromatin in PC-3 cells through an increase in number of histones, at least at the mRNA levels[1]. UNBS5162 has been identified to decrease levels of CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL) chemokines, including CXCL1, CXCL5 and CXCL8, in experimental prostate ...
Disease Markers is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies related to the identification of disease markers, the elucidation of their role and mechanism, as well as their application in the prognosis, diagnosis and treatment of diseases.
Protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is dependent on T cell and macrophage activation regulated by cytokines. Cytokines and chemokines produced at disease sites may be released into circulation. Data available on circulating cytokines in tuberculosis (TB) is mostly on pulmonary TB (PTB) with limited information on extrapulmonary disease (EPul-TB). We measured interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interkeukin-10 (IL-10), CXCL9 and CCL2 in sera of Patients (n = 80) including, PTB (n = 42), EPul-TB (n = 38) and BCG vaccinated healthy endemic controls (EC, n = 42). EPul-TB Patients comprised those with less severe (LNTB) or severe (SevTB) disease. Serum IFN-gamma, IL-10 and CXCL9 levels were significantly greater while CCL2 was reduced in TB Patients as compared with EC. IFN-gamma was significantly greater in PTB as compared with LNTB (P = 0.002) and SevTB (P = 0.029). CXCL9 was greater in PTB as compared with LNTB (P = 0.009). In contrast, CCL2 levels were reduced in PTB as compared with LNTB (P
Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that was previously called GRO1 oncogene, GROα, KC, Neutrophil-activating protein 3 (NAP-3) and melanoma growth stimulating activity, alpha (MSGA-α). In humans, this protein is encoded by the CXCL1 gene.
Protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is dependent on T cell and macrophage activation regulated by cytokines. Cytokines and chemokines produced at disease sites may be released into circulation. Data available on circulating cytokines in tuberculosis (TB) is mostly on pulmonary TB (PTB) with limited information on extrapulmonary disease (EPul-TB). We measured interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interkeukin-10 (IL-10), CXCL9 and CCL2 in sera of patients (n = 80) including; PTB (n = 42), EPul-TB (n = 38) and BCG vaccinated healthy endemic controls (EC, n = 42). EPul-TB patients comprised those with less severe (LNTB) or severe (SevTB) disease. Serum IFN-γ, IL-10 and CXCL9 levels were significantly greater while CCL2 was reduced in TB patients as compared with EC. IFN-γ was significantly greater in PTB as compared with LNTB (P = 0.002) and SevTB (P = 0.029). CXCL9 was greater in PTB as compared with LNTB (P = 0.009). In contrast, CCL2 levels were reduced in PTB as compared with LNTB (P = 0.021)
Chemokine ligand 5 is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also known as epithelial-derived neutrophil-activating peptide 78.

Atorvastatin reduces plasma levels of chemokine (CXCL10) in patients with Crohns disease.  - PubMed - NCBIAtorvastatin reduces plasma levels of chemokine (CXCL10) in patients with Crohn's disease. - PubMed - NCBI

Atorvastatin reduces plasma levels of chemokine (CXCL10) in patients with Crohns disease.. Grip O1, Janciauskiene S. ... We investigated plasma levels of chemokines (CCL2, CCL4, CCL11, CCL13, CCL17, CCL22, CCL26, CXCL8, CXCL10) and endothelial ... Atorvastatin Reduces Plasma Levels of Chemokine (CXCL10) in Patients with Crohns Disease ... CXCL10 is a ligand for the CXCR3 receptor, the activation of which results in the recruitment of T lymphocytes and the ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19421322?dopt=Abstract

CXCL10 // C-X-C motif chemokine 10 | BioclinicaCXCL10 // C-X-C motif chemokine 10 | Bioclinica

CXCL10 is a 10 kDa protein and is also known as Interferon γ-induced protein 10 (IP-10) or small-inducible cytokine B10. This ... The CXCR3 receptor also binds the IFN γ inducible chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL11 and the platelet-derived chemokines CXCL4 and ... CXCL10 is a 10 kDa protein and is also known as Interferon γ-induced protein 10 (IP-10) or small-inducible cytokine B10. This ... CXCL10 assay is a solid phase enzyme linked immunoassay which has been validated in the laboratory for measurement in human ...
more infohttp://bioclinica.com/biomarker-services/biomarker-menu/cxcl10-c-x-c-motif-chemokine-10

The CXCL10/CXCR3 Chemokine Pathway is Required for the Generation and Protective Function of Tissue-Resident Memory CD103+CD8+...The CXCL10/CXCR3 Chemokine Pathway is Required for the Generation and Protective Function of Tissue-Resident Memory CD103+CD8+...

The CXCL10/CXCR3 Chemokine Pathway is Required for the Generation and Protective Function of Tissue-Resident Memory CD103+CD8+ ... The CXCL10/CXCR3 Chemokine Pathway is Required for the Generation and Protective Function of Tissue-Resident Memory CD103+CD8+ ... Lbachir BenMohamed, Anthony B. Nesburn, Ruchi Srivastava; The CXCL10/CXCR3 Chemokine Pathway is Required for the Generation and ... chemokine specifically in TG and COR rescued the number and promoted the protective function of CD103+CD8+ TRM cells in CXCL10 ...
more infohttp://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2640888

Chemokine CXCL10 | CTDChemokine CXCL10 | CTD

Chemokine CXCL10 Equivalent Terms Chemokine, CXCL10 , Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 10 , Chemokine IP-10, CXC , CXC Chemokine ... ChemokinesChemokines, CXC ← Chemokine CXCL10 2.. Chemicals ← Biological Factors ← Inflammation Mediators ← Chemokines ← ... IP 10 , CXC Chemokine IP-10 , CXCL10 Chemokine , CXCL10, Chemokine , Cytokine IP 10 Protein , Cytokine IP-10 Protein , gammaIP ... Chemokine CXCL10 3.. Chemicals ← Biological Factors ← Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins ← Cytokines ← Chemokines ← ...
more infohttp://ctdbase.org/detail.go?type=chem&acc=D054357

Frontiers | High Levels of CXCL8 and Low Levels of CXCL9 and CXCL10 in Women with Maternal RhD Alloimmunization | ImmunologyFrontiers | High Levels of CXCL8 and Low Levels of CXCL9 and CXCL10 in Women with Maternal RhD Alloimmunization | Immunology

Key words: chemokines, pregnancy, inflammation, flow cytometry, Rh(o) antigen, genotyping techniques, hemolytic disease of the ... CXCL8 levels were significantly higher (P,0.004) and CXCL9 (P,0.008) and CXCL10 (P,0.003) levels were significantly lower in ... Further studies of serum chemokines and placenta tissue could provide a better understanding of the cells involved in the ... CXCL8, CXCL9, CCL5, and CXCL10 levels were determined from cell culture supernatants by flow cytometry in 46 (30 non- ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2017.00700/full

CCL7 and CXCL10 Orchestrate Oxidative Stress-Induced Neutrophilic Lung Inflammation | The Journal of ImmunologyCCL7 and CXCL10 Orchestrate Oxidative Stress-Induced Neutrophilic Lung Inflammation | The Journal of Immunology

... chemokines often bind more than one chemokine receptor, and chemokine receptors typically bind more than one class of chemokine ... To detect these chemokines or chemokine receptors, Western blotting was performed using rabbit anti-murine chemokine Abs ( ... CXCL10 and CCL7 mediate O3-induced neutrophilic inflammation. To evaluate the role of the six chemokines up-regulated by O3 in ... This group of chemokines includes CXCL10 (10.6-fold increase, p ≤ 0.01), CCL3 (3.9-fold increase, p ≤ 0.05), and CCL7 (13.1- ...
more infohttps://www.jimmunol.org/content/168/2/846?ijkey=11114c5462e86963fe62afbe46c412951626a8e9&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

CXCL10 Gene - GeneCards | CXL10 Protein | CXL10 AntibodyCXCL10 Gene - GeneCards | CXL10 Protein | CXL10 Antibody

C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 10, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The ... Genes that share phenotypes with CXCL10: view Animal Models for CXCL10 Gene. MGI Knock Outs for CXCL10:. * Cxcl10 Cxcl10,tm1Adl ... Aliases for CXCL10 Gene Aliases for CXCL10 Gene. * C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 10 2 3 5 ... Summaries for CXCL10 Gene Entrez Gene Summary for CXCL10 Gene. * This antimicrobial gene encodes a chemokine of the CXC ...
more infohttps://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=CXCL10

Chemokines in the immunopathogenesis of hepatitis C infection.  - PubMed - NCBIChemokines in the immunopathogenesis of hepatitis C infection. - PubMed - NCBI

This triggers the secretion of chemokines including CCL2; CXCL10; CCL3 and CCL5 which recruit the first wave in innate immune ... In CC chemokines the first two consensus cysteines are next to each other; in CXC chemokines they are separated by a non- ... Important major human chemokines that act on cells of the lymphocyte and monocyte lineages are shown. 50 human chemokines and ... B) Chemokines are immobilized on the endothelium by proteoglycans in the glycocalyx that present chemokines to flowing ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19177577?dopt=Abstract

C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 ELISA Kits | Biocompare.comC-C motif chemokine ligand 2 ELISA Kits | Biocompare.com

Compare C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, ... Chemokine CC-1, Chemokine CC-3, Small Inducible Cytokine Subfamily A (Cys-Cys) Member 14) ... Chemokine CC-1, Chemokine CC-3, Small Inducible Cytokine Subfamily A (Cys-Cys) Member 14) ... C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established antibody-based ...
more infohttps://www.biocompare.com/pfu/110627/soids/2-2265590/ELISA_Kit/ELISA_C-C_motif_chemokine_ligand_2

X-C motif chemokine ligand 2 ELISA Kits | Biocompare.comX-C motif chemokine ligand 2 ELISA Kits | Biocompare.com

Compare X-C motif chemokine ligand 2 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, ... X-C motif chemokine ligand 2 ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established antibody-based ... Your search returned 394 X-C motif chemokine ligand 2 ELISA Kit across 24 suppliers. ... CXCL10 / IP-10 / CRG-2. *. Detection Range: 7.8 - 500 pg/mL. *. Reactivity: Mouse ...
more infohttps://www.biocompare.com/pfu/110627/soids/2268420/ELISA_Kit/X-C_motif_chemokine_ligand_2

Chemokines in Atherosclerosis | Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular BiologyChemokines in Atherosclerosis | Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology

The Chemokine CXCL10 and the T Cell Connection. CXCL10 or IP-10 (IFN-γ-induced protein of 10 kDa) is a T cell chemokine and ... Chemokine CXCL10 promotes atherogenesis by modulating the local balance of effector and regulatory T cells. Circulation. 2006; ... Differential Chemokine Receptor Usage by Distinct Monocyte Subsets. *The Transmembrane Chemokine CX3CL1 and its Receptor CX3CR1 ... Differential Chemokine Receptor Usage by Distinct Monocyte Subsets. *The Transmembrane Chemokine CX3CL1 and its Receptor CX3CR1 ...
more infohttp://atvb.ahajournals.org/content/28/11/1897.long

Vaccines  | Free Full-Text | Chemokines as Cancer Vaccine Adjuvants | HTMLVaccines | Free Full-Text | Chemokines as Cancer Vaccine Adjuvants | HTML

This review will focus on recent murine and human studies that use chemokines as therapeutic anti-cancer vaccine adjuvants. ... Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing ... This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential ... was genetically fused to chemokines CCL7, CXCL10 [54] and CCL20 [53]. Immunization with chemokine-sFv protein elicited a T-cell ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/2076-393X/1/4/444/htm

Actions of Thyroid Hormone Analogues on ChemokinesActions of Thyroid Hormone Analogues on Chemokines

CXCL10 is a small proinflammatory, proangiogenic, interferon γ- (IFN-γ-) inducible chemokine that has been implicated in the ... 5. C Chemokines. The C chemokines are XCL1 (lymphotactin-α) and XCL2 (lymphotactin-β). The single receptor to which these ... In contrast to its upregulatory action on CXCL10 gene expression, tetrac in the case of other chemokines reviewed here serves ... T. L. Sørensen, F. Sellebjerg, C. V. Jensen, R. M. Strieter, and R. M. Ransohoff, "Chemokines CXCL10 and CCL2: differential ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2016/3147671/

The role of environmental exposure to non-cigarette smoke in lung disease | SpringerLinkThe role of environmental exposure to non-cigarette smoke in lung disease | SpringerLink

C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10), IL-6, TNFα and interleukin 12 p70 subunit (IL12p70) [17]. The induction of pro-inflammatory ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1186%2Fs40169-018-0217-2

Higher circulating levels of chemokines CXCL10, CCL20 and CCL22 in patients with ischemic heart disease.  - PubMed - NCBIHigher circulating levels of chemokines CXCL10, CCL20 and CCL22 in patients with ischemic heart disease. - PubMed - NCBI

Higher circulating levels of chemokines CXCL10, CCL20 and CCL22 in patients with ischemic heart disease.. Safa A1, Rashidinejad ... These results showed that the higher levels of CXCL10, CCL20 and CCL22 were associated with IHD. The serum levels of chemokines ... The frequency of the GG genotype at SNP rs4508917 in CXCL10 gene was higher, whereas the frequency of the AA genotype at SNP ... The mean serum concentrations of CXCL10, CCL20 and CCL22 in AMI patients (395.97±21.20Pg/mL, 108.38±10.31Pg/mL and 1852.58± ...
more infohttps://phgkb.cdc.gov/PHGKB/phgHome.action?action=forward&dbsource=huge&id=131083

Common variants of chemokine receptor gene CXCR3 and its ligands CXCL10 and CXCL11 associated with vascular permeability of...Common variants of chemokine receptor gene CXCR3 and its ligands CXCL10 and CXCL11 associated with vascular permeability of...

Evidence shows that chemokines CXCL10, CXCL11 and their receptor CXCR3 are involved in severity of dengue, but their genetic ... Common variants of chemokine receptor gene CXCR3 and its ligands CXCL10 and CXCL11 associated with vascular permeability of ... rs4859584 and rs8878 (CXCL10) were significantly associated with vascular permeability of dengue infection (P,0.05); while ... of gene CXCL10 and "AGTTTAC" of CXCL11 were found to be significantly associated with vascular leakage (P=0.0154 and 0.0366 ...
more infohttps://phgkb.cdc.gov/PHGKB/phgHome.action?action=forward&dbsource=huge&id=106337

CCL26 - C-C motif chemokine 26 precursor - Homo sapiens (Human) - CCL26 gene & proteinCCL26 - C-C motif chemokine 26 precursor - Homo sapiens (Human) - CCL26 gene & protein

Acts as a ligand for C-C chemokine receptor CCR3 which triggers Ca(2+) mobilization in eosinophils (PubMed:10415065, PubMed: ... CXCL10 [P02778]. 2. EBI-7783416,EBI-7815386. CXCL11 [O14625]. 2. EBI-7783416,EBI-2871971. ... IPR039809 Chemokine_b/g/d. IPR000827 Chemokine_CC_CS. IPR001811 Chemokine_IL8-like_dom. IPR036048 Interleukin_8-like_sf. ... IPR039809 Chemokine_b/g/d. IPR000827 Chemokine_CC_CS. IPR001811 Chemokine_IL8-like_dom. IPR036048 Interleukin_8-like_sf. ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q9Y258

GENE SIGNATURES FOR USE WITH HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA - CHEW SUK PENGGENE SIGNATURES FOR USE WITH HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA - CHEW SUK PENG

Chemokine and chemokine receptor genes such as CXCL10, CCL5, CCL2 and CCR2 constitute a prominent group in the immune signature ... TNF-α and TLR3 ligands are potent inducers of the survival-associated chemokines CXCL10, CCL5 and CCL2. These chemokines ... The three chemokine genes were transcribed in both tumor cells and TIL (FIG. 10, A). Furthermore, when CXCL10 and CCL5 ... These chemokines (CXCL10, CCL5 and CCL2) could recruit immune cells, which display anti-tumor activity reflected by enhanced ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/y2014/0017227.html

Adipose Tissue and Endocrine Function in Critical Care | SpringerLinkAdipose Tissue and Endocrine Function in Critical Care | SpringerLink

CXCL10. C-X-C motif chemokine 10. EMR1. EGF-like module-containing mucin-like hormone receptor ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007/978-1-4614-8503-2_28-1

PGI2 as a Regulator of Inflammatory DiseasesPGI2 as a Regulator of Inflammatory Diseases

IP-10/CXCL10) and Th2-related chemokine macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC/CCL22). The PGI2 analogues decreased IP-10 production ... the chemokine CXCL10, and the downregulation of proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6, and TGF-. [29]. ... The evaluation of PGI2 analogues on the expression of Th1 and Th2 related chemokines has also been ongoing as chemokines are ... C. H. Kuo, Y. C. Ko, S. N. Yang et al., "Effects of PGI2 analogues on Th1- and Th2-related chemokines in monocytes via ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2012/926968/

Chemokine - WikipediaChemokine - Wikipedia

CXCL10 and CXCL11 are secreted.[6] ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CXC chemokinesEdit. The two N-terminal cysteines of CXC chemokines (or α-chemokines) are separated by one amino acid, ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemokines

REsPonse to Interferon-Alpha in InterfeRon-β Neutralizing Antibody Positive Multiple Sclerosis Patients - Full Text View -...REsPonse to Interferon-Alpha in InterfeRon-β Neutralizing Antibody Positive Multiple Sclerosis Patients - Full Text View -...

Determining :Chemokine CXCL10 at mRNA level. *Changes i Neutralizing antibodies Nabs [ Time Frame: 9-12 hours after ... Determining response marker:CXCL10 at mRNA level [ Time Frame: 9-12 hours after IFN-alfa administration ]. ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01171209

Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of urine in acute kidney injury following cardiopulmonary bypass: a nested case...Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of urine in acute kidney injury following cardiopulmonary bypass: a nested case...

Chemokine CXCL10. Creatinine / blood, urine. Disease Progression. Female. Glomerular Filtration Rate / physiology. Humans. ... 0/Chemokine CXCL10; 0/Interleukin-6; 0/LCN2 protein, human; 0/Lipocalins; 0/Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0/beta 2-Microglobulin; 0/ ... 0/Acute-Phase Proteins; 0/Alpha-Globulins; 0/Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides; 0/Biological Markers; 0/CXCL10 protein, human; ... component of reperfusion injury was evaluated by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis of candidate chemokines ( ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Mass-spectrometry-based-proteomic-analysis/19070948.html

Identification of genes differentially expressed in T cells following stimulation with the chemokines CXCL12 and CXCL10 | BMC...Identification of genes differentially expressed in T cells following stimulation with the chemokines CXCL12 and CXCL10 | BMC...

... promiscuous chemokine receptors that bind to numerous chemokines [2].. The chemokine receptor CXCR4 binds to the CXC chemokine ... chemokine receptors that bind only one chemokine specific ligand; (2) chemokine receptors that bind more than one chemokine ... In contrast to CXCL12, considerably less is known about the chemokine CXCL10. CXCR3 (GPR9; CD183), the receptor for CXCL10 also ... The chemokines, CXCL12α and CXCL10 (Peprotech, Rocky Hill, NJ) were utilized in these experiments at 1 μg/ml. ...
more infohttps://bmcimmunol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2172-5-17

Increase in chemokines CXCL10 and CCL2 in blood from pigs infected with high compared to low virulence African swine fever...Increase in chemokines CXCL10 and CCL2 in blood from pigs infected with high compared to low virulence African swine fever...

CXCL10 mRNA was increased by up to 15 fold in infected compared to uninfected pigs. CXCL10 protein was also detected in serum ... Increased levels of CXCL10 may either contribute to the activation of lymphocyte priming toward the Th1 phenotype or induction ... Levels of mRNAs for CCL2, CCL3L1, CCL4, CXCL10, CCR1 and CCR5 were significantly increased in at least one time point following ... The results showed that greatest fold increases in mRNAs for CXCL10 and CCL2 were observed following infection of pigs. ...
more infohttps://0-veterinaryresearch-biomedcentral-com.brum.beds.ac.uk/articles/10.1186/1297-9716-44-87
  • For example, in addition to chemotaxis, chemokines modulate lymphocyte development, priming and effector function [ 2 ] and play a critical role in immune surveillance. (mdpi.com)
  • In addition to being known for mediating chemotaxis, chemokines are all approximately 8-10 kilodaltons in mass and have four cysteine residues in conserved locations that are key to forming their 3-dimensional shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential vaccine adjuvants. (mdpi.com)
  • Haplotype association tests performed revealed that, "CCCCA" of gene CXCL10 and "AGTTTAC" of CXCL11 were found to be significantly associated with vascular leakage (P=0.0154 and 0.0366 respectively). (cdc.gov)
  • 0.001), CXCL8 ( P = 0.027), CXCL9 ( P = 0.007), and CXCL10 ( P = 0.002) were significantly higher in patients who developed postoperative PVR after primary RRD than in patients with uncomplicated retinal detachment. (arvojournals.org)
  • CXCL8 (otherwise known as interleukin-8) and CXCL6 can both bind CXCR1 in humans, while all other ELR-positive chemokines, such as CXCL1 to CXCL7 bind only CXCR2. (wikipedia.org)
  • CXCL10 assay is a solid phase enzyme linked immunoassay which has been validated in the laboratory for measurement in human serum. (bioclinica.com)
  • Further studies of serum chemokines and placenta tissue could provide a better understanding of the cells involved in the pathogenesis of maternal erythrocyte alloimmunization. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cytokine proteins are classified as chemokines according to behavior and structural characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin (IL)-6, a multifunctional cytokine with regulatory functions in wound healing, and several chemokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) after rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). (arvojournals.org)
  • The role of up-regulated chemokines was determined by administering control IgG or IgG Abs against six murine chemokines before O 3 exposure. (jimmunol.org)
  • This review will focus on recent murine and human studies that use chemokines as therapeutic anti-cancer vaccine adjuvants. (mdpi.com)
  • Of the 13 substances investigated, only CXCL10 was found to be significantly reduced (by 34%, p = 0.026) in all of the treated patients. (nih.gov)
  • Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing recruitment of antigen presenting cells (APCs) and effector cells to appropriate anatomical sites. (mdpi.com)
  • Because statins can reduce chemokine expression in patients with coronary diseases, we wanted to test whether this can be achieved in patients with Crohn's disease. (nih.gov)
  • Chemokines are crucial for viral elimination, but inappropriate persistence of expression in chronic hepatitis C infection can drive tissue damage and inflammation. (nih.gov)
  • Since the role of chemokines in atherosclerotic vascular disease has been reviewed in this journal, significant progress has been accomplished in defining the regulation of chemokine expression and function in atherosclerosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Chemokines are also involved in transmigration during which leukocytes migrate across endothelium and enter tissue. (nih.gov)
  • Once in tissue, the cell follows chemokine gradients to sites of infection using chemokine-mediated changes in the actin cytoskeleton to propel migration. (nih.gov)
  • Important major human chemokines that act on cells of the lymphocyte and monocyte lineages are shown. (nih.gov)
  • The fundamental importance of chemokines for atherogenesis, progression, and destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques is now widely appreciated, but the degree of complexity, specificity, and cooperativity harnessed by these signal molecules to govern atherogenic cell recruitment and homeostasis is still being refined. (ahajournals.org)
  • CCC patients with ventricular dysfunction displayed reduced genotypic frequencies of CXCL9 rs10336 CC, CXCL10 rs3921 GG, and increased CCR5 rs1799988CC as compared to those without dysfunction. (cdc.gov)
  • These two subfamilies account for all but three of the known chemokines the other being CX3CL1 (three intervening amino acids between the first cysteines) and XCL1 and XCL2, which lack two out of four canonical cysteines. (nih.gov)
  • Some chemokines control cells of the immune system during processes of immune surveillance, such as directing lymphocytes to the lymph nodes so they can screen for invasion of pathogens by interacting with antigen-presenting cells residing in these tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, the chemokine system also plays a crucial role in the induction of antitumor immune responses and optimal effector function regulation of immune cells [ 1 , 4 , 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • On one hand, the chemokine network is used by tumors to evade immune surveillance, resist apoptosis, and metastasize. (mdpi.com)
  • The considerable leap in insight over recent years leads us to anticipate further advances in comprehending the role of chemokines in atherosclerosis, allowing targeted interventions for its prevention and therapy. (ahajournals.org)
  • The exact role of these chemokines, their correlation with IL-6 after primary RRD, and their association with the future development of PVR are not yet known. (arvojournals.org)