Chemokines, CXC: Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.Chemokine CXCL11: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemokine CXCL9: An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Colitis, Ulcerative: Inflammation of the COLON that is predominantly confined to the MUCOSA. Its major symptoms include DIARRHEA, rectal BLEEDING, the passage of MUCUS, and ABDOMINAL PAIN.Chemokine CXCL10: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Receptors, CXCR3: CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.Chemokine CXCL13: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Mice, Jimpy: Myelin-deficient mutants which are from the inbred Tabby-Jimpy strain.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Chemokine CXCL1: A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.Glioblastoma: A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Rats, Nude: A mutant strain of Rattus norvegicus without a thymus and with depressed or absent T-cell function. This strain of rats may have a small amount of hair at times, but then lose it.Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator: A chloride channel that regulates secretion in many exocrine tissues. Abnormalities in the CFTR gene have been shown to cause cystic fibrosis. (Hum Genet 1994;93(4):364-8)Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A common interstitial lung disease of unknown etiology, usually occurring between 50-70 years of age. Clinically, it is characterized by an insidious onset of breathlessness with exertion and a nonproductive cough, leading to progressive DYSPNEA. Pathological features show scant interstitial inflammation, patchy collagen fibrosis, prominent fibroblast proliferation foci, and microscopic honeycomb change.Drug Discovery: The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.ConnecticutAlabamaInflammasomes: Multiprotein complexes that mediate the activation of CASPASE-1. Dysregulation of inflammasomes has also been linked to a number of autoinflammatory and autoimmune disorders.Neomycin: Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces fradiae. It is composed of neomycins A, B, and C. It acts by inhibiting translation during protein synthesis.MississippiCaspase 1: A long pro-domain caspase that has specificity for the precursor form of INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. It plays a role in INFLAMMATION by catalytically converting the inactive forms of CYTOKINES such as interleukin-1beta to their active, secreted form. Caspase 1 is referred as interleukin-1beta converting enzyme and is frequently abbreviated ICE.Systems Biology: Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.Chemokine CCL3: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Receptors, CXCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.Rhipicephalus sanguineus: A species of tick (TICKS) in the family IXODIDAE, distributed throughout the world but abundant in southern Europe. It will feed on a wide variety of MAMMALS, but DOGS are its preferred host. It transmits a large number of diseases including BABESIOSIS; THEILERIASIS; EHRLICHIOSIS; and MEDITERRANEAN SPOTTED FEVER.Leukocyte Adherence Inhibition Test: Test for cell-mediated antitumor immunity and related serum blocking factors based on the finding that leukocytes from cancer patients, but not from controls, when mixed in vitro with antigenic extracts of tumors of the same histological type, undergo a diminution in their normal adherence to glass surfaces. Sera from tumor-bearing patients block the LAI reaction of their own leukocytes or those of other patients with the same type of tumor.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Graft vs Host Disease: The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.Chemokine CCL4: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Electroosmosis: The motion of a liquid through a membrane (or plug or capillary) consequent upon the application of an electric field across the membrane. (Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Organ Culture Techniques: A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Biuret: Used as feed supplement for sheep and cattle since it is a good non-protein nitrogen source. In strongly alkaline solution biuret gives a violet color with copper sulfate.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Thrombin: An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.Blood Coagulation: The process of the interaction of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS that results in an insoluble FIBRIN clot.Thromboplastin: Constituent composed of protein and phospholipid that is widely distributed in many tissues. It serves as a cofactor with factor VIIa to activate factor X in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation.Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Receptor, PAR-1: A thrombin receptor subtype that couples to HETEROTRIMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS resulting in the activation of a variety of signaling mechanisms including decreased intracellular CYCLIC AMP, increased TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES and increased PHOSPHOLIPASE A2.Factor VIIa: Activated form of factor VII. Factor VIIa activates factor X in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation.Tumor Microenvironment: The milieu surrounding neoplasms consisting of cells, vessels, soluble factors, and molecules, that can influence and be influenced by, the neoplasm's growth.Centella: A plant of the family APIACEAE which is the source of asiatic acid and asiaticoside. Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. = Hydrocotyle asiatica L. is known for effect on peripheral circulation.X-Rays: Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Gamma Rays: Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Radiography: Examination of any part of the body for diagnostic purposes by means of X-RAYS or GAMMA RAYS, recording the image on a sensitized surface (such as photographic film).Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation: The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.Radiation Dosage: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).

Isolation of novel GRO genes and a phylogenetic analysis of the CXC chemokine subfamily in mammals. (1/757)

Approximately 15 different alpha, or CXC, chemokines have thus far been isolated from 11 species of mammals. Among the best studied chemokines are the 12 human proteins that are encoded by 11 paralogous genes. In order to better understand the evolution and function of this group of genes, we isolated and characterized six novel GRO and GRO-related cDNA sequences from the cow (Bos taurus), the sheep (Ovis aries), the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), and the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus). The amino acid sequence of the diverged guinea pig GRO or KC gene is only 50%-60% similar to presumed orthologs from other species, while the sheep and cow GRO proteins are 90%-99% similar to each other. The presence of multiple GRO genes in the cow, the rabbit, and the sheep is consistent with what has been observed for humans. Phylogenetic analyses of amino acid sequences from 44 proteins indicate that genes orthologous to many of the 11 known from humans exist in other species. One such gene, interleukin 8, or IL8, has been isolated from nine species, including the rodent guinea pig; however, this gene is absent in the rat and the mouse, indicating a unique gene loss event in the rat/mouse (muroid rodent) lineage. The KC (or MIP2) gene of rodents appears to be orthologous to the GRO gene found in other taxonomic orders. Combined evidence from different sources suggests that IP10 and MIG share sister taxon relationships on the evolutionary tree, while the remaining paralogous genes represent independent lineages, with limited evidence for kinship between them. This observation indicates that these genes originated nearly contemporaneously via a series of gene duplication events. Relative-rate tests for synonymous and nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions in the KC and IL8 genes did not detect rate heterogeneity; however, there are several notable features regarding the IL8 genes. For example, the IL8 proteins from two Old World monkeys are as similar to one another as they are to the IL8 protein from humans, and all observed nucleotide differences between the IL8 genes of the two monkeys cause amino acid changes; in other words, there are no synonymous differences between them.  (+info)

Cutting edge: clustered AU-rich elements are the target of IL-10-mediated mRNA destabilization in mouse macrophages. (2/757)

In the present study we show that IL-10-mediated inhibition of inflammatory gene expression can be mediated by an AU-rich element (ARE) cluster present in the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of sensitive genes. A series of chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) reporter gene constructs were prepared in which different fragments from the IL-10-sensitive KC mRNA 3'UTR were placed downstream of the coding region of the reporter gene CAT. CAT mRNA containing the KC 3'UTR was markedly destabilized as compared with the control CAT mRNA, and the decay rate was further increased in cells stimulated with IL-10. The KC 3'UTR contains an ARE cluster and three isolated ARE motifs. The ARE cluster spanning nucleotides 378-399 appeared to be both necessary and sufficient to mediate sensitivity to IL-10 because a 116-nucleotide fragment that contains the cluster conferred sensitivity, while mutation of the sequence between positions 378 and 399 eliminated sensitivity. The destabilizing effect of IL-10 was relatively selective, as the stability of chimeric CAT mRNAs was not modulated in cells treated with IFN-gamma or IL-4.  (+info)

Isolation of the CXC chemokines ENA-78, GRO alpha and GRO gamma from tumor cells and leukocytes reveals NH2-terminal heterogeneity. Functional comparison of different natural isoforms. (3/757)

Chemokines are a family of chemotactic peptides affecting leukocyte migration during the inflammatory response. Post-translational modification of chemokines has been shown to affect their biological potency. Here, the isolation and identification of natural isoforms of the neutrophil chemoattractants GRO alpha and GRO gamma and the epithelial-cell-derived neutrophil attractant-78 (ENA-78), is reported. Cultured tumor cells produced predominantly intact chemokine forms, whereas peripheral blood monocytes secreted mainly NH2-terminally truncated forms. The order of neutrophil chemotactic potency of these CXC chemokines was GRO alpha > GRO gamma > ENA-78 both for intact and truncated forms. However, truncated GRO alpha (4,5,6-73), GRO gamma (5-73) and ENA-78(8,9-78) were 30-fold, fivefold and threefold more active than the corresponding intact chemokine. As a consequence, truncated GRO alpha (4,5,6-73) was 300-fold more potent than intact ENA-78 indicating that both the type of chemokine and its mode of processing determine the chemotactic potency. Similar observations were made when intact and truncated GRO alpha, GRO gamma and ENA-78 were compared for their capacity to induce an increase in the intracellular calcium concentration in neutrophilic granulocytes, and to desensitize the calcium response towards the CXC chemokine granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 (GCP-2). It must be concluded that physiological proteolytic cleavage of CXC chemokines in general enhances the inflammatory response, whereas for CC chemokines NH2-terminal processing mostly results in reduced chemotactic potency.  (+info)

Elevated constitutive IkappaB kinase activity and IkappaB-alpha phosphorylation in Hs294T melanoma cells lead to increased basal MGSA/GRO-alpha transcription. (4/757)

The basal transcription of the CXC chemokine, melanocyte growth stimulatory activity (MGSA)/growth-regulated protein (GRO)-alpha, is up-regulated in Hs294T melanoma cells compared with the normal retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Previous studies characterized a cytokine-inducible, functional nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB consensus element in the immediate 5' regulatory region of the MGSA/GRO-alpha gene at -78 bp. Although the cytokine-inducible mechanisms for transcription of this gene are fairly well delineated, the mechanisms involved in its basal up-regulation of transcription in Hs294T melanoma cells are poorly understood. Recently, we demonstrated an increased rate of IkappaB-alpha degradation in Hs294T cells, which leads to an increased nuclear localization of NF-kappaB (R. L. Shattuck-Brandt and A. Richmond. Cancer Res., 57: 3032-3039, 1997). Here we demonstrate that Hs294T melanoma cells have elevated basal IkappaB kinase (IKK) activity relative to RPE cells, causing an increased constitutive IkappaB-alpha phosphorylation and degradation. We also show here that the resultant elevated nuclear NF-kappaB (p50/p65) in these cells is responsible for the increased basal transcription of MGSA/GRO-alpha. Pretreatment of Hs294T or RPE cells with proteasome inhibitors MG115 or MG132 captures the slower migrating, constitutively phosphorylated form of IkappaB-alpha in Hs294T melanoma cells, but not in RPE cells. In addition, a phospho-specific antibody that specifically recognizes the inhibitory form of IkappaB that is phosphorylated at Ser-32 reacted with IkappaB-alpha in Hs294T cell, but not in unstimulated RPE cells. Although the basal level of protein expression of IKK-alpha or IKK-beta are the same in both Hs294T and RPE cells, immunoprecipitation with IKK-alpha antibody combined with activity assay reveal a constitutively active IKK complex in Hs294T melanoma cells. Cotransfection of a 350-bp MGSA/GRO-alpha promoter-luciferase reporter construct with either the dominant negative IKK-alpha or the repressors of NF-kappaB, the IkappaB-alpha wild type or mutants lacking the inducible phosphorylation sites, demonstrates that the increased basal MGSA/GRO-alpha transcription in the Hs294T cells is due to the enhanced nuclear activation of NF-kappaB.  (+info)

Role of clathrin-mediated endocytosis in CXCR2 sequestration, resensitization, and signal transduction. (5/757)

CXCR2 is a seven-transmembrane receptor that transduces intracellular signals in response to the chemokines interleukin-8, melanoma growth-stimulatory activity/growth-regulatory protein, and other ELR motif-containing CXC chemokines by coupling to heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins. In this study, we explored the mechanism responsible for ligand-induced CXCR2 endocytosis. Here, we demonstrate that dynamin, a component of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, is essential for CXCR2 endocytosis and resensitization. In HEK293 cells, dynamin I K44A, a dominant-negative mutant of dynamin that inhibits the clathrin-mediated endocytosis, blocks the ligand-stimulated CXCR2 sequestration. Furthermore, co-expression of dynamin I K44A significantly delays dephosphorylation of CXCR2 after ligand stimulation, suggesting that clathrin-mediated endocytosis plays an important role in receptor dephosphorylation and resensitization. In addition, ligand-mediated receptor down-regulation is attenuated when receptor internalization is inhibited by dynamin I K44A. Interestingly, inhibition of receptor endocytosis by dynamin I K44A does not affect the CXCR2-mediated stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase. Most significantly, our data indicate that the ligand-stimulated receptor endocytosis is required for CXCR2-mediated chemotaxis in HEK293 cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that clathrin-mediated CXCR2 internalization is crucial for receptor endocytosis, resensitization, and chemotaxis.  (+info)

Mast cell migratory response to interleukin-8 is mediated through interaction with chemokine receptor CXCR2/Interleukin-8RB. (6/757)

To explore the role of chemokines in mast cell chemotaxis and accumulation at sites of inflammation, we first investigated the response of human mast cells to 18 different chemokines by induction of intracellular calcium mobilization in the human mast cell line, HMC-1. Only a subgroup of CXC chemokines defined by the conserved sequence motif glutamic acid-leucine-arginine (ELR) tripeptide motif, which included interleukin-8 (IL-8), growth-regulated oncogene alpha (GROalpha), neutrophil-activating peptide-2 (NAP-2), and epithelial cell-derived neutrophil activating peptide-78 (ENA-78), induced calcium flux in the cells. These observations suggested that the receptor CXCR2 (IL-8RB) should be expressed on the surface of these cells. Using the RNAse protection assay, CXCR2 mRNA, but not CXCR1 (IL-8RA) mRNA expression was detected in HMC-1 cells. Flow cytometry analysis documented the surface expression of CXCR2. A binding analysis performed with 125I-IL-8 determined that there were approximately 3,600 high affinity IL-8 binding sites per HMC-1 cell, with a calculated kd of 1.2 to 2 nmol/L. The activity of this receptor was further explored using IL-8, which was found to induce dose-dependent chemotactic and haptotactic responses in both HMC-1 cells and in vitro cultured human cord blood-derived mast cells. These results show the expression of functional CXCR2 receptors on the surface of human mast cells, which may play an important role in mast cell recruitment during the genesis of an inflammatory response.  (+info)

Stimulation of peripheral cannabinoid receptor CB2 induces MCP-1 and IL-8 gene expression in human promyelocytic cell line HL60. (7/757)

Using the recently developed methodology of nucleic acid microarrays spotted with specific cDNAs probes belonging to different gene families, we showed for the first time that nanomolar concentrations of the cannabinoid ligand CP-55940 upregulated the expression of two different members of the chemokine gene family: the alpha-chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) and the beta-chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), in the promyelocytic cell line HL60 transfected with peripheral cannabinoid receptors (CB2). These genomic modulations observed on large-scale cDNA arrays were first confirmed by Northern blot studies. Furthermore, ELISA evaluations in culture supernatants indicated that the cannabinoid-induced activation of these two chemokine genes was followed by enhanced expression and secretion of the corresponding proteins. These upregulations initially observed in transfected HL60 cells overexpressing CB2 receptors, also occurred in normal non-transfected HL60 cells. The enhancement of IL-8 and MCP-1 gene transcription and protein production was shown to be pertussis toxin sensitive attesting that this phenomenon was a Gi protein-coupled receptor-mediated process as expected for cannabinoid receptors. More specifically, the abolition of the cannabinoid-induced effect by the specific CB2 antagonist SR 144528 indicated a strict peripheral cannabinoid-mediated process. Altogether, our data highlight a possible new function of peripheral cannabinoid receptors in the modulation of immune and inflammatory responses.  (+info)

NF-kappa B-inducing kinase is a common mediator of IL-17-, TNF-alpha-, and IL-1 beta-induced chemokine promoter activation in intestinal epithelial cells. (8/757)

IL-17 expression is restricted to activated T cells, whereas the IL-17R is expressed in a variety of cell types including intestinal epithelial cells. However, the functional responses of intestinal epithelial cells to stimulation with IL-17 are unknown. Moreover, the signal transduction pathways activated by the IL-17R have not been characterized. IL-17 induced NF-kappa B protein-DNA complexes consisting of p65/p50 heterodimers in the rat intestinal epithelial cell line IEC-6. The induction of NF-kappa B correlated with the induction of CXC and CC chemokine mRNA expression in IEC-6 cells. IL-17 acted in a synergistic fashion with IL-1 beta to induce the NF-kappa B site-dependent CINC promoter. Induction of the CINC promoter by IL-17 in IEC-6 cells was TNF receptor-associated factor-6 (TRAF6), but not TRAF2, dependent. Furthermore, IL-17 induction of the CINC promoter could be inhibited by kinase-negative mutants of NF-kappa B-inducing kinase and I kappa B kinase-alpha. In addition to activation of the NF-kappa B, IL-17 regulated the activities of extracellular regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases in IEC-6 cells. Whereas the IL-17-mediated activation of extracellular regulated kinase mitogen-activated protein kinases was mediated through ras, c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation was dependent on functional TRAF6. These data suggest that NF-kappa B-inducing kinase serves as the common mediator in the NF-kappa B signaling cascades triggered by IL-17, TNF-alpha, and IL-1 beta in intestinal epithelial cells.  (+info)

*Foam cell

... chemokines ligand 2, CCL5, CXC-chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL1); as well as macrophage retention factors. Macrophages within the ... The maintenance of foam cells and the subsequent progression of plaque build-up is caused by the secretion of chemokines and ... Foam cells secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukins: IL-1, IL-6; tumour necrosis factor (TNF); chemokines: ... chemokines, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and growth factors that stimulate modified lipoprotein uptake and vascular smooth ...

*CXCL2

... identical in amino acid sequence as a related chemokine, CXCL1. This chemokine is secreted by monocytes and macrophages and is ... Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also called ... The gene for CXCL2 is located on human chromosome 4 in a cluster of other CXC chemokines. CXCL2 mobilizes cells by interacting ... PMID 16863907 O'Donovan, N., Galvin, M., Morgan, J. G. Physical mapping of the CXC chemokine locus on human chromosome 4. ...

*Coagulation factor II receptor

... response to Streptococcus pneumoniae by reducing levels of pro-inflamamtory cytokines such as IL-1β and chemokines CXCL1, CCL2 ...

*Chromosome 4 (human)

Beta-casein CXCL1: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1, scyb1 CXCL2: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2, scyb2 CXCL3: chemokine (C-X ... chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 5, scyb5 CXCL6: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6, scyb6 CXCL7: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 7 ... chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9, scyb9 CXCL10: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10, scyb10 CXCL11: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ... PPBP, scyb7 CXCL8: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8, interleukin 8 (IL-8), scyb8 CXCL9: ...

*Interleukin 8 receptor, beta

This receptor also binds to chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1/MGSA), a protein with melanoma growth stimulating activity ... Interleukin 8 receptor, beta is a chemokine receptor. IL8RB is also known as CXCR2, and CXCR2 is now the IUPHAR Committee on ... Brandt E, Ludwig A, Petersen F, Flad HD (Oct 2000). "Platelet-derived CXC chemokines: old players in new games". Immunological ... Ahuja SK, Lee JC, Murphy PM (Jan 1996). "CXC chemokines bind to unique sets of selectivity determinants that can function ...

*Index of immunology articles

CR6261 CroFab Cross-presentation Cross-reactivity Cryptic self epitopes Cryptotope CX3CL1 CX3CR1 CXC chemokine receptors CXCL1 ... C-C chemokine receptor type 6 C-C chemokine receptor type 7 Calreticulin Cancer immunology Cancer immunoprevention Cancer ... CD4 CD4+ T cells and antitumor immunity CD74 CD94/NKG2 Cell-mediated immunity CELSR1 Central tolerance Chemokine Chemokine ... immunotherapy Cantuzumab ravtansine Cathelicidin CC chemokine receptors CCBP2 CCL1 CCL11 CCL12 CCL13 CCL14 CCL15 CCL16 CCL17 ...

*C-C chemokine receptor type 6

chemokine receptor activity. • receptor activity. • protein binding. • C-C chemokine receptor activity. • C-C chemokine binding ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene.[5] CCR6 ... "Entrez Gene: CCR6 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6".. *^ Wang K, Zhang H, Kugathasan S, Annese V, Bradfield JP, Russell RK, ... "Chemokine Receptors: CCR6". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...

*Duffy antigen system

CXCL1/CXCL2 and the angiogenic CXC chemokines: Growth related gene alpha (GRO-α) - CXCL1 Platelet factor 4 - CXCL4 ENA-78 - ... It mediates chemokine transcytosis, which leds to apical retention of intact chemokines and more leukocyte migration. Binding ... "Expression of chemokines and chemokine receptors during human renal transplant rejection". Am. J. Kidney Dis. 37 (3): 518-31. ... Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines). The chemokine binding site on the receptor appears to be localised to the amino ...

*Chemokine

Typical inflammatory chemokines include: CCL2, CCL3 and CCL5, CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL8. A typical example is CXCL-8, which acts ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines in that it has ... CCL1 for the ligand 1 of the CC-family of chemokines, and CCR1 for its respective receptor. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) ...

*CXCL1

The chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that was previously ... This chemokine elicits its effects by signaling through the chemokine receptor CXCR2. The gene for CXCL1 is located on human ... Human CXCL1 genome location and CXCL1 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Molecular and cellular biology portal. ... CXCL1 is secreted by human melanoma cells, has mitogenic properties and is implicated in melanoma pathogenesis. CXCL1 is ...

*CXC chemokine receptors

... such as CXCL1 to CXCL7 bind only CXCR2. They are both expressed on the surface of neutrophils in mammals. CXCR3 is expressed ... CXC chemokine receptors are integral membrane proteins that specifically bind and respond to cytokines of the CXC chemokine ... However, CXCR6 is more closely related in structure to CC chemokine receptors than to other CXC chemokine receptors. CXCR7 was ... within the chemokine receptor cluster on human chromosome 3p21) and its similarity to other chemokine receptors in its gene ...

*Chemokine

Typical inflammatory chemokines include: CCL2, CCL3 and CCL5, CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL8. A typical example is CXCL-8, which acts ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ...

*Interleukin 8 receptor, alpha

C-X-C chemokine receptor activity. • interleukin-8 binding. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. • chemokine receptor ... This name and the corresponding gene symbol IL8RA have been replaced by the HGNC approved name C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 1 ... "Chemokine Receptors: CXCR1". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... chemokine-mediated signaling pathway. • interleukin-8-mediated signaling pathway. • neutrophil degranulation. • chemotaxis. ...

*CXCL11

chemokine activity. • cytokine activity. • heparin binding. • protein binding. • CXCR3 chemokine receptor binding. ... C-X-C motif chemokine 11 is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also called Interferon-inducible T- ... "Entrez Gene: CXCL11 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11".. *^ a b Cole KE, Strick CA, Paradis TJ, Ogborne KT, Loetscher M, Gladue ... This chemokine elicits its effects on its target cells by interacting with the cell surface chemokine receptor CXCR3, with a ...

*साँचा:Cytokines - विकिपीडिया

CXCL1 · CXCL2 · CXCL3 · CXCL4 · CXCL5 · CXCL6 · CXCL7 · CXCL8/IL8 · CXCL9 · CXCL10 · CXCL11 · CXCL12 · CXCL13 · CXCL14 · CXCL15 ... Chemokine. CCL. CCL1 · CCL2 · CCL3 · CCL4 · CCL5 · CCL6 · CCL7 · CCL8 · CCL9 · CCL11 · CCL12 · CCL13 · CCL14 · CCL15 · CCL16 · ...

*Tumor necrosis factor alpha

positive regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production. • positive regulation of JUN kinase activity. • positive ... positive regulation of chemokine production. • cellular extravasation. • negative regulation of lipid storage. • negative ... positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • epithelial cell proliferation involved in salivary gland morphogenesis ...

*Lymphokine

... s are a subset of cytokines that are produced by a type of immune cell known as a lymphocyte.[1] They are protein mediators typically produced by T cells to direct the immune system response by signaling between its cells. Lymphokines have many roles, including the attraction of other immune cells, including macrophages and other lymphocytes, to an infected site and their subsequent activation to prepare them to mount an immune response. Circulating lymphocytes can detect a very small concentration of lymphokine and then move up the concentration gradient towards where the immune response is required. Lymphokines aid B cells to produce antibodies. Important lymphokines secreted by the T helper cell include:[2] ...

*TRAIL

... binds to the death receptors DR4 (TRAIL-RI) and DR5 (TRAIL-RII). The process of apoptosis is caspase-8-dependent. Caspase-8 activates downstream effector caspases including procaspase-3, -6, and -7, leading to activation of specific kinases.[11] TRAIL also binds the receptors DcR1 and DcR2, which do not contain a cytoplasmic domain (DcR1) or contain a truncated death domain (DcR2). DcR1 functions as a TRAIL-neutralizing decoy-receptor. The cytoplasmic domain of DcR2 is functional and activates NFkappaB. In cells expressing DcR2, TRAIL binding therefore activates NFkappaB, leading to transcription of genes known to antagonize the death signaling pathway and/or to promote inflammation. Application of engineered ligands that have variable affinity for different death (DR4 and DR5) and decoy receptors (DCR1 and DCR2) may allow selective targeting of cancer cells by controlling activation of Type 1/Type 2 pathways of cell death and single cell fluctuations. Luminescent iridium complex-peptide ...

*Interleukin 24

... (IL-24) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL24 gene. IL-24 is a cytokine belonging to the IL-10 family of cytokines that signals through two heterodimeric receptors: IL-20R1/IL-20R2 and IL-22R1/IL-20R2. This interleukin is also known as melanoma differentiation-associated 7 (mda-7) due to its discovery as a tumour suppressing protein. IL-24 appears to control in cell survival and proliferation by inducing rapid activation of particular transcription factors called STAT1 and STAT3. This cytokine is predominantly released by activated monocytes, macrophages and T helper 2 (Th2) cells[5] and acts on non-haematopoietic tissues such as skin, lung and reproductive tissues. IL-24 performs important roles in wound healing, arthritis, psoriasis and cancer.[6][7][8] Several studies have shown that cell death occurs in cancer cells/cell lines following exposure to IL-24.[9][10] The gene for IL-24 is located on chromosome 1 in humans.[11] ...

*CD154

... as well as chemokine and cytokine production, and expression of adhesion molecules such as E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. This ...

*Interferon gamma

positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • regulation of insulin secretion. • extrinsic apoptotic signaling ... Copeland KF (2006). "Modulation of HIV-1 transcription by cytokines and chemokines". Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry. 5 (12 ...

*Growth factor

... is sometimes used interchangeably among scientists with the term cytokine.[3] Historically, cytokines were associated with hematopoietic (blood and lymph forming) cells and immune system cells (e.g., lymphocytes and tissue cells from spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes). For the circulatory system and bone marrow in which cells can occur in a liquid suspension and not bound up in solid tissue, it makes sense for them to communicate by soluble, circulating protein molecules. However, as different lines of research converged, it became clear that some of the same signaling proteins which the hematopoietic and immune systems use were also being used by all sorts of other cells and tissues, during development and in the mature organism. While growth factor implies a positive effect on cell division, cytokine is a neutral term with respect to whether a molecule affects proliferation. While some cytokines can be growth factors, such as G-CSF and GM-CSF, others have an inhibitory effect on ...

*Interferon alfa-2b

Interferon alfa 2b is an antiviral or antineoplastic drug, that was originally discovered in the laboratory of Charles Weissmann at the University of Zurich. It was developed at Biogen, and ultimately marketed by Schering-Plough under the tradename Intron-A. It has been used for a wide range of indications, including viral infections and cancers. This drug is approved around the world for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C, chronic hepatitis B, hairy cell leukemia, Behçet's disease, chronic myelogenous leukemia, multiple myeloma, follicular lymphoma, carcinoid tumor, mastocytosis and malignant melanoma. ...

*4-1BB ligand

4-1BB is a type 2 transmembrane glycoprotein receptor belonging to the TNF superfamily, expressed on activated T Lymphocytes.[1] 4-1BBL (4-1BB ligand) is found on APCs (antigen presenting cells) and binds to 4-1BB. ...

*IL36B

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the interleukin 1 cytokine family. Protein structure modeling indicated that this cytokine may contain a 12-stranded beta-trefoil structure that is conserved between IL1A (IL-A alpha) and IL1B (IL-1 beta). This gene and eight other interleukin 1 family genes form a cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 2. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported.[8]. ...

*CXCL2 - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија

O'Donovan, N., Galvin, M., Morgan, J. G. (1999). „Physical mapping of the CXC chemokine locus on human chromosome 4". Cytogenet ... CXCL1. Ovaj hemokin izlučuju monociti i makrofage i on izaziva hemotaksu polimorfonuclearnih leukocita i hematopoetskih stem ...

*Sklerosis multipel bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas

Inggris)Role of chemokines in CNS health and pathology: a focus on the CCL2/CCR2 and CXCL8/CXCR2 networks ... pencerap CXCR2 yang mengikat kemokina CXCL1, CXCL2 dan CXCL5 pada otak[11] - yang meningkat pada granulosit seiring dengan ... "A protective role for ELR+ chemokines during acute viral encephalomyelitis.". Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry ...

*PAK1

Wang D, Sai J, Richmond A (February 2003). "Cell surface heparan sulfate participates in CXCL1-induced signaling". Biochemistry ... chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1, breast cancer anti-estrogen resistance 3, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-G protein- ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential regulation of the expression of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant by mouse macrophages. AU - Crippen, Tawni L.. AU - Riches, David W H. AU - Hyde, Dallas M.. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - The production of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC) by functionally diverse mouse bone-marrow-derived macrophages was determined. Studies showed that β1,3-glucan, IL-1β, TNFα and IFNγ/TNFα induced expression and production of CINC in macrophages while neither IFNγ nor TGFβ alone induced detectable CINC expression. Pretreatment or simultaneous treatment of macrophages with TGFβ resulted in suppression of CINC protein production. These studies demonstrate that IFNγ and TNFα, found early during the inflammatory response, induce production of CINC, as well as induce macrophages into a cytocidal state that are capable of killing transformed cells, parasites and bacteria, and recruiting neutrophils. In contrast, TGFβ, found during reparative stages of ...
Transrepression of Inflammatory Gene Transcription. In the context of inflammatory gene promoters, consensus cis-acting sequences by which GR binds DNA and directly exerts transrepression are not generally described. Instead, such genes show binding sites for transcription factors, including activator protein (AP)-1, the functionally related activating transcription factors (ATFs), CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs) and, in particular, nuclear factor (NF)-κB. It is noteworthy that these sites, which are key to transcriptional activation, are also necessary for glucocorticoid-dependent inhibition of inflammatory transcription (Barnes, 2006). Thus glucocorticoid-dependent repression of IL-8, inducible nitric-oxide synthase, or rat cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant expression correlated with transcriptional inhibition, principally via NF-κB sites (Mukaida et al., 1994; Kleinert et al., 1996; Ohtsuka et al., 1996). Although glucocorticoids repressed NF-κB DNA binding activity in ...
GABAC Rs comprise the GABA1 subunit but in due course grew to a whole of three subunits: GABA1, GABA2, and GABA3. Children with head hurt who have signs of shock such as poor perfusion and bradycardia should pull down fluid size resuscitation (Kleinman et al. Blasphemy, I cognise cheap himplasia 30 caps on-line herbals medicine. Alternatively, the synovectomy of the metarso-sesamoid compartment can be performed together with the endoscopic distal soft fabric procedure through the medial and the toe snare portal in patients with original metatarso-phalangeal synovi- tis associated with hallux valgus , 8]. L5/S1В-S3 or L5/S1В-S4 anterior spinal roots cross anastomosis should be charmed during the operation of bladder going recon- struction during the manoeuvre of Achilles tendon reflex. Comprehen Increase Matter Sci and Substance Device 3:21-33, 2004 buy generic zetia 10mg cholesterol test finger prick. Banks acuteness across the BBB is cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 (Fa‡ade ...
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click Continue we will assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you will not see this message again. Click Find out more for information on how to change your cookie settings ...
GRO (Growth Related Oncogene) belonging to IL-8 family is polypeptide which has three isoforms α, β and γ, and it inhibits proliferation of endothelial cells. GRO/CINC-1 (cytokine-induced neutrophil chemo attractant 1) was originally purified from media conditioned by IL-1β stimulated rat kidney epithelioid cells (NRK-52E.) Amino acid sequence that encodes rat CINC-1 was identified in 1989 by Watanabes group at Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University. CINC-1 is a member of the alpha (CXC) subfamily of chemokines. Three additional rat CXC chemokines (CINC-2α, CINC-2β, CINC-3/MIP-2) have been identified. The protein sequence of CINC-1 is 63 - 67% identical to that of CINC-2α, CINC-2β and CINC-3/MIP-2. In addition, each of GROα, GROβ and GROγ is sharing 68%, 71% and 69% identity with CINC-1. This has been suggested that CINCs are the rat counterparts of human GROs. GROα/MGSA has a high homology with IL-8 in amino acid sequences. It has been reported that it also has a similar ...
Mouse keratinocyte-derived cytokine (KC) is the homolog of the human chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) protein, a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine subfamily. The synthesis of KC in vascular endothelial cells is induced by thrombin, and KC is involved in chemotaxis and activation of neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages. KC was originally identified by overexpression in murine keratinocytes, monocytes, and macrophages following stimulation by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). Expression of KC is induced by mitogens in vascular smooth cells, endothelial cells, and macrophages. In mouse, KC activity is mediated by the interleukin-8 (IL-8) receptor (homologous to the human interleukin 8 (IL-8) type B receptor), which also binds mouse macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) with high affinity. These two chemokines have been suggested to be mouse homologs of human IL-8. Studies have shown that KC expression decreases the ...
Mouse keratinocyte-derived cytokine (KC) is the homolog of the human chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) protein, a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine subfamily. The synthesis of KC in vascular endothelial cells is induced by thrombin, and KC is involved in chemotaxis and activation of neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages. KC was originally identified by overexpression in murine keratinocytes, monocytes, and macrophages following stimulation by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). Expression of KC is induced by mitogens in vascular smooth cells, endothelial cells, and macrophages. In mouse, KC activity is mediated by the interleukin-8 (IL-8) receptor (homologous to the human interleukin 8 (IL-8) type B receptor), which also binds mouse macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) with high affinity. These two chemokines have been suggested to be mouse homologs of human IL-8. Studies have shown that KC expression decreases the ...
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Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Ray Biotech \ Recombinant Human GRO-alpha _ CXCL1, His-tagged \ 228-10571-1 for more molecular products just contact us
Abcams GRO alpha ELISA Kit suitable for Cell culture supernatant, Serum, Plasma in mouse. Reliably quantify 1 pg/ml of GRO alpha.
小鼠GRO alpha ELISA试剂盒(CXCL1) ELISA试剂盒datasheet (ab100717).Abcam抗体、ELISA、激动剂拮抗剂、表观遗传试剂、蛋白多肽,使用效果保证,中国70%以上现货。
References for Abcams Recombinant human GRO alpha protein (ab73810). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
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If you are a society or association member and require assistance with obtaining online access instructions please contact our Journal Customer Services team ...
|p|Recombinant Rat CXCL1/GRO alpha/KC is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 72 amino acids.|/p| |p|Background: Rat CXCL1, also known as CINC-1, belongs to the CXC chemokine family. It is encoded by the GRO gene now designated CXCL1.
Antocijanini imaju tendenciju da budu glavni polifenoli u rozom grožđu dok su flavan-3-oli (i.e. katehini) zastupljeniji fenoli u belim varijetetima.[17] Ukupni fenolni sadržaj, laboratorijski indeks antioksidantske jačine, je veći u rozim varijetetima prevashodno usled antocijaninske gustine u ljusci crnog grožđa, u poređenju sa odsustvom antocijanina u ljusci belog grožđa.[17] Ovi antocijanini privlače napore naučnika da definišu njihove osobine u pogledu ljudskog zdravlja.[18] Fenolni sadržaj ljuske grožđa varira sa kultivarom, kompozicijom zemljišta, klimom, geografskim poreklom, i praksom kultivacije ili izloženosti bolestima, kao što su gljivične infekcije.. Crno vina mogu da ponude zdravstvene beneficije koje su veće od belog vina, zbog potencijalno korisnih jedinjenja koja su prisutna u ljusci grožđa, a samo crveno vino se fermentira sa ljuskom. Dužina fermentacionog perioda koje vino provede u kontaktu sa ljuskom grožđa je važna odrednica njegovog ...
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All three isoforms of GRO are CXC chemokines that can signal through the CXCR1 or CXCR2 receptors. The GRO proteins chemoattract and activate neutrophils and basophils. Recombinant mouse MIP-2 is a 7.8 kDa protein consisting of 73 amino acids including the ELR motif common to the CXC chemokine family that bind to CXCR1 or CXCR2 ...
CXCL5 protein is expressed in E. coli, processed, refolded and purified to yield the native, secreted form of the mature chemokine. C-X-C motif chemokine 5 (CXCL5) or epithelial-derived neutrophil-activating peptide 78 (ENA-78) is a protein that in humans
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Die chirurgische Behandlung der Epilepsien hat nicht zuletzt deshalb große klinische Bedeutung, da ein Drittel der Epilepsiepatienten auch trotz neu zugelassener Antiepileptika nicht anfallsfrei wird.
Your Search Returned No Results.. Sorry. There is currently no product that acts on isoform PI3KC2α together.. Please try each isoform separately.. ...
Your Search Returned No Results.. Sorry. There is currently no product that acts on isoform PI3KC3 together.. Please try each isoform separately.. ...
The chemokine GRO-α (CXCL1) has been found to mediate the proliferation of glia progenitor cells during neural development. As malignant gliomas are thought to arise from glia progenitors or their differentiated counterparts, astrocytes or oligodendrocytes, we have investigated whether GRO-α regulates the tumor characteristics of glioma cells. We found first that resected glioma specimens were strongly immunoreactive for GRO-α expression in cells with the morphology of tumor cells. In culture, the U251 glioma line transfected to overexpress GRO-α had elevated levels of motility and invasiveness. GRO-α transfectants increased their expression of several proteins associated with migratory behavior, including matrix metalloproteinase-2, β1-integrin and SPARC. The implantation of GRO-α glioma clones into the brain of nude mice caused the early demise of mice and this was associated with the formation of larger intracerebral tumors when compared with mice implanted with vector control lines. ...
Tumor hypoxia regulates many cytokines and angiogenic factors (CAF) and is associated with worse prognosis in head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC). Serum CAF profiling may provide information regarding the biology of the host and tumor, prognosis, and response to therapy. We investigated 38 CAFs in HNSCC patients receiving induction therapy on a phase II trial of carboplatin, paclitaxel, and cetuximab. CAFs were measured by multiplex bead assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 32 patients. Baseline and postinduction CAF levels were correlated with disease progression (PD) and human papilloma virus (HPV) status by Wilcoxon rank sum test. Baseline levels of eight hypoxia-regulated CAFs (the high-risk signature including vascular endothelial growth factor, interleukins 4 and 8, osteopontin, growth-related oncogene-alpha, eotaxin, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, and stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha) were associated with subsequent PD. Elevation in ,or=6 of 8 factors was ...
Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that was previously called GRO1 oncogene, GROα, KC, Neutrophil-activating protein 3 (NAP-3) and melanoma growth stimulating activity, alpha (MSGA-α). In humans, this protein is encoded by the CXCL1 gene.
Polyclonal antibody for GRO alpha/CXCL1 detection. Host: Rabbit.Size: 100μg/vial. Tested applications: WB. Reactive species: Human. GRO alpha/CXCL1 information: Molecular Weight: 11301 MW; Subcellular Localization: Secreted.
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Die Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf ist eine der jüngeren Hochschulen des Landes NRW - gegründet 1965. Seit 1988 trägt die Universität den Namen des großen Sohnes der Stadt
Die Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf ist eine der jüngeren Hochschulen des Landes NRW - gegründet 1965. Seit 1988 trägt die Universität den Namen des großen Sohnes der Stadt
Die Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf ist eine der jüngeren Hochschulen des Landes NRW - gegründet 1965. Seit 1988 trägt die Universität den Namen des großen Sohnes der Stadt
Die Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf ist eine der jüngeren Hochschulen des Landes NRW - gegründet 1965. Seit 1988 trägt die Universität den Namen des großen Sohnes der Stadt
Die Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf ist eine der jüngeren Hochschulen des Landes NRW - gegründet 1965. Seit 1988 trägt die Universität den Namen des großen Sohnes der Stadt
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Expression of CXCL2 (CINC-2a, GRO2, GROb, MGSA-b, MIP-2a, SCYB2) in lung tissue. Antibody staining with in immunohistochemistry.
Expression of CXCL2 (CINC-2a, GRO2, GROb, MGSA-b, MIP-2a, SCYB2) in stomach 1 tissue. Antibody staining with in immunohistochemistry.
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Leukocyte recruitment is a key feature in ischemiaâ€"reperfusion (I/R)-induced tissue injury. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Rho-kinase inhibition on I/R-provoked leukocyte recruitment in the colon. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to 30 min of ischemia by clamping of the superior mesenteric artery followed by 120 min of reperfusion. Intraperitoneal pretreatment with the selective Rho-kinase inhibitors fasudil (4â€"40 mg/kg) and Y-27632 (1â€"10 mg/kg) was administered prior to induction of colonic I/R. Leukocyteâ€"endothelium interactions were analyzed by intravital fluorescence microscopy. Colonic content of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and the CXC chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (KC) were determined by ELISA. Additionally, colonic activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO), a marker of leukocyte infiltration, and malondialdehyde (MDA), were quantified. Fasudil and Y-27632 pretreatment ...
The chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that was previously called GRO1 oncogene, GROα, KC, neutrophil-activating protein 3 (NAP-3) and melanoma growth stimulating activity, alpha (MSGA-α). In humans, this protein is encoded by the CXCL1 gene. CXCL1 is secreted by human melanoma cells, has mitogenic properties and is implicated in melanoma pathogenesis. CXCL1 is expressed by macrophages, neutrophils and epithelial cells, and has neutrophil chemoattractant activity. CXCL1 plays a role in spinal cord development by inhibiting the migration of oligodendrocyte precursors and is involved in the processes of angiogenesis, arteriogenesis, inflammation, wound healing, and tumorigenesis. This chemokine elicits its effects by signaling through the chemokine receptor CXCR2. The gene for CXCL1 is located on human chromosome 4 amongst genes for other CXC chemokines. An initial study in mice showed evidence that CXCL1 decreased the severity of ...
Care guide for Pulmonary Contusion (Aftercare Instructions). Includes: possible causes, signs and symptoms, standard treatment options and means of care and support.
Chemokine ligand 5 is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also known as epithelial-derived neutrophil-activating peptide 78.
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Human C-X-C Motif Chemokine 9 / Monokine Induced by Gamma Interferon (CXCL9 / MIG) standard, for use in running standard curves in AlphaLISA no-wash detection assay
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Aortic and plasma expression levels of IL-18 and CXCL16.(A) Reduced aortic mRNA expression of IL-18 and CXCL16, but no change in the expression of IFN-γ is obs
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Der Einfluss von Staphylokokken bei der chronischen Rhinosinusitis ist nicht gut untersucht. Grunds tzlich werden drei verschiedene Formen der Schleimhaut-Staphylokokken Interaktion unterschieden: intrazellul re Persistenz, Infektion und Besiedlung. Der erste Schritt des Staphylokokken-Schleimaut Kontakts, ob Infektion oder Besiedlung, postuliert aber die berwindung der lokalen Wirt-Immunantwort. Zur Untersuchung dieses Mechanismus wurde die Zytokin Expression von Interleukin (IL)-8, growth-related oncogene (GRO)-α und IL-6 nach Stimulation mit Trypsin und Zellkultur berst nden verschiedener S. aureus St mme and Phenotypen an nasalen Epithelzellkulturen untersucht. Die Zytokin Synthese wurde einem Glukokortikosteroid, einem Serin-Proteasen Inhibitor und einem Zystein-Proteasen Inhibitor gehemmt. Die Signaltransduktions-Kaskaden wurden f r die phosphorylierten Formen der MAP-Kinasen (PI3 Kinase, extrazellul r signal-regulierte Kinase, p38) und dem nukle ren Transkriptionsfaktor NFκB betimmt. ...
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Complete information for CXCL9 gene (Protein Coding), C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 9, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Cxcl12 - Cxcl12 (untagged ORF) - Rat chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (stromal cell-derived factor 1) (Cxcl12), transcript variant 3, (10 ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
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Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 3 (CXCL3) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also known as GRO3 oncogene (GRO3), GRO protein gamma (GROg) and macrophage inflammatory protein-2-beta (MIP2b). CXCL3 controls migration and adhesion of monocytes and mediates its effects on its target cell by interacting with a cell surface chemokine receptor called CXCR2. More recently, it has been shown that Cxcl3 regulates cell autonomously the migration of the precursors of cerebellar granule neurons toward the internal layers of cerebellum, during the morphogenesis of cerebellum. Moreover, if the expression of Cxcl3 is reduced in cerebellar granule neuron precursors, this highly enhances the frequency of the medulloblastoma, the tumor of cerebellum. In fact, the reduced expression of Cxcl3 forces the cerebellar granule neuron precursors to remain at the surface of the cerebellum, where they highly proliferate under the stimulus of Sonic hedgehog, becoming target of transforming ...
Chemokines are a large group of chemotactic cytokines that play an important pathogenic role in inflammatory diseases and autoimmune disorders by enhancement of leukocyte recruitment and activation at inflammatory sites [3-6]. ENA-78 is a CXC chemokine that attracts neutrophils during inflammation [7].. In this work, serum levels of ENA-78 were significantly higher in autistic children than healthy control children (P , 0.001). In addition, 69.35% of autistic children had increased serum levels of ENA-78. This study was the first to investigate serum levels of ENA-78 in autistic children. ENA-78 is an inflammatory C-X-C chemokine that is encoded by the CXCL5 gene [28]. Its levels are elevated in myriad inflammatory conditions [29-32].. ENA-78 is an α chemokine which is produced concomitantly with IL-8 and melanoma growth stimulating activity [7]. The main stimuli for secretion of chemokines, including ENA-78, are the early signals elicited during innate immune response such as bacterial ...
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
This antimicrobial gene is part of a chemokine superfamily that encodes secreted proteins involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. The superfamily is divided into four subfamilies based on the arrangement of the N-terminal cysteine residues of the mature peptide. This chemokine, a member of the CXC subfamily, is expressed at sites of inflammation and may suppress hematopoietic progenitor cell proliferation. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014 ...
Recombinant mouse Cxcl3 protein, fused to His-tag at N-terminus, was expressed in E. coli and purified by using conventional chromatography techniques.
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XCL1 protein is expressed in E. coli, processed, refolded and purified to yield the native, secreted form of the mature chemokine. XCL1 is a ligand for the G protein coupled receptor XCR1 with and EC50 ~ 50 nM. It has been shown the WT XCL1 is able to int
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Chemokines mediate diverse fundamental biological processes, including combating infection. Multiple chemokines are expressed at the site of infection; thus chemokine synergy by heterodimer formation may play a role in determining function. Chemokine function involves interactions with G-protein-coupled receptors and sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAG). However, very little is known regarding heterodimer structural features and receptor and GAG interactions. Solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and molecular dynamics characterization of platelet-derived chemokine CXCL7 heterodimerization with chemokines CXCL1, CXCL4, and CXCL8 indicated that packing interactions promote CXCL7-CXCL1 and CXCL7-CXCL4 heterodimers, and electrostatic repulsive interactions disfavor the CXCL7-CXCL8 heterodimer. As characterizing the native heterodimer is challenging due to interference from monomers and homodimers, we engineered a
Atypical chemokine receptor that controls chemokine levels and localization via high-affinity chemokine binding that is uncoupled from classic ligand-driven signal transduction cascades, resulting instead in chemokine sequestration, degradation, or transcytosis. Also known as interceptor (internalizing receptor) or chemokine-scavenging receptor or chemokine decoy receptor. Acts as a receptor for chemokines CXCL11 and CXCL12/SDF1. Chemokine binding does not activate G-protein-mediated signal transduction but instead induces beta-arrestin recruitment, leading to ligand internalization and activation of MAPK signaling pathway. Required for regulation of CXCR4 protein levels in migrating interneurons, thereby adapting their chemokine responsiveness. In glioma cells, transduces signals via MEK/ERK pathway, mediating resistance to apoptosis. Promotes cell growth and survival. Not involved in cell migration, adhesion or proliferation of normal hematopoietic progenitors but activated by CXCL11 in malignant

Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 1 (Melanoma Growth Stimulating Activity, Alpha) (CXCL1) AntikörperChemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 1 (Melanoma Growth Stimulating Activity, Alpha) (CXCL1) Antikörper

293 verschiedene CXCL1 Antikörper vergleichen. Alle direkt auf antikörper-online bestellbar! ... C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 1 (Cxcl1) Antikörper * chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (melanoma growth stimulating activity, ... and CXCL1 chemokine (zeige CCL1 Antikörper) (CXCL1) production of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (mBM-MSC (zeige MSC ... Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 1 (Melanoma Growth Stimulating Activity, Alpha) (CXCL1) Antigen-Profil Beschreibung des Gens ...
more infohttps://www.antikoerper-online.de/autophagie-pathway-94/cxcl1-antibody-227/

The proinflammatory CXC-chemokines GRO-α/CXCL1 and MIG/CXCL9 are concomitantly expressed in ulcerative colitis and decrease...The proinflammatory CXC-chemokines GRO-α/CXCL1 and MIG/CXCL9 are concomitantly expressed in ulcerative colitis and decrease...

The CXC-chemokines, growth-related oncogene (GRO)-α/CXCL1 and interleukin (IL)-8/CXCL8, both recruit neutrophils and possess ... The proinflammatory CXC-chemokines GRO-α/CXCL1 and MIG/CXCL9 are concomitantly expressed in ulcerative colitis and decrease ... Ulcerative colitis, GRO-α/CXCL1, MIG/CXCL9, Chemokines, Corticosteroids National Category Medical and Health Sciences ... Conclusions CXC-chemokines are likely to be important in the pathophysiology of ulcerative colitis and may become targets for ...
more infohttp://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:45287

Recombinant Human Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 1 CXCL1-14H - Creative BioMartRecombinant Human Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 1 CXCL1-14H - Creative BioMart

Recombinant Human GRO-alpha/CXCL1 produced inE. coliis a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 73 amino acids ... CXCL1 CD14 MIF IDO1 IL23A HMOX1 TNFRSF11A AMBP MYC GAS6 Related Gene CXCL1 Cxcl10 CXCL11 CXCL12 CXCL13 CXCL14 Cxcl15 Cxcl16 ... Recombinant Human Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 1. Download Datasheet See All CXCL1 Products. Bring this labeled protein ... CXCL1. Synonyms:. FSP; GRO; GRO1; GROA; GROa; MGSA; MGSA-a; NAP-3; SCYB1; MGSA alpha; C-X-C motif chemokine 1; GRO1 oncogene ( ...
more infohttps://www.creativebiomart.net/description_3492_12.htm

Recombinant Human Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (melanoma growth stimulating activity, alpha), MBP-tagged CXCL1-162H -...Recombinant Human Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (melanoma growth stimulating activity, alpha), MBP-tagged CXCL1-162H -...

Recombinant CXCL1 protein was expressed in E.coli and purified by using conventional chromatography techniques, 52591,6 Da ( ... This chemokine elicits its effects by signaling through the chemokine receptor CXCR2. The gene for CXCL1 is located on human ... CXCL1 CD14 MIF IDO1 IL23A HMOX1 TNFRSF11A AMBP MYC IRAK4 Related Gene CXCL1 Cxcl10 CXCL11 CXCL12 CXCL13 CXCL14 Cxcl15 Cxcl16 ... CXCL1-162H)Recombinant Human Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (melanoma growth stimulating activity, alpha), MBP-tagged ...
more infohttps://www.creativebiomart.net/description_10651_12.htm

The chemokine GRO-α (CXCL1) confers increased tumorigenicity to glioma cells : Carcinogenesis - oiThe chemokine GRO-α (CXCL1) confers increased tumorigenicity to glioma cells : Carcinogenesis - oi

The chemokine GRO-α (CXCL1) has been found to mediate the proliferation of glia progenitor cells during neural development. As ... The chemokine GRO-α (CXCL1) has been found to mediate the proliferation of glia progenitor cells during neural development. As ...
more infohttp://oxfordindex.oup.com/view/10.1093/carcin/bgi182

High Expression of Chemokines Gro-α (CXCL-1), IL-8 (CXCL-8), and MCP-1 (CCL-2) in Inflamed Human Corneas In Vivo | Cornea |...High Expression of Chemokines Gro-α (CXCL-1), IL-8 (CXCL-8), and MCP-1 (CCL-2) in Inflamed Human Corneas In Vivo | Cornea |...

... to determine whether chemokines are responsible for the recruitme ... ObjectiveTo investigate in vivo expression of chemokines in ... The Gro-α(CXCL-1) was the only chemokine expressed by central corneal epithelium. All other examined chemokines were only ... Thus, the differential chemokine m RNA expression with dominance of neutrophil attractant chemokines (Gro-α [CXCL-1] and IL-8 [ ... CXCL-1) was the only chemokine of all investigated chemokines expressed by corneal epithelium (Figure 4A). As mentioned in the ...
more infohttps://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamaophthalmology/fullarticle/415417

C-C chemokine receptor type 6 - WikipediaC-C chemokine receptor type 6 - Wikipedia

chemokine receptor activity. • receptor activity. • protein binding. • C-C chemokine receptor activity. • C-C chemokine binding ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene.[5] CCR6 ... "Entrez Gene: CCR6 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6".. *^ Wang K, Zhang H, Kugathasan S, Annese V, Bradfield JP, Russell RK, ... "Chemokine Receptors: CCR6". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C-C_chemokine_receptor_type_6

CXCL1 Gene - GeneCards | GROA Protein | GROA AntibodyCXCL1 Gene - GeneCards | GROA Protein | GROA Antibody

C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The ... Aliases for CXCL1 Gene Aliases for CXCL1 Gene. * C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 1 2 3 5 ... Publications for CXCL1 Gene * Association study of the chemokine, CXC motif, ligand 1 (CXCL1) gene with sporadic Alzheimers ... No data available for DME Specific Peptides for CXCL1 Gene Domains & Families for CXCL1 Gene Gene Families for CXCL1 Gene. HGNC ...
more infohttp://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=CXCL1&sabio_path_pcr=17&rf=/home/genecards/current/website/carddisp.pl

Age-associated alterations in CXCL1 chemokine expression by murine B cells | BMC Immunology | Full TextAge-associated alterations in CXCL1 chemokine expression by murine B cells | BMC Immunology | Full Text

ChemokinesAgingLymphocytesB cellsimmunodeficiencyCXCL1. Background. Chemokines are a superfamily of small chemotactic proteins ... Rollins BJ: Chemokines. Blood. 1997, 90: 909-28.PubMedGoogle Scholar. *. Zlotnik A, Yoshie O: Chemokines: a new classification ... Alterations in CXCL1 chemokine production by aged B cells may also have implications in the secondary recruitment of ... The CXCL1 chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (KC), have been ...
more infohttps://bmcimmunol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2172-5-15

Plasma chemokines are biomarkers of disease severity, higher bacterial burden and delayed sputum culture conversion in...Plasma chemokines are biomarkers of disease severity, higher bacterial burden and delayed sputum culture conversion in...

PTB individuals with bilateral or cavitary disease displayed significantly elevated levels of CCL1, CCL3, CXCL1, CXCL10 and ... Whether chemokines can perform the same role in PTB is not known. We examined the plasma levels of chemokines in individuals ... Finally, the chemokines were significantly reduced following successful ATT. Our data demonstrate that PTB is associated with ... We also examined the chemokines in PTB individuals at the end of anti-tuberculous chemotherapy (ATT). PTB individuals exhibited ...
more infohttps://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-54803-w?error=cookies_not_supported&code=839fa44a-57ea-4749-9d84-deb7d6dc2491

Vaccines  | Free Full-Text | Chemokines as Cancer Vaccine Adjuvants | HTMLVaccines | Free Full-Text | Chemokines as Cancer Vaccine Adjuvants | HTML

This review will focus on recent murine and human studies that use chemokines as therapeutic anti-cancer vaccine adjuvants. ... Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing ... This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential ... Chemokine standard name. Chemokine discovery name. Corresponding receptor. Functional category. CXCL1. GROα/MGSA-α. CXCR2, ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/2076-393X/1/4/444/htm

IJMS  | Free Full-Text | CD147 Promotes CXCL1 Expression and Modulates Liver Fibrogenesis | HTMLIJMS | Free Full-Text | CD147 Promotes CXCL1 Expression and Modulates Liver Fibrogenesis | HTML

CXC chemokine-ligand-1 (CXCL1) is expressed on HSCs. We previously found that the CD147 is overexpressed in activated HSCs. In ... Overexpression of CD147 upregulated the secretion of CXCL1. Meanwhile, CXCL1 promoted HSCs activation through autocrine. ... Taken together, these findings suggest that CD147 regulates CXCL1 release in HSCs by PI3K/AKT signaling. Inhibition of CD147 ... Treating with PI3K/AKT inhibitor could effectively suppress CD147-induced CXCL1 expression. ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/19/4/1145/htm

STAT1 is overexpressed in tumors selected for radioresistance and confers protection from radiation in transduced sensitive...STAT1 is overexpressed in tumors selected for radioresistance and confers protection from radiation in transduced sensitive...

Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 CXCL1** 3.093 2.470 - 204614_at Serine (or cysteine) proteinase inhibitor SERPINB2** 0.358 ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/101/6/1714/tab-figures-data

Assay for efficacy of histone deacetylase inhibitors - Methylgene, Inc.Assay for efficacy of histone deacetylase inhibitors - Methylgene, Inc.

chemokine (C-X-C motif). CXCL1. NM_001511. ligand 1 (melanoma growth. ... 15 Induction of transcription of IL-6, IL-8, IL-1b, MIP1b cytokine/chemokines by MGCD0103 in peripheral white cells ex vivo ... 14). Then, induction of transcription of IL-6, IL-8, IL-1b, MIP1b cytokine/chemokines by MGCD0103 was shown in peripheral white ... CXCL1, IL10, NRG1, TNFSF7, IL-6, IL-8. 8. The use of a gene or gene product thereof identified according to claim 1 as a ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/y2007/0292351.html

Overexpression of Chemokine (C-X-C) ligand 1 (CXCL1) associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis in hepatocellular...Overexpression of Chemokine (C-X-C) ligand 1 (CXCL1) associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis in hepatocellular...

Furthermore, CXCL1 promote cell invasion through NF-kB-dependent pathway. CXCL1 expression in HCC associated with clinical ... Protein expression levels of CXCL1 and P65 were determined by western blot analysis. In this study, we found that CXCL1 ... The mRNA and protein level expression of CXCL1 was examined in HCC tissues and cell lines. The expression of CXCL1 was ... than those with low CXCL1 expression. These data indicated that the CXCL1 upregulation may contribute to both the development ...
more infohttps://cancerci.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12935-014-0086-8/email/correspondent/c2/new

CXCL1/MGSA Is a Novel Glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-binding Chemokine: STRUCTURAL EVIDENCE FOR TWO DISTINCT NON-OVERLAPPING BINDING...CXCL1/MGSA Is a Novel Glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-binding Chemokine: STRUCTURAL EVIDENCE FOR TWO DISTINCT NON-OVERLAPPING BINDING...

In humans, the chemokine CXCL1/MGSA (hCXCL1) plays fundamental and diverse roles in pathophysiology, from microbial killing to ... CXCL1/MGSA Is a Novel Glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-binding Chemokine: STRUCTURAL EVIDENCE FOR TWO DISTINCT NON-OVERLAPPING BINDING ... We conclude that hCXCL1-GAG interactions provide stringent control over regulating chemokine levels and receptor accessibility ... has also been identified previously as the GAG-binding domain for the related chemokine CXCL8/IL-8. The second domain, ...
more infohttp://pegnac.sdsc.edu/hspg-peg/cxcl1mgsa-novel-glycosaminoglycan-gag-binding-chemokine-structural-evidence-two-distinct-non-overlapping-binding-domains/

Overexpression of Chemokine (C-X-C) ligand 1 (CXCL1) associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis in hepatocellular...Overexpression of Chemokine (C-X-C) ligand 1 (CXCL1) associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis in hepatocellular...

Furthermore, CXCL1 promote cell invasion through NF-kB-dependent pathway. CXCL1 expression in HCC associated with clinical ... Protein expression levels of CXCL1 and P65 were determined by western blot analysis. In this study, we found that CXCL1 ... The mRNA and protein level expression of CXCL1 was examined in HCC tissues and cell lines. The expression of CXCL1 was ... than those with low CXCL1 expression. These data indicated that the CXCL1 upregulation may contribute to both the development ...
more infohttps://cancerci.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12935-014-0086-8/figures/1

Impact of Kefir Derived Lactobacillus kefiri on the Mucosal Immune Response and Gut MicrobiotaImpact of Kefir Derived Lactobacillus kefiri on the Mucosal Immune Response and Gut Microbiota

Moreover, the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was increased in ileum as well as the chemokine CXCL-1. This interesting ... Cytokine and chemokine genes evaluated were il1b, il6, il10, il12p70, il17a, il23, ifng, tnfa, tgfb, cxcl1, baff, april, gmcsf ... In ileum IL-10, CXCL-1 and mucin 6 genes were upregulated; meanwhile in colon mucin 4 was induced whereas IFN-γ, GM-CSF, and IL ... The administration of L. kefiri for a longer period, 21 days, produced higher expression levels of IL-10, CXCL-1, and mucin 6 ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2015/361604/

Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption Induced by Chronic Sleep Loss: Low-Grade Inflammation May Be the LinkBlood-Brain Barrier Disruption Induced by Chronic Sleep Loss: Low-Grade Inflammation May Be the Link

CXCL-1:. Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1. EGFR:. Epidermal growth factor receptor. ... chemokines, and acute-phase proteins; all of them may promote changes in cellular components of the blood-brain barrier, ... chemokines, nitric oxide, and matrix metalloproteinases. Those inflammatory mediators released during sleep restriction may ... α-stimulated brain pericytes possess a unique cytokine and chemokine release profile and enhance microglial activation," ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2016/4576012/

Chemokine - WikipediaChemokine - Wikipedia

Typical inflammatory chemokines include: CCL2, CCL3 and CCL5, CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL8. A typical example is CXCL-8, which acts ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemokines

C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 12 ELISA Kits | Biocompare.comC-X-C motif chemokine ligand 12 ELISA Kits | Biocompare.com

Compare C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 12 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations ... C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 12 ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established antibody-based ... Your search returned 329 C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 12 ELISA ELISA Kit across 19 suppliers. ...
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Central role of liver in anticancer and radioprotective activities of Toll-like receptor 5 agonist.  - PubMed - NCBICentral role of liver in anticancer and radioprotective activities of Toll-like receptor 5 agonist. - PubMed - NCBI

... cxcl1, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1; il6, interleukin 6; gapdh, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23630282

Matrine reduces cigarette smoke-induced airway neutrophilic inflammation by enhancing neutrophil apoptosis | Clinical Science |...Matrine reduces cigarette smoke-induced airway neutrophilic inflammation by enhancing neutrophil apoptosis | Clinical Science |...

ELR+ chemokines including IL-8, CXCL1, and CXCL2 recruit neutrophils through interaction with the G-protein-coupled CXCR1 and ... chemokines (CXCL1, CXCL2, CCL2), and matrix metallopeptidase (MMP9, MMP12) (P,0.01; Table 1) compared with their sham ... ELR+ chemokines that promote recruitment of neutrophils via CXCR2 are known to be elevated in COPD and clinical trials have ... Effect of oral administration of matrine on whole lung cytokine, chemokine, and protease mRNA expression in CS-exposed mice ...
more infohttps://portlandpress.com/clinsci/article/133/4/551/218744/Matrine-reduces-cigarette-smoke-induced-airway

Jamming in tumors | EurekAlert! Science NewsJamming in tumors | EurekAlert! Science News

It binds the chemokines CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL5. "We have seen that the concentration of the chemokines in the bone marrow, ... IFN-beta interferes with this communication: it makes the cells in the tumour produce fewer chemokines and no chemokine ... Neutrophils migrate along the chemokine gradient into the tumour and once there, they themselves release the same chemokines in ... Neutrophils normally circulate in the blood until--attracted by so-called chemokines--they enter the tissue where they ingest ...
more infohttps://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2014-01/hcfi-jit012914.php

Frontiers | Protease-Activated Receptors and other G-Protein-Coupled Receptors: the Melanoma Connection | GeneticsFrontiers | Protease-Activated Receptors and other G-Protein-Coupled Receptors: the Melanoma Connection | Genetics

Studies have found that both chemokine receptors and protease-activated receptors, both of which are GPCRs, are central to the ... Studies have found that both chemokine receptors and protease-activated receptors, both of which are GPCRs, are central to the ... CXCL1, CXC chemokine motif ligand 1. ... FIGURE 1. Effects of protease activated receptor and chemokine ... Chemokine Receptors. Chemokines are small polypeptide signaling molecules that bind to and activate the G-protein-coupled ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fgene.2016.00112/full
  • In humans, the chemokine CXCL1/MGSA (hCXCL1) plays fundamental and diverse roles in pathophysiology, from microbial killing to cancer progression, by orchestrating the directed migration of immune and non-immune cells. (sdsc.edu)
  • PTB individuals with bilateral or cavitary disease displayed significantly elevated levels of CCL1, CCL3, CXCL1, CXCL10 and CXCL11 compared to those with unilateral or non-cavitary disease and also exhibited a significant positive relationship with bacterial burdens. (nature.com)
  • CXCL1 is considered to be involved in the activation of HSCs [ 4 ], fibrogenesis and angiogenesis [ 5 , 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Chemokines also play fundamental roles in the development, homeostasis, and function of the immune system, and they have effects on cells of the central nervous system as well as on endothelial cells involved in angiogenesis or angiostasis. (abnova.com)
  • The chemokine GRO-α (CXCL1) has been found to mediate the proliferation of glia progenitor cells during neural development. (oup.com)
  • Moreover, the potential relevance of these findings is supported by the poor ability of LPS-activated aged B cells to specifically mediate CXCL1-dependent leukocyte recruitment when compared to younger B cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We conclude that hCXCL1-GAG interactions provide stringent control over regulating chemokine levels and receptor accessibility and activation, and that chemotactic gradients mediate cellular trafficking to the target site. (sdsc.edu)
  • For example, in addition to chemotaxis, chemokines modulate lymphocyte development, priming and effector function [ 2 ] and play a critical role in immune surveillance. (mdpi.com)
  • In addition to being known for mediating chemotaxis, chemokines are all approximately 8-10 kilodaltons in mass and have four cysteine residues in conserved locations that are key to forming their 3-dimensional shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overexpression of CD147 upregulated the secretion of CXCL1. (mdpi.com)
  • Secretion of the antimicrobial chemokine CCL20 was clearly IL-1α independent. (uva.nl)
  • The present invention provides a means of inhibiting the growth and metastasis of cancer cells by administering anti-chemokine antibodies. (google.com)
  • In addition, PTB individuals with slower culture conversion displayed significantly elevated levels of CCL1, CCL3, CXCL1 and CXCL9 at the time of PTB diagnosis and prior to ATT. (nature.com)
  • Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing recruitment of antigen presenting cells (APCs) and effector cells to appropriate anatomical sites. (mdpi.com)
  • The signature also points to chemokines as important mediators of TGF-β's effects on tumor growth. (scienceblog.com)
  • It is possible to identify the particular chemokines which are over-expressed in the tumor using methods of the invention and administer antibodies against that over-expressed chemokine. (google.com)
  • Therefore, we used the MC38 tumor model, which naturally expresses CXCL1. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Heparin modulates chemokines in human endometrial stromal cells by interaction with tumor necrosis factor α and thrombin. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Besides migration, chemokines also induce the rapid activation of integrin molecules. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chemokines are functionally divided into two groups: Homeostatic: are constitutively produced in certain tissues and are responsible for basal leukocyte migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • CXCL1 plays a role in spinal cord development by inhibiting the migration of oligodendrocyte precursors. (clontech.com)
  • However, the plasma CXCL4L1, CXCL1, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and human plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) levels did not significantly change following anthocyanin supplementation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1 ) Selectin-dependent leukocyte rolling on the endothelial layer, ( 2 ) chemokine-dependent integrin activation with subsequent leukocyte adhesion, and ( 3 ) diapedesis ( 41 ) ( Figure 1 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • The LEGENDplex™ Human Proinflammatory Chemokine Standard product is intended for use with the Mix and Match Human Proinflammatory Chemokine Panel of products. (biolegend.com)
  • Xu, Zhu, Zhang, Tian, Zhang, Wu, Gao: NF?B-mediated CXCL1 production in spinal cord astrocytes contributes to the maintenance of bone cancer pain in mice. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • An initial study in mice showed evidence that CXCL1 decreased the severity of multiple sclerosis and may offer a neuro-protective function. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Moreover, these chemokines are expressed at higher levels in B cells derived from young (4 m) compared to old (24-29 m) mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • PMN and CXCL1 were strongly correlated in preCC mice. (genetics.org)
  • To identify these chemokines, three groups of BALB/c mice were exposed to sham air, 0.2 ppm O 3 , or 0.8 ppm O 3 for 6 h. (jimmunol.org)
  • Studies in mice have shown that CXCL1 decreased the severity of multiple sclerosis and may have a neuroprotective function. (clontech.com)
  • ODE-induced AHR was significantly attenuated in MyD88 KO mice, and neutrophil influx and cytokine/chemokine production were nearly absent in MyD88 KO animals after ODE challenges. (cdc.gov)
  • Mice deficient in TLR9, TLR4, and IL-18R, but not IL-1IR, demonstrated partial protection against ODE-induced neutrophil influx and cytokine/chemokine production. (cdc.gov)
  • Chemokines are felt to play a major role latent TB infection (LTB) as they appear to be critical in the formation and maintenance of quiescent granulomas 4 and in the recruitment of cells from the periphery for positioning within the granuloma 5 . (nature.com)
  • When given immediately after CLP, CXC chemokines increased peritoneal neutrophil recruitment at 6 h after CLP. (jimmunol.org)
  • These data demonstrate that early, local treatment with CXC chemokines enhances neutrophil recruitment and clearance of bacteria as well as improves survival in the CLP model of sepsis. (jimmunol.org)
  • Oxidative stress from ozone (O 3 ) exposure augments airway neutrophil recruitment and chemokine production. (jimmunol.org)
  • These are known as homeostatic chemokines and are produced and secreted without any need to stimulate their source cell(s). (wikipedia.org)
  • Homeostatic chemokines are constitutively expressed in particular organs or tissues. (biolegend.com)
  • Due to their function of targeting cells to specific organs, homeostatic chemokines can also be involved in cancer and metastasis. (biolegend.com)
  • Basal: homeostatic chemokines are basal produced in the thymus and lymphoid tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Materials and methods The expression of CXC-chemokines was studied in eight controls and in 11 patients suffering from ulcerative colitis in the distal part of the colon, before and during topical treatment with corticosteroids. (diva-portal.org)
  • Chemokine messenger RNA (m RNA)expression in inflamed peripheral cornea (limbus). (jamanetwork.com)
  • Expression of neutrophil and mononuclear cell attractant CC and CXC chemokines in corneal lesions. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Chemokine messenger RNA (m RNA)expression by in situ hybridization with sulfur 35-uridine triphosphate-labeled RNA antisense probes in central inflamed cornea. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Chemokine receptor specific for IP-10 and MIG: structure, function and expression in activated T-lymphocytes. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Establishment of the TB granuloma is controlled by the synchronized expression of various chemokines. (nature.com)
  • In this study, we showed an important role of CD147 in promoting liver fibrosis by activating HSCs and upregulating expression of chemokines. (mdpi.com)
  • Treating with PI3K/AKT inhibitor could effectively suppress CD147-induced CXCL1 expression. (mdpi.com)
  • (C) The protein expression levels of CXCL1 were determined by Western blot analysis in HCC cell lines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This genetic variant regulates both CXCL1 and PMN by altering Zfp30 expression, and we model the relationships between the QTL and these three endophenotypes. (genetics.org)
  • We show that Zfp30 is expressed in airway epithelia in the normal mouse lung and that altering Zfp30 expression in vitro affects CXCL1 responses to an immune stimulus. (genetics.org)
  • I think one of the most significant aspects of this is that it is the first real demonstration that a major function of TGF-β signaling is to suppress chemokine expression," said Moses, the Hortense B. Ingram Professor of Molecular Oncology, professor of Cancer Biology, and director of the Frances Williams Preston Laboratories. (scienceblog.com)
  • Further analysis revealed transient expression of several chemokines (e.g. (asm.org)
  • Although TcdA induced more pronounced transcriptional changes than TcdB and the upregulated chemokine expression was unique to TcdA, the overall transcriptional responses to TcdA and TcdB were strongly correlated, supporting differences primarily in timing and potency rather than differences in the type of intracellular host response. (asm.org)
  • Glomerular isolates were studied for CXCL1 expression by QPCR. (figshare.com)
  • Recombinant Human GRO-alpha/CXCL1 produced in E. coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 73 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 7.8 kDa. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Recombinant Rat CXCL1/GRO alpha/KC is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 72 amino acids. (cellsciences.com)
  • The concentration of the chemokine CCL20 is dramatically increased in the gastric mucosa of patients infected by H pylori and the vast majority of mucosal Tregs express its receptor CCR6. (bmj.com)
  • These results indicate that salivary peptides can stimulate skin as well as gingiva cells to secrete antimicrobial chemokines as part of the hosts' defense to counteract infection. (uva.nl)
  • Over the last few decades, chemokines are found to be involved in almost every aspect of tumorigenesis and antitumor immunity [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)