A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.
An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.
Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.
A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.
CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.
A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.
Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.
The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.
CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.
Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Proteins that specifically inhibit the growth of new blood vessels (ANGIOGENESIS, PHYSIOLOGIC).
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
The passage of cells across the layer of ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, i.e., the ENDOTHELIUM; or across the layer of EPITHELIAL CELLS, i.e. the EPITHELIUM.

Isolation of novel GRO genes and a phylogenetic analysis of the CXC chemokine subfamily in mammals. (1/757)

Approximately 15 different alpha, or CXC, chemokines have thus far been isolated from 11 species of mammals. Among the best studied chemokines are the 12 human proteins that are encoded by 11 paralogous genes. In order to better understand the evolution and function of this group of genes, we isolated and characterized six novel GRO and GRO-related cDNA sequences from the cow (Bos taurus), the sheep (Ovis aries), the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), and the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus). The amino acid sequence of the diverged guinea pig GRO or KC gene is only 50%-60% similar to presumed orthologs from other species, while the sheep and cow GRO proteins are 90%-99% similar to each other. The presence of multiple GRO genes in the cow, the rabbit, and the sheep is consistent with what has been observed for humans. Phylogenetic analyses of amino acid sequences from 44 proteins indicate that genes orthologous to many of the 11 known from humans exist in other species. One such gene, interleukin 8, or IL8, has been isolated from nine species, including the rodent guinea pig; however, this gene is absent in the rat and the mouse, indicating a unique gene loss event in the rat/mouse (muroid rodent) lineage. The KC (or MIP2) gene of rodents appears to be orthologous to the GRO gene found in other taxonomic orders. Combined evidence from different sources suggests that IP10 and MIG share sister taxon relationships on the evolutionary tree, while the remaining paralogous genes represent independent lineages, with limited evidence for kinship between them. This observation indicates that these genes originated nearly contemporaneously via a series of gene duplication events. Relative-rate tests for synonymous and nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions in the KC and IL8 genes did not detect rate heterogeneity; however, there are several notable features regarding the IL8 genes. For example, the IL8 proteins from two Old World monkeys are as similar to one another as they are to the IL8 protein from humans, and all observed nucleotide differences between the IL8 genes of the two monkeys cause amino acid changes; in other words, there are no synonymous differences between them.  (+info)

Cutting edge: clustered AU-rich elements are the target of IL-10-mediated mRNA destabilization in mouse macrophages. (2/757)

In the present study we show that IL-10-mediated inhibition of inflammatory gene expression can be mediated by an AU-rich element (ARE) cluster present in the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of sensitive genes. A series of chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) reporter gene constructs were prepared in which different fragments from the IL-10-sensitive KC mRNA 3'UTR were placed downstream of the coding region of the reporter gene CAT. CAT mRNA containing the KC 3'UTR was markedly destabilized as compared with the control CAT mRNA, and the decay rate was further increased in cells stimulated with IL-10. The KC 3'UTR contains an ARE cluster and three isolated ARE motifs. The ARE cluster spanning nucleotides 378-399 appeared to be both necessary and sufficient to mediate sensitivity to IL-10 because a 116-nucleotide fragment that contains the cluster conferred sensitivity, while mutation of the sequence between positions 378 and 399 eliminated sensitivity. The destabilizing effect of IL-10 was relatively selective, as the stability of chimeric CAT mRNAs was not modulated in cells treated with IFN-gamma or IL-4.  (+info)

Isolation of the CXC chemokines ENA-78, GRO alpha and GRO gamma from tumor cells and leukocytes reveals NH2-terminal heterogeneity. Functional comparison of different natural isoforms. (3/757)

Chemokines are a family of chemotactic peptides affecting leukocyte migration during the inflammatory response. Post-translational modification of chemokines has been shown to affect their biological potency. Here, the isolation and identification of natural isoforms of the neutrophil chemoattractants GRO alpha and GRO gamma and the epithelial-cell-derived neutrophil attractant-78 (ENA-78), is reported. Cultured tumor cells produced predominantly intact chemokine forms, whereas peripheral blood monocytes secreted mainly NH2-terminally truncated forms. The order of neutrophil chemotactic potency of these CXC chemokines was GRO alpha > GRO gamma > ENA-78 both for intact and truncated forms. However, truncated GRO alpha (4,5,6-73), GRO gamma (5-73) and ENA-78(8,9-78) were 30-fold, fivefold and threefold more active than the corresponding intact chemokine. As a consequence, truncated GRO alpha (4,5,6-73) was 300-fold more potent than intact ENA-78 indicating that both the type of chemokine and its mode of processing determine the chemotactic potency. Similar observations were made when intact and truncated GRO alpha, GRO gamma and ENA-78 were compared for their capacity to induce an increase in the intracellular calcium concentration in neutrophilic granulocytes, and to desensitize the calcium response towards the CXC chemokine granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 (GCP-2). It must be concluded that physiological proteolytic cleavage of CXC chemokines in general enhances the inflammatory response, whereas for CC chemokines NH2-terminal processing mostly results in reduced chemotactic potency.  (+info)

Elevated constitutive IkappaB kinase activity and IkappaB-alpha phosphorylation in Hs294T melanoma cells lead to increased basal MGSA/GRO-alpha transcription. (4/757)

The basal transcription of the CXC chemokine, melanocyte growth stimulatory activity (MGSA)/growth-regulated protein (GRO)-alpha, is up-regulated in Hs294T melanoma cells compared with the normal retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Previous studies characterized a cytokine-inducible, functional nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB consensus element in the immediate 5' regulatory region of the MGSA/GRO-alpha gene at -78 bp. Although the cytokine-inducible mechanisms for transcription of this gene are fairly well delineated, the mechanisms involved in its basal up-regulation of transcription in Hs294T melanoma cells are poorly understood. Recently, we demonstrated an increased rate of IkappaB-alpha degradation in Hs294T cells, which leads to an increased nuclear localization of NF-kappaB (R. L. Shattuck-Brandt and A. Richmond. Cancer Res., 57: 3032-3039, 1997). Here we demonstrate that Hs294T melanoma cells have elevated basal IkappaB kinase (IKK) activity relative to RPE cells, causing an increased constitutive IkappaB-alpha phosphorylation and degradation. We also show here that the resultant elevated nuclear NF-kappaB (p50/p65) in these cells is responsible for the increased basal transcription of MGSA/GRO-alpha. Pretreatment of Hs294T or RPE cells with proteasome inhibitors MG115 or MG132 captures the slower migrating, constitutively phosphorylated form of IkappaB-alpha in Hs294T melanoma cells, but not in RPE cells. In addition, a phospho-specific antibody that specifically recognizes the inhibitory form of IkappaB that is phosphorylated at Ser-32 reacted with IkappaB-alpha in Hs294T cell, but not in unstimulated RPE cells. Although the basal level of protein expression of IKK-alpha or IKK-beta are the same in both Hs294T and RPE cells, immunoprecipitation with IKK-alpha antibody combined with activity assay reveal a constitutively active IKK complex in Hs294T melanoma cells. Cotransfection of a 350-bp MGSA/GRO-alpha promoter-luciferase reporter construct with either the dominant negative IKK-alpha or the repressors of NF-kappaB, the IkappaB-alpha wild type or mutants lacking the inducible phosphorylation sites, demonstrates that the increased basal MGSA/GRO-alpha transcription in the Hs294T cells is due to the enhanced nuclear activation of NF-kappaB.  (+info)

Role of clathrin-mediated endocytosis in CXCR2 sequestration, resensitization, and signal transduction. (5/757)

CXCR2 is a seven-transmembrane receptor that transduces intracellular signals in response to the chemokines interleukin-8, melanoma growth-stimulatory activity/growth-regulatory protein, and other ELR motif-containing CXC chemokines by coupling to heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins. In this study, we explored the mechanism responsible for ligand-induced CXCR2 endocytosis. Here, we demonstrate that dynamin, a component of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, is essential for CXCR2 endocytosis and resensitization. In HEK293 cells, dynamin I K44A, a dominant-negative mutant of dynamin that inhibits the clathrin-mediated endocytosis, blocks the ligand-stimulated CXCR2 sequestration. Furthermore, co-expression of dynamin I K44A significantly delays dephosphorylation of CXCR2 after ligand stimulation, suggesting that clathrin-mediated endocytosis plays an important role in receptor dephosphorylation and resensitization. In addition, ligand-mediated receptor down-regulation is attenuated when receptor internalization is inhibited by dynamin I K44A. Interestingly, inhibition of receptor endocytosis by dynamin I K44A does not affect the CXCR2-mediated stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase. Most significantly, our data indicate that the ligand-stimulated receptor endocytosis is required for CXCR2-mediated chemotaxis in HEK293 cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that clathrin-mediated CXCR2 internalization is crucial for receptor endocytosis, resensitization, and chemotaxis.  (+info)

Mast cell migratory response to interleukin-8 is mediated through interaction with chemokine receptor CXCR2/Interleukin-8RB. (6/757)

To explore the role of chemokines in mast cell chemotaxis and accumulation at sites of inflammation, we first investigated the response of human mast cells to 18 different chemokines by induction of intracellular calcium mobilization in the human mast cell line, HMC-1. Only a subgroup of CXC chemokines defined by the conserved sequence motif glutamic acid-leucine-arginine (ELR) tripeptide motif, which included interleukin-8 (IL-8), growth-regulated oncogene alpha (GROalpha), neutrophil-activating peptide-2 (NAP-2), and epithelial cell-derived neutrophil activating peptide-78 (ENA-78), induced calcium flux in the cells. These observations suggested that the receptor CXCR2 (IL-8RB) should be expressed on the surface of these cells. Using the RNAse protection assay, CXCR2 mRNA, but not CXCR1 (IL-8RA) mRNA expression was detected in HMC-1 cells. Flow cytometry analysis documented the surface expression of CXCR2. A binding analysis performed with 125I-IL-8 determined that there were approximately 3,600 high affinity IL-8 binding sites per HMC-1 cell, with a calculated kd of 1.2 to 2 nmol/L. The activity of this receptor was further explored using IL-8, which was found to induce dose-dependent chemotactic and haptotactic responses in both HMC-1 cells and in vitro cultured human cord blood-derived mast cells. These results show the expression of functional CXCR2 receptors on the surface of human mast cells, which may play an important role in mast cell recruitment during the genesis of an inflammatory response.  (+info)

Stimulation of peripheral cannabinoid receptor CB2 induces MCP-1 and IL-8 gene expression in human promyelocytic cell line HL60. (7/757)

Using the recently developed methodology of nucleic acid microarrays spotted with specific cDNAs probes belonging to different gene families, we showed for the first time that nanomolar concentrations of the cannabinoid ligand CP-55940 upregulated the expression of two different members of the chemokine gene family: the alpha-chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) and the beta-chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), in the promyelocytic cell line HL60 transfected with peripheral cannabinoid receptors (CB2). These genomic modulations observed on large-scale cDNA arrays were first confirmed by Northern blot studies. Furthermore, ELISA evaluations in culture supernatants indicated that the cannabinoid-induced activation of these two chemokine genes was followed by enhanced expression and secretion of the corresponding proteins. These upregulations initially observed in transfected HL60 cells overexpressing CB2 receptors, also occurred in normal non-transfected HL60 cells. The enhancement of IL-8 and MCP-1 gene transcription and protein production was shown to be pertussis toxin sensitive attesting that this phenomenon was a Gi protein-coupled receptor-mediated process as expected for cannabinoid receptors. More specifically, the abolition of the cannabinoid-induced effect by the specific CB2 antagonist SR 144528 indicated a strict peripheral cannabinoid-mediated process. Altogether, our data highlight a possible new function of peripheral cannabinoid receptors in the modulation of immune and inflammatory responses.  (+info)

NF-kappa B-inducing kinase is a common mediator of IL-17-, TNF-alpha-, and IL-1 beta-induced chemokine promoter activation in intestinal epithelial cells. (8/757)

IL-17 expression is restricted to activated T cells, whereas the IL-17R is expressed in a variety of cell types including intestinal epithelial cells. However, the functional responses of intestinal epithelial cells to stimulation with IL-17 are unknown. Moreover, the signal transduction pathways activated by the IL-17R have not been characterized. IL-17 induced NF-kappa B protein-DNA complexes consisting of p65/p50 heterodimers in the rat intestinal epithelial cell line IEC-6. The induction of NF-kappa B correlated with the induction of CXC and CC chemokine mRNA expression in IEC-6 cells. IL-17 acted in a synergistic fashion with IL-1 beta to induce the NF-kappa B site-dependent CINC promoter. Induction of the CINC promoter by IL-17 in IEC-6 cells was TNF receptor-associated factor-6 (TRAF6), but not TRAF2, dependent. Furthermore, IL-17 induction of the CINC promoter could be inhibited by kinase-negative mutants of NF-kappa B-inducing kinase and I kappa B kinase-alpha. In addition to activation of the NF-kappa B, IL-17 regulated the activities of extracellular regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases in IEC-6 cells. Whereas the IL-17-mediated activation of extracellular regulated kinase mitogen-activated protein kinases was mediated through ras, c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation was dependent on functional TRAF6. These data suggest that NF-kappa B-inducing kinase serves as the common mediator in the NF-kappa B signaling cascades triggered by IL-17, TNF-alpha, and IL-1 beta in intestinal epithelial cells.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential regulation of the expression of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant by mouse macrophages. AU - Crippen, Tawni L.. AU - Riches, David W H. AU - Hyde, Dallas M.. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - The production of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC) by functionally diverse mouse bone-marrow-derived macrophages was determined. Studies showed that β1,3-glucan, IL-1β, TNFα and IFNγ/TNFα induced expression and production of CINC in macrophages while neither IFNγ nor TGFβ alone induced detectable CINC expression. Pretreatment or simultaneous treatment of macrophages with TGFβ resulted in suppression of CINC protein production. These studies demonstrate that IFNγ and TNFα, found early during the inflammatory response, induce production of CINC, as well as induce macrophages into a cytocidal state that are capable of killing transformed cells, parasites and bacteria, and recruiting neutrophils. In contrast, TGFβ, found during reparative stages of ...
Transrepression of Inflammatory Gene Transcription. In the context of inflammatory gene promoters, consensus cis-acting sequences by which GR binds DNA and directly exerts transrepression are not generally described. Instead, such genes show binding sites for transcription factors, including activator protein (AP)-1, the functionally related activating transcription factors (ATFs), CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs) and, in particular, nuclear factor (NF)-κB. It is noteworthy that these sites, which are key to transcriptional activation, are also necessary for glucocorticoid-dependent inhibition of inflammatory transcription (Barnes, 2006). Thus glucocorticoid-dependent repression of IL-8, inducible nitric-oxide synthase, or rat cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant expression correlated with transcriptional inhibition, principally via NF-κB sites (Mukaida et al., 1994; Kleinert et al., 1996; Ohtsuka et al., 1996). Although glucocorticoids repressed NF-κB DNA binding activity in ...
GABAC Rs comprise the GABA1 subunit but in due course grew to a whole of three subunits: GABA1, GABA2, and GABA3. Children with head hurt who have signs of shock such as poor perfusion and bradycardia should pull down fluid size resuscitation (Kleinman et al. Blasphemy, I cognise cheap himplasia 30 caps on-line herbals medicine. Alternatively, the synovectomy of the metarso-sesamoid compartment can be performed together with the endoscopic distal soft fabric procedure through the medial and the toe snare portal in patients with original metatarso-phalangeal synovi- tis associated with hallux valgus , 8]. L5/S1В-S3 or L5/S1В-S4 anterior spinal roots cross anastomosis should be charmed during the operation of bladder going recon- struction during the manoeuvre of Achilles tendon reflex. Comprehen Increase Matter Sci and Substance Device 3:21-33, 2004 buy generic zetia 10mg cholesterol test finger prick. Banks acuteness across the BBB is cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 (Fa‡ade ...
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3 recombinant rabbit monoclonal antibodies, 1 mouse monoclonal antibodies, 6 rabbit polyclonal antibodies against GRO Beta/CXCL2 are validated for multiple applications, including ELISA, WB, ELISA(Cap).
GRO (Growth Related Oncogene) belonging to IL-8 family is polypeptide which has three isoforms α, β and γ, and it inhibits proliferation of endothelial cells. GRO/CINC-1 (cytokine-induced neutrophil chemo attractant 1) was originally purified from media conditioned by IL-1β stimulated rat kidney epithelioid cells (NRK-52E.) Amino acid sequence that encodes rat CINC-1 was identified in 1989 by Watanabes group at Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University. CINC-1 is a member of the alpha (CXC) subfamily of chemokines. Three additional rat CXC chemokines (CINC-2α, CINC-2β, CINC-3/MIP-2) have been identified. The protein sequence of CINC-1 is 63 - 67% identical to that of CINC-2α, CINC-2β and CINC-3/MIP-2. In addition, each of GROα, GROβ and GROγ is sharing 68%, 71% and 69% identity with CINC-1. This has been suggested that CINCs are the rat counterparts of human GROs. GROα/MGSA has a high homology with IL-8 in amino acid sequences. It has been reported that it also has a similar ...
Mouse keratinocyte-derived cytokine (KC) is the homolog of the human chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) protein, a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine subfamily. The synthesis of KC in vascular endothelial cells is induced by thrombin, and KC is involved in chemotaxis and activation of neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages. KC was originally identified by overexpression in murine keratinocytes, monocytes, and macrophages following stimulation by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). Expression of KC is induced by mitogens in vascular smooth cells, endothelial cells, and macrophages. In mouse, KC activity is mediated by the interleukin-8 (IL-8) receptor (homologous to the human interleukin 8 (IL-8) type B receptor), which also binds mouse macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) with high affinity. These two chemokines have been suggested to be mouse homologs of human IL-8. Studies have shown that KC expression decreases the ...
Mouse keratinocyte-derived cytokine (KC) is the homolog of the human chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) protein, a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine subfamily. The synthesis of KC in vascular endothelial cells is induced by thrombin, and KC is involved in chemotaxis and activation of neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages. KC was originally identified by overexpression in murine keratinocytes, monocytes, and macrophages following stimulation by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). Expression of KC is induced by mitogens in vascular smooth cells, endothelial cells, and macrophages. In mouse, KC activity is mediated by the interleukin-8 (IL-8) receptor (homologous to the human interleukin 8 (IL-8) type B receptor), which also binds mouse macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) with high affinity. These two chemokines have been suggested to be mouse homologs of human IL-8. Studies have shown that KC expression decreases the ...
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Abcams GRO alpha ELISA Kit suitable for Cell culture supernatant, Serum, Plasma in mouse. Reliably quantify 1 pg/ml of GRO alpha.
小鼠GRO alpha ELISA试剂盒(CXCL1) ELISA试剂盒datasheet (ab100717).Abcam抗体、ELISA、激动剂拮抗剂、表观遗传试剂、蛋白多肽,使用效果保证,中国70%以上现货。
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|p|Recombinant Rat CXCL1/GRO alpha/KC is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 72 amino acids.|/p| |p|Background: Rat CXCL1, also known as CINC-1, belongs to the CXC chemokine family. It is encoded by the GRO gene now designated CXCL1.
Antocijanini imaju tendenciju da budu glavni polifenoli u rozom grožđu dok su flavan-3-oli (i.e. katehini) zastupljeniji fenoli u belim varijetetima.[17] Ukupni fenolni sadržaj, laboratorijski indeks antioksidantske jačine, je veći u rozim varijetetima prevashodno usled antocijaninske gustine u ljusci crnog grožđa, u poređenju sa odsustvom antocijanina u ljusci belog grožđa.[17] Ovi antocijanini privlače napore naučnika da definišu njihove osobine u pogledu ljudskog zdravlja.[18] Fenolni sadržaj ljuske grožđa varira sa kultivarom, kompozicijom zemljišta, klimom, geografskim poreklom, i praksom kultivacije ili izloženosti bolestima, kao što su gljivične infekcije.. Crno vina mogu da ponude zdravstvene beneficije koje su veće od belog vina, zbog potencijalno korisnih jedinjenja koja su prisutna u ljusci grožđa, a samo crveno vino se fermentira sa ljuskom. Dužina fermentacionog perioda koje vino provede u kontaktu sa ljuskom grožđa je važna odrednica njegovog ...
人生长调节致癌基因γ(GRO-γ/CXCL3) (Human)首选赛业生物,380余种细胞因子囊括生长调节致癌基因、生长因子、干扰素、白细胞介素、肿瘤坏死因子等所有细胞因子家族,种属齐包括人、鼠、恒河猴及其他种属。赛业提供的生长调节致癌基因品质优良:高活性、高纯度、高稳定性、无热源、无外源因子污染。
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Irsogladine maleate (IM) counters Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-induced reduction of the gap junction intercellular communication and the expression of zonula occludens-1, which is a major tight junction structured protein, in cultured human gingival epithelial cells (HGEC). In addition, IM obviates the A. actinomycetemcomitans-induced increase in interleukin (IL)-8 levels in HGEC. Thus, by regulating the intercellular junctional complex and chemokine secretion in HGEC, IM may be useful to prevent periodontal disease. To clarify the effects and regulatory mechanism of IM in vivo and in vitro, we examined the expression of E-cadherin and neutrophil chemotaxis induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans under IM pretreatment. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that A. actinomycetemcomitans application to the gingival sulcus decreased the number of cells positive for E-cadherin and increased those positive for cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-2α (CINC-2α) in rat gingival epithelium ...
C-X-C Chemokine Receptor Type 2 (CDw128b or GRO/MGSA Receptor or High Affinity Interleukin 8 Receptor B or IL8 Receptor Type 2 or CD182 or CXCR2) - Pipeline Review, ...
All three isoforms of GRO are CXC chemokines that can signal through the CXCR1 or CXCR2 receptors. The GRO proteins chemoattract and activate neutrophils and basophils. Recombinant mouse MIP-2 is a 7.8 kDa protein consisting of 73 amino acids including the ELR motif common to the CXC chemokine family that bind to CXCR1 or CXCR2 ...
C-X-C Motif Chemokine 2/CXCL2/MIP-2 product information; C-X-C Motif Chemokine 2/CXCL2/MIP-2 is available 1 time from supplier EnoGene at Gentaur.com shop
CXCL5 protein is expressed in E. coli, processed, refolded and purified to yield the native, secreted form of the mature chemokine. C-X-C motif chemokine 5 (CXCL5) or epithelial-derived neutrophil-activating peptide 78 (ENA-78) is a protein that in humans
CXCL2, hemokin (C-X-C motiv) ligand 2, je mali citokin koji pripada CXC hemokin familiji. Os se takođe zove makrofagni inflamatorni protein 2-alfa (MIP2-alfa), rast-regulisani protein beta (Gro-beta) i Gro onkogen-2 (Gro-2). CXCL2 is 90% identičan u aminokiselinskoj sekvenci sa hemokinom, CXCL1. Ovaj hemokin izlučuju monociti i makrofage i on izaziva hemotaksu polimorfonuclearnih leukocita i hematopoetskih stem ćelija.[1][2][3] Gen za CXCL2 je lociran na ljudskom hromozomu 4 u klasteru sa drugim CXC hemokinima.[4] CXCL2 mobiliše ćelije putem interakcije sa hemokin receptorom na ćelijskoj površini koji se zove CXCR2.[3][5] ...
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The chemokine GRO-α (CXCL1) has been found to mediate the proliferation of glia progenitor cells during neural development. As malignant gliomas are thought to arise from glia progenitors or their differentiated counterparts, astrocytes or oligodendrocytes, we have investigated whether GRO-α regulates the tumor characteristics of glioma cells. We found first that resected glioma specimens were strongly immunoreactive for GRO-α expression in cells with the morphology of tumor cells. In culture, the U251 glioma line transfected to overexpress GRO-α had elevated levels of motility and invasiveness. GRO-α transfectants increased their expression of several proteins associated with migratory behavior, including matrix metalloproteinase-2, β1-integrin and SPARC. The implantation of GRO-α glioma clones into the brain of nude mice caused the early demise of mice and this was associated with the formation of larger intracerebral tumors when compared with mice implanted with vector control lines. ...
Tumor hypoxia regulates many cytokines and angiogenic factors (CAF) and is associated with worse prognosis in head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC). Serum CAF profiling may provide information regarding the biology of the host and tumor, prognosis, and response to therapy. We investigated 38 CAFs in HNSCC patients receiving induction therapy on a phase II trial of carboplatin, paclitaxel, and cetuximab. CAFs were measured by multiplex bead assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 32 patients. Baseline and postinduction CAF levels were correlated with disease progression (PD) and human papilloma virus (HPV) status by Wilcoxon rank sum test. Baseline levels of eight hypoxia-regulated CAFs (the high-risk signature including vascular endothelial growth factor, interleukins 4 and 8, osteopontin, growth-related oncogene-alpha, eotaxin, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, and stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha) were associated with subsequent PD. Elevation in ,or=6 of 8 factors was ...
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Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that was previously called GRO1 oncogene, GROα, KC, Neutrophil-activating protein 3 (NAP-3) and melanoma growth stimulating activity, alpha (MSGA-α). In humans, this protein is encoded by the CXCL1 gene.
CXCL10 (chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10), Authors: Frank Antonicelli, Philippe Bernard. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
Polyclonal antibody for GRO alpha/CXCL1 detection. Host: Rabbit.Size: 100μg/vial. Tested applications: WB. Reactive species: Human. GRO alpha/CXCL1 information: Molecular Weight: 11301 MW; Subcellular Localization: Secreted.
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Die Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf ist eine der jüngeren Hochschulen des Landes NRW - gegründet 1965. Seit 1988 trägt die Universität den Namen des großen Sohnes der Stadt
Die Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf ist eine der jüngeren Hochschulen des Landes NRW - gegründet 1965. Seit 1988 trägt die Universität den Namen des großen Sohnes der Stadt
Die Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf ist eine der jüngeren Hochschulen des Landes NRW - gegründet 1965. Seit 1988 trägt die Universität den Namen des großen Sohnes der Stadt
Die Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf ist eine der jüngeren Hochschulen des Landes NRW - gegründet 1965. Seit 1988 trägt die Universität den Namen des großen Sohnes der Stadt
Die Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf ist eine der jüngeren Hochschulen des Landes NRW - gegründet 1965. Seit 1988 trägt die Universität den Namen des großen Sohnes der Stadt
Die Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf ist eine der jüngeren Hochschulen des Landes NRW - gegründet 1965. Seit 1988 trägt die Universität den Namen des großen Sohnes der Stadt
ist das Pro-gramm Hard-In-fo. Im je-wei-li-gen Re-po-sito-ry mit Hil-fe des Soft-ware-Cen-ter hard-in-fo fin-den und in-stal-lie-ren. Nach der In-stal-la-ti-on zu fin-den im Haupt-me-nü -, Sys-tem -, Sys-tem Pro-fi-ler and Bench-mark. Hard-In-fo zeigt auch Be-triebs-sys-tem-In-for-ma-tio-nen an und ist auch sonst sehr groß-zü-gig mit In-for-ma-tio-nen wie Netz-werk, Bench-mark und Sen-so-ren-Da-ten ...
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... chemokines ligand 2, CCL5, CXC-chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL1); as well as macrophage retention factors. Macrophages within the ... The maintenance of foam cells and the subsequent progression of plaque build-up is caused by the secretion of chemokines and ... Foam cells secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukins: IL-1, IL-6; tumour necrosis factor (TNF); chemokines: ... chemokines, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and growth factors that stimulate modified lipoprotein uptake and vascular smooth ...
... chemokines such as CXCL1 and interleukin-8), and wound healing (for example, vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF] and ...
... response to Streptococcus pneumoniae by reducing levels of pro-inflamamtory cytokines such as IL-1β and chemokines CXCL1, CCL2 ...
chemokine receptor activity. • receptor activity. • protein binding. • C-C chemokine receptor activity. • C-C chemokine binding ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene.[5] CCR6 ... "Entrez Gene: CCR6 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6".. *^ Wang K, Zhang H, Kugathasan S, Annese V, Bradfield JP, Russell RK, ... "Chemokine Receptors: CCR6". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
Typical inflammatory chemokines include: CCL2, CCL3 and CCL5, CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL8. A typical example is CXCL-8, which acts ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ...
C-X-C chemokine receptor activity. • interleukin-8 binding. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. • chemokine receptor ... This name and the corresponding gene symbol IL8RA have been replaced by the HGNC approved name C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 1 ... "Chemokine Receptors: CXCR1". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... chemokine-mediated signaling pathway. • interleukin-8-mediated signaling pathway. • neutrophil degranulation. • chemotaxis. ...
chemokine activity. • cytokine activity. • heparin binding. • protein binding. • CXCR3 chemokine receptor binding. ... C-X-C motif chemokine 11 is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also called Interferon-inducible T- ... "Entrez Gene: CXCL11 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11".. *^ a b Cole KE, Strick CA, Paradis TJ, Ogborne KT, Loetscher M, Gladue ... This chemokine elicits its effects on its target cells by interacting with the cell surface chemokine receptor CXCR3, with a ...
CXCL1 · CXCL2 · CXCL3 · CXCL4 · CXCL5 · CXCL6 · CXCL7 · CXCL8/IL8 · CXCL9 · CXCL10 · CXCL11 · CXCL12 · CXCL13 · CXCL14 · CXCL15 ... Chemokine. CCL. CCL1 · CCL2 · CCL3 · CCL4 · CCL5 · CCL6 · CCL7 · CCL8 · CCL9 · CCL11 · CCL12 · CCL13 · CCL14 · CCL15 · CCL16 · ...
positive regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production. • positive regulation of JUN kinase activity. • positive ... positive regulation of chemokine production. • cellular extravasation. • negative regulation of lipid storage. • negative ... positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • epithelial cell proliferation involved in salivary gland morphogenesis ...
... s are a subset of cytokines that are produced by a type of immune cell known as a lymphocyte.[1] They are protein mediators typically produced by T cells to direct the immune system response by signaling between its cells. Lymphokines have many roles, including the attraction of other immune cells, including macrophages and other lymphocytes, to an infected site and their subsequent activation to prepare them to mount an immune response. Circulating lymphocytes can detect a very small concentration of lymphokine and then move up the concentration gradient towards where the immune response is required. Lymphokines aid B cells to produce antibodies. Important lymphokines secreted by the T helper cell include:[2] ...
... binds to the death receptors DR4 (TRAIL-RI) and DR5 (TRAIL-RII). The process of apoptosis is caspase-8-dependent. Caspase-8 activates downstream effector caspases including procaspase-3, -6, and -7, leading to activation of specific kinases.[11] TRAIL also binds the receptors DcR1 and DcR2, which do not contain a cytoplasmic domain (DcR1) or contain a truncated death domain (DcR2). DcR1 functions as a TRAIL-neutralizing decoy-receptor. The cytoplasmic domain of DcR2 is functional and activates NFkappaB. In cells expressing DcR2, TRAIL binding therefore activates NFkappaB, leading to transcription of genes known to antagonize the death signaling pathway and/or to promote inflammation. Application of engineered ligands that have variable affinity for different death (DR4 and DR5) and decoy receptors (DCR1 and DCR2) may allow selective targeting of cancer cells by controlling activation of Type 1/Type 2 pathways of cell death and single cell fluctuations. Luminescent iridium complex-peptide ...
... (IL-24) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL24 gene. IL-24 is a cytokine belonging to the IL-10 family of cytokines that signals through two heterodimeric receptors: IL-20R1/IL-20R2 and IL-22R1/IL-20R2. This interleukin is also known as melanoma differentiation-associated 7 (mda-7) due to its discovery as a tumour suppressing protein. IL-24 appears to control in cell survival and proliferation by inducing rapid activation of particular transcription factors called STAT1 and STAT3. This cytokine is predominantly released by activated monocytes, macrophages and T helper 2 (Th2) cells[5] and acts on non-haematopoietic tissues such as skin, lung and reproductive tissues. IL-24 performs important roles in wound healing, arthritis, psoriasis and cancer.[6][7][8] Several studies have shown that cell death occurs in cancer cells/cell lines following exposure to IL-24.[9][10] The gene for IL-24 is located on chromosome 1 in humans.[11] ...
... as well as chemokine and cytokine production, and expression of adhesion molecules such as E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. This ...
positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • regulation of insulin secretion. • extrinsic apoptotic signaling ... Copeland KF (2006). "Modulation of HIV-1 transcription by cytokines and chemokines". Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry. 5 (12 ...
... is sometimes used interchangeably among scientists with the term cytokine.[3] Historically, cytokines were associated with hematopoietic (blood and lymph forming) cells and immune system cells (e.g., lymphocytes and tissue cells from spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes). For the circulatory system and bone marrow in which cells can occur in a liquid suspension and not bound up in solid tissue, it makes sense for them to communicate by soluble, circulating protein molecules. However, as different lines of research converged, it became clear that some of the same signaling proteins which the hematopoietic and immune systems use were also being used by all sorts of other cells and tissues, during development and in the mature organism. While growth factor implies a positive effect on cell division, cytokine is a neutral term with respect to whether a molecule affects proliferation. While some cytokines can be growth factors, such as G-CSF and GM-CSF, others have an inhibitory effect on ...
Interferon alfa 2b is an antiviral or antineoplastic drug, that was originally discovered in the laboratory of Charles Weissmann at the University of Zurich. It was developed at Biogen, and ultimately marketed by Schering-Plough under the tradename Intron-A. It has been used for a wide range of indications, including viral infections and cancers. This drug is approved around the world for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C, chronic hepatitis B, hairy cell leukemia, Behçet's disease, chronic myelogenous leukemia, multiple myeloma, follicular lymphoma, carcinoid tumor, mastocytosis and malignant melanoma. ...
4-1BB is a type 2 transmembrane glycoprotein receptor belonging to the TNF superfamily, expressed on activated T Lymphocytes.[1] 4-1BBL (4-1BB ligand) is found on APCs (antigen presenting cells) and binds to 4-1BB. ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the interleukin 1 cytokine family. Protein structure modeling indicated that this cytokine may contain a 12-stranded beta-trefoil structure that is conserved between IL1A (IL-A alpha) and IL1B (IL-1 beta). This gene and eight other interleukin 1 family genes form a cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 2. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported.[8]. ...
O'Donovan, N., Galvin, M., Morgan, J. G. (1999). „Physical mapping of the CXC chemokine locus on human chromosome 4". Cytogenet ... CXCL1. Ovaj hemokin izlučuju monociti i makrofage i on izaziva hemotaksu polimorfonuclearnih leukocita i hematopoetskih stem ...
Inggris)Role of chemokines in CNS health and pathology: a focus on the CCL2/CCR2 and CXCL8/CXCR2 networks ... pencerap CXCR2 yang mengikat kemokina CXCL1, CXCL2 dan CXCL5 pada otak[11] - yang meningkat pada granulosit seiring dengan ... "A protective role for ELR+ chemokines during acute viral encephalomyelitis.". Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry ...
Mouse keratinocyte-derived cytokine (KC) is the homolog of the human chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) protein, a small ... alternative names include CXCL1, C-X-C motif chemokine 1, SCYB1, Fsp, and melanoma growth stimulating activity (MSGA). ... or C-X-C motif chemokine 1 (CXCL1) protein. The anti-mouse KC antibodies were raised in rabbit using recombinant KC protein or ... These two chemokines have been suggested to be mouse homologs of human IL-8. Studies have shown that KC expression decreases ...
Chemokine Signaling Pathway antibodies. Chemokine Signaling Pathway Diagram. Chemokine Signaling Pathway antibodies. Chemokine ... CXCL1: Has chemotactic activity for neutrophils. May play a role in inflammation and exerts its effects on endothelial cells in ... Chemokine Receptors Bind Chemokines Pathway antibodies. Chemokine Receptors Bind Chemokines Pathway Diagram. ... Molecular Function: growth factor activity; chemokine activity; CXCR chemokine receptor binding; enzyme activator activity; ...
CXCL1) ELISA试剂盒datasheet (ab100717).Abcam抗体、ELISA、激动剂拮抗剂、表观遗传试剂、蛋白多 ... GROs are members of the chemokine alpha family that is characterized by the separation with one amino acid of the first two ... chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (melanoma growth stimulating activity, alpha) ... 小鼠GRO alpha ELISA试剂盒(CXCL1). 参
CXCL1, His-tagged \ 228-10571-1 for more molecular products just contact us ... chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1, GRO1, GROa, SCYB1, MGSA-a, MGSA alpha. ... Liquid CXCL1 although stable at 10°C for 1 week, should be stored below -18°C. For long term storage it is recommended to add a ... Recombinant Human GRO-alpha _ CXCL1, His-tagged Human samples 80 % of the research is conducted on human samples. GENTAUR ...
293 verschiedene CXCL1 Antikörper vergleichen. Alle direkt auf antikörper-online bestellbar! ... C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 1 (Cxcl1) Antikörper * chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (melanoma growth stimulating activity, ... and CXCL1 chemokine (zeige CCL1 Antikörper) (CXCL1) production of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (mBM-MSC (zeige MSC ... Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 1 (Melanoma Growth Stimulating Activity, Alpha) (CXCL1) Antigen-Profil Beschreibung des Gens ...
Also suspected to play a role in nociceptive pain and also act tonically as an anti-inflammatory chemokine in cerebral tissue ... Fractalkine has also been found to play a role in nociceptive pain might act tonically as an anti-inflammatory chemokine in ...
CXCL1) Protein. Species: Mouse (Murine). Source: Escherichia coli (E. coli). Order product ABIN6699667. ... Recombinant Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 1 (Melanoma Growth Stimulating Activity, Alpha) ( ... Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 1 (Melanoma Growth Stimulating Activity, Alpha) (CXCL1) show synonyms for this antigen * FSP ... Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 1 (Melanoma Growth Stimulating Activity, Alpha) (CXCL1) Protein. Details for Product No. ...
The CXC-chemokines, growth-related oncogene (GRO)-α/CXCL1 and interleukin (IL)-8/CXCL8, both recruit neutrophils and possess ... The proinflammatory CXC-chemokines GRO-α/CXCL1 and MIG/CXCL9 are concomitantly expressed in ulcerative colitis and decrease ... Ulcerative colitis, GRO-α/CXCL1, MIG/CXCL9, Chemokines, Corticosteroids National Category Medical and Health Sciences ... Conclusions CXC-chemokines are likely to be important in the pathophysiology of ulcerative colitis and may become targets for ...
Recombinant Human GRO-alpha/CXCL1 produced inE. coliis a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 73 amino acids ... CXCL1 CD14 MIF IDO1 IL23A HMOX1 TNFRSF11A AMBP MYC GAS6 Related Gene CXCL1 Cxcl10 CXCL11 CXCL12 CXCL13 CXCL14 Cxcl15 Cxcl16 ... Recombinant Human Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 1. Download Datasheet See All CXCL1 Products. Bring this labeled protein ... CXCL1. Synonyms:. FSP; GRO; GRO1; GROA; GROa; MGSA; MGSA-a; NAP-3; SCYB1; MGSA alpha; C-X-C motif chemokine 1; GRO1 oncogene ( ...
Recombinant CXCL1 protein was expressed in E.coli and purified by using conventional chromatography techniques, 52591,6 Da ( ... This chemokine elicits its effects by signaling through the chemokine receptor CXCR2. The gene for CXCL1 is located on human ... CXCL1 CD14 MIF IDO1 IL23A HMOX1 TNFRSF11A AMBP MYC IRAK4 Related Gene CXCL1 Cxcl10 CXCL11 CXCL12 CXCL13 CXCL14 Cxcl15 Cxcl16 ... CXCL1-162H)Recombinant Human Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (melanoma growth stimulating activity, alpha), MBP-tagged ...
... chemokines ligand 2, CCL5, CXC-chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL1); as well as macrophage retention factors. Macrophages within the ... The maintenance of foam cells and the subsequent progression of plaque build-up is caused by the secretion of chemokines and ... Foam cells secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukins: IL-1, IL-6; tumour necrosis factor (TNF); chemokines: ... chemokines, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and growth factors that stimulate modified lipoprotein uptake and vascular smooth ...
The chemokine GRO-α (CXCL1) has been found to mediate the proliferation of glia progenitor cells during neural development. As ... The chemokine GRO-α (CXCL1) has been found to mediate the proliferation of glia progenitor cells during neural development. As ...
... to determine whether chemokines are responsible for the recruitme ... ObjectiveTo investigate in vivo expression of chemokines in ... The Gro-α(CXCL-1) was the only chemokine expressed by central corneal epithelium. All other examined chemokines were only ... Thus, the differential chemokine m RNA expression with dominance of neutrophil attractant chemokines (Gro-α [CXCL-1] and IL-8 [ ... CXCL-1) was the only chemokine of all investigated chemokines expressed by corneal epithelium (Figure 4A). As mentioned in the ...
chemokine receptor activity. • receptor activity. • protein binding. • C-C chemokine receptor activity. • C-C chemokine binding ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene.[5] CCR6 ... "Entrez Gene: CCR6 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6".. *^ Wang K, Zhang H, Kugathasan S, Annese V, Bradfield JP, Russell RK, ... "Chemokine Receptors: CCR6". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The ... Aliases for CXCL1 Gene Aliases for CXCL1 Gene. * C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 1 2 3 5 ... Publications for CXCL1 Gene * Association study of the chemokine, CXC motif, ligand 1 (CXCL1) gene with sporadic Alzheimers ... No data available for DME Specific Peptides for CXCL1 Gene Domains & Families for CXCL1 Gene Gene Families for CXCL1 Gene. HGNC ...
ChemokinesAgingLymphocytesB cellsimmunodeficiencyCXCL1. Background. Chemokines are a superfamily of small chemotactic proteins ... Rollins BJ: Chemokines. Blood. 1997, 90: 909-28.PubMedGoogle Scholar. *. Zlotnik A, Yoshie O: Chemokines: a new classification ... Alterations in CXCL1 chemokine production by aged B cells may also have implications in the secondary recruitment of ... The CXCL1 chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (KC), have been ...
PTB individuals with bilateral or cavitary disease displayed significantly elevated levels of CCL1, CCL3, CXCL1, CXCL10 and ... Whether chemokines can perform the same role in PTB is not known. We examined the plasma levels of chemokines in individuals ... Finally, the chemokines were significantly reduced following successful ATT. Our data demonstrate that PTB is associated with ... We also examined the chemokines in PTB individuals at the end of anti-tuberculous chemotherapy (ATT). PTB individuals exhibited ...
This review will focus on recent murine and human studies that use chemokines as therapeutic anti-cancer vaccine adjuvants. ... Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing ... This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential ... Chemokine standard name. Chemokine discovery name. Corresponding receptor. Functional category. CXCL1. GROα/MGSA-α. CXCR2, ...
CXCL1, GRO,i,β,/i,/CXCL2 and GRO,i,γ,/i,/CXCL3), HCC-1/CCL14, HCC-4/CCL16, IL-9, IL-17F, IL18-BPa, IL-28A, IL-29, IL-31, IP-10/ ... which allows the simultaneous determination of 40 chemokines per sample. The sets consist of the following chemokines: 6Ckine/ ... i,Results.,/i, We showed possible implication of 4 chemokines, that is, HCC-4, I-TAC, MIP-3,i,α,/i,, and TARC in women with ... i,Conclusion.,/i, On the basis of our findings, it seems that the chemokines may play role in the pathogenesis of preterm labor ...
CXC chemokine-ligand-1 (CXCL1) is expressed on HSCs. We previously found that the CD147 is overexpressed in activated HSCs. In ... Overexpression of CD147 upregulated the secretion of CXCL1. Meanwhile, CXCL1 promoted HSCs activation through autocrine. ... Taken together, these findings suggest that CD147 regulates CXCL1 release in HSCs by PI3K/AKT signaling. Inhibition of CD147 ... Treating with PI3K/AKT inhibitor could effectively suppress CD147-induced CXCL1 expression. ...
Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 CXCL1** 3.093 2.470 - 204614_at Serine (or cysteine) proteinase inhibitor SERPINB2** 0.358 ...
chemokine (C-X-C motif). CXCL1. NM_001511. ligand 1 (melanoma growth. ... 15 Induction of transcription of IL-6, IL-8, IL-1b, MIP1b cytokine/chemokines by MGCD0103 in peripheral white cells ex vivo ... 14). Then, induction of transcription of IL-6, IL-8, IL-1b, MIP1b cytokine/chemokines by MGCD0103 was shown in peripheral white ... CXCL1, IL10, NRG1, TNFSF7, IL-6, IL-8. 8. The use of a gene or gene product thereof identified according to claim 1 as a ...
Furthermore, CXCL1 promote cell invasion through NF-kB-dependent pathway. CXCL1 expression in HCC associated with clinical ... Protein expression levels of CXCL1 and P65 were determined by western blot analysis. In this study, we found that CXCL1 ... The mRNA and protein level expression of CXCL1 was examined in HCC tissues and cell lines. The expression of CXCL1 was ... than those with low CXCL1 expression. These data indicated that the CXCL1 upregulation may contribute to both the development ...
In humans, the chemokine CXCL1/MGSA (hCXCL1) plays fundamental and diverse roles in pathophysiology, from microbial killing to ... CXCL1/MGSA Is a Novel Glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-binding Chemokine: STRUCTURAL EVIDENCE FOR TWO DISTINCT NON-OVERLAPPING BINDING ... We conclude that hCXCL1-GAG interactions provide stringent control over regulating chemokine levels and receptor accessibility ... has also been identified previously as the GAG-binding domain for the related chemokine CXCL8/IL-8. The second domain, ...
The cytokine growth-related oncogene (GRO/KC; CXCL1) shows strong, rapid upregulation in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in both ... From: NF-κB mediated enhancement of potassium currents by the chemokine CXCL1/growth related oncogene in small diameter rat ...
... we report our findings on gene expression of the pro-angiogenic subgroup of chemokines, the CXCL-ELR+ chemokines. Apart from ... the CXCL-ELR+ chemokines. Apart from their pro-angiogenic and chemoattractant function, these chemokines appear to also ... Down-regulation of CXCL1 inhibits tumor growth in colorectal liver metastasis Cytokine. 2012 Jan;57(1):46-53. doi: 10.1016/j. ... In our nude mouse model of colorectal liver metastases, we found CXCL1,2,3,5 and 8 (IL-8) to be up-regulated in the tumor cells ...
Moreover, the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was increased in ileum as well as the chemokine CXCL-1. This interesting ... Cytokine and chemokine genes evaluated were il1b, il6, il10, il12p70, il17a, il23, ifng, tnfa, tgfb, cxcl1, baff, april, gmcsf ... In ileum IL-10, CXCL-1 and mucin 6 genes were upregulated; meanwhile in colon mucin 4 was induced whereas IFN-γ, GM-CSF, and IL ... The administration of L. kefiri for a longer period, 21 days, produced higher expression levels of IL-10, CXCL-1, and mucin 6 ...
Typical inflammatory chemokines include: CCL2, CCL3 and CCL5, CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL8. A typical example is CXCL-8, which acts ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ...
Compare C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 12 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations ... C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 12 ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established antibody-based ... Your search returned 329 C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 12 ELISA ELISA Kit across 19 suppliers. ...
... cxcl1, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1; il6, interleukin 6; gapdh, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. ...
Of the 40 cytokines and chemokines represented in this panel, CXCL1 (also known as KC) was most robustly downregulated in PDEC ... B) Kras PDECs treated with vehicle control (DMSO), CXCL1, or a combination of CXCL1 and a CXCR2 inhibitor (SB225002) were ... Since CXCL1 acts through the chemokine receptor CXCR2, which is strictly expressed in PanIN lesions, but not in normal ductal ... The decrease in CXCL1 protein levels was corroborated by an increased SA-β-Gal activity in PDEC Kras incubated with CXCL1 for ...
Chemokine CXCL1 / genetics * Chemokine CXCL1 / immunology * Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental / drug therapy* * Diabetes Mellitus ... TNF-α and CXCL1/KC content was analyzed by ELISA. Results: Metformin treatment increased whole-body insulin sensitivity. This ...
ELR+ chemokines including IL-8, CXCL1, and CXCL2 recruit neutrophils through interaction with the G-protein-coupled CXCR1 and ... chemokines (CXCL1, CXCL2, CCL2), and matrix metallopeptidase (MMP9, MMP12) (P,0.01; Table 1) compared with their sham ... ELR+ chemokines that promote recruitment of neutrophils via CXCR2 are known to be elevated in COPD and clinical trials have ... Effect of oral administration of matrine on whole lung cytokine, chemokine, and protease mRNA expression in CS-exposed mice ...
It binds the chemokines CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL5. "We have seen that the concentration of the chemokines in the bone marrow, ... IFN-beta interferes with this communication: it makes the cells in the tumour produce fewer chemokines and no chemokine ... Neutrophils migrate along the chemokine gradient into the tumour and once there, they themselves release the same chemokines in ... Neutrophils normally circulate in the blood until--attracted by so-called chemokines--they enter the tissue where they ingest ...
  • PTB individuals exhibited significantly higher levels of CCL1, CCL3, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL9 and CXCL10 in comparison to LTB and/or HC individuals. (nature.com)
  • It binds the chemokines CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL5. (eurekalert.org)
  • Septic mice predicted to die based on IL-6 levels (Die-P) had higher concentrations of CXCL1 and CXCL2 in the peritoneum and plasma compared with those predicted to live (Live-P). At 6 h, Live-P and Die-P had equivalent numbers of peritoneal neutrophils and bacteria. (jimmunol.org)
  • The i.p. injection of CXCL1 and CXCL2 in naive mice resulted in local neutrophil recruitment. (jimmunol.org)
  • Mice do not have CXCL8, but two functional homologs have been described: CXCL1 (KC) and CXCL2 (macrophage-inflammatory protein-2) ( 15 , 16 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • CXCL1, CXCL2, and CXCL3, also known respectively as GRO alpha, GRO beta (MIP-2 alpha) and GRO gamma (MIP-2 beta), are members of the CXC subfamily of chemokines. (thermofisher.com)
  • CXCL2 (also known as GRO-beta) has 90% sequence identity with CXCL1. (clontech.com)
  • CXCL2 is known to interact with a cell-surface chemokine receptor, CXCR2. (clontech.com)
  • These products are affinity-purified IgG antibodies that recognizes human CXCL1 or CXCL2 protein. (clontech.com)
  • The antibodies were raised in rabbit using a synthetic peptide, and can be used for Western blot (WB) detection or immunohistochemical (IHC) detection of human CXCL1 or CXCL2 protein. (clontech.com)
  • Chemokines Cxcl1/KC and Cxcl2/MIP2 play a crucial role in coordinating neutrophil migration to the insult site. (portlandpress.com)
  • Here, we show that Cxcl1 and Cxcl2 also form heterodimers. (portlandpress.com)
  • Using a disulfide-trapped Cxcl1-Cxcl2 heterodimer, we characterized its binding to free heparin using nuclear magnetic resonance and isothermal titration calorimetry, and to immobilized heparin and heparan sulfate using surface plasmon resonance. (portlandpress.com)
  • Three of the 10 transcripts encoded CXC chemokines (CXCL1, CXCL2, and CXCL6). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Other members of the CXC chemokine family that are similar to CXCL1 include CXCL2 and CXCL3. (prospecbio.com)
  • Interestingly, the amino acid sequences for both CXCL1 and CXCL2 are 90% the same. (prospecbio.com)
  • Both CXCL2 and CXCL3 also bind to chemokine receptor CXCR2. (prospecbio.com)
  • Antibody neutralization of CXCL1 and CXCL2 did not affect TcdA-induced local pathology or neutrophil infiltration, but it did decrease the peripheral blood neutrophil count. (asm.org)
  • Additionally, low serum levels of CXCL1 and CXCL2 corresponded with greater survival. (asm.org)
  • Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was collected to quantitate leukocyte influx and cytokine/chemokine (TNF-a, IL-6, chemokine [C-X-C motif] ligands [CXCL1 and CXCL2]) concentrations. (cdc.gov)
  • CCL2/MCP- 1, CXCL1/KC, and CXCL2/MIP-2) from a large variety of cells [ 4 , 5 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Nelson PJKrensky AM Chemokines, chemokine receptors, and allograft rejection. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Rossi DZlotnik A The biology of chemokines and their receptors. (jamanetwork.com)
  • To date, there are more than 50 chemokines and 18 chemokine receptors identified [ 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Most chemokines bind to more than one receptor, while most receptors also display overlapping ligand specificity [ 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Microbial recognition through pattern-recognition receptors induces the expression and release of many different immune mediators, such as chemokines and pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines which contribute to orchestrating both the innate and the adaptive immune response [ 3 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • All of these proteins exert their biological effects by interacting with G protein -linked transmembrane receptors called chemokine receptors , that are selectively found on the surfaces of their target cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been found that chemokines and their receptors serve a pivotal role in HCC progression. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Thus, chemokines and their receptors directly or indirectly shape the tumor cell microenvironment, and regulate the biological behavior of the tumor. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Exosomes containing chemokines or expressing receptors for chemokines may improve chemotaxis to HCC and may thus be exploited for targeted drug delivery. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chemokines bind to a variety of different receptors, which belong to the G-protein-binding receptor family, and there are ~23 types of chemokine receptors that have been discovered ( 10 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chemokines and their receptors were initially thought to allow for an interaction between immune cells and the inflammatory sites ( 11 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • After binding to the receptors, chemokines primarily serve a role in migration of leukocytes, such as monocytes, eosinophils and dendritic cells (DCs) ( 11 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Studies have found that both chemokine receptors and protease-activated receptors, both of which are GPCRs, are central to the metastatic melanoma phenotype and may serve as potential targets in novel therapies against melanoma and other cancers. (frontiersin.org)
  • The results also point to several potential therapeutic approaches, including the inhibition of chemokines or their receptors, Moses said. (scienceblog.com)
  • Chemokines receptors are seven transmembrane spanning G protein-coupled receptors that allow cells to migrate towards increasing chemokine gradients. (biolegend.com)
  • Specific chemokine receptors are often required to gain entry (or exit) from certain organs and tissues like the thymus and bone marrow. (biolegend.com)
  • Click on one of the chemokine subfamilies shown in the Explore Pathways box below to see the specific chemokines that belong to each group, their receptors, and the different immune cell types that have been shown to express the chemokine receptors. (rndsystems.com)
  • Through chemotaxis, cells that express appropriate chemokine receptors can migrate along a chemokine gradient to localize to specific tissues or sites of infection ( 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • To test the involvement of CXC chemokines in cells irradiated with low doses, we irradiated HFLIII cells with 1 to 20 cGy X-rays and transferred the media from HFLIII culture to two melanoma cell lines characteristic of excessive numbers of the CXC chemokine-specific receptors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CXC chemokine receptors are integral membrane proteins, specifically GPCRs, that specifically bind and respond to cytokines of the CXC chemokine family. (cellsciences.com)
  • Chemokines are a group of small (approximately 8 to 14 kD), mostly basic, structurally related molecules that regulate cell trafficking of various types of leukocytes through interactions with a subset of 7-transmembrane, G protein-coupled receptors. (abnova.com)
  • We will discuss the ability of these implants to attract immune cells expressing CXCR2 and CCR1, prototypical receptors for CXCL1 and CCL6, respectively. (aiche.org)
  • Vallès, Grijpink-Ongering, de Bree, Tuinstra, Ronken: Differential regulation of the CXCR2 chemokine network in rat brain trauma: implications for neuroimmune interactions and neuronal survival. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • This chemokine elicits its effects by signaling through the chemokine receptor CXCR2. (creativebiomart.net)
  • CXC chemokine-ligand-1 (CXCL1), also known as Gro-alpha, is a ligand for G-protein-coupled receptor CXCR2. (mdpi.com)
  • Chemokine CXCL1/KC and its receptor CXCR2 are responsible for neutrophil chemotaxis in adenoviral keratitis. (harvard.edu)
  • In septic patients, neutrophil chemotaxis is impaired as their surface expression of the receptor through which chemokines mediate this effect, CXCR2, is reduced ( 17 , 18 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Recombinant Human CXCL1/GRO alpha chemoattracts BaF3 mouse pro B cells transfected with human CXCR2. (rndsystems.com)
  • CXCL1 acts by signaling through the chemokine receptor CXCR2. (clontech.com)
  • Because melanomas specifically express the chemokines CXCL1 and CXCL8 that are known to facilitate the CXCR2-dependent migration by monocytes, our aim is to evaluate whether introduction of the CXCR2 gene into tumor-specific T cells could further improve the effectiveness of ACT by enhancing T-cell migration to tumor. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A similar enhancement in tumor regression and survival was observed when CXCR2-transduced pmel-1 T cells were transferred into mice bearing CXCL1-transduced B16 tumors compared with mice treated with control pmel-1 T cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These results suggest that transducing CXCR2 into tumor-specific T cells provides an important avenue in "personalized cancer therapy" to take advantage of defined chemokine signatures within the tumor microenvironment, and is a significant step forward in the improvement of adoptive T-cell therapy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The receptor for this cytokine is the chemokine receptor CXCR2. (prospecbio.com)
  • The functional receptor for CXCL1 has been identified as CXCR2. (cellsciences.com)
  • CXCR2 binds to CXCL8 (interleukin 8) and CXCL1/MGSA. (cellsciences.com)
  • Auf www.antikoerper-online.de finden Sie aktuell 293 Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 1 (Melanoma Growth Stimulating Activity, Alpha) (CXCL1) Antikörper von 30 unterschiedlichen Herstellern. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 1 (Melanoma Growth Stimulating Activity, Alpha) Kits (173) und Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 1 (Melanoma Growth Stimulating Activity, Alpha) Proteine (110) und viele weitere Produktgruppen zu diesem Protein an. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Insgesamt sind aktuell 589 Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 1 (Melanoma Growth Stimulating Activity, Alpha) Produkte verfügbar. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • CXCL1 (C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 1) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • CXC chemokine-ligand-1 (CXCL1) is expressed on HSCs. (mdpi.com)
  • Your search returned 329 C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 12 ELISA ELISA Kit across 19 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • CXCL1, CXC chemokine motif ligand 1. (frontiersin.org)
  • Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine subfamily that is expressed by macrophages, neutrophils, and epithelial cells. (clontech.com)
  • CXCL1 is defined as being a chemokine ligand 1. (prospecbio.com)
  • Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that was previously called GRO1 oncogene, Neutrophil-activating protein 3 (NAP-3) and melanoma growth stimulating activity, alpha (MSGA-a). (prospecbio.com)
  • Early molecular interaction between embryo and mother, involving chemoattractants, especially chemokine CXC-motif ligand 1 (CXCL1)(2), determines the pregnancy outcome. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The CXC-chemokines, growth-related oncogene (GRO)-α/CXCL1 and interleukin (IL)-8/CXCL8, both recruit neutrophils and possess mitogenic properties, whereas the interferon-dependent CXC-chemokines monokine induced by gamma-interferon (MIG)/CXCL9, interferon-γ inducible protein of 10 kD/CXCL10, and IFN-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant/CXCL11 recruit and activate T cells and NK cells. (diva-portal.org)
  • One domain, consisting of N-loop and C-helical residues (defined as α-domain) has also been identified previously as the GAG-binding domain for the related chemokine CXCL8/IL-8. (sdsc.edu)
  • To perform their function, neutrophils must migrate from the circulation to the site of infection in response to chemotactic factors, including complement peptide C5a, leukotriene B 4 , platelet-activating factor, formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, and CXC chemokines, with CXCL8 (IL-8) being a very powerful chemotactic mediator ( 12 - 14 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The potent antimicrobial chemokine CCL20 was investigated and compared with chemokines CCL2, CXCL1, CXCL8, and CCL27 and proinflammatory cytokines IL-1α and IL-6. (uva.nl)
  • Chemokines are a large family of peptides that play key roles in the regulation of inflammation. (diva-portal.org)
  • CXCL1 plays a role in spinal cord development by inhibiting the migration of oligodendrocyte precursors and is involved in the processes of angiogenesis, inflammation, wound healing, and tumorigenesis. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Luster AD Chemokines--chemotactic cytokines that mediate inflammation. (jamanetwork.com)
  • The CXCL1 chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (KC), have been shown to play a role in a number of pathophysiological disease states including endotoxin-induced inflammation and bacterial meningitis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Overall, the decreased expression of CXCL1 chemokines by aged B cells in response to LPS may have potential implications on the secondary recruitment of leukocytes to sites of microbial infections and inflammation possibly contributing to the increased susceptibility of older subjects to pathogen challenge. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, very little is known about chemokines that orchestrate oxidative stress-induced neutrophilic airway inflammation in vivo. (jimmunol.org)
  • These findings indicate that CCL7 and CXCL10, two chemokines not previously reported to orchestrate neutrophilic inflammation, play a critical role in mediating oxidative stress-induced neutrophilic airway inflammation. (jimmunol.org)
  • While some chemotaxis is induced by inflammation or damaged cells, other chemokines function in homeostasis. (biolegend.com)
  • Chemokines are small secreted proteins that function in leukocyte trafficking, recruitment, and activation and have a role in many pathophysiological processes such as infectious and autoimmune diseases, inflammation, cancer, and vascular disease. (rndsystems.com)
  • Chemokines are secreted proteins that are essential for mediating the trafficking of immune cells to sites of inflammation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The downregulated genes are involved in the inflammation cascade through effects on two chemokines, CCL2 and CXCL1, they found. (medpagetoday.com)
  • CXCL1 has chemotactic activity for neutrophils, and plays a role in inflammation and wound healing. (cellsciences.com)
  • Although the precise mechanisms that direct leukocyte homing into renal tissues are not fully identified, it has been reported that intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and the chemokines CCL2 and CX3CL1 probably are involved in leukocyte migration in diabetic nephropathy. (asnjournals.org)
  • The 0.8 ppm O 3 up-regulated lung mRNA of CXCL1,2,3 (mouse growth-related oncogene-α and macrophage-inflammatory protein-2), CXCL10 (IFN-γ-inducible protein-10), CCL3 (macrophage-inflammatory protein-1α), CCL7 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-3), and CCL11 (eotaxin) at 0 h postexposure, and expression of CXCL10, CCL3, and CCL7 mRNA was sustained 18 h postexposure. (jimmunol.org)
  • In humans, the chemokine CXCL1/MGSA (hCXCL1) plays fundamental and diverse roles in pathophysiology, from microbial killing to cancer progression, by orchestrating the directed migration of immune and non-immune cells. (sdsc.edu)
  • particularly, the expression of chemokines CXCL1 and CXCL5. (scienceblog.com)
  • Regulation of CXCL1 and CXCL5 secretion by IL-17 and TGF- β . (aacrjournals.org)
  • B , tumor explant was prepared as described in the Methods and analyzed for CXCL1 and CXCL5 by ELISA (R&D Systems). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Similar to other alpha chemokines, the three GRO proteins are potent neutrophil attractants and activators. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Chemokines (Greek -kinos , movement) are a family of small cytokines , or signaling proteins secreted by cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytokine proteins are classified as chemokines according to behavior and structural characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokines are a class of small molecular proteins with similar structures, functions and chemotactic properties, and their molecular weights are ~10 kDa, and chemokines represent the largest member of the cytokine family ( 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Mature CXCL1/2/3 proteins bind with high affinity to the IL-8 receptor type B and are potent neutrophil attractants and activators. (thermofisher.com)
  • Chemokines are a family of small cytokines , or proteins secreted by cells . (wikidoc.org)
  • Proteins are classified as chemokines according to shared structural characteristics such as small size (they are all approximately 8-10 kilodaltons in size), and the presence of four cysteine residues in conserved locations that are key to forming their 3-dimensional shape. (wikidoc.org)
  • Proteins are classified into the chemokine family based on their structural characteristics, not just their ability to attract cells. (wikidoc.org)
  • Typical chemokine proteins are produced as pro-peptides , beginning with a signal peptide of approximately 20 amino acids that gets cleaved from the active (mature) portion of the molecule during the process of its secretion from the cell. (wikidoc.org)
  • Fractalkine has also been found to play a role in nociceptive pain might act tonically as an anti-inflammatory chemokine in cerebral tissue through its ability to control and suppress certain aspects of microglial activation. (neuromics.com)
  • 1997). "CCR6, a CC chemokine receptor that interacts with macrophage inflammatory protein 3alpha and is highly expressed in human dendritic cells" . (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokines are a group of related chemoattractant peptides that are essential regulators of the immune system, both during homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. (mdpi.com)
  • Some inflammatory chemokines have proven essential in memory T cell generation [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Some chemokines are considered pro- inflammatory and can be induced during an immune response to recruit cells of the immune system to a site of infection , while others are considered homeostatic and are involved in controlling the migration of cells during normal processes of tissue maintenance or development . (wikipedia.org)
  • Other chemokines are inflammatory and are released from a wide variety of cells in response to bacterial infection, viruses and agents that cause physical damage such as silica or the urate crystals that occur in gout . (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain inflammatory chemokines activate cells to initiate an immune response or promote wound healing . (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokines are involved in the inflammatory response, tumor immune response, proliferation, invasion and metastasis via modulation of various signaling pathways. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • These chemokines also have a more diverse range of functions compared to inflammatory chemokines. (biolegend.com)
  • In the event of infection, injury, or tissue damage, inflammatory chemokines are often released to address the problem. (biolegend.com)
  • Many inflammatory chemokines attract a wide variety of cells in both the innate and adaptive arms of immunity. (biolegend.com)
  • Upon sensing the inflammatory chemokine, cells will extravasate from the blood vessel and follow the gradient to its source. (biolegend.com)
  • A functional ID3 influences susceptibility to kidney disease and prevents glomerular injury by regulating local chemokine production and inflammatory cell recruitment. (figshare.com)
  • Microarray analysis of pre-metastatic livers from mice injected with CT26 cells indicated that inflammatory chemokines CXCL1 and CCL6 were increased 5.6 and 6.3 fold, compared to mice receiving saline injection. (aiche.org)
  • Apart from their pro-angiogenic and chemoattractant function, these chemokines appear to also contribute to tumor cell transformation, growth and invasion. (nih.gov)
  • The major role of chemokines is to act as a chemoattractant to guide the migration of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • glomerular mesangial cell lines produced higher levels of the monocyte chemoattractant CXCL1 in response to oxidized phospholipids. (figshare.com)
  • The maintenance of foam cells and the subsequent progression of plaque build-up is caused by the secretion of chemokines and cytokines from macrophages and foam cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overexpression of CD147 upregulated the secretion of CXCL1. (mdpi.com)
  • The aim of the study was to identify signalling cascades mediating the CXCL1 expression in human decidua incubated with IL-1β as a major secretion product of the embryo. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The CXCL1 secretion of decidualised endometrial cells was measured by ELISA. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • CXCL1 protein secretion could be completely prevented by IL-1 receptor antagonist treatment. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Only inhibition of the MAPKinase pathway resulted in a statistically significant decrease of CXCL1 protein secretion. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • CXCL1 is a target for the embryos' secretion product IL-1β in decidualised endometrial stromal cells during the peri-implantation period. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Secretion of the antimicrobial chemokine CCL20 was clearly IL-1α independent. (uva.nl)
  • CXCL1, rat equivalent of human interleukin [IL]-8) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. (cdc.gov)
  • Proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines, such as interleukin 8 (IL-8), are secreted by gastric epithelial cells in response to H pylori infection, leading to immune cell recruitment. (bmj.com)
  • The gene for CXCL1 is located on human chromosome 4 amongst genes for other CXC chemokines. (creativebiomart.net)
  • This antimicrobial gene encodes a member of the CXC subfamily of chemokines. (genecards.org)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include receptor binding and chemokine activity . (genecards.org)
  • Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential vaccine adjuvants. (mdpi.com)
  • As part of ongoing studies to obtain a global picture of invasion related events in colorectal liver metastases, here, we report our findings on gene expression of the pro-angiogenic subgroup of chemokines, the CXCL-ELR+ chemokines. (nih.gov)
  • We used lung eQTL data to implicate a variant in the gene Zfp30 in the CXCL1/PMN response. (genetics.org)
  • Affymetrix gene expression analysis of metastatic melanoma specimens has shown that the presence of T cells in tumor tissue is associated with high expression of many chemokines ( 8 , 9 ), suggesting that their migration to tumors may be regulated by chemokines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Using this novel technology, we did comparative analyses of gene expression for ∼23,000 transcripts in normal human fibroblasts and found that low-dose X-rays up-regulated a distinct set of chemokines that have not been shown to be associated with radiation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It is encoded by the GRO gene now designated CXCL1. (cellsciences.com)
  • Magnetic bead-based assays for detecting 46 mouse cytokine, chemokine, and growth factor biomarkers. (bio-rad.com)
  • It's a tiny cytokine that's a member of the CXC chemokine family. (prospecbio.com)
  • It is considered a small cytokine, especially when compared to other cytokines in other chemokine families. (prospecbio.com)
  • ODE-induced AHR was significantly attenuated in MyD88 KO mice, and neutrophil influx and cytokine/chemokine production were nearly absent in MyD88 KO animals after ODE challenges. (cdc.gov)
  • Mice deficient in TLR9, TLR4, and IL-18R, but not IL-1IR, demonstrated partial protection against ODE-induced neutrophil influx and cytokine/chemokine production. (cdc.gov)
  • Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing recruitment of antigen presenting cells (APCs) and effector cells to appropriate anatomical sites. (mdpi.com)
  • In our nude mouse model of colorectal liver metastases, we found CXCL1,2,3,5 and 8 (IL-8) to be up-regulated in the tumor cells of the invasion front as compared to the tumor cells in the inner parts of the tumor. (nih.gov)
  • In vivo, down-regulation of CXCL1 resulted in a nearly complete prevention of tumor growth in nude mice. (nih.gov)
  • The signature also points to chemokines as important mediators of TGF-β's effects on tumor growth. (scienceblog.com)
  • It is possible to identify the particular chemokines which are over-expressed in the tumor using methods of the invention and administer antibodies against that over-expressed chemokine. (google.com)
  • Therefore, we used the MC38 tumor model, which naturally expresses CXCL1. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The chemokine GRO-α (CXCL1) has been found to mediate the proliferation of glia progenitor cells during neural development. (oup.com)
  • Moreover, the potential relevance of these findings is supported by the poor ability of LPS-activated aged B cells to specifically mediate CXCL1-dependent leukocyte recruitment when compared to younger B cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We conclude that hCXCL1-GAG interactions provide stringent control over regulating chemokine levels and receptor accessibility and activation, and that chemotactic gradients mediate cellular trafficking to the target site. (sdsc.edu)
  • currently, alternate names include neutrophil-activating protein 3 (NAP-3), growth-regulated alpha protein, C-X-C motif chemokine 1, SCYB1, and GROA. (clontech.com)
  • Effects of protease activated receptor and chemokine receptor activation on several signaling pathways involved in melanoma metastasis. (frontiersin.org)
  • This invention relates to antibodies or the use of antibodies directed against certain chemokines. (google.com)
  • While the expression of these chemokines has been identified in a variety of cell types in the mouse, little is known about their expression with murine B-lymphocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This review will focus on recent murine and human studies that use chemokines as therapeutic anti-cancer vaccine adjuvants. (mdpi.com)
  • The role of up-regulated chemokines was determined by administering control IgG or IgG Abs against six murine chemokines before O 3 exposure. (jimmunol.org)
  • CXCL1 is considered to be involved in the activation of HSCs [ 4 ], fibrogenesis and angiogenesis [ 5 , 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Chemokines also play fundamental roles in the development, homeostasis, and function of the immune system, and they have effects on cells of the central nervous system as well as on endothelial cells involved in angiogenesis or angiostasis. (abnova.com)
  • This study aimed to investigate the association of C-C chemokine receptor type 9 (CCR9) and C-C motif chemokine 25 (CCL25) expression levels with clinical and tumour-node-metastasis stage in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. (cambridge.org)
  • The present invention provides a means of inhibiting the growth and metastasis of cancer cells by administering anti-chemokine antibodies. (google.com)
  • The following product was used in this experiment: CXCL1 Monoclonal Antibody (20326) from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # MA5-23811, RRID AB_2609587. (thermofisher.com)
  • In this study, we showed an important role of CD147 in promoting liver fibrosis by activating HSCs and upregulating expression of chemokines. (mdpi.com)
  • PTB individuals with bilateral or cavitary disease displayed significantly elevated levels of CCL1, CCL3, CXCL1, CXCL10 and CXCL11 compared to those with unilateral or non-cavitary disease and also exhibited a significant positive relationship with bacterial burdens. (nature.com)
  • In addition, PTB individuals with slower culture conversion displayed significantly elevated levels of CCL1, CCL3, CXCL1 and CXCL9 at the time of PTB diagnosis and prior to ATT. (nature.com)
  • A statistical significant increase in CXCL1 mRNA- and protein-expression after incubation with 0.1ng/ml IL-1β after 48h was detected. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • SDS-PAGE of Mouse Gro-alpha /KC (CXCL1) Recombinant Protein Bioactivity of Mouse Gro-alpha /KC (CXCL1) Recombinant Protein. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Chemokines are felt to play a major role latent TB infection (LTB) as they appear to be critical in the formation and maintenance of quiescent granulomas 4 and in the recruitment of cells from the periphery for positioning within the granuloma 5 . (nature.com)
  • When given immediately after CLP, CXC chemokines increased peritoneal neutrophil recruitment at 6 h after CLP. (jimmunol.org)
  • These data demonstrate that early, local treatment with CXC chemokines enhances neutrophil recruitment and clearance of bacteria as well as improves survival in the CLP model of sepsis. (jimmunol.org)
  • Oxidative stress from ozone (O 3 ) exposure augments airway neutrophil recruitment and chemokine production. (jimmunol.org)
  • Chemokines' recruitment activity is regulated by monomer-dimer equilibrium and binding to glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). (portlandpress.com)
  • This active T-cell recruitment by TDB-induced chemokine signaling was the dominant mechanism and necessary for the therapeutic activity of anti-HER2/CD3 TDB. (aacrjournals.org)
  • An active T-cell recruitment mediated by TDB-induced chemokine signaling was the major mechanism for T-cell recruitment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Discovery of a mechanism for active T-cell recruitment via anti-HER2/CD3 TDB-induced chemokine signaling may aid in designing strategies to further augment T-cell recruitment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Over the last few decades, chemokines are found to be involved in almost every aspect of tumorigenesis and antitumor immunity [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Xu, Zhu, Zhang, Tian, Zhang, Wu, Gao: NF?B-mediated CXCL1 production in spinal cord astrocytes contributes to the maintenance of bone cancer pain in mice. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • An initial study in mice showed evidence that CXCL1 decreased the severity of multiple sclerosis and may offer a neuro-protective function. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Moreover, these chemokines are expressed at higher levels in B cells derived from young (4 m) compared to old (24-29 m) mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • PMN and CXCL1 were strongly correlated in preCC mice. (genetics.org)
  • To identify these chemokines, three groups of BALB/c mice were exposed to sham air, 0.2 ppm O 3 , or 0.8 ppm O 3 for 6 h. (jimmunol.org)
  • Studies in mice have shown that CXCL1 decreased the severity of multiple sclerosis and may have a neuroprotective function. (clontech.com)
  • Taken together, these findings suggest that CD147 regulates CXCL1 release in HSCs by PI3K/AKT signaling. (mdpi.com)
  • This genetic variant regulates both CXCL1 and PMN by altering Zfp30 expression, and we model the relationships between the QTL and these three endophenotypes. (genetics.org)
  • While a function of chemokines is to regulate lymphocyte trafficking, the view that chemokines act simply as "chemotactic cytokines" has evolved to include the many critical roles they play in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses. (mdpi.com)
  • In the context of cancer, the chemokine-chemokine receptor system plays paradoxical roles. (mdpi.com)
  • In the present review, the literature on the multifactorial roles of exosomes in HCC from PubMed, Cochrane library and Embase were obtained, with a specific focus on the functions and mechanisms of chemokines in HCC. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • It has been found that chemokine networks may serve pivotal roles in inducing organ-specific metastasis ( 8 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Once at the site of injury, immune cells can react by releasing additional cytokines and chemokines, bringing more cells into the fold. (biolegend.com)
  • An important step forward in revealing the role of central sensitization in widespread chronic pain is to demonstrate direct involvement of cytokines and chemokines (small cytokines) in the induction and maintenance of central sensitization. (medscape.com)
  • 1 ) Selectin-dependent leukocyte rolling on the endothelial layer, ( 2 ) chemokine-dependent integrin activation with subsequent leukocyte adhesion, and ( 3 ) diapedesis ( 41 ) ( Figure 1 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • Macrophages within the atherosclerotic legion area have a decreased ability to migrate, which further promotes plaque formation as they are able to secrete cytokines, chemokines, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and growth factors that stimulate modified lipoprotein uptake and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • To assess the concentration of chemokines in the blood serum, we used a multiplex method, which allows the simultaneous determination of 40 chemokines per sample. (hindawi.com)
  • The increase of the chemokines concentration could be associated not only with infection but also with the mechanism of labor [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Chemokines released by infected or damaged cells form a concentration gradient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Attracted cells move through the gradient towards the higher concentration of chemokine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells that are attracted by chemokines follow a signal of increasing chemokine concentration towards the source of the chemokine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lung lavage fluid was analyzed for PMN count and the concentration of CXCL1, a hallmark PMN chemokine. (genetics.org)
  • Chemokines work through concentration gradients. (biolegend.com)
  • The concentration of the chemokine CCL20 is dramatically increased in the gastric mucosa of patients infected by H pylori and the vast majority of mucosal Tregs express its receptor CCR6. (bmj.com)
  • The LEGENDplex™ Human Proinflammatory Chemokine Standard product is intended for use with the Mix and Match Human Proinflammatory Chemokine Panel of products. (biolegend.com)
  • To date, >50 chemokines have been found, which can be divided into four families: CXC, CX3C, CC and XC, according to the different positions of the conserved N‑terminal cysteine residues. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • 50 chemokines have been identified, which can be divided into four families: CXC, CX3C, CC and XC, based on the different positions of the conserved N-terminal cysteine residues ( 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • All chemokines share a typical Greek key structure that is stabilised by disulphide bonds between conserved cysteine residues. (wikidoc.org)
  • Intramolecular disulphide bonds typically join the first to third, and the second to fourth cysteine residues, numbered as they appear in the protein sequence of the chemokine. (wikidoc.org)
  • In the CC subfamily, which includes beta chemokine, the cysteine residues are adjacent to each other. (abnova.com)
  • Belongs to the intercrine alpha (chemokine CxC) family. (abcam.com)
  • Significant levels of migration over basal were seen in response to Mouse GRO-α/CXCL1/KC starting at 10 ng/mL. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Besides migration, chemokines also induce the rapid activation of integrin molecules. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CXCL1 plays a role in spinal cord development by inhibiting the migration of oligodendrocyte precursors. (clontech.com)
  • These are known as homeostatic chemokines and are produced and secreted without any need to stimulate their source cell(s). (wikipedia.org)
  • Homeostatic chemokines are constitutively expressed in particular organs or tissues. (biolegend.com)
  • Due to their function of targeting cells to specific organs, homeostatic chemokines can also be involved in cancer and metastasis. (biolegend.com)
  • Some chemokines control cells of the immune system during processes of immune surveillance, such as directing lymphocytes to the lymph nodes so they can screen for invasion of pathogens by interacting with antigen-presenting cells residing in these tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recombinant Human GRO-alpha/CXCL1 produced in E. coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 73 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 7.8 kDa. (creativebiomart.net)
  • They all also possess conserved amino acids that are important for creating their 3-dimensional or tertiary structure , such as (in most cases) four cysteines that interact with each other in pairs to create a Greek key shape that is a characteristic of chemokines. (wikidoc.org)
  • Recombinant Rat CXCL1/GRO alpha/KC is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 72 amino acids. (cellsciences.com)
  • Attracted cells move toward areas of higher concentrations of the chemokine. (biolegend.com)
  • 5 × 10 5 cells were incubated for 24 hours with different concentrations of CXCL chemokines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CXCL1 is secreted by human melanoma cells, has mitogenic properties and is implicated in melanoma pathogenesis. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Melanoma cells are the primary producers of CXCL1 in human bodies. (prospecbio.com)
  • CXCL1 expression in human decidua in vitro is mediated via the MAPK signalling cascade. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • So far nothing is known about the signalling cascades of CXCL1 expression in human decidua. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Amino acid sequence of rat CXCL1 is approximately 68 % identical to the human CXCL1. (cellsciences.com)
  • Human breast cancer (FFPE) stained with CXCL1/CEN4q FISH Probe. (abnova.com)
  • Chemokines have been classified into four main subfamilies: CXC, CC, CX3C and XC. (wikipedia.org)
  • We used quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping to identify three variants affecting PMN, one of which colocalized with a QTL for CXCL1 on chromosome (Chr) 7. (genetics.org)
  • CXCL1 is found on chromosome 4 along with the other genes that are members of the CXC family. (prospecbio.com)