A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.
A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.
Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.
Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.
CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.
A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.
A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.
Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.
A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.
Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.
An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.
CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.
Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.
Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.
The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.

Transcriptional control of the human MCP-2 gene promoter by IFN-gamma and IL-1beta in connective tissue cells. (1/77)

Human monocyte chemotactic protein-2 (MCP-2) is a member of the CC chemokine family. It is produced by mononuclear leukocytes, diploid fibroblasts, and tumor cells after induction with IL-1beta or IFN-gamma. To understand the transcriptional regulation of the gene, we have analyzed the structure and function of the promoter region. The sequence of the 5'-flanking region was determined and the transcription start site was found to be located at 68 nucleotides upstream of the ATG translation start codon. 5'-Deletion mutants were generated and transfected into E6SM diploid fibroblasts and MG-63 osteosarcoma cells. Expression was measured by luciferase assay in transfected unstimulated cells and after stimulation with IL-1beta, IFN-gamma, or a combination. The region between nucleotides -143 and -73 (relative to the transcription initiation site), containing putative cis-elements for GATA-1, H-APF1, AP-1, and GAS, is important for basal transcription levels in both cell lines. Stimulation for 18 h with IL-1beta alone failed to affect expression of any of the constructs both in diploid fibroblasts and in osteosarcoma cells. In both cell lines IFN-gamma increased the activity of all mutants that possessed the region between -340 and -301. In MG-63 cells, stimulation with the combination of IL-1beta and IFN-gamma caused an additional increase in expression of the constructs from -340 onward. Finally, the presence of transcription factors in nuclear extracts of MG-63 cells and their specificity to bind to various oligonucleotide probes in this [-340; -301] region were evidenced by electromobility shift assays. These results show that IFN-gamma, produced by lymphocytes and NK cells, induces the transcription of the MCP-2 gene in fibroblasts and thereby can indirectly contribute to recruitment of various leukocyte cell types to inflammatory sites.  (+info)

Sensitivity of human immunodeficiency virus infection to various alpha, beta and gamma chemokines. (2/77)

Examination of a large panel of chemokines indicates that in addition to RANTES, MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta, the beta-chemokine MCP-2 and, to a lesser extent, the gamma-chemokine lymphotactin also show anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity in cell culture. The amount of chemokine needed to suppress HIV replication by > or = 50% was generally greater (> or = 250 ng/ml) than that required for inhibition of virus infection by RANTES, MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta. The beta-chemokine MCP-3 was found to enhance the replication of both non-syncytium-inducing (NSI) and syncytium-inducing (SI) viruses at high concentrations (0.5-5 microg/ml). In contrast to a previous report, macrophage-derived chemokine was not found to inhibit HIV replication of either NSI or SI viruses, but at low concentrations enhanced NSI virus replication. When small amounts of RANTES or MCP-2 were added together with high concentrations of non-inhibitory chemokines, the anti-HIV effects were countered. Information on chemokines that affect HIV infection could be useful for future therapeutic strategies.  (+info)

Selective suppression of IL-12 production by chemoattractants. (3/77)

We investigated the ability of chemoattractants to affect IL-12 production by human monocytes and dendritic cells. We found that pretreatment of monocytes with macrophage chemoattractant proteins (MCP-1 to -4), or C5a, but not stromal-derived factor-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha, RANTES, or eotaxin, inhibited IL-12 p70 production in response to stimulation with Staphylococcus aureus, Cowan strain 1 (SAC), and IFN-gamma. The production of TNF-alpha and IL-10, however, was minimally affected by any of the chemoattractants. The degree of inhibition of IL-12 p70 production by MCP-1 to -4 was donor dependent and was affected by the autocrine inhibitory effects of IL-10. In contrast, C5a profoundly suppressed IL-12 production in an IL-10-independent fashion. Neither TGF-beta1 nor PGE2 was important for the suppression of IL-12 by any of the chemoattractants tested. The accumulation of mRNA for both IL-12 p35 and p40 genes was inhibited by chemokine pretreatment. Interestingly, MCP-1 to -4 and C5a did not suppress IL-12 production by monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) stimulated with CD40 ligand and IFN-gamma or by SAC and IFN-gamma, suggesting that these factors may act at the site of inflammation to suppress IL-12 and IFN-gamma production rather than in the lymph node to affect T cell priming. Despite the inability of C5a to inhibit IL-12 production by DCs, the receptor for C5a (CD88) was expressed by these cells, and recombinant C5a induced a Ca2+ flux. Taken together, these results define a range of chemoattractant molecules with the ability to suppress IL-12 production by human monocytes and have broad implications for the regulation of immune responses in vivo.  (+info)

Neutrophil gelatinase B potentiates interleukin-8 tenfold by aminoterminal processing, whereas it degrades CTAP-III, PF-4, and GRO-alpha and leaves RANTES and MCP-2 intact. (4/77)

Chemokines are mediators in inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Aminoterminal truncation of chemokines results in altered specific activities and receptor recognition patterns. Truncated forms of the CXC chemokine interleukin (IL)-8 are more active than full-length IL-8 (1-77), provided the Glu-Leu-Arg (ELR) motif remains intact. Here, a positive feedback loop is demonstrated between gelatinase B, a major secreted matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9) from neutrophils, and IL-8, the prototype chemokine active on neutrophils. Natural human neutrophil progelatinase B was purified to homogeneity and activated by stromelysin-1. Gelatinase B truncated IL-8(1-77) into IL-8(7-77), resulting in a 10- to 27-fold higher potency in neutrophil activation, as measured by the increase in intracellular Ca(++) concentration, secretion of gelatinase B, and neutrophil chemotaxis. This potentiation correlated with enhanced binding to neutrophils and increased signaling through CXC chemokine receptor-1 (CXCR1), but it was significantly less pronounced on a CXCR2-expressing cell line. Three other CXC chemokines-connective tissue-activating peptide-III (CTAP-III), platelet factor-4 (PF-4), and GRO-alpha-were degraded by gelatinase B. In contrast, the CC chemokines RANTES and monocyte chemotactic protein-2 (MCP-2) were not digested by this enzyme. The observation of differing effects of neutrophil gelatinase B on the proteolysis of IL-8 versus other CXC chemokines and on CXC receptor usage by processed IL-8 yielded insights into the relative activities of chemokines. This led to a better understanding of regulator (IL-8) and effector molecules (gelatinase B) of neutrophils and of mechanisms underlying leukocytosis, shock syndromes, and stem cell mobilization by IL-8. (Blood. 2000;96:2673-2681)  (+info)

Chemokines in the limbal form of vernal keratoconjunctivitis. (5/77)

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Chemokines are a family of low molecular weight cytokines that attract and activate leucocytes. The CC chemokines act on eosinophils, basophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes, suggesting that they play an important part in allergic diseases. The aims of this study were to investigate the expression of the CC chemokines, RANTES, eotaxin, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP) 1, MCP-2, and MCP-3 in the conjunctiva of patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) and to determine the cellular source of these chemokines. METHODS: Conjunctival biopsy specimens from nine subjects with active VKC, and six control subjects were studied by immunohistochemical techniques using a panel of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies directed against RANTES, eotaxin, MCP-1, MCP-2, and MCP-3. The phenotype of inflammatory cells expressing chemokines was examined by sequential double immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: In the normal conjunctiva, superficial epithelial cells showed a constitutive, weak cytoplasmic expression of eotaxin. Few inflammatory cells in the perivascular areas expressed RANTES, MCP-1, MCP-2, and MCP-3. In VKC specimens, the epithelium showed intense cytoplasmic eotaxin staining in all cells, and cytoplasmic RANTES staining mainly in the superficial layers. Furthermore, RANTES and eotaxin were expressed on the vascular endothelium mainly in the upper substantia propria. Compared with normal controls, VKC specimens showed significantly more inflammatory cells expressing RANTES, eotaxin, MCP-1, and MCP-3 (p<0.001, 0.0028, 0.0092, and <0. 001, respectively). In VKC specimens, the numbers of inflammatory cells expressing RANTES were significantly higher than the numbers of inflammatory cells expressing eotaxin, MCP-1, and MCP-2 (all p values <0.001). Colocalisation studies revealed that the majority of inflammatory cells expressing chemokines were CD68 positive monocytes/macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate an increase in the expression of RANTES, eotaxin, MCP-1, and MCP-3 in the conjunctiva of patients with VKC compared with control subjects. These data suggest a potential role for these chemokines in the pathogenesis of VKC. Antagonists of chemokine receptors may provide new therapeutic modalities in VKC.  (+info)

Basophil responses to chemokines are regulated by both sequential and cooperative receptor signaling. (6/77)

To investigate human basophil responses to chemokines, we have developed a sensitive assay that uses flow cytometry to measure leukocyte shape change as a marker of cell responsiveness. PBMC were isolated from the blood of volunteers. Basophils were identified as a single population of cells that stained positive for IL-3Ralpha (CDw123) and negative for HLA-DR, and their increase in forward scatter (as a result of cell shape change) in response to chemokines was measured. Shape change responses of basophils to chemokines were highly reproducible, with a rank order of potency: monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP) 4 (peak at <1 nM) >/= eotaxin-2 = eotaxin-3 >/= eotaxin > MCP-1 = MCP-3 > macrophage-inflammatory protein-1alpha > RANTES = MCP-2 = IL-8. The CCR4-selective ligand macrophage-derived chemokine did not elicit a response at concentrations up to 10 nM. Blocking mAbs to CCR2 and CCR3 demonstrated that responses to higher concentrations (>10 nM) of MCP-1 were mediated by CCR3 rather than CCR2, whereas MCP-4 exhibited a biphasic response consistent with sequential activation of CCR3 at lower concentrations and CCR2 at 10 nM MCP-4 and above. In contrast, responses to MCP-3 were blocked only in the presence of both mAbs, but not after pretreatment with either anti-CCR2 or anti-CCR3 mAb alone. These patterns of receptor usage were different from those seen for eosinophils and monocytes. We suggest that cooperation between CCRs might be a mechanism for preferential recruitment of basophils, as occurs in tissue hypersensitivity responses in vivo.  (+info)

Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and -2 messenger ribonucleic acids in the ovine uterus: regulation by pregnancy, progesterone, and interferon-tau. (7/77)

Endometrial leukocytes may play important roles during pregnancy. Because chemokines are regulators of immune cell activity and trafficking, this study determined if mRNAs for monocyte chemotactic proteins (MCP) were present in the ovine uterus and regulated by progesterone (P) and/or recombinant ovine interferon tau (roIFN-tau). Uteri of normal cycling and pregnant ewes (experiment 1) and uteri of ovariectomized ewes receiving intrauterine infusions of IFN-tau and/or i.m. injections of P (experiment 2) were used to detect MCP-1 and MCP-2 mRNA. In experiment 1, slot-blot hybridization analysis of endometrial total RNA revealed that MCP-1 and MCP-2 mRNA levels did not change during the estrous cycle but increased between Days 13 and 19 of pregnancy. Using in situ hybridization, MCP-1 and MCP-2 mRNA were localized to immune cells in the subepithelial compact stroma. Histomorphological studies and in situ hybridization for major basic protein (MBP) indicated that MCP-positive immune cells were eosinophils. In experiment 2, treatment with P and roIFN-tau increased (P < 0.05) the number of MCP-1- and MCP-2-expressing eosinophils in the endometrium compared to ewes treated with P alone. Injection of the P receptor antagonist (ZK 137,316) inhibited effects of P and/or roIFN-tau to recruit eosinophils expressing MCP-1 and MCP-2 mRNAs. Endometrial production of MCPs by eosinophils during early pregnancy may play a role(s) in central implantation and/or placentation in ewes that is crucial for successful establishment of pregnancy.  (+info)

Absence of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 in mice leads to decreased local macrophage recruitment and antigen-specific T helper cell type 1 immune response in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. (8/77)

Monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 plays a critical role in innate immunity by directing the migration of monocytes into inflammatory sites. Recent data indicated a function for this chemokine in adaptive immunity as a regulator of T cell commitment to T helper cell type 2 (Th2) effector function. Studies in a Th1-dependent animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), showed that MCP-1 was highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) of affected rodents, and MCP-1 antibodies could block relapses of the disease. Mice deficient for the major MCP-1 receptor, CC chemokine receptor (CCR)2, did not develop EAE after active immunization but generated effector cells that could transfer the disease to naive wild-type recipients. We analyzed EAE in mice deficient for MCP-1 to define the relevant ligand for CCR2, which responds to murine MCP-1, MCP-2, MCP-3, and MCP-5. We found that C57BL/6 MCP-1-null mice were markedly resistant to EAE after active immunization, with drastically impaired recruitment of macrophages to the CNS, yet able to generate effector T cells that transferred severe disease to naive wild-type recipients. By contrast, adoptive transfer of primed T cells from wild-type mice into naive MCP-1-null recipients did not mediate clinical EAE. On the SJL background, disruption of the MCP-1 gene produced a milder EAE phenotype with diminished relapses that mimicked previous findings using anti-MCP-1 antibodies. There was no compensatory upregulation of MCP-2, MCP-3, or MCP-5 in MCP-1-null mice with EAE. These results indicated that MCP-1 is the major CCR2 ligand in mice with EAE, and provided an opportunity to define the role of MCP-1 in EAE. Compared with wild-type littermates, MCP-1-/- mice exhibited reduced expression of interferon gamma in draining lymph node and CNS and increased antigen-specific immunoglobulin G1 antibody production. Taken together, these data demonstrate that MCP-1 is crucial for Th1 immune responses in EAE induction and that macrophage recruitment to the inflamed CNS target organ is required for primed T cells to execute a Th1 effector program in EAE.  (+info)

Purchase Rat monocyte chemotactic protein 1/monocyte chemotactic and activating factor,MCP-1/MCAF ELISA kit. It is produced in . High purity. Good price.
PAA087Si01, CCL2; GDCF2; HC11; HSMCR30; MCAF; MCP1; SCYA2; SMC-CF; Chemokine C-C-Motif Ligand 2; Monocyte Chemotactic And Activating Factor; Monocyte Secretory Protein JE | Products for research use only!
LAA087Si71, CCL2; GDCF2; HC11; HSMCR30; MCAF; MCP1; SCYA2; SMC-CF; Chemokine C-C-Motif Ligand 2; Monocyte Chemotactic And Activating Factor; Monocyte Secretory Protein JE | Products for research use only!
Bachem offers H-5826 Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 (human) for your research. Find all specific details here. Find product specific information including available pack sizes, CAS, detailed description and references here.
Mouse C-C Motif Chemokine 2 / Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 (CCL2/MCP1) standard, for use in running standard curves in AlphaLISA no-wash detection assays.
Looking for online definition of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 in the Medical Dictionary? Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 explanation free. What is Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1? Meaning of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 medical term. What does Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 mean?
Looking for online definition of Stimulated T-cell chemotactic protein 1 in the Medical Dictionary? Stimulated T-cell chemotactic protein 1 explanation free. What is Stimulated T-cell chemotactic protein 1? Meaning of Stimulated T-cell chemotactic protein 1 medical term. What does Stimulated T-cell chemotactic protein 1 mean?
With less than two weeks before the county teachers unions contract expires, negotiations on a new agreement continue, causing some to worry the union and MCPS will reach a formal impasse for the first time in years.
By Northern analysis, freshly isolated monocytes contained no detectable mRNA for monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). However, after 4 hours of incubation at 37 degrees C, MCP-1 mRNA was clearly induced in the monocytes and was found to be highly dependent and directly proportional to the monocyte density. The level of MCP-1 mRNA continued to increase, reaching a peak after 22 hours of incubation. After 3 days in culture, MCP-1 mRNA levels had declined substantially and after 8 days were undetectable in the monocytes/macrophages. The amount of MCP-1 protein secreted correlated with the density-dependent increase in MCP-1 message. We hypothesize that the migration of monocytes into inflammatory lesions may be amplified by the density and time-dependent induction of MCP-1. ...
Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 3 (MCP-3), also called CCL7, is produced by macrophages and some tumor cell lines. MCP-3 signals through three different G protein-coupled receptors, CCR1, CCR2, and CCR3. CCL7 chemoattracts monocytes and can regulate macrophage function. Alternate Names: CCL7, MARC
BioMarker Inflammation. Elevated levels of MCP-1 is seen in diseases such as atherosclerosis, nephropathy, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and NASH.
BioVendor - BioVendor Research and Diagnostic Products is a developer and manufacturer of immunoassays, recombinant proteins, antibodies and endotoxin-removal products.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Suppression of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, but not IL-8, by alprazolam. T2 - Effect of alprazolam on c-Rel/p65 and c-Rel/p50 binding to the monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 promoter region. AU - Oda, Taiko. AU - Ueda, Atsuhisa. AU - Shimizu, Noriaki. AU - Handa, Hiroshi. AU - Kasahara, Tadashi. PY - 2002/9/15. Y1 - 2002/9/15. N2 - Alprazolam is a hypnotic/tranquilizer that has been shown to specifically inhibit the platelet-activating factor (PAF)-induced aggregation of human platelets. The goal of this study was to elucidate whether alprazolam modulates IL-1α-initiated responses. For this purpose we investigated the effects of alprazolam on the IL-1α-induced production of inflammatory cytokines (IL-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1)) in a human glioblastoma cell line, T98G, and explored the signaling pathways involved. We found that alprazolam inhibited IL-1α-elicited MCP-1 production within a range of 0.1-3 μM. In contrast, it did not inhibit ...
How are they treated? Well, x-rays of the chest and how the patient is looks/feels/act (its clinicial presentation) aid in the decision. Some times air will be taken out of the chest using a needle (thoracocentesis). Other times, if the patient is stable, the patient may be monitored. If the chest wound is open (a hole in the chest that is exposed to the outside environment), it should be closed and a chest tube may be placed.. Chest trauma does not always include a pneumothorax. During a trauma, the lungs may be bruised (lung contusions), the ribs may be broken, or the diaphragm may be ruptured. These are all serious emergencies. By and far, lung contusions are the most common. If your pet is diagnosed or has the potential to have lung contusions, here is what I think you should know. There is no direct way of treating lung contusions. One of the best treatments that we have is intravenous fluids. If lung contusions occur, we worry that a clot has or might form. This clot may travel and ...
Conference Paper: Association of the monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) promoter polymorphism with tuberculosis in the Hong Kong Chinese ...
Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-3 Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a non-glycosylated, Polypeptide chain containing 76 amino acids.
BACKGROUND Quick diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and extra-pulmonary TB are urgently needed in clinical diagnosis. Our research aims to investigate the usefulness of the interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) for the diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB. METHODS We performed TB antibody and TB-IGRA tests on 389 pulmonary TB patients (including 120 smear-positive pulmonary TB patients and 269 smear-negative pulmonary TB patients), 113 extra-pulmonary TB patients, 81 patients with other pulmonary diseases and 100 healthy controls. Blood samples for the TB-Ab test and the TB-IGRA were collected, processed, and interpreted according to the manufacturers protocol. RESULTS The detection ratio of smear-positive pulmonary TB patients and smear-negative pulmonary TB patients were 90.8% (109 of 120) and 89.6% (241 of 269), respectively. There was no statistically significant difference of its performance between these two sample sets (P | 0.05). The detection ratio
TY - JOUR. T1 - Elongated Membrane Tethers, Individually Anchored by High Affinity α4β1/VCAM-1 Complexes, Are the Quantal Units of Monocyte Arrests. AU - Chu, Calvin. AU - Celik, Emrah. AU - Rico, Felix. AU - Moy, Vincent T.. PY - 2013/5/17. Y1 - 2013/5/17. N2 - The α4β1 integrin facilitates both monocyte rolling and adhesion to the vascular endothelium and is physiologically activated by monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1). The current study investigated the initial events in the adhesion of THP-1 cells to immobilized Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (VCAM-1). Using AFM force measurements, cell adhesion was shown to be mediated by two populations of α4β1/VCAM-1 complexes. A low affinity form of α4β1 was anchored to the elastic elements of the cytoskeleton, while a higher affinity conformer was coupled to the viscous elements of the cell membrane. Within 100 ms of contact, THP-1 cells, stimulated by co-immobilized MCP-1, exhibited a tremendous increase in adhesion to VCAM-1. ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Zhenyu Yao, Michael Keeney, Tzu-Hua Lin, Jukka Pajarinen, Katherine Barcay, Heather Waters, Kensuke Egashira, Fan Yang, Stuart Goodman].
Mellado M., Rodriguez-Frade J.M., Aragay A., del Real G., Martin A.M., Vila-Coro A.J., Serrano A., Mayor F. Jr., Martinez-A C.. The chemokines are a growing family of low m.w., 70-to 80-residue proinflammatory cytokines that operate by interacting with G protein-coupled receptors. Chemokines are involved in cell migration and in the activation of specific leukocyte subsets. Using the Mono Mac 1 monocytic cell line, we show that monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) triggers activation of the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/STAT3 pathway and CCR2 receptor tyrosine phosphorylation. Both Ca2+ mobilization and cell migration are blocked in Mono Mac 1 cells by tyrphostin B42, a specific JAK2 kinase inhibitor. Within seconds of MCP-1 activation, JAK2 phosphorylates CCR2 at the Tyr139 position and promotes JAK2/STAT3 complex association to the receptor. This MCP-1-initiated phosphorylation and association to JAK2 is also observed in CCR2B-transfected HEK293 cells. In contrast, when a CCR2B Tyr139Phe mutant is ...
Thesis, English, Role of monocyte chemotactic protein 1|(mcp1)in diagnosis of patients with atherosclerotic coronary artery disease for Ebraheem Dalia El Morsy
Studies have found cervical secretion characteristics to be highly predictive of ovulation and can therefore be used to avoid pregnancy.64,65 Studies conducted by the World Health Organization indicate that 93% of women, regardless of their education level, are capable of identifying and distinguishing fertile and infertile cervical secretions.66. Three main cervical secretion methods exist and are described below. All the methods involve noting the presence or absence of cervical secretions, usually recommended to be checked both at midday and early evening when women are less likely to have sex. Women are further asked to characterize the secretions as to color, texture, and stretch, the detail depending on the method of instruction. Fertile cervical secretions are clear, wet, slippery, stretching and changing in quality. They are often compared with egg whites. Infertile secretions are unchanging and generally dry, sticky, cloudy, and do not stretch. Menstruation is considered fertile because ...
The chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) is also referred to as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) and small inducible cytokine A2. CCL2 is a small cytokine that belongs to the CC chemokine family. CCL2 recruits monocytes, memory T cells, and dendritic cells to the sites of inflammation produced by either tissue injury or infection ...
Mouse anti Human MCP-3 antibody, clone h.mcp.3 recognizes human C-C motif chemokine 7, also known as Monocyte chemoattractant protein 3, M
MCPs provide spatial information for detection and amplification of signals from electrons, ions, vacuum UV rays, x-rays, and gamma rays. We also offer ready-to-use MCP assemblies complete with electrode leads.
Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 Human Recombinant also known as MCAF, produced in E.Coli, is a non-glycosylated, Polypeptide chain containing 76 amino acids.
"The assignment of chemokine-chemokine receptor pairs: TARC and MIP-1 beta are not ligands for human CC-chemokine receptor 8". ... CCL8 also functions as a CCR8 agonist. Studies of this receptor and its ligands suggested its role in regulation of monocyte ... "The assignment of chemokine-chemokine receptor pairs: TARC and MIP-1 beta are not ligands for human CC-chemokine receptor 8". ... This gene is located at the chemokine receptor gene cluster region. CC chemokine receptors GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
5-Oxo-ETE also acts in synergy with two chemokines, CCL2 and CCL8, in stimulating monocyte chemotaxis. The interactions of 5- ... and the two CCL chemokines) in neutrophils and monocytes further suggest that it plays a role in inflammatory responses and ...
Breakthrough infection Broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies Bursa of Fabricius C-C chemokine receptor type 6 C-C chemokine ... CCL13 CCL14 CCL15 CCL16 CCL17 CCL18 CCL19 CCL2 CCL20 CCL21 CCL22 CCL23 CCL24 CCL25 CCL26 CCL27 CCL28 CCL3 CCL5 CCL6 CCL7 CCL8 ... CD4 CD4+ T cells and antitumor immunity CD74 CD94/NKG2 Cell-mediated immunity CELSR1 Central tolerance Chemokine Chemokine ... CR6261 CroFab Cross-presentation Cross-reactivity Cryptic self epitopes Cryptotope CX3CL1 CX3CR1 CXC chemokine receptors CXCL1 ...
... encoding protein Zinc finger protein 207 Several CC chemokines: CCL1, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL7, CCL8, CCL11, CCL13, CCL14, ... C-C motif chemokine ligand 4 like 1 (17q12) DDX52: DExD-box helicase 52 (17q12) ERBB2 loca leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2, ...
... is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. The CCL8 protein is produced as a precursor containing 109 amino ... CCL8 is a CC chemokine that utilizes multiple cellular receptors to attract and activate human leukocytes. CCL8 is a potent ... The gene for CCL8 is encoded by 3 exons and is located within a large cluster of CC chemokines on chromosome 17q11.2 in humans ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 8 (CCL8), also known as monocyte chemoattractant protein 2 (MCP2), is a protein that in humans is ...
CCL8, CCL13, CCL17 and CCL22. T-lymphocytes: the four key chemokines that are involved in the recruitment of T lymphocytes to ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines in that it has ... CCL1 for the ligand 1 of the CC-family of chemokines, and CCR1 for its respective receptor. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) ...
CCR2 can interact with CCL2, CCL8 and CCL16 and has been identified on the surface of monocytes, activated memory T cells, B ... The CC chemokine receptors all work by activating the G protein Gi. CCR1 was the first CC chemokine receptor identified and ... CC chemokine receptors (or beta chemokine receptors) are integral membrane proteins that specifically bind and respond to ... May 1997). "Molecular cloning of a novel human CC chemokine EBI1-ligand chemokine that is a specific functional ligand for EBI1 ...
1997). „The human MCP-2 gene (SCYA8): cloning, sequence analysis, tissue expression, and assignment to the CC chemokine gene ... CCL8 protein nastaje iz prekursora koji sadrži 109 aminokiselina, koji se preseca da bi nastao CCL8 sa 75 aminokiseline. Gen za ... CCL8, hemokine (C-C motiv) ligand 8, je mali citokin iz CC hemokin familije koji se nekad zvao monocit hemotaksni protein-2 ( ... belonging to the chemokine family.". J. Exp. Med. 176: 59-65.. CS1 одржавање: Експлицитна употреба et al. (веза) ...
CCL8, CCL13, CCL17 and CCL22. ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CXC chemokinesEdit. The two N-terminal cysteines of CXC chemokines (or α-chemokines) are separated by one amino acid, ...
chemokine receptor activity. • receptor activity. • protein binding. • C-C chemokine receptor activity. • C-C chemokine binding ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene.[5] CCR6 ... "Entrez Gene: CCR6 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6".. *^ Wang K, Zhang H, Kugathasan S, Annese V, Bradfield JP, Russell RK, ... "Chemokine Receptors: CCR6". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 18 (CCL18) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. The functions of CCL18 have ... and PITPNM3-CCL8 binding induces Pyk2 and Src mediated signaling, a cancer related signaling pathway, and subsequent metastasis ... It was previously known as Pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine (PARC), dendritic cell (DC)-chemokine 1 (DC-CK1), ... Chemokines are classed as a special type of cytokine that is involved in immune cell trafficking. CCL18 in particular has some ...
Several CC chemokines: CCL1, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL7, CCL8, CCL11, CCL13, CCL14, CCL15, CCL16, CCL18, and CCL23 ...
positive regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production. • positive regulation of JUN kinase activity. • positive ... positive regulation of chemokine production. • cellular extravasation. • negative regulation of lipid storage. • negative ... positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • epithelial cell proliferation involved in salivary gland morphogenesis ...
... s are a subset of cytokines that are produced by a type of immune cell known as a lymphocyte.[1] They are protein mediators typically produced by T cells to direct the immune system response by signaling between its cells. Lymphokines have many roles, including the attraction of other immune cells, including macrophages and other lymphocytes, to an infected site and their subsequent activation to prepare them to mount an immune response. Circulating lymphocytes can detect a very small concentration of lymphokine and then move up the concentration gradient towards where the immune response is required. Lymphokines aid B cells to produce antibodies. Important lymphokines secreted by the T helper cell include:[2] ...
... binds to the death receptors DR4 (TRAIL-RI) and DR5 (TRAIL-RII). The process of apoptosis is caspase-8-dependent. Caspase-8 activates downstream effector caspases including procaspase-3, -6, and -7, leading to activation of specific kinases.[11] TRAIL also binds the receptors DcR1 and DcR2, which do not contain a cytoplasmic domain (DcR1) or contain a truncated death domain (DcR2). DcR1 functions as a TRAIL-neutralizing decoy-receptor. The cytoplasmic domain of DcR2 is functional and activates NFkappaB. In cells expressing DcR2, TRAIL binding therefore activates NFkappaB, leading to transcription of genes known to antagonize the death signaling pathway and/or to promote inflammation. Application of engineered ligands that have variable affinity for different death (DR4 and DR5) and decoy receptors (DCR1 and DCR2) may allow selective targeting of cancer cells by controlling activation of Type 1/Type 2 pathways of cell death and single cell fluctuations. Luminescent iridium complex-peptide ...
... (IL-24) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL24 gene. IL-24 is a cytokine belonging to the IL-10 family of cytokines that signals through two heterodimeric receptors: IL-20R1/IL-20R2 and IL-22R1/IL-20R2. This interleukin is also known as melanoma differentiation-associated 7 (mda-7) due to its discovery as a tumour suppressing protein. IL-24 appears to control in cell survival and proliferation by inducing rapid activation of particular transcription factors called STAT1 and STAT3. This cytokine is predominantly released by activated monocytes, macrophages and T helper 2 (Th2) cells[5] and acts on non-haematopoietic tissues such as skin, lung and reproductive tissues. IL-24 performs important roles in wound healing, arthritis, psoriasis and cancer.[6][7][8] Several studies have shown that cell death occurs in cancer cells/cell lines following exposure to IL-24.[9][10] The gene for IL-24 is located on chromosome 1 in humans.[11] ...
... as well as chemokine and cytokine production, and expression of adhesion molecules such as E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. This ...
positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • regulation of insulin secretion. • extrinsic apoptotic signaling ... Copeland KF (2006). "Modulation of HIV-1 transcription by cytokines and chemokines". Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry. 5 (12 ...
... is sometimes used interchangeably among scientists with the term cytokine.[3] Historically, cytokines were associated with hematopoietic (blood and lymph forming) cells and immune system cells (e.g., lymphocytes and tissue cells from spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes). For the circulatory system and bone marrow in which cells can occur in a liquid suspension and not bound up in solid tissue, it makes sense for them to communicate by soluble, circulating protein molecules. However, as different lines of research converged, it became clear that some of the same signaling proteins which the hematopoietic and immune systems use were also being used by all sorts of other cells and tissues, during development and in the mature organism. While growth factor implies a positive effect on cell division, cytokine is a neutral term with respect to whether a molecule affects proliferation. While some cytokines can be growth factors, such as G-CSF and GM-CSF, others have an inhibitory effect on ...
chemokine activity. • cytokine activity. • heparin binding. • protein binding. • CXCR3 chemokine receptor binding. ... C-X-C motif chemokine 11 is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also called Interferon-inducible T- ... "Entrez Gene: CXCL11 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11".. *^ a b Cole KE, Strick CA, Paradis TJ, Ogborne KT, Loetscher M, Gladue ... This chemokine elicits its effects on its target cells by interacting with the cell surface chemokine receptor CXCR3, with a ...
Interferon alfa 2b is an antiviral or antineoplastic drug, that was originally discovered in the laboratory of Charles Weissmann at the University of Zurich. It was developed at Biogen, and ultimately marketed by Schering-Plough under the tradename Intron-A. It has been used for a wide range of indications, including viral infections and cancers. This drug is approved around the world for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C, chronic hepatitis B, hairy cell leukemia, Behçet's disease, chronic myelogenous leukemia, multiple myeloma, follicular lymphoma, carcinoid tumor, mastocytosis and malignant melanoma. ...
4-1BB is a type 2 transmembrane glycoprotein receptor belonging to the TNF superfamily, expressed on activated T Lymphocytes.[1] 4-1BBL (4-1BB ligand) is found on APCs (antigen presenting cells) and binds to 4-1BB. ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the interleukin 1 cytokine family. Protein structure modeling indicated that this cytokine may contain a 12-stranded beta-trefoil structure that is conserved between IL1A (IL-A alpha) and IL1B (IL-1 beta). This gene and eight other interleukin 1 family genes form a cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 2. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported.[8]. ...
Chemokine. CCL. CCL1 · CCL2 · CCL3 · CCL4 · CCL5 · CCL6 · CCL7 · CCL8 · CCL9 · CCL11 · CCL12 · CCL13 · CCL14 · CCL15 · CCL16 · ...
C-X-C chemokine receptor activity. • interleukin-8 binding. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. • chemokine receptor ... This name and the corresponding gene symbol IL8RA have been replaced by the HGNC approved name C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 1 ... "Chemokine Receptors: CXCR1". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... chemokine-mediated signaling pathway. • interleukin-8-mediated signaling pathway. • neutrophil degranulation. • chemotaxis. ...
Elevated serum levels of macrophage-derived chemokine and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine in autistic children, J ... CCL8, CCL11, CCL17, CCl19, CCL21, CCL22, CC25, CXCL7, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, CXCL12, CXCL16. ... Kabelitz D, Wesch D., Features and functions of gamma delta T lymphocytes: focus on chemokines and their receptors. ...
Elevated serum levels of macrophage-derived chemokine and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine in autistic children, J ... CCL8, CCL11, CCL17, CCl19, CCL21, CCL22, CC25, CXCL7, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, CXCL12, CXCL16. ... Kabelitz D, Wesch D., Features and functions of gamma delta T lymphocytes: focus on chemokines and their receptors. ...
verschiedene CCL8 ELISA Kits vergleichen. Alle direkt auf antikoerper-online.de bestellbar! ... Target Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 8 (CCL8) * Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 8 (CCL8) ... Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 8 (CCL8) ELISA Kit ELISA Kit CCL8 Reaktivität: Human Colorimetric Sandwich ELISA 1.5-200 pg/mL ... Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 8 (CCL8) ELISA Kit ELISA Kit CCL8 Reaktivität: Maus Colorimetric Sandwich ELISA 6.25-400 pg/mL ...
Mouse CCL8/MCP-2 ELISA Kit. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 8--also known as monocyte chemoattractant protein 2 (MCP-2), HC14, ... Measuring mouse CCL8 in EDTA-plasma, heparin plasma, or serum. Components. Precoated plate: Anti-Mouse CCL8/MCP-2 (81) Rabbit ... The precursor protein (109 amino acids) is cleaved to produce mature CCL8 (75 amino acids). CCL8 activates many different ... CCL8 acts through binding to several different cell surface chemokine receptors, including CCR1, CCR2B, and CCR5 (one of the ...
Compare C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, ... Chemokine CC-1, Chemokine CC-3, Small Inducible Cytokine Subfamily A (Cys-Cys) Member 14) ... Chemokine CC-1, Chemokine CC-3, Small Inducible Cytokine Subfamily A (Cys-Cys) Member 14) ... C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established antibody-based ...
This review will focus on recent murine and human studies that use chemokines as therapeutic anti-cancer vaccine adjuvants. ... Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing ... This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential ... CCL8. MCP-2. CCR3, CCR5. inflammatory. CCL11. Eotaxin-1. CCR3. inflammatory, homeostatic and angiogenic. ...
MCP-2/CCL8, MCP-3/CCL7, MCP-4/CCL13, MDC/CCL22, MIF, MIP-3,i,α,/i,/CCL20, MIP-3-,i,β,/i,/CCL19, MPIF-1/CCL23, NAP-2/CXCL7, MSP, ... which allows the simultaneous determination of 40 chemokines per sample. The sets consist of the following chemokines: 6Ckine/ ... i,Results.,/i, We showed possible implication of 4 chemokines, that is, HCC-4, I-TAC, MIP-3,i,α,/i,, and TARC in women with ... i,Conclusion.,/i, On the basis of our findings, it seems that the chemokines may play role in the pathogenesis of preterm labor ...
CCL5 (RANTES), and CCL8 (MCP-2); CXCR3 ligands: CXCL9 (MIG), CXCL10 (IP-10), and CXCL11 (I-TAC); CXCL1 ligands: CXCL-8 (IL-8); ... Chemokine Receptors on Blood and NK-Cells. Conventional and NK-cells present in the normal PB have different CKR repertoires ( ... 3.1.2. Chemokine Receptors on Conventional NK-Cells. In contrast to NK-cells, the majority of the NK-cells are CXCR1/CXCR2− and ... and the chemokine receptors CXCR3 and/or CCR5 (Figure 2): CD16+ CCR5/CXCR3− (or simply ), CD16+/− CCR5/CXCR3+ (or simply ), and ...
CCL8, CCL13, CCL17 and CCL22. ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CXC chemokinesEdit. The two N-terminal cysteines of CXC chemokines (or α-chemokines) are separated by one amino acid, ...
CCL8. MCP-2. CCR1, CCR2, CCR3. M, m, T, NK, N, b, e. ND. ... This set represented all chemokines present in the chemokine ... Generally, CC chemokines potently attract monocytes, T lymphocytes, eosinophils, and basophils, whereas CXC chemokines are ... Differences between our study and previous studies, chemokine function, and chemokine levels are summarized in Table 4. Before ... The concentrations of IL-6 and the following chemokines were measured: the chemokine-like macrophage migration inhibitory ...
CCL8,. cytokines induces. response to induce HCC cell. CCL13. macrophages and monocytes to recruit to inflammatory sites. ... Among the four types of chemokines, there are two highly homologous XC chemokines: XC motif chemokine ligand 1 (XCL1) and XCL2 ... Chemokine receptors. Chemokines. Functions. Signaling pathways. Role in HCC. (Refs.). CXCR1. CXCL6,. Chemotactic neutrophils. - ... chemokines can bind to the atypical chemokine receptor (ACKR) subfamily, which is a key regulator of the chemokine network, and ...
Chemokine transcript levels were also strongly inhibited, e.g., Ccl8, Ccl26, Ccl13, Ccl14, Ccl15, and Ccl23. We also observed ...
CCL8 is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. The CCL8 protein is produced as a precursor containing 109 amino ... CCL8 is a CC chemokine that utilizes multiple cellular receptors to attract and activate human leukocytes. CCL8 is a potent ... The gene for CCL8 is encoded by 3 exons and is located within a large cluster of CC chemokines on chromosome 17q11.2 in humans ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 8 (CCL8), also known as monocyte chemoattractant protein 2 (MCP2), is a protein that in humans is ...
This distinguishes CCL8 from all other MCP chemokines. CCL8 responsiveness defined a population of highly differentiated, CCR8- ... d) Amounts of TH1 cell-active (Cxcl9 and Cxcl10) and TH2-cell active (Ccl1, Ccl8, Ccl17 and Ccl22) chemokine mRNA in ... a) CC-chemokine receptor mRNA enrichment measured by QPCR in TH2-R2A cells that migrated to mouse CCL8 in Transwell assays ... Mouse CCL8 RNA and protein are detected in normal mouse skin. (a) Relative positioning of the six MCP-cluster chemokine genes ...
AMS, Acute mountain sickness; CCL8, C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 8; CI, confidence interval; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; HAH, ... CCL8). For example, our recent transcriptome analysis revealed that IL-10 is downregulated in AMS, whereas CCL8 is upregulated ... OBoyle, G., Brain, J. G., Kirby, J. A., and Ali, S. (2007). Chemokine-mediated inflammation: identification of a possible ... in patients with HAH are associated with the reduction of IL-10 and upregulation of CCL8, and this topic warrants urgent ...
Chemokines and their receptors play essential roles in immunology during inflammation and in homeostasis. ... Chemokines are a class of secreted molecules that induce chemotaxis (migration) of target cells. ... CCL8. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. a. a. a. b. a. b. b. b. b. b. ... Chemokine Receptor Biology poster. Order your copy of our ... Chemokines are also involved in the orchestration of wound healing.. For more information on inflammatory chemokines, see the ...
CCL8. Scya8. MCP-2. P80075 CCL9/CCL10. Scya9. MRP-2, CCF18, MIP-1γ. P51670 ... C chemokines. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CC chemokines. The CC chemokines (or β-chemokines) have two adjacent cysteines near their amino terminus. There have been at ...
rMuCCL8, His; C-C motif chemokine 8; Ccl8; Monocyte chemoattractant protein 2; Monocyte chemotactic protein 2; MCP-2; Small- ... Recombinant Mouse C-C Motif Chemokine 8, His (HEK293-expressed). Catalog Number. Pack Size. List Price*. Quantity. ... Recombinant Mouse C-C Motif Chemokine 8, His (HEK293-expressed) is a member of the monocyte-chemoattractant protein family, and ... Lyophilized recombinant Mouse C-C Motif Chemokine 8, His (HEK293-expressed) (rMuCCL8, His) is stored at -20°C. After ...
CCL8 and CCL13 induced even less CCR2 internalization. The plateaus reached after 60 min of incubation with the chemokine are ... CC chemokine receptor. CCL. CC chemokine ligand. MCP. monocyte chemotactic protein. GPCR. G-protein-coupled receptor. BRET. ... 3B, marked differences were seen between the chemokines. Although the weak signal elicited by CCL8 was of great stability over ... Significant inhibition of the β-arrestin 2 response was observed for all chemokines (p , 0.05) except CCL8. The remaining β- ...
Ccl8. CXCL14. PRKCB. SHC3. STAT5B. GNG11. CCR9. STAT3. CCL11. CCR6. D-myo-Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. CCL26. XCL1. CXCL9. ... Chemokines are small cytokines, or signaling proteins, secreted by cells. A major rol of chemokines is to act as ... c-C motif chemokine 12-like. CXCL12. CCR1. CX3CR1. GNG2. DOCK2. RAC1. GNB4. Jak-STAT signaling pathway. CCR2. PIK3R2. HRAS. ... Ontology Term : chemokine mediated signaling pathway added !. 90740. view. 23:30, 13 December 2016. Khanspers. New pathway. ...
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) isolated from Camkk2−/− mice expressed higher levels of chemokines involved in the ... Among these genes were several chemokine genes (Ccl8, Ccl12, Cxcl10, and Cxcl11) (Fig. 4a, b; Supplementary Table 2). ... Besides its effect on chemokines and cytokine gene expression, genetic deletion of Camkk2 in BMDM is also associated with ... 8B). One of the most important findings from these experiments was that the expression of RNAs encoding chemokines involved in ...
"The assignment of chemokine-chemokine receptor pairs: TARC and MIP-1 beta are not ligands for human CC-chemokine receptor 8". ... CCL8 also functions as a CCR8 agonist. Studies of this receptor and its ligands suggested its role in regulation of monocyte ... "The assignment of chemokine-chemokine receptor pairs: TARC and MIP-1 beta are not ligands for human CC-chemokine receptor 8". ... This gene is located at the chemokine receptor gene cluster region. CC chemokine receptors GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
The transcriptional repressor BLIMP1 curbs host defenses by suppressing expression of the chemokine CCL8. The Journal of ...
Ccl8,/i,. These mice may be useful for studying monocyte mobilization from bone marrow and recruitment to inflammatory sites. ... i,Mcp-2,sup,-,/sup,/Mcp-5,sup,-,/sup,,/i, mice have a floxed neomycin cassette disrupting expression of ,i,Ccl8,/i, and ,i, ... The insertion of the neo cassette inhibits expression of MCP-5 and MCP-2 (chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 8 (Ccl8), which lies ... Mcp-2-/Mcp-5- mutant mice have a floxed neo cassette disrupting the coding region of the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 12 (Ccl12 ...
It is possible to identify the particular chemokines which are over-expressed in the tumor using methods of the invention and ... The present invention provides a means of inhibiting the growth and metastasis of cancer cells by administering anti-chemokine ... The patient is then given the antibodies against the over-expressed chemokine(s). However, the level of each chemokine may also ... wherein said composition further comprises an antibody, or a fragment of an antibody, that binds to a chemokine or chemokine ...
... or chemokine-scavenging receptor or chemokine decoy receptor. Acts as a receptor for chemokines CCL2, CCL8, CCL13, CCL19, CCL21 ... Chemokine-binding does not activate G-protein-mediated signal transduction but instead induces beta-arrestin recruitment, ... Plays an important role in controlling the migration of immune and cancer cells that express chemokine receptors CCR7 and CCR9 ... resulting instead in chemokine sequestration, degradation, or transcytosis. Also known as interceptor (internalizing receptor) ...
The CC chemokines CCL8, CCL13 and CCL20 are local inflammatory biomarkers of HLA-B27-associated uveitis. ... Differential CXC and CX3C Chemokine Expression Profiles in Aqueous Humor of Patients With Specific Endogenous Uveitic Entities. ...
RT-PCR was used to screen for six CC chemokines (CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL8, and CCL22), which bind to the receptors studied ... ELISA for chemokine protein. A, ELISA data for chemokines and TNFα in 66 samples of ascitic fluid. B, ELISA data for chemokines ... Analysis of Chemokines and Chemokine Receptor Expression in Ovarian Cancer Ascites. David Milliken, Chris Scotton, Shanti Raju ... Analysis of Chemokines and Chemokine Receptor Expression in Ovarian Cancer Ascites. David Milliken, Chris Scotton, Shanti Raju ...
PrimePCR™ Probe Assay: CCL8, Human chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 8 Assay Type: Probe Assay Design: exonic Application: Gene ... PrimePCR™ SYBR® Green Assay: CCL8, Human chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 8 Assay Type: SYBR® Green Assay Design: Exonic ... PrimePCR™ SYBR® Green Assay: CCL8, Human chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 8 Assay Type: SYBR® Green Assay Design: exonic ... PrimePCR™ ddPCR™ Expression EvaGreen® Assay: CCL8, Human chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 8 Assay Type: EvaGreen Application: Gene ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 8. CCL8. 37823_at. 7.4. Colony-stimulating factor 2 (granulocyte-macrophage). CSF2. 1401_g_at. 6.8 ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 8. CCL8. 37823_at. 7.4. Myxovirus (influenza virus) resistance 1, interferon-inducible protein p78 ... Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10. CXCL10. 431_at. 69.3. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 18 (pulmonary and activation-regulated). ... Cell-free culture supernatants from multiple donors were assayed for 37 different chemokines by using a RayBio human chemokine ...
... and CCR2 ligand chemokines (SCYA8 and SCYA2) effective on monocytes, whereas it downregulated CXCR2 ligand chemokines (SCYB2, ... IFNβ markedly upregulated CXCR3 ligand chemokines (SCYB11, SCYB10 and SCYB9) chiefly active on effector T helper type 1 (Th1) T ... IFNβ immediately induces a burst of gene expression of proinflammatory chemokines in vitro that have potential relevance to IFN ... Upregulated IRGs were categorized into conventional IFN-response markers, components of IFN-signaling pathways, chemokines, ...
  • CCL8 acts through binding to several different cell surface chemokine receptors, including CCR1, CCR2B, and CCR5 (one of the major co-receptors for HIV-1). (clontech.com)
  • To date, there are more than 50 chemokines and 18 chemokine receptors identified [ 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Most chemokines bind to more than one receptor, while most receptors also display overlapping ligand specificity [ 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Studies of chemokine receptors (CKR) in natural killer- (NK-) cells have already been published, but only a few gave detailed information on its differential expression on blood NK-cell subsets. (hindawi.com)
  • All of these proteins exert their biological effects by interacting with G protein -linked transmembrane receptors called chemokine receptors , that are selectively found on the surfaces of their target cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been found that chemokines and their receptors serve a pivotal role in HCC progression. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Thus, chemokines and their receptors directly or indirectly shape the tumor cell microenvironment, and regulate the biological behavior of the tumor. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Exosomes containing chemokines or expressing receptors for chemokines may improve chemotaxis to HCC and may thus be exploited for targeted drug delivery. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chemokines bind to a variety of different receptors, which belong to the G-protein-binding receptor family, and there are ~23 types of chemokine receptors that have been discovered ( 10 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chemokines and their receptors were initially thought to allow for an interaction between immune cells and the inflammatory sites ( 11 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • After binding to the receptors, chemokines primarily serve a role in migration of leukocytes, such as monocytes, eosinophils and dendritic cells (DCs) ( 11 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • CCL8 elicits its effects by binding to several different cell surface receptors called chemokine receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • CCL8 is a CC chemokine that utilizes multiple cellular receptors to attract and activate human leukocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • CCL8 is a potent inhibitor of HIV1 by virtue of its high-affinity binding to the receptor CCR5, one of the major co-receptors for HIV1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokines receptors are seven transmembrane spanning G protein-coupled receptors that allow cells to migrate towards increasing chemokine gradients. (biolegend.com)
  • Specific chemokine receptors are often required to gain entry (or exit) from certain organs and tissues like the thymus and bone marrow. (biolegend.com)
  • Receptor-ligand promiscuity is a hallmark of the inflammatory CC-chemokine/receptor system, where most ligands bind more than one receptor and most receptors bind more than one ligand. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Pharmacologic mechanisms that may in part account for these differences are difficult to assess on primary cells and in in vivo systems because of the presence of alternative receptors and the confounding variety of regulatory mechanisms of the chemokine response. (aspetjournals.org)
  • For example, binding preferences and activity of a given chemokine are modulated by proteoglycan binding, protease processing, and oligomerization of chemokines as well as chemokine receptors, adding several layers of complexity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Knowledge about intrinsically different effects of different chemokines on the same receptor should help to better direct drug developing efforts targeting chemokine receptors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Chemokine signals are transduced by G-protein coupled receptors, which dissociate to activate diverse downstream pathways resulting in cellular polarization and actin reorganization. (wikipathways.org)
  • This gene encodes a member of the beta chemokine receptor family, which is predicted to be a seven transmembrane protein similar to G protein-coupled receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokines and their receptors are important for the migration of various cell types into the inflammatory sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plays an important role in controlling the migration of immune and cancer cells that express chemokine receptors CCR7 and CCR9, by reducing the availability of CCL19, CCL21, and CCL25 through internalization. (uniprot.org)
  • Chemotactic and growth signals initiated by chemokines are mediated by the activation of G-protein-coupled receptors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • With the aim of further understanding chemokine action in human ovarian cancer, we investigated CC chemokine receptors and their ligands in ascitic fluid samples. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This, to our knowledge, is the first detailed study of CC chemokines and their receptors in human ovarian cancer ascites. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Notably, chemokine receptors can be rather promiscuous in their ability to bind different chemokines. (treatmentactiongroup.org)
  • The functions of all the known chemokine receptors and chemokines are not fully characterized, but broadly speaking, they seem to be involved in cell migration and/or inflammation. (treatmentactiongroup.org)
  • The MCP proteins are members of the CC chemokine family that signal through CCR2 and, with the exception of MCP-1, other CCR receptors. (peprotech.com)
  • We defined expression profiles of AAMφ-associated cytokines, chemokines, and their receptors, providing evidence that AAMφ contribute toward recruitment and maintenance of eosinophilia. (bloodjournal.org)
  • To our knowledge, however, there has been no report on the expression of chemokine receptors in ASMC. (jimmunol.org)
  • They mediate their activity by binding to cell surface chemokine receptors that belong to the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily. (springer.com)
  • The receptor has a consensus site for tyrosine sulfation, which affects the affinity and binding of some chemokine receptors to their ligand(s) and has been. (springer.com)
  • Cervical tissue was collected at 3, 12, and 24 h after inoculation and the expression array of chemokines, cytokines, and receptors was assessed to characterize the response during the initial developmental cycle. (asm.org)
  • Chemokines are small chemoattractant proteins that bind to chemokine receptors, which are members of the family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), to stimulate the directed migration of immune cells to sites of infection or inflammation. (sciencemag.org)
  • CCR8 is one of more than 20 distinct chemokine receptors expressed in human leukocytes. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • Chemokines exhibit affinity for seven transmembrane-spanning G protein-coupled signaling receptors and extracellular matrix or cell-bound glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). (rupress.org)
  • CXCL8 promotes in vivo activation and recruitment of neutrophil granulocytes through the chemokine receptors 1 and 2 (CXCR1 and CXCR2) ( 7 , 8 ). (rupress.org)
  • Chemokine activity is controlled at different levels, including regulation of chemokine and chemokine receptor expression, the presence of "silent" or "decoy" chemokine receptors, binding to GAG, and posttranslational modification ( 9 - 13 ). (rupress.org)
  • Design of dual antagonists for the chemokine receptors CCR2 and CCR5 will be greatly facilitated by knowledge of the structural differences of their binding sites. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Based on their roles in disease, chemokine receptors have been attractive targets for the pharmaceutical industry. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This study was undertaken to characterize the expression of chemokine receptors in the synovial tissue of RA and non-RA patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The mRNA expression of chemokine receptors and their ligands was determined using gene microarrays and PCR. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Microarray analysis showed the mRNA for CXCR5 to be more abundant in RA than non-RA synovial tissue, and of the chemokine receptors studied CXCR5 showed the greatest upregulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chemokine activity is dependent on the presence of and interaction with chemokine receptors on the leukocyte surface. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, CCRL2 possesses an uncharacteristic intracellular loop 2 sequence in place of the DRYLAIV motif generally found in signaling chemokine receptors (QRYLVFL in huCCRL2 and QRYRVSF in mCCRL2), leading us to postulate that it might be an "atypical" silent or nonsignaling receptor. (rupress.org)
  • These receptors are also referred to as professional chemokine "interceptors," a name which reflects their ability to efficiently internalize bound ligand ( 12 ). (rupress.org)
  • These receptors also lack the consensus DRYLAIV-related sequence present in the second intracellular loop domain of most chemokine receptors, possibly accounting for their inability to transduce classical intracellular signals (the sequence is DKYLEIV in D6, LGHRLGA in DARC, and DRYWAIT in CCX-CKR). (rupress.org)
  • The Mouse Chemokines & Receptors RT² Profiler ™ PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 genes that encode chemokines and their receptors. (sabiosciences.com)
  • Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 8 Antikörper (128) und Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 8 Proteine (62) und viele weitere Produktgruppen zu diesem Protein an. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 8--also known as monocyte chemoattractant protein 2 (MCP-2), HC14, SCYA8, or SCYA10--is a protein encoded by the CCL8 gene. (clontech.com)
  • Your search returned 1131 C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 ELISA ELISA Kit across 31 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • Mcp-2 - /Mcp-5 - mutant mice have a floxed neo cassette disrupting the coding region of the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 12 ( Ccl12 or Mcp-5 ) gene. (jax.org)
  • The insertion of the neo cassette inhibits expression of MCP-5 and MCP-2 (chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 8 ( Ccl8 ), which lies 12kb downstream of Mcp-5. (jax.org)
  • A targeting vector was designed to insert a loxP -flanked neomycin resistance (neo) cassette into exon 1 of the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 12 ( Ccl12 ) gene. (jax.org)
  • A floxed neomycin resistance cassette was inserted into the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 12 locus. (jax.org)
  • This insertion disrupted the expression of this gene as well as chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 8. (jax.org)
  • Atypical chemokine receptor that controls chemokine levels and localization via high-affinity chemokine binding that is uncoupled from classic ligand-driven signal transduction cascades, resulting instead in chemokine sequestration, degradation, or transcytosis. (uniprot.org)
  • Chemokine-binding does not activate G-protein-mediated signal transduction but instead induces beta-arrestin recruitment, leading to ligand internalization. (uniprot.org)
  • IFNβ markedly upregulated CXCR3 ligand chemokines (SCYB11, SCYB10 and SCYB9) chiefly active on effector T helper type 1 (Th1) T cells, and CCR2 ligand chemokines (SCYA8 and SCYA2) effective on monocytes, whereas it downregulated CXCR2 ligand chemokines (SCYB2, SCYB1 and IL8) primarily active on neutrophils. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that was previously called GRO1 oncogene, GROα, KC, Neutrophil-activating protein 3 (NAP-3) and melanoma growth stimulating activity, alpha (MSGA-α). (creativebiomart.net)
  • RESULTS We demonstrate that obesity activates hepatocyte expression of C-C chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2/MCP-1) leading to hepatic recruitment of CCR2 + myeloid cells that promote hepatosteatosis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • For example, binding of the chemokine CCL5 (which stands for chemokine ligand 5, also known as RANTES) to CCR5 can trigger the cell's migration to specific locations within the body. (treatmentactiongroup.org)
  • This study aimed at determining the role of the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL)2 and CCL7 in ARDS. (bmj.com)
  • Neutrophil chemotaxis to ARDS BAL fluid was evaluated and the contribution of each was assessed and compared with chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8 (CXCL8). (bmj.com)
  • To what extent do the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL)2 and CCL7 contribute to the migratory activity of neutrophils during acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)? (bmj.com)
  • Both CCL2 and CCL7 contribute to neutrophil chemotaxis during ARDS by synergising with chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8. (bmj.com)
  • CCL8 , hemokine (C-C motiv) ligand 8 , je mali citokin iz CC hemokin familije koji se nekad zvao monocit hemotaksni protein-2 (MCP-2). (wikipedia.org)
  • In Cohort A, interferon levels type I, II, and III were comparable, but in cohort B, the level of Interferon-alpha 2 (IFNA2) and Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 8 (CCL8) was significantly higher in female patients compared to male patients. (news-medical.net)
  • Transcriptome analysis of Blimp1 CKO macrophages identified the murine chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 8, CCL8, as a direct target of Blimp1-mediated transcriptional repression in these cells. (umassmed.edu)
  • Analysis of gene expression in HREC (Figure 4) indicated that high glucose upregulated the transcript levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) (D), IL-8 (E), IL-10 (F), TNF-[alpha] (G), and C-C motif chemokine ligand 23 ( CCL23 ) (I). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Through PPI network construction, 108 nodes and 278 gene pairs were obtained, from which chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 ( CXCL9 ), CXCL10 , protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type C ( PTPRC ), and human leukocyte antigen ( HLA ) were screened out as hub genes. (springer.com)
  • More importantly, the increased level of CXCR5, a homeostatic chemokine receptor, in the RA synovium suggests that non-inflammatory receptor-ligand pairs might play an important role in the pathogenesis of RA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In contrast to other "silent" or professional chemokine interreceptors, chemerin binding does not trigger ligand internalization. (rupress.org)
  • The most highly upregulated chemokine, CCL5, (C-C motif ligand 5) was found to be a direct target of miR-214. (aacrjournals.org)
  • a ) Migration of mouse BMDMs to mouse CCL8 and CCL2. (nih.gov)
  • b ) Migration of NK cells to mouse CCL8, CCL2, CCL4 and CXCL11. (nih.gov)
  • mRNA for the CC chemokines CCL2, -3, -4, -5, -8, and -22 was expressed in cell isolates from ascites samples, and the corresponding proteins were detected in ascitic fluid. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This migratory activity was markedly inhibited by the viral CC chemokine inhibitor and the deficiency of MCP-1/CCL2, indicating that MCP-1/CCL2 is a main attractant of THP-1 cells among the SLF-derived molecules. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We demonstrated that targeting MCP-1/CCL2 enhances NTHI-induced up-regulation of MCP-2/CCL8 in SLFs and up-regulates the basal expression of CCR2 in the splenocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • IL8 , CXCL2 , CCL2 , and CCL8 transcripts were rapidly increased following PGF treatment in vivo and. (unl.edu)
  • Most pronounced differences were found in inflammatory mediators, like the chemokines CCL8 and CCL2 and the lectines CLEC4E and CLEC5A. (tum.de)
  • After the initial PMN influx, the next stage of inflammation is directed in part by CC chemokines consisting of CCL2/monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, CCL7/MCP-3, CCL8/MCP-2, and CCL13/MCP-4, which target multiple leukocyte subsets (monocytes, T lymphocytes, basophils, and eosinophils). (bloodjournal.org)
  • Extensive multiplexing analysis of 69 cytokines revealed that CXCL10, CCL2, and CCL8 chemokines were specifically associated with symptomatic ZIKV + infection during pregnancy, and distinct immunoprofiles were detected at different trimesters in ZIKV-infected pregnant women," the authors wrote. (genengnews.com)
  • We have demonstrated that chemokine ligands CCL2 and CCL3 are biomarkers that correlate with pelvic pain symptoms. (jove.com)
  • Upon examination of the prostate 5 days after induction of EAP, CCL2 mRNA was elevated 2- to 3-fold, CCL8 by 15-fold, CCL12 by 12- to 13-fold, and CXCL9 by 2- to 4-fold compared with control mice. (jove.com)
  • A number of tumor-derived chemoattractants are thought to ensure this ongoing recruitment, including colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1 also known as M-CSF), the CC chemokines, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, and CCL8, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). (aacrjournals.org)
  • CCL2/Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein (MCP)-1 and other chemokines sharing a similar sequence, including CCL8/MCP-2, are involved in neurodegeneration. (elsevier.com)
  • JAK2 (zeige JAK2 ELISA Kits ) and STAT3 (zeige STAT3 ELISA Kits ) activation is not essential for CCL3 (zeige CCL3 ELISA Kits ), CCL5 (zeige CCL5 ELISA Kits ) or CCL8 induced chemotaxis. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • These include chemokines (CK), such as MIP-1 α (macrophage inflammatory proteins-1 alpha, CCL3) and MIP-1 β (CCL4), RANTES (regulated activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted, CCL5), and ATAC (activation-induced, T cell derived, and chemokine-related cytokine, CXCL1). (hindawi.com)
  • CCR5 is known to interact with CCL3, CCL4, and CCL8 in addition to CCL5. (treatmentactiongroup.org)
  • CCR1 is a chemokine receptor that responds to a large number of CC chemokines including CCL3 (MIP-1alpha), CCL5 (RANTES), CCL7 (MCP-3), CCL9 (MIP-1gamma), CCL15 (MIP1 delta), CCL23 (MIP-3), and with low affinity to CCL4 (MIP-1 beta) and CCL8 (MCP-2). (springer.com)
  • CCR5 is a G protein-coupled heptahelical receptor (GPCR) that initiates intracellular signaling in response to CC chemokines, including CCL3/MIP-1, CCL4/MIP-1, CCL5/RANTES, and CCL8/monocyte chemoattractant protein 2. (39kf.com)
  • Moreover, qualitative differences between the arrestin responses to the different ligands were identified in the stability of the response: although CCL7-induced arrestin recruitment had a half-life of less than 15 min, CCL8 and CCL13 induced stable CCR2-arrestin interactions. (aspetjournals.org)
  • CCL8 is one of several cytokine genes clustered on the q-arm of chromosome 17. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Cytokine proteins are classified as chemokines according to behavior and structural characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin (IL)-6, a multifunctional cytokine with regulatory functions in wound healing, and several chemokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) after rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). (arvojournals.org)
  • Chemokines are a class of small molecular proteins with similar structures, functions and chemotactic properties, and their molecular weights are ~10 kDa, and chemokines represent the largest member of the cytokine family ( 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • CCL8 is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. (wikipedia.org)
  • d ) Representative cytokine profiles and assays of T H 1-R1 cell migration to mouse CCL8. (nih.gov)
  • We selected most pathways CCL1 participated on our site, such as Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, Chemokine signaling pathway, which may be useful for your reference. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Interleukin 4 and 13 participation in mycobacterial (type-1) and schistosomal (type-2) antigen-elicited pulmonary granuloma formation: multiparameter analysis of cellular recruitment, chemokine expression and cytokine networks. (peprotech.com)
  • Several chemokine and cytokine genes were expressed as early as 3 h after infection, but by 12 h, 41 genes were expressed. (asm.org)
  • Proteolytic processing regulates cytokine and chemokine activities. (rupress.org)
  • Aberrant proinflammatory cytokine, chemokine, and interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) signaling programs were also noted following infection of TRIF −/− mice that were similar to those seen in human patients with poor disease outcome following SARS-CoV or MERS-CoV infection. (asm.org)
  • Chemokines (Greek -kinos , movement) are a family of small cytokines , or signaling proteins secreted by cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokines are a family of small cytokines , or proteins secreted by cells . (wikidoc.org)
  • Proteins are classified as chemokines according to shared structural characteristics such as small size (they are all approximately 8-10 kilodaltons in size), and the presence of four cysteine residues in conserved locations that are key to forming their 3-dimensional shape. (wikidoc.org)
  • Proteins are classified into the chemokine family based on their structural characteristics, not just their ability to attract cells. (wikidoc.org)
  • Typical chemokine proteins are produced as pro-peptides , beginning with a signal peptide of approximately 20 amino acids that gets cleaved from the active (mature) portion of the molecule during the process of its secretion from the cell. (wikidoc.org)
  • Chemokines are small cytokines, or signaling proteins, secreted by cells. (wikipathways.org)
  • Chemokines form a superfamily of secreted proteins involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Chemokines represent a large group of chemotactic proteins, with more than 50 members that regulate the trafficking and activation of immune cells. (springer.com)
  • Monocyte chemoattractant proteins (MCPs) are chemokines that stimulate the receptor CCR2, which is found on monocytes and macrophages and is implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes. (sciencemag.org)
  • Chemokines are a family of small secreted proteins that activate and attract leukocytes during inflammation, but also play an important role in normal leukocyte trafficking, including lymphocyte homing. (rupress.org)
  • Tick chemokine-binding proteins (evasins) are an emerging class of biologicals that target multiple chemokines and have shown anti-inflammatory activities in preclinical disease models. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • This study analyzed and compared the presence of 100 proteins including chemokines, cytokines and soluble factors in six different types of media supplements: serum, plasma, recalcified plasma, heat inactivated serum, heat inactivated plasma and heat inactivated recalcified plasma. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential vaccine adjuvants. (mdpi.com)
  • The gene for CCL8 is encoded by 3 exons and is located within a large cluster of CC chemokines on chromosome 17q11.2 in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human CCL8 genome location and CCL8 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 8, also known as CCR8, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR8 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene is located at the chemokine receptor gene cluster region. (wikipedia.org)
  • IFNβ immediately induces a burst of gene expression of proinflammatory chemokines in vitro that have potential relevance to IFNβ-related early adverse effects in MS patients in vivo . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Confirmation of selected chemokine and adhesion molecule gene expression by RT-PCR. (jimmunol.org)
  • Mice lacking the Ccl8 gene were more susceptible to L. monocytogenes infection than were wild-type mice. (umassmed.edu)
  • This gene is mapped to chromosome 3p21.3, a region that includes a cluster of chemokine receptor genes. (avivasysbio.com)
  • Chemokines are a group of related chemoattractant peptides that are essential regulators of the immune system, both during homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. (mdpi.com)
  • The major role of chemokines is to act as a chemoattractant to guide the migration of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mouse CCL8 is a CC chemokine of the monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP) family whose biological activity and receptor usage have remained elusive. (nih.gov)
  • Recombinant Mouse C-C Motif Chemokine 8, His (HEK293-expressed) is a member of the monocyte-chemoattractant protein family, and functions in a wide variety of inflammatory cells as a chemotactic factor. (lucerna-chem.ch)
  • Chemokines are a large subfamily of chemoattractant cytokines, which are classified into four highly conserved groups, CXC, CC, C, and CX 3 C, based on the position of the first two cysteines adjacent to the NH 2 terminus. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This chemokine, a member of the CC subfamily, functions as a chemoattractant for blood monocytes, memory T helper cells and eosinophils. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Chemokines are an important class of chemoattractant cytokines produced locally in tissues that provide the directional cues for the movement of blood-derived leukocytes in development, homeostasis, and inflammation. (bloodjournal.org)
  • For example, in addition to chemotaxis, chemokines modulate lymphocyte development, priming and effector function [ 2 ] and play a critical role in immune surveillance. (mdpi.com)
  • In addition to being known for mediating chemotaxis, chemokines are all approximately 8-10 kilodaltons in mass and have four cysteine residues in conserved locations that are key to forming their 3-dimensional shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the potential application of chemokines in chemotaxis of exosomes as drug vehicles is discussed. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chemokines are a class of cytokines that induce chemotaxis (migration) of target cells. (biolegend.com)
  • While some chemotaxis is induced by inflammation or damaged cells, other chemokines function in homeostasis. (biolegend.com)
  • Chemokines primarily act to promote leukocyte chemotaxis to sites of inflammation. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • The residues in the predicted antagonist binding sites of each receptor were subsequently validated using site-directed mutagenesis and after transient expression, chemotaxis measurements, and radiolabeled chemokine competitive binding experiments were carried out. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, reintroduction of chemokines CXCL10 and CCL8 to BMSCs overcomes the inhibitory effect of SCIO-469 on TNFα-induced MM adhesion. (elsevier.com)
  • Here we show that CCL8 is highly expressed in the skin, where it serves as an agonist for the chemokine receptor CCR8 but not for CCR2. (nih.gov)
  • The chemokine receptor CCR2, which has been implicated in a variety of inflammatory, autoimmune, and cardiovascular conditions, binds several natural chemokine ligands. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The chemokine receptor CCR2 is of significant clinical interest because it has been implicated in inflammatory and cardiovascular disease. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Ccl8 and Ccl12 are chemotactic factors that attract monocytes, lymphocytes, basophils and eosinophils to sites of injury or infection through association with CCR8 (chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 8) and CCR2, respectively. (jax.org)
  • Hepatic inflammation is a feature of obesity-induced liver disease, and our previous studies demonstrated reduced hepatic steatosis in obese mice deficient in the C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) that regulates myeloid cell recruitment. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Expression of the chemokine receptor CCR2 on immature B cells negatively regulates their cytoskeletal rearrangement and migration. (peprotech.com)
  • The authors also showed that a region in the transmembrane domains of CCR2 was a critical site for chemokine-receptor interactions. (sciencemag.org)
  • Discovery and lead optimization of a novel series of CC chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1)-selective piperidine antagonists via parallel synthesis. (springer.com)
  • The chemokine macrophage-inflammatory protein-1 alpha and its receptor CCR1 control pulmonary inflammation and antiviral host defense in paramyxovirus infection. (springer.com)
  • Gerard C, Frossard JL, Bhatia M, Saluja A, Gerard NP, Lu B, Steer M. Targeted disruption of the beta-chemokine receptor CCR1 protects against pancreatitis-associated lung injury. (springer.com)
  • Khan IA, Murphy PM, Casciotti L, Schwartzman JD, Collins J, Gao JL, Yeaman GR. Mice lacking the chemokine receptor CCR1 show increased susceptibility to Toxoplasma gondii infection. (springer.com)
  • It functions as one of the natural ligands for the chemokine receptor chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (CCR5), and it suppresses in vitro replication of the R5 strains of HIV-1, which use CCR5 as a coreceptor. (creativebiomart.net)
  • A critical question facing developers of co-receptor inhibitors is whether CCR5 and CXCR4 inhibitor compounds interfere with chemokine/receptor interactions, and if so, whether such interference has harmful consequences. (treatmentactiongroup.org)
  • CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a G protein-coupled receptor that governs migration of leukocytes and serves as a coreceptor for the R5 tropic strains of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (39kf.com)
  • CCR5-mediated signaling in response to CC chemokines relies on G protein activation. (39kf.com)
  • However, the description of the nonredundant pharmacology of ligands to a given receptor in defined in vitro systems and in the absence of most of the confounding in vivo mechanisms is of prime interest for drug development, which has indeed been hampered by the complexity of the chemokine system. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Once at the site of injury, immune cells can react by releasing additional cytokines and chemokines, bringing more cells into the fold. (biolegend.com)
  • ASMC produce inflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as IL IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, eotaxin, and RANTES that may act in both an autocrine and paracrine manner ( 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The researchers carried out viral RNA evaluation of Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies directed explicitly against the S1 subunit of the spike protein and measurements of the cytokines and chemokines. (news-medical.net)
  • The levels of innate immune cytokines and chemokines are reported to be higher in COVID-19 patients compared to controls. (news-medical.net)
  • The researchers say, "These data indicated that innate inflammatory cytokines and chemokines are more robustly elevated early and throughout disease course in male patients over female patients. (news-medical.net)
  • CAFs promote cancer cell invasion, proliferation, and metastasis by secreting cytokines and chemokines, which stimulate receptor tyrosine kinase signaling and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) programs ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • a ) Relative positioning of the six MCP-cluster chemokine genes on human chromosome 17 and mouse chromosome 11, modified from the Ensembl site. (nih.gov)
  • Among the most highly repressed genes upon PPARα activation were several chemokines (e.g. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Design Expression of genes encoding immune cell markers, chemokines and bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (16SrRNA) was assessed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR in fresh CRC samples and corresponding tumour-free tissues. (bmj.com)
  • The miRNA-reprogrammed normal fibroblasts and patient-derived CAFs shared a large number of upregulated genes highly enriched in chemokines, which are known to be important for CAF function. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A multiplex immunoassay was used to determine levels of 15 different chemokines and IL-6 in subretinal fluid samples obtained during scleral buckling surgery for primary RRD. (arvojournals.org)
  • At first, different chemokines binding the same receptor were referred to as functionally redundant, although differences between their effects in vivo were recognized early on. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Cell-free culture supernatants from multiple donors were assayed for 37 different chemokines by using a RayBio human chemokine Ab array according to the manufacturer's protocol. (jimmunol.org)
  • The CC chemokine RANTES in breast carcinoma progression: regulation of expression and potential mechanisms of promalignant activity. (peprotech.com)
  • c ) RNA hybridization blot comparing mRNA expression of MCP-family chemokines and CCL11 (eotaxin-1) in pooled organs of normal BALB/c mice, conducted once. (nih.gov)
  • d ) Representative immunofluorescence staining of normal wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mouse skin and Ccl8 −/− Ccl12 −/− C57BL/6 mouse skin with a primary polyclonal antibody to mouse CCL8 and a fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated secondary antibody. (nih.gov)
  • Mcp-2 - /Mcp-5 - mice have a floxed neomycin cassette disrupting expression of Ccl8 and Ccl12 . (jax.org)
  • Ccr8- and Ccl8-deficient mice had markedly less eosinophilic inflammation than wild-type or Ccr4-deficient mice in a model of chronic atopic dermatitis. (nih.gov)
  • Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) isolated from Camkk2 −/− mice expressed higher levels of chemokines involved in the recruitment of effector T cells compared to WT. (nature.com)
  • The chemokine SDF-1 binds to CXCR4, and these interactions are important in many settings, including embryonic development (mice genetically lacking CXCR4 die in utero). (treatmentactiongroup.org)
  • Universal expression and dual function of the atypical chemokine receptor D6 on innate-like B cells in mice. (peprotech.com)
  • BLIMP1-deficient macrophages expressed elevated levels of Ccl8, and consequently Blimp1 CKO mice had higher levels of circulating CCL8, resulting in increased neutrophils in the peripheral blood, promoting a more aggressive antibacterial response. (umassmed.edu)
  • Rather, mMMP-12 cleavage at Ser4-Val5 activated the chemokine, promoting enhanced PMN early infiltration in wild-type mice compared with Mmp12 −/− mice 8 hours after LPS challenge in air pouches. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Chemokine production by CRC cells was evaluated in vitro and in vivo, on generation of intraperitoneal or intracecal tumour xenografts in immune-deficient mice. (bmj.com)
  • Inflammatory chemokines function mainly as chemoattractants for leukocytes , recruiting monocytes , neutrophils and other effector cells from the blood to sites of infection or tissue damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokine receptor expression on neutrophils from blood or BAL fluid of patients with ARDS was analysed by flow cytometry. (bmj.com)
  • Furthermore, neutrophils isolated from the blood or BAL fluid differentially regulated the cell surface expression of chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 1 and C-C chemokine receptor type 2 during ARDS. (bmj.com)
  • Although CCL8 failed to recruit neutrophils directly, it was chemotactic for gamma/delta T cells, and CCL8-responsive gamma/delta T cells were enriched for IL-17F. (umassmed.edu)
  • Chemokine elevations were accompanied by increases in mast cells and B cells at 5 days, monocytes and neutrophils at day 10, CD4+ T cells at day 20, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells at day 30. (jove.com)
  • MMP-12 specifically cleaves human ELR + CXC chemokines (CXCL1, -2, -3, -5, and -8) at E-LR, the critical receptor-binding motif or, for CXCL6, carboxyl-terminal to it. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Findings exemplify how gradients of chemoattractive factors such as CCL8 , drive metastasis and suggest that interference with their operation may provide means for breast cancer management. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Dermal fibroblast CCL8 promotes melanoma metastasis. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Chemokines are involved in the inflammatory response, tumor immune response, proliferation, invasion and metastasis via modulation of various signaling pathways. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • It has been found that chemokine networks may serve pivotal roles in inducing organ-specific metastasis ( 8 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In addition, CCL8 attributes to the growth of metastasis in breast cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to their function of targeting cells to specific organs, homeostatic chemokines can also be involved in cancer and metastasis. (biolegend.com)
  • The present invention provides a means of inhibiting the growth and metastasis of cancer cells by administering anti-chemokine antibodies. (google.com)
  • These highly versatile cells respond to the presence of stimuli in different parts of tumors with the release of a distinct repertoire of growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, and enzymes that regulate tumor growth, angiogenesis, invasion, and/or metastasis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This invention relates to antibodies or the use of antibodies directed against certain chemokines. (google.com)
  • certain chemokines can interact with more than one receptor. (treatmentactiongroup.org)
  • CCL8 responsiveness defined a population of highly differentiated, CCR8-expressing inflammatory T helper type 2 (T(H)2) cells enriched for interleukin (IL)-5. (nih.gov)
  • later observed that chlamydial infection of epithelial cells in vitro resulted in the production of interleukin 8 (IL-8), an important chemokine for PMNs, 20 to 24 h postinfection and required that the organisms be viable ( 26 ). (asm.org)
  • This functionally defined receptor subfamily is currently thought to be comprised of three members: D6, DARC (Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines), and CCX-CKR (ChemoCentryx chemokine receptor) (for review see references 10 , 11 ). (rupress.org)
  • Results indicate that the induction of MCP-2/CCL8 by mycobacteria is dependent on the activation of TLR2 (zeige TLR2 ELISA Kits )/ PI3K (zeige PIK3CA ELISA Kits )/ Akt (zeige AKT1 ELISA Kits ) signaling pathway. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • This pathway was inferred from Mus musculus pathway "Chemokine signaling pathway", WP2292 revision 89521, with a 91.0% conversion rate. (wikipathways.org)
  • CCL8 activates many different immune cells, including mast cells, eosinophils, and basophils (implicated in allergic responses), and monocytes, T cells, and NK cells (involved in the inflammatory response). (clontech.com)
  • Differential secretion of chemokines by monocytes following infection with HCMV. (jimmunol.org)
  • The CCL8-CCR8 chemokine axis is therefore a crucial regulator of T(H)2 cell homing that drives IL-5-mediated chronic allergic inflammation. (nih.gov)
  • Loss of red cell chemokine scavenging promotes transfusion-related lung inflammation. (peprotech.com)
  • The initial phase of inflammation involves a subset of CXC chemokines, which rapidly attract PMNs. (bloodjournal.org)
  • This study shows that PAD citrullinates the chemokine CXCL8, and thus may dampen neutrophil extravasation during acute or chronic inflammation. (rupress.org)
  • Chemokines and their receptor-mediated signal transduction are critical for the recruitment of effector immune cells to the inflammation site. (avivasysbio.com)
  • Authors show that the previously observed downregulation of hsa (zeige CD24 ELISA Kits )- miR (zeige MLXIP ELISA Kits )-92a and upregulation of CCL8 during human cytomegalovirus latent infection of myeloid cells are intimately linked via the latency-associated expression of cytomegalovirus UL111A. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Removal of the neo cassette restores expression of Ccl8 . (jax.org)
  • Because chemokines can determine host cell infiltration in solid ovarian cancer, we assessed CC chemokine protein and CC chemokine receptor expression in ovarian cancer ascites. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We used reverse transcription-PCR and RNase protection assay to determine CC chemokine and chemokine receptor mRNA expression and ELISA to measure CC chemokine protein levels. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Flow cytometry was used to identify cell populations and their chemokine receptor protein expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Establishment of the TB granuloma is controlled by the synchronized expression of various chemokines. (nature.com)
  • Leishmania major modulates chemokine and chemokine receptor expression by dendritic cells and affects their migratory capacity. (peprotech.com)
  • Midcycle cows were injected with saline or PGF, ovaries were removed after 0.5 - 4 h and chemokine expression was analyzed by qPCR. (unl.edu)
  • In vitro expression of IL8 was analyzed after PGF administration and with cell signaling inhibitors to determine the mechanism of PGF-induced chemokine expression. (unl.edu)
  • Collectively, these data reveal an important role for BLIMP1 in modulating host defenses by suppressing expression of the chemokine CCL8. (umassmed.edu)
  • Human CC chemokine CCL23 enhances expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and invasion of vascular endothelial cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Chemokine receptor expression on TILs was evaluated by flow cytometry on cell suspensions from digested tissues. (bmj.com)
  • In clinical samples, abundance of defined bacteria correlated with high chemokine expression, enhanced T cell infiltration and improved survival. (bmj.com)
  • The expression of this receptor in lymphatic endothelial cells and overexpression in vascular tumors suggested its function in chemokine-driven recirculation of leukocytes and possible chemokine effects on the development and growth of vascular tumors. (avivasysbio.com)
  • Chemokines selectively regulate the recruitment and trafficking of leukocyte subsets to inflammatory sites. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing recruitment of antigen presenting cells (APCs) and effector cells to appropriate anatomical sites. (mdpi.com)
  • The degree of pertussis toxin resistance of arrestin recruitment was different between the chemokines. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Chemokines are felt to play a major role latent TB infection (LTB) as they appear to be critical in the formation and maintenance of quiescent granulomas 4 and in the recruitment of cells from the periphery for positioning within the granuloma 5 . (nature.com)
  • These data implicate a complex cascade of events during luteolysis involving chemokine signaling, neutrophil recruitment, and immune cell action within the corpus luteum. (unl.edu)
  • Conclusions Gut microbiota stimulate chemokine production by CRC cells, thus favouring recruitment of beneficial T cells into tumour tissues. (bmj.com)
  • In patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), chemokine and chemokine receptor interactions play a central role in the recruitment of leukocytes into inflamed joints. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A series of investigations on ovarian neoplasms have improved our understanding of proinflammatory microenvironment including unfavorable cytokines, chemokines and imbalanced hormone production. (mdpi.com)
  • Patients with neuropathic pain have higher levels of a set of proinflammatory chemokines. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • Patients with neuropathic pain have elevated levels of a set of proinflammatory chemokines compared with healthy individuals, suggesting ongoing neuroinflammation, according to a study published in the journal Pain . (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • Monocyte chemotactic protein-2 (MCP-2) is a member of the b (CC) family of chemokines. (creative-bioarray.com)
  • Use this table to quickly identify the chemokines that bind to each receptor. (biolegend.com)
  • The CC chemokine-binding profile was distinct from that of evasin 1 (EVA1), which does not bind CCL8. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • While a function of chemokines is to regulate lymphocyte trafficking, the view that chemokines act simply as "chemotactic cytokines" has evolved to include the many critical roles they play in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses. (mdpi.com)
  • On one hand, the chemokine network is used by tumors to evade immune surveillance, resist apoptosis, and metastasize. (mdpi.com)
  • On the other hand, the chemokine system also plays a crucial role in the induction of antitumor immune responses and optimal effector function regulation of immune cells [ 1 , 4 , 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Some chemokines are considered pro- inflammatory and can be induced during an immune response to recruit cells of the immune system to a site of infection , while others are considered homeostatic and are involved in controlling the migration of cells during normal processes of tissue maintenance or development . (wikipedia.org)
  • Some chemokines control cells of the immune system during processes of immune surveillance, such as directing lymphocytes to the lymph nodes so they can screen for invasion of pathogens by interacting with antigen-presenting cells residing in these tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain inflammatory chemokines activate cells to initiate an immune response or promote wound healing . (wikipedia.org)
  • Still, there is a more robust innate immune activation in males, causing a rise in the levels of innate immune chemokines and cytokines. (news-medical.net)
  • By scavenging chemokines in tissues, on the surfaces of lymphatic vessels, and in placenta, plays an essential role in the resolution (termination) of the inflammatory response and in the regulation of adaptive immune responses. (avivasysbio.com)
  • On the basis of our findings, it seems that the chemokines may play role in the pathogenesis of preterm labor. (hindawi.com)
  • These are known as homeostatic chemokines and are produced and secreted without any need to stimulate their source cell(s). (wikipedia.org)
  • Homeostatic chemokines are constitutively expressed in particular organs or tissues. (biolegend.com)
  • We examined the plasma levels of chemokines in individuals with PTB, latent TB (LTB) or healthy controls (HC) and their association with disease severity and mycobacterial burdens in PTB. (nature.com)
  • Our data demonstrate that PTB is associated with elevated levels of chemokines, which are partially reversed followed chemotherapy. (nature.com)
  • To decipher the role of chemokines in TB infection and disease, we measured the levels of chemokines in PTB, LTB and HC individuals. (nature.com)
  • To date, >50 chemokines have been found, which can be divided into four families: CXC, CX3C, CC and XC, according to the different positions of the conserved N‑terminal cysteine residues. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • 50 chemokines have been identified, which can be divided into four families: CXC, CX3C, CC and XC, based on the different positions of the conserved N-terminal cysteine residues ( 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • All chemokines share a typical Greek key structure that is stabilised by disulphide bonds between conserved cysteine residues. (wikidoc.org)
  • Intramolecular disulphide bonds typically join the first to third, and the second to fourth cysteine residues, numbered as they appear in the protein sequence of the chemokine. (wikidoc.org)
  • The first two cysteines, in a chemokine, are situated close together near the N-terminal end of the mature protein, with the third cysteine residing in the centre of the molecule and the fourth close to the C-terminal end . (wikidoc.org)
  • Recombinant Murine JE is a 13.8 kDa protein containing 125 amino acid residues, including the four highly conserved cysteine residues present in the CC chemokines. (peprotech.com)
  • These chemotactic cytokines contain conserved cysteine residues in their amino (NH 2 )-terminal structure, a characteristic used for classification into CXC, CC, CX 3 C, and C chemokines ( 1 , 2 ). (rupress.org)
  • Mouse CCL8 induces migration and calcium flux in T H 2-R2A cells. (nih.gov)
  • c ) Migration of lymph node CD4 + and CD8 + T cells to mouse CCL8 and CXCL12. (nih.gov)
  • f ) Dose-response migration of T H 2-R2A cells to mouse CCL8 (representative of more than 10 experiments) and PTX-mediated inhibition of mouse CCL8-induced migration (one of three independent experiments shown). (nih.gov)
  • A major rol of chemokines is to act as chemoattractants in guiding migration of cells. (wikipathways.org)
  • Conclusion This study highlights important inflammatory chemokines involved in regulating neutrophil migration, which may have potential value as therapeutic targets for the treatment of ARDS. (bmj.com)
  • Mouse CCL8, a CCR8 agonist, promotes atopic dermatitis by recruiting IL-5+ T(H)2 cells. (nih.gov)
  • CCL8 also functions as a CCR8 agonist. (wikipedia.org)