Chemokine CCL27: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.Chemokine CCL21: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL22: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.Chemokine CCL17: A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Chemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CCL19: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL5: A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.Chemokine CCL20: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL1: A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.Chemokines, CC: Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.Receptors, Chemokine: Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Chemokine CCL3: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Chemokine CCL7: A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Receptors, CCR10: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL4: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Chemokine CXCL12: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.Receptors, CCR1: CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.Chemokine CXCL10: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemokine CCL8: A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.Receptors, CCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.Receptors, CCR2: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.Chemokine CCL11: A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Chemokine CCL24: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Receptors, CCR7: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.Receptors, CCR8: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.Chemokine CXCL1: A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Receptors, CCR4: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.Chemokines, CXC: Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.Chemokine CX3CL1: A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins: Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.Receptors, CCR5: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.Receptors, CCR3: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.Chemokine CXCL9: An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Mice, Inbred C57BLCell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Chemokine CXCL2: A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CXCL13: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.Receptors, CXCR4: CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Chemokine CXCL11: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Chemokine CXCL6: A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Chemokine CXCL5: A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Receptors, CXCR3: CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Receptors, Interleukin-8B: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Dermatitis, Atopic: A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Monocyte Chemoattractant Proteins: Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Receptors, CCR6: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Receptors, Interleukin-8A: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Receptors, CXCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Receptors, Cytokine: Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Chemokines, CX3C: Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.Receptors, CXCR5: CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Chemotactic Factors: Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Monokines: Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.Receptors, HIV: Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Carbon Tetrachloride PoisoningDuffy Blood-Group System: A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.Chemotactic Factors, Eosinophil: Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.Neutrophil Infiltration: The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Heterocyclic Compounds: Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Cell Migration Inhibition: Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Platelet Factor 4: A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Endothelium, Lymphatic: Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.

Transcriptional control of the human MCP-2 gene promoter by IFN-gamma and IL-1beta in connective tissue cells. (1/77)

Human monocyte chemotactic protein-2 (MCP-2) is a member of the CC chemokine family. It is produced by mononuclear leukocytes, diploid fibroblasts, and tumor cells after induction with IL-1beta or IFN-gamma. To understand the transcriptional regulation of the gene, we have analyzed the structure and function of the promoter region. The sequence of the 5'-flanking region was determined and the transcription start site was found to be located at 68 nucleotides upstream of the ATG translation start codon. 5'-Deletion mutants were generated and transfected into E6SM diploid fibroblasts and MG-63 osteosarcoma cells. Expression was measured by luciferase assay in transfected unstimulated cells and after stimulation with IL-1beta, IFN-gamma, or a combination. The region between nucleotides -143 and -73 (relative to the transcription initiation site), containing putative cis-elements for GATA-1, H-APF1, AP-1, and GAS, is important for basal transcription levels in both cell lines. Stimulation for 18 h with IL-1beta alone failed to affect expression of any of the constructs both in diploid fibroblasts and in osteosarcoma cells. In both cell lines IFN-gamma increased the activity of all mutants that possessed the region between -340 and -301. In MG-63 cells, stimulation with the combination of IL-1beta and IFN-gamma caused an additional increase in expression of the constructs from -340 onward. Finally, the presence of transcription factors in nuclear extracts of MG-63 cells and their specificity to bind to various oligonucleotide probes in this [-340; -301] region were evidenced by electromobility shift assays. These results show that IFN-gamma, produced by lymphocytes and NK cells, induces the transcription of the MCP-2 gene in fibroblasts and thereby can indirectly contribute to recruitment of various leukocyte cell types to inflammatory sites.  (+info)

Sensitivity of human immunodeficiency virus infection to various alpha, beta and gamma chemokines. (2/77)

Examination of a large panel of chemokines indicates that in addition to RANTES, MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta, the beta-chemokine MCP-2 and, to a lesser extent, the gamma-chemokine lymphotactin also show anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity in cell culture. The amount of chemokine needed to suppress HIV replication by > or = 50% was generally greater (> or = 250 ng/ml) than that required for inhibition of virus infection by RANTES, MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta. The beta-chemokine MCP-3 was found to enhance the replication of both non-syncytium-inducing (NSI) and syncytium-inducing (SI) viruses at high concentrations (0.5-5 microg/ml). In contrast to a previous report, macrophage-derived chemokine was not found to inhibit HIV replication of either NSI or SI viruses, but at low concentrations enhanced NSI virus replication. When small amounts of RANTES or MCP-2 were added together with high concentrations of non-inhibitory chemokines, the anti-HIV effects were countered. Information on chemokines that affect HIV infection could be useful for future therapeutic strategies.  (+info)

Selective suppression of IL-12 production by chemoattractants. (3/77)

We investigated the ability of chemoattractants to affect IL-12 production by human monocytes and dendritic cells. We found that pretreatment of monocytes with macrophage chemoattractant proteins (MCP-1 to -4), or C5a, but not stromal-derived factor-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha, RANTES, or eotaxin, inhibited IL-12 p70 production in response to stimulation with Staphylococcus aureus, Cowan strain 1 (SAC), and IFN-gamma. The production of TNF-alpha and IL-10, however, was minimally affected by any of the chemoattractants. The degree of inhibition of IL-12 p70 production by MCP-1 to -4 was donor dependent and was affected by the autocrine inhibitory effects of IL-10. In contrast, C5a profoundly suppressed IL-12 production in an IL-10-independent fashion. Neither TGF-beta1 nor PGE2 was important for the suppression of IL-12 by any of the chemoattractants tested. The accumulation of mRNA for both IL-12 p35 and p40 genes was inhibited by chemokine pretreatment. Interestingly, MCP-1 to -4 and C5a did not suppress IL-12 production by monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) stimulated with CD40 ligand and IFN-gamma or by SAC and IFN-gamma, suggesting that these factors may act at the site of inflammation to suppress IL-12 and IFN-gamma production rather than in the lymph node to affect T cell priming. Despite the inability of C5a to inhibit IL-12 production by DCs, the receptor for C5a (CD88) was expressed by these cells, and recombinant C5a induced a Ca2+ flux. Taken together, these results define a range of chemoattractant molecules with the ability to suppress IL-12 production by human monocytes and have broad implications for the regulation of immune responses in vivo.  (+info)

Neutrophil gelatinase B potentiates interleukin-8 tenfold by aminoterminal processing, whereas it degrades CTAP-III, PF-4, and GRO-alpha and leaves RANTES and MCP-2 intact. (4/77)

Chemokines are mediators in inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Aminoterminal truncation of chemokines results in altered specific activities and receptor recognition patterns. Truncated forms of the CXC chemokine interleukin (IL)-8 are more active than full-length IL-8 (1-77), provided the Glu-Leu-Arg (ELR) motif remains intact. Here, a positive feedback loop is demonstrated between gelatinase B, a major secreted matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9) from neutrophils, and IL-8, the prototype chemokine active on neutrophils. Natural human neutrophil progelatinase B was purified to homogeneity and activated by stromelysin-1. Gelatinase B truncated IL-8(1-77) into IL-8(7-77), resulting in a 10- to 27-fold higher potency in neutrophil activation, as measured by the increase in intracellular Ca(++) concentration, secretion of gelatinase B, and neutrophil chemotaxis. This potentiation correlated with enhanced binding to neutrophils and increased signaling through CXC chemokine receptor-1 (CXCR1), but it was significantly less pronounced on a CXCR2-expressing cell line. Three other CXC chemokines-connective tissue-activating peptide-III (CTAP-III), platelet factor-4 (PF-4), and GRO-alpha-were degraded by gelatinase B. In contrast, the CC chemokines RANTES and monocyte chemotactic protein-2 (MCP-2) were not digested by this enzyme. The observation of differing effects of neutrophil gelatinase B on the proteolysis of IL-8 versus other CXC chemokines and on CXC receptor usage by processed IL-8 yielded insights into the relative activities of chemokines. This led to a better understanding of regulator (IL-8) and effector molecules (gelatinase B) of neutrophils and of mechanisms underlying leukocytosis, shock syndromes, and stem cell mobilization by IL-8. (Blood. 2000;96:2673-2681)  (+info)

Chemokines in the limbal form of vernal keratoconjunctivitis. (5/77)

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Chemokines are a family of low molecular weight cytokines that attract and activate leucocytes. The CC chemokines act on eosinophils, basophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes, suggesting that they play an important part in allergic diseases. The aims of this study were to investigate the expression of the CC chemokines, RANTES, eotaxin, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP) 1, MCP-2, and MCP-3 in the conjunctiva of patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) and to determine the cellular source of these chemokines. METHODS: Conjunctival biopsy specimens from nine subjects with active VKC, and six control subjects were studied by immunohistochemical techniques using a panel of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies directed against RANTES, eotaxin, MCP-1, MCP-2, and MCP-3. The phenotype of inflammatory cells expressing chemokines was examined by sequential double immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: In the normal conjunctiva, superficial epithelial cells showed a constitutive, weak cytoplasmic expression of eotaxin. Few inflammatory cells in the perivascular areas expressed RANTES, MCP-1, MCP-2, and MCP-3. In VKC specimens, the epithelium showed intense cytoplasmic eotaxin staining in all cells, and cytoplasmic RANTES staining mainly in the superficial layers. Furthermore, RANTES and eotaxin were expressed on the vascular endothelium mainly in the upper substantia propria. Compared with normal controls, VKC specimens showed significantly more inflammatory cells expressing RANTES, eotaxin, MCP-1, and MCP-3 (p<0.001, 0.0028, 0.0092, and <0. 001, respectively). In VKC specimens, the numbers of inflammatory cells expressing RANTES were significantly higher than the numbers of inflammatory cells expressing eotaxin, MCP-1, and MCP-2 (all p values <0.001). Colocalisation studies revealed that the majority of inflammatory cells expressing chemokines were CD68 positive monocytes/macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate an increase in the expression of RANTES, eotaxin, MCP-1, and MCP-3 in the conjunctiva of patients with VKC compared with control subjects. These data suggest a potential role for these chemokines in the pathogenesis of VKC. Antagonists of chemokine receptors may provide new therapeutic modalities in VKC.  (+info)

Basophil responses to chemokines are regulated by both sequential and cooperative receptor signaling. (6/77)

To investigate human basophil responses to chemokines, we have developed a sensitive assay that uses flow cytometry to measure leukocyte shape change as a marker of cell responsiveness. PBMC were isolated from the blood of volunteers. Basophils were identified as a single population of cells that stained positive for IL-3Ralpha (CDw123) and negative for HLA-DR, and their increase in forward scatter (as a result of cell shape change) in response to chemokines was measured. Shape change responses of basophils to chemokines were highly reproducible, with a rank order of potency: monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP) 4 (peak at <1 nM) >/= eotaxin-2 = eotaxin-3 >/= eotaxin > MCP-1 = MCP-3 > macrophage-inflammatory protein-1alpha > RANTES = MCP-2 = IL-8. The CCR4-selective ligand macrophage-derived chemokine did not elicit a response at concentrations up to 10 nM. Blocking mAbs to CCR2 and CCR3 demonstrated that responses to higher concentrations (>10 nM) of MCP-1 were mediated by CCR3 rather than CCR2, whereas MCP-4 exhibited a biphasic response consistent with sequential activation of CCR3 at lower concentrations and CCR2 at 10 nM MCP-4 and above. In contrast, responses to MCP-3 were blocked only in the presence of both mAbs, but not after pretreatment with either anti-CCR2 or anti-CCR3 mAb alone. These patterns of receptor usage were different from those seen for eosinophils and monocytes. We suggest that cooperation between CCRs might be a mechanism for preferential recruitment of basophils, as occurs in tissue hypersensitivity responses in vivo.  (+info)

Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and -2 messenger ribonucleic acids in the ovine uterus: regulation by pregnancy, progesterone, and interferon-tau. (7/77)

Endometrial leukocytes may play important roles during pregnancy. Because chemokines are regulators of immune cell activity and trafficking, this study determined if mRNAs for monocyte chemotactic proteins (MCP) were present in the ovine uterus and regulated by progesterone (P) and/or recombinant ovine interferon tau (roIFN-tau). Uteri of normal cycling and pregnant ewes (experiment 1) and uteri of ovariectomized ewes receiving intrauterine infusions of IFN-tau and/or i.m. injections of P (experiment 2) were used to detect MCP-1 and MCP-2 mRNA. In experiment 1, slot-blot hybridization analysis of endometrial total RNA revealed that MCP-1 and MCP-2 mRNA levels did not change during the estrous cycle but increased between Days 13 and 19 of pregnancy. Using in situ hybridization, MCP-1 and MCP-2 mRNA were localized to immune cells in the subepithelial compact stroma. Histomorphological studies and in situ hybridization for major basic protein (MBP) indicated that MCP-positive immune cells were eosinophils. In experiment 2, treatment with P and roIFN-tau increased (P < 0.05) the number of MCP-1- and MCP-2-expressing eosinophils in the endometrium compared to ewes treated with P alone. Injection of the P receptor antagonist (ZK 137,316) inhibited effects of P and/or roIFN-tau to recruit eosinophils expressing MCP-1 and MCP-2 mRNAs. Endometrial production of MCPs by eosinophils during early pregnancy may play a role(s) in central implantation and/or placentation in ewes that is crucial for successful establishment of pregnancy.  (+info)

Absence of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 in mice leads to decreased local macrophage recruitment and antigen-specific T helper cell type 1 immune response in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. (8/77)

Monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 plays a critical role in innate immunity by directing the migration of monocytes into inflammatory sites. Recent data indicated a function for this chemokine in adaptive immunity as a regulator of T cell commitment to T helper cell type 2 (Th2) effector function. Studies in a Th1-dependent animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), showed that MCP-1 was highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) of affected rodents, and MCP-1 antibodies could block relapses of the disease. Mice deficient for the major MCP-1 receptor, CC chemokine receptor (CCR)2, did not develop EAE after active immunization but generated effector cells that could transfer the disease to naive wild-type recipients. We analyzed EAE in mice deficient for MCP-1 to define the relevant ligand for CCR2, which responds to murine MCP-1, MCP-2, MCP-3, and MCP-5. We found that C57BL/6 MCP-1-null mice were markedly resistant to EAE after active immunization, with drastically impaired recruitment of macrophages to the CNS, yet able to generate effector T cells that transferred severe disease to naive wild-type recipients. By contrast, adoptive transfer of primed T cells from wild-type mice into naive MCP-1-null recipients did not mediate clinical EAE. On the SJL background, disruption of the MCP-1 gene produced a milder EAE phenotype with diminished relapses that mimicked previous findings using anti-MCP-1 antibodies. There was no compensatory upregulation of MCP-2, MCP-3, or MCP-5 in MCP-1-null mice with EAE. These results indicated that MCP-1 is the major CCR2 ligand in mice with EAE, and provided an opportunity to define the role of MCP-1 in EAE. Compared with wild-type littermates, MCP-1-/- mice exhibited reduced expression of interferon gamma in draining lymph node and CNS and increased antigen-specific immunoglobulin G1 antibody production. Taken together, these data demonstrate that MCP-1 is crucial for Th1 immune responses in EAE induction and that macrophage recruitment to the inflamed CNS target organ is required for primed T cells to execute a Th1 effector program in EAE.  (+info)

*5-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid

5-Oxo-ETE also acts in synergy with two chemokines, CCL2 and CCL8, in stimulating monocyte chemotaxis. The interactions of 5- ... and the two CCL chemokines) in neutrophils and monocytes further suggest that it plays a role in inflammatory responses and ...

*CCL8

... is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. The CCL8 protein is produced as a precursor containing 109 amino ... CCL8 is a CC chemokine that utilizes multiple cellular receptors to attract and activate human leukocytes. CCL8 is a potent ... The gene for CCL8 is encoded by 3 exons and is located within a large cluster of CC chemokines on chromosome 17q11.2 in humans ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 8 (CCL8), also known as monocyte chemoattractant protein 2 (MCP2), is a protein that in humans is ...

*Chemokine

CCL8, CCL13, CCL17 and CCL22. T-lymphocytes: the four key chemokines that are involved in the recruitment of T lymphocytes to ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines in that it has ... CCL1 for the ligand 1 of the CC-family of chemokines, and CCR1 for its respective receptor. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) ...

*CC chemokine receptors

CCR2 can interact with CCL2, CCL8 and CCL16 and has been identified on the surface of monocytes, activated memory T cells, B ... The CC chemokine receptors all work by activating the G protein Gi. CCR1 was the first CC chemokine receptor identified and ... The orphan chemokine receptor G protein-coupled receptor-2 (GPR-2, CCR10) binds the skin-associated chemokine CCL27 (CTACK/ALP/ ... Human CC chemokine liver-expressed chemokine/CCL16 is a functional ligand for CCR1, CCR2 and CCR5, and constitutively expressed ...

*Chromosome 17 (human)

Several CC chemokines: CCL1, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL7, CCL8, CCL11, CCL13, CCL14, CCL15, CCL16, CCL18, and CCL23 The ... C-C motif chemokine ligand 4 like 1 (17q12) DDX52: DExD-box helicase 52 (17q12) ERBB2 loca leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2, ...

*CCR8 (gene)

"The assignment of chemokine-chemokine receptor pairs: TARC and MIP-1 beta are not ligands for human CC-chemokine receptor 8". ... CCL8 also functions as a CCR8 agonist. Studies of this receptor and its ligands suggested its role in regulation of monocyte ... "The assignment of chemokine-chemokine receptor pairs: TARC and MIP-1 beta are not ligands for human CC-chemokine receptor 8". ... This gene is located at the chemokine receptor gene cluster region. CC chemokine receptors GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...

*Index of immunology articles

C-C chemokine receptor type 6 C-C chemokine receptor type 7 Calreticulin Cancer immunology Cancer immunoprevention Cancer ... CCL13 CCL14 CCL15 CCL16 CCL17 CCL18 CCL19 CCL2 CCL20 CCL21 CCL22 CCL23 CCL24 CCL25 CCL26 CCL27 CCL28 CCL3 CCL5 CCL6 CCL7 CCL8 ... CD4 CD4+ T cells and antitumor immunity CD74 CD94/NKG2 Cell-mediated immunity CELSR1 Central tolerance Chemokine Chemokine ... CR6261 CroFab Cross-presentation Cross-reactivity Cryptic self epitopes Cryptotope CX3CL1 CX3CR1 CXC chemokine receptors CXCL1 ...

*CCL18

Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 18 (CCL18) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. The functions of CCL18 have ... and PITPNM3-CCL8 binding induces Pyk2 and Src mediated signaling, a cancer related signaling pathway, and subsequent metastasis ... It was previously known as Pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine (PARC), dendritic cell (DC)-chemokine 1 (DC-CK1), ... Chemokines are classed as a special type of cytokine that is involved in immune cell trafficking. CCL18 in particular has some ...
PAA087Si01, CCL2; GDCF2; HC11; HSMCR30; MCAF; MCP1; SCYA2; SMC-CF; Chemokine C-C-Motif Ligand 2; Monocyte Chemotactic And Activating Factor; Monocyte Secretory Protein JE | Products for research use only!
LAA087Si71, CCL2; GDCF2; HC11; HSMCR30; MCAF; MCP1; SCYA2; SMC-CF; Chemokine C-C-Motif Ligand 2; Monocyte Chemotactic And Activating Factor; Monocyte Secretory Protein JE | Products for research use only!
Bachem offers H-5826 Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 (human) for your research. Find all specific details here. Find product specific information including available pack sizes, CAS, detailed description and references here.
Mouse C-C Motif Chemokine 2 / Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 (CCL2/MCP1) standard, for use in running standard curves in AlphaLISA no-wash detection assays.
Looking for online definition of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 in the Medical Dictionary? Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 explanation free. What is Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1? Meaning of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 medical term. What does Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 mean?
Looking for online definition of Stimulated T-cell chemotactic protein 1 in the Medical Dictionary? Stimulated T-cell chemotactic protein 1 explanation free. What is Stimulated T-cell chemotactic protein 1? Meaning of Stimulated T-cell chemotactic protein 1 medical term. What does Stimulated T-cell chemotactic protein 1 mean?
By Northern analysis, freshly isolated monocytes contained no detectable mRNA for monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). However, after 4 hours of incubation at 37 degrees C, MCP-1 mRNA was clearly induced in the monocytes and was found to be highly dependent and directly proportional to the monocyte density. The level of MCP-1 mRNA continued to increase, reaching a peak after 22 hours of incubation. After 3 days in culture, MCP-1 mRNA levels had declined substantially and after 8 days were undetectable in the monocytes/macrophages. The amount of MCP-1 protein secreted correlated with the density-dependent increase in MCP-1 message. We hypothesize that the migration of monocytes into inflammatory lesions may be amplified by the density and time-dependent induction of MCP-1. ...
Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 3 (MCP-3), also called CCL7, is produced by macrophages and some tumor cell lines. MCP-3 signals through three different G protein-coupled receptors, CCR1, CCR2, and CCR3. CCL7 chemoattracts monocytes and can regulate macrophage function. Alternate Names: CCL7, MARC
How are they treated? Well, x-rays of the chest and how the patient is looks/feels/act (its clinicial presentation) aid in the decision. Some times air will be taken out of the chest using a needle (thoracocentesis). Other times, if the patient is stable, the patient may be monitored. If the chest wound is open (a hole in the chest that is exposed to the outside environment), it should be closed and a chest tube may be placed.. Chest trauma does not always include a pneumothorax. During a trauma, the lungs may be bruised (lung contusions), the ribs may be broken, or the diaphragm may be ruptured. These are all serious emergencies. By and far, lung contusions are the most common. If your pet is diagnosed or has the potential to have lung contusions, here is what I think you should know. There is no direct way of treating lung contusions. One of the best treatments that we have is intravenous fluids. If lung contusions occur, we worry that a clot has or might form. This clot may travel and ...
Conference Paper: Association of the monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) promoter polymorphism with tuberculosis in the Hong Kong Chinese ...
Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-3 Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a non-glycosylated, Polypeptide chain containing 76 amino acids.
BACKGROUND Quick diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and extra-pulmonary TB are urgently needed in clinical diagnosis. Our research aims to investigate the usefulness of the interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) for the diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB. METHODS We performed TB antibody and TB-IGRA tests on 389 pulmonary TB patients (including 120 smear-positive pulmonary TB patients and 269 smear-negative pulmonary TB patients), 113 extra-pulmonary TB patients, 81 patients with other pulmonary diseases and 100 healthy controls. Blood samples for the TB-Ab test and the TB-IGRA were collected, processed, and interpreted according to the manufacturers protocol. RESULTS The detection ratio of smear-positive pulmonary TB patients and smear-negative pulmonary TB patients were 90.8% (109 of 120) and 89.6% (241 of 269), respectively. There was no statistically significant difference of its performance between these two sample sets (P | 0.05). The detection ratio
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Zhenyu Yao, Michael Keeney, Tzu-Hua Lin, Jukka Pajarinen, Katherine Barcay, Heather Waters, Kensuke Egashira, Fan Yang, Stuart Goodman].
Mellado M., Rodriguez-Frade J.M., Aragay A., del Real G., Martin A.M., Vila-Coro A.J., Serrano A., Mayor F. Jr., Martinez-A C.. The chemokines are a growing family of low m.w., 70-to 80-residue proinflammatory cytokines that operate by interacting with G protein-coupled receptors. Chemokines are involved in cell migration and in the activation of specific leukocyte subsets. Using the Mono Mac 1 monocytic cell line, we show that monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) triggers activation of the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/STAT3 pathway and CCR2 receptor tyrosine phosphorylation. Both Ca2+ mobilization and cell migration are blocked in Mono Mac 1 cells by tyrphostin B42, a specific JAK2 kinase inhibitor. Within seconds of MCP-1 activation, JAK2 phosphorylates CCR2 at the Tyr139 position and promotes JAK2/STAT3 complex association to the receptor. This MCP-1-initiated phosphorylation and association to JAK2 is also observed in CCR2B-transfected HEK293 cells. In contrast, when a CCR2B Tyr139Phe mutant is ...
Thesis, English, Role of monocyte chemotactic protein 1|(mcp1)in diagnosis of patients with atherosclerotic coronary artery disease for Ebraheem Dalia El Morsy
Mouse anti Human MCP-3 antibody, clone h.mcp.3 recognizes human C-C motif chemokine 7, also known as Monocyte chemoattractant protein 3, M

Ackr2 - Atypical chemokine receptor 2 - Rattus norvegicus (Rat) - Ackr2 gene & proteinAckr2 - Atypical chemokine receptor 2 - Rattus norvegicus (Rat) - Ackr2 gene & protein

Acts as a receptor for chemokines including CCL2, CCL3, CCL3L1, CCL4, CCL5, CCL7, CCL8, CCL11, CCL13, CCL17, CCL22, CCL23, ... Also known as interceptor (internalizing receptor) or chemokine-scavenging receptor or chemokine decoy receptor. ... increasing its efficiency in chemokine uptake and degradation. By scavenging chemokines in tissues, on the surfaces of ... resulting instead in chemokine sequestration, degradation, or transcytosis. ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/O09027

Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 8 (CCL8) AntikörperChemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 8 (CCL8) Antikörper

146 verschiedene CCL8 Antikörper vergleichen. Alle direkt auf antikörper-online bestellbar! ... Show all anti-Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 8 (CCL8) Antikörper with Pubmed References. * Mouse (Murine) Polyclonal CCL8 Primary ... anti-Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 8 (CCL8) Antikörper. CCL8 is one of several cytokine genes clustered on the q-arm of ... Weitere Antikörper gegen Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 8 Interaktionspartner. Human Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 8 (CCL8) ...
more infohttps://www.antikoerper-online.de/abstract/Chemokine+

Monocyte chemoattractant protein-2 ELISA | Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 8 ELISA | Mouse CCL8/MCP-2 ELISA | CCL8 ELISA | MCP-2...Monocyte chemoattractant protein-2 ELISA | Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 8 ELISA | Mouse CCL8/MCP-2 ELISA | CCL8 ELISA | MCP-2...

Mouse CCL8/MCP-2 ELISA Kit. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 8--also known as monocyte chemoattractant protein 2 (MCP-2), HC14, ... Measuring mouse CCL8 in EDTA-plasma, heparin plasma, or serum. Components. Precoated plate: Anti-Mouse CCL8/MCP-2 (81) Rabbit ... The precursor protein (109 amino acids) is cleaved to produce mature CCL8 (75 amino acids). CCL8 activates many different ... CCL8 acts through binding to several different cell surface chemokine receptors, including CCR1, CCR2B, and CCR5 (one of the ...
more infohttp://www.clontech.com/US/Products/Cell_Biology_and_Epigenetics/Cytokines/CCL8_MCP-2?sitex=10020:22372:US&PEBCL1=VDNMfpAdaJW89oKgMaWJcEVzr7&PEBCL1_pses=ZG385BE8EC148BFAF12BFC39F963D5DC61682D187322B5FA54EA793FC396BFA083AA3BD1C11724EE452623A0187B94E1EC896013776EAB294B

Monocyte chemoattractant protein-2 ELISA | Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 8 ELISA | Mouse CCL8/MCP-2 ELISA | CCL8 ELISA | MCP-2...Monocyte chemoattractant protein-2 ELISA | Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 8 ELISA | Mouse CCL8/MCP-2 ELISA | CCL8 ELISA | MCP-2...

Mouse CCL8/MCP-2 ELISA Kit. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 8--also known as monocyte chemoattractant protein 2 (MCP-2), HC14, ... Measuring mouse CCL8 in EDTA-plasma, heparin plasma, or serum. Components. Precoated plate: Anti-Mouse CCL8/MCP-2 (81) Rabbit ... The precursor protein (109 amino acids) is cleaved to produce mature CCL8 (75 amino acids). CCL8 activates many different ... CCL8 acts through binding to several different cell surface chemokine receptors, including CCR1, CCR2B, and CCR5 (one of the ...
more infohttp://www.clontech.com/US/Products/Cell_Biology_and_Epigenetics/Cytokines/CCL8_MCP-2

Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 8 (CCL8) AnticorpsChemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 8 (CCL8) Anticorps

Comparez 146 CCL8 Anticorps. Commandez directement chez anticorps-enligne.fr. ... Show all anti-Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 8 (CCL8) Anticorps with Pubmed References. * Mouse (Murine) Polyclonal CCL8 Primary ... anti-Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 8 (CCL8) Anticorps. CCL8 is one of several cytokine genes clustered on the q-arm of ... Plus danticorps contre Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 8 partenaires dinteraction. Human Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 8 (CCL8) ...
more infohttps://www.anticorps-enligne.fr/abstract/Chemokine+

Stephen N. Waggoner, PhDStephen N. Waggoner, PhD

The transcriptional repressor BLIMP1 curbs host defenses by suppressing expression of the chemokine CCL8. The Journal of ...
more infohttps://www.cincinnatichildrens.org/bio/w/stephen-waggoner

Gikandi PW[au] - PubMed - NCBIGikandi PW[au] - PubMed - NCBI

The CC chemokines CCL8, CCL13 and CCL20 are local inflammatory biomarkers of HLA-B27-associated uveitis. ... Differential CXC and CX3C Chemokine Expression Profiles in Aqueous Humor of Patients With Specific Endogenous Uveitic Entities. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Gikandi+PW%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

The transcriptional repressor BLIMP1 curbs host defenses by suppressin by Martina Severa, Sabina A. Islam et al."The transcriptional repressor BLIMP1 curbs host defenses by suppressin" by Martina Severa, Sabina A. Islam et al.

... these data reveal an important role for BLIMP1 in modulating host defenses by suppressing expression of the chemokine CCL8. ... Mice lacking the Ccl8 gene were more susceptible to L. monocytogenes infection than were wild-type mice. Although CCL8 failed ... Finally, CCL8-mediated enhanced clearance of L. monocytogenes was dependent on gamma/delta T cells. Collectively, ... BLIMP1-deficient macrophages expressed elevated levels of Ccl8, and consequently Blimp1 CKO mice had higher levels of ...
more infohttps://escholarship.umassmed.edu/infdis_pp/182/

Recombinant Murine JE/MCP-1 (CCL2)Recombinant Murine JE/MCP-1 (CCL2)

The MCP proteins are members of the CC chemokine family that signal through CCR2 and, with the exception of MCP-1, other CCR ... The transcriptional repressor BLIMP1 curbs host defenses by suppressing expression of the chemokine CCL8.. Journal of ... The intestinal chemokine thymus-expressed chemokine (CCL25) attracts IgA antibody-secreting cells.. The Journal of Experimental ... Leishmania major modulates chemokine and chemokine receptor expression by dendritic cells and affects their migratory capacity. ...
more infohttps://www.peprotech.com/en/recombinant-murine-jemcp-1-ccl2

Normalizing the bone marrow microenvironment with p38 inhibitor reduces multiple myeloma cell proliferation and adhesion and...Normalizing the bone marrow microenvironment with p38 inhibitor reduces multiple myeloma cell proliferation and adhesion and...

Furthermore, reintroduction of chemokines CXCL10 and CCL8 to BMSCs overcomes the inhibitory effect of SCIO-469 on TNFα-induced ... Furthermore, reintroduction of chemokines CXCL10 and CCL8 to BMSCs overcomes the inhibitory effect of SCIO-469 on TNFα-induced ... Furthermore, reintroduction of chemokines CXCL10 and CCL8 to BMSCs overcomes the inhibitory effect of SCIO-469 on TNFα-induced ... Furthermore, reintroduction of chemokines CXCL10 and CCL8 to BMSCs overcomes the inhibitory effect of SCIO-469 on TNFα-induced ...
more infohttps://indiana.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/normalizing-the-bone-marrow-microenvironment-with-p38-inhibitor-r

MCP-1, MCP-2 and MCP-3 expression in multiple sclerosis lesions: An immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization study<...MCP-1, MCP-2 and MCP-3 expression in multiple sclerosis lesions: An immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization study<...

The CXC chemokines predominantly attract neutrophils, whereas the CC chemokines predominantly attract monocytes and other ... The CXC chemokines predominantly attract neutrophils, whereas the CC chemokines predominantly attract monocytes and other ... The CXC chemokines predominantly attract neutrophils, whereas the CC chemokines predominantly attract monocytes and other ... The CXC chemokines predominantly attract neutrophils, whereas the CC chemokines predominantly attract monocytes and other ...
more infohttps://einstein.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/mcp-1-mcp-2-and-mcp-3-expression-in-multiple-sclerosis-lesions-an-2

Cytokine and chemokine transcription profile during Mycoplasma pulmonis infection in susceptible and resistant strains of mice:...Cytokine and chemokine transcription profile during Mycoplasma pulmonis infection in susceptible and resistant strains of mice:...

T2 - Macrophage inflammatory protein 1β (CCL4) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 2 (CCL8) and accumulation of CCR5+ Th cells ... Sun, X., Jones, H. P., Hodge, L. M., & Simecka, J. W. (2006). Cytokine and chemokine transcription profile during Mycoplasma ... Sun, Xiangle ; Jones, Harlan P. ; Hodge, Lisa M. ; Simecka, Jerry W. / Cytokine and chemokine transcription profile during ... Sun, X, Jones, HP, Hodge, LM & Simecka, JW 2006, Cytokine and chemokine transcription profile during Mycoplasma pulmonis ...
more infohttps://experts.unthsc.edu/en/publications/cytokine-and-chemokine-transcription-profile-during-mycoplasma-pu

Isolation, characterisation and expression of mRNAs encoding the ovine CC chemokines, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1α...Isolation, characterisation and expression of mRNAs encoding the ovine CC chemokines, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1α...

Chemokine CCL2 (MeSH) * Chemokine CCL8 (MeSH) * DNA (MeSH) * Dust (MeSH) * Female (MeSH) ... Despite the large number of known CC chemokines in other species, no cDNA encoding ovine CC chemokines have been isolated. A ... Ultimately the isolation of these and other ovine CC chemokines will help elucidate a wide variety of immune responses in sheep ... CC chemokines are important mediators of immune responses, orchestrating the differential recruitment of various leukocyte ...
more infohttps://scholars.latrobe.edu.au/display/publication117738

mediaTUM - Medien- und PublikationsservermediaTUM - Medien- und Publikationsserver

Most pronounced differences were found in inflammatory mediators, like the chemokines CCL8 and CCL2 and the lectines CLEC4E and ...
more infohttp://mediatum.ub.tum.de/1327948

Recombinant Mouse Ccl8, His & NusA tagged Ccl8-202M - Creative BioMartRecombinant Mouse Ccl8, His & NusA tagged Ccl8-202M - Creative BioMart

Recombinant Mouse Ccl8 (Q9Z121) mature form (Gly 24-Pro 94), fused with the polyhistidine-tagged NusA tag at the N-terminus, ... Ccl8 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 8 [ Mus musculus ]. Official Symbol:. Ccl8. ... Recombinant Mouse Ccl8, His & NusA tagged. Download Datasheet See All Ccl8 Products. Bring this labeled protein directly to ... Ccl8-202M. Product Overview:. Recombinant Mouse Ccl8 (Q9Z121) mature form (Gly 24-Pro 94), fused with the polyhistidine-tagged ...
more infohttps://www.creativebiomart.net/description_20173_12.htm

Ackr4 - Atypical chemokine receptor 4 - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Ackr4 gene & proteinAckr4 - Atypical chemokine receptor 4 - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Ackr4 gene & protein

... or chemokine-scavenging receptor or chemokine decoy receptor. Acts as a receptor for chemokines CCL2, CCL8, CCL13, CCL19, CCL21 ... Chemokine-binding does not activate G-protein-mediated signal transduction but instead induces beta-arrestin recruitment, ... Plays an important role in controlling the migration of immune and cancer cells that express chemokine receptors CCR7 and CCR9 ... resulting instead in chemokine sequestration, degradation, or transcytosis. Also known as interceptor (internalizing receptor) ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q924I3

CaMKK2 in myeloid cells is a key regulator of the immune-suppressive microenvironment in breast cancer | Nature CommunicationsCaMKK2 in myeloid cells is a key regulator of the immune-suppressive microenvironment in breast cancer | Nature Communications

Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) isolated from Camkk2−/− mice expressed higher levels of chemokines involved in the ... Among these genes were several chemokine genes (Ccl8, Ccl12, Cxcl10, and Cxcl11) (Fig. 4a, b; Supplementary Table 2). ... Besides its effect on chemokines and cytokine gene expression, genetic deletion of Camkk2 in BMDM is also associated with ... 8B). One of the most important findings from these experiments was that the expression of RNAs encoding chemokines involved in ...
more infohttps://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-10424-5?error=cookies_not_supported&code=51dcc1fc-5a44-403b-9ea7-3fa412833afd

CCR2 in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Homing, Macrophage Polarization and Organ Repair - Israel CharoCCR2 in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Homing, Macrophage Polarization and Organ Repair - Israel Charo

2014) The transcriptional repressor BLIMP1 curbs host defenses by suppressing expression of the chemokine CCL8. J Immunol 192: ... In other NIH funded worked we discovered and cloned CCR2, the chemokine receptor that regulates monocyte migration to MCP-1, ... The preliminary results described in this application identify CCR2, a well-characterized chemokine receptor, as being critical ... 2014) Alkylsulfone-containing trisubstituted cyclohexanes as potent and bioavailable chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) antagonists. ...
more infohttp://grantome.com/grant/NIH/R01-HL102475-02

Mouse CCL8, a CCR8 agonist, promotes atopic dermatitis by recruiting IL-5+ T(H)2 cells.  - PubMed - NCBIMouse CCL8, a CCR8 agonist, promotes atopic dermatitis by recruiting IL-5+ T(H)2 cells. - PubMed - NCBI

This distinguishes CCL8 from all other MCP chemokines. CCL8 responsiveness defined a population of highly differentiated, CCR8- ... d) Amounts of TH1 cell-active (Cxcl9 and Cxcl10) and TH2-cell active (Ccl1, Ccl8, Ccl17 and Ccl22) chemokine mRNA in ... a) CC-chemokine receptor mRNA enrichment measured by QPCR in TH2-R2A cells that migrated to mouse CCL8 in Transwell assays ... Mouse CCL8 RNA and protein are detected in normal mouse skin. (a) Relative positioning of the six MCP-cluster chemokine genes ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21217759?dopt=Abstract

Ebola-Associated Genes in the Human Genome: Implications for Novel Targets
 | MedCraveEbola-Associated Genes in the Human Genome: Implications for Novel Targets | MedCrave

Putative targets of interest include a chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 8 (CCL8), enzymes (indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1,IDO1, ... 18] identified a subset of differentially expressed genes including chemokine ligand 8 (CCL8), Complement Component 1, Q ... particularly the CCL8 chemokine, showed a strong correlation with survival [18]. All of these proteins were identified in the ... The known genes included a chemokine C-C motif ligand 8 (CCL8), a complement component 1(C1QB), a transcription factor, ETS ...
more infohttp://googlescholar.medcraveonline.com/scholars/article_fulltext/330

Recombinant Prosthecochloris vibrioformis Aspartate 1-decarboxylase(panD) - CusabioRecombinant Prosthecochloris vibrioformis Aspartate 1-decarboxylase(panD) - Cusabio

Recombinant Human C-C motif chemokine 8(CCL8). Express system: E.coli ... Chemokines. CD Antigen. FC Receptor. Immune Checkpoint. Colony Stimulating Factors. Growth Factors. Tumor Necrosis Factors. ...
more infohttps://www.cusabio.com/Recombinant-Protein/Recombinant-Prosthecochloris-vibrioformis-Aspartate-1-decarboxylasepanD-396425.html

Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases Regulate Susceptibility to Ventilator-Induced Lung InjuryMitogen-Activated Protein Kinases Regulate Susceptibility to Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury

Ccl8), chemokine receptor 13 (Cxcl13), eg. matrix metalloproteinase 11 (Mmp11), kruppel-like factor 2 (Klf2),alpha actin (Acta ... Ccl8, Il1) and biopolymer metabolic processes (e.g., Mmp11) functional groups. A small number of genes enriched in acute phase ... chemokine ligand 2 (Cxcl2), interleukin 6 and 1b (Il6, Il1b), serine protease 3 (serpina3), serum amyloid A3 (Saa3), signal ... transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3), calgranulin A (S100a8), chemokine ligand 20 (Ccl20), IgG Fc receptor ( ...
more infohttp://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0001601

Plus itPlus it

... the proadhesive activity of inflammatory cytokines in endothelial cells by down-modulating CCL8 and CXCL10 chemokine expression ...
more infohttp://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/59/5/1261

Plus itPlus it

... the proadhesive activity of inflammatory cytokines in endothelial cells by down-modulating CCL8 and CXCL10 chemokine expression ...
more infohttp://clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/17/17/5649
  • By scavenging chemokines in tissues, on the surfaces of lymphatic vessels, and in placenta, plays an essential role in the resolution (termination) of the inflammatory response and in the regulation of adaptive immune responses. (uniprot.org)
  • CC chemokines are important mediators of immune responses, orchestrating the differential recruitment of various leukocyte populations. (edu.au)
  • c ) RNA hybridization blot comparing mRNA expression of MCP-family chemokines and CCL11 (eotaxin-1) in pooled organs of normal BALB/c mice, conducted once. (nih.gov)
  • BLIMP1-deficient macrophages expressed elevated levels of Ccl8, and consequently Blimp1 CKO mice had higher levels of circulating CCL8, resulting in increased neutrophils in the peripheral blood, promoting a more aggressive antibacterial response. (umassmed.edu)
  • Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) isolated from Camkk2 −/− mice expressed higher levels of chemokines involved in the recruitment of effector T cells compared to WT. (nature.com)
  • Ccr8- and Ccl8-deficient mice had markedly less eosinophilic inflammation than wild-type or Ccr4-deficient mice in a model of chronic atopic dermatitis. (nih.gov)
  • Results indicate that the induction of MCP-2/CCL8 by mycobacteria is dependent on the activation of TLR2 (zeige TLR2 ELISA Kits )/ PI3K (zeige PIK3CA ELISA Kits )/ Akt (zeige AKT1 ELISA Kits ) signaling pathway. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Mouse CCL8 induces migration and calcium flux in T H 2-R2A cells. (nih.gov)
  • c ) Migration of lymph node CD4 + and CD8 + T cells to mouse CCL8 and CXCL12. (nih.gov)
  • f ) Dose-response migration of T H 2-R2A cells to mouse CCL8 (representative of more than 10 experiments) and PTX-mediated inhibition of mouse CCL8-induced migration (one of three independent experiments shown). (nih.gov)
  • Despite the large number of known CC chemokines in other species, no cDNA encoding ovine CC chemokines have been isolated. (edu.au)
  • This assay kit can be used to measure mouse CCL8 in EDTA-plasma, heparin plasma or serum. (clontech.com)
  • d ) Representative immunofluorescence staining of normal wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mouse skin and Ccl8 −/− Ccl12 −/− C57BL/6 mouse skin with a primary polyclonal antibody to mouse CCL8 and a fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated secondary antibody. (nih.gov)
  • Authors show that the previously observed downregulation of hsa-miR-92a and upregulation of CCL8 during human cytomegalovirus latent infection of myeloid cells are intimately linked via the latency-associated expression of cytomegalovirus UL111A. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Collectively, these data reveal an important role for BLIMP1 in modulating host defenses by suppressing expression of the chemokine CCL8. (umassmed.edu)
  • The CC chemokine RANTES in breast carcinoma progression: regulation of expression and potential mechanisms of promalignant activity. (peprotech.com)
  • These results support the conclusion that members of the MCP family of chemokines are involved in the development of MS lesions in the central nervous system. (elsevier.com)
  • Finally, CCL8-mediated enhanced clearance of L. monocytogenes was dependent on gamma/delta T cells. (umassmed.edu)