Chemokine CCL27: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.Chemokine CCL21: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL22: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.Chemokine CCL17: A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Chemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CCL19: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL5: A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.Chemokine CCL20: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL1: A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.Chemokines, CC: Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.Receptors, Chemokine: Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Chemokine CCL3: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Chemokine CCL7: A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Receptors, CCR10: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL4: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Chemokine CXCL12: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.Receptors, CCR1: CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.Chemokine CXCL10: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemokine CCL8: A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.Receptors, CCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.Receptors, CCR2: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.Chemokine CCL11: A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Chemokine CCL24: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Receptors, CCR7: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.Receptors, CCR8: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.Chemokine CXCL1: A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Receptors, CCR4: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.Chemokines, CXC: Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.Chemokine CX3CL1: A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.Copepoda: A huge subclass of mostly marine CRUSTACEA, containing over 14,000 species. The 10 orders comprise both planktonic and benthic organisms, and include both free-living and parasitic forms. Planktonic copepods form the principle link between PHYTOPLANKTON and the higher trophic levels of the marine food chains.Receptors, CCR5: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.Receptors, CCR3: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.Chemokine CXCL9: An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Mice, Inbred C57BLCell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Chemokine CXCL2: A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CXCL13: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.Receptors, CXCR4: CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Chemokine CXCL11: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Chemokine CXCL6: A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Chemokine CXCL5: A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Receptors, CXCR3: CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Hearing Tests: Part of an ear examination that measures the ability of sound to reach the brain.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Ardisia: A plant genus of the family MYRSINACEAE. Members contain ardisiacrispins (oleanane triterpenoid saponins), ardicrenin, and cyclamiretin.Gonads: The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Dermatitis, Atopic: A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Monocyte Chemoattractant Proteins: Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Receptors, CCR6: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Receptors, Interleukin-8A: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.ConjunctivitisReceptors, CXCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Receptors, Cytokine: Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Chemokines, CX3C: Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.Receptors, CXCR5: CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Chemotactic Factors: Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Dental Abutments: Natural teeth or teeth roots used as anchorage for a fixed or removable denture or other prosthesis (such as an implant) serving the same purpose.Receptors, HIV: Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Carbon Tetrachloride PoisoningDuffy Blood-Group System: A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.Chemotactic Factors, Eosinophil: Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.Neutrophil Infiltration: The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Heterocyclic Compounds: Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Cell Migration Inhibition: Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Growth Plate: The area between the EPIPHYSIS and the DIAPHYSIS within which bone growth occurs.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Platelet Factor 4: A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Endothelium, Lymphatic: Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.

Enhanced production of monocyte chemotactic protein 3 in inflammatory bowel disease mucosa. (1/151)

BACKGROUND: The beta chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein 3 (MCP-3) has chemoattractant and activating capabilities in monocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. AIMS: To investigate MCP-3 expression in inflammatory conditions of the human intestinal mucosa. PATIENTS: Forty five colon biopsy specimens from 18 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; 16 specimens from inflamed and 10 from non-inflamed areas) and 19 control patients were examined. METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used for MCP-3 detection in tissue sections. Intestinal epithelial cell lines (HT-29, Caco-2, T-84) were stimulated with interleukin (IL) 1beta, IL-6, and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and examined for MCP-3 protein and mRNA expression using immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR, respectively. RESULTS: In tissue sections, MCP-3 protein was detected predominantly in epithelial cells, both in patients with IBD and in controls. MCP-3 staining was particularly pronounced at sites of active mucosal inflammation. The intensity of MCP-3 staining was positively correlated with the extent of epithelial destruction. In intestinal epithelial cell lines, MCP-3 mRNA was expressed, whereas MCP-3 protein was not consistently detected. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that MCP-3 protein is present in normal and inflamed intestinal tissue. MCP-3 production is substantially enhanced in areas of active inflammation, suggesting an immunoregulatory role of MCP-3 in intestinal inflammation.  (+info)

Increased expression of IP-10, IL-8, MCP-1, and MCP-3 in ulcerative colitis. (2/151)

Chemokines are thought to be important for the recruitment of granulocytes and mononuclear cells and thus for the maintenance of inflammation in ulcerative colitis (UC). We have studied the expression of interferon-gamma inducible protein-10 (IP-10), interleukin-8 (IL-8), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, MCP-3, and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha in UC patients and control individuals to assess the role of these chemokines in disease progression. Colonic biopsies were taken endoscopically from patients and controls, frozen immediately and subsequently stained for IP-10, IL-8, MCP-1, MCP-3, and MIP-1alpha in serial sections. Cells infiltrating the lamina propria but not epithelial cells express the analyzed chemokines. They were differentiated and counted, and chemokine-expressing cells were quantified by image analysis. The percentage of cells expressing IP-10, IL-8, MCP-1, and MCP-3 was significantly enhanced in all UC samples as compared to controls. Expression in the controls was borderline, except for IP-10. No expression of MIP-1alpha was found in controls and UC. IP-10 was also markedly expressed in the mucosa of control biopsies and therefore could have a role in activated T lymphocytes' recruitment into the healthy mucosa.  (+info)

CCR5 binds multiple CC-chemokines: MCP-3 acts as a natural antagonist. (3/151)

CCR5 was first characterized as a receptor for MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and RANTES, and was rapidly shown to be the main coreceptor for M-tropic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 strains and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Chemokines constitute a rapidly growing family of proteins and receptor-chemokine interactions are known to be promiscuous and redundant. We have therefore tested whether other CC-chemokines could bind to and activate CCR5. All CC-chemokines currently available were tested for their ability to compete with [(125)I]-MIP-1beta binding on a stable cell line expressing recombinant CCR5, and/or to induce a functional response in these cells. We found that in addition to MIP-1beta, MIP-1alpha, and RANTES, five other CC-chemokines could compete for [(125)I]-MIP-1beta binding: MCP-2, MCP-3, MCP-4, MCP-1, and eotaxin binding was characterized by IC(50) values of 0.22, 2.14, 5.89, 29.9, and 21.7 nmol/L, respectively. Among these ligands, MCP-3 had the remarkable property of binding CCR5 with high affinity without eliciting a functional response, MCP-3 could also inhibit the activation of CCR5 by MIP-1beta and may therefore be considered as a natural antagonist for CCR5. It was unable to induce significant endocytosis of the receptor. Chemokines that could compete with high affinity for MIP-1beta binding could also compete for monomeric gp120 binding, although with variable potencies; maximal gp120 binding inhibition was 80% for MCP-2, but only 30% for MIP-1beta. MCP-3 could compete efficiently for gp120 binding but was, however, found to be a weak inhibitor of HIV infection, probably as a consequence of its inability to downregulate the receptor.  (+info)

C-C chemokines in allergen-induced late-phase cutaneous responses in atopic subjects: association of eotaxin with early 6-hour eosinophils, and of eotaxin-2 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-4 with the later 24-hour tissue eosinophilia, and relationship to basophils and other C-C chemokines (monocyte chemoattractant protein-3 and RANTES). (4/151)

The relationship of expression of the C-C chemokines eotaxin, eotaxin 2, RANTES, monocyte chemoattractant protein-3 (MCP-3), and MCP-4 to the kinetics of infiltrating eosinophils, basophils, and other inflammatory cells was examined in allergen-induced, late-phase allergic reactions in the skin of human atopic subjects. EG2+ eosinophils peaked at 6 h and correlated significantly with eotaxin mRNA and protein, whereas declining eosinophils at 24 h correlated significantly with eotaxin-2 and MCP-4 mRNA. In contrast, no significant correlations were observed between BB1+ basophil infiltrates, which peaked at 24 h, and expression of eotaxin, eotaxin-2, RANTES, MCP-3, and MCP-4 or elastase+ neutrophils (6-h peak), CD3+ and CD4+ T cells (24 h), and CD68+ macrophages (72 h). Furthermore, 83% of eosinophils, 40% of basophils, and 1% of CD3+ cells expressed the eotaxin receptor CCR3, while eotaxin protein was expressed by 43% of macrophages, 81% of endothelial cells, and 6% of T cells (6%). These data suggest that 1) eotaxin has a role in the early 6-h recruitment of eosinophils, while eotaxin-2 and MCP-4 appear to be involved in later 24-h infiltration of these CCR3+ cells; 2) different mechanisms may guide the early vs late eosinophilia; and 3) other chemokines and receptors may be involved in basophil accumulation of allergic tissue reactions in human skin.  (+info)

Differential responsiveness to constitutive vs. inducible chemokines of immature and mature mouse dendritic cells. (5/151)

Upon exposure to immune or inflammatory stimuli, dendritic cells (DC) migrate from peripheral tissues to lymphoid organs, where they present antigen. The molecular basis for the peculiar trafficking properties of DC is largely unknown. In this study, mouse DC were generated from CD34+ bone marrow precursors and cultured with granulocyte-macrophage-CSF and Flt3 ligand for 9 days. Chemokines active on immature DC include MIP1alpha, RANTES, MIP1beta, MCP-1, MCP-3, and the constitutively expressed SDF1, MDC, and ELC. TNF-alpha-induced DC maturation caused reduction of migration to inducible chemokines (MIP1alpha, RANTES, MIP1beta, MCP-1, and MCP-3) and increased migration to SDF1, MDC, and ELC. Similar results were obtained by CD40 ligation or culture in the presence of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. TNF-alpha down-regulated CC chemokine receptor (CCR)1, CCR2, and CCR5 and up-regulated CCR7 mRNA levels, in agreement with functional data. This study shows that selective responsiveness of mature and immature DC to inducible vs. constitutively produced chemokines can contribute to the regulated trafficking of DC.  (+info)

Sensitivity of human immunodeficiency virus infection to various alpha, beta and gamma chemokines. (6/151)

Examination of a large panel of chemokines indicates that in addition to RANTES, MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta, the beta-chemokine MCP-2 and, to a lesser extent, the gamma-chemokine lymphotactin also show anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity in cell culture. The amount of chemokine needed to suppress HIV replication by > or = 50% was generally greater (> or = 250 ng/ml) than that required for inhibition of virus infection by RANTES, MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta. The beta-chemokine MCP-3 was found to enhance the replication of both non-syncytium-inducing (NSI) and syncytium-inducing (SI) viruses at high concentrations (0.5-5 microg/ml). In contrast to a previous report, macrophage-derived chemokine was not found to inhibit HIV replication of either NSI or SI viruses, but at low concentrations enhanced NSI virus replication. When small amounts of RANTES or MCP-2 were added together with high concentrations of non-inhibitory chemokines, the anti-HIV effects were countered. Information on chemokines that affect HIV infection could be useful for future therapeutic strategies.  (+info)

Expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-3 mRNA in rat vascular smooth muscle cells and in carotid artery after balloon angioplasty. (7/151)

Monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (MCP-3) is a CC chemokine that functions in chemoattraction and activation of monocytes, T lymphocytes, eosinophils, basophils, natural killer cells and dendritic cells. The activation of the target cells by MCP-3 is via specific chemokine receptors CCR2 and CCR3, of which CCR2 is shared with MCP-1. MCP-1 and CCR2 have been implicated in vascular diseases including atherosclerosis and restenosis, that are known to be involved in inflammation (accumulation of T lymphocytes and monocytes) and smooth muscle cell (SMC) activation (proliferation, migration and matrix deposition). To investigate a potential role of MCP-3 in vascular injury, the present work examined its mRNA expression in rat aortic SMCs stimulated with various inflammatory stimuli including LPS, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IFN-gamma and TGF-beta. A time- and concentration-dependant induction of MCP-3 mRNA in SMCs was observed by means of Northern analysis. A strikingly similar expression profile was observed for MCP-3 and MCP-1 mRNA in SMCs. Furthermore, MCP-3 mRNA expression was induced in rat carotid artery after balloon angioplasty. A significant induction in MCP-3 mRNA was observed in the carotid artery at 6 h (41-fold increase over control, P<0.001), 1 day (13-fold increase, P<0.001) and 3 days (6-fold increase, P<0.01) after balloon angioplasty as quantitated by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction. These data provide evidence for the cytokine-induced expression of MCP-3 in SMCs and in carotid artery after balloon angioplasty, suggesting a potential role of MCP-3 in the pathogenesis of restenosis and atherosclerosis.  (+info)

Selective suppression of IL-12 production by chemoattractants. (8/151)

We investigated the ability of chemoattractants to affect IL-12 production by human monocytes and dendritic cells. We found that pretreatment of monocytes with macrophage chemoattractant proteins (MCP-1 to -4), or C5a, but not stromal-derived factor-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha, RANTES, or eotaxin, inhibited IL-12 p70 production in response to stimulation with Staphylococcus aureus, Cowan strain 1 (SAC), and IFN-gamma. The production of TNF-alpha and IL-10, however, was minimally affected by any of the chemoattractants. The degree of inhibition of IL-12 p70 production by MCP-1 to -4 was donor dependent and was affected by the autocrine inhibitory effects of IL-10. In contrast, C5a profoundly suppressed IL-12 production in an IL-10-independent fashion. Neither TGF-beta1 nor PGE2 was important for the suppression of IL-12 by any of the chemoattractants tested. The accumulation of mRNA for both IL-12 p35 and p40 genes was inhibited by chemokine pretreatment. Interestingly, MCP-1 to -4 and C5a did not suppress IL-12 production by monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) stimulated with CD40 ligand and IFN-gamma or by SAC and IFN-gamma, suggesting that these factors may act at the site of inflammation to suppress IL-12 and IFN-gamma production rather than in the lymph node to affect T cell priming. Despite the inability of C5a to inhibit IL-12 production by DCs, the receptor for C5a (CD88) was expressed by these cells, and recombinant C5a induced a Ca2+ flux. Taken together, these results define a range of chemoattractant molecules with the ability to suppress IL-12 production by human monocytes and have broad implications for the regulation of immune responses in vivo.  (+info)

PAA087Si01, CCL2; GDCF2; HC11; HSMCR30; MCAF; MCP1; SCYA2; SMC-CF; Chemokine C-C-Motif Ligand 2; Monocyte Chemotactic And Activating Factor; Monocyte Secretory Protein JE | Products for research use only!
LAA087Si71, CCL2; GDCF2; HC11; HSMCR30; MCAF; MCP1; SCYA2; SMC-CF; Chemokine C-C-Motif Ligand 2; Monocyte Chemotactic And Activating Factor; Monocyte Secretory Protein JE | Products for research use only!
By Northern analysis, freshly isolated monocytes contained no detectable mRNA for monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). However, after 4 hours of incubation at 37 degrees C, MCP-1 mRNA was clearly induced in the monocytes and was found to be highly dependent and directly proportional to the monocyte density. The level of MCP-1 mRNA continued to increase, reaching a peak after 22 hours of incubation. After 3 days in culture, MCP-1 mRNA levels had declined substantially and after 8 days were undetectable in the monocytes/macrophages. The amount of MCP-1 protein secreted correlated with the density-dependent increase in MCP-1 message. We hypothesize that the migration of monocytes into inflammatory lesions may be amplified by the density and time-dependent induction of MCP-1. ...
Bachem offers H-5826 Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 (human) for your research. Find all specific details here. Find product specific information including available pack sizes, CAS, detailed description and references here.
Looking for online definition of Stimulated T-cell chemotactic protein 1 in the Medical Dictionary? Stimulated T-cell chemotactic protein 1 explanation free. What is Stimulated T-cell chemotactic protein 1? Meaning of Stimulated T-cell chemotactic protein 1 medical term. What does Stimulated T-cell chemotactic protein 1 mean?
Angiogenesis is a hallmark of malignant neoplasias, as the formation of new blood vessels is required for tumors to acquire oxygen and nutrients essential for their continued growth and metastasis. However, the signaling pathways leading to tumor vascularization are not fully understood. Here, using a transplantable mouse tumor model, we have demonstrated that endogenous IFN-β inhibits tumor angiogenesis through repression of genes encoding proangiogenic and homing factors in tumor-infiltrating neutrophils. We determined that IFN-β-deficient mice injected with B16F10 melanoma or MCA205 fibrosarcoma cells developed faster-growing tumors with better-developed blood vessels than did syngeneic control mice. These tumors displayed enhanced infiltration by CD11b+Gr1+ neutrophils expressing elevated levels of the genes encoding the proangiogenic factors VEGF and MMP9 and the homing receptor CXCR4. They also expressed higher levels of the transcription factors c-myc and STAT3, known regulators of ...
Stem cell transplantation has recently emerged as a promising tool for the treatment of AMI and ADSCs appear to be a suitable candidate for stem cell therapy. However, despite the improved cardiac function and reduced infarct size observed following injection of ADSCs, the clinical benefits and long-term outcomes remain under debate (27-29). The major obstacle in ADSC therapy is the washout of transplanted cells from the heart (30). The magnitude of cell washout may depend on the presence of cell traffcking and/or homing factors in transplanted cells and the heart. The SDF-1α/CXCR4 cascade has previously been identified as a key factor in the recruitment of stem cells to areas of injured tissue in multiple organ systems (31-33), which is fundamental in stem cell therapy following AMI (34). Briefly, on binding to CXCR4, SDF-1α induces the mobilization of calcium, decreases levels of cyclic AMP within the cells and activates several signaling pathways (35). Ultimately, SDF-1α-bound CXCR4 causes ...
Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) also known as monocyte chemotactic and activating factor (MCAF) was identified based on its ability to chemoattract monocytes. Subsequently, MCP-1 has also been found to regulate adhesion molecule expression and cytokine production in monocytes. MCP-1 is identi
Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-3 Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a non-glycosylated, Polypeptide chain containing 76 amino acids.
Human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) entry requires fusion cofactors on the CD4+ target cell. Fusin, a heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor, serves as a cofactor for T cell line-tropic isolates. The chemokines RANTES, MIP-1α, and MIP-1β, which suppress infection by macrophage-tropic isolates, selectively inhibited cell fusion mediated by the corresponding envelope glycoproteins (Envs). Recombinant CC CKR5, a G protein-coupled receptor for these chemokines, rendered CD4-expressing nonhuman cells fusion-competent preferentially with macrophage-tropic Envs. CC CKR5 messenger RNA was detected selectively in cell types susceptible to macrophage-tropic isolates. CC CKR5 is thus a fusion cofactor for macrophage-tropic HIV-1 strains. ...
Mouse C-C Motif Chemokine 2 / Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 (CCL2/MCP1) standard, for use in running standard curves in AlphaLISA no-wash detection assays.
1 x 96-well, includes coupled magnetic beads and detection antibodies for detecting human MCP-1 / CCL2, requires reagent kit C III (171-304090 for vacuum separation or 171-304090M for magnetic separation) and a vial of standards (171-DK0001)
1 x 96-well, includes coupled magnetic beads and detection antibodies for detecting human MCP-1 / CCL2, requires reagent kit C III (171-304090 for vacuum separation or 171-304090M for magnetic separation) and a vial of standards (171-DK0001)
Thesis, English, Role of monocyte chemotactic protein 1|(mcp1)in diagnosis of patients with atherosclerotic coronary artery disease for Ebraheem Dalia El Morsy
Morbidity and mortality attributable to hypertension are higher in black essential hypertensive (EH) compared with white EH patients, possibly related to differential effects on vascular injury and repair. Although circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) preserve endothelial integrity, inflammatory endothelial cells (IECs) detach from sites of injury and represent markers of vascular damage. We hypothesized that blood levels of IECs and inflammatory markers would be higher in black EH compared with white EH patients. Inferior vena cava and renal vein levels of CD34+/KDR+ (EPC) and VAP-1+ (IEC) cells were measured by fluorescence-activated cell sorting in white EH and black EH patients under fixed sodium intake and blockade of the renin-angiotensin system, and compared with systemic levels in normotensive control subjects (n=19 each). Renal vein and inferior vena cava levels of inflammatory cytokines and EPC homing factors were measured by Luminex. Blood pressure, serum creatinine, ...
Recruitment of macrophages to sites of cell death is critical for induction of an immunologic response. Calcium concentrations in extracellular fluids vary markedly, and are particularly high at sites of injury or infection. We hypothesized that extracellular calcium participates in modulating the immune response, perhaps acting via the seven-transmembrane calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) on mature monocytes/macrophages. We observed a dose-dependent increase in monocyte chemotaxis in response to extracellular calcium or the selective allosteric CaR activator NPS R-467. In contrast, monocytes derived from mice deficient in CaR lacked the normal chemotactic response to a calcium gradient. Notably, CaR activation of monocytes bearing the receptor synergistically augmented the transmigration response of monocytes to the chemokine MCP-1 in association with increased cell-surface expression of its cognate receptor, CCR2. Conversely, stimulation of monocytes with MCP-1 or SDF-1α reciprocally increased ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 8--also known as monocyte chemoattractant protein 2 (MCP-2), HC14, SCYA8, or SCYA10--is a protein encoded by the CCL8 gene. The precursor protein (109 amino acids) is cleaved to produce mature CCL8 (75 amino acids). CCL8 activates many different immune cells, including mast cells, eosinophils, and basophils (implicated in allergic responses), and monocytes, T cells, and NK cells (involved in the inflammatory response). CCL8 acts through binding to several different cell surface chemokine receptors, including CCR1, CCR2B, and CCR5 (one of the major co-receptors for HIV-1).. ...
Results Absence and reduced intracellular levels of 5-HT inhibited the secretion of zymogen granules both ex vivo and in vitro and altered cytoskeleton dynamics. In addition, absence of 5-HT resulted in attenuated pro-inflammatory response after induction of pancreatitis. TPH1−/− mice showed limited zymogen release, reduced expression of the pro-inflammatory chemokine MCP-1 and minimal leucocyte infiltration compared with wild-type animals. Restoration of 5-HT levels in TPH1−/− mice recovered the blunted inflammatory processes observed during acute pancreatitis. However, cellular damage, inflammatory and fibrotic processes accelerated in TPH1−/− mice during disease progression.. ...
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Mellado M., Rodriguez-Frade J.M., Aragay A., del Real G., Martin A.M., Vila-Coro A.J., Serrano A., Mayor F. Jr., Martinez-A C.. The chemokines are a growing family of low m.w., 70-to 80-residue proinflammatory cytokines that operate by interacting with G protein-coupled receptors. Chemokines are involved in cell migration and in the activation of specific leukocyte subsets. Using the Mono Mac 1 monocytic cell line, we show that monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) triggers activation of the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/STAT3 pathway and CCR2 receptor tyrosine phosphorylation. Both Ca2+ mobilization and cell migration are blocked in Mono Mac 1 cells by tyrphostin B42, a specific JAK2 kinase inhibitor. Within seconds of MCP-1 activation, JAK2 phosphorylates CCR2 at the Tyr139 position and promotes JAK2/STAT3 complex association to the receptor. This MCP-1-initiated phosphorylation and association to JAK2 is also observed in CCR2B-transfected HEK293 cells. In contrast, when a CCR2B Tyr139Phe mutant is ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 8--also known as monocyte chemoattractant protein 2 (MCP-2), HC14, SCYA8, or SCYA10--is a protein encoded by the CCL8 gene. The precursor protein (109 amino acids) is cleaved to produce mature CCL8 (75 amino acids). CCL8 activates many different immune cells, including mast cells, eosinophils, and basophils (implicated in allergic responses), and monocytes, T cells, and NK cells (involved in the inflammatory response). CCL8 acts through binding to several different cell surface chemokine receptors, including CCR1, CCR2B, and CCR5 (one of the major co-receptors for HIV-1).. ...
NEX313 Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family that is also known as monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). It is found at the site of tooth eruption and bone degradation. In the bone, CCL2 is expressed by mature osteoclasts and osteoblasts and is under the control of nuclear factor κB (NFκB). ...
LEAF™ |!Low Endotoxin, Azide-Free|Purified anti-human MCP-1 Antibody - Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) also known as monocyte chemotactic and activating factor (MCAF) was identified based on its ability to chemoattract monocytes.
CCL7/MCP-3/MARC Proteins available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our CCL7/MCP-3/MARC Protein catalog backed by our Guarantee+.
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Looking for online definition of C-C motif chemokine 2 in the Medical Dictionary? C-C motif chemokine 2 explanation free. What is C-C motif chemokine 2? Meaning of C-C motif chemokine 2 medical term. What does C-C motif chemokine 2 mean?
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Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 3 (MCP-3), also called CCL7, is produced by macrophages and some tumor cell lines. MCP-3 signals through three different G protein-coupled receptors, CCR1, CCR2, and CCR3. CCL7 chemoattracts monocytes and can regulate macrophage function. Alternate Names: CCL7, MARC
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In an obese state, Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) upregulates proinflammatory adipokines secretion including monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in adipose tissue. In contrast, G-protein coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) mediates antiobesity effects. The aim of this study was to determine the signaling …
Mouse anti Human MCP-3 antibody, clone h.mcp.3 recognizes human C-C motif chemokine 7, also known as Monocyte chemoattractant protein 3, M
Abbkine Scientific has officially announced the release of its EliKine™ Human CCL2 ELISA Kit. The product also is known as the Human MCP1 ELISA Kit which is unique for its high sensitivity and excellent specificity.. The chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) is also referred to as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) and small inducible cytokine A2. Other alternative names include MCP-1, HC11, MCAF, HSMCR30, SMC-CF, GDCF-2, SCYA2, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, monocyte secretory protein JE. CCL2 is a small cytokine that belongs to the CC chemokine family. CCL2 recruits monocytes, memory T cells, and dendritic cells to the sites of inflammation produced by either tissue injury or infection. Abbkine newly launched EliKine™ Human CCL2/MCP-1 ELISA Kit exerts high sensibility and specificity for the quantification of Human CCL2/MCP-1 in various samples to CCL2 level determination.. The Human MCP1 ELISA Kit comes with different features and benefits that stand it out from its ...
During the past decade, posttranslational modification of chemokines has been reported to affect their in vitro and in vivo activities (11). Primarily N-terminal processing alters the receptor affinity and specific biological activity of chemokines. This includes minimal modification of an N-terminal Gln to pyroglutamic acid in the three monocyte chemotactic proteins, CCL2/MCP-1, CCL8/MCP-2, and CCL7/MCP-3, for which this pyroglutamic acid is essential for full biological activity (26, 35). Proteolytic processing of the N terminus of chemokines results in enhanced or reduced activity depending on the chemokine, protease, and degree of processing involved. In addition to the numerous naturally occurring forms of N-terminally truncated chemokines, a limited number of C-terminally processed chemokines have been identified (CCL2, CXCL7, and CXCL10) (36-38). Some chemokines, e.g., CCL2 and CCL11, may also be glycosylated (39, 40). Despite the significant increase in Mr, glycosylation only moderately ...
AlphaLISA no-wash assay kit for detection and quantitation of Human Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (CCL2 / MCP1) in serum, buffered solution or cell culture medium.
STING may play an important role in the production of MCP-1 and CCL7 chemokines. STING deficient monocytes are intrinsically ...
These factors include most particularly chemokines such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (CCL2) and monocyte chemotactic ... protein-3 (CCL7); certain arachidonic acid metabolites such as Leukotriene B4 and members of the 5-Hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid ...
C-C chemokine receptor type 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCR1 gene. CCR1 has also recently been designated ... The ligands of this receptor include CCL3 (or MIP-1 alpha), CCL5 (or RANTES), CCL7 (or MCP-3), and CCL23 (or MPIF-1). ... "Entrez Gene: CCR1 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 1". Struyf S, Menten P, Lenaerts JP, Put W, D'Haese A, De Clercq E, Schols D, ... This gene and other chemokine receptor genes, including CCR2, CCRL2, CCR3, CCR5 and CXCR1, are found to form a gene cluster on ...
This receptor binds and responds to a variety of chemokines, including eotaxin (CCL11), eotaxin-3 (CCL26), MCP-3 (CCL7), MCP-4 ... It is also known to be an entry co-receptor for HIV-1. This gene and seven other chemokine receptor genes form a chemokine ... a novel CC chemokine that is selective for the chemokine receptor CCR3, and acts like eotaxin on human eosinophil and basophil ... an eosinophil-selective CC chemokine, and identification of a specific eosinophil eotaxin receptor, CC chemokine receptor 3". J ...
CCL2 and CCL7. Protease-activated receptor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000181104 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl ... inflammatory response to Streptococcus pneumoniae by reducing levels of pro-inflamamtory cytokines such as IL-1β and chemokines ...
... and increases in certain pro-allergic chemokines such as eotaxin-2 and CCL7. 2) NSAIDs-exacerbated cutaneous disease (NECD) is ... 5-lipoxygenase and 15-lipoxygenase pro-inflammatory metabolites and the overproduction of certain pro-allergic chemokines, e.g ...
... form the CCL7 chemokine which serves as a chemoattractant that guides sperm cells to oocytes and b) disassemble the ...
C-C chemokine receptor type 6 C-C chemokine receptor type 7 Calreticulin Cancer immunology Cancer immunoprevention Cancer ... CCL12 CCL13 CCL14 CCL15 CCL16 CCL17 CCL18 CCL19 CCL2 CCL20 CCL21 CCL22 CCL23 CCL24 CCL25 CCL26 CCL27 CCL28 CCL3 CCL5 CCL6 CCL7 ... CD4 CD4+ T cells and antitumor immunity CD74 CD94/NKG2 Cell-mediated immunity CELSR1 Central tolerance Chemokine Chemokine ... CR6261 CroFab Cross-presentation Cross-reactivity Cryptic self epitopes Cryptotope CX3CL1 CX3CR1 CXC chemokine receptors CXCL1 ...
Several CC chemokines: CCL1, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL7, CCL8, CCL11, CCL13, CCL14, CCL15, CCL16, CCL18, and CCL23 The ... C-C motif chemokine ligand 4 like 1 (17q12) DDX52: DExD-box helicase 52 (17q12) ERBB2 loca leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2, ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 7 (CCL7) is a small cytokine known as a chemokine that was previously called monocyte-chemotactic ... it is classified among the subfamily of chemokines known as CC chemokines. CCL7 specifically attracts monocytes, and regulates ... Human CCL7 genome location and CCL7 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Menten P, Wuyts A, Van Damme J (2002). " ... This chemokine is located on chromosome 17 in humans, in a large cluster containing many other CC chemokines and is most ...
CCL7, CCL8, CCL13, CCL17 and CCL22. T-lymphocytes: the four key chemokines that are involved in the recruitment of T ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines in that it has ... CCL1 for the ligand 1 of the CC-family of chemokines, and CCR1 for its respective receptor. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) ...
CCR3 is a receptor for multiple inflammatory/inducible CC chemokines, including CCL11, CCL26, CCL7, CCL13, CCL15, CCL24 and ... The CC chemokine receptors all work by activating the G protein Gi. CCR1 was the first CC chemokine receptor identified and ... The orphan chemokine receptor G protein-coupled receptor-2 (GPR-2, CCR10) binds the skin-associated chemokine CCL27 (CTACK/ALP/ ... Human CC chemokine liver-expressed chemokine/CCL16 is a functional ligand for CCR1, CCR2 and CCR5, and constitutively expressed ...
CCL7, CCL13, and CCL3. Chemokines CCL11 (eotaxin) and CCL5 (RANTES) acts through a specific receptor CCR3 on the surface of ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ...
chemokine receptor activity. • receptor activity. • protein binding. • C-C chemokine receptor activity. • C-C chemokine binding ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene.[5] CCR6 ... "Entrez Gene: CCR6 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6".. *^ Wang K, Zhang H, Kugathasan S, Annese V, Bradfield JP, Russell RK, ... "Chemokine Receptors: CCR6". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
Several CC chemokines: CCL1, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL7, CCL8, CCL11, CCL13, CCL14, CCL15, CCL16, CCL18, and CCL23 ...
positive regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production. • positive regulation of JUN kinase activity. • positive ... positive regulation of chemokine production. • cellular extravasation. • negative regulation of lipid storage. • negative ... positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • epithelial cell proliferation involved in salivary gland morphogenesis ...
... s are a subset of cytokines that are produced by a type of immune cell known as a lymphocyte.[1] They are protein mediators typically produced by T cells to direct the immune system response by signaling between its cells. Lymphokines have many roles, including the attraction of other immune cells, including macrophages and other lymphocytes, to an infected site and their subsequent activation to prepare them to mount an immune response. Circulating lymphocytes can detect a very small concentration of lymphokine and then move up the concentration gradient towards where the immune response is required. Lymphokines aid B cells to produce antibodies. Important lymphokines secreted by the T helper cell include:[2] ...
... binds to the death receptors DR4 (TRAIL-RI) and DR5 (TRAIL-RII). The process of apoptosis is caspase-8-dependent. Caspase-8 activates downstream effector caspases including procaspase-3, -6, and -7, leading to activation of specific kinases.[11] TRAIL also binds the receptors DcR1 and DcR2, which do not contain a cytoplasmic domain (DcR1) or contain a truncated death domain (DcR2). DcR1 functions as a TRAIL-neutralizing decoy-receptor. The cytoplasmic domain of DcR2 is functional and activates NFkappaB. In cells expressing DcR2, TRAIL binding therefore activates NFkappaB, leading to transcription of genes known to antagonize the death signaling pathway and/or to promote inflammation. Application of engineered ligands that have variable affinity for different death (DR4 and DR5) and decoy receptors (DCR1 and DCR2) may allow selective targeting of cancer cells by controlling activation of Type 1/Type 2 pathways of cell death and single cell fluctuations. Luminescent iridium complex-peptide ...
... (IL-24) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL24 gene. IL-24 is a cytokine belonging to the IL-10 family of cytokines that signals through two heterodimeric receptors: IL-20R1/IL-20R2 and IL-22R1/IL-20R2. This interleukin is also known as melanoma differentiation-associated 7 (mda-7) due to its discovery as a tumour suppressing protein. IL-24 appears to control in cell survival and proliferation by inducing rapid activation of particular transcription factors called STAT1 and STAT3. This cytokine is predominantly released by activated monocytes, macrophages and T helper 2 (Th2) cells[5] and acts on non-haematopoietic tissues such as skin, lung and reproductive tissues. IL-24 performs important roles in wound healing, arthritis, psoriasis and cancer.[6][7][8] Several studies have shown that cell death occurs in cancer cells/cell lines following exposure to IL-24.[9][10] The gene for IL-24 is located on chromosome 1 in humans.[11] ...
... as well as chemokine and cytokine production, and expression of adhesion molecules such as E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. This ...
positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • regulation of insulin secretion. • extrinsic apoptotic signaling ... Copeland KF (2006). "Modulation of HIV-1 transcription by cytokines and chemokines". Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry. 5 (12 ...
... is sometimes used interchangeably among scientists with the term cytokine.[3] Historically, cytokines were associated with hematopoietic (blood and lymph forming) cells and immune system cells (e.g., lymphocytes and tissue cells from spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes). For the circulatory system and bone marrow in which cells can occur in a liquid suspension and not bound up in solid tissue, it makes sense for them to communicate by soluble, circulating protein molecules. However, as different lines of research converged, it became clear that some of the same signaling proteins which the hematopoietic and immune systems use were also being used by all sorts of other cells and tissues, during development and in the mature organism. While growth factor implies a positive effect on cell division, cytokine is a neutral term with respect to whether a molecule affects proliferation. While some cytokines can be growth factors, such as G-CSF and GM-CSF, others have an inhibitory effect on ...
chemokine activity. • cytokine activity. • heparin binding. • protein binding. • CXCR3 chemokine receptor binding. ... C-X-C motif chemokine 11 is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also called Interferon-inducible T- ... "Entrez Gene: CXCL11 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11".. *^ a b Cole KE, Strick CA, Paradis TJ, Ogborne KT, Loetscher M, Gladue ... This chemokine elicits its effects on its target cells by interacting with the cell surface chemokine receptor CXCR3, with a ...
Interferon alfa 2b is an antiviral or antineoplastic drug, that was originally discovered in the laboratory of Charles Weissmann at the University of Zurich. It was developed at Biogen, and ultimately marketed by Schering-Plough under the tradename Intron-A. It has been used for a wide range of indications, including viral infections and cancers. This drug is approved around the world for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C, chronic hepatitis B, hairy cell leukemia, Behçet's disease, chronic myelogenous leukemia, multiple myeloma, follicular lymphoma, carcinoid tumor, mastocytosis and malignant melanoma. ...
4-1BB is a type 2 transmembrane glycoprotein receptor belonging to the TNF superfamily, expressed on activated T Lymphocytes.[1] 4-1BBL (4-1BB ligand) is found on APCs (antigen presenting cells) and binds to 4-1BB. ...
Chemokine. CCL. CCL1 · CCL2 · CCL3 · CCL4 · CCL5 · CCL6 · CCL7 · CCL8 · CCL9 · CCL11 · CCL12 · CCL13 · CCL14 · CCL15 · CCL16 · ...
Acts as a receptor for chemokines including CCL2, CCL3, CCL3L1, CCL4, CCL5, CCL7, CCL8, CCL11, CCL13, CCL17, CCL22, CCL23, ... Also known as interceptor (internalizing receptor) or chemokine-scavenging receptor or chemokine decoy receptor. ... increasing its efficiency in chemokine uptake and degradation. By scavenging chemokines in tissues, on the surfaces of ... resulting instead in chemokine sequestration, degradation, or transcytosis. ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 7 (CCL7) is a small cytokine known as a chemokine that was previously called monocyte-chemotactic ... it is classified among the subfamily of chemokines known as CC chemokines. CCL7 specifically attracts monocytes, and regulates ... Human CCL7 genome location and CCL7 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Menten P, Wuyts A, Van Damme J (2002). " ... This chemokine is located on chromosome 17 in humans, in a large cluster containing many other CC chemokines and is most ...
... chemokines often bind more than one chemokine receptor, and chemokine receptors typically bind more than one class of chemokine ... Alternatively, CCL7 may facilitate neutrophil chemoattraction by a second chemokine, similar to the facilitatory role of CCL7 ... 8⇓, anti CXCL10 recognized CXCL10 but not KC, CCL7, and CCL5. Likewise, the Abs to CCL7 and KC specifically recognized CCL7 and ... To detect these chemokines or chemokine receptors, Western blotting was performed using rabbit anti-murine chemokine Abs ( ...
These findings indicate that CCL7 and CXCL10, two chemokines not previously reported to orchestrate neutrophilic inflammation, ... O3 increased lung protein levels of CXCL10, CCL7, and CCR3 (CCL7R). The airway epithelium was identified as a source of CCL7. ... The role of up-regulated chemokines was determined by administering control IgG or IgG Abs against six murine chemokines before ... CCL7 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-3), and CCL11 (eotaxin) at 0 h postexposure, and expression of CXCL10, CCL3, and CCL7 ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-CCL7/MCP-3/MARC Antibody (36320) [Alexa Fluor® 700]. Validated: Flow. Tested Reactivity: Human. 100% ... Alternate Names for CCL7/MCP-3/MARC Antibody (36320) [Alexa Fluor® 700]. *C-C motif chemokine 7 ... Home » CCL7/MCP-3/MARC » CCL7/MCP-3/MARC Antibodies » CCL7/MCP-3/MARC Antibody (36320) [Alexa Fluor® 700] ... CCL7/MCP-3/MARC Antibody (36320) [Alexa Fluor® 700] Summary. Immunogen. E. coli-derived recombinant human CCL7/MCP-3/MARC. ...
CCL7) Protein (His tag). Spezies: Human. Quelle: Escherichia coli (E. coli). Jetzt Produkt ABIN2004891 bestellen. ... Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 7 (CCL7) Synonyme für dieses Antigen anzeigen * CCL7 ... Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 7 (CCL7) (AA 24-99), (Mature) protein (His tag). Details zu Produkt Nr. ABIN2004891, Anbieter: ... Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 7 (CCL7) (AA 24-99), (Mature) protein (His tag) Produktdetails lesen ...
Chemokines, Cytokines and chemokines and related molecules. Summary. Monocyte chemotactic protein 3 (MCP3)(CCL7) is secreted by ... CCL7. By Technical Data. CCL7 - Proteins. CCL7 - Recombinant+protein - Proteins. Human - CCL7 - Proteins. CCL7 - for Western+ ... CCL7 - for Cell+culture+and%2for+animal+studies - Proteins. CCL7 - for Biologically+active+protein - Proteins. CCL7 - from E.+ ... Chemokines. Cytokines and chemokines and related molecules. By Molecule. ...
CCL7) is a small cytokine known as a chemokine that was previously called monocyte-specific chemokine 3 (MCP3). Due to CCL7 ... it is classified among the subfamily of chemokines known as CC chemokines. CCL7 specifically attracts monocytes, and regulates ... This chemokine is located on chromosome 17 in humans, in a large cluster containing many other CC chemokines and is most ... Small inducible cytokine A7, CCL7, Monocyte chemotactic protein 3, MCP-3, Monocyte chemoattractant protein 3, NC28, chemokine ( ...
It is one of the most broadly active chemokines, potently inducing chemotaxis of monocytes, basophils, eosinophils, and ... CCL7) antigen, an inflammatory cytokine also known as monocyte chemotactic protein 3 (MCP-3). Human CCL7 is secreted by several ... Clone REA328 recognizes the human C-C motif chemokine 7 ( ... Clone REA328 recognizes the human C-C motif chemokine 7 (CCL7) ... It is one of the most broadly active chemokines, potently inducing chemotaxis of monocytes, basophils, eosinophils, and ...
Browse our CCL7/MCP-3/MARC Protein catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... CCL7/MCP-3/MARC Proteins available through Novus Biologicals. ... CCL7/MCP-3/MARC protein, CCL7 protein, C-C motif chemokine 7 ... CCL7/MCP-3/MARC Proteins. We offer CCL7/MCP-3/MARC Peptides and CCL7/MCP-3/MARC Proteins for use in common research ... Our CCL7/MCP-3/MARC Peptides and CCL7/MCP-3/MARC Proteins can be used in a variety of model species: Human, Mouse, Rat. Use the ...
It is a member of the C-C subfamily of chemokines which are characterized by having two adjacent cysteine residues. The protein ... Home , Life Science Research , Products , PCR Amplification , PrimePCR™ PCR Primers, Assays, and Arrays , Gene: CCL7, Human , ... PrimePCR™ ddPCR™ Expression EvaGreen® Assay: CCL7, Human. print ddPCR™ Evagreen assay for gene expression analysis. EvaGreen ... This gene is part of a cluster of C-C chemokine family members on chromosome 17q. [provided by RefSeq Jul 2008] ...
Mouse chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 7 ELISA Kit-NP_038682.1 (MBS701687) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ELISA Kits ... Chemokine Signaling Pathway antibodies. Chemokine Signaling Pathway Diagram. Chemokine Signaling Pathway antibodies. Chemokine ... Chemokine Receptors Bind Chemokines Pathway antibodies. Chemokine Receptors Bind Chemokines Pathway Diagram. ... chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 7 (CCL7), ELISA Kit. ★Popular Item★ Also Known As Mouse monocyte chemotactic protein 3, MCP-3 ...
CCL7 (MCP-3) (Biotinylated) Rec. Prot. \ RD172387002-BIOTIN for more molecular products just contact us ... Related products : CCL7 (MCP-3) (Biotinylated) Rec. Prot.. Gentaurpub. Pathways :. WP2292: Chemokine signaling pathway. Related ... RD172387002-BIOTIN CCL7 (MCP-3) (Biotinylated) Rec. Prot. Ask technical file .. Price. : Ask Price ! Product name : CCL7 (MCP-3 ... We have also other products like : CCL7 (MCP-3) (Biotinylated) Rec. Prot.. Related products : CCL7 (MCP-3) (Biotinylated) Rec. ...
Chemokine_CX3C - cd00274 Chemokine_C - cd00271 SCY - smart00199 Chemokine_CC_DCCL - cd01119 Chemokine_CC - cd00272 Chemokine - ... Chemokine_C - cd00271 IL8 - pfam00048 SCY - smart00199 Chemokine_CC - cd00272 Chemokine - cd00169 Chemokine_CC_DCCL - cd01119 ...
Cusabio offers CCL7 related Antibodies, Proteins, cDNA and ELISA Kits. We also illustrate the related signaling pathways ... CCL7. CCL7. C-C motif chemokine 7 is a protein in humans that is encoded by CCL7 gene. Chemotactic factor that attracts ... Recombinant Human C-C motif chemokine 7(CCL7). Yeast. E.coli. Baculovirus. Mammalian cell. In Vivo Biotinylation in E.coli. ... Recombinant Rat C-C motif chemokine 7(Ccl7). Yeast. E.coli. Baculovirus. Mammalian cell. In Vivo Biotinylation in E.coli. ...
MCP-3/CCL7 is a member of the C-C subfamily of chemokines, which have two adjacent cysteine residues, and is a ligand for CCR1 ... CCL7. A gene on chromosome 17q11.2-q12 that encodes monocyte chemotactic protein 3 (MCP-3), a secreted chemokine that attracts ...
Ccl7) (Active) von Cusabio bei SZABO-SCANDIC erhältlich. Weiteres zu Proteine & Peptide finden Sie hier. ... Recombinant Mouse C-C motif chemokine 7 protein(Ccl7) (Active), Host: E.Coli ... Recombinant Mouse C-C motif chemokine 7 protein( ... Recombinant Mouse C-C motif chemokine 7 protein(Ccl7) (Active) ...
Association of GR with endogenous CCL2 and CCL7 mRNAs. In light of the observed GR-mediated effect on chemokine mRNA decay, we ... 3C). No CCL7 mRNA was detected in the isotype IgG control-IP, likely due to low baseline expression in BEAS-2B, but CCL7 mRNA ... GR associates with CCL2 and CCL7 mRNA and is necessary for GC-induced acceleration of the chemokine mRNA decay. Moreover, we ... 2A, lane B) and CCL7 mRNA (Fig. 2B, lane B). However, a 30-min preincubation of the cytoplasmic lysates with 3 μg anti-GR Ab ...
This review will focus on recent murine and human studies that use chemokines as therapeutic anti-cancer vaccine adjuvants. ... Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing ... This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential ... was genetically fused to chemokines CCL7, CXCL10 [54] and CCL20 [53]. Immunization with chemokine-sFv protein elicited a T-cell ...
CCL7. chemokine (C-C motif). ligand 7. 1.4. 12.2. NM_002984. CCL4. chemokine (C-C motif). ... The method according to claim 12 wherein the one or more genes comprises MT3, TNFSF7, BTG1, IL-6, IL-8, IL1b, CCL4, CCL7, IFNG ... 15 Induction of transcription of IL-6, IL-8, IL-1b, MIP1b cytokine/chemokines by MGCD0103 in peripheral white cells ex vivo ... 14). Then, induction of transcription of IL-6, IL-8, IL-1b, MIP1b cytokine/chemokines by MGCD0103 was shown in peripheral white ...
CCL2 and CCL7 are elevated in ARDS BAL fluid. We have previously reported that the chemokines CCL2 and CCL7 are elevated in the ... Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8 (CXCL8), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL)2 and CCL7 contribute to the neutrophil chemotactic ... CCL2 and CCL7 have been shown to differentially induce the chemotaxis of macrophages, with CCL7 being the only chemokine to ... is mediated by the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL)2 and CCL7,12 while CCL7 regulates neutrophil recruitment in response to ...
Both MCP2 and CCL7 are members of the CC family of chemokines and share 62% and 71% amino acid sequence identity, respectively ... Human MCP-3 (CCL7) Bio Basic Inc.. MCP2 and CCL7 are two monocyte chemotactic proteins produced by human MG63 osteosarcoma ... Fractalkine, also named neurotactin, is a novel chemokine recently identified through bioinformatics. Fractalkine has a unique ... C-X3-C cysteine motif near the amino-terminus and is the first member of a fourth branch of the chemokine superfamily. Unlike ...
CCL7. CC motif chemokine 7. iTRAQ. isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification. Dkk-3. dickkopf-related protein-3. ... As a positive control, human chemokine CCL7/MCP3, a known MMP substrate with a characterized cleavage site (3), was spiked into ... chemokine (supplemental Table 1). To check the accuracy of neo-N-terminal peptide identification, the chemokine mixture was ... we used a mixture of 13 chemokines of which one was a synthetic analog of MMP-cleaved CXC motif chemokine 8 (from position 5 to ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 7. CCL7. 39802_at. 2.5. Interleukin 8. IL8. 35372_r_at. 2.4. ... Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10. CXCL10. 431_at. 69.3. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 18 (pulmonary and activation-regulated). ... Cell-free culture supernatants from multiple donors were assayed for 37 different chemokines by using a RayBio human chemokine ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5. CCL5. 1403_s_at. 1.6. Endothelial cell growth factor 1 (platelet-derived). ECGF1. 36879_at. − ...
Monocyte recruitment to sites of inflammation is regulated by members of the chemokine family of chemotactic cytokines. However ... Receptors, Chemokine / deficiency * Receptors, Chemokine / genetics * Receptors, Chemokine / physiology* Substances * CCL7 ... Here we report that CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) is highly expressed on a subpopulation of blood monocytes whose numbers are ... Monocyte recruitment to sites of inflammation is regulated by members of the chemokine family of chemotactic cytokines. However ...
  • Treatment of tumor-bearing mice with chemotherapy induced intratumoral expression of these chemokines and favored T-cell infiltration into cutaneous tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In patients with melanoma, these chemokines were also upregulated in chemotherapy-sensitive lesions following chemotherapy, and correlated with T-cell infiltration, tumor control, and patient survival. (aacrjournals.org)
  • T-cell recruitment to the tumor is one of the potential rate-limiting steps in immunotherapy, and thus, intratumoral chemokines are likely to have a major impact ( 11, 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Small volumes of CCL7 elisa kit vial(s) may occasionally become entrapped in the seal of the product vial during shipment and storage. (mybiosource.com)
  • In this study, an immunomodulatory peptide IDR-1002 was selected from a library of bactenecin derivatives based on its substantially more potent ability to induce chemokines in human PBMCs. (jimmunol.org)
  • Detects human CCL7/MCP-3/MARC in ELISAs and Western blots. (novusbio.com)
  • Protein Structure: A DNA sequence encoding the mature form of human CCL7 (NP_006264.2) (Gln 24-Leu 99) was expressed, with a polyhistide tag at the N-terminus. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • This review will focus on recent murine and human studies that use chemokines as therapeutic anti-cancer vaccine adjuvants. (mdpi.com)
  • Methods CCL2 and CCL7 protein levels were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid obtained from lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-challenged human volunteers and two separate cohorts of patients with ARDS. (bmj.com)
  • We found that dacarbazine, temozolomide, and cisplatin induced expression of T-cell-attracting chemokines in several human melanoma cell lines in vitro . (aacrjournals.org)