A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.
A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.
Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.
Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.
CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.
A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.
A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.
Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.
A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.
Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.
An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.
CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.
Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.
Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.
The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.

RFLAT-1: a new zinc finger transcription factor that activates RANTES gene expression in T lymphocytes. (1/1514)

RANTES (Regulated upon Activation, Normal T cell Expressed and Secreted) is a chemoattractant cytokine (chemokine) important in the generation of inflammatory infiltrate and human immunodeficiency virus entry into immune cells. RANTES is expressed late (3-5 days) after activation in T lymphocytes. Using expression cloning, we identified the first "late" T lymphocyte associated transcription factor and named it "RANTES Factor of Late Activated T Lymphocytes-1" (RFLAT-1). RFLAT-1 is a novel, phosphorylated, zinc finger transcription factor that is expressed in T cells 3 days after activation, coincident with RANTES expression. While Rel proteins play the dominant role in RANTES gene expression in fibroblasts, RFLAT-1 is a strong transactivator for RANTES in T cells.  (+info)

Similarities and differences in RANTES- and (AOP)-RANTES-triggered signals: implications for chemotaxis. (2/1514)

Chemokines are a family of proinflammatory cytokines that attract and activate specific types of leukocytes. Chemokines mediate their effects via interaction with seven transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). Using CCR5-transfected HEK-293 cells, we show that both the CCR5 ligand, RANTES, as well as its derivative, aminooxypentane (AOP)- RANTES, trigger immediate responses such as Ca2+ influx, receptor dimerization, tyrosine phosphorylation, and Galphai as well as JAK/STAT association to the receptor. In contrast to RANTES, (AOP)-RANTES is unable to trigger late responses, as measured by the association of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) to the chemokine receptor complex, impaired cell polarization required for migration, or chemotaxis. The results are discussed in the context of the dissociation of the late signals, provoked by the chemokines required for cell migration, from early signals.  (+info)

Induction of macrophage C-C chemokine expression by titanium alloy and bone cement particles. (3/1514)

Particulate wear debris is associated with periprosthetic inflammation and loosening in total joint arthroplasty. We tested the effects of titanium alloy (Ti-alloy) and PMMA particles on monocyte/macrophage expression of the C-C chemokines, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), monocyte inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1alpha), and regulated upon activation normal T expressed and secreted protein (RANTES). Periprosthetic granulomatous tissue was analysed for expression of macrophage chemokines by immunohistochemistry. Chemokine expression in human monocytes/macrophages exposed to Ti-alloy and PMMA particles in vitro was determined by RT-PCR, ELISA and monocyte migration. We observed MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha expression in all tissue samples from failed arthroplasties. Ti-alloy and PMMA particles increased expression of MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha in macrophages in vitro in a dose- and time-dependent manner whereas RANTES was not detected. mRNA signal levels for MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha were also observed in cells after exposure to particles. Monocyte migration was stimulated by culture medium collected from macrophages exposed to Ti-alloy and PMMA particles. Antibodies to MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha inhibited chemotactic activity of the culture medium samples. Release of C-C chemokines by macrophages in response to wear particles may contribute to chronic inflammation at the bone-implant interface in total joint arthroplasty.  (+info)

RANTES, IFN-gamma, CCR1, and CCR5 mRNA expression in peripheral blood, lymph node, and bronchoalveolar lavage mononuclear cells during primary simian immunodeficiency virus infection of macaques. (4/1514)

Primary infection of macaques with pathogenic isolates of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) (as a model of HIV infection in humans) represents a unique opportunity to study early lentivirus/host interactions. We sought to determine whether there is a temporal relationship linking SIV replication and dissemination and the expression of the chemokine RANTES (regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted) and the SIV/HIV coreceptor CCR5 in different tissues during acute SIV infection of macaques. Four cynomolgus macaques were inoculated intravenously with a pathogenic primary isolate of SIVmac251. RT-PCR was used to monitor the expression of RANTES and CCR5 mRNA in fresh isolated mononuclear cells from blood, lymph node, and bronchoalveolar lavages. These expressions were compared to those of IFN-gamma as an indicator of the development of the immune response and to another receptor for RANTES, CCR1, which is not described as a coreceptor for SIV/HIV-1 entry. An enhancement of CCR1/CCR5 mRNA expression was noticed during primary SIVmac251 infection of macaques, mainly in tissue. In the three different compartments investigated, IFN-gamma and RANTES overexpression was noticed by the time of systemic viral replication containment. Our results put CCR5 and RANTES mRNA expression back in the context of inflammatory and immune responses to SIV primary infection.  (+info)

Chemokine expression in CF epithelia: implications for the role of CFTR in RANTES expression. (5/1514)

To delineate the mechanisms that facilitate leukocyte migration into the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung, expression of chemokines, including interleukin-8 (IL-8), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and RANTES, was compared between CF and non-CF airway epithelia. The findings presented herein demonstrate that, under either basal conditions or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)- and/or interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-stimulated conditions, a consistent pattern of differences in the secretion of IL-8 and MCP-1 between CF and non-CF epithelial cells was not observed. In contrast, CF epithelial cells expressed no detectable RANTES protein or mRNA under basal conditions or when stimulated with TNF-alpha and/or IFN-gamma (P +info)

IL-15 induces the expression of chemokines and their receptors in T lymphocytes. (6/1514)

IL-15 is a T cell growth factor that shares many biological activities with IL-2 and uses the same beta/gamma polypeptides of the IL-2R complex for signal transduction. Accumulating evidence implicates an important role for this cytokine in the inflammatory response of the host. Consistent with such a role, IL-15 has been shown to be a chemoattractant for T lymphocytes, NK cells, and neutrophils. Extending these observations, we now show that IL-15 is a potent inducer of CC-, CXC-, and C-type chemokines in T lymphocytes. In addition, we demonstrate that IL-15 induces CC chemokine receptors, but not CXC chemokine receptors, in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, our findings suggest that the proinflammatory effects of IL-15 at least in part may be due to the induction of chemokines and their receptors in T cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that IL-15 promotes entry and replication of macrophage-tropic HIV in T lymphocytes and suggest a plausible mechanism by which IL-15, a cytokine that is elevated in HIV-infected individuals, may promote the transition of HIV displaying the M-tropic phenotype primarily associated with the initial transmission into the T cell-tropic phenotype that predominates as the disease progresses.  (+info)

IL-12 gene as a DNA vaccine adjuvant in a herpes mouse model: IL-12 enhances Th1-type CD4+ T cell-mediated protective immunity against herpes simplex virus-2 challenge. (7/1514)

IL-12 has been shown to enhance cellular immunity in vitro and in vivo. Recent reports have suggested that combining DNA vaccine approach with immune stimulatory molecules delivered as genes may significantly enhance Ag-specific immune responses in vivo. In particular, IL-12 molecules could constitute an important addition to a herpes vaccine by amplifying specific immune responses. Here we investigate the utility of IL-12 cDNA as an adjuvant for a herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) DNA vaccine in a mouse challenge model. Direct i.m. injection of IL-12 cDNA induced activation of resting immune cells in vivo. Furthermore, coinjection with IL-12 cDNA and gD DNA vaccine inhibited both systemic gD-specific Ab and local Ab levels compared with gD plasmid vaccination alone. In contrast, Th cell proliferative responses and secretion of cytokines (IL-2 and IFN-gamma) and chemokines (RANTES and macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha) were significantly increased by IL-12 coinjection. However, the production of cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) and chemokine (MCP-1) was inhibited by IL-12 coinjection. IL-12 coinjection with a gD DNA vaccine showed significantly better protection from lethal HSV-2 challenge compared with gD DNA vaccination alone in both inbred and outbred mice. This enhanced protection appears to be mediated by CD4+ T cells, as determined by in vivo CD4+ T cell deletion. Thus, IL-12 cDNA as a DNA vaccine adjuvant drives Ag-specific Th1 type CD4+ T cell responses that result in reduced HSV-2-derived morbidity as well as mortality.  (+info)

Requirements for measles virus induction of RANTES chemokine in human astrocytoma-derived U373 cells. (8/1514)

Interferons and chemokines play a critical role in regulating the host response to viral infection. Measles virus, a member of the Paramyxoviridae family, induces RANTES expression by astrocytes. We have examined the mechanism of this induction in U373 cells derived from a human astrocytoma. RANTES was induced in a dose- and time-dependent manner by measles virus infection. Inhibition of receptor binding by the anti-CD46 antibody TRA-2.10 and of virus-membrane fusion by the tripeptide X-Phe-Phe-Gly reduced RANTES expression. Formalin-inactivated virus, which can bind but not fuse, and extensively UV-irradiated virus, which can bind and fuse, were both ineffective. Therefore, virus binding to the cellular receptor CD46 and subsequent membrane fusion were necessary, but not sufficient, to induce RANTES. UV irradiation of virus for less than 10 min proportionally inhibited viral transcription and RANTES expression. RANTES induction was decreased in infected cells treated with ribavirin, which inhibits measles virus transcription. However, RANTES mRNA was superinduced by measles virus in the presence of cycloheximide. These data suggest that partial transcription of the viral genome is sufficient and necessary for RANTES induction, whereas viral protein synthesis and replication are not required. This hypothesis was supported by the fact that RANTES was induced through transient expression of the measles virus nucleocapsid gene but not by measles genes encoding P or L proteins or by leader RNA in A549 cells. Thus, transcription of specific portions of measles virus RNA, such as the nucleocapsid gene, appears able to generate the specific signaling required to induce RANTES gene expression.  (+info)

Our results demonstrate that the heat shock response is a potent inhibitor of RANTES gene expression in vitro. Induction of the heat shock response inhibited TNF-α-mediated expression of RANTES mRNA and secretion of immunoreactive RANTES. These effects were not secondary to cytotoxicity, and are consistent with previous data demonstrating that the heat shock response inhibited proinflammatory responses of lung cells (23, 24, 25, 26, 27). We propose that the observed inhibition is not a generalized effect of the heat shock response. Rather, it appears that the heat shock response has a relatively specific inhibitory effect on lung proinflammatory responses. Evidence to support this assertion includes the observation that the heat shock response did not affect surfactant protein gene expression in cultured respiratory epithelium (24). Moreover, the heat shock response increased I-κBα gene expression in cultured respiratory epithelium, a protein that normally functions to inhibit NF-κB nuclear ...
Buy our Recombinant Human RANTES protein. Ab87758 is a full length protein produced in Escherichia coli and has been validated in SDS-PAGE. Abcam provides free…
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with high percentage of chronicity which implies the ability of the virus to evade or modulate host cell immune system. Modulation of chemokines, such as RANTES may be part of the virus induced pathogenicity. We examined the effect of core and structural proteins of HCV on RANTES expression in two liver derived cell lines, HepG2 and Chang Liver (CHL). HepG2 and Chang Liver (CHL) cell lines were established and selected for constitutive expression of HCV core and structural genes. Flow cytometry and quantitative RT-PCR analysis were performed to examine the effect of HCV core protein on RANTES expression. Luciferase analysis after RANTES-Luc-promoter transfection of established cell lines was assayed by luminometer measurements (RLU) of RANTES promoter activity. IRF-1 and IRF-7 expression was then examined by immunoblotting analysis. Results of flow cytometry and RT-PCR analysis indicated that RANTES is differentially regulated by HCV core protein in the
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of nerve growth factor in rantes expression by keratinocytes. AU - Raychaudhuri, Siba P. AU - Farber, E. M.. AU - Raychaudhuri, S. K.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - A role of neurogenic inflammation induced by the neuropeptides and nerve growth factor (NGF) has been attributed to the pathogenesis of several cutaneous disorders such as psoriasis, wound healing and eczematous dermatitis. The underlying mechanisms of the inflammatory process induced by NGF are not clearly established. This study explored whether NGF influences the inflammatory process by inducing chemokines. The effects of NGF were investigated on induction of 2 important chemokines, interleukin-8 and RANTES, which are known to be upregulated in the keratinocytes of various inflammatory conditions. NGF significantly increased RANTES production by the keratinocytes (p,0.001, 2-tailed Students t-test). Induction of RANTES expression in the keratinocytes by NGF provides further insight regarding the role of NGF-NGF ...
RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) is released by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), and is a potent chemoattractant factor for monocytes and T cells, also known for its ability to suppress HIV infection. At micromolar concentration, RANTES is able to activate leukocytes, and, paradoxically, to enhance HIV infection in vitro. These latter properties are dependent on its ability to self-aggregate. In order to understand further the mechanism of RANTES-induced activation, the effects of both aggregated and disaggregated RANTES on antigen-specific CD8(+) clones were studied in comparison with the effects of specific antigens and in the presence of specific inhibitors of RANTES-mediated activation. We observed large amounts of RANTES aggregated on the cell surface, which led to cell activation, including up-regulation of cell surface markers, and secretion of IFN-gamma and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1beta. Specific inhibitors of RANTES-induced activation, such as
BioAssay record AID 52555 submitted by ChEMBL: Compound was tested in vitro for inhibition of [125I]RANTES binding to THP-1 cell membranes rich in C-C chemokine receptor type 1.
Granulomas form by a stepwise series of events, starting when T helper cells recognise protein peptides presented to them by antigen presenting cells bearing histocompatibility class II molecules. Immunological reactivity or inflammation attract monocyte macrophages which fuse to form multinucleated giant cells and onwards to epithelioid cells. Granuloma formation is aided by a cavalcade of chemotactic factors; Th1 cells induce interleukin (IL)-2, interferon gamma, and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) with the help of IL-12 and costimulator B7. The resulting exuberant granuloma formation is associated with active cell mediated hypersensitivity and tissue destruction. This framework is also remodelled by chemokines, adhesion molecules, matrix receptors of the integrin family, costimulators B7 and CD28, IL-12, and RANTES (regulated on activation normal T cells as secreted).. Bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) reveals this macrophage class II-CD4Th1 cell synergy with its awesome cytokine cascade. Angiotensin ...
Blocking HIV-1 cell entry has long been a major goal of anti-HIV drug development. Here, we report a successful design of two highly potent chimeric HIV entry inhibitors composed of one CCR5-targeting RANTES (regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted) variant (5P12-RANTES or 5P14-RANTES (Gaertner, H., Cerini, F., Escola, J. M., Kuenzi, G., Melotti, A., Offord, R., Rossitto-Borlat, I., Nedellec, R., Salkow-itz, J., Gorochov, G., Mosier, D., and Hartley, O. (2008) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 17706 -17711)) linked to a gp41 fusion inhibitor, C37. Chimeric inhibitors 5P12-linker-C37 and 5P14-linker-C37 showed extremely high antiviral potency in single cycle and replication-competent viral assays against R5-tropic viruses, with IC50 values as low as 0.004 nM. This inhi-bition was somewhat strain-dependent and was up to 100-fold better than the RANTES variant alone or in combination with unlinked C37. The chimeric inhibitors also fully retained the antiviral activity of C37 ...
ICAM-3 and CCR5 polarization induced by RANTES and (AOP)- RANTES in T lymphoblasts. (A) Time course of RANTES- and (AOP)- RANTES-induced ICAM-3 redistribution
AlphaLISA no-wash assay kit for detection and quantitation of Mouse/Rat C-C Motif Chemokine 5 / Regulated Upon Activation Normal T-Cell Expressed, and Secreted (CCL5/RANTES) in serum, bronchial lavage fluid (BALF), buffered solution or cell culture medium.
Rat monoclonal RANTES antibody [53405.111] validated for WB, ELISA, Inhibition and tested in Human and Mouse. With 1 independent review. Immunogen…
ELISA Kit for Regulated On Activation In Normal T-Cell Expressed And Secreted (RANTES), Hölzel Diagnostika, Produkte, ELISA, Human
canine CCL5/RANTES gene cDNA, cloning vector & expression plasmid, mutiple tags. Optimized for high expression in mammalian cells. Save up to 60%.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of RANTES promoter activation in gastric epithelial cells infected with Helicobacter pylori. AU - Kudo, Takahiko. AU - Lu, Hong. AU - Wu, Jeng Yih. AU - Graham, David Y.. AU - Casola, Antonella. AU - Yamaoka, Yoshio. PY - 2005/11. Y1 - 2005/11. N2 - RANTES, a CC chemokine, plays an important role in the inflammatory response associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. However, the mechanism by which H. pylori induces RANTES expression in the gastric mucosa is unknown. We cocultured gastric epithelial cells with wild-type H. pylori, isogenic oipA mutants, cag pathogenicity island. (PAI) mutants, or double knockout mutants. Reverse transcriptase PCR showed that RANTES mRNA was induced by H. pylori and that the expression was both OipA and cag PAI dependent. Luciferase reporter gene assays and electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that maximal H. pylori-induced RANTES gene transcription required the presence of the interferon-stimulated responsive element ...
Chemokines are a family of cytokines involved in the extravasation of leukocytes to the site of inflammation. 4 CCL2/monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), which is chemotactic for monocytes, 5 and CXCL8/IL-8, which chemoattracts neutrophils, 6 have been reported to be elevated in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) or serum of patients with active pulmonary sarcoidosis. 7 8 9 10 CCL3/macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), CCL4/MIP-1β, and CCL5/regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) also have been shown to be elevated in the BALF of patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis. 11 12 13 As a result of the findings that CCL3 and CCL5 share the same CC chemokine receptor (CCR5) that is expressed abundantly on Th1-type cells and that CCR5 mRNA expression is upregulated in BALF of patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis, these chemokines have been suggested to be involved in the recruitment of Th1 cells 14 from the circulation to the granulomas in pulmonary ...
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dioscorins isolated from 2 yam species, Dioscorea alata (Da-dioscorins) and Dioscorea japonica (Dj-dioscorins), on mouse immune activities. Results from cytokine array indicated that Dj-dioscorins increased the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-3, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-13, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) in the spleen cells of BALB/c mice. In RAW264.7 macrophage, Da-dioscorins upregulated the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, RANTES, MCP-1, and GCSF genes to a greater extent than Dj-dioscorins did. TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and RANTES gene expression was higher in spleen cells than in bone marrow and thymus cells in Da-dioscorin- or Dj-dioscorin-treated BALB/c and C57BL/6. Overall, our results suggest that dioscorins exert distinct immunomodulatory effects on mouse immune ...
Intestinal epithelial cells are the initial sites of host response to Clostridium difficile infection and can play a role in signaling the influx of inflammatory cells. To further explore this role, the regulated expression and polarized secretion of CXC and CC chemokines by human intestinal epithelial cells were investigated. An expression of the CXC chemokines, including IL-8 and growth-related oncogene (GRO)-alpha, and the CC chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 from HT-29 cells increased in the 1-6 hr following C. difficile toxin A stimulation, assessed by quantitative RT-PCR. In contrast, the expression of neutrophil activating protein-78 (ENA-78) was delayed for 18 hr. The up-regulated mRNA expression of chemokines was paralleled by the increase of protein levels. However, the expression of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha, RANTES (regulated on activation normal T cells expressed and secreted), and interferon-gamma-inducible protein-10 (IP-10) was not changed in ...
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Background Statins have previously been proven to lessen the in vitro disease of human being immunodeficiency pathogen type 1 (HIV-1) through modulation of Rho GTPase activity and lipid raft formation in the cell surface area as well while by disrupting LFA-1 incorporation into viral contaminants. of CCR5 mRNA manifestation. The CC-chemokine RANTES protein and mRNA expression levels were increased in CD4+ enriched lymphocytes treated with statins somewhat. Both X4 and R5 HIV-1 were reduced for his or her infection of statin-treated cells; however in ethnicities where statins had been removed and in which a reduction in CCR5 manifestation was observed there is a preferential inhibition of disease with an R5 versus X4 pathogen. Conclusions The outcomes indicate how the modulation of CC-chemokine receptor (CCR5) and CC-chemokine (RANTES) manifestation levels is highly recommended as adding to the anti-viral ramifications of statins preferentially inhibiting R5 infections. This observation in ...
Chemoattractant for blood monocytes, memory T-helper cells and eosinophils. Causes the release of histamine from basophils and activates eosinophils. May activate several chemokine receptors including CCR1, CCR3, CCR4 and CCR5. One of the major HIV-suppressive factors produced by CD8+ T-cells. Recombinant RANTES protein induces a dose-dependent inhibition of different strains of HIV-1, HIV-2, and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). The processed form RANTES(3-68) acts as a natural chemotaxis inhibitor and is a more potent inhibitor of HIV-1-infection. The second processed form RANTES(4-68) exhibits reduced chemotactic and HIV-suppressive activity compared with RANTES(1-68) and RANTES(3-68) and is generated by an unidentified enzyme associated with monocytes and neutrophils (PubMed:16791620, PubMed:1380064, PubMed:8525373, PubMed:9516414, PubMed:15923218). May also be an agonist of the G protein-coupled receptor GPR75, stimulating inositol trisphosphate production and calcium mobilization ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (also CCL5) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CCL5 gene. It is also known as RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted). CCL5 is an 8kDa protein classified as a chemotactic cytokine or chemokine. CCL5 is chemotactic for T cells, eosinophils, and basophils, and plays an active role in recruiting leukocytes into inflammatory sites. With the help of particular cytokines (i.e., IL-2 and IFN-γ) that are released by T cells, CCL5 also induces the proliferation and activation of certain natural-killer (NK) cells to form CHAK (CC-Chemokine-activated killer) cells. It is also an HIV-suppressive factor released from CD8+ T cells[citation needed]. This chemokine has been localized to chromosome 17 in humans. RANTES was first identified in a search for genes expressed late (3-5 days) after T cell activation. It was subsequently determined to be a CC chemokine and expressed in more than 100 human diseases. RANTES expression is ...
CCL5 is an 8kDa protein classified as a chemotactic cytokine or chemokine. CCL5 is chemotactic for T cells, eosinophils, and basophils, and plays an active role in recruiting leukocytes into inflammatory sites. With the help of particular cytokines (i.e., IL-2 and IFN-γ) that are released by T cells, CCL5 also induces the proliferation and activation of certain natural-killer (NK) cells to form CHAK (CC-Chemokine-activated killer) cells.[6] It is also an HIV-suppressive factor released from CD8+ T cells[citation needed]. This chemokine has been localized to chromosome 17 in humans.[5]. RANTES was first identified in a search for genes expressed late (3-5 days) after T cell activation. It was subsequently determined to be a CC chemokine and expressed in more than 100 human diseases. RANTES expression is regulated in T lymphocytes by Kruppel like factor 13 (KLF13).[7][8][9][10] RANTES, along with the related chemokines MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta, has been identified as a natural HIV-suppressive ...
Baggiolini M, Dahinden CA. CC chemokines in allergic inflammation. Immunol. Today (1994) 15:127-133.. Baggiolini M, Dewald B, Moser B. Interleukin-8 and related chemotactic cytokines-CXC and CC chemokines. Adv. Immunol. (1994) 55:97-179.. Barnes DA, Huston M, Holmes R, Benveniste EN, Yong VW, Scholz P, Perez HD. Induction of RANTES expression by astrocytes and astrocytoma cell lines. J. Neuroimmunol. (1996) 71: 207-214.. Beck LA, Dalke S, Leiferman KM, Bickel CA, Hamilton R, Rosen H, Bochner BS, Schleimer RP. Cutaneous injection of RANTES causes eosinophil recruitment: comparison of nonallergic and allergic human subjects. J Immunol. (1997) 159:2962-2972.. Bevilacqua MP, Gimbrone MA Jr. Inducible endothelial functions in inflammation and coagulation. Semin Thromb Hemost. (1987) 13:425-433.. Black RA, Rauch CT, Kozlosky CJ, Peschon JJ, Slack JL, Wolfson MF, Castner BJ, Stocking KL, Reddy P, Srinivasan S, Nelson N, Boiani N, Schooley KA, Gerhart M, Davis R, Fitzner, Johnson RS, Paxton RJ, March ...
Genomatix Software GmbH, Munich, Germany. The chemokine RANTES is produced by a variety of cell types in response to diverse stimuli. The molecular mechanisms involved in transcriptional control of RANTES can vary significantly between the various cells that express the gene and the specific activating stimuli used. For example, T cells strongly induce RANTES late (i.e. 3 to 7 days) after activation through their T cell receptor. Monocytes do not upregulate RANTES in response to TNF-alpha, IL-1beta or gamma-IFN, but quickly and transiently induce RANTES following stimulation with lipopolysaccaride (LPS) (maximal expression by 6 to 9 hours. By contrast, fibroblasts and astrocytes produce RANTES in response to TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta and gamma-IFN with the initial expression seen by 6 hours and maximal expression by 48 hours. The promoter region that regulates these diverse modes of expression may act as an enhancesome. It is compact, highly conserved over evolution, and can be efficiently studied ...
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is one of the most important flaviviruses that targets the central nervous system (CNS) and causes encephalitides in humans. Although neuroinflammatory mechanisms may contribute to brain tissue destruction, the induction pathways and potential roles of specific chemokines in TBEV-mediated neurological disease are poorly understood. BALB/c mice were intracerebrally injected with TBEV, followed by evaluation of chemokine and cytokine profiles using protein array analysis. The virus-infected mice were treated with the CC chemokine antagonist Met-RANTES or anti-RANTES mAb to determine the role of RANTES in affecting TBEV-induced neurological disease. The underlying signaling mechanisms were delineated using RANTES promoter luciferase reporter assay, siRNA-mediated knockdown, and pharmacological inhibitors in human brain-derived cell culture models. In a mouse model, pathological features including marked inflammatory cell infiltrates were observed in brain sections,
Chondrocytes produce RANTES and express RANTES receptors. RANTES and CCR5 were markedly increased in OA and after in vitro treatment of normal chondrocytes with IL-1. Chondrocyte activation and cartilage degradation were identified as novel biologic and pathogenetic activities of this chemokine.
Caroline Mouline, Guillaume Béranger, Heidy Schmid-Antomarchi, Danielle Quincey, David Momier, et al.. Monocytes differentiation upon treatment with a peptide corresponding to the C-terminus of activated T cell-expressed Tirc7 protein. Journal of Cellular Physiology, Wiley, 2012, 227 (8), pp.3088-3098. ⟨10.1002/jcp.23059⟩. ⟨hal-02404327⟩ ...
Dyer, AP; Mattick, C; Milnes, R; Gompels, UA; (2001) Novel beta herpes virus chemokine receptor shows rantes binding and transcriptional down regulation. [Conference or Workshop Item] Full text not available from this repository ...
MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-13 were expressed only in chondrocytes. The production of all MMPs was enhanced by contact coculture of chondrocytes with autologous T cells, whereas the production was not enhanced by separate coculture. Blockade of adhesion molecules had no influence on these responses. RANTES was expressed both in T cells and chondrocytes without stimulation. RANTES production was enhanced both in contact and in separate conditions only in OA samples, not in normal samples. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential effects of protein kinase C inhibitors on chemokine production in human synovial fibroblasts. AU - Jordan, Nicola J.. AU - Watson, Malcolm L.. AU - Yoshimura, Teizo. AU - Westwick, John. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - 1. Rheumatoid arthritis is associated with the accumulation and activation of selected populations of inflammatory cells within the arthritic joint. One putative signal for this process is the production, by resident cells, of a group of inflammatory mediators known as the chemokines. 2. The chemokines interleukin-8 (IL-8), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and RANTES (regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and presumably secreted) are target-cell specific chemoattractants produced by synovial fibroblasts in response to stimulation with interleukin-1α (IL-1α) or tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα). The signalling pathways involved in their production are not well defined. We therefore used four different protein kinase C inhibitors to ...
We have demonstrated previously the potent activation of PLD by the chemokine IL-8 in T lymphocytes (18). We have now extended our findings to include the C-C chemokine RANTES in demonstrating that in the Jurkat T cell line, the activation of this enzyme occurs at subnanomolar concentrations and is dependent on the activation of small GTP-binding protein cofactors. RANTES-induced PLD activation is consistently maximal at 1 nM, a concentration corresponding to the optimal chemotaxis-inducing dose in normal T lymphocytes. Interestingly, PLD activation in T lymphocytes and Jurkat T cells appears to be an important biologic consequence of chemokine action and more readily measurable (at nanomolar concentrations) than readouts of receptor activation such as calcium flux. It was also apparent that RANTES is the only chemokine tested to date (RANTES, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, MCP-1, MCP-3, lymphotactin) that induces as robust a response as seen in this study, although the others listed were capable of low ...
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Ccl2 - Ccl2 (untagged) - Mouse chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (Ccl2), (10ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Human osteoclast formation from monocyte precursors under the action of receptor activator of nuclear factor-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL) was suppressed by granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), with down-regulation of critical osteoclast-related nuclear factors. GM-CSF in the presence of RANKL and macrophage colony-stimulating factor resulted in mononuclear cells that were negative for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and negative for bone resorption. CD1a, a dendritic cell marker, was expressed in GM-CSF, RANKL, and macrophage colony-stimulating factor-treated cells and absent in osteoclasts. Microarray showed that the CC chemokine, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), was profoundly repressed by GM-CSF. Addition of MCP-1 reversed GM-CSF suppression of osteoclast formation, recovering the bone resorption phenotype. MCP-1 and chemokine RANTES (regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted) permitted formation of TRAP-positive multinuclear cells in the ...
title: RANTES gene promoter polymorphisms are associated with bronchial hyperresponsiveness in Korean children with asthma, doi: 10.1007/s00408-007-9049-3, category: Article
Authors: Reale, Marcella , Iarlori, Carla , Feliciani, Claudio , Gambi, Domenico Article Type: Research Article Abstract: Cerebral inflammation as well as systemic immunological alterations has been reported in Alzheimers disease (AD). We aimed to determine whether spontaneous and mitogen stimulated production of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cytokines, chemokines and chemokine receptors in clinically diagnosed patients with AD were unregulated. PBMC were purified from AD patients and from healthy controls. Supernatants were analyzed for cytokine levels by ELISA methods. mRNA expression was determined by RT-PCR. Expression of chemokine receptors CCR2 and CCR5 was determined by cytofluorimetric analysis. Both CCR5 and CCR2 expression were increased in AD patients respect to control subjects and the expression of CCR2 …and CCR5 was more frequent on CD4+ and less frequent on CD8+ cells. Levels of Th1-type cytokine IFNγ and chemokine RANTES were increased and levels of Th2-type ...
For several years, it has been known that stimulation with bacterial LPS protects macrophages from productive infection by HIV-1 in vitro ((15), (16)). Despite the potential implications of this finding for the pathogenesis and treatment of HIV infection, the mechanisms responsible for the HIV suppressive effect of LPS have remained unknown. Our present results indicate that LPS stimulates human MDM to release soluble factors, the C-C chemokines RANTES, MIP-1α, and MIP-1β, that strongly inhibit HIV replication, not only in macrophages but also in T lymphocytes.. These data may help redefine our current understanding of the role played by monocyte/macrophages in the pathogenesis of HIV infection. Macrophages have been viewed mostly negatively, as major targets for infection ((3), (4)), reservoirs for the virus ((1), (2)), triggers for T cell apoptosis ((36), (37)), and last but not least, as a source of soluble factors (TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6) that sustain viral replication ((27), (38), (39)). The ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 8 (CCL8), also known as monocyte chemoattractant protein 2 (MCP2), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCL8 gene. CCL8 is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. The CCL8 protein is produced as a precursor containing 109 amino acids, which is cleaved to produce mature CCL8 containing 75 amino acids. The gene for CCL8 is encoded by 3 exons and is located within a large cluster of CC chemokines on chromosome 17q11.2 in humans. MCP-2 is chemotactic for and activates many different immune cells, including mast cells, eosinophils and basophils, (that are implicated in allergic responses), and monocytes, T cells, and NK cells that are involved in the inflammatory response. CCL8 elicits its effects by binding to several different cell surface receptors called chemokine receptors. These receptors include CCR1, CCR2B and CCR5. CCL8 is a CC chemokine that utilizes multiple cellular receptors to attract and activate human leukocytes. CCL8 is a potent ...
Using thapsigargin (Tg), an agent that mobilizes calcium by directly emptying intracellular stores, we previously showed that intracellular calcium may play an important role in the regulation of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 gene expression induced by cytokines in human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells. In the present study, we extended this previous observation by comparing the effect of Tg and other calcium-mobilizing G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists on the expression of different pro-inflammatory genes in response to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in ASM cells. We found that in resting cells, Tg (10-100 nM) or the bradykinin (BK) (1-10 muM) and thrombin (Thr) (1 U/ml) stimulated interleukin (IL)-6 secretion but had no effect on regulated on activation, normal T cells expressed and secreted (RANTES) levels. More importantly, such calcium-mobilizing agents significantly enhanced TNF-alpha-induced IL-6 secretion while RANTES secretion was abrogated. The use of ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 8--also known as monocyte chemoattractant protein 2 (MCP-2), HC14, SCYA8, or SCYA10--is a protein encoded by the CCL8 gene. The precursor protein (109 amino acids) is cleaved to produce mature CCL8 (75 amino acids). CCL8 activates many different immune cells, including mast cells, eosinophils, and basophils (implicated in allergic responses), and monocytes, T cells, and NK cells (involved in the inflammatory response). CCL8 acts through binding to several different cell surface chemokine receptors, including CCR1, CCR2B, and CCR5 (one of the major co-receptors for HIV-1).. ...
The contribution of inflammation to the development of fibrosis varies in different conditions, and understanding the interaction between these processes is relevant to devise therapeutic strategies for chronic diseases such as pancreatitis. Identification of the chemokine system has elucidated the molecular mechanisms regulating leucocyte trafficking in a given tissue. Chemokines are a family of small cytokines that exert gradient dependent chemoattraction of cells bearing specific cognate receptors. The chemokine system is considerably complex, as indicated by the high number of ligands and receptors, and by the fact that the same chemokine may bind more than one receptor and the same receptor more than one chemokine.2 Additionally, the effects of chemokines are not limited to inflammation as the majority of cells express at least one chemokine receptor. A related aspect of chemokine biology is the distinction between homeostatic and inflammatory chemokines, where expression of the latter ...
In vitro replication of SIVcpz is suppressed by beta-chemokines and CD8+ T cells but not by natural killer cells of infected chimpanzees ...
Primary infections of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) are followed by a lifelong infection in the state of latency or persistence. It is believed that the virus employs a number of immunomodulatory mechanisms to establish latent infections. Among these are the inhibition of cytotoxic CD8+ T-cells by US11 and the impairment of leukocyte migration by US28. The potency of US11 to mediate the inhibition of T-cell activation was analysed in a model of MHC class I mediated T-cell activation. Surface expression of MHC class I molecules was reduced by 60 % after expression of US11 in murine dendritic cells. In contrast, there was no reduction in the capacity of the dendritic cells to induce T-cell proliferation. The US28 gene product has been characterized as a functional receptor for the inflammatory chemokines RANTES, MCP-1, MCP-3, MIP-1?? MIP-1? and fractalkine.Upon ligand stimulation US28 mediates the activation of MAPK and additionally a constitutive activation of NF-?B. By generating site ...
AYOXXA launches LUNARISTM Human and Mouse Chemokine Kits to explore chemokine signaling LUNARISTM Chemokine Kits are validated for the quantitative analysis of
When two chemokine receptors in the brain interact, leukemic cells (stained green) creep out of a small vein in the membrane covering the brain of a mouse and enter the cerebrospinal fluid. The chemokine CCL19, which is in the endothelium lining the vein, is stained blue in this immunofluorescent image.
In the present study, we sought to examine the molecular basis for the differential regulation of several members of the IFN-α/β gene family (IFNA and IFNB) by IRF-3 and IRF-7. The IFNB, IFNA1, IFNA2, and RANTES promoters were activated by coexpression of either IRF-3 or IRF-7, whereas the IFNA4, IFNA7, and IFNA14 promoters were exclusively activated by IRF-7 and not by IRF-3. Analysis of protein-DNA interactions revealed that recombinant IRF-3 and IRF-7 selectively bound to different regions of the IFNB promoter; IRF-3 bound preferentially to the PRDIII domain of the IFNB promoter, while IRF-7 interacted exclusively with the PRDI domain. PCR-mediated DNA binding site selection results demonstrated that IRF-3 recognized the IRF consensus element 5′-GAAANNGAAANN-3′. Replacement of a single nucleotide within the GAAA core half-site was sufficient to preclude IRF-3 DNA binding. IRF-7 bound to a related sequence motif but with greater flexibility than IRF-3; a single nucleotide replacement did ...
Looking for online definition of C-C motif chemokine 2 in the Medical Dictionary? C-C motif chemokine 2 explanation free. What is C-C motif chemokine 2? Meaning of C-C motif chemokine 2 medical term. What does C-C motif chemokine 2 mean?
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 8--also known as monocyte chemoattractant protein 2 (MCP-2), HC14, SCYA8, or SCYA10--is a protein encoded by the CCL8 gene. The precursor protein (109 amino acids) is cleaved to produce mature CCL8 (75 amino acids). CCL8 activates many different immune cells, including mast cells, eosinophils, and basophils (implicated in allergic responses), and monocytes, T cells, and NK cells (involved in the inflammatory response). CCL8 acts through binding to several different cell surface chemokine receptors, including CCR1, CCR2B, and CCR5 (one of the major co-receptors for HIV-1).. ...
Co-Author, The Evidence of Things Not Seen: Non-Matches as Evidence of Innocence, 98 Iowa L. Rev. 577 (2013). Co-Author, Toll-like receptor 7 is required for effective adaptive immune responses that prevent persistent virus infection, Cell Host Microbe., 2012 Jun.. Angelosanto JM, Blackburn SD, Crawford A, Wherry EJ, Progressive loss of memory T cell potential and commitment to exhaustion during chronic viral infection. J Virol., 2012 Aug.. Crawford A, Angelosanto JM, Nadwodny KL, Blackburn SD, Wherry EJ, A role for the chemokine RANTES in regulating CD8 T cell responses during chronic viral infection. PLoS Pathog., 2011 Jul.. Blackburn SD, et al., Tissue-specific differences in PD-1 and PD-L1 expression during chronic viral infection: implications for CD8 T-cell exhaustion. J Virol., 2010 Feb.. Shin H, Blackburn SD, et al., A role for the transcriptional repressor Blimp-1 in CD8(+) T cell exhaustion during chronic viral infection. Immunity, 2009 Aug.. Blackburn SD, et al. Co-regulation of CD8 T ...
Previously, we showed that a chemokine CCL2 recruits IMs to metastatic sites where they differentiate to MAMs (Qian et al., 2011). In this study, we revealed a novel role for CCL2 as a trigger of a prometastatic chemokine cascade involving CCL3 signaling via CCR1 that is required for efficient metastasis. These data illustrate a signaling relay that amplifies the pathology already in the system by promoting retention of recruited monocytes that stimulate tumor cell establishment at the metastatic site.. Our in vivo and in vitro results indicate that CCL2 can increase CCL3 expression in MAMs at the metastasis site. The CCL2-induced CCL3 expression is likely to be specific to the prometastatic macrophage lineage, as neutralization of CCL2 by antibodies significantly reduced Ccl3 expression in IMs and MAMs, but not in resident monocytes or macrophages. Consistent with this interpretation, expression of Ccl3 was highest in MAMs compared with other leukocytes in the tumor-bearing lung. Importantly, a ...
Emeson, E E., Bcg and c. Parvum enhance selective recruitment of specifically reactive t-lymphocytes. Abstr. (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 2521 ...
The chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) is also referred to as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) and small inducible cytokine A2. CCL2 is a small cytokine that belongs to the CC chemokine family. CCL2 recruits monocytes, memory T cells, and dendritic cells to the sites of inflammation produced by either tissue injury or infection ...
The therapeutic goal in autoimmune diseases such as RA is to control disease, to establish remission, and eventually to cure. In theory, this goal can be achieved using either Ag-specific approaches, for example, elimination of self-reactive T cells (assuming that a finite number of key Ags can be identified as the target of the autoimmune process in RA), or the non-Ag-specific approaches, for example, blockade of cytokines as in the case of TNF-a neutralization. Currently, only the latter types of approaches have yielded clinical benefit, and it is in this category that approaches to block chemokines or receptors may be included. Despite their appeal in terms of effectiveness, non-Ag-specific approaches carry a higher risk of immunosuppression and opportunistic infections (48).. Although there is a myriad of ongoing clinical trials testing the effects of chemokine/receptor blockers in RA (Table 1), to date one cannot yet predict how many of the current targets will prove to be clinically ...
Reaktivität: Meerschweinchen - Probe: Serum, Cell Culture Supernatant. | Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 8 (CCL8) ELISA Kit (ABIN628807).
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Mouse C-C Motif Chemokine 2 / Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 (CCL2/MCP1) standard, for use in running standard curves in AlphaLISA no-wash detection assays.
Kemokiinid (ka kemotaktsed tsütokiinid; inglise keeles chemokines) on selgroogsete loomade mitmete tuumaga rakkude poolt (eosinofiilid, basofiilid, neutrofiilid, makrofaagid, endoteelirakud, keratinotsüüdid, fibroblastid jt) komplekteeritavate ja vabastatavate selliste väikesemolekuliliste looduslike valkude perekond, mis vahendavad lühiajaliselt ja lokaalselt erinevaid bioloogilisi toimeid ja rakkudevahelist informatsiooni seondudes G-valguga seotud retseptoreid omavate rakkude membraaniga ja aktiveerides ensüümi fosfolipaas C. Kemokiinide sarnaseid valke on tuvastatud teatud bakteritel ja viirustel. Kemokiinide funktsiooniks on mitmete rakkude sundviimine nakkus- või põletikukoldesse, lisaks reguleerivad kemokiinid lümfikudede ja närvisüsteemi arengut ja leukotsüütide migratsiooni, küpsemist, aktivatsiooni jm. Varem on neid liigitatud α,β,γ ja δ- rühma, tänapäeval liigitatakse aga sellisteks perekondadeks nagu CC- (β-kemokiinid), CXC- (α-kemokiinid), CX3C- (δ- ...
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... chemokines ligand 2, CCL5, CXC-chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL1); as well as macrophage retention factors. Macrophages within the ... The maintenance of foam cells and the subsequent progression of plaque build-up is caused by the secretion of chemokines and ... Foam cells secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukins: IL-1, IL-6; tumour necrosis factor (TNF); chemokines: ... chemokines, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and growth factors that stimulate modified lipoprotein uptake and vascular smooth ...
The Gp120 envelope protein is a chemokine mimic. Though it lacks the unique structure of a chemokine, it is still capable of ... Velasco-Velázquez M, Xolalpa W, Pestell RG (Nov 2014). "CCL5/CCR5 in breast cancer". Expert Opin Ther Targets. 18 (11): 1265-75 ... It is a G protein-coupled receptor which functions as a chemokine receptor in the CC chemokine group. CCR5's cognate ligands ... C-C chemokine receptor type 5, also known as CCR5 or CD195, is a protein on the surface of white blood cells that is involved ...
It is also known to be an entry co-receptor for HIV-1. This gene and seven other chemokine receptor genes form a chemokine ... Cluster of differentiation CCR3 (gene) has been shown to interact with CCL5. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000183625 - ... a novel CC chemokine that is selective for the chemokine receptor CCR3, and acts like eotaxin on human eosinophil and basophil ... an eosinophil-selective CC chemokine, and identification of a specific eosinophil eotaxin receptor, CC chemokine receptor 3". J ...
Collagenase added to reduce matrix rigidity or chemokine CCL5 experimentally produced by tumor cells increased movement into ... For instance, inhibiting chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2), colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R) and granulocyte ... In a preclinical PDA mouse model, FAP+ CAFs produced the chemokine CXCL12, which is bound by PDA cancer cells. Because FAP+ ... One such mechanism is the release of cell-type specific chemokines. Another is the TME's capacity to posttranslationally alter ...
The brown dog tick evasin-4 binds to CCL5 and CCL11, but appears to neutralize even more chemokines. It has an Ig-fold domain. ... chemokine-binding proteins such as evasins are being researched to assess their therapeutic potential as chemokine-targeting ... As chemokines have been implicated in a number of inflammatory diseases including atherosclerosis, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis ... a tick-derived chemokine-binding protein with broad selectivity can be modified for use in preclinical disease models". The ...
In one study, the chemokine CCL5 (RANTES) has been shown to stimulate calcium mobilization and inositol triphosphate formation ...
... host-derived pro-inflammatory chemokines (e.g. CXCL8, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL11, CXCL10), platelet-activating factor, and ... stimulates their expression the chemokine receptor, CCR5, to inhibit chemokine signaling, enhances their phagocyte activity, ... CMKLR1 (chemokine receptor-like 1), also termed the ChemR23 or E series resolvin receptor (ERV), is expressed on inflammation- ...
C-C chemokine receptor type 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCR1 gene. CCR1 has also recently been designated ... The ligands of this receptor include CCL3 (or MIP-1 alpha), CCL5 (or RANTES), CCL7 (or MCP-3), and CCL23 (or MPIF-1). ... "Entrez Gene: CCR1 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 1". Struyf S, Menten P, Lenaerts JP, Put W, D'Haese A, De Clercq E, Schols D, ... This gene and other chemokine receptor genes, including CCR2, CCRL2, CCR3, CCR5 and CXCR1, are found to form a gene cluster on ...
positive regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production. • positive regulation of JUN kinase activity. • positive ... positive regulation of chemokine production. • cellular extravasation. • negative regulation of lipid storage. • negative ... positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • epithelial cell proliferation involved in salivary gland morphogenesis ... Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
... as well as chemokine and cytokine production, and expression of adhesion molecules such as E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. This ... Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • regulation of insulin secretion. • extrinsic apoptotic signaling ... Copeland KF (2006). "Modulation of HIV-1 transcription by cytokines and chemokines". Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry. 5 (12 ... Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
chemokine activity. • cytokine activity. • heparin binding. • protein binding. • CXCR3 chemokine receptor binding. ... C-X-C motif chemokine 11 is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also called Interferon-inducible T- ... "Entrez Gene: CXCL11 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11".. *^ a b Cole KE, Strick CA, Paradis TJ, Ogborne KT, Loetscher M, Gladue ... This chemokine elicits its effects on its target cells by interacting with the cell surface chemokine receptor CXCR3, with a ...
Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
CCL2, CCL3, CCL5 and CXCL12 with THP-1 monocytes, and vs. CXCL8 with neutrophils. In addition NR58,3-14-3 does not ... Peptide 3' is a 12-amino acid linear peptide corresponding to amino acids 51 to 62 of mature human chemokine CCL2. It is formed ... NR58-3.14.3 also inhibits the recruitment of leukocytes (macrophages, T cells, B cells) due to the chemokine CCL2 in rat skin. ... When the 12-amino acid sequence of 'peptide 3'/CCL2 is aligned with the sequences of the other chemokines CCL3, CXCL8 and ...
The secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1alpha, TNF-alpha), chemokine/mitogen (CCL5) and angiogenic factor (vascular ...
... or to sites of helminth infection in response to chemokines like CCL11 (eotaxin-1), CCL24 (eotaxin-2), CCL5 (RANTES), 5- ...
Chemokine ligands CXCL9, CXCL10, and CCL5 that bind to chemokine receptors such as CXCR3 and CCR5, Immune suppressive or ... Gene Signature : CCL5, CD27, CD274 (PD-L1), CD276 (B7-H3), CD8A, CMKLR1, CXCL9, CXCR6, HLA-DQA1, HLA-DRB1, HLA-E, IDO1, LAG3, ... These initiate the following cascade: CXCR3 ligand chemokines (CXCL-9, -10 and -11) are produced in response to activated B ... To illustrate, growth factors and chemokines activated in response to injury are recruited by tumour cells, sustaining chronic ...
CCL5 (RANTES) CCL17 (TARC) CCL22 (Macrophage-derived chemokine) Chemokines are a group of small structurally related proteins ... "Macrophage-derived chemokine is a functional ligand for the CC chemokine receptor 4". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (3): 1764-8. doi: ... "The T cell-directed CC chemokine TARC is a highly specific biological ligand for CC chemokine receptor 4". J. Biol. Chem. 272 ( ... C-C chemokine receptor type 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCR4 gene. CCR4 has also recently been designated ...
Breakthrough infection Broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies Bursa of Fabricius C-C chemokine receptor type 6 C-C chemokine ... CCL1 CCL11 CCL12 CCL13 CCL14 CCL15 CCL16 CCL17 CCL18 CCL19 CCL2 CCL20 CCL21 CCL22 CCL23 CCL24 CCL25 CCL26 CCL27 CCL28 CCL3 CCL5 ... CD4 CD4+ T cells and antitumor immunity CD74 CD94/NKG2 Cell-mediated immunity CELSR1 Central tolerance Chemokine Chemokine ... CR6261 CroFab Cross-presentation Cross-reactivity Cryptic self epitopes Cryptotope CX3CL1 CX3CR1 CXC chemokine receptors CXCL1 ...
... chemokine RANTES (CCL5), proinflammatrory and cytotoxic molecule granulysin (GNLY) and the transcription factor Kruppel-like ... Nelson PJ, Krensky AM: Chemokines, chemokine receptors, and allograft rejection. Immunity 2001; 14: 377-386. Spada FM, Grant EP ... Pattison J, Nelson PJ, Huie P, von Luettichau I, Farshid G, Sibley RK, Krensky AM: RANTES chemokine expression in cell mediated ...
... encoding protein Zinc finger protein 207 Several CC chemokines: CCL1, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL7, CCL8, CCL11, CCL13, CCL14, ... C-C motif chemokine ligand 4 like 1 (17q12) DDX52: DExD-box helicase 52 (17q12) ERBB2 loca leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2, ...
It mediates chemokine transcytosis, which leads to apical retention of intact chemokines and more leukocyte migration. Binding ... CCL5 melanoma growth stimulatory activity (MSGA-α), KC, neutrophil-activating protein 3 (NAP-3) - CXCL1/CXCL2 and the ... "Expression of chemokines and chemokine receptors during human renal transplant rejection". Am. J. Kidney Dis. 37 (3): 518-31. ... Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines). The chemokine binding site on the receptor appears to be localised to the amino ...
The chemokines CCL5/RANTES, CCL3/MIP-1α, CCL4/MIP-1β, all of which bind to CCR5, are inhibitory to HIV-1 replication in ... Chemokines are divided into four main subfamilies: C, CC, CXC, and CX3C. Microglial cells are sources of some chemokines and ... The chemokine receptor, CX3CR1, is expressed by microglia in the central nervous system. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is the exclusive ... Chemokines are cytokines that stimulate directional migration of inflammatory cells in vitro and in vivo. ...
... expression of the chemokine RANTES in T lymphocytes". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 27 (1): 253-66. doi:10.1128/MCB.01071-06 ... "Interaction of PRP4 with Kruppel-like factor 13 regulates CCL5 transcription". Journal of Immunology. 178 (11): 7081-7. doi: ... expression of the chemokine RANTES in T lymphocytes". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 27 (1): 253-66. doi:10.1128/MCB.01071-06 ... It regulates the expression of the chemokine RANTES in T lymphocytes. It functions as a lynchpin, inducing a large enhancesome ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (also CCL5) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CCL5 gene. It is also known as RANTES ... CCL5 is an 8kDa protein classified as a chemotactic cytokine or chemokine. CCL5 is chemotactic for T cells, eosinophils, and ... CCL5 also activates the G-protein coupled receptor GPR75. Chemotaxis Chemokine ENSG00000274233 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Human CCL5 genome location and CCL5 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Overview of all the structural information ...
CCL5, CCL7, CCL13, and CCL3. Chemokines CCL11 (eotaxin) and CCL5 (RANTES) acts through a specific receptor CCR3 on the surface ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines in that it has ... CCL1 for the ligand 1 of the CC-family of chemokines, and CCR1 for its respective receptor. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) ...
Chemokine. CCL. CCL1 · CCL2 · CCL3 · CCL4 · CCL5 · CCL6 · CCL7 · CCL8 · CCL9 · CCL11 · CCL12 · CCL13 · CCL14 · CCL15 · CCL16 · ...
Chemokine Receptors: CCR5". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... hemotaksni citokinski protein koji je takođe poznat kao CCL5)[4][5][6] i makrofagni inflamatorni protein (MIP) 1α i 1β (takođe ... 1998). „Structural interactions between chemokine receptors, gp120 Env and CD4". Semin. Immunol. 10 (3): 249-57. PMID 9653051. ... Freedman BD, Liu QH, Del Corno M, Collman RG (2004). „HIV-1 gp120 chemokine receptor-mediated signaling in human macrophages". ...
CCL5, CCL7, CCL13, and CCL3. Chemokines CCL11 (eotaxin) and CCL5 (RANTES) acts through a specific receptor CCR3 on the surface ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ...
C-X-C chemokine receptor activity. • interleukin-8 binding. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. • chemokine receptor ... Chemokine receptor modulators. CC. CCR1. *Agonists: CCL4 (MIP-1β). *CCL5 (RANTES) ... This name and the corresponding gene symbol IL8RA have been replaced by the HGNC approved name C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 1 ... "Chemokine Receptors: CXCR1". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
chemokine receptor activity. • receptor activity. • protein binding. • C-C chemokine receptor activity. • C-C chemokine binding ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene.[5] CCR6 ... Chemokine receptor modulators. CC. CCR1. *Agonists: CCL4 (MIP-1β). *CCL5 (RANTES) ... "Entrez Gene: CCR6 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6".. *^ Wang K, Zhang H, Kugathasan S, Annese V, Bradfield JP, Russell RK, ...
Elevated serum levels of macrophage-derived chemokine and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine in autistic children, J ... CCL5, CCL8, CCL11, CCL17, CCl19, CCL21, CCL22, CC25, CXCL7, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, CXCL12, CXCL16. ... Kabelitz D, Wesch D., Features and functions of gamma delta T lymphocytes: focus on chemokines and their receptors. ...
Several CC chemokines: CCL1, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL7, CCL8, CCL11, CCL13, CCL14, CCL15, CCL16, CCL18, and CCL23 ...
... replication of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus and aberrant induction of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in ... RANTES/CCL-5 ja interleukiin-8 suurenenud ekspressiooni. ...
chemokine-mediated signaling pathway. • regulation of chemokine production. • G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway. • ... regulated upon activation normal T expressed and secreted (RANTES) - CCL5[26]. *melanoma growth stimulatory activity (MSGA-α), ... DARC has been shown to internalise chemokines but does not scavenge them.[44] It mediates chemokine transcytosis, which leads ... Consequently, the Fy protein is also known as DARC (Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines). The chemokine binding site on the ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (also CCL5) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CCL5 gene.[5] It is also known as ... CCL5 is an 8kDa protein classified as a chemotactic cytokine or chemokine. CCL5 is chemotactic for T cells, eosinophils, and ... CCL5, D17S136E, RANTES, SCYA5, SIS-delta, SISd, TCP228, eoCP, C-C motif chemokine ligand 5. ... chemokine receptor binding. • protein homodimerization activity. • chemokine receptor antagonist activity. • protein binding. • ...
Other molecular signals for megakaryocyte differentiation include GM-CSF, IL-3, IL-6, IL-11, chemokines (SDF-1, FGF-4). and ... Other signals such as PF4, CXCL5, CXCL7, and CCL5 inhibit platelet formation. Megakaryocytes are directly responsible for ... "Chemokine-mediated interaction of hematopoietic progenitors with the bone marrow vascular niche is required for thrombopoiesis ...
... chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5, and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10. These molecules activate both CD8+ T cells as well as ... Even plasmids that deliver the F-coding gene of SeV to tumor cells in model animals trigger the production of RANTES (CCL5) in ... chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5, and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10. These molecules activate both CD8+ T cells as well as ... Even plasmids that deliver the F-coding gene of SeV to tumor cells in model animals trigger the production of RANTES (CCL5) in ...
IPR030595. CCL5. IPR000827. Chemokine_CC_CS. IPR001811. Chemokine_IL8-like_dom. IPR036048. Interleukin_8-like_sf. ... IPR030595. CCL5. IPR000827. Chemokine_CC_CS. IPR001811. Chemokine_IL8-like_dom. IPR036048. Interleukin_8-like_sf. ... tr,Q2EN89,Q2EN89_PIG C-C motif chemokine OS=Sus scrofa GN=CCL5 PE=2 SV=1 ... R-SSC-380108. Chemokine receptors bind chemokines. R-SSC-418594. G alpha (i) signalling events. ...
CCL5 (CC-chemokine ligand 5) is another member of the CC chemokine family. First identified in T cells and designated RANTES ( ... Regulation of Chemokine CCL5 Synthesis in Human Peritoneal Fibroblasts: A Key Role of IFN-γ. Edyta Kawka,1,2 Janusz Witowski,1, ... Figure 2: CCL5 induction in HPFB stimulated with TNF-α and IFN-γ. (a) Kinetics of CCL5 secretion by HPFB treated with TNF-α ( ... for CCL5 and β-actin [16], and by Abdel-Haq et al. for CD40 [17]. Precise quantitation of CCL5 mRNA was performed by real-time ...
May activate several chemokine receptors including CCR1, CCR3, CCR4 and CCR5. May also be an agonist of the G protein-coupled ... IPR030595 CCL5. IPR039809 Chemokine_b/g/d. IPR000827 Chemokine_CC_CS. IPR001811 Chemokine_IL8-like_dom. IPR036048 Interleukin_8 ... IPR030595 CCL5. IPR039809 Chemokine_b/g/d. IPR000827 Chemokine_CC_CS. IPR001811 Chemokine_IL8-like_dom. IPR036048 Interleukin_8 ... sp,Q8HYS0,CCL5_CANLF C-C motif chemokine 5 OS=Canis lupus familiaris OX=9615 GN=CCL5 PE=3 SV=1 ...
Chemokines CCL3, CCL4, and CCL5 are known agonists of chemokine receptors CCR1, CCR3, and CCR5 [12]. CXCL16 binds to receptor ... β was dose dependently and efficiently inhibited by chemokines CCL3, CCL4, and CCL5 (. ; , each), whereas chemokine CXCL16 was ... Chemokines (CCL3, CCL4, and CCL5) Inhibit ATP-Induced Release of IL-1β by Monocytic Cells. Anca-Laura Amati,1 Anna Zakrzewicz,1 ... Chemokines CCL3 (a), CCL4 (b), and CCL5 (c) dose dependently and efficiently inhibited the BzATP-induced release of IL-1β. In ...
It functions as one of the natural ligands for the chemokine receptor chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (CCR5), and it ... This chemokine, a member of the CC subfamily, functions as a chemoattractant for blood monocytes, memory T helper cells and ... Chemokines form a superfamily of secreted proteins involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. The superfamily is ... This gene is one of several chemokine genes clustered on the q-arm of chromosome 17. ...
Chemokines are key inflammatory mediators, several of which (MCP-1, RANTES, MIP-1α, fractalkine, SDF-1 among others) have been ... The important roles chemokines play in inflammation and pain make them an attractive therapeutic target. Peroxisome ... The important roles chemokines play in inflammation and pain make them an attractive therapeutic target. Peroxisome ... PPAR agonists have wide-ranging effects including inhibition of chemokine expression and pain behavior reduction in animal ...
What is C-C motif chemokine 5? Meaning of C-C motif chemokine 5 medical term. What does C-C motif chemokine 5 mean? ... Looking for online definition of C-C motif chemokine 5 in the Medical Dictionary? C-C motif chemokine 5 explanation free. ... CCL5. (redirected from C-C motif chemokine 5) CCL5. A gene on chromosome 17q11.2-q12 that encodes a cytokine that is a ... CCL5 triggers the release of histamine from basophils and activates eosinophils, is produced by CD8+ T cells and is a major HIV ...
Buy online CCL5-chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 Gene from ProteoGenix cat# PTXBC008600. Shop among our wide range of DNA & ... More info about CCL5-chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 Gene. Proteogenix catalog: PTXBC008600. ... chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5. Synonyms: D17S136E; SCYA5; SIS-delta; SISd; TCP228; eoCP; C-C motif chemokine 5; T-cell ... Data sheet of CCL5-chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 Gene. Brand. ProteoGenix. ...
They include chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (Ccl5), and its receptors, chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 1 and 3. All of them were ... They include chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (Ccl5), and its receptors, chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 1 and 3. All of them were ... They include chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (Ccl5), and its receptors, chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 1 and 3. All of them were ... They include chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (Ccl5), and its receptors, chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 1 and 3. All of them were ...
Association of increased CCL5 and CXCL7 chemokine expression with neutrophil activation in severe stable COPD. / Di Stefano, A. ... Association of increased CCL5 and CXCL7 chemokine expression with neutrophil activation in severe stable COPD. Thorax. 2009 Nov ... Association of increased CCL5 and CXCL7 chemokine expression with neutrophil activation in severe stable COPD. ... title = "Association of increased CCL5 and CXCL7 chemokine expression with neutrophil activation in severe stable COPD", ...
Our findings strongly suggest a novel role for the chemokine/chemokine receptor axis CCL5/CCR5 in GA. We found that patients ... Chemokine Profile and the Alterations in CCR5-CCL5 Axis in Geographic Atrophy Secondary to Age-Related Macular Degeneration ... Chemokine Profile and the Alterations in CCR5-CCL5 Axis in Geographic Atrophy Secondary to Age-Related Macular Degeneration ... Chemokines and chemokine receptors: positioning cells for host defense and immunity. Annu Rev Immunol. 2014; 32: 659-702. [ ...
... ccl5, cxcl11, cxcl12) single-domain Antibody scFv Fragment is available from creative biolabs. ... chemokine (ccl2, ccl3, ccl5, cxcl11, cxcl12) single-domain; ccl2; ccl3; ccl5; cxcl11; cxcl12; chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2; ... Chemokine (ccl2, Ccl3, Ccl5, Cxcl11, Cxcl12) Single-domain. *Recombinant Anti-chemokine (ccl2, ccl3, ccl5, cxcl11, cxcl12) ... ccl5, cxcl11, cxcl12) single-domain Antibody Fab Fragment ( MOB-198-F(E) ) Recombinant Human Anti-chemokine (ccl2, ccl3, ccl5, ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Interactions of the Chemokine CCL5/RANTES with Medium-Sized Chondroitin Sulfate ... Interactions of the Chemokine CCL5/RANTES with Medium-Sized Chondroitin Sulfate Ligands. ...
This review will focus on recent murine and human studies that use chemokines as therapeutic anti-cancer vaccine adjuvants. ... Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing ... This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential ... The choice of chemokines varies from homeostatic (e.g., CCL19 and CCL21) to inflammatory (e.g., CCL3 and CCL5). The major ...
Chemokine MCP1/CCL2 and RANTES/CCL5 gene polymorphisms influence Henoch-Schönlein purpura susceptibility and severity.. Yu HH1 ... Serum levels of chemokines (interleukin-8/CXCL8, MCP-1/CCL2, RANTES/CCL5, MIG/CXCL9, and IP-10/CXCL10) were determined using ... Our aim was to determine the serum levels of chemokines and investigate the association of chemokine gene polymorphisms with ... RANTES/CCL5 -403 TC and TT genotype were significantly associated with renal manifestations with an OR (95% CI) of 4.33 (1.44- ...
Chemokine and chemokine receptor genes such as CXCL10, CCL5, CCL2 and CCR2 constitute a prominent group in the immune signature ... CCL5 and CCR2; CCL5, CCL2 and CXCL10; or CCL5, CCL2, CXCL10 and CCR2. 31. The method according to claim 28 in which: (i) the ... CCL5 and CCR2; CCL5, CCL2 and CXCL10; or CCL5, CCL2, CXCL10 and CCR2. 32. The method according to claim 29 in which: (i) the ... CCL5 and CCR2; CCL5, CCL2 and CXCL10; or CCL5, CCL2, CXCL10 and CCR2. 33. The method according to claim 27 wherein step (b) ...
In vitro migratory response of EPCs to CC chemokines. (A-C) Effect of (A) CCL3, (B) CCL4, and (C) CCL5 on the migratory ... CCR5 is used by 3 specific ligands, CCL3, CCL4, and CCL5, and these ligands can use another chemokine receptor, CCR1 (29). ... and Ccl5 (C) gene expression (n = 6). (D-G) Cell types expressing CCL3 (D, day 1; E, day 6), CCL4 (F, day 6), and CCL5 (G, day ... The many roles of chemokines and chemokine receptors in inflammation. N Engl J Med. 2006;354(6):610-621.. View this article via ...
Our results show that HIV-1 increased the secretion of CCL5/RANTES, a potent T-cell chemokine, which mediated T-cell ... In parallel, HIV-1 decreased the secretion of CCL20/MIP-3 alpha, a potent LC chemokine, enabling LCs to travel deeper into the ... Therefore, blocking the responsiveness to these chemokines clinically may limit the local spread of HIV-1 within the foreskin. ... Together, these results reveal that HIV-1 modifies foreskin chemokines secretion and the subsequent relocation of its initial ...
Synergy of CCL5 and CXCL4 in Monocyte Recruitment. It is notable that the platelet chemokines CCL5 and CXCL4 exert additive ... The Transcriptional Regulation of Vascular CCL5 Expression. The role of the CC chemokine ligand-5 (CCL5/RANTES) and its ... The Chemokine CXCL10 and the T Cell Connection. CXCL10 or IP-10 (IFN-γ-induced protein of 10 kDa) is a T cell chemokine and ... Differential Chemokine Receptor Usage by Distinct Monocyte Subsets. *The Transmembrane Chemokine CX3CL1 and its Receptor CX3CR1 ...
... the chemokine interleukin (IL)-8, prostaglandin E2, the secretory leukoproteinase inhibitor, and the polymeric immunoglobulin ... and consistently detectable levels of the chemokine known as "regulated-upon-activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted ... and tumor necrosis factor alpha induced or significantly up-regulated expression of several of the cytokines and chemokines (i. ... Chemokine CCL5 / analysis * Cytokines / analysis* * Dinoprostone / analysis * Epithelial Cells / immunology * Female * Humans ...
Chemokine CCL5. Additional relevant MeSH terms: HIV Infections. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus ... Bone and chemokine markers (DPD, NTX, CTX, TRACP, BAP, osteocalcin, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta and RANTES) ... take maraviroc for their bone mineral density by DEXA and for following blood/urine markers of bone metabolism and chemokine ...
History The NF-κB pathway and chemokine (C-C theme) ligand 5 (CCL5). * Post author By conferencedequebec ... Chemokine (C-C theme) ligand 5 (also CCL5) is normally secreted by macrophages platelets and glial cells in the central anxious ... History The NF-κB pathway and chemokine (C-C theme) ligand 5 (CCL5) get excited about PF-04971729 discomfort modulation; ... Louis MO USA). The standard goat IgG anti-CCL5 neutralizing antibody and recombinant rat CCL5 had been bought from R&D Systems ...
... which controlled invasion of cancer cells though stimulating the production and secretion of chemokine CCL5 into the TME. Yet, ...
The role of chemokine CCL5/RANTES and metalloproteinase-9 as inflammatory modulators in symptomatic internal carotid artery ... ischaemic stroke internal carotid artery stenosis chemokine matrix metalloproteinase 9 cytokine biomarker ...
Here we sought to study the local expression and molecular regulation of the chemokines, regulated upon activation normal T ... but the role of chemokines in this process has not been evaluated. ... Chemokine CCL3 / genetics * Chemokine CCL5 / genetics * Diaphragm / drug effects * Diaphragm / metabolism* * Diaphragm / ... Chemokine receptor and ligand upregulation in the diaphragm during endotoxemia and Pseudomonas lung infection Mediators Inflamm ...
The chemokine CCL5 regulates the in vivo cell surface expression of its receptor, CCR5. Lin, Yea-Lih; Mettling, Clément; ...
These cells contain high levels of stored intracellular CCL5, and rapid release of CCL5 takes place on T cell stimulation, ... The aim of the study was to analyse the expression and production of these three chemokines within the joints of children with ... We show that high levels of all three chemokines are present in synovial fluid of children with JIA. We investigate the major ... All three of these chemokines are highly expressed at the level of mRNA, with the most significant increase in mRNA levels ...
... chemokines might perform a primary part within the activation of leukocytes also. For instance, the chemokine CCL5 (also called ... This scholarly study focuses upon three chemokines, namely CCL5, CCL3 and. * Post author By careersfromscience ... This scholarly study focuses upon three chemokines, namely CCL5, CCL3 and CXCL10, that are potential novel therapeutic targets ... chemokines and their receptors represent potential focuses on for new therapeutics [25,26] and medicines that prevent chemokine ...
The inflammatory chemokine CCL5 and cancer progression.. Aldinucci D, Colombatti A.. Mediators Inflamm. 2014;2014:292376. doi: ...
  • May activate several chemokine receptors including CCR1, CCR3, CCR4 and CCR5. (uniprot.org)
  • Here, for the first time, we present a review of the literature linking chemokines in neuropathic pain to activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). (frontiersin.org)
  • Among the genes repressed by activated PPARs are those of chemokines and their receptors. (frontiersin.org)
  • METHODS: We have performed RT Profiler PCR arrays in the NTS of SHR and WKY, which were designed to specifically target major cytokines/chemokines and their receptors. (bris.ac.uk)
  • They include chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (Ccl5), and its receptors, chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 1 and 3. (bris.ac.uk)
  • Conclusion: The increased expression of CCL5 and CXCL7 in the bronchial mucosa of patients with stable COPD, together with an increased expression of extracellular matrix-binding receptors on neutrophils, may be involved in the pathogenesis of COPD. (elsevier.com)
  • Previous studies show chemokine-mediated recruitment of immune cells in the retina, and therefore we investigated systemic levels of chemokines and chemokine receptors in patients with GA. (arvojournals.org)
  • To date, there are more than 50 chemokines and 18 chemokine receptors identified [ 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Most chemokines bind to more than one receptor, while most receptors also display overlapping ligand specificity [ 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • In this update, we will highlight these recent developments, in particular the identification of components regulating the transcriptional machinery of the proatherogenic chemokine CCL5, distinct roles of its receptors CCR1 and CCR5 in plaque formation and immunobalance, and differential site- and stage-specific effects of T cell-activating chemokines and their receptors, eg, CXCL10 and CXCR3. (ahajournals.org)
  • The contribution of the transmembrane chemokines CX 3 CL1 and CXCL16 with their respective receptors CX 3 CR1 and CXCR6 in the recruitment of T cell and monocyte subsets and shear-mediated plaque modulation will be discussed. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1,2 By signaling through G protein-coupled chemokine receptors, chemokines govern a variety of cell responses including cell activation and transmigration in leukocytes, as well as in nonhematopoietic cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • The role of the CC chemokine ligand-5 (CCL5/RANTES) and its receptors CCR1 and CCR5 in atherosclerosis have been addressed in a number of studies. (ahajournals.org)
  • Functionally distinct subsets of leukocytes express different chemokine receptors: thus, recently activated, effector and memory T cells express high levels of the receptors that bind inflammatory chemokines, thought to facilitate their accumulation at inflammatory sites, compared to naïve cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have previously shown that inflammatory T cells in the joint in JIA are predominantly of an activated memory phenotype and express high levels of the chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR3, and that this correlates with the highly Th-1 skewed phenotype of synovial T cells, which make high levels of IFNγ [ 18 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Functionally specific subsets of leukocytes communicate different chemokine receptors: therefore, recently activated, memory space and effector T cellular material communicate high degrees of the receptors that bind inflammatory chemokines, considered to facilitate their build up at inflammatory sites, in comparison to na?ve cells. (careersfromscience.org)
  • We've previously demonstrated that inflammatory T cellular material within the joint in JIA are mainly of an triggered memory space phenotype and communicate high degrees of the chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR3, and that correlates using the Th-1 skewed phenotype of synovial T cellular material extremely, which will make high degrees of IFN [18]. (careersfromscience.org)
  • All of these proteins exert their biological effects by interacting with G protein -linked transmembrane receptors called chemokine receptors , that are selectively found on the surfaces of their target cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Objectives While various monocyte chemokine systems are increased in expression in osteoarthritis (OA), the hierarchy of chemokines and chemokine receptors in mediating monocyte/macrophage recruitment to the OA joint remains poorly defined. (bmj.com)
  • Among other homeostatic chemokine receptors include: CCR9, CCR10, and CXCR5, which are important as part of the cell addresses for tissue-specific homing of leukocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • During organogenesis, immunosurveillance, and inflammation, chemokines selectively recruit leukocytes by activating seven-transmembrane-spanning receptors. (pnas.org)
  • Many chemokines bind several receptors and multiple chemokines often bind the same receptor, resulting in a highly complex network of interactions ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • It has been found that chemokines and their receptors serve a pivotal role in HCC progression. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Thus, chemokines and their receptors directly or indirectly shape the tumor cell microenvironment, and regulate the biological behavior of the tumor. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Exosomes containing chemokines or expressing receptors for chemokines may improve chemotaxis to HCC and may thus be exploited for targeted drug delivery. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chemokines bind to a variety of different receptors, which belong to the G-protein-binding receptor family, and there are ~23 types of chemokine receptors that have been discovered ( 10 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chemokines and their receptors were initially thought to allow for an interaction between immune cells and the inflammatory sites ( 11 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • After binding to the receptors, chemokines primarily serve a role in migration of leukocytes, such as monocytes, eosinophils and dendritic cells (DCs) ( 11 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chemokines comprise a family of secreted proteins that activate G protein-coupled chemokine receptors and thereby control the migration of leukocytes during inflammation or immune surveillance. (jimmunol.org)
  • The chemokine family encompasses nearly 50 members, which are classified based on the relative position of their conserved N-terminal cysteine residues (CC, CXC, CX 3 C, and C). Chemokines elicit intracellular responses via G protein-coupled receptors. (jimmunol.org)
  • Upon ligand binding, chemokine receptors activate G proteins of the Gα i family, leading to inhibition of adenylyl cyclases and mobilization of Ca 2+ from intracellular stores. (jimmunol.org)
  • Furthermore, activated chemokine receptors bind to the scaffolding protein β-arrestin ( 1 - 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Chemokines receptors are seven transmembrane spanning G protein-coupled receptors that allow cells to migrate towards increasing chemokine gradients. (biolegend.com)
  • Specific chemokine receptors are often required to gain entry (or exit) from certain organs and tissues like the thymus and bone marrow. (biolegend.com)
  • Chemokine signals are transduced by G-protein coupled receptors, which dissociate to activate diverse downstream pathways resulting in cellular polarization and actin reorganization. (wikipathways.org)
  • Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif. (curehunter.com)
  • In pulmonary sarcoidosis, T-bet upregulation is associated with changes in expression of IFN-γ, CXCR3 and chemokines/receptors involved in the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis, which suggests a role for T-bet in this Th1 disease, including modulation of some sarcoidosis-associated genes. (ersjournals.com)
  • A second approach analyzed patterns of expression of chemokines and their receptors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, the expression on CCL5 and its receptors have so far not been well-examined in human breast carcinoma tissues. (doaj.org)
  • Various chemokines, cytokines, and chemokine receptors are upregulated in the inflammatory cell infiltrates, blood vessels, and myofibers in s-IBM. (medscape.com)
  • Both types of T H 17 cells are enriched in a subset of human memory CD45RA - CD4 + T H cells expressing the chemokine receptors CCR6 and CCR4, while IFN-γ-secreting T H 17 (T H 1/17) cells may additionally express CXCR3 9 , 14 . (nature.com)
  • Chemotactic and growth signals initiated by chemokines are mediated by the activation of G-protein-coupled receptors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • With the aim of further understanding chemokine action in human ovarian cancer, we investigated CC chemokine receptors and their ligands in ascitic fluid samples. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This, to our knowledge, is the first detailed study of CC chemokines and their receptors in human ovarian cancer ascites. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We have recently demonstrated that malignant effusions are characterized by an accumulation of T cells expressing chemokine receptors such as CCR4, which is commonly found on Th2 cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Chemokines and their receptors: drug targets in immunity and inflammation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Plasma levels of C-C motif ligand (CCL)11, C-X-C motif chemokine (CXCL)10, and CCL5 were measured by specific immunoassays. (arvojournals.org)
  • Chemokine (C-C theme) ligand 5 (also CCL5) is normally secreted by macrophages platelets and glial cells in the central anxious program (CNS) [10-13]. (conferencedequebec.org)
  • Several N-terminally engineered analogs of C-C chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5), a natural ligand of CCR5, are highly potent CCR5 inhibitors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This study shows that potent C-C chemokine ligand 5 analogs differ from each other and from the parent chemokine in the extent and quality of CCR5-arrestin association that they elicit, providing valuable insights into CCR5 pharmacology and cell biology that will facilitate the development of new medicines targeting this important receptor. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In the present study we investigated the effect of mutations in the GAG binding sites of three chemokines, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/CC chemokine ligand (CCL)2, macrophage-inflammatory protein-1β/CCL4, and RANTES/CCL5, on their ability to recruit cells in vivo . (pnas.org)
  • For example, N-methylation of Leu-25 in the CXC chemokine IL-8/CXC chemokine ligand 8 produces a monomer that is fully functional in vitro ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • For example, T-bet induces modest activation of interleukin (IL)-2 receptor (2R)β (CD122) and CC chemokine ligand (CCL)3 depending on the cell type [ 5 ]. (ersjournals.com)
  • Furthermore, we found that the CLEC-2/PDPN interaction induces BM FRC-like cells to secrete chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5) to facilitate proplatelet formation. (bloodjournal.org)
  • C-C motif chemokine ligand (CCL) 5 is expressed in various types of stromal cells and associated with tumor progression, interacting with C-C chemokine receptor (CCR) 1, 3 and 5 expressed in tumor cells. (doaj.org)
  • Chemokines are key inflammatory mediators, several of which (MCP-1, RANTES, MIP-1α, fractalkine, SDF-1 among others) have been linked to chronic, neuropathic pain in both human conditions and animal models. (frontiersin.org)
  • Chemokine MCP1/CCL2 and RANTES/CCL5 gene polymorphisms influence Henoch-Schönlein purpura susceptibility and severity. (cdc.gov)
  • Serum levels of chemokines (interleukin-8/CXCL8, MCP-1/CCL2, RANTES/CCL5, MIG/CXCL9, and IP-10/CXCL10) were determined using cytometric beads arrays. (cdc.gov)
  • We investigated the association of three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) MCP1/CCL2 -2518C/T, RANTES/CCL5 -403C/T, and RANTES/CCL5 -28C/G with HSP in 85 HSP patients and 136 healthy controls. (cdc.gov)
  • The RANTES/CCL5 -28 GG genotype was associated with a significantly lower percentage of corticosteroid usage and lower corticosteroid accumulative dose in HSP patients. (cdc.gov)
  • RANTES/CCL5 -403 TC and TT genotype were significantly associated with renal manifestations with an OR (95% CI) of 4.33 (1.44-12.99), adjusted for sex and age and the other two SNP genotypes. (cdc.gov)
  • RANTES/CCL5 gene polymorphisms may be related to disease severity and HSP nephritis. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, the Krüppel-like factor 13 (KLF13), originally designated RANTES factor of late activated T lymphocytes-1 (RFLAT-1), has been identified as a new transcription factor regulating the expression of CCL5 in T lymphocytes. (ahajournals.org)
  • The endocervical cell line, but not the others, also produced the lymphopoietic cytokines IL-6, IL-7, and consistently detectable levels of the chemokine known as "regulated-upon-activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted" (RANTES). (nih.gov)
  • Here we sought to study the local expression and molecular regulation of the chemokines, regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha, in the murine diaphragm during sepsis. (nih.gov)
  • 5P14-RANTES induces comparable levels of receptor phosphorylation to CCL5, but arrestin recruitment is absolutely dependent on the arrestin tail interaction, and in one of the cellular backgrounds used, recruitment showed isoform bias toward arrestin 3 versus arrestin 2. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We have used early gestation macaque trophoblasts to test the hypothesis that trophoblast migration is regulated by the chemokine, Regulated on Activation T-Cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES). (biomedsearch.com)
  • CCL5/RANTES is a secreted beta-chemokine that plays a primary role in the inflammatory immune response through chemoattraction and activation of leukocytes that express CCR1, 3, 4, or 5. (rndsystems.com)
  • The increased tumor size upon loss of STAT3 was accompanied by reduced NK cell infiltration and decreased levels of the cytokine IFN-γ and the chemokine RANTES. (mdpi.com)
  • Previously our group has detected mRNA for CCL2 (MCP-1), CCL3 (MIP-1α), CCL4 (MIP-1β), and CCL5 (RANTES) in solid ovarian tumors by in situ hybridization. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the present study, we tested whether gene expression of inflammatory markers such as cytokines and chemokines is altered in the NTS of SHR and whether this contributes to the hypertensive phenotype in the SHR. (bris.ac.uk)
  • Stimulation with the exogenous cytokines interferon gamma and tumor necrosis factor alpha induced or significantly up-regulated expression of several of the cytokines and chemokines (i.e. (nih.gov)
  • Extravasation of these inflammatory cells is stimulated by adhesion molecules induced by proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The promoting or suppressive role of MSCs in cancer is controlled by various growth factors, cytokines and chemokines which affect the cell proliferation, angiogenesis and metastasis. (springer.com)
  • Once at the site of injury, immune cells can react by releasing additional cytokines and chemokines, bringing more cells into the fold. (biolegend.com)
  • Cytokines and chemokines are the primary form of signaling between a wide variety of cells. (prosci-inc.com)
  • Using antibodies to study cytokines and chemokines has given us a far greater understanding into signaling pathways. (prosci-inc.com)
  • Here, we investigated the relative contributions of the CCL2/CCR2 versus CCL5/CCR5 chemokine axes in OA pathogenesis. (bmj.com)
  • Methods Ccl2 -, Ccr2 -, Ccl5 - and Ccr5 -deficient and control mice were subjected to destabilisation of medial meniscus surgery to induce OA. (bmj.com)
  • Results Mice lacking CCL2 or CCR2, but not CCL5 or CCR5, were protected against OA with a concomitant reduction in local monocyte/macrophage numbers in their joints. (bmj.com)
  • In synovial fluids from patients with OA, levels of CCR2 ligands (CCL2, CCL7 and CCL8) but not CCR5 ligands (CCL3, CCL4 and CCL5) were elevated. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that monocytes recruited via CCL2/CCR2, rather than by CCL5/CCR5, propagate inflammation and tissue damage in OA. (bmj.com)
  • CCL2 and CXCR4 in PTCL-NOS and CCL5 and CCR1 in DLBCL. (aacrjournals.org)
  • mRNA for the CC chemokines CCL2, -3, -4, -5, -8, and -22 was expressed in cell isolates from ascites samples, and the corresponding proteins were detected in ascitic fluid. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Some inflammatory chemokines have proven essential in memory T cell generation [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Furthermore, many of the inflammatory chemokines possess recently been been shown to be able to boost T cellular activation during T cell-antigen showing cellular connection through their recruitment towards the immunological synapse [17]. (careersfromscience.org)
  • Inflammatory chemokines function mainly as chemoattractants for leukocytes , recruiting monocytes , neutrophils and other effector cells from the blood to sites of infection or tissue damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain inflammatory chemokines activate cells to initiate an immune response or promote wound healing . (wikipedia.org)
  • Inflammatory: inflammatory chemokines are produced in high concentrations during infection or injury and determine the migration of inflammatory leukocytes into the damaged area. (wikipedia.org)
  • These chemokines also have a more diverse range of functions compared to inflammatory chemokines. (biolegend.com)
  • In the event of infection, injury, or tissue damage, inflammatory chemokines are often released to address the problem. (biolegend.com)
  • Many inflammatory chemokines attract a wide variety of cells in both the innate and adaptive arms of immunity. (biolegend.com)
  • CCL3, CCL4, and CCL5 dose dependently inhibited BzATP-stimulated release of IL-1 β , whereas CXCL16 was ineffective. (hindawi.com)
  • This study focuses upon three chemokines, namely CCL5, CXCL10 and CCL3, which are potential novel therapeutic targets in arthritis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Since the role of chemokines in atherosclerotic vascular disease has been reviewed in this journal, significant progress has been accomplished in defining the regulation of chemokine expression and function in atherosclerosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • The considerable leap in insight over recent years leads us to anticipate further advances in comprehending the role of chemokines in atherosclerosis, allowing targeted interventions for its prevention and therapy. (ahajournals.org)
  • Sepsis-induced diaphragmatic inflammation has been associated with respiratory failure, but the role of chemokines in this process has not been evaluated. (nih.gov)
  • The major role of chemokines is to act as a chemoattractant to guide the migration of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tuberculous pleurisy provides an effective model to study the role of chemokines in the recruitment of immune cells to the pleura. (biomedsearch.com)
  • For example, in addition to chemotaxis, chemokines modulate lymphocyte development, priming and effector function [ 2 ] and play a critical role in immune surveillance. (mdpi.com)
  • In addition to being known for mediating chemotaxis, chemokines are all approximately 8-10 kilodaltons in mass and have four cysteine residues in conserved locations that are key to forming their 3-dimensional shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the potential application of chemokines in chemotaxis of exosomes as drug vehicles is discussed. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chemokines are 8- to 12-kDa-sized secreted proteins that mediate the directed migration (chemotaxis) of leukocytes. (jimmunol.org)
  • Chemokine receptor activation mediates leukocyte chemotaxis toward lymphoid organs or sites of inflammation along a chemokine gradient that is established by binding of chemokines to membrane-tethered and extracellular matrix-associated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) ( 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Chemokines are a class of cytokines that induce chemotaxis (migration) of target cells. (biolegend.com)
  • While some chemotaxis is induced by inflammation or damaged cells, other chemokines function in homeostasis. (biolegend.com)
  • The two N-terminal residues of CCL5 can be removed by CD26/DPPIV, generating a protein that functions as a chemotaxis inhibitor. (rndsystems.com)
  • This gene is one of several chemokine genes clustered on the q-arm of chromosome 17. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Experimental evidence suggests a connection between the pain ameliorating effects of PPAR agonists and suppression of inflammatory gene expression, including chemokines. (frontiersin.org)
  • This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential vaccine adjuvants. (mdpi.com)
  • Our aim was to determine the serum levels of chemokines and investigate the association of chemokine gene polymorphisms with childhood HSP. (cdc.gov)
  • Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, CCR1 and CCR5 are expressed on various cell types involved in atherosclerosis, eg, monocytes/macrophages, T lymphocytes, or Th1-type cells, and are specialized in mediating CCL5-triggered arrest and transendothelial diapedesis. (ahajournals.org)
  • We therefore immunolocalized CCL5, as well as CCR1, 3 and 5, in 111 human breast carcinoma tissues and correlated them with clinicopathological characteristics. (doaj.org)
  • Furthermore, the risk of recurrence was significantly higher in the patients with breast carcinomas positive for CCL5 and CCR3 but negative for CCR1 and CCR5, as compared with other patients. (doaj.org)
  • The important roles chemokines play in inflammation and pain make them an attractive therapeutic target. (frontiersin.org)
  • Chemokines are small secreted proteins that attract leukocytes during inflammation. (cdc.gov)
  • Chemokines can be located in different vascular cell types, eg, endothelial cells (ECs) but also inflammatory cells and can be detected within atherosclerotic lesions, where they function as messengers to direct leukocytes to sites of inflammation but may also control homeostasis and other activities of emigrated cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a key drug target for human immunodeficiency virus, cancer, and inflammation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This mechanistic explanation of chemokine cooperativity provides insight into chemokine gradient formation in the context of inflammation, in which multiple chemokines are secreted simultaneously. (jimmunol.org)
  • Upregulation of genes for interferon (IFN)-γ and CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR)3 expression, two crucial molecules in sarcoid inflammation and granuloma formation, is directly controlled by the T-helper (Th)1 transcription factor T-bet (T-box, expressed in T-cells). (ersjournals.com)
  • Chemokines form a superfamily of secreted proteins involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The expression of CCL5 can be detected in atherosclerotic plaques and in monocyte/macrophages is regulated by the Rel proteins p50 and p65 belonging to the NF-κB family. (ahajournals.org)
  • These cellular material contain high degrees of kept intracellular CCL5, and fast launch of CCL5 occurs on T cellular stimulation, without needing new proteins synthesis. (careersfromscience.org)
  • Chemokines (Greek -kinos , movement) are a family of small cytokines , or signaling proteins secreted by cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytokine proteins are classified as chemokines according to behavior and structural characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Highly potent chemokine analog inhibitors act via the modulation of receptor desensitization, a process initiated by the recruitment of arrestin proteins. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Chemokines are a class of small molecular proteins with similar structures, functions and chemotactic properties, and their molecular weights are ~10 kDa, and chemokines represent the largest member of the cytokine family ( 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chemokines are a family of small cytokines , or proteins secreted by cells . (wikidoc.org)
  • Proteins are classified as chemokines according to shared structural characteristics such as small size (they are all approximately 8-10 kilodaltons in size), and the presence of four cysteine residues in conserved locations that are key to forming their 3-dimensional shape. (wikidoc.org)
  • Proteins are classified into the chemokine family based on their structural characteristics, not just their ability to attract cells. (wikidoc.org)
  • Typical chemokine proteins are produced as pro-peptides , beginning with a signal peptide of approximately 20 amino acids that gets cleaved from the active (mature) portion of the molecule during the process of its secretion from the cell. (wikidoc.org)
  • Chemokines are small cytokines, or signaling proteins, secreted by cells. (wikipathways.org)
  • Chemokines are a family of small cytokines, or proteins secreted by cells, with a molecular mass between 8 and 10 kDa. (genscript.com)
  • GenScript offers a comprehensive catalog of chemokine proteins with excellent lot-to-lot consistency, superior activity and significantly low endotoxin levels. (genscript.com)
  • IFN- γ alone did not induce CCL5 secretion over a wide range of concentrations (0.01-100 U/mL). (hindawi.com)
  • Here, we hypothesize that chemokines control ATP-dependent secretion of monocytic IL-1 β . (hindawi.com)
  • Activating the NF-κB pathway frequently promotes the activation of some genes and neurotransmitters that leads to chemokine secretion and discomfort hypersensitivities [22 23 Intrathecal infusion from the NF-κB inhibitor (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate PDTC) delays and reverses discomfort facilitation in neuropathic discomfort [23-26]. (conferencedequebec.org)
  • VCAM-1), and reduced cytokine/chemokine secretion (e.g. (jimmunol.org)
  • The maintenance of foam cells and the subsequent progression of plaque build-up is caused by the secretion of chemokines and cytokines from macrophages and foam cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, it synergistically amplified the effects of TNF- α and IL-1 β through upregulation of CCL5 mRNA. (hindawi.com)
  • 4 The overexpression of YB-1 in arterial SMCs enhanced CCL5 transcriptional activity, CCL5 mRNA and protein expression, and CCL5-mediated monocyte recruitment. (ahajournals.org)
  • All three of these chemokines are highly expressed at the level of mRNA, with the most significant increase in mRNA levels being demonstrated for CCL5 when compared with matched peripheral blood samples and controls. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We used reverse transcription-PCR and RNase protection assay to determine CC chemokine and chemokine receptor mRNA expression and ELISA to measure CC chemokine protein levels. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The pattern of leukocyte recruitment is controlled by chemokines secreted primarily by peritoneal mesothelial cells and macrophages. (hindawi.com)
  • In this respect, chemokines of various classes create chemotactic gradients that mediate migration of specific leukocyte subpopulations into the peritoneal cavity. (hindawi.com)
  • The main function of chemokines is leukocyte mobilization, and ATP typically triggers inflammasome assembly. (hindawi.com)
  • Chemokines are small secreted chemo-attractant molecules involved in such leukocyte trafficking, as well as playing important roles in lymphoid homeostasis and development [ 6 - 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chemokines Argatroban supplier are little secreted chemo-attractant substances involved in this kind of leukocyte trafficking, aswell because playing important functions in lymphoid advancement and homeostasis [6-8]. (careersfromscience.org)
  • Chemokines are functionally divided into two groups: Homeostatic: are constitutively produced in certain tissues and are responsible for basal leukocyte migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokines selectively regulate the recruitment and trafficking of leukocyte subsets to inflammatory sites. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Chemokines are critical regulators of leukocyte trafficking and are widely studied molecules for their important role in disease and for their potential as new therapeutic targets. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Our cytokine and chemokine antibodies are quality controlled and tested in the application such as western blotting, ELISA, IF, IHC, and ICC. (prosci-inc.com)
  • [ 17 ] In microarray experiments, cytokine and chemokine genes are differentially upregulated to a significantly greater degree in s-IBM and polymyositis than in dermatomyositis. (medscape.com)
  • The local cytokine and chemokine milieu within malignant effusions. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Belongs to the intercrine beta (chemokine CC) family. (abcam.com)
  • C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a chemokine receptor belonging to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Specifically, these 16HBE14o- cells had increased levels of transcripts from genes associated with repair and inflammatory processes ( e.g. , matrix metalloproteinases, chemokines, and glutathione S-transferase). (biomedcentral.com)
  • conversely several genes expressed in stromal cells ( CCL5, CXCL13, IGF-1, FGF-2 , and IGFBP3 ) were more highly expressed in non-neoplastic than in neoplastic tissues. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Exposure of IFN- γ -treated HPFB, but not of control cells, to CD40L resulted in a dose-dependent induction of CCL5. (hindawi.com)
  • During peritonitis chemokines are produced mainly by cytokine-stimulated mesothelial cells that cover the peritoneal membrane. (hindawi.com)
  • However, in recent years it has become clear that fibroblasts embedded in peritoneal interstitium act not only as structural cells but may also serve as an important source of chemokines [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • We suggest that CCL chemokines inhibit ATP-induced release of IL-1 β from U937 cells by a triple-membrane-passing mechanism involving CCR, iPLA2, release of small mediators, and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits α 7 and α 9. (hindawi.com)
  • This chemokine, a member of the CC subfamily, functions as a chemoattractant for blood monocytes, memory T helper cells and eosinophils. (creativebiomart.net)
  • CCL5 triggers the release of histamine from basophils and activates eosinophils, is produced by CD8+ T cells and is a major HIV-suppressive factor. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The numbers of CCL5+ cells in the submucosa of patients with COPD were 2-15 times higher than any other chemokines. (elsevier.com)
  • Flow cytometric analysis was used to detect expression level of C-C chemokine receptor (CCR)1, CCR2, CCR3, CCR5, and C-X-C motif chemokine receptor (CXCR)3 on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (CD14+ monocytes, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells). (arvojournals.org)
  • Participants with GA have a specific chemokine profile with a higher expression of CCR5 than healthy controls in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and a higher plasma levels of CCL-5. (arvojournals.org)
  • Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing recruitment of antigen presenting cells (APCs) and effector cells to appropriate anatomical sites. (mdpi.com)
  • On the other hand, the chemokine system also plays a crucial role in the induction of antitumor immune responses and optimal effector function regulation of immune cells [ 1 , 4 , 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • 3 In smooth muscle cells (SMCs), the expression of CCL5 has recently been found to be controlled by the transcriptional regulator Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1). (ahajournals.org)
  • We investigate the major source of CCL5 from inflammatory synovial cells, which we show to be CD8+ T cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These cells contain high levels of stored intracellular CCL5, and rapid release of CCL5 takes place on T cell stimulation, without requiring new protein synthesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, migration of T cells under a chemokine gradient into an inflamed site such as the joint in JIA may itself lead to further T cell activation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Some chemokines are considered pro- inflammatory and can be induced during an immune response to recruit cells of the immune system to a site of infection , while others are considered homeostatic and are involved in controlling the migration of cells during normal processes of tissue maintenance or development . (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokines released by infected or damaged cells form a concentration gradient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Attracted cells move through the gradient towards the higher concentration of chemokine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells that are attracted by chemokines follow a signal of increasing chemokine concentration towards the source of the chemokine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some chemokines control cells of the immune system during processes of immune surveillance, such as directing lymphocytes to the lymph nodes so they can screen for invasion of pathogens by interacting with antigen-presenting cells residing in these tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other chemokines are inflammatory and are released from a wide variety of cells in response to bacterial infection, viruses and agents that cause physical damage such as silica or the urate crystals that occur in gout . (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the blood cells have attached, chemokines produced in the underlying intima promote the migration into the subendothelial space ( 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Their homeostatic function in homing is best exemplified by the chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 (expressed within lymph nodes and on lymphatic endothelial cells) and their receptor CCR7 (expressed on cells destined for homing in cells to these organs). (wikipedia.org)
  • These mutant chemokines retain chemotactic activity in vitro , but they are unable to recruit cells when administered intraperitoneally. (pnas.org)
  • Attracted cells move toward areas of higher concentrations of the chemokine. (biolegend.com)
  • Due to their function of targeting cells to specific organs, homeostatic chemokines can also be involved in cancer and metastasis. (biolegend.com)
  • Upon sensing the inflammatory chemokine, cells will extravasate from the blood vessel and follow the gradient to its source. (biolegend.com)
  • A major rol of chemokines is to act as chemoattractants in guiding migration of cells. (wikipathways.org)
  • The deposition of CCL5 on activated vascular endothelial cells is crucial for monocyte adhesion to damaged vasculature. (rndsystems.com)
  • CCL5 is upregulated in breast cancer and promotes tumor progression through the attraction of proinflammatory macrophages in addition to its actions on tumor cells, stromal cells, and the vasculature. (rndsystems.com)
  • A key role in granuloma formation is played by interferon (IFN)-γ [ 3 ] and T-helper (Th) type-1 cells accumulating in the sarcoid lungs, which express chemokine receptor CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR)3 [ 4 ]. (ersjournals.com)
  • CLEC-2/PDPN binding stimulates BM FRC-like cells to secrete the proplatelet formation-promoting factor, CCL5. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The present invention provides a means of inhibiting the growth and metastasis of cancer cells by administering anti-chemokine antibodies. (google.com)
  • 1997). "Cloning and characterization of a specific receptor for the novel CC chemokine MIP-3alpha from lung dendritic cells" . (wikipedia.org)
  • 1997). "CCR6, a CC chemokine receptor that interacts with macrophage inflammatory protein 3alpha and is highly expressed in human dendritic cells" . (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokines secreted from stromal cells have important roles for interactions with carcinoma cells and regulating tumor progression. (doaj.org)
  • Chemokines mediate their biological functions by transmigration of various immune cells to the site of infection. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Inflammatory responses by mast cells are characterized by massive exocytosis of prestored granular mediators followed by cytokine/chemokine release. (biomedsearch.com)
  • It functions as one of the natural ligands for the chemokine receptor chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (CCR5), and it suppresses in vitro replication of the R5 strains of HIV-1, which use CCR5 as a coreceptor. (creativebiomart.net)
  • thus, it is not surprising that chemokines are also able to bind linear sulfated GAGs such as heparin and heparan sulfate. (pnas.org)
  • Use this table to quickly identify the chemokines that bind to each receptor. (biolegend.com)
  • Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. (curehunter.com)
  • This pathway was inferred from Mus musculus pathway "Chemokine signaling pathway", WP2292 revision 89521, with a 91.0% conversion rate. (wikipathways.org)
  • Chemokines belong to a large group of structurally related and secretable, largely basic, chemotactic cytokines, which can be divided into 4 families (CC, CXC, CX 3 C, XC) based on the position of the first 2 cysteine residues. (ahajournals.org)
  • Chemokines have been traditionally divided into four families (CXC, CC, C, and CX3C) based on the patterns of amino-terminal cysteine residues. (pnas.org)
  • To date, >50 chemokines have been found, which can be divided into four families: CXC, CX3C, CC and XC, according to the different positions of the conserved N‑terminal cysteine residues. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • 50 chemokines have been identified, which can be divided into four families: CXC, CX3C, CC and XC, based on the different positions of the conserved N-terminal cysteine residues ( 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • All chemokines share a typical Greek key structure that is stabilised by disulphide bonds between conserved cysteine residues. (wikidoc.org)
  • Intramolecular disulphide bonds typically join the first to third, and the second to fourth cysteine residues, numbered as they appear in the protein sequence of the chemokine. (wikidoc.org)
  • Members of the chemokine family are divided into four groups depending on the location of their first two cysteine residues. (genscript.com)
  • The first two cysteines, in a chemokine, are situated close together near the N-terminal end of the mature protein, with the third cysteine residing in the centre of the molecule and the fourth close to the C-terminal end . (wikidoc.org)
  • While a function of chemokines is to regulate lymphocyte trafficking, the view that chemokines act simply as "chemotactic cytokines" has evolved to include the many critical roles they play in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses. (mdpi.com)
  • Therefore, migration of T cellular material under a chemokine gradient into an swollen site like the joint in JIA may itself result in further T cellular activation. (careersfromscience.org)
  • The main function of chemokines is to manage the migration of leukocytes (homing) in the respective anatomical locations in inflammatory and homeostatic processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, quaternary structure of chemokines and their interaction with GAGs may significantly contribute to the localization of leukocytes beyond migration patterns defined by chemokine receptor interactions. (pnas.org)
  • However, chemokines control the direction of cell migration and provide a trigger for cell activation. (pnas.org)
  • In this study, we have used GAG binding-deficient chemokine mutants and cell-based functional (migration) assays to demonstrate that chemokine cooperativity is caused by competitive binding of chemokines to GAGs. (jimmunol.org)
  • HPFB-derived CCL5 may thus contribute to the intraperitoneal recruitment of mononuclear leukocytes during peritonitis. (hindawi.com)
  • Then, upon the influence of IFN- γ and IL-6, the pattern of chemokine expression changes so that CC chemokines predominate and mediate mononuclear cell recruitment [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The fundamental importance of chemokines for atherogenesis, progression, and destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques is now widely appreciated, but the degree of complexity, specificity, and cooperativity harnessed by these signal molecules to govern atherogenic cell recruitment and homeostasis is still being refined. (ahajournals.org)
  • Here we made use of a collection of CCR5 phosphorylation mutants and arrestin variants to investigate how CCL5 analogs differ from CCL5 in their capacity to elicit both CCR5 phosphorylation and arrestin recruitment, with reference to the current "core" and "tail" interaction model for arrestin-GPCR interaction. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We showed that CCL5 recruits both arrestin 2 and arrestin 3 to CCR5 with recruitment, particularly of arrestin 2, strongly dependent on the arrestin tail interaction. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Development of a novel chemokine-mediated in vivo T cell recruitment assay. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Aim of our study was to assess the potential of HPFB in culture to release CCL5, a potent chemoattractant for mononuclear leukocytes. (hindawi.com)
  • Chemokines are a group of related chemoattractant peptides that are essential regulators of the immune system, both during homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. (mdpi.com)
  • Chemokines are a large subfamily of chemoattractant cytokines, which are classified into four highly conserved groups, CXC, CC, C, and CX 3 C, based on the position of the first two cysteines adjacent to the NH 2 terminus. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Methods: The expression of CCL5, CXCL1, 5, 6, 7 and 8, CXCR1, CXCR2, CD11b and CD44 was measured in the bronchial mucosa using immunohistochemistry, confocal immunofluorescence, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-QPCR) and Western blotting (WB). (elsevier.com)
  • Further studies are needed to fully elucidate the possible role of systemic chemokine regulation in mediating pathogenesis of GA. (arvojournals.org)
  • Our results support the fact that chemokines play important roles in the pathogenesis of HSP. (cdc.gov)
  • Interleukin (IL)-6, a multifunctional cytokine with regulatory functions in wound healing, and several chemokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) after rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). (arvojournals.org)
  • Without stimulation, all three lines consistently produced the cytokines macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and transforming growth factor beta1, the chemokine interleukin (IL)-8, prostaglandin E2, the secretory leukoproteinase inhibitor, and the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor. (nih.gov)
  • In early stages of peritonitis proinflammatory cytokines (TNF- α and IL-1 β ) derived from resident macrophages induce the expression of CXC chemokines that attract PMN. (hindawi.com)
  • Chemokines are involved in the inflammatory response, tumor immune response, proliferation, invasion and metastasis via modulation of various signaling pathways. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • It is possible to identify the particular chemokines which are over-expressed in the tumor using methods of the invention and administer antibodies against that over-expressed chemokine. (google.com)
  • This invention relates to antibodies or the use of antibodies directed against certain chemokines. (google.com)
  • In the context of cancer, the chemokine-chemokine receptor system plays paradoxical roles. (mdpi.com)
  • In the present review, the literature on the multifactorial roles of exosomes in HCC from PubMed, Cochrane library and Embase were obtained, with a specific focus on the functions and mechanisms of chemokines in HCC. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • It has been found that chemokine networks may serve pivotal roles in inducing organ-specific metastasis ( 8 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Stromal CCL5 immunoreactivity was significantly correlated with the aggressive phenotype of breast carcinomas. (doaj.org)
  • Objectives: To investigate the expression of neutrophilic chemokines and adhesion molecules in bronchial biopsies from patients with stable COPD of different severity (GOLD stages I-IV) compared with age-matched control subjects, smokers with normal lung function and never smokers. (elsevier.com)
  • These data demonstrate that both GAG binding and the ability to form higher-order oligomers are essential for the activity of particular chemokines in vivo , although they are not required for receptor activation in vitro . (pnas.org)
  • The CCL5-neutralizing antibody didn't affect NF-κB expression nevertheless. (conferencedequebec.org)
  • This is why we offer customized antibody production that can be tailored to detect a specific cytokine protein or chemokines protein that is necessary for the success of your research. (prosci-inc.com)
  • In summary, the CCL5-CCR3 axis might contribute to a worse prognosis in breast cancer patients, and these findings will contribute to a better understanding of the significance of the CCL5/CCRs axis in breast carcinoma microenvironment. (doaj.org)
  • These data demonstrate that HPFB synthesise CCL5 in response to inflammatory mediators present in the inflamed peritoneal cavity. (hindawi.com)
  • Chemokines and ATP are among the mediators of inflammatory sites that can enter the circulation via damaged blood vessels. (hindawi.com)
  • Key inflammatory mediators that are known to participate in chronic pain, including chemokines, have emerged as new therapeutic targets. (frontiersin.org)
  • While much remains to be understood about how PPAR agonists achieve this effect, it seems probable that inhibiting the expression of pain-causing inflammatory mediators like chemokines represents at least one mechanism for pain reduction. (frontiersin.org)
  • These are known as homeostatic chemokines and are produced and secreted without any need to stimulate their source cell(s). (wikipedia.org)
  • Basal: homeostatic chemokines are basal produced in the thymus and lymphoid tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Homeostatic chemokines are constitutively expressed in particular organs or tissues. (biolegend.com)
  • It has been suggested that an important component of this process is the formation of a haptotactic gradient by immobilization of chemokines on cell surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). (pnas.org)
  • The immobilization of chemokines on glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) of the extracellular matrix and endothelial cell surfaces is thought to be an essential part of this process ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • The positional information required for such migratory behavior is governed by the binding of chemokines to membrane-tethered glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which establishes a chemokine concentration gradient. (jimmunol.org)