A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.
A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.
Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.
Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.
CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.
A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.
A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.
Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.
A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.
Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.
An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.
CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.
Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.
Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.
The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.

A functional, discontinuous HIV-1 gp120 C3/C4 domain-derived, branched, synthetic peptide that binds to CD4 and inhibits MIP-1alpha chemokine binding. (1/1033)

This paper describes a branched synthetic peptide [3.7] that incorporates sequence discontinuous residues of HIV-1 gp120 constant regions. The approach was to bring together residues of gp120 known to interact with human cell membranes such that the peptide could fold to mimic the native molecule. The peptide incorporates elements of both the conserved CD4 and CCR5 binding sites. The 3.7 peptide, which cannot be produced by conventional genetic engineering methods, is recognized by antiserum raised to native gp120. The peptide also binds to CD4 and competitively inhibits binding of QS4120 an antibody directed against the CDR2 region of CD4. When preincubated with the CD4+ve MM6 macrophage cell line, which expresses mRNA for the CCR3 and CCR5 chemokine receptors, both 3.7 and gp120 inhibit binding of the chemokine MIP-1alpha. The peptide also inhibits infection of primary macrophages by M-tropic HIV-1. Thus, 3.7 is a prototype candidate peptide for a vaccine against HIV-1 and represents a novel approach to the rational design of peptides that can mimic complex sequence discontinuous ligand binding sites of clinically relevant proteins.  (+info)

Induction of macrophage C-C chemokine expression by titanium alloy and bone cement particles. (2/1033)

Particulate wear debris is associated with periprosthetic inflammation and loosening in total joint arthroplasty. We tested the effects of titanium alloy (Ti-alloy) and PMMA particles on monocyte/macrophage expression of the C-C chemokines, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), monocyte inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1alpha), and regulated upon activation normal T expressed and secreted protein (RANTES). Periprosthetic granulomatous tissue was analysed for expression of macrophage chemokines by immunohistochemistry. Chemokine expression in human monocytes/macrophages exposed to Ti-alloy and PMMA particles in vitro was determined by RT-PCR, ELISA and monocyte migration. We observed MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha expression in all tissue samples from failed arthroplasties. Ti-alloy and PMMA particles increased expression of MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha in macrophages in vitro in a dose- and time-dependent manner whereas RANTES was not detected. mRNA signal levels for MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha were also observed in cells after exposure to particles. Monocyte migration was stimulated by culture medium collected from macrophages exposed to Ti-alloy and PMMA particles. Antibodies to MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha inhibited chemotactic activity of the culture medium samples. Release of C-C chemokines by macrophages in response to wear particles may contribute to chronic inflammation at the bone-implant interface in total joint arthroplasty.  (+info)

Differential regulation of eosinophil chemokine signaling via CCR3 and non-CCR3 pathways. (3/1033)

To investigate eosinophil stimulation by chemokines we developed a sensitive assay of leukocyte shape change, the gated autofluorescence/forward scatter assay. Leukocyte shape change responses are mediated through rearrangements of the cellular cytoskeleton in a dynamic process typically resulting in a polarized cell and are essential to the processes of leukocyte migration from the microcirculation into sites of inflammation. We examined the actions of the chemokines eotaxin, eotaxin-2, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), MCP-3, MCP-4, RANTES, macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), and IL-8 on leukocytes in mixed cell suspensions and focused on the responses of eosinophils to C-C chemokines. Those chemokines acting on CCR3 induced a rapid shape change in eosinophils from all donors; of these, eotaxin and eotaxin-2 were the most potent. Responses to MCP-4 were qualitatively different, showing marked reversal of shape change responses with agonist concentration and duration of treatment. In contrast, MIP-1alpha induced a potent response in eosinophils from a small and previously undescribed subgroup of donors via a non-CCR3 pathway likely to be CCR1 mediated. Incubation of leukocytes at 37 degrees C for 90 min in the absence of extracellular calcium up-regulated responses to MCP-4 and MIP-1alpha in the majority of donors, and there was a small increase in responses to eotaxin. MIP-1alpha responsiveness in vivo may therefore be a function of both CCR1 expression levels and the regulated efficiency of coupling to intracellular signaling pathways. The observed up-regulation of MIP-1alpha signaling via non-CCR3 pathways may play a role in eosinophil recruitment in inflammatory states such as occurs in the asthmatic lung.  (+info)

Effects of dexamethasone and ibuprofen on LPS-induced gene expression of TNF alpha, IL-1 beta, and MIP-1 alpha in rat lung. (4/1033)

AIM: To study the kinetics of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), interleukine-1 (IL-1 beta), and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha) gene expression in rat lung after i.p. lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and the effect of dexamethasone (Dex) and ibuprofen (Ibu) on the cytokines gene expression. METHODS: The amount of Evans blue in lung was measured by fluorescence method. The mRNA levels of TNF alpha, IL-1 beta, and MIP-1 alpha in rat lung were assessed by slot blot analysis. RESULTS: The mRNA levels of TNF alpha, IL-1 beta, and MIP-1 alpha in rat lung after i.p. LPS increased in a dose-dependent manner, and peaked at 2, 6, and 12 h, respectively. Both Dex 50 mg.kg-1 and Ibu 90 mg.kg-1 injected at 1 h before i.p. LPS markedly decreased the content of Evans blue in lung at 1 h after i.p. LPS. After Dex or Ibu pretreatment, the peak levels of TNF alpha, IL-1 beta, and MIP-1 alpha mRNA decreased markedly compared with LPS alone. CONCLUSION: The gene expression of TNF alpha, IL-1 beta, and MIP-1 alpha in rat lung increased after i.p. LPS. Dex and Ibu prevented LPS-induced lung injury through inhibiting the cytokines gene expression.  (+info)

Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 modulates beta-chemokines and directly costimulates T cells in vivo. (5/1033)

The potential roles of adhesion molecules in the expansion of T cell-mediated immune responses in the periphery were examined using DNA immunogen constructs as model antigens. We coimmunized cDNA expression cassettes encoding the adhesion molecules intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), lymphocyte function associated-3 (LFA-3), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) along with DNA immunogens, and we analyzed the resulting antigen-specific immune responses. We observed that antigen-specific T-cell responses can be enhanced by the coexpression of DNA immunogen and adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and LFA-3. Coexpression of ICAM-1 or LFA-3 molecules along with DNA immunogens resulted in a significant enhancement of T-helper cell proliferative responses. In addition, coimmunization with pCICAM-1 (and more moderately with pCLFA-3) resulted in a dramatic enhancement of CD8-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses. Although VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 are similar in size, VCAM-1 coimmunization did not have any measurable effect on cell-mediated responses. These results suggest that ICAM-1 and LFA-3 provide direct T-cell costimulation. These observations are further supported by the finding that coinjection with ICAM-1 dramatically enhanced the level of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and beta-chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), MIP-1beta, and regulated on activation normal T-cell expression and secreted (RANTES) produced by stimulated T cells. Through comparative studies, we observed that ICAM-1/LFA-1 T-cell costimulatory pathways are independent of CD86/CD28 pathways and that they may synergistically expand T-cell responses in vivo.  (+info)

Tyrosine sulfation of the amino terminus of CCR5 facilitates HIV-1 entry. (6/1033)

Chemokine receptors and related seven-transmembrane-segment (7TMS) receptors serve as coreceptors for entry of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV) into target cells. Each of these otherwise diverse coreceptors contains an N-terminal region that is acidic and tyrosine rich. Here, we show that the chemokine receptor CCR5, a principal HIV-1 coreceptor, is posttranslationally modified by O-linked glycosylation and by sulfation of its N-terminal tyrosines. Sulfated tyrosines contribute to the binding of CCR5 to MIP-1 alpha, MIP-1 beta, and HIV-1 gp120/CD4 complexes and to the ability of HIV-1 to enter cells expressing CCR5 and CD4. CXCR4, another important HIV-1 coreceptor, is also sulfated. Tyrosine sulfation may contribute to the natural function of many 7TMS receptors and may be a modification common to primate immunodeficiency virus coreceptors.  (+info)

Secretion of beta-chemokines by bronchoalveolar lavage cells during primary infection of macaques inoculated with attenuated nef-deleted or pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus strain mac251. (7/1033)

Primary infection of macaques with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) as a model of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection represents a unique opportunity to investigate early lentivirus-host interactions. In order to gain insight into immunopathogenic events taking place in the lung during lentiviral infection, we analysed lymphocyte expansion in the lung and chemokine secretion by mononuclear cells obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BALMCs) during primary infection by a pathogenic and a non-pathogenic SIV. Two groups of cynomolgus macaques were inoculated intravenously with a fully pathogenic isolate of SIVmac251 or with an attenuated, nef-deleted, molecular clone of SIVmac251. Spontaneous MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta and RANTES production was assessed by ELISA in supernatants of short-term cultured BALMCs. Kinetics of haematological, virological and immunological parameters were investigated simultaneously. All 11 inoculated animals became infected. Monkeys inoculated with the nef-deleted SIV clone exhibited a significantly reduced plasma virus load and a less pronounced accumulation of lymphocytes in the lung compared to monkeys infected with the pathogenic SIVmac251 isolate. Compared to pre-infection levels, we observed an increase in the levels of RANTES, MIP1-alpha and MIP1-beta production in the two groups of monkeys, by the time of peak viraemia. Strikingly, a greater enhancement of RANTES and MIP-1alpha production was detected in monkeys infected with the attenuated virus. Given the potential influence of beta-chemokines on the immune response and virus replication, such results suggest that RANTES, MIP1-alpha and MIP1-beta could contribute to the singular features of the immune response elicited during infection of macaques with an attenuated SIV.  (+info)

Specific activation of leukocyte beta2 integrins lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 and Mac-1 by chemokines mediated by distinct pathways via the alpha subunit cytoplasmic domains. (8/1033)

We show that CC chemokines induced a sustained increase in monocyte adhesion to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 that was mediated by Mac-1 (alphaMbeta2) but not lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1; alphaLbeta2). In contrast, staining for an activation epitope revealed a rapid and transient up-regulation of LFA-1 activity by monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in monocytes and Jurkat CCR2 chemokine receptor transfectants or by stromal-derived factor-1alpha in Jurkat cells. Differential kinetics for activation of Mac-1 (sustained) and LFA-1 (transient) avidity in response to stromal-derived factor-1alpha were confirmed by expression of alphaM or alphaL in alphaL-deficient Jurkat cells. Moreover, expression of chimeras containing alphaL and alphaM cytoplasmic domain exchanges indicated that alpha cytoplasmic tails conferred the specific mode of regulation. Coexpressing alphaM or chimeras in mutant Jurkat cells with a "gain of function" phenotype that results in constitutively active LFA-1 demonstrated that Mac-1 was not constitutively active, whereas constitutive activity was mediated via the alphaL cytoplasmic tail, implying the presence of distinct signaling pathways for LFA-1 and Mac-1. Transendothelial chemotaxis of monocytes in response to MCP-1 was dependent on LFA-1; however, Mac-1 was involved at MCP-1 concentrations stimulating its avidity, showing differential contributions of beta2 integrins. Our data suggest that a specific regulation of beta2 integrin avidity by chemokines may be important in leukocyte extravasation and may be triggered by distinct activation pathways transduced via the alpha subunit cytoplasmic domains.  (+info)

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Product Name: Mouse mAb anti- human Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1 alpha (MIP-1α), Clone 199Collection: AntibodySub Category: Monoclonal AntibodyImmunogen:
Product Name: Mouse mAb anti- human Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1 alpha (MIP-1α), Clone 426Collection: AntibodySub Category: Monoclonal AntibodyImmunogen:
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Potassium atom in PDB 3kbx: Human Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1 Alpha L3M_V63M
Finnegan, C., Berg, W., Lewis, G.K. and DeVico, A.L. Antigenic Properties of The Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmembrane Glycoprotein During Cell-Cell Fusion. In press. Fouts, T., Montefiori, D., Hanson, C., Kalyanaraman, V., DeVico, A. and Pal, R. Broadly Reactive Neutralizing Antibodies Elicited By Crosslinked HIV-1 Envelope-CD4 Receptor Complexes. In press Finnegan, C., Berg, W., Lewis, G.K. and DeVico, A.L. Temporal Changes In Epitope Exposure on The HIV Envelope During Cell-Cell Fusion. J. Virol. 75: 11096-11105 2001.. Kamin-Lewis R, Abdelwahab SF, Trang C, Baker A, DeVico AL, Gallo RC, Lewis GK. Perforin-Low Memory CD8+ Cells Are the Predominant T Cells In Normal Humans That Synthesize The Beta -Chemokine Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1beta. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98: 9283-8 2001.. DeVico AL. Mucosal and Systemic HIV Env-Specific CD8(+) T Cells Develop After Intragastric Vaccination with Salmonella Env DNA Vector Vaccine 20: 623-629 2001.. Cocchi, F., DeVico, A.L. et al Higher ...
Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1 beta (MIP-1 beta, CCL4, MIP-1ß) is one of two major factor MIP proteins produced by macrophages following their stimulat
Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha, CCL3, MIP-1a) is one of two MIP proteins that are the major factors produced by macrophages following
MSD offers a range of individual assays utilizing U-PLEX Antibody Sets that provide a rapid and convenient method for measuring biomarkers in complex matrices. The individual assays are offered on MSD GOLD Small Spot Streptavidin Plates and use the same antibody sets and diluents as the U-PLEX multiplex assays. This allows for efficient transfer between the individual assay and a higher throughput multiplex configuration. Typical of assays developed on the MSD platform, the individual assays have high sensitivity, excellent precision, provide up to five-logs of linear dynamic range, and require minimal sample volume. Human MIP-1β (CCL4), also known as lymphocyte activation gene 1 protein (LAG-1), G-26 T-lymphocyte-secreted protein, HC21, PAT 744, protein H400, SIS-gamma, small-inducible cytokine A4, and T-cell activation protein 2 (ACT-2), is a 10.2 kDa protein that binds to CCR5. CCR5 is shared between MIP-1β, MIP-1α, RANTES, and CCL3L1. MIP-1β is one of the major HIV suppressive factors ...
In vitro replication of SIVcpz is suppressed by beta-chemokines and CD8+ T cells but not by natural killer cells of infected chimpanzees ...
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Human MIP-1 alpha ELISA Kits, Thermo Scientific™ 5 x 96 microplate wells Human MIP-1 alpha ELISA Kits, Thermo Scientific™ MIP-1 alpha ELISA Kits
Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins (MIP) belong to the family of chemotactic cytokines known as chemokines. In humans, there are two major forms, MIP-1α and MIP-1β that are now officially named CCL3 and CCL4, respectively. Both are major factors produced by macrophages after they are stimulated with bacterial endotoxins. They are crucial for immune responses towards infection and inflammation. They activate human granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils) which can lead to acute neutrophilic inflammation. They also induce the synthesis and release of other pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1 (IL-1), IL-6 and TNF-α from fibroblasts and macrophages. The genes for CCL3 and CCL4 are both located on human chromosome 17. They are produced by many cells, particularly macrophages, dendritic cells, and lymphocytes. MIP-1 are best known for their chemotactic and proinflammatory effects but can also promote homoeostasis. Biophysical analyses and mathematical modelling has shown ...
Abcams Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 1 alpha / CCL3 ELISA Kit suitable for Cell culture supernatant, Serum, Plasma in human. Reliably quantify 6 pg/ml of…
MACROPHAGE INFLAMMATORY PROTEIN 1 ALPHA (MIP-1a) Antibody, Purified Sheep Polyclonal Antibody validated in WB, IHC, E, DB (ARD10210), Abgent
SEC091Hu, ELISA Kit for Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 4 Alpha (MIP4a), CCL26; SCYA26; IMAC; TSC-1; Eotaxin 3; Thymic stroma chemokine-1; Chemokine(C-C-Motif)ligand 26; Thymic Stroma Chemokine-1; Small Inducible Cytokine Subfamily A 26 | Products for research use only!
References for Abcams Recombinant mouse Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 1 beta (ab51978). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine. The present study evaluated the release of cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1, tumour necrosis factor and IL-6] and chemokines [macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α and MIP-1β] by THP-1 derived macrophages infected with BCG vaccine obtained by growing mycobacteria in Viscondessa de Moraes Institute medium medium (oral) or Sauton medium (intradermic) to compare the effects of live and heat-killed (HK) mycobacteria. Because BCG has been reported to lose viability during the lyophilisation process and during storage, we examined whether exposing BCG to different temperatures also triggers differences in the expression of some important cytokines and chemokines of the immune response. Interestingly, we observed that HK mycobacteria stimulated cytokine and chemokine production in a different pattern from that observed with live mycobacteria ...
Mouse macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2, also known as MIP-2-alpha) is the homolog of human chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2) protein, a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine subfamily. MIP-2 is also homologous to rat CINC-2. MIP-2 is expressed by activated monocytes and neutrophils at sites of inflammation. It has also been shown to control mucosal lymphocyte migration in mice. MIP-2/CXCL2 is also known as GRO2 oncogene, GRO-beta, SCYB, SCYB2, and melanoma growth stimulating activity beta (MSGA-beta).. ...
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Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-5 Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing 92 amino acids.
Looking for online definition of Macrophage inflammatory proteins in the Medical Dictionary? Macrophage inflammatory proteins explanation free. What is Macrophage inflammatory proteins? Meaning of Macrophage inflammatory proteins medical term. What does Macrophage inflammatory proteins mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - An essential role of macrophage inflammatory protein 1α/CCL3 on the expression of hosts innate immunities against infectious complications. AU - Takahashi, Hitoshi. AU - Tashiro, Tsuguhiko. AU - Miyazaki, Masaru. AU - Kobayashi, Makiko. AU - Pollard, Richard B.. AU - Suzuki, Fujio. PY - 2002/12/1. Y1 - 2002/12/1. N2 - Sepsis was induced by well-controlled cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α)/CCL3 knock-out (CCL3-/-) and severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. CCL3-/- mice and their littermates (CCL3+/+ mice) treated with anti-CCL3 monoclonal antibodies were susceptible (0-20% survival) to CLP-induced sepsis, and CCL3-/- mice supplemented with recombinant (r)CCL3 (250 ng/mouse) and CCL3+/+ mice were resistant (70-80% survival). The resistance of SCID mice to CLP was markedly improved by the rCCL3 administration (88% survival), and SCID mice treated with saline were shown to be middling resistant to the same CLP (45% survival). ...
Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the Double-antibody Sandwich method for detection of Rat Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 3 Alpha (MIP3a) in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates and other biological fluids with no significant corss-reactivity with analogues from other species ...
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The capacity of DCs to reach the site of injury/infection and consequently to initiate immunity is determined by their ability to respond to selected chemokines. In this study, we show that MIP-3α is a major chemokine produced by activated epithelial cells, and selectively active on LCs and their precursors. MIP-3αs unique activity suggests that it plays a key role in the control of LC recruitment at inflamed epithelial surfaces and in the regulation of epithelial immunity.. Among all CC chemokines tested, MIP-3α appears to be the most potent chemokine inducing the migration of LC precursors and freshly isolated LCs but not of any other DC population. This result is in line with the specific expression of CCR6 by cells of the LC lineage in contrast with other receptors such as CCR1, CCR2, and CCR5 that are expressed on several other DC populations ((9)(34); and Caux, C., manuscript in preparation). This observation is in accordance with previous reports showing that both CCR6 expression and ...
Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 1 alpha / CCL3兔多克隆抗体(ab25128)可与小鼠, 大鼠样本反应并经WB, IP, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被4篇文献引用并得到1个独立的用户反馈。
Mouse macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2, also known as MIP-2-alpha) is the homolog of human chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2) protein, a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine subfamily. MIP-2 is also homologous to rat CINC-2. MIP-2 is expressed by activated monocytes and neutrophils at sites of inflammation. It has also been shown to control mucosal lymphocyte migration in mice. MIP-2/CXCL2 is also known as GRO2 oncogene, GRO-beta, SCYB, SCYB2, and melanoma growth stimulating activity beta (MSGA-beta).. ...
国内在庫あります!HRP標識済みウサギ・ポリクローナル抗体 ab106028 交差種: Hu 適用: WB,ELISA…Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 1 beta抗体一覧…
Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1 alpha belongs to a family of chemotactic cytokines known as chemokines. MIP-1 alpha and MIP-1 beta are the 2 major forms, officially named CCL3, and CCL4, respectively.
This gene encodes a member of the beta chemokine receptor family, which is predicted to be a seven transmembrane protein similar to G protein-coupled receptors. The gene
MIP-3α (RAT) Simoa® Assay Kit contains all the reagents necessary to run your assay on the HD-1, HD-X , SR-X or SP-X platforms.
Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), formerly termed JE, is a member of the beta-chemokine (C-C chemokine) family and has been shown to be produced by a variety of cell types. Recently, mRNA of JE/MCP-1 was detected in astrocytes during the acute phase of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). In addition, supernatants collected from human cultured astrocytes have recently been found to be chemotactic for monocytes. However, chemokine production and function in glial cells has not been fully examined. Using a sandwich ELISA assay, we have now quantitated MCP-1 levels and assessed MCP-1 function on murine glial cells. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interleukin (IL)-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha induced MCP-1 secretion by astrocytes, but not microglia. In addition, pretreatment with interferon (IFN)-gamma significantly augmented MCP-1 production by either LPS or the above cytokines. In contrast, LPS preferentially induced production of another beta-chemokine, macrophage ...
Blocking HIV-1 cell entry has long been a major goal of anti-HIV drug development. Here, we report a successful design of two highly potent chimeric HIV entry inhibitors composed of one CCR5-targeting RANTES (regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted) variant (5P12-RANTES or 5P14-RANTES (Gaertner, H., Cerini, F., Escola, J. M., Kuenzi, G., Melotti, A., Offord, R., Rossitto-Borlat, I., Nedellec, R., Salkow-itz, J., Gorochov, G., Mosier, D., and Hartley, O. (2008) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 17706 -17711)) linked to a gp41 fusion inhibitor, C37. Chimeric inhibitors 5P12-linker-C37 and 5P14-linker-C37 showed extremely high antiviral potency in single cycle and replication-competent viral assays against R5-tropic viruses, with IC50 values as low as 0.004 nM. This inhi-bition was somewhat strain-dependent and was up to 100-fold better than the RANTES variant alone or in combination with unlinked C37. The chimeric inhibitors also fully retained the antiviral activity of C37 ...
Pulmonary infection is normally a major reason behind mortality and morbidity as well as the magnitude from the lung inflammatory response correlates with affected person survival. and peptidoglycan (PGN) implemented intratracheally significantly elevated the amounts of neutrophils retrieved in the bronchoalveolar lavage liquid (BALF). F344 got approximately 10-flip even more neutrophils in the BALF weighed against DA (< 0.001) and higher BALF concentrations of total proteins tumor necrosis aspect-α and macrophage inflammatory proteins 2. LTA/PGN administration in DA×F344 congenic strains (with LTA/PGN created significantly higher degrees of keratinocyte-derived chemokine and macrophage inflammatory proteins 2 than alveolar macrophages from DA rats. The distinctions had been linked to differential mitogen-activated proteins kinase phosphorylation. We conclude the fact that factors adding to irritation could be site and problem dependent. A better knowledge of site-specific irritation can lead ...
MIP-3 alpha is a CC chemokine that is expressed in the liver, lymph nodes, appendix, PBL and lung and can signal through the CCR6 receptor. MIP-3 alpha is chemotactic towards lymphocytes and dendritic cells. Additionally, it promotes the adhesion of memory CD4+ T cells and inhibits colony formation of bone marrow myeloid immature progenitors. Recombinant human MIP-3 alpha is an 8.0 kDa protein containing 70 amino acid residues, including the four highly conserved cysteine residues present in CC chemokines ...
Thus, it appears that two chemokines, MIP-3α and SDF-1α, are produced constitutively by human keratinocytes, and therefore could both be involved in LC homing to the epidermis. Our findings that SDF-1α does not attract LC precursors (Fig. 1 C) and that these cells also fail to express CXCR4 on their surface (Fig. 6 A) speak against a role of SDF-1α in LC homing. Since ex vivo-purified LCs express CCR2 transcripts (Fig. 5 B), one could argue that this receptor is involved in the attraction of LCs into the epidermis. This is unlikely because (a) resting keratinocytes do not express the CCR2 ligand MCP-1 at the protein level ((33); Fig. 7 E), and (b) LC precursors do not express CCR2 on their surface (Fig. 6 A), and do not migrate in response to MCP-1 (Fig. 1 B). In this context, it is noteworthy that mice genetically manipulated to express MCP-1 in the epidermis have close to normal LC numbers while accumulating dermal DCs and macrophage-like cells (34).. In conclusion, among all the ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - CC chemokine receptor (CCR)2 is required for langerhans cell migration and localization of T helper cell type 1 (Th1)-inducing dendritic cells. T2 - Absence of CCR2 shifts the Leishmania major - Resistant phenotype to a susceptible state dominated by Th2 cytokines, B cell outgrowth, and sustained neutrophilic inflammation. AU - Sato, Naoko. AU - Ahuja, Sunil K. AU - Quinones, Marion. AU - Kostecki, Vannessa. AU - Reddick, Robert L.. AU - Melby, Peter C.. AU - Kuziel, William A.. AU - Ahuja, Seema S. PY - 2000/7/17. Y1 - 2000/7/17. N2 - There is growing evidence that chemokines and their receptors regulate the movement and interaction of antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells. We tested the hypothesis that the CC chemokine receptor (CCR)2 and CCR5 and the chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, a ligand for CCR5, influence DC migration and localization. We found that deficiency of CCR2 but not CCN5 or MIP-1α led to distinct defects in DC ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase is a regulator of chemokine production. T2 - Relevance for the pathogenesis of shock and inflammation. AU - Haskó, György. AU - Mabley, Jon G.. AU - Németh, Zoltán H.. AU - Pacher, Pál. AU - Deitch, Edwin A.. AU - Szabo, Csaba. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Background: Chemokines are key regulators of leukocyte traffic in various forms of inflammation and reperfusion injury. There is emerging evidence that the activation of the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) importantly contributes to the up-regulation of a variety of proinflammatory signal transduction pathways and associated genes. Materials and Methods: We tested whether the expression of the chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α and MIP-2 are under the control of PARP during inflammation. Results: Pharmacologic inhibition of PARP and genetic deletion of PARP suppressed the expression of MIP-1α and MIP-2 protein and mRNA in immunostimulated cultured murine ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Spontaneous and antigen-induced production of HIV-inhibitory β- chemokines are associated with AIDS-free status. AU - Garzino-Demo, A.. AU - Moss, R. B.. AU - Margolick, Joseph Bernard. AU - Cleghorn, F.. AU - Sill, A.. AU - Blattner, W. A.. AU - Cocchi, F.. AU - Carlo, D. J.. AU - DeVico, A. L.. AU - Gallo, R. C.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - The β-chemokines RANTES, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, and MIP-1β suppress infection by macrophage-tropic strains of HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) by binding and down-regulating the viral coreceptor, CCR5. Accordingly, we have examined whether higher levels of CCR5 ligands are associated with a more favorable clinical status in AIDS. A cross-sectional study of 100 subjects enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study at the Baltimore site was conducted to measure chemokine production and lymphocyte proliferation by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Statistical analyses of the data revealed that the ...
CCL3 is expressed during experimental GVHD and may be important for the inflammatory response caused by acute GVHD (12, 13). The results reported herewith confirm the relevance of CCL3 in mediating GVHD in mice. Moreover, we report for the first time that blockade of CCL3 with a CBP, evasin-1, which prevents CCL3 function (17), ameliorated GVHD and prevented death. Treatment with evasin-1 prevented the influx of leukocytes, especially CD8+, CD4+ cells and macrophages, to the small intestine and decreased tissue damage in the liver. Mechanistically, inhibition of leukocyte influx to the intestine was due to inhibition by evasin-1 of the ability of leukocytes to adhere to endothelial cells in affected tissues. The latter results suggest that mediation of leukocyte adherence and subsequent migration is the major mechanism by which CCL3 participates in murine GVHD. Finally, the protective effects of evasin-1 against GVHD did not interfere with the beneficial effect of the graft against a leukemic ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (CCL20) or liver activation regulated chemokine (LARC) or Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-3 (MIP3A) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. It is strongly chemotactic for lymphocytes and weakly attracts neutrophils. CCL20 is implicated in the formation and function of mucosal lymphoid tissues via chemoattraction of lymphocytes and dendritic cells towards the epithelial cells surrounding these tissues. CCL20 elicits its effects on its target cells by binding and activating the chemokine receptor CCR6. Gene expression of CCL20 can be induced by microbial factors such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor and interferon-γ, and down-regulated by IL-10. CCL20 is expressed in several tissues with highest expression observed in peripheral blood lymphocytes, lymph nodes, liver, appendix, and fetal lung and lower levels in thymus, testis, prostate and gut. The gene for CCL20 (scya20) is located on ...
The primary objective of this study was to examine effects of cocaine on HIV-1 replication in primary CD4+ T cells. suppressing HIV-1 protecting chemokines and/or upregulating the HIV-1 admittance co-receptor [20]C[21]. For example, people of the -chemokine family members that combine to CCR5 such as controlled upon-activation Capital t indicated and 853910-02-8 IC50 secreted (RANTES), macrophage inflammatory proteins 1a (MIP-1a), and MIP-1n possess been proven to inhibit admittance of particular HIV-1 pressures [22]. In addition, proteomics evaluation of cocaine treated PBMCs separated from HIV-positive contributor suggests that cocaine differentially manages appearance of many crucial sponsor aminoacids that may impact HIV-1 duplication [23]. Since these scholarly research had been carried out using cell tradition versions or the combined cell populations of PBMCs, there are no reviews on major Compact disc4+ Capital t cells. Provided that Compact disc4+ Capital t cells are the primary focuses ...
Human MIP-3 Alpha / CCL20 / MIP3a ELISA Kit PicoKine™ (96 Tests). Quantitate Human CCL20 in cell culture supernatants, cell lysates, serum and plasma (heparin, EDTA).. Sensitivity: 1pg/ml.
Primary infections of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) are followed by a lifelong infection in the state of latency or persistence. It is believed that the virus employs a number of immunomodulatory mechanisms to establish latent infections. Among these are the inhibition of cytotoxic CD8+ T-cells by US11 and the impairment of leukocyte migration by US28. The potency of US11 to mediate the inhibition of T-cell activation was analysed in a model of MHC class I mediated T-cell activation. Surface expression of MHC class I molecules was reduced by 60 % after expression of US11 in murine dendritic cells. In contrast, there was no reduction in the capacity of the dendritic cells to induce T-cell proliferation. The US28 gene product has been characterized as a functional receptor for the inflammatory chemokines RANTES, MCP-1, MCP-3, MIP-1?? MIP-1? and fractalkine.Upon ligand stimulation US28 mediates the activation of MAPK and additionally a constitutive activation of NF-?B. By generating site ...
|p|The mouse monoclonal antibody recognizes human CCR6/CD196, a member of the beta chemokine receptor family, which is predicted to be a seven transmembrane protein similar to G protein-coupled receptors. CCR6 is preferentially expressed by immature dendr
ELISA Kit for Regulated On Activation In Normal T-Cell Expressed And Secreted (RANTES), Hölzel Diagnostika, Produkte, ELISA, Human
Determination of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, MIP-1α, IL-10, TGF-β1 and FGFb levels in the cell-free supernatant obtained from monocytes from healthy subjects (CG, n
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"Entrez Gene: CCL3 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3". Wolpe SD, Davatelis G, Sherry B, Beutler B, Hesse DG, Nguyen HT, Moldawer LL ... 1988) demonstrated 2 protein components of MIP1, called by them alpha (CCL3, this protein) and beta (CCL4). CCL3 produces a ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3 (CCL3) also known as macrophage inflammatory protein 1-alpha (MIP-1-alpha) is a protein that in ... CCL3 is a cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family that is involved in the acute inflammatory state in the recruitment and ...
positive regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production. • positive regulation of JUN kinase activity. • positive ... positive regulation of chemokine production. • cellular extravasation. • negative regulation of lipid storage. • negative ... positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • epithelial cell proliferation involved in salivary gland morphogenesis ... Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
... as well as chemokine and cytokine production, and expression of adhesion molecules such as E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. This ... Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • regulation of insulin secretion. • extrinsic apoptotic signaling ... Copeland KF (2006). "Modulation of HIV-1 transcription by cytokines and chemokines". Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry. 5 (12 ... Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
chemokine activity. • cytokine activity. • heparin binding. • protein binding. • CXCR3 chemokine receptor binding. ... C-X-C motif chemokine 11 is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also called Interferon-inducible T- ... "Entrez Gene: CXCL11 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11".. *^ a b Cole KE, Strick CA, Paradis TJ, Ogborne KT, Loetscher M, Gladue ... This chemokine elicits its effects on its target cells by interacting with the cell surface chemokine receptor CXCR3, with a ...
Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
The biological effect is carried out through ligation of chemokine receptors CCR1 (ligand CCL3) and CCR5 (ligands CCL3 and CCL4 ... December 2010). "Polymerization of MIP-1 chemokine (CCL3 and CCL4) and clearance of MIP-1 by insulin-degrading enzyme". The ... There are two chemokines in the MIP-3 group. MIP-3α (CCL20) and MIP-3β (CCL19). MIP-3α is binding to receptor CCR6. CCL20 is ... CCL3 and CCL4 can bind to extracellular proteoglycans, which is not necessary for their function but it can enhance their ...
The Gp120 envelope protein is a chemokine mimic. Though it lacks the unique structure of a chemokine, it is still capable of ... CCR5's cognate ligands include CCL3, CCL4 (also known as MIP 1α and 1β, respectively), and CCL3L1. CCR5 furthermore interacts ... It is a G protein-coupled receptor which functions as a chemokine receptor in the CC chemokine group. ... C-C chemokine receptor type 5, also known as CCR5 or CD195, is a protein on the surface of white blood cells that is involved ...
... host-derived pro-inflammatory chemokines (e.g. CXCL8, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL11, CXCL10), platelet-activating factor, and ... stimulates their expression the chemokine receptor, CCR5, to inhibit chemokine signaling, enhances their phagocyte activity, ... CMKLR1 (chemokine receptor-like 1), also termed the ChemR23 or E series resolvin receptor (ERV), is expressed on inflammation- ...
Guan E, Wang J, Roderiquez G, Norcross MA (2002). "Natural truncation of the chemokine MIP-1 beta /CCL4 affects receptor ... 1999). "The assignment of chemokine-chemokine receptor pairs: TARC and MIP-1 beta are not ligands for human CC-chemokine ... C-C motif chemokine 4-like is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCL4L1 gene. This gene is one of several cytokine ... "Entrez Gene: CCL4L1 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4-like 1". Retrieved 8 February 2013. Human CCL4L2 genome location and CCL4L2 ...
... identical in amino acid composition to CCL3 and CCL4. This chemokine is expressed in various tissues including spleen, bone ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 14 (CCL14) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. It is also commonly known as ... Human CCL14 is located on chromosome 17 within a cluster of other chemokines belonging to the CC family. Schulz-Knappe et al., ... Naruseet al., A YAC contig of the human CC chemokine genes clustered on chromosome 17q11.2. Genomics, 1996, 34: 236-240. v t e ...
CCL4 (MIP-1) CCL5 (RANTES) CCL17 (TARC) CCL22 (Macrophage-derived chemokine) Chemokines are a group of small structurally ... "Macrophage-derived chemokine is a functional ligand for the CC chemokine receptor 4". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (3): 1764-8. doi: ... "The T cell-directed CC chemokine TARC is a highly specific biological ligand for CC chemokine receptor 4". J. Biol. Chem. 272 ( ... C-C chemokine receptor type 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCR4 gene. CCR4 has also recently been designated ...
In addition to other chemokines, such as CCL2, CCL3, and CCL4, the presence of CCL1 has been reported in the development of ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 1 (CCL1) is also known as small inducible cytokine A1 and I-309 in humans. CCL1 is a small ... CCL1 is encoded by CCL1 gene which is one of the several chemokine genes clustered on the chromosome 17q11.2-q12 in humans. It ... July 1998). "The chemokine receptor CCR8 is preferentially expressed in Th2 but not Th1 cells". Journal of Immunology. 161 (2 ...
... encoding protein Zinc finger protein 207 Several CC chemokines: CCL1, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL7, CCL8, CCL11, CCL13, CCL14, ... C-C motif chemokine ligand 4 like 1 (17q12) DDX52: DExD-box helicase 52 (17q12) ERBB2 loca leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2, ...
The chemokines CCL5/RANTES, CCL3/MIP-1α, CCL4/MIP-1β, all of which bind to CCR5, are inhibitory to HIV-1 replication in ... Chemokines are divided into four main subfamilies: C, CC, CXC, and CX3C. Microglial cells are sources of some chemokines and ... The chemokine receptor, CX3CR1, is expressed by microglia in the central nervous system. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is the exclusive ... Chemokines are cytokines that stimulate directional migration of inflammatory cells in vitro and in vivo. ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligands 4, also known as CCL4, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CCL4 gene. CCL4, also known ... Concentration of this chemokine has been shown to be inversely related with MicroRNA-125b. Concentration of CCL4 within the ... CCL4 has been shown to interact with CCL3. CCL4 binds to G protein-Coupled Receptors CCR5 and CCR8. Macrophage inflammatory ... Human CCL4 genome location and CCL4 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. v t e. ...
The discovery that the β chemokines RANTES, MIP (macrophage inflammatory proteins) 1α and 1β (now known as CCL5, CCL3 and CCL4 ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines in that it has ... CCL1 for the ligand 1 of the CC-family of chemokines, and CCR1 for its respective receptor. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) ...
This receptor has several CC chemokine ligands including CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL11, CCL13, CCL14 and CCL16. CCR6, a ... The CC chemokine receptors all work by activating the G protein Gi. CCR1 was the first CC chemokine receptor identified and ... CC chemokine receptors (or beta chemokine receptors) are integral membrane proteins that specifically bind and respond to ... May 1997). "Molecular cloning of a novel human CC chemokine EBI1-ligand chemokine that is a specific functional ligand for EBI1 ...
chemokine receptor activity. • receptor activity. • protein binding. • C-C chemokine receptor activity. • C-C chemokine binding ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene.[5] CCR6 ... Chemokine receptor modulators. CC. CCR1. *Agonists: CCL4 (MIP-1β). *CCL5 (RANTES) ... "Entrez Gene: CCR6 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6".. *^ Wang K, Zhang H, Kugathasan S, Annese V, Bradfield JP, Russell RK, ...
The discovery that the β chemokines RANTES, MIP (macrophage inflammatory proteins) 1α and 1β (now known as CCL5, CCL3 and CCL4 ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ...
1995). "Molecular characterization of two murine eosinophil beta chemokine receptors.". J. Immunol. 155 (11): 5299-305. PMID ... CCL4, hemokin (C-C motiv) ligand 4, je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran CCL4 genom.[1][2] ... CCL4 je CC chemokin koji je specifičan za CCR5 receptore. On je hemoatraktant za NK ćelije, monocite i niz drugih imunskih ... CCL4 je značajan HIV-supresujući faktor koji proizvode CD8+ T ćelije.[4] Perforin memorijske CD8+ T ćelije normalno sintetišu ...
C-X-C chemokine receptor activity. • interleukin-8 binding. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. • chemokine receptor ... Chemokine receptor modulators. CC. CCR1. *Agonists: CCL4 (MIP-1β). *CCL5 (RANTES) ... This name and the corresponding gene symbol IL8RA have been replaced by the HGNC approved name C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 1 ... "Chemokine Receptors: CXCR1". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
Several CC chemokines: CCL1, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL7, CCL8, CCL11, CCL13, CCL14, CCL15, CCL16, CCL18, and CCL23 ...
Chemokine. CCL. CCL1 · CCL2 · CCL3 · CCL4 · CCL5 · CCL6 · CCL7 · CCL8 · CCL9 · CCL11 · CCL12 · CCL13 · CCL14 · CCL15 · CCL16 · ...
1996). "HCC-1, a novel chemokine from human plasma.". J. Exp. Med. 183: 295-299. CS1 održavanje: Eksplicitna upotreba et al. ( ... On je 46 % identičan po aminokiselinskoj kompoziciji sa CCL3 i CCL4. Ovaj hemokin je izražen u nizu tkiva uključujući slezinu, ... 1996). "A YAC contig of the human CC chemokine genes clustered on chromosome 17q11.2". Genomics 34: 236-240. CS1 održavanje: ...
In vitro, cucurbitacin E protects hepatocytes from CCl4 (carbon tetrachloride), by reducing GPT, GOT, ALP, TP and TBIL serums. ... growth factors and chemokines as a response to activation signal such as chemical mediators, cytokines and lipopolysaccharide.[ ...
Chemokine Receptors: CCR5". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... takođe poznat kao CCL3 i CCL4). On isto tako formira interakcije sa CCL3L1.[5][7] ... 1998). „Structural interactions between chemokine receptors, gp120 Env and CD4". Semin. Immunol. 10 (3): 249-57. PMID 9653051. ... Freedman BD, Liu QH, Del Corno M, Collman RG (2004). „HIV-1 gp120 chemokine receptor-mediated signaling in human macrophages". ...
Prior to treatment with CCl4, perlecan staining was limited to the bile duct and sinusoidal blood vessels of the liver. After ... Furuta GT, Dzus AL, Taylor CT, Colgan SP (August 2000). "Parallel induction of epithelial surface-associated chemokine and ...
... retains the abilities to induce down-modulation of surface expression of the chemokine receptor CCR5 and to inhibit the CCR5- ... sp,P13236,CCL4_HUMAN C-C motif chemokine 4 OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 GN=CCL4 PE=1 SV=1 ... IPR039809 Chemokine_b/g/d. IPR000827 Chemokine_CC_CS. IPR001811 Chemokine_IL8-like_dom. IPR036048 Interleukin_8-like_sf. ... IPR039809 Chemokine_b/g/d. IPR000827 Chemokine_CC_CS. IPR001811 Chemokine_IL8-like_dom. IPR036048 Interleukin_8-like_sf. ...
Elevated levels of inflammatory chemokines in circulation are a hallmark of aging, but the mechanisms underlying this age- ... Cheng NL., Weng N. (2018) MicroRNA-125b Modulates Inflammatory Chemokine CCL4 Expression and Its Reduction May Cause CCL4 ... MicroRNA-125b Modulates Inflammatory Chemokine CCL4 Expression and Its Reduction May Cause CCL4 Increase in Circulation with ... MicroRNA-125b modulates inflammatory chemokine CCL4 expression in immune cells and its reduction causes CCL4 increase with age ...
Chemokines CCL3, CCL4, and CCL5 are known agonists of chemokine receptors CCR1, CCR3, and CCR5 [12]. CXCL16 binds to receptor ... β was dose dependently and efficiently inhibited by chemokines CCL3, CCL4, and CCL5 (. ; , each), whereas chemokine CXCL16 was ... Chemokines (CCL3, CCL4, and CCL5) Inhibit ATP-Induced Release of IL-1β by Monocytic Cells. Anca-Laura Amati,1 Anna Zakrzewicz,1 ... Chemokines CCL3 (a), CCL4 (b), and CCL5 (c) dose dependently and efficiently inhibited the BzATP-induced release of IL-1β. In ...
... including the four highly conserved cysteine residues present in CC chemokines. ... Ccl4 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4 [ Rattus norvegicus ]. Synonyms :. Ccl4; chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4; Scya4; Mip1-b; ... Recombinant Rat Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 4. Download Datasheet See All Ccl4 Products Bring this labeled protein directly to ... Ccl4-106R. Product Overview :. Recombinant rat MIP-1 beta produced inE.coliis a 7.8 kDa protein containing 69 amino acid ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Genetic variation in the CCL18-CCL3-CCL4 chemokine gene cluster influences HIV ... Genetic variation in the CCL18-CCL3-CCL4 chemokine gene cluster influences HIV type 1 transmission and AIDS disease progression ... Genetic variation in the CCL18-CCL3-CCL4 chemokine gene cluster influences HIV type 1 transmission and AIDS disease progression ... title = "Genetic variation in the CCL18-CCL3-CCL4 chemokine gene cluster influences HIV type 1 transmission and AIDS disease ...
"Chemokine CCL4" by people in this website by year, and whether "Chemokine CCL4" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Chemokine CCL4" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Chemokine CCL4" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Chemokine CCL4". ...
C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 4, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The ... GeneCards Summary for CCL4 Gene CCL4 (C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 4) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CCL4 ... Evolution for CCL4 Gene ENSEMBL:. Gene Tree for CCL4 (if available). TreeFam:. Gene Tree for CCL4 (if available). Aminode:. ... Genes that share ontologies with CCL4: view Phenotypes for CCL4 Gene. GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for CCL4: *Increased vaccinia ...
C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 4, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The ... GeneCards Summary for CCL4 Gene CCL4 (C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 4) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CCL4 ... Aliases for CCL4 Gene Aliases for CCL4 Gene. * C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 4 2 3 5 ... No data available for DME Specific Peptides for CCL4 Gene Domains & Families for CCL4 Gene Gene Families for CCL4 Gene. HGNC:. ...
CCL4) (Active) von Cusabio bei SZABO-SCANDIC erhältlich. Weiteres zu Proteine & Peptide finden Sie hier. ... Recombinant Human C-C motif chemokine 4 protein(CCL4) (Active), Host: E.Coli ... retains the abilities to induce down-modulation of surface expression of the chemokine receptor CCR5 and to inhibit the CCR5- ... Recombinant Human C-C motif chemokine 4 protein( ... Recombinant Human C-C motif chemokine 4 protein(CCL4) (Active) ...
Compare C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, ... Chemokine CC-1, Chemokine CC-3, Small Inducible Cytokine Subfamily A (Cys-Cys) Member 14) ... Chemokine CC-1, Chemokine CC-3, Small Inducible Cytokine Subfamily A (Cys-Cys) Member 14) ... C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established antibody-based ...
chemokine receptor activity. • receptor activity. • protein binding. • C-C chemokine receptor activity. • C-C chemokine binding ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene.[5] CCR6 ... Chemokine receptor modulators. CC. CCR1. *Agonists: CCL4 (MIP-1β). *CCL5 (RANTES) ... "Entrez Gene: CCR6 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6".. *^ Wang K, Zhang H, Kugathasan S, Annese V, Bradfield JP, Russell RK, ...
Compare C-C motif chemokine ligand 4 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, ... C-C motif chemokine ligand 4 ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established antibody-based ... Human Chemokine C-C-Motif Ligand 4 Like Protein 1 (CCL4L1) ELISA Kit ... Human CCL4L1(Chemokine C-C-Motif Ligand 4 Like Protein 1) ELISA Kit ...
This review will focus on recent murine and human studies that use chemokines as therapeutic anti-cancer vaccine adjuvants. ... Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing ... This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential ... Several chemokines are found to be critical to this process. CCL3 and CCL4 secreted by DCs in inflamed lymph nodes help guide ...
Solution Structure of the complex between poxvirus-encoded CC chemokine inhibitor vCCI and human MIP-1beta, ensemble structure ... Gene Names: CCL4 (LAG1, MIP1B, SCYA4). Find proteins for P13236 (Homo sapiens) ... Chemokines (chemotactic cytokines) comprise a large family of proteins that recruit and activate leukocytes, giving chemokines ... Chemokines (chemotactic cytokines) comprise a large family of proteins that recruit and activate leukocytes, giving chemokines ...
... chemokines, CCL4, CXCR4; and interferon-stimulated genes, IFRD1, IRF1, andIFI6. In contrast, anti-inflammatory genes associated ... Inflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as IL1B, CCL3, IRF1, DUSP1, JUN, and FOS were all expressed at high levels in ... The gene list contained 168 pairs of well-annotated receptors and ligands, including cytokines, chemokines and co-stimulators. ... and other inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Thus, a cascade signature of inflammatory monocytes with high expression of IL ...
chemokine (C-C motif). ligand 7. 1.4. 12.2. NM_002984. CCL4. chemokine (C-C motif). ... 3. The method according to claim 1 wherein the set of one or more genes comprises MT3, TNFSF7, BTG1, IL-6, IL-8, IL1b, CCL4, ... 4. The method according to claim 1 wherein the set of one or more genes comprises MT3, TNFSF7, BTG1, IL-6, IL-8, IL1b, CCL4, ... The method according to claim 12 wherein the one or more genes comprises MT3, TNFSF7, BTG1, IL-6, IL-8, IL1b, CCL4, CCL7, IFNG ...
Chemokine CCL4 * Chemokine CXCL1 * Chemokine CXCL2 * Chemokines, CXC* * Chemotactic Factors / genetics * Chemotactic Factors / ... The MIP proteins are members of a superfamily of cytokines called chemokines, many of which have been shown to possess ... While MIPs were originally identified as secretory products of endotoxin-stimulated mouse macrophages, these chemokines are ... it is likely these chemokines play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses and may contribute to the pathogenesis of ...
Chemokine CCL4 * Chemokine CXCL2 * Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly / genetics* * Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein ...
The discovery that the β chemokines RANTES, MIP (macrophage inflammatory proteins) 1α and 1β (now known as CCL5, CCL3 and CCL4 ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ...
CCL4. C-C motif chemokine ligand 4. CCL5. C-C motif chemokine ligand 5 ... which controlled invasion of cancer cells though stimulating the production and secretion of chemokine CCL5 into the TME. Yet, ...
These include chemokines (CK), such as MIP-1α (macrophage inflammatory proteins-1 alpha, CCL3) and MIP-1β (CCL4), RANTES ( ... Chemokine Receptors on Blood and NK-Cells. Conventional and NK-cells present in the normal PB have different CKR repertoires ( ... 3.1.2. Chemokine Receptors on Conventional NK-Cells. In contrast to NK-cells, the majority of the NK-cells are CXCR1/CXCR2− and ... and the chemokine receptors CXCR3 and/or CCR5 (Figure 2): CD16+ CCR5/CXCR3− (or simply ), CD16+/− CCR5/CXCR3+ (or simply ), and ...
In particular, IL21 down-regulated the expression of the chemokine genes CCL4, CCL3, CCL3L1, CCL17, and CCL2, while it up- ... CCR1 chemokine receptor binding - CCR5 chemokine receptor binding - cell activation - cell-cell signaling - cellular calcium ... Several chemokines/chemokine receptors such as CXCL12, CCL3, CXCR4 and CCR1 attract multiple myelomas to specific ... chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3 (CCL3) and CCL4. The expression of several transcription factors was induced upon stimulation of ...
We have studied three chemokines: MCP-1/CCL2, which binds selectively to CC chemokine receptor (CCR)2; MIP-1β/CCL4, which binds ... The majority of chemokines [macrophage-inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α/CC chemokine ligand (CCL)3 and MIP-1β/CCL4 being ... 4c), indicating that a tetramer may be required for in vivo activity of this chemokine. On the other hand, certain chemokines, ... Many chemokines bind several receptors and multiple chemokines often bind the same receptor, resulting in a highly complex ...
... many other inflammatory mediators were detected including the chemokines CCL4 and CCL11, showing that a complex mix of ... the CXC chemokines CXCL8, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL12; and CX3CL1. This set represented all chemokines present in the chemokine ... Generally, CC chemokines potently attract monocytes, T lymphocytes, eosinophils, and basophils, whereas CXC chemokines are ... Differences between our study and previous studies, chemokine function, and chemokine levels are summarized in Table 4. Before ...
CCL4,. of macrophages and. development;. CCL5,. T cells. Promoting HIV. PI3K/Akt/mTOR. It leads to the growth, proliferation. ( ... Among the four types of chemokines, there are two highly homologous XC chemokines: XC motif chemokine ligand 1 (XCL1) and XCL2 ... Chemokine receptors. Chemokines. Functions. Signaling pathways. Role in HCC. (Refs.). CXCR1. CXCL6,. Chemotactic neutrophils. - ... chemokines can bind to the atypical chemokine receptor (ACKR) subfamily, which is a key regulator of the chemokine network, and ...
CCL4 gene; Cerebellum; chemokine; Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 4; Child; Complex; cytokine; density; Development; developmental ... Immune system status will be established by measuring cytokines, chemokines, immunoglobulins, and quantifying immune system ... chemokine; Child; Core Facility; cytokine; Data; Developmental Delay Disorders; Disease; Environmental Health; Fetus; Gene ...
Recombinant Chicken CCL4/MIP-1 beta protein is a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Full length protein, , 95% purity and validated in ... retains the abilities to induce down-modulation of surface expression of the chemokine receptor CCR5 and to inhibit the CCR5- ... Recombinant Chicken CCL4/MIP-1 beta protein. See all CCL4/MIP-1 beta proteins and peptides. ...
Several potent T-cell chemokines, including CCL4, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, and IL15, were highly induced by endotoxin. ... CC chemokine and CC chemokine receptor profiles in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue are altered in human obesity. J ... chemokines (e.g., CXCL9, CCL4), growth factors (e.g., BMP-2), acute-phase reactants (e.g., PTX3, HP), adhesion molecules (e.g ... The chemokine system in diverse forms of macrophage activation and polarization. Trends Immunol 2004;25:677-686 ...
The other isoforms (CCL3 and CCL4) remain at two copies per dpg. Importantly, in a model system of pro-inflammatory chemokine ... Here, using real-time PCR we have shown that CCL3-L1 and a novel CCL4 isoform (termed CCL4-L1) can vary from 1-6 copies per ... Gene copy number regulates the production of the human chemokine CCL3-L1.. Townson JR1, Barcellos LF, Nibbs RJ. ... We and others have shown that the human beta-chemokine CCL3-L1, unlike its related non-allelic isoform CCL3, has high affinity ...
C-C motif chemokine 2 K14624 CCL2; C-C motif chemokine 2 K05408 CCL3; C-C motif chemokine 3 K12964 CCL4; C-C motif chemokine 4 ... C-C motif chemokine 2 K14624 CCL2; C-C motif chemokine 2 K05408 CCL3; C-C motif chemokine 3 K12964 CCL4; C-C motif chemokine 4 ... C-C motif chemokine 21 K05408 CCL3; C-C motif chemokine 3 K12964 CCL4; C-C motif chemokine 4 K21083 CCL17; C-C motif chemokine ... C-C motif chemokine 22 K12964 CCL4; C-C motif chemokine 4 K14625 CCL20; C-C motif chemokine 20 K05514 CCL1; C-C motif chemokine ...
  • Here, we review the current understanding of expression of inflammatory CC chemokine ligand 4 (CCL4) in human immune cells and its increase with aging and how reduction of microRNA-125b (miR-125b) expression contributes to the increase of CCL4 in monocytes and naïve CD8 + T cells in old adults. (springer.com)
  • CCL4 (C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 4) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Your search returned 1131 C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 ELISA ELISA Kit across 31 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • Most chemokines bind to more than one receptor, while most receptors also display overlapping ligand specificity [ 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • In the present study we investigated the effect of mutations in the GAG binding sites of three chemokines, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/CC chemokine ligand (CCL)2, macrophage-inflammatory protein-1β/CCL4, and RANTES/CCL5, on their ability to recruit cells in vivo . (pnas.org)
  • For example, N-methylation of Leu-25 in the CXC chemokine IL-8/CXC chemokine ligand 8 produces a monomer that is fully functional in vitro ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3 (CCL3) also known as macrophage inflammatory protein 1-alpha (MIP-1-alpha) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCL gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • We discovered lung-resident CD4+ T cells that expressed a disease-specific public CDR3β T cell receptor motif and were specific to Be-modified self-peptides derived from C-C motif ligand 4 (CCL4) and CCL3. (jci.org)
  • CCL4 (C-C chemokine ligand 4), is a macrophage inflammatory protein with a chief effect in inflammation and immune-regulation, and was documented in cancer progression by promoting instability in the tumor environment. (medsci.org)
  • For example, binding of the chemokine CCL5 (which stands for chemokine ligand 5, also known as RANTES) to CCR5 can trigger the cell's migration to specific locations within the body. (treatmentactiongroup.org)
  • CCL4 , hemokin (C-C motiv) ligand 4 , je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran CCL4 genom . (wikipedia.org)
  • A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. (wakehealth.edu)
  • To date, there are more than 50 chemokines and 18 chemokine receptors identified [ 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • All of these proteins exert their biological effects by interacting with G protein -linked transmembrane receptors called chemokine receptors , that are selectively found on the surfaces of their target cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies of chemokine receptors (CKR) in natural killer- (NK-) cells have already been published, but only a few gave detailed information on its differential expression on blood NK-cell subsets. (hindawi.com)
  • During organogenesis, immunosurveillance, and inflammation, chemokines selectively recruit leukocytes by activating seven-transmembrane-spanning receptors. (pnas.org)
  • Many chemokines bind several receptors and multiple chemokines often bind the same receptor, resulting in a highly complex network of interactions ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • It has been found that chemokines and their receptors serve a pivotal role in HCC progression. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Thus, chemokines and their receptors directly or indirectly shape the tumor cell microenvironment, and regulate the biological behavior of the tumor. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Exosomes containing chemokines or expressing receptors for chemokines may improve chemotaxis to HCC and may thus be exploited for targeted drug delivery. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chemokines bind to a variety of different receptors, which belong to the G-protein-binding receptor family, and there are ~23 types of chemokine receptors that have been discovered ( 10 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chemokines and their receptors were initially thought to allow for an interaction between immune cells and the inflammatory sites ( 11 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • After binding to the receptors, chemokines primarily serve a role in migration of leukocytes, such as monocytes, eosinophils and dendritic cells (DCs) ( 11 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In rodents, modulation of toll-like receptor-4 ( 5 ), tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptors ( 6 ), chemokines, and downstream kinases ( 7 ) attenuate diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We and others have shown that the human beta-chemokine CCL3-L1, unlike its related non-allelic isoform CCL3, has high affinity for the chemokine receptors D6, CCR3 and CCR5. (nih.gov)
  • Chemokines receptors are seven transmembrane spanning G protein-coupled receptors that allow cells to migrate towards increasing chemokine gradients. (biolegend.com)
  • Specific chemokine receptors are often required to gain entry (or exit) from certain organs and tissues like the thymus and bone marrow. (biolegend.com)
  • The polarization of T cells into Th1 and Th2 cells is associated with their expression of subsets of chemokine receptors. (wikipathways.org)
  • Chemokine signals are transduced by G-protein coupled receptors, which dissociate to activate diverse downstream pathways resulting in cellular polarization and actin reorganization. (wikipathways.org)
  • Among other homeostatic chemokine receptors include: CCR9, CCR10, and CXCR5, which are important as part of the cell addresses for tissue-specific homing of leukocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • CCL4 binds with high affinity to CCR5 receptors. (thermofisher.com)
  • CCL3 is a cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family that is involved in the acute inflammatory state in the recruitment and activation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes through binding to the receptors CCR1, CCR4 and CCR5. (wikipedia.org)
  • Various chemokines, cytokines, and chemokine receptors are upregulated in the inflammatory cell infiltrates, blood vessels, and myofibers in s-IBM. (medscape.com)
  • Chemotactic and growth signals initiated by chemokines are mediated by the activation of G-protein-coupled receptors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • With the aim of further understanding chemokine action in human ovarian cancer, we investigated CC chemokine receptors and their ligands in ascitic fluid samples. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This, to our knowledge, is the first detailed study of CC chemokines and their receptors in human ovarian cancer ascites. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Completion of these steps requires intricate leukocyte trafficking patterns coordinated by chemokines and their receptors ( 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Notably, chemokine receptors can be rather promiscuous in their ability to bind different chemokines. (treatmentactiongroup.org)
  • The functions of all the known chemokine receptors and chemokines are not fully characterized, but broadly speaking, they seem to be involved in cell migration and/or inflammation. (treatmentactiongroup.org)
  • CCL3, CCL4, and CCL5 dose dependently inhibited BzATP-stimulated release of IL-1 β , whereas CXCL16 was ineffective. (hindawi.com)
  • These include chemokines (CK), such as MIP-1 α (macrophage inflammatory proteins-1 alpha, CCL3) and MIP-1 β (CCL4), RANTES (regulated activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted, CCL5), and ATAC (activation-induced, T cell derived, and chemokine-related cytokine, CXCL1). (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, mRNA levels of inflammatory mediators (TSLP, IL-25, IL-33, CCL4, CCL5, CCL11, and CCL26) associated with eosinophilic airway inflammation in epithelial cells were increased in nasal polyps (eosinophil-rich areas) compared with those in uncinate process tissues (eosinophil-poor areas) from the same patients. (mdpi.com)
  • Previously our group has detected mRNA for CCL2 (MCP-1), CCL3 (MIP-1α), CCL4 (MIP-1β), and CCL5 (RANTES) in solid ovarian tumors by in situ hybridization. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CCR5, the receptor for chemotactic chemokines MIP1alpha, MIP1beta, and RANTES (CCL3, CCL4, CCL5), exerts major regulatory effects on CD4 + - and CD8 + T cell-mediated immunity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CCR5 and its ligands CCL3, CCL4, and CCL5 have emerged as key regulators of T-cell function. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Initial cell culture work on bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) found that surfen reduced concentrations of the chemokines CCL2, CCL4 and CCL5, with reduced messenger (m)RNA expression for Tumor Necrosis Factor, IL-6, IL-1β and inducible nitric oxide synthase. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These mice also showed reduced mRNA expression for the chemokines CCL3 and CCL5, with reduced concentrations of CCL2, CCL3 and CCL5. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Multiple contacts between monomers allow CCL18 to reversibly form a unique open-ended oligomer different from those of CCL3, CCL4, and CCL5. (rcsb.org)
  • 6 2 CCL5 belongs to the C-C chemokine family whose members include CCL3 and CCL4. (haematologica.org)
  • CCL5 and other chemokines are expressed at higher levels in classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) tumor tissues than in healthy lymph nodes and in tissues with reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. (haematologica.org)
  • CCR5 is known to interact with CCL3, CCL4, and CCL8 in addition to CCL5. (treatmentactiongroup.org)
  • This receptor binds and responds to a variety of chemokines (CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL3L1). (reportsnreports.com)
  • The processed form MIP-1-beta(3-69) retains the abilities to induce down-modulation of surface expression of the chemokine receptor CCR5 and to inhibit the CCR5-mediated entry of HIV-1 in T-cells. (uniprot.org)
  • CCL3 and CCL4 are natural ligands for the primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) coreceptor CCR5 and are also known to activate and enhance the cytotoxicity of natural killer cells. (elsevier.com)
  • The processed form of CCL4 can induce down-modulation of surface expression of the chemokine receptor CCR5, thus inhibiting the CCR5-mediated entry of HIV-1 in T cells. (thermofisher.com)
  • CXCR3, the receptor for CXCL9 and CXCL10, and CCR5, the receptor for CCL4, were assessed on T cells from PBMC and SFMC. (harvard.edu)
  • It functions as one of the natural ligands for the chemokine receptor chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (CCR5), and it suppresses in vitro replication of the R5 strains of HIV-1, which use CCR5 as a coreceptor. (creativebiomart.net)
  • A critical question facing developers of co-receptor inhibitors is whether CCR5 and CXCR4 inhibitor compounds interfere with chemokine/receptor interactions, and if so, whether such interference has harmful consequences. (treatmentactiongroup.org)
  • C-C Chemokine Receptor Type 5 (CHEMR13 or HIV 1 Fusion Coreceptor or CD195 or CCR5) pipeline Target constitutes close to 10 molecules. (reportsnreports.com)
  • C-C Chemokine Receptor Type 5 (CHEMR13 or HIV 1 Fusion Coreceptor or CD195 or CCR5) - C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) also known as CD195, is a surface protein located on the plasma membrane of white blood cells and is encoded by CCR5 gene. (reportsnreports.com)
  • It also reviews key players involved in C-C Chemokine Receptor Type 5 (CHEMR13 or HIV 1 Fusion Coreceptor or CD195 or CCR5) targeted therapeutics development with respective active and dormant or discontinued projects. (reportsnreports.com)
  • CCL4 je CC chemokin koji je specifičan za CCR5 receptore. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recombinant rat MIP-1 beta produced in E.coli is a 7.8 kDa protein containing 69 amino acid residues, including the four highly conserved cysteine residues present in CC chemokines. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include identical protein binding and chemokine activity . (genecards.org)
  • Recombinant Human C-C motif chemokine 4 protein. (szabo-scandic.com)
  • Protein Families: Intercrine beta (chemokine CC) family. (szabo-scandic.com)
  • Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • 1997). "CCR6, a CC chemokine receptor that interacts with macrophage inflammatory protein 3alpha and is highly expressed in human dendritic cells" . (wikipedia.org)
  • We have used heteronuclear multidimensional NMR to determine the structure of an orthopoxvirus vCCI in complex with a human CC chemokine, MIP-1beta (macrophage inflammatory protein 1beta). (rcsb.org)
  • Furthermore, several studies have shown that variants of chemokines with altered dimer interfaces remain monomeric even at high protein concentrations and yet are indistinguishable from wild-type chemokines in receptor binding and activation assays in vitro . (pnas.org)
  • Similarly, mutation of Pro-8 to Ala in both monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1/CCL2 ( 8 ) and MIP-1β/CCL4 ( 9 ) produces monomeric variants that are indistinguishable from wild type. (pnas.org)
  • CCL4 (macrophage inflammatory protein 1-beta, MIP1B) belongs to the intercrine beta (chemokine CC) family. (thermofisher.com)
  • Both CCL4 and the related protein CCL3 participate in the host response to invading bacterial, viral, parasite and fungal pathogens by regulating the trafficking and activation state of selected subgroups of inflammatory cells. (thermofisher.com)
  • This is why we offer customized antibody production that can be tailored to detect a specific cytokine protein or chemokines protein that is necessary for the success of your research. (prosci-inc.com)
  • 1988) demonstrated 2 protein components of MIP1, called by them alpha (CCL3, this protein) and beta (CCL4). (wikipedia.org)
  • Because chemokines can determine host cell infiltration in solid ovarian cancer, we assessed CC chemokine protein and CC chemokine receptor expression in ovarian cancer ascites. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We used reverse transcription-PCR and RNase protection assay to determine CC chemokine and chemokine receptor mRNA expression and ELISA to measure CC chemokine protein levels. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Flow cytometry was used to identify cell populations and their chemokine receptor protein expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CCL18 is closely related to CCL3 and CCL4 with respect to both protein sequence and genomic location, yet CCL18 has distinct biochemical and biophysical properties. (rcsb.org)
  • MIP-1β (macrophage inflammatory protein-1β), also known as CCL4, is a cysteine-cysteine (CC) chemokine. (fluidigm.com)
  • Chemokines (chemotactic cytokines) comprise a large family of proteins that recruit and activate leukocytes, giving chemokines a major role in both immune response and inflammation-related diseases. (rcsb.org)
  • The MIP proteins are members of a superfamily of cytokines called chemokines, many of which have been shown to possess chemotactic activity for inflammatory and immune effector cells. (nih.gov)
  • Chemokines (Greek -kinos , movement) are a family of small cytokines , or signaling proteins secreted by cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytokine proteins are classified as chemokines according to behavior and structural characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokines are a class of small molecular proteins with similar structures, functions and chemotactic properties, and their molecular weights are ~10 kDa, and chemokines represent the largest member of the cytokine family ( 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chemokines are small cytokines, or signaling proteins, secreted by cells. (wikipathways.org)
  • Chemokines are small secreted proteins that function in leukocyte trafficking, recruitment, and activation and have a role in many pathophysiological processes such as infectious and autoimmune diseases, inflammation, cancer, and vascular disease. (rndsystems.com)
  • mRNA for the CC chemokines CCL2, -3, -4, -5, -8, and -22 was expressed in cell isolates from ascites samples, and the corresponding proteins were detected in ascitic fluid. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Chemokines are a family of small cytokines, or proteins secreted by cells, with a molecular mass between 8 and 10 kDa. (genscript.com)
  • GenScript offers a comprehensive catalog of chemokine proteins with excellent lot-to-lot consistency, superior activity and significantly low endotoxin levels. (genscript.com)
  • Chemokines form a superfamily of secreted proteins involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. (creativebiomart.net)
  • CC chemokine ligands (CCLs) are 8- to 14-kDa signaling proteins involved in diverse immune functions. (rcsb.org)
  • Elevated levels of inflammatory chemokines in circulation are a hallmark of aging, but the mechanisms underlying this age-associated change are not fully understood. (springer.com)
  • Some inflammatory chemokines have proven essential in memory T cell generation [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Inflammatory chemokines function mainly as chemoattractants for leukocytes , recruiting monocytes , neutrophils and other effector cells from the blood to sites of infection or tissue damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain inflammatory chemokines activate cells to initiate an immune response or promote wound healing . (wikipedia.org)
  • These chemokines also have a more diverse range of functions compared to inflammatory chemokines. (biolegend.com)
  • In the event of infection, injury, or tissue damage, inflammatory chemokines are often released to address the problem. (biolegend.com)
  • Many inflammatory chemokines attract a wide variety of cells in both the innate and adaptive arms of immunity. (biolegend.com)
  • Inflammatory: inflammatory chemokines are produced in high concentrations during infection or injury and determine the migration of inflammatory leukocytes into the damaged area. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inflammatory chemokines are indispensable "gate-keepers" of inflammation and immunity against cancer, but tumor cells can subvert chemokines into acting as tumor-promoting molecules. (haematologica.org)
  • Once at the site of injury, immune cells can react by releasing additional cytokines and chemokines, bringing more cells into the fold. (biolegend.com)
  • Cytokines and chemokines are the primary form of signaling between a wide variety of cells. (prosci-inc.com)
  • Using antibodies to study cytokines and chemokines has given us a far greater understanding into signaling pathways. (prosci-inc.com)
  • 3,000 participants enrolled in five United States-based natural-history cohorts with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were genotyped for 21 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a 47-kb interval on chromosome 17q12 containing the genes CCL3, CCL4, and CCL18. (elsevier.com)
  • This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes. (wakehealth.edu)
  • These included established adipocytokines and chemokines implicated in recruitment and activation of lymphocytes, adhesion molecules, antioxidants, and several novel genes with unknown function. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • [ 17 ] In microarray experiments, cytokine and chemokine genes are differentially upregulated to a significantly greater degree in s-IBM and polymyositis than in dermatomyositis. (medscape.com)
  • Polymorphisms in chemokine genes help to determine host-pathogen interactions that influence chemokine levels. (medsci.org)
  • This gene is one of several chemokine genes clustered on the q-arm of chromosome 17. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Nevertheless, genes exhibited individual characteristics, e.g MKI67 exhibited lower expression at LH+7 than LH+2 and CCL4 higher, whereas TRO expressed limited difference in both cell types. (deepdyve.com)
  • Importantly, in a model system of pro-inflammatory chemokine production (LPS-activated monocytes)higher gene copy number correlates with an increased ratio of CCL3-L1 versus CCL3 mRNA, and enhanced chemokine production. (nih.gov)
  • While both CCL4 and CCL3 exert similar effects on monocytes, their effect on lymphocytes differ, with CCL4 selectively attracting CD4+ lymphocytes and CCL3 selectively attracting CD8+ lymphocytes. (thermofisher.com)
  • Differential secretion of chemokines by monocytes following infection with HCMV. (jimmunol.org)
  • Introduction: Joint fluid in patients with Lyme arthritis often contains high levels of CCL4 and CCL2, which are chemoattractants for monocytes and some T cells, and CXCL9 and CXCL10, which are chemoattractants for CD4+ and CD8+ T effector cells. (harvard.edu)
  • We hypothesized that B. burgdorferi stimulates chemokine secretion from monocytes/macrophages in multiple ways, thereby linking innate and adaptive immune responses. (harvard.edu)
  • Conclusions: B. burgdorferi stimulates PBMC or CD14+ monocytes/macrophages directly to secrete CCL4, but spirochetal stimulation of other intermediate cells, which are present in PBMC, is required to induce CD14+ cells to secrete CCL2, CXCL9 and CXCL10. (harvard.edu)
  • This chemokine, a member of the CC subfamily, functions as a chemoattractant for blood monocytes, memory T helper cells and eosinophils. (creativebiomart.net)
  • These results reiterate the importance of chemokine gene variation in HIV-1/AIDS pathogenesis and emphasize that localized linkage disequilibrium makes the identification of causal mutations difficult. (elsevier.com)
  • This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential vaccine adjuvants. (mdpi.com)
  • Gene copy number regulates the production of the human chemokine CCL3-L1. (nih.gov)
  • As a result of these studies, we hypothesize that genetic variation in CCL3-L1 gene copy number may affect the susceptibility to, or the progression or severity of, diseases in which this chemokine plays a role. (nih.gov)
  • Confirmation of selected chemokine and adhesion molecule gene expression by RT-PCR. (jimmunol.org)
  • We investigated the effects of CCL4 gene polymorphisms on the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) disease progression in a cohort of Taiwanese patients. (medsci.org)
  • Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the CCL4 gene were examined by a real-time PCR. (medsci.org)
  • Wang B, Chou YE, Lien MY, Su CM, Yang SF, Tang CH. Impacts of CCL4 gene polymorphisms on hepatocellular carcinoma susceptibility and development. (medsci.org)
  • Given the bioactivities of MIP-1 alpha and beta and MIP-2 and the recent studies demonstrating their association with lung inflammation, it is likely these chemokines play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses and may contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory lung disease. (nih.gov)
  • Notably, endotoxemia induces adipose inflammation ( 27 ) with activation of several adipose inflammatory cascades, including cytokines, chemokines, and suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) molecules ( 26 ) that attenuate insulin signaling and are implicated in obesity and type 2 diabetes ( 28 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • While some chemotaxis is induced by inflammation or damaged cells, other chemokines function in homeostasis. (biolegend.com)
  • CCL4 recruits and stimulates various inflammatory cells at sites of inflammation. (thermofisher.com)
  • The CNS can exhibit features of inflammation in response to injury, infection or disease, whereby resident cells generate inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, prostaglandins, free radicals and complement, chemokines and adhesion molecules that recruit immune cells, and activate glia and microglia. (wiley.com)
  • A multiplex immunoassay was used to determine levels of 15 different chemokines and IL-6 in subretinal fluid samples obtained during scleral buckling surgery for primary RRD. (arvojournals.org)
  • Cell-free culture supernatants from multiple donors were assayed for 37 different chemokines by using a RayBio human chemokine Ab array according to the manufacturer's protocol. (jimmunol.org)
  • The poxvirus-encoded viral CC chemokine inhibitor (vCCI) binds to many CC chemokines with high affinity, acting as a potent inhibitor of chemokine action. (rcsb.org)
  • vCCI binds to the chemokine with 1:1 stoichiometry, forming a complex of 311 aa. (rcsb.org)
  • The chemokine SDF-1 binds to CXCR4, and these interactions are important in many settings, including embryonic development (mice genetically lacking CXCR4 die in utero). (treatmentactiongroup.org)
  • CXCR5, also known as CD185 and Burkitt's lymphoma receptor 1 (BLR1), is a chemokine receptor which binds to CXCL13. (fluidigm.com)
  • For example, in addition to chemotaxis, chemokines modulate lymphocyte development, priming and effector function [ 2 ] and play a critical role in immune surveillance. (mdpi.com)
  • In addition to being known for mediating chemotaxis, chemokines are all approximately 8-10 kilodaltons in mass and have four cysteine residues in conserved locations that are key to forming their 3-dimensional shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the potential application of chemokines in chemotaxis of exosomes as drug vehicles is discussed. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chemokines are a class of cytokines that induce chemotaxis (migration) of target cells. (biolegend.com)
  • This pathway was inferred from Mus musculus pathway "Chemokine signaling pathway", WP2292 revision 89521, with a 91.0% conversion rate. (wikipathways.org)
  • This invention relates to antibodies or the use of antibodies directed against certain chemokines. (google.com)
  • certain chemokines can interact with more than one receptor. (treatmentactiongroup.org)
  • Chemokines are a group of related chemoattractant peptides that are essential regulators of the immune system, both during homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. (mdpi.com)
  • The major role of chemokines is to act as a chemoattractant to guide the migration of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokines are a large subfamily of chemoattractant cytokines, which are classified into four highly conserved groups, CXC, CC, C, and CX 3 C, based on the position of the first two cysteines adjacent to the NH 2 terminus. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The main function of chemokines is leukocyte mobilization, and ATP typically triggers inflammasome assembly. (hindawi.com)
  • Chemokines are functionally divided into two groups: Homeostatic: are constitutively produced in certain tissues and are responsible for basal leukocyte migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • and (vii) molecules related to leukocyte infiltration, including the CC chemokine ccl4, the CXC chemokine il8 and the leukocyte adhesion molecule E-selectin (Sele). (curehunter.com)
  • Chemokines selectively regulate the recruitment and trafficking of leukocyte subsets to inflammatory sites. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Immune responses against cancer rely upon leukocyte trafficking patterns that are coordinated by chemokines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here, we hypothesize that chemokines control ATP-dependent secretion of monocytic IL-1 β . (hindawi.com)
  • Furthermore, Be induced CCL3 and CCL4 secretion in the lungs of mice and humans. (jci.org)
  • In a murine model of CBD, the addition of LPS to Be oxide exposure enhanced CCL4 and CCL3 secretion in the lung and significantly increased the number and percentage of CD4+ T cells specific for the HLA-DP2-CCL/Be epitope. (jci.org)
  • Our goal was to begin to learn how infection with Borrelia burgdorferi leads to the secretion of these chemokines, using patient cell samples. (harvard.edu)
  • Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 24 Lyme arthritis patients were stimulated with B. burgdorferi, interferon (IFN)-γ, or both, and the levels of CCL4, CCL2, CXCL9 and CXCL10 were measured in culture supernatants. (harvard.edu)
  • Results: In patients with Lyme arthritis, B. burgdorferi but not IFN-γ induced PBMC to secrete CCL4 and CCL2, and B. burgdorferi and IFN-γ each stimulated the production of CXCL9 and CXCL10. (harvard.edu)
  • Chandrasekar B, Deobagkar-Lele M, Victor ES, Nandi D (2013) Regulation of chemokines, CCL3 and CCL4, by interferon gamma and nitric oxide synthase 2 in mouse macrophages and during Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium infection. (springer.com)
  • CCL3 (MIP-1α), CCL4 (MIP-1β), and CCL18 (DC-CK1/PARC/AMAC-1) are potent chemoattractants produced by macrophages, natural killer cells, fibroblasts, mast cells, CD4 + T cells, and CD8 + T cells. (elsevier.com)
  • While MIPs were originally identified as secretory products of endotoxin-stimulated mouse macrophages, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including neutrophils, fibroblasts, and epithelial cells. (nih.gov)
  • CCL4 is produced by macrophages upon stimulation by bacterial endotoxins. (thermofisher.com)
  • CCL4 is produced by lymphocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. (thermofisher.com)
  • Our cytokine and chemokine antibodies are quality controlled and tested in the application such as western blotting, ELISA, IF, IHC, and ICC. (prosci-inc.com)
  • The present invention provides a means of inhibiting the growth and metastasis of cancer cells by administering anti-chemokine antibodies. (google.com)
  • It is possible to identify the particular chemokines which are over-expressed in the tumor using methods of the invention and administer antibodies against that over-expressed chemokine. (google.com)
  • This structure reveals the strategy used by vCCI to tightly bind numerous chemokines while retaining selectivity for the CC chemokine subfamily. (rcsb.org)
  • thus, it is not surprising that chemokines are also able to bind linear sulfated GAGs such as heparin and heparan sulfate. (pnas.org)
  • Use this table to quickly identify the chemokines that bind to each receptor. (biolegend.com)
  • On the other hand, the chemokine system also plays a crucial role in the induction of antitumor immune responses and optimal effector function regulation of immune cells [ 1 , 4 , 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Chemokines have been traditionally divided into four families (CXC, CC, C, and CX3C) based on the patterns of amino-terminal cysteine residues. (pnas.org)
  • To date, >50 chemokines have been found, which can be divided into four families: CXC, CX3C, CC and XC, according to the different positions of the conserved N‑terminal cysteine residues. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • 50 chemokines have been identified, which can be divided into four families: CXC, CX3C, CC and XC, based on the different positions of the conserved N-terminal cysteine residues ( 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Members of the chemokine family are divided into four groups depending on the location of their first two cysteine residues. (genscript.com)
  • These data demonstrate that both GAG binding and the ability to form higher-order oligomers are essential for the activity of particular chemokines in vivo , although they are not required for receptor activation in vitro . (pnas.org)
  • Here, we hypothesized that patient tumor cell genomics influenced cell signaling and expression of PD-L1, chemokines, and immunosuppressive molecules and these profiles could be used to predict patient clinical responses. (springer.com)
  • Expression profiles of these 24 chemokines and immunosuppressive molecules were used to identify patients who would or would not respond to PD-1 immunotherapy. (springer.com)
  • Belongs to the intercrine beta (chemokine CC) family. (abcam.com)
  • These are known as homeostatic chemokines and are produced and secreted without any need to stimulate their source cell(s). (wikipedia.org)
  • Homeostatic chemokines are constitutively expressed in particular organs or tissues. (biolegend.com)
  • Due to their function of targeting cells to specific organs, homeostatic chemokines can also be involved in cancer and metastasis. (biolegend.com)
  • Basal: homeostatic chemokines are basal produced in the thymus and lymphoid tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both MIP-1 alpha and MIP-1 beta are structurally and functionally related CC chemokines. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Functionally, CCL4 is involved in chemotactic and proinflammatory effects, and homeostasis. (thermofisher.com)
  • Both MIP-1α and MIP-1β are structurally and functionally related CC chemokines. (mpbio.com)
  • Diseases associated with CCL4 include Adiposis Dolorosa and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infectious Disease . (genecards.org)
  • This review will focus on recent murine and human studies that use chemokines as therapeutic anti-cancer vaccine adjuvants. (mdpi.com)
  • This is the rat homolog of human CCL4 . (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • C ) UniProt number and amino acid sequence of related human chemokine peptides derived from CCL4 and CCL3 (biometrical analysis peptides BA001 and BA002, respectively). (jci.org)
  • The LEGENDplex™ Human Proinflammatory Chemokine Standard product is intended for use with the Mix and Match Human Proinflammatory Chemokine Panel of products. (biolegend.com)
  • Furthermore, these differences hinge on proline 8, which is conserved in CCL3 and CCL4 but is replaced by lysine in human CCL18. (rcsb.org)
  • These chemokines are produced primarily by cells of monocyte lineage in TH1-type immune responses. (harvard.edu)
  • for example, CCL20 can act also as pro-inflammatory chemokine. (wikipedia.org)
  • While a function of chemokines is to regulate lymphocyte trafficking, the view that chemokines act simply as "chemotactic cytokines" has evolved to include the many critical roles they play in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses. (mdpi.com)
  • The earliest among them is extracellular ATP and chemokines [ 4 , 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The immobilization of chemokines on glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) of the extracellular matrix and endothelial cell surfaces is thought to be an essential part of this process ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Recent studies suggest microRNAs play a role in the regulation of chemokine expression. (springer.com)
  • Burger JA, Quiroga MP, Hartmann E, Burkle A, Wierda WG, Keating MJ, Rosenwald A (2009) High-level expression of the T-cell chemokines CCL3 and CCL4 by chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells in nurselike cell cocultures and after BCR stimulation. (springer.com)
  • Age-related brain expression and regulation of the chemokine CCL4/MIP-1β in APP/PS1 double-transgenic mice. (howard.edu)
  • Methylmercury induces the expression of chemokine CCL4 via SRF activation in C17.2 mouse neural stem cells. (stembook.org)
  • Adding chemokine and immunosuppressive molecule expression profiles allowed patient models to achieve a greater than 85.0% predictive correlation among predicted and reported patient clinical responses. (springer.com)
  • Our results suggested that chemokine and immunosuppressive molecule expression profiles can be used to accurately predict clinical responses thus differentiating among patients who would and would not benefit from PD-1 or PD-L1 immunotherapies. (springer.com)
  • HLA-DP2-CCL/Be tetramer staining confirmed that these chemokine-derived peptides represented major antigenic targets in CBD. (jci.org)
  • Thus, we demonstrate a direct link between Be-induced innate production of chemokines and the development of a robust adaptive immune response to those same chemokines presented as Be-modified self-peptides, creating a cycle of innate and adaptive immune activation. (jci.org)
  • 1997). "Cloning and characterization of a specific receptor for the novel CC chemokine MIP-3alpha from lung dendritic cells" . (wikipedia.org)
  • Castellino F, Huang AY, Altan-Bonnet G, Stoll S, Scheinecker C, Germain RN (2006) Chemokines enhance immunity by guiding naive CD8+ T cells to sites of CD4+ T cell-dendritic cell interaction. (springer.com)
  • Over the last few decades, chemokines are found to be involved in almost every aspect of tumorigenesis and antitumor immunity [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The correlations between immune cell infiltration, chemokine, and cytokines were investigated via Tumor Immune Estimation Resource (TIMER) and TCGA. (frontiersin.org)