Chemokine CCL27: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.Chemokine CCL21: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL22: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.Chemokine CCL17: A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Chemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CCL19: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL5: A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.Chemokine CCL20: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL1: A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.Chemokines, CC: Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.Receptors, Chemokine: Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Chemokine CCL3: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Chemokine CCL7: A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Receptors, CCR10: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL4: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Chemokine CXCL12: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.Receptors, CCR1: CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.Chemokine CXCL10: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemokine CCL8: A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.Receptors, CCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.Receptors, CCR2: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.Chemokine CCL11: A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Chemokine CCL24: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Receptors, CCR7: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.Receptors, CCR8: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.Chemokine CXCL1: A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Receptors, CCR4: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.Chemokines, CXC: Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.Chemokine CX3CL1: A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins: Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.Receptors, CCR5: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.Receptors, CCR3: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.Chemokine CXCL9: An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Mice, Inbred C57BLCell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Chemokine CXCL2: A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CXCL13: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.Receptors, CXCR4: CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Chemokine CXCL11: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Chemokine CXCL6: A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Chemokine CXCL5: A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Receptors, CXCR3: CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Receptors, Interleukin-8B: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Dermatitis, Atopic: A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Monocyte Chemoattractant Proteins: Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Receptors, CCR6: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Receptors, Interleukin-8A: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Receptors, CXCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Receptors, Cytokine: Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Chemokines, CX3C: Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.Receptors, CXCR5: CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Chemotactic Factors: Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Monokines: Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.Receptors, HIV: Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Carbon Tetrachloride PoisoningDuffy Blood-Group System: A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.Chemotactic Factors, Eosinophil: Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.Neutrophil Infiltration: The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Heterocyclic Compounds: Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Cell Migration Inhibition: Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Platelet Factor 4: A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Endothelium, Lymphatic: Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.

A functional, discontinuous HIV-1 gp120 C3/C4 domain-derived, branched, synthetic peptide that binds to CD4 and inhibits MIP-1alpha chemokine binding. (1/787)

This paper describes a branched synthetic peptide [3.7] that incorporates sequence discontinuous residues of HIV-1 gp120 constant regions. The approach was to bring together residues of gp120 known to interact with human cell membranes such that the peptide could fold to mimic the native molecule. The peptide incorporates elements of both the conserved CD4 and CCR5 binding sites. The 3.7 peptide, which cannot be produced by conventional genetic engineering methods, is recognized by antiserum raised to native gp120. The peptide also binds to CD4 and competitively inhibits binding of QS4120 an antibody directed against the CDR2 region of CD4. When preincubated with the CD4+ve MM6 macrophage cell line, which expresses mRNA for the CCR3 and CCR5 chemokine receptors, both 3.7 and gp120 inhibit binding of the chemokine MIP-1alpha. The peptide also inhibits infection of primary macrophages by M-tropic HIV-1. Thus, 3.7 is a prototype candidate peptide for a vaccine against HIV-1 and represents a novel approach to the rational design of peptides that can mimic complex sequence discontinuous ligand binding sites of clinically relevant proteins.  (+info)

Induction of macrophage C-C chemokine expression by titanium alloy and bone cement particles. (2/787)

Particulate wear debris is associated with periprosthetic inflammation and loosening in total joint arthroplasty. We tested the effects of titanium alloy (Ti-alloy) and PMMA particles on monocyte/macrophage expression of the C-C chemokines, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), monocyte inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1alpha), and regulated upon activation normal T expressed and secreted protein (RANTES). Periprosthetic granulomatous tissue was analysed for expression of macrophage chemokines by immunohistochemistry. Chemokine expression in human monocytes/macrophages exposed to Ti-alloy and PMMA particles in vitro was determined by RT-PCR, ELISA and monocyte migration. We observed MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha expression in all tissue samples from failed arthroplasties. Ti-alloy and PMMA particles increased expression of MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha in macrophages in vitro in a dose- and time-dependent manner whereas RANTES was not detected. mRNA signal levels for MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha were also observed in cells after exposure to particles. Monocyte migration was stimulated by culture medium collected from macrophages exposed to Ti-alloy and PMMA particles. Antibodies to MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha inhibited chemotactic activity of the culture medium samples. Release of C-C chemokines by macrophages in response to wear particles may contribute to chronic inflammation at the bone-implant interface in total joint arthroplasty.  (+info)

Differential regulation of eosinophil chemokine signaling via CCR3 and non-CCR3 pathways. (3/787)

To investigate eosinophil stimulation by chemokines we developed a sensitive assay of leukocyte shape change, the gated autofluorescence/forward scatter assay. Leukocyte shape change responses are mediated through rearrangements of the cellular cytoskeleton in a dynamic process typically resulting in a polarized cell and are essential to the processes of leukocyte migration from the microcirculation into sites of inflammation. We examined the actions of the chemokines eotaxin, eotaxin-2, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), MCP-3, MCP-4, RANTES, macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), and IL-8 on leukocytes in mixed cell suspensions and focused on the responses of eosinophils to C-C chemokines. Those chemokines acting on CCR3 induced a rapid shape change in eosinophils from all donors; of these, eotaxin and eotaxin-2 were the most potent. Responses to MCP-4 were qualitatively different, showing marked reversal of shape change responses with agonist concentration and duration of treatment. In contrast, MIP-1alpha induced a potent response in eosinophils from a small and previously undescribed subgroup of donors via a non-CCR3 pathway likely to be CCR1 mediated. Incubation of leukocytes at 37 degrees C for 90 min in the absence of extracellular calcium up-regulated responses to MCP-4 and MIP-1alpha in the majority of donors, and there was a small increase in responses to eotaxin. MIP-1alpha responsiveness in vivo may therefore be a function of both CCR1 expression levels and the regulated efficiency of coupling to intracellular signaling pathways. The observed up-regulation of MIP-1alpha signaling via non-CCR3 pathways may play a role in eosinophil recruitment in inflammatory states such as occurs in the asthmatic lung.  (+info)

Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 modulates beta-chemokines and directly costimulates T cells in vivo. (4/787)

The potential roles of adhesion molecules in the expansion of T cell-mediated immune responses in the periphery were examined using DNA immunogen constructs as model antigens. We coimmunized cDNA expression cassettes encoding the adhesion molecules intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), lymphocyte function associated-3 (LFA-3), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) along with DNA immunogens, and we analyzed the resulting antigen-specific immune responses. We observed that antigen-specific T-cell responses can be enhanced by the coexpression of DNA immunogen and adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and LFA-3. Coexpression of ICAM-1 or LFA-3 molecules along with DNA immunogens resulted in a significant enhancement of T-helper cell proliferative responses. In addition, coimmunization with pCICAM-1 (and more moderately with pCLFA-3) resulted in a dramatic enhancement of CD8-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses. Although VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 are similar in size, VCAM-1 coimmunization did not have any measurable effect on cell-mediated responses. These results suggest that ICAM-1 and LFA-3 provide direct T-cell costimulation. These observations are further supported by the finding that coinjection with ICAM-1 dramatically enhanced the level of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and beta-chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), MIP-1beta, and regulated on activation normal T-cell expression and secreted (RANTES) produced by stimulated T cells. Through comparative studies, we observed that ICAM-1/LFA-1 T-cell costimulatory pathways are independent of CD86/CD28 pathways and that they may synergistically expand T-cell responses in vivo.  (+info)

Secretion of beta-chemokines by bronchoalveolar lavage cells during primary infection of macaques inoculated with attenuated nef-deleted or pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus strain mac251. (5/787)

Primary infection of macaques with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) as a model of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection represents a unique opportunity to investigate early lentivirus-host interactions. In order to gain insight into immunopathogenic events taking place in the lung during lentiviral infection, we analysed lymphocyte expansion in the lung and chemokine secretion by mononuclear cells obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BALMCs) during primary infection by a pathogenic and a non-pathogenic SIV. Two groups of cynomolgus macaques were inoculated intravenously with a fully pathogenic isolate of SIVmac251 or with an attenuated, nef-deleted, molecular clone of SIVmac251. Spontaneous MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta and RANTES production was assessed by ELISA in supernatants of short-term cultured BALMCs. Kinetics of haematological, virological and immunological parameters were investigated simultaneously. All 11 inoculated animals became infected. Monkeys inoculated with the nef-deleted SIV clone exhibited a significantly reduced plasma virus load and a less pronounced accumulation of lymphocytes in the lung compared to monkeys infected with the pathogenic SIVmac251 isolate. Compared to pre-infection levels, we observed an increase in the levels of RANTES, MIP1-alpha and MIP1-beta production in the two groups of monkeys, by the time of peak viraemia. Strikingly, a greater enhancement of RANTES and MIP-1alpha production was detected in monkeys infected with the attenuated virus. Given the potential influence of beta-chemokines on the immune response and virus replication, such results suggest that RANTES, MIP1-alpha and MIP1-beta could contribute to the singular features of the immune response elicited during infection of macaques with an attenuated SIV.  (+info)

Role of the C-C chemokine, TCA3, in the protective anticryptococcal cell-mediated immune response. (6/787)

Activated T lymphocytes play a crucial role in orchestrating cellular infiltration during a cell-mediated immune (CMI) reaction. TCA3, a C-C chemokine, is produced by Ag-activated T cells and is chemotactic for neutrophils and macrophages, two cell types in a murine CMI reaction. Using a gelatin sponge model for delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), we show that TCA3 is a component of the expression phase of an anticryptococcal CMI response in mice. TCA3 mRNA levels are augmented in anticryptococcal DTH reactions at the same time peak influxes of neutrophils and lymphocytes are observed. Neutralization of TCA3 in immunized mice results in reduced numbers of neutrophils and lymphocytes at DTH reaction sites. However, when rTCA3 is injected into sponges in naive mice, only neutrophils are attracted into the sponges, indicating TCA3 is chemotactic for neutrophils, but not lymphocytes. We show that TCA3 is indirectly attracting lymphocytes into DTH-reactive sponges by affecting at least one other chemokine that is chemotactic for lymphocytes. Of the two lymphocyte-attracting chemokines assessed, monocyte-chemotactic protein-1 and macrophage-inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), only MIP-1alpha was reduced when TCA3 was neutralized, indicating that TCA3 affects the levels of MIP-1alpha, which attracts lymphocytes into the sponges. TCA3 also plays a role in protection against Cryptococcus neoformans in the lungs and brains of infected mice, as evidenced by the fact that neutralization of TCA3 results in increased C. neoformans CFU in those two organs.  (+info)

Visualization of chemokine binding sites on human brain microvessels. (7/787)

The chemokines monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha) aid in directing leukocytes to specific locales within the brain and spinal cord during central nervous system inflammation. However, it remains unclear how these chemokines exert their actions across a vascular barrier, raising speculation that interaction with endothelial cells might be required. Therefore, experiments were performed to determine whether binding domains for these chemokines exist along the outer surface of brain microvessels, a feature that could potentially relay chemokine signals from brain to blood. Using a biotinylated chemokine binding assay with confocal microscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction, spatially resolved binding sites for MCP-1 and MIP-alpha around human brain microvessels were revealed for the first time. Binding of labeled MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha could be inhibited by unlabeled homologous but not heterologous chemokine, and was independent of the presence of heparan sulfate, laminin, or collagen in the subendothelial matrix. This is the first evidence of specific and separate binding domains for MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha on the parenchymal surface of microvessels, and highlights the prospect that specific interactions of chemokines with microvascular elements influence the extent and course of central nervous system inflammation.  (+info)

Macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha expression by synovial fluid neutrophils in rheumatoid arthritis. (8/787)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the contribution made by synovial fluid (SF) neutrophils to the augmented expression of macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha (MIP-1alpha) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Neutrophils were isolated from samples of SF from RA patients and peripheral blood (PB) samples from RA patients and healthy controls. Cell associated MIP-1alpha was visualised immunohistochemically, and cell associated MIP-1alpha as well as MIP-1alpha secreted into the SF was assayed by ELISA. Steady state expression of MIP-1alpha mRNA was assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: Freshly isolated SF neutrophils contained significantly higher concentrations of both MIP-1alpha protein and its transcript than PB neutrophils from either RA patients or healthy controls; incubation in the absence or presence of tumour necrosis factor alpha for 24 hours resulted in a significant increase in MIP-1alpha secretion by RA SF neutrophils compared with neutrophils obtained from either normal PB or RA PB; and expression of MIP-1alpha by SF neutrophils was well correlated with both RA disease activity and SF mononuclear cell (MNC) counts. CONCLUSION: Expression and secretion of MIP-1alpha by SF neutrophils may be indicative of local and systemic inflammation in RA. Moreover, this C-C chemokine may contribute to the recruitment of MNCs from the bloodstream into synovial joints and tissues.  (+info)

CCL3 is expressed during experimental GVHD and may be important for the inflammatory response caused by acute GVHD (12, 13). The results reported herewith confirm the relevance of CCL3 in mediating GVHD in mice. Moreover, we report for the first time that blockade of CCL3 with a CBP, evasin-1, which prevents CCL3 function (17), ameliorated GVHD and prevented death. Treatment with evasin-1 prevented the influx of leukocytes, especially CD8+, CD4+ cells and macrophages, to the small intestine and decreased tissue damage in the liver. Mechanistically, inhibition of leukocyte influx to the intestine was due to inhibition by evasin-1 of the ability of leukocytes to adhere to endothelial cells in affected tissues. The latter results suggest that mediation of leukocyte adherence and subsequent migration is the major mechanism by which CCL3 participates in murine GVHD. Finally, the protective effects of evasin-1 against GVHD did not interfere with the beneficial effect of the graft against a leukemic ...
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SEC091Hu, ELISA Kit for Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 4 Alpha (MIP4a), CCL26; SCYA26; IMAC; TSC-1; Eotaxin 3; Thymic stroma chemokine-1; Chemokine(C-C-Motif)ligand 26; Thymic Stroma Chemokine-1; Small Inducible Cytokine Subfamily A 26 | Products for research use only!
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Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 1 alpha / CCL3兔多克隆抗体(ab25128)可与小鼠, 大鼠样本反应并经WB, IP, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被4篇文献引用并得到1个独立的用户反馈。
Mouse macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2, also known as MIP-2-alpha) is the homolog of human chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2) protein, a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine subfamily. MIP-2 is also homologous to rat CINC-2. MIP-2 is expressed by activated monocytes and neutrophils at sites of inflammation. It has also been shown to control mucosal lymphocyte migration in mice. MIP-2/CXCL2 is also known as GRO2 oncogene, GRO-beta, SCYB, SCYB2, and melanoma growth stimulating activity beta (MSGA-beta).. ...
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Looking for online definition of Macrophage inflammatory proteins in the Medical Dictionary? Macrophage inflammatory proteins explanation free. What is Macrophage inflammatory proteins? Meaning of Macrophage inflammatory proteins medical term. What does Macrophage inflammatory proteins mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - An essential role of macrophage inflammatory protein 1α/CCL3 on the expression of hosts innate immunities against infectious complications. AU - Takahashi, Hitoshi. AU - Tashiro, Tsuguhiko. AU - Miyazaki, Masaru. AU - Kobayashi, Makiko. AU - Pollard, Richard B.. AU - Suzuki, Fujio. PY - 2002/12/1. Y1 - 2002/12/1. N2 - Sepsis was induced by well-controlled cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α)/CCL3 knock-out (CCL3-/-) and severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. CCL3-/- mice and their littermates (CCL3+/+ mice) treated with anti-CCL3 monoclonal antibodies were susceptible (0-20% survival) to CLP-induced sepsis, and CCL3-/- mice supplemented with recombinant (r)CCL3 (250 ng/mouse) and CCL3+/+ mice were resistant (70-80% survival). The resistance of SCID mice to CLP was markedly improved by the rCCL3 administration (88% survival), and SCID mice treated with saline were shown to be middling resistant to the same CLP (45% survival). ...
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The capacity of DCs to reach the site of injury/infection and consequently to initiate immunity is determined by their ability to respond to selected chemokines. In this study, we show that MIP-3α is a major chemokine produced by activated epithelial cells, and selectively active on LCs and their precursors. MIP-3αs unique activity suggests that it plays a key role in the control of LC recruitment at inflamed epithelial surfaces and in the regulation of epithelial immunity.. Among all CC chemokines tested, MIP-3α appears to be the most potent chemokine inducing the migration of LC precursors and freshly isolated LCs but not of any other DC population. This result is in line with the specific expression of CCR6 by cells of the LC lineage in contrast with other receptors such as CCR1, CCR2, and CCR5 that are expressed on several other DC populations ((9)(34); and Caux, C., manuscript in preparation). This observation is in accordance with previous reports showing that both CCR6 expression and ...
MSD offers a range of individual assays utilizing U-PLEX Antibody Sets that provide a rapid and convenient method for measuring biomarkers in complex matrices. The individual assays are offered on MSD GOLD Small Spot Streptavidin Plates and use the same antibody sets and diluents as the U-PLEX multiplex assays. This allows for efficient transfer between the individual assay and a higher throughput multiplex configuration. Typical of assays developed on the MSD platform, the individual assays have high sensitivity, excellent precision, provide up to five-logs of linear dynamic range, and require minimal sample volume. Human MIP-1β (CCL4), also known as lymphocyte activation gene 1 protein (LAG-1), G-26 T-lymphocyte-secreted protein, HC21, PAT 744, protein H400, SIS-gamma, small-inducible cytokine A4, and T-cell activation protein 2 (ACT-2), is a 10.2 kDa protein that binds to CCR5. CCR5 is shared between MIP-1β, MIP-1α, RANTES, and CCL3L1. MIP-1β is one of the major HIV suppressive factors ...
Mouse macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2, also known as MIP-2-alpha) is the homolog of human chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2) protein, a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine subfamily. MIP-2 is also homologous to rat CINC-2. MIP-2 is expressed by activated monocytes and neutrophils at sites of inflammation. It has also been shown to control mucosal lymphocyte migration in mice. MIP-2/CXCL2 is also known as GRO2 oncogene, GRO-beta, SCYB, SCYB2, and melanoma growth stimulating activity beta (MSGA-beta).. ...
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Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 1 beta兔多克隆抗体可与小鼠, 大鼠样本反应并经WB, IP, Neut, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被4篇文献引用。
In vitro replication of SIVcpz is suppressed by beta-chemokines and CD8+ T cells but not by natural killer cells of infected chimpanzees ...
Determination of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, MIP-1α, IL-10, TGF-β1 and FGFb levels in the cell-free supernatant obtained from monocytes from healthy subjects (CG, n
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Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins (MIP) belong to the family of chemotactic cytokines known as chemokines. In humans, there are two major forms, MIP-1α and MIP-1β that are now officially named CCL3 and CCL4, respectively. Both are major factors produced by macrophages after they are stimulated with bacterial endotoxins. They are crucial for immune responses towards infection and inflammation. They activate human granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils) which can lead to acute neutrophilic inflammation. They also induce the synthesis and release of other pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1 (IL-1), IL-6 and TNF-α from fibroblasts and macrophages. The genes for CCL3 and CCL4 are both located on human chromosome 17. They are produced by many cells, particularly macrophages, dendritic cells, and lymphocytes. MIP-1 are best known for their chemotactic and proinflammatory effects but can also promote homoeostasis. Biophysical analyses and mathematical modelling has shown ...
bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine. The present study evaluated the release of cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1, tumour necrosis factor and IL-6] and chemokines [macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α and MIP-1β] by THP-1 derived macrophages infected with BCG vaccine obtained by growing mycobacteria in Viscondessa de Moraes Institute medium medium (oral) or Sauton medium (intradermic) to compare the effects of live and heat-killed (HK) mycobacteria. Because BCG has been reported to lose viability during the lyophilisation process and during storage, we examined whether exposing BCG to different temperatures also triggers differences in the expression of some important cytokines and chemokines of the immune response. Interestingly, we observed that HK mycobacteria stimulated cytokine and chemokine production in a different pattern from that observed with live mycobacteria ...
Researchers found that fibromyalgia patients have higher concentrations of inflammatory chemokines, a biomarker which could help diagnose FM.
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Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1 beta (MIP-1 beta, CCL4, MIP-1ß) is one of two major factor MIP proteins produced by macrophages following their stimulat
Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha, CCL3, MIP-1a) is one of two MIP proteins that are the major factors produced by macrophages following
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Thus, it appears that two chemokines, MIP-3α and SDF-1α, are produced constitutively by human keratinocytes, and therefore could both be involved in LC homing to the epidermis. Our findings that SDF-1α does not attract LC precursors (Fig. 1 C) and that these cells also fail to express CXCR4 on their surface (Fig. 6 A) speak against a role of SDF-1α in LC homing. Since ex vivo-purified LCs express CCR2 transcripts (Fig. 5 B), one could argue that this receptor is involved in the attraction of LCs into the epidermis. This is unlikely because (a) resting keratinocytes do not express the CCR2 ligand MCP-1 at the protein level ((33); Fig. 7 E), and (b) LC precursors do not express CCR2 on their surface (Fig. 6 A), and do not migrate in response to MCP-1 (Fig. 1 B). In this context, it is noteworthy that mice genetically manipulated to express MCP-1 in the epidermis have close to normal LC numbers while accumulating dermal DCs and macrophage-like cells (34).. In conclusion, among all the ...
Product Name: Mouse mAb anti- human Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1 alpha (MIP-1α), Clone 199Collection: AntibodySub Category: Monoclonal AntibodyImmunogen:
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Blocking HIV-1 cell entry has long been a major goal of anti-HIV drug development. Here, we report a successful design of two highly potent chimeric HIV entry inhibitors composed of one CCR5-targeting RANTES (regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted) variant (5P12-RANTES or 5P14-RANTES (Gaertner, H., Cerini, F., Escola, J. M., Kuenzi, G., Melotti, A., Offord, R., Rossitto-Borlat, I., Nedellec, R., Salkow-itz, J., Gorochov, G., Mosier, D., and Hartley, O. (2008) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 17706 -17711)) linked to a gp41 fusion inhibitor, C37. Chimeric inhibitors 5P12-linker-C37 and 5P14-linker-C37 showed extremely high antiviral potency in single cycle and replication-competent viral assays against R5-tropic viruses, with IC50 values as low as 0.004 nM. This inhi-bition was somewhat strain-dependent and was up to 100-fold better than the RANTES variant alone or in combination with unlinked C37. The chimeric inhibitors also fully retained the antiviral activity of C37 ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (CCL20) or liver activation regulated chemokine (LARC) or Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-3 (MIP3A) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. It is strongly chemotactic for lymphocytes and weakly attracts neutrophils. CCL20 is implicated in the formation and function of mucosal lymphoid tissues via chemoattraction of lymphocytes and dendritic cells towards the epithelial cells surrounding these tissues. CCL20 elicits its effects on its target cells by binding and activating the chemokine receptor CCR6. Gene expression of CCL20 can be induced by microbial factors such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor and interferon-γ, and down-regulated by IL-10. CCL20 is expressed in several tissues with highest expression observed in peripheral blood lymphocytes, lymph nodes, liver, appendix, and fetal lung and lower levels in thymus, testis, prostate and gut. The gene for CCL20 (scya20) is located on ...
CCL5 is an 8kDa protein classified as a chemotactic cytokine or chemokine. CCL5 is chemotactic for T cells, eosinophils, and basophils, and plays an active role in recruiting leukocytes into inflammatory sites. With the help of particular cytokines (i.e., IL-2 and IFN-γ) that are released by T cells, CCL5 also induces the proliferation and activation of certain natural-killer (NK) cells to form CHAK (CC-Chemokine-activated killer) cells.[6] It is also an HIV-suppressive factor released from CD8+ T cells[citation needed]. This chemokine has been localized to chromosome 17 in humans.[5]. RANTES was first identified in a search for genes expressed "late" (3-5 days) after T cell activation. It was subsequently determined to be a CC chemokine and expressed in more than 100 human diseases. RANTES expression is regulated in T lymphocytes by Kruppel like factor 13 (KLF13).[7][8][9][10] RANTES, along with the related chemokines MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta, has been identified as a natural HIV-suppressive ...
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MIP-3 alpha is a CC chemokine that is expressed in the liver, lymph nodes, appendix, PBL and lung and can signal through the CCR6 receptor. MIP-3 alpha is chemotactic towards lymphocytes and dendritic cells. Additionally, it promotes the adhesion of memory CD4+ T cells and inhibits colony formation of bone marrow myeloid immature progenitors. Recombinant human MIP-3 alpha is an 8.0 kDa protein containing 70 amino acid residues, including the four highly conserved cysteine residues present in CC chemokines ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase is a regulator of chemokine production. T2 - Relevance for the pathogenesis of shock and inflammation. AU - Haskó, György. AU - Mabley, Jon G.. AU - Németh, Zoltán H.. AU - Pacher, Pál. AU - Deitch, Edwin A.. AU - Szabo, Csaba. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Background: Chemokines are key regulators of leukocyte traffic in various forms of inflammation and reperfusion injury. There is emerging evidence that the activation of the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) importantly contributes to the up-regulation of a variety of proinflammatory signal transduction pathways and associated genes. Materials and Methods: We tested whether the expression of the chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α and MIP-2 are under the control of PARP during inflammation. Results: Pharmacologic inhibition of PARP and genetic deletion of PARP suppressed the expression of MIP-1α and MIP-2 protein and mRNA in immunostimulated cultured murine ...
The purpose of this study was to determine whether certain chemokines, which are highly expressed in injured skeletal muscle, are involved in the repair and functional recovery of the muscle after traumatic injury. In wild-type control mice, mRNA transcripts of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 as well as their major receptors, CC
The question why CD4+/CD25+ T cells are reduced in asthmatic patients has not been answered yet; however, it has been observed that these cells reveal a reduced response to the chemokines CCL1 and CXCL1 suggesting an impaired recruitment to the lung [137, 138 ...
This is a replacement MIP X-DUTY Drive Hub, and is intended for use with the MIP X-DUTY CVD kit for the Traxxas Slash and Slash 4x4. This replacement... MIP10136
The primary objective of this study was to examine effects of cocaine on HIV-1 replication in primary CD4+ T cells. suppressing HIV-1 protecting chemokines and/or upregulating the HIV-1 admittance co-receptor [20]C[21]. For example, people of the -chemokine family members that combine to CCR5 such as controlled upon-activation Capital t indicated and 853910-02-8 IC50 secreted (RANTES), macrophage inflammatory proteins 1a (MIP-1a), and MIP-1n possess been proven to inhibit admittance of particular HIV-1 pressures [22]. In addition, proteomics evaluation of cocaine treated PBMCs separated from HIV-positive contributor suggests that cocaine differentially manages appearance of many crucial sponsor aminoacids that may impact HIV-1 duplication [23]. Since these scholarly research had been carried out using cell tradition versions or the combined cell populations of PBMCs, there are no reviews on major Compact disc4+ Capital t cells. Provided that Compact disc4+ Capital t cells are the primary focuses ...
Complete information for CCL15-CCL14 gene (RNA Gene), CCL15-CCL14 Readthrough (NMD Candidate), including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Mouse C-C Motif Chemokine 2 / Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 (CCL2/MCP1) standard, for use in running standard curves in AlphaLISA no-wash detection assays.
AlphaLISA no-wash assay kit for detection and quantitation of Mouse/Rat C-C Motif Chemokine 5 / Regulated Upon Activation Normal T-Cell Expressed, and Secreted (CCL5/RANTES) in serum, bronchial lavage fluid (BALF), buffered solution or cell culture medium.
canine CCL5/RANTES gene cDNA, cloning vector & expression plasmid, mutiple tags. Optimized for high expression in mammalian cells. Save up to 60%.
Macrophages are an important source of pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic factors, which can promote pathological processes involving inflammation and angiogenesis. This study investigated the effects of Apelin on macrophages under both normal and hypoxic conditions. Under normal culture conditions, Apelin down-regulated the mRNA expression levels of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1), monocyte chemotactic protein 3 (MCP3), macrophage inflammatory protein 1 (MIP1 alpha, MIP1 beta), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), Angiopoietin 2 (Ang2) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha). The supernatant concentrations of MCP1, MCP3, MIP1 alpha, MIP1 beta, macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP2) and TNF alpha proteins were significantly decreased in the Apelin treated group. Hypoxia induced profound up-regulations of the angiogenic, chemokine, and inflammatory factors at both the mRNA and protein levels. Apelin suppressed the hypoxia-induced increases in MCP1, MCP3, MIP2, MIP1 beta and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Spontaneous and antigen-induced production of HIV-inhibitory β- chemokines are associated with AIDS-free status. AU - Garzino-Demo, A.. AU - Moss, R. B.. AU - Margolick, Joseph Bernard. AU - Cleghorn, F.. AU - Sill, A.. AU - Blattner, W. A.. AU - Cocchi, F.. AU - Carlo, D. J.. AU - DeVico, A. L.. AU - Gallo, R. C.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - The β-chemokines RANTES, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, and MIP-1β suppress infection by macrophage-tropic strains of HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) by binding and down-regulating the viral coreceptor, CCR5. Accordingly, we have examined whether higher levels of CCR5 ligands are associated with a more favorable clinical status in AIDS. A cross-sectional study of 100 subjects enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study at the Baltimore site was conducted to measure chemokine production and lymphocyte proliferation by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Statistical analyses of the data revealed that the ...
This study focuses upon three chemokines, namely CCL5, CXCL10 and CCL3, which are potential novel therapeutic targets in arthritis. The aim of the study was to analyse the expression and production of these three chemokines within the joints of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) of the oligoarticular and polyarticular subtypes. All three of these chemokines are highly expressed at the level of mRNA, with the most significant increase in mRNA levels being demonstrated for CCL5 when compared with matched peripheral blood samples and controls. We show that high levels of all three chemokines are present in synovial fluid of children with JIA. We investigate the major source of CCL5 from inflammatory synovial cells, which we show to be CD8+ T cells. This CD8+ synovial T cell population has an unexpected phenotype that has not been described previously, being CCR7- yet predominantly CD28+ and CD45RA-. These cells contain high levels of stored intracellular CCL5, and rapid release of CCL5 takes
A family of toxins produced by Mycobacterium ulcerans; strains from different geographic areas produce distinct patterns of mycolactone congeners. Mycolactone has significant immunosuppressive effects and inhibits production of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-1α), MIP-1β, RANTES, interferon-γ-inducible protein 10, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, but not IL-12, TNFα, or IL-6. See Buruli ulcer. ...
CCL20, hemokin (C-C motiv) ligand 20, ili jetrenom aktivacijom regulisani hemokin (LARC), ili makrofagni inflamatorni protein-3 (MIP3A) je mali citokin iz CC hemokin familije. On je snažno hemotaksan za limfocite, a slabo provlači neutrofile.[1] CCL20 je impliciran u formiranje i funkciju mukoznog limfoidnog tkiva putem hemoatrakcije limfocita i dendritskih ćelija prema epitelnim ćelijama koje okružuju ta tkiva. CCL20 dejstvuje na svoje ciljne ćelije vezivanjem i aktiviranjem hemokinskog receptora CCR6.[2][3] CCL20 genska ekspresija može biti indukovana mikrobnim faktorima kao što su lipopolisaharidi (LPS), i inflamatorni citokini poput faktor nekroze tumora i interferon-γ, i umanjena uticajem citokina IL-10.[4] CCL20 je izražen u više vrsta tkiva. Najobimnije izražavanje je primećeno u perifernim krvnim limfocitima, limfnim čvorovima, jetri, slepom crevu, i fetalnim plućima, a u nižim nivoima u timusu, testisima, prostati i crevima.[1][5] CCL20 gen (scya20) je lociran na ...
This gene encodes a member of the beta chemokine receptor family, which is predicted to be a seven transmembrane protein similar to G protein-coupled receptors. The gene
Sepsis is a severe, often life-threatening illness caused by the immune systems over-aggressive response to infections -- releasing inflammatory proteins that cause shock and shut down multiple organs. The condition occurs in 1 to 2 percent of all hospitalizations in the United States ...
BioVendor - BioVendor Research and Diagnostic Products is a developer and manufacturer of immunoassays, recombinant proteins, antibodies and endotoxin-removal products.
positive regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production. • positive regulation of JUN kinase activity. • positive ... positive regulation of chemokine production. • cellular extravasation. • negative regulation of lipid storage. • negative ... positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • epithelial cell proliferation involved in salivary gland morphogenesis ... Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
... as well as chemokine and cytokine production, and expression of adhesion molecules such as E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. This ... Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • regulation of insulin secretion. • extrinsic apoptotic signaling ... Copeland KF (2006). "Modulation of HIV-1 transcription by cytokines and chemokines". Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry. 5 (12 ... Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
chemokine activity. • cytokine activity. • heparin binding. • protein binding. • CXCR3 chemokine receptor binding. ... Agonists: CCL3 (MIP-1α). *CCL4 (MIP-1β). *CCL5 (RANTES). *CCL8 ... "Entrez Gene: CXCL11 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11".. *^ a b ... C-X-C motif chemokine 11 is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also called Interferon-inducible T- ... This chemokine elicits its effects on its target cells by interacting with the cell surface chemokine receptor CXCR3, with a ...
Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
Townson JR, Barcellos LF, Nibbs RJ (2002). "Gene copy number regulates the production of the human chemokine CCL3-L1". Eur. J. ... 1999). "The assignment of chemokine-chemokine receptor pairs: TARC and MIP-1 beta are not ligands for human CC-chemokine ... C-C motif chemokine 4-like is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCL4L1 gene. This gene is one of several cytokine ... "Entrez Gene: CCL4L1 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4-like 1". Retrieved 8 February 2013. Human CCL4L2 genome location and CCL4L2 ...
Townson JR, Barcellos LF, Nibbs RJ (October 2002). "Gene copy number regulates the production of the human chemokine CCL3-L1". ... This protein binds to several chemokine receptors including chemokine binding protein 2 (CCBP2 or D6) and chemokine (C-C motif ... This gene is one of several chemokine genes clustered on the q-arm of chromosome 17. Chemokines are a family of secreted ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3-like 1, also known as CCL3L1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CCL3L1 gene. ...
December 2010). "Polymerization of MIP-1 chemokine (CCL3 and CCL4) and clearance of MIP-1 by insulin-degrading enzyme". EMBO J ... chemokine Czaplewski, L. G.; McKeating, J.; Craven, C. J.; Higgins, L. D.; Appay, V.; Brown, A.; Dudgeon, T.; Howard, L. A.; ... The genes for CCL3 and CCL4 are both located on human chromosome 17. They are produced by many cells, particularly macrophages ... In humans, there are two major forms, MIP-1α and MIP-1β that are now officially named CCL3 and CCL4, respectively. Both are ...
The Gp120 envelope protein is a chemokine mimic. It lacks the unique structure of a chemokine, however it is still capable of ... CCR5's cognate ligands include CCL3, CCL4 (also known as MIP 1α and 1β, respectively), and CCL3L1. CCR5 furthermore interacts ... It is a G protein-coupled receptor which functions as a chemokine receptor in the CC chemokine group. ... C-C chemokine receptor type 5, also known as CCR5 or CD195, is a protein on the surface of white blood cells that is involved ...
... host-derived pro-inflammatory chemokines (e.g. CXCL8, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL11, CXCL10), platelet-activating factor, and ... stimulates their expression the chemokine receptor, CCR5, to inhibit chemokine signaling, enhances their phagocyte activity, ... CMKLR1 (chemokine receptor-like 1), also termed the ChemR23 or E series resolvin receptor (ERV), is expressed on inflammation- ...
C-C chemokine receptor type 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCR1 gene. CCR1 has also recently been designated ... The ligands of this receptor include CCL3 (or MIP-1 alpha), CCL5 (or RANTES), CCL7 (or MCP-3), and CCL23 (or MPIF-1). ... "Entrez Gene: CCR1 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 1". Struyf S, Menten P, Lenaerts JP, Put W, D'Haese A, De Clercq E, Schols D, ... This gene and other chemokine receptor genes, including CCR2, CCRL2, CCR3, CCR5 and CXCR1, are found to form a gene cluster on ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 18 (CCL18) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. The functions of CCL18 have ... Because of these pseudo-exons, it is believed that CCL18 arose as a result of a gene fusion event between CCL3-like protein ... It was previously known as Pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine (PARC), dendritic cell (DC)-chemokine 1 (DC-CK1), ... Chemokines are classed as a special type of cytokine that is involved in immune cell trafficking. CCL18 in particular has some ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4, also known as CCL4, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CCL4 gene. CCL4, also known ... CCL4 has been shown to interact with CCL3. Macrophage inflammatory protein ENSG00000277943, ENSG00000275302 GRCh38: Ensembl ... 1994). "The chemokines IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and I-309 are monomers at physiologically relevant ... Combadiere C, Ahuja SK, Murphy PM (1995). "Cloning and functional expression of a human eosinophil CC chemokine receptor". J. ...
Activation of dectin-1 also triggers expression of many protecting antifungal cytokines and chemokines (TNF, CXCL2, IL-1b, IL- ... 1a, CCL3, GM-CSF, G-CSF and IL-6) and the development of Th17. Dectin-1 can also operate as a co-stimulatory molecule via ... This transcription factor is responsible for the production of numerous inflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as TNF, IL- ...
... identical in amino acid composition to CCL3 and CCL4. This chemokine is expressed in various tissues including spleen, bone ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 14 (CCL14) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. It is also commonly known as ... Human CCL14 is located on chromosome 17 within a cluster of other chemokines belonging to the CC family. Schulz-Knappe et al., ... Naruseet al., A YAC contig of the human CC chemokine genes clustered on chromosome 17q11.2. Genomics, 1996, 34: 236-240.. ...
When the 12-amino acid sequence of 'peptide 3'/CCL2 is aligned with the sequences of the other chemokines CCL3, CXCL8 and ... CCL3, CXCL8 and CXCL12 with roughly equal potency of 10μM, but not migration induced by other non-chemokine chemoattractants ... CCL2, CCL3, CCL5 and CXCL12 with THP-1 monocytes, and vs. CXCL8 with neutrophils. In addition NR58,3-14-3 does not ... In addition Val11 is also present in CCL3 and CXCL8. The corresponding 11th amino acid in CXCL12 is Ile. Ala4 in CCL2 is also ...
C-C chemokine receptor type 6 C-C chemokine receptor type 7 Calreticulin Cancer immunology Cancer immunoprevention Cancer ... CCL1 CCL11 CCL12 CCL13 CCL14 CCL15 CCL16 CCL17 CCL18 CCL19 CCL2 CCL20 CCL21 CCL22 CCL23 CCL24 CCL25 CCL26 CCL27 CCL28 CCL3 CCL5 ... CD4 CD4+ T cells and antitumor immunity CD74 CD94/NKG2 Cell-mediated immunity CELSR1 Central tolerance Chemokine Chemokine ... CR6261 CroFab Cross-presentation Cross-reactivity Cryptic self epitopes Cryptotope CX3CL1 CX3CR1 CXC chemokine receptors CXCL1 ...
chemokine receptor activity. • receptor activity. • protein binding. • C-C chemokine receptor activity. • C-C chemokine binding ... Agonists: CCL3 (MIP-1α). *CCL4 (MIP-1β). *CCL5 (RANTES). *CCL8 ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine ... "Entrez Gene: CCR6 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6".. *^ Wang K, Zhang H, Kugathasan S, Annese V, Bradfield JP, Russell RK, ... "Chemokine Receptors: CCR6". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
The chemokines CCL5/RANTES, CCL3/MIP-1α, CCL4/MIP-1β, all of which bind to CCR5, are inhibitory to HIV-1 replication in ... Chemokines are divided into four main subfamilies: C, CC, CXC, and CX3C. Microglial cells are sources of some chemokines and ... The chemokine receptor, CX3CR1, is expressed by microglia in the central nervous system. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is the exclusive ... Chemokines are cytokines that stimulate directional migration of inflammatory cells in vitro and in vivo. ...
Several CC chemokines: CCL1, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL7, CCL8, CCL11, CCL13, CCL14, CCL15, CCL16, CCL18, and CCL23 The ... C-C motif chemokine ligand 4 like 1 (17q12) DDX52: DExD-box helicase 52 (17q12) ERBB2 loca leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2, ...
Typical inflammatory chemokines include: CCL2, CCL3 and CCL5, CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL8. A typical example is CXCL-8, which acts ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines in that it has ... CCL1 for the ligand 1 of the CC-family of chemokines, and CCR1 for its respective receptor. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) ...
Chemokine. CCL. CCL1 · CCL2 · CCL3 · CCL4 · CCL5 · CCL6 · CCL7 · CCL8 · CCL9 · CCL11 · CCL12 · CCL13 · CCL14 · CCL15 · CCL16 · ...
... or chemokine-scavenging receptor or chemokine decoy receptor. Acts as a receptor for chemokines including CCL2, CCL3, CCL3L1, ... increasing its efficiency in chemokine uptake and degradation. By scavenging chemokines in tissues, on the surfaces of ... resulting instead in chemokine sequestration, degradation, or transcytosis. Also known as interceptor (internalizing receptor) ... Atypical chemokine receptor that controls chemokine levels and localization via high-affinity chemokine binding that is ...
We and others have shown that the human beta-chemokine CCL3-L1, unlike its related non-allelic isoform CCL3, has high affinity ... higher gene copy number correlates with an increased ratio of CCL3-L1 versus CCL3 mRNA, and enhanced chemokine production. ... The other isoforms (CCL3 and CCL4) remain at two copies per dpg. Importantly, in a model system of pro-inflammatory chemokine ... Gene copy number regulates the production of the human chemokine CCL3-L1.. Townson JR1, Barcellos LF, Nibbs RJ. ...
Chemokines CCL3, CCL4, and CCL5 are known agonists of chemokine receptors CCR1, CCR3, and CCR5 [12]. CXCL16 binds to receptor ... β was dose dependently and efficiently inhibited by chemokines CCL3, CCL4, and CCL5 (. ; , each), whereas chemokine CXCL16 was ... Here, we only investigated chemokines CCL3, CCL4, and CCL5 with a focus on CCL3. The concept should be confirmed with other ... We propose that when U937 cells are stimulated with ATP and chemokine CCL3 concomitantly, chemokine receptor CCR1 activates the ...
The chemokine CCL3 (MIP1α) is produced following RSV infection and is broadly chemotactic for both T cells and natural killer ( ... While fewer T cells were recruited to the lungs of either CCL3 knockout or anti-CCL3 treated RSV infected mice, more RSV- ... CCL3 depletion did not alter the recruitment of natural killer (NK) cells to the lungs during the early stage, but depletion ... Conclusions/Significance CCL3 regulates the balance of T cell populations in the lung and can alter the outcome of RSV ...
Research proven purified goat polyclnal MIP1 alpha or CCL3 antibody. Designed for immunohistochemistry, western blotting, ELISA ... Human CCL3L1/LD78b binds and signals through chemokine receptors CCR1, CCR5. When compared to CCL3/LD78a, CCL3L1/LD78b has ... Whereas the human CCL3/LD78a is a single-copy gene, the human CCL3L1/LD78b gene copy number varies within the population. ... MIP-1 alpha (macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha) is a member of the CC or beta chemokine subfamily that was originally ...
You need info about Human C-C motif chemokine 3 (CCL3) ELISA Kit or any other Gentaur produtct? Contact us on Live Chat Our ... Human (Homo sapiens) CCL3 elisa. Shipping, handling and storage. The kit is shipped on ice packs. Upon receiving it store the ... Detects Human (Homo sapiens) CCL3; Additional information. ...
Evasin-1 is characterized by its exquisite selectivity for three CC chemokines: CCL3, CCL4, and the closely related chemokine ... A group of B6D2F1 mice (CCL3−/− group) received C57BL/6J splenocytes from CCL3-deficient mice (C57BL/6J CCL3−/− → B6D2F1). ... CCL3 is a protein of the CC chemokine family known to be important for T cell recruitment in inflammatory diseases. The aim of ... When WT B6D2F1 mice received parental splenocytes of C57BL/6J CCL3−/− (CCL3−/− group), the levels of CCL3 in intestine were ...
Chemokines are key inflammatory mediators, several of which (MCP-1, RANTES, MIP-1α, fractalkine, SDF-1 among others) have been ... The important roles chemokines play in inflammation and pain make them an attractive therapeutic target. Peroxisome ... The important roles chemokines play in inflammation and pain make them an attractive therapeutic target. Peroxisome ... PPAR agonists have wide-ranging effects including inhibition of chemokine expression and pain behavior reduction in animal ...
... ccl3, ccl5, cxcl11, cxcl12) single-domain Antibody scFv Fragment is available from creative biolabs. ... chemokine (ccl2, ccl3, ccl5, cxcl11, cxcl12) single-domain; ccl2; ccl3; ccl5; cxcl11; cxcl12; chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2; ... Chemokine (ccl2, Ccl3, Ccl5, Cxcl11, Cxcl12) Single-domain. *Recombinant Anti-chemokine (ccl2, ccl3, ccl5, cxcl11, cxcl12) ... ccl3, ccl5, cxcl11, cxcl12) single-domain Antibody Fab Fragment ( MOB-198-F(E) ) Recombinant Human Anti-chemokine (ccl2, ccl3, ...
chemokine receptor activity. • receptor activity. • protein binding. • C-C chemokine receptor activity. • C-C chemokine binding ... Agonists: CCL3 (MIP-1α). *CCL4 (MIP-1β). *CCL5 (RANTES). *CCL8 ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine ... "Entrez Gene: CCR6 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6".. *^ Wang K, Zhang H, Kugathasan S, Annese V, Bradfield JP, Russell RK, ... "Chemokine Receptors: CCR6". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
PTB individuals with bilateral or cavitary disease displayed significantly elevated levels of CCL1, CCL3, CXCL1, CXCL10 and ... Whether chemokines can perform the same role in PTB is not known. We examined the plasma levels of chemokines in individuals ... Finally, the chemokines were significantly reduced following successful ATT. Our data demonstrate that PTB is associated with ... We also examined the chemokines in PTB individuals at the end of anti-tuberculous chemotherapy (ATT). PTB individuals exhibited ...
This review will focus on recent murine and human studies that use chemokines as therapeutic anti-cancer vaccine adjuvants. ... Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing ... This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential ... Chemokine Approach. Cancer Type. Murine or Human. Reference. DC Vaccines. Use of CCL3 and CCL20 to improve DCs collection ...
... or Ccl3−/− (n = 7) BM. The Ccl3−/− BM transplanted mice were also injected with WT (Ccl3+/+, n = 7) or Ccl3−/− (n = 6) ... CCR2 signaling regulates CCL3 expression in MAMs. (A) Levels of Ccl3 mRNA (left) and CCL3 protein (right) in BMDMs isolated ... We show that activation of CCR2 signaling prompts MAMs to secrete another chemokine, CCL3. The increased CCL3 secretion results ... Importantly, a single injection of Ccl3+/+ IMs but not IMs lacking CCL3 was sufficient to rescue the suppressive effect of Ccl3 ...
In the present study, we investigated the role of CC-chemokine ligand 3 (CCL3) in the spinal cord in the development and ... Paclitaxel-treated rats showed a significant increase in the expression of mRNAs for CCL3 and its receptor CCR5 in the SDH. ... Our findings suggest a contribution of CCL3 and P2X7Rs in the SDH to paclitaxel-induced allodynia and may provide new ... Intrathecal administration of a CCL3-neutralizing antibody not only attenuated the development of paclitaxel-induced mechanical ...
Ccl3, C-C motif chemokine ligand 3; Nos2, nitric oxide synthase 2; Ccr2, C-C motif chemokine receptor 2; Col, collagen; Hif-1α ...
Typical inflammatory chemokines include: CCL2, CCL3 and CCL5, CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL8. A typical example is CXCL-8, which acts ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ...
These include chemokines (CK), such as MIP-1α (macrophage inflammatory proteins-1 alpha, CCL3) and MIP-1β (CCL4), RANTES ( ... Chemokine Receptors on Blood and NK-Cells. Conventional and NK-cells present in the normal PB have different CKR repertoires ( ... 3.1.2. Chemokine Receptors on Conventional NK-Cells. In contrast to NK-cells, the majority of the NK-cells are CXCR1/CXCR2− and ... and the chemokine receptors CXCR3 and/or CCR5 (Figure 2): CD16+ CCR5/CXCR3− (or simply ), CD16+/− CCR5/CXCR3+ (or simply ), and ...
The immunoregulatory proteins C-C chemokines are potent chemoattractants of lymphocytes and monocytes, as well as activators ... Finally, C-C chemokines were shown to bind a C-C CKR-1-related gene product encoded by cytomegalovirus, suggesting a role for C ... Chemokine binding affinity does not predict how well the ligand will transmit a signal through the receptor: RANTES and human ... Molecular cloning, functional expression, and signaling characteristics of a C-C chemokine receptor Cell. 1993 Feb 12;72(3):415 ...
... focusing on the role of chemokines. At the second week after cell transfer in the parent-into-F1 model of GVHD, CD8(+) T cells ... Chemokine CCL3 * Chemokine CCL4 * Chemokine CCL5 / biosynthesis * Chemokine CCL5 / genetics * Chemotaxis, Leukocyte / drug ... focusing on the role of chemokines. At the second week after cell transfer in the parent-into-F1 model of GVHD, CD8(+) T cells ...
The aim of the study was to analyse the expression and production of these three chemokines within the joints of children with ... We show that high levels of all three chemokines are present in synovial fluid of children with JIA. We investigate the major ... All three of these chemokines are highly expressed at the level of mRNA, with the most significant increase in mRNA levels ... CXCL10 and CCL3, which are potential novel therapeutic targets in arthritis. ...
... the CC chemokines CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, CCL11, CCL17, CCL18, CCL19, CCL21, CCL22; the CXC chemokines CXCL8, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL12; ... Generally, CC chemokines potently attract monocytes, T lymphocytes, eosinophils, and basophils, whereas CXC chemokines are ... Differences between our study and previous studies, chemokine function, and chemokine levels are summarized in Table 4. Before ... The concentrations of IL-6 and the following chemokines were measured: the chemokine-like macrophage migration inhibitory ...
positive regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production. • positive regulation of JUN kinase activity. • positive ... positive regulation of chemokine production. • cellular extravasation. • negative regulation of lipid storage. • negative ... positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • epithelial cell proliferation involved in salivary gland morphogenesis ... Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
... as well as chemokine and cytokine production, and expression of adhesion molecules such as E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. This ... Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
  • By scavenging chemokines in tissues, on the surfaces of lymphatic vessels, and in placenta, plays an essential role in the resolution (termination) of the inflammatory response and in the regulation of adaptive immune responses. (uniprot.org)
  • Intrathecal administration of a CCL3-neutralizing antibody not only attenuated the development of paclitaxel-induced mechanical allodynia but also reversed its maintenance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Single intrathecal administration of CCL3 or CCL9 neutralizing antibody (2 and 4 μg/5 μl) delayed neuropathic pain symptoms as measured at day 7 following STZ administration. (frontiersin.org)
  • Rabbit monoclonal antibody raised against a human CCL3 peptide using ARM Technology. (abnova.com)
  • Antibody reactive against human CCL3 peptide by ELISA and mammalian transfected lysate by Western Blot. (abnova.com)
  • However, in contrast to these two endogenous pyrogens, the fever induced by MIP-1 is not inhibited by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor ibuprofen and CCL3 may participate in the febrile response that is not mediated through prostaglandin synthesis and clinically cannot be ablated by cyclooxygenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is consistent with the peptide acting as a chemokine inhibitor up-steam of TNF-α productsion and anti-inflammatory in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Altogether, our studies demonstrate that CCL3 plays a major role in mediating GVHD, but not graft-versus-leukemia in mice and suggest that blockade of CCL3 with evasin-1 has potential therapeutic application in patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation. (jimmunol.org)
  • The HCMV-encoded chemokine receptor US28, which binds multiple CC chemokines as well as CX 3 CR1, is expressed both during latent and lytic phases of the virus life cycle and plays a role in latency and reactivation. (asm.org)