A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.
A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.
Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.
Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.
CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.
A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.
A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.
Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.
A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.
Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.
An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.
CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.
Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.
Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.
The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.

A functional, discontinuous HIV-1 gp120 C3/C4 domain-derived, branched, synthetic peptide that binds to CD4 and inhibits MIP-1alpha chemokine binding. (1/787)

This paper describes a branched synthetic peptide [3.7] that incorporates sequence discontinuous residues of HIV-1 gp120 constant regions. The approach was to bring together residues of gp120 known to interact with human cell membranes such that the peptide could fold to mimic the native molecule. The peptide incorporates elements of both the conserved CD4 and CCR5 binding sites. The 3.7 peptide, which cannot be produced by conventional genetic engineering methods, is recognized by antiserum raised to native gp120. The peptide also binds to CD4 and competitively inhibits binding of QS4120 an antibody directed against the CDR2 region of CD4. When preincubated with the CD4+ve MM6 macrophage cell line, which expresses mRNA for the CCR3 and CCR5 chemokine receptors, both 3.7 and gp120 inhibit binding of the chemokine MIP-1alpha. The peptide also inhibits infection of primary macrophages by M-tropic HIV-1. Thus, 3.7 is a prototype candidate peptide for a vaccine against HIV-1 and represents a novel approach to the rational design of peptides that can mimic complex sequence discontinuous ligand binding sites of clinically relevant proteins.  (+info)

Induction of macrophage C-C chemokine expression by titanium alloy and bone cement particles. (2/787)

Particulate wear debris is associated with periprosthetic inflammation and loosening in total joint arthroplasty. We tested the effects of titanium alloy (Ti-alloy) and PMMA particles on monocyte/macrophage expression of the C-C chemokines, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), monocyte inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1alpha), and regulated upon activation normal T expressed and secreted protein (RANTES). Periprosthetic granulomatous tissue was analysed for expression of macrophage chemokines by immunohistochemistry. Chemokine expression in human monocytes/macrophages exposed to Ti-alloy and PMMA particles in vitro was determined by RT-PCR, ELISA and monocyte migration. We observed MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha expression in all tissue samples from failed arthroplasties. Ti-alloy and PMMA particles increased expression of MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha in macrophages in vitro in a dose- and time-dependent manner whereas RANTES was not detected. mRNA signal levels for MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha were also observed in cells after exposure to particles. Monocyte migration was stimulated by culture medium collected from macrophages exposed to Ti-alloy and PMMA particles. Antibodies to MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha inhibited chemotactic activity of the culture medium samples. Release of C-C chemokines by macrophages in response to wear particles may contribute to chronic inflammation at the bone-implant interface in total joint arthroplasty.  (+info)

Differential regulation of eosinophil chemokine signaling via CCR3 and non-CCR3 pathways. (3/787)

To investigate eosinophil stimulation by chemokines we developed a sensitive assay of leukocyte shape change, the gated autofluorescence/forward scatter assay. Leukocyte shape change responses are mediated through rearrangements of the cellular cytoskeleton in a dynamic process typically resulting in a polarized cell and are essential to the processes of leukocyte migration from the microcirculation into sites of inflammation. We examined the actions of the chemokines eotaxin, eotaxin-2, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), MCP-3, MCP-4, RANTES, macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), and IL-8 on leukocytes in mixed cell suspensions and focused on the responses of eosinophils to C-C chemokines. Those chemokines acting on CCR3 induced a rapid shape change in eosinophils from all donors; of these, eotaxin and eotaxin-2 were the most potent. Responses to MCP-4 were qualitatively different, showing marked reversal of shape change responses with agonist concentration and duration of treatment. In contrast, MIP-1alpha induced a potent response in eosinophils from a small and previously undescribed subgroup of donors via a non-CCR3 pathway likely to be CCR1 mediated. Incubation of leukocytes at 37 degrees C for 90 min in the absence of extracellular calcium up-regulated responses to MCP-4 and MIP-1alpha in the majority of donors, and there was a small increase in responses to eotaxin. MIP-1alpha responsiveness in vivo may therefore be a function of both CCR1 expression levels and the regulated efficiency of coupling to intracellular signaling pathways. The observed up-regulation of MIP-1alpha signaling via non-CCR3 pathways may play a role in eosinophil recruitment in inflammatory states such as occurs in the asthmatic lung.  (+info)

Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 modulates beta-chemokines and directly costimulates T cells in vivo. (4/787)

The potential roles of adhesion molecules in the expansion of T cell-mediated immune responses in the periphery were examined using DNA immunogen constructs as model antigens. We coimmunized cDNA expression cassettes encoding the adhesion molecules intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), lymphocyte function associated-3 (LFA-3), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) along with DNA immunogens, and we analyzed the resulting antigen-specific immune responses. We observed that antigen-specific T-cell responses can be enhanced by the coexpression of DNA immunogen and adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and LFA-3. Coexpression of ICAM-1 or LFA-3 molecules along with DNA immunogens resulted in a significant enhancement of T-helper cell proliferative responses. In addition, coimmunization with pCICAM-1 (and more moderately with pCLFA-3) resulted in a dramatic enhancement of CD8-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses. Although VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 are similar in size, VCAM-1 coimmunization did not have any measurable effect on cell-mediated responses. These results suggest that ICAM-1 and LFA-3 provide direct T-cell costimulation. These observations are further supported by the finding that coinjection with ICAM-1 dramatically enhanced the level of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and beta-chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), MIP-1beta, and regulated on activation normal T-cell expression and secreted (RANTES) produced by stimulated T cells. Through comparative studies, we observed that ICAM-1/LFA-1 T-cell costimulatory pathways are independent of CD86/CD28 pathways and that they may synergistically expand T-cell responses in vivo.  (+info)

Secretion of beta-chemokines by bronchoalveolar lavage cells during primary infection of macaques inoculated with attenuated nef-deleted or pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus strain mac251. (5/787)

Primary infection of macaques with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) as a model of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection represents a unique opportunity to investigate early lentivirus-host interactions. In order to gain insight into immunopathogenic events taking place in the lung during lentiviral infection, we analysed lymphocyte expansion in the lung and chemokine secretion by mononuclear cells obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BALMCs) during primary infection by a pathogenic and a non-pathogenic SIV. Two groups of cynomolgus macaques were inoculated intravenously with a fully pathogenic isolate of SIVmac251 or with an attenuated, nef-deleted, molecular clone of SIVmac251. Spontaneous MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta and RANTES production was assessed by ELISA in supernatants of short-term cultured BALMCs. Kinetics of haematological, virological and immunological parameters were investigated simultaneously. All 11 inoculated animals became infected. Monkeys inoculated with the nef-deleted SIV clone exhibited a significantly reduced plasma virus load and a less pronounced accumulation of lymphocytes in the lung compared to monkeys infected with the pathogenic SIVmac251 isolate. Compared to pre-infection levels, we observed an increase in the levels of RANTES, MIP1-alpha and MIP1-beta production in the two groups of monkeys, by the time of peak viraemia. Strikingly, a greater enhancement of RANTES and MIP-1alpha production was detected in monkeys infected with the attenuated virus. Given the potential influence of beta-chemokines on the immune response and virus replication, such results suggest that RANTES, MIP1-alpha and MIP1-beta could contribute to the singular features of the immune response elicited during infection of macaques with an attenuated SIV.  (+info)

Role of the C-C chemokine, TCA3, in the protective anticryptococcal cell-mediated immune response. (6/787)

Activated T lymphocytes play a crucial role in orchestrating cellular infiltration during a cell-mediated immune (CMI) reaction. TCA3, a C-C chemokine, is produced by Ag-activated T cells and is chemotactic for neutrophils and macrophages, two cell types in a murine CMI reaction. Using a gelatin sponge model for delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), we show that TCA3 is a component of the expression phase of an anticryptococcal CMI response in mice. TCA3 mRNA levels are augmented in anticryptococcal DTH reactions at the same time peak influxes of neutrophils and lymphocytes are observed. Neutralization of TCA3 in immunized mice results in reduced numbers of neutrophils and lymphocytes at DTH reaction sites. However, when rTCA3 is injected into sponges in naive mice, only neutrophils are attracted into the sponges, indicating TCA3 is chemotactic for neutrophils, but not lymphocytes. We show that TCA3 is indirectly attracting lymphocytes into DTH-reactive sponges by affecting at least one other chemokine that is chemotactic for lymphocytes. Of the two lymphocyte-attracting chemokines assessed, monocyte-chemotactic protein-1 and macrophage-inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), only MIP-1alpha was reduced when TCA3 was neutralized, indicating that TCA3 affects the levels of MIP-1alpha, which attracts lymphocytes into the sponges. TCA3 also plays a role in protection against Cryptococcus neoformans in the lungs and brains of infected mice, as evidenced by the fact that neutralization of TCA3 results in increased C. neoformans CFU in those two organs.  (+info)

Visualization of chemokine binding sites on human brain microvessels. (7/787)

The chemokines monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha) aid in directing leukocytes to specific locales within the brain and spinal cord during central nervous system inflammation. However, it remains unclear how these chemokines exert their actions across a vascular barrier, raising speculation that interaction with endothelial cells might be required. Therefore, experiments were performed to determine whether binding domains for these chemokines exist along the outer surface of brain microvessels, a feature that could potentially relay chemokine signals from brain to blood. Using a biotinylated chemokine binding assay with confocal microscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction, spatially resolved binding sites for MCP-1 and MIP-alpha around human brain microvessels were revealed for the first time. Binding of labeled MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha could be inhibited by unlabeled homologous but not heterologous chemokine, and was independent of the presence of heparan sulfate, laminin, or collagen in the subendothelial matrix. This is the first evidence of specific and separate binding domains for MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha on the parenchymal surface of microvessels, and highlights the prospect that specific interactions of chemokines with microvascular elements influence the extent and course of central nervous system inflammation.  (+info)

Macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha expression by synovial fluid neutrophils in rheumatoid arthritis. (8/787)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the contribution made by synovial fluid (SF) neutrophils to the augmented expression of macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha (MIP-1alpha) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Neutrophils were isolated from samples of SF from RA patients and peripheral blood (PB) samples from RA patients and healthy controls. Cell associated MIP-1alpha was visualised immunohistochemically, and cell associated MIP-1alpha as well as MIP-1alpha secreted into the SF was assayed by ELISA. Steady state expression of MIP-1alpha mRNA was assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: Freshly isolated SF neutrophils contained significantly higher concentrations of both MIP-1alpha protein and its transcript than PB neutrophils from either RA patients or healthy controls; incubation in the absence or presence of tumour necrosis factor alpha for 24 hours resulted in a significant increase in MIP-1alpha secretion by RA SF neutrophils compared with neutrophils obtained from either normal PB or RA PB; and expression of MIP-1alpha by SF neutrophils was well correlated with both RA disease activity and SF mononuclear cell (MNC) counts. CONCLUSION: Expression and secretion of MIP-1alpha by SF neutrophils may be indicative of local and systemic inflammation in RA. Moreover, this C-C chemokine may contribute to the recruitment of MNCs from the bloodstream into synovial joints and tissues.  (+info)

CCL3 is expressed during experimental GVHD and may be important for the inflammatory response caused by acute GVHD (12, 13). The results reported herewith confirm the relevance of CCL3 in mediating GVHD in mice. Moreover, we report for the first time that blockade of CCL3 with a CBP, evasin-1, which prevents CCL3 function (17), ameliorated GVHD and prevented death. Treatment with evasin-1 prevented the influx of leukocytes, especially CD8+, CD4+ cells and macrophages, to the small intestine and decreased tissue damage in the liver. Mechanistically, inhibition of leukocyte influx to the intestine was due to inhibition by evasin-1 of the ability of leukocytes to adhere to endothelial cells in affected tissues. The latter results suggest that mediation of leukocyte adherence and subsequent migration is the major mechanism by which CCL3 participates in murine GVHD. Finally, the protective effects of evasin-1 against GVHD did not interfere with the beneficial effect of the graft against a leukemic ...
Human MIP-3 Alpha / CCL20 / MIP3a ELISA Kit PicoKine™ (96 Tests). Quantitate Human CCL20 in cell culture supernatants, cell lysates, serum and plasma (heparin, EDTA).. Sensitivity: 1pg/ml.
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Abcams Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 3 alpha ELISA Kit suitable for Cell culture extracts, Tissue Extracts in human. Reliably quantify 1.5 pg/ml of…
Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 1 alpha / CCL3兔多克隆抗体(ab25128)可与小鼠, 大鼠样本反应并经WB, IP, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被4篇文献引用并得到1个独立的用户反馈。
Mouse macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2, also known as MIP-2-alpha) is the homolog of human chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2) protein, a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine subfamily. MIP-2 is also homologous to rat CINC-2. MIP-2 is expressed by activated monocytes and neutrophils at sites of inflammation. It has also been shown to control mucosal lymphocyte migration in mice. MIP-2/CXCL2 is also known as GRO2 oncogene, GRO-beta, SCYB, SCYB2, and melanoma growth stimulating activity beta (MSGA-beta).. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - An essential role of macrophage inflammatory protein 1α/CCL3 on the expression of hosts innate immunities against infectious complications. AU - Takahashi, Hitoshi. AU - Tashiro, Tsuguhiko. AU - Miyazaki, Masaru. AU - Kobayashi, Makiko. AU - Pollard, Richard B.. AU - Suzuki, Fujio. PY - 2002/12/1. Y1 - 2002/12/1. N2 - Sepsis was induced by well-controlled cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α)/CCL3 knock-out (CCL3-/-) and severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. CCL3-/- mice and their littermates (CCL3+/+ mice) treated with anti-CCL3 monoclonal antibodies were susceptible (0-20% survival) to CLP-induced sepsis, and CCL3-/- mice supplemented with recombinant (r)CCL3 (250 ng/mouse) and CCL3+/+ mice were resistant (70-80% survival). The resistance of SCID mice to CLP was markedly improved by the rCCL3 administration (88% survival), and SCID mice treated with saline were shown to be middling resistant to the same CLP (45% survival). ...
Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the Double-antibody Sandwich method for detection of Rat Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 3 Alpha (MIP3a) in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates and other biological fluids with no significant corss-reactivity with analogues from other species ...
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The capacity of DCs to reach the site of injury/infection and consequently to initiate immunity is determined by their ability to respond to selected chemokines. In this study, we show that MIP-3α is a major chemokine produced by activated epithelial cells, and selectively active on LCs and their precursors. MIP-3αs unique activity suggests that it plays a key role in the control of LC recruitment at inflamed epithelial surfaces and in the regulation of epithelial immunity.. Among all CC chemokines tested, MIP-3α appears to be the most potent chemokine inducing the migration of LC precursors and freshly isolated LCs but not of any other DC population. This result is in line with the specific expression of CCR6 by cells of the LC lineage in contrast with other receptors such as CCR1, CCR2, and CCR5 that are expressed on several other DC populations ((9)(34); and Caux, C., manuscript in preparation). This observation is in accordance with previous reports showing that both CCR6 expression and ...
MSD offers a range of individual assays utilizing U-PLEX Antibody Sets that provide a rapid and convenient method for measuring biomarkers in complex matrices. The individual assays are offered on MSD GOLD Small Spot Streptavidin Plates and use the same antibody sets and diluents as the U-PLEX multiplex assays. This allows for efficient transfer between the individual assay and a higher throughput multiplex configuration. Typical of assays developed on the MSD platform, the individual assays have high sensitivity, excellent precision, provide up to five-logs of linear dynamic range, and require minimal sample volume. Human MIP-1β (CCL4), also known as lymphocyte activation gene 1 protein (LAG-1), G-26 T-lymphocyte-secreted protein, HC21, PAT 744, protein H400, SIS-gamma, small-inducible cytokine A4, and T-cell activation protein 2 (ACT-2), is a 10.2 kDa protein that binds to CCR5. CCR5 is shared between MIP-1β, MIP-1α, RANTES, and CCL3L1. MIP-1β is one of the major HIV suppressive factors ...
Mouse macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2, also known as MIP-2-alpha) is the homolog of human chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2) protein, a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine subfamily. MIP-2 is also homologous to rat CINC-2. MIP-2 is expressed by activated monocytes and neutrophils at sites of inflammation. It has also been shown to control mucosal lymphocyte migration in mice. MIP-2/CXCL2 is also known as GRO2 oncogene, GRO-beta, SCYB, SCYB2, and melanoma growth stimulating activity beta (MSGA-beta).. ...
国内在庫あります!HRP標識済みウサギ・ポリクローナル抗体 ab106028 交差種: Hu 適用: WB,ELISA…Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 1 beta抗体一覧…
Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 1 beta兔多克隆抗体可与小鼠, 大鼠样本反应并经WB, IP, Neut, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被4篇文献引用。
In vitro replication of SIVcpz is suppressed by beta-chemokines and CD8+ T cells but not by natural killer cells of infected chimpanzees ...
Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1 alpha belongs to a family of chemotactic cytokines known as chemokines. MIP-1 alpha and MIP-1 beta are the 2 major forms, officially named CCL3, and CCL4, respectively.
Determination of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, MIP-1α, IL-10, TGF-β1 and FGFb levels in the cell-free supernatant obtained from monocytes from healthy subjects (CG, n
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Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins (MIP) belong to the family of chemotactic cytokines known as chemokines. In humans, there are two major forms, MIP-1α and MIP-1β that are now officially named CCL3 and CCL4, respectively. Both are major factors produced by macrophages after they are stimulated with bacterial endotoxins. They are crucial for immune responses towards infection and inflammation. They activate human granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils) which can lead to acute neutrophilic inflammation. They also induce the synthesis and release of other pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1 (IL-1), IL-6 and TNF-α from fibroblasts and macrophages. The genes for CCL3 and CCL4 are both located on human chromosome 17. They are produced by many cells, particularly macrophages, dendritic cells, and lymphocytes. MIP-1 are best known for their chemotactic and proinflammatory effects but can also promote homoeostasis. Biophysical analyses and mathematical modelling has shown ...
bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine. The present study evaluated the release of cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1, tumour necrosis factor and IL-6] and chemokines [macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α and MIP-1β] by THP-1 derived macrophages infected with BCG vaccine obtained by growing mycobacteria in Viscondessa de Moraes Institute medium medium (oral) or Sauton medium (intradermic) to compare the effects of live and heat-killed (HK) mycobacteria. Because BCG has been reported to lose viability during the lyophilisation process and during storage, we examined whether exposing BCG to different temperatures also triggers differences in the expression of some important cytokines and chemokines of the immune response. Interestingly, we observed that HK mycobacteria stimulated cytokine and chemokine production in a different pattern from that observed with live mycobacteria ...
Pulmonary infection is normally a major reason behind mortality and morbidity as well as the magnitude from the lung inflammatory response correlates with affected person survival. and peptidoglycan (PGN) implemented intratracheally significantly elevated the amounts of neutrophils retrieved in the bronchoalveolar lavage liquid (BALF). F344 got approximately 10-flip even more neutrophils in the BALF weighed against DA (< 0.001) and higher BALF concentrations of total proteins tumor necrosis aspect-α and macrophage inflammatory proteins 2. LTA/PGN administration in DA×F344 congenic strains (with LTA/PGN created significantly higher degrees of keratinocyte-derived chemokine and macrophage inflammatory proteins 2 than alveolar macrophages from DA rats. The distinctions had been linked to differential mitogen-activated proteins kinase phosphorylation. We conclude the fact that factors adding to irritation could be site and problem dependent. A better knowledge of site-specific irritation can lead ...
Researchers found that fibromyalgia patients have higher concentrations of inflammatory chemokines, a biomarker which could help diagnose FM.
Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-5 Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing 92 amino acids.
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Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1 beta (MIP-1 beta, CCL4, MIP-1ß) is one of two major factor MIP proteins produced by macrophages following their stimulat
Finnegan, C., Berg, W., Lewis, G.K. and DeVico, A.L. Antigenic Properties of The Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmembrane Glycoprotein During Cell-Cell Fusion. In press. Fouts, T., Montefiori, D., Hanson, C., Kalyanaraman, V., DeVico, A. and Pal, R. Broadly Reactive Neutralizing Antibodies Elicited By Crosslinked HIV-1 Envelope-CD4 Receptor Complexes. In press Finnegan, C., Berg, W., Lewis, G.K. and DeVico, A.L. Temporal Changes In Epitope Exposure on The HIV Envelope During Cell-Cell Fusion. J. Virol. 75: 11096-11105 2001.. Kamin-Lewis R, Abdelwahab SF, Trang C, Baker A, DeVico AL, Gallo RC, Lewis GK. Perforin-Low Memory CD8+ Cells Are the Predominant T Cells In Normal Humans That Synthesize The Beta -Chemokine Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1beta. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98: 9283-8 2001.. DeVico AL. Mucosal and Systemic HIV Env-Specific CD8(+) T Cells Develop After Intragastric Vaccination with Salmonella Env DNA Vector Vaccine 20: 623-629 2001.. Cocchi, F., DeVico, A.L. et al Higher ...
Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha, CCL3, MIP-1a) is one of two MIP proteins that are the major factors produced by macrophages following
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Potassium atom in PDB 3kbx: Human Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1 Alpha L3M_V63M
Thus, it appears that two chemokines, MIP-3α and SDF-1α, are produced constitutively by human keratinocytes, and therefore could both be involved in LC homing to the epidermis. Our findings that SDF-1α does not attract LC precursors (Fig. 1 C) and that these cells also fail to express CXCR4 on their surface (Fig. 6 A) speak against a role of SDF-1α in LC homing. Since ex vivo-purified LCs express CCR2 transcripts (Fig. 5 B), one could argue that this receptor is involved in the attraction of LCs into the epidermis. This is unlikely because (a) resting keratinocytes do not express the CCR2 ligand MCP-1 at the protein level ((33); Fig. 7 E), and (b) LC precursors do not express CCR2 on their surface (Fig. 6 A), and do not migrate in response to MCP-1 (Fig. 1 B). In this context, it is noteworthy that mice genetically manipulated to express MCP-1 in the epidermis have close to normal LC numbers while accumulating dermal DCs and macrophage-like cells (34).. In conclusion, among all the ...
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Blocking HIV-1 cell entry has long been a major goal of anti-HIV drug development. Here, we report a successful design of two highly potent chimeric HIV entry inhibitors composed of one CCR5-targeting RANTES (regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted) variant (5P12-RANTES or 5P14-RANTES (Gaertner, H., Cerini, F., Escola, J. M., Kuenzi, G., Melotti, A., Offord, R., Rossitto-Borlat, I., Nedellec, R., Salkow-itz, J., Gorochov, G., Mosier, D., and Hartley, O. (2008) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 17706 -17711)) linked to a gp41 fusion inhibitor, C37. Chimeric inhibitors 5P12-linker-C37 and 5P14-linker-C37 showed extremely high antiviral potency in single cycle and replication-competent viral assays against R5-tropic viruses, with IC50 values as low as 0.004 nM. This inhi-bition was somewhat strain-dependent and was up to 100-fold better than the RANTES variant alone or in combination with unlinked C37. The chimeric inhibitors also fully retained the antiviral activity of C37 ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (CCL20) or liver activation regulated chemokine (LARC) or Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-3 (MIP3A) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. It is strongly chemotactic for lymphocytes and weakly attracts neutrophils. CCL20 is implicated in the formation and function of mucosal lymphoid tissues via chemoattraction of lymphocytes and dendritic cells towards the epithelial cells surrounding these tissues. CCL20 elicits its effects on its target cells by binding and activating the chemokine receptor CCR6. Gene expression of CCL20 can be induced by microbial factors such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor and interferon-γ, and down-regulated by IL-10. CCL20 is expressed in several tissues with highest expression observed in peripheral blood lymphocytes, lymph nodes, liver, appendix, and fetal lung and lower levels in thymus, testis, prostate and gut. The gene for CCL20 (scya20) is located on ...
CCL5 is an 8kDa protein classified as a chemotactic cytokine or chemokine. CCL5 is chemotactic for T cells, eosinophils, and basophils, and plays an active role in recruiting leukocytes into inflammatory sites. With the help of particular cytokines (i.e., IL-2 and IFN-γ) that are released by T cells, CCL5 also induces the proliferation and activation of certain natural-killer (NK) cells to form CHAK (CC-Chemokine-activated killer) cells.[6] It is also an HIV-suppressive factor released from CD8+ T cells[citation needed]. This chemokine has been localized to chromosome 17 in humans.[5]. RANTES was first identified in a search for genes expressed late (3-5 days) after T cell activation. It was subsequently determined to be a CC chemokine and expressed in more than 100 human diseases. RANTES expression is regulated in T lymphocytes by Kruppel like factor 13 (KLF13).[7][8][9][10] RANTES, along with the related chemokines MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta, has been identified as a natural HIV-suppressive ...
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MIP-3 alpha is a CC chemokine that is expressed in the liver, lymph nodes, appendix, PBL and lung and can signal through the CCR6 receptor. MIP-3 alpha is chemotactic towards lymphocytes and dendritic cells. Additionally, it promotes the adhesion of memory CD4+ T cells and inhibits colony formation of bone marrow myeloid immature progenitors. Recombinant human MIP-3 alpha is an 8.0 kDa protein containing 70 amino acid residues, including the four highly conserved cysteine residues present in CC chemokines ...
A summary of the article is shown below:. The present study aimed to ascertain the potential roles and mechanisms of action of micro (mi)RNA‑22 in ischemic stroke. The results indicated that miRNA‑22 expression was downregulated in ischemic stroke rats model, compared with a control group. The downregulation of miRNA‑22 upregulated the expression of inflammatory factors [including tumor necrosis factor‑α, interleukin (IL)‑1β, IL‑6 and IL‑18]. It could also induce the expression of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP‑2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), cyclooxygenase‑2 (COX‑2) and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in the in vitro model. By contrast, the overexpression of miRNA‑22 downregulated the expression of inflammatory factors, and suppressed the expression of MIP‑2, PGE2, COX‑2 and iNOS in the in vitro model. The downregulation of miRNA‑22 induced the protein expression of nuclear factor (NF)‑κB and phosphorylated‑p38 (p‑p38) mitogen‑activated protein kinase ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase is a regulator of chemokine production. T2 - Relevance for the pathogenesis of shock and inflammation. AU - Haskó, György. AU - Mabley, Jon G.. AU - Németh, Zoltán H.. AU - Pacher, Pál. AU - Deitch, Edwin A.. AU - Szabo, Csaba. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Background: Chemokines are key regulators of leukocyte traffic in various forms of inflammation and reperfusion injury. There is emerging evidence that the activation of the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) importantly contributes to the up-regulation of a variety of proinflammatory signal transduction pathways and associated genes. Materials and Methods: We tested whether the expression of the chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α and MIP-2 are under the control of PARP during inflammation. Results: Pharmacologic inhibition of PARP and genetic deletion of PARP suppressed the expression of MIP-1α and MIP-2 protein and mRNA in immunostimulated cultured murine ...
The purpose of this study was to determine whether certain chemokines, which are highly expressed in injured skeletal muscle, are involved in the repair and functional recovery of the muscle after traumatic injury. In wild-type control mice, mRNA transcripts of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 as well as their major receptors, CC
The question why CD4+/CD25+ T cells are reduced in asthmatic patients has not been answered yet; however, it has been observed that these cells reveal a reduced response to the chemokines CCL1 and CXCL1 suggesting an impaired recruitment to the lung [137, 138 ...
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Restrictions designed to minimize the spread of COVID-19 have resulted in people spending more time at home, sometimes binge-watching fun escapist TV fare, such as the Korean drama Crash Landing On You. The drama stars actress Son Ye-jin as a South Korean heiress who accidentally lands in North Korea and falls for a North Korean officer, played by Hyun Bin. The drama was filmed before the pandemic prompted cancellations and quarantines. Since then Son, like most people, has spent more time than usual at home.
Townson JR, Barcellos LF, Nibbs RJ (2002). "Gene copy number regulates the production of the human chemokine CCL3-L1". Eur. J. ... 1999). "The assignment of chemokine-chemokine receptor pairs: TARC and MIP-1 beta are not ligands for human CC-chemokine ... C-C motif chemokine 4-like is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCL4L1 gene. This gene is one of several cytokine ... "Entrez Gene: CCL4L1 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4-like 1". Retrieved 8 February 2013. Human CCL4L2 genome location and CCL4L2 ...
Townson JR, Barcellos LF, Nibbs RJ (October 2002). "Gene copy number regulates the production of the human chemokine CCL3-L1". ... This protein binds to several chemokine receptors including chemokine binding protein 2 (CCBP2 or D6) and chemokine (C-C motif ... This gene is one of several chemokine genes clustered on the q-arm of chromosome 17. Chemokines are a family of secreted ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3-like 1, also known as CCL3L1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CCL3L1 gene. ...
The biological effect is carried out through ligation of chemokine receptors CCR1 (ligand CCL3) and CCR5 (ligands CCL3 and CCL4 ... December 2010). "Polymerization of MIP-1 chemokine (CCL3 and CCL4) and clearance of MIP-1 by insulin-degrading enzyme". The ... There are two chemokines in the MIP-3 group. MIP-3α (CCL20) and MIP-3β (CCL19). MIP-3α is binding to receptor CCR6. CCL20 is ... The genes for CCL3 and CCL4 are both located on human chromosome 17 and on murine chromosome 11. They are produced by many ...
Certain chemokines are also regulated by T-bet, namely xcl1, ccl3, ccl4 and chemokine receptors cxcr3, ccr5. The expression of ...
The Gp120 envelope protein is a chemokine mimic. Though it lacks the unique structure of a chemokine, it is still capable of ... CCR5's cognate ligands include CCL3, CCL4 (also known as MIP 1α and 1β, respectively), and CCL3L1. CCR5 furthermore interacts ... It is a G protein-coupled receptor which functions as a chemokine receptor in the CC chemokine group. ... C-C chemokine receptor type 5, also known as CCR5 or CD195, is a protein on the surface of white blood cells that is involved ...
Chemokine-like protein TAFA-5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TAFA5 gene. This gene is a member of the TAFA ... These proteins contain conserved cysteine residues at fixed positions, and are distantly related to CCL3, a member of the CC- ... "TAFA5 TAFA chemokine like family member 5 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]". National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved ... chemokine family. The TAFA proteins are predominantly expressed in specific regions of the brain, and are postulated to ...
... host-derived pro-inflammatory chemokines (e.g. CXCL8, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL11, CXCL10), platelet-activating factor, and ... stimulates their expression the chemokine receptor, CCR5, to inhibit chemokine signaling, enhances their phagocyte activity, ... CMKLR1 (chemokine receptor-like 1), also termed the ChemR23 or E series resolvin receptor (ERV), is expressed on inflammation- ...
C-C chemokine receptor type 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCR1 gene. CCR1 has also recently been designated ... The ligands of this receptor include CCL3 (or MIP-1 alpha), CCL5 (or RANTES), CCL7 (or MCP-3), and CCL23 (or MPIF-1). ... "Entrez Gene: CCR1 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 1". Struyf S, Menten P, Lenaerts JP, Put W, D'Haese A, De Clercq E, Schols D, ... This gene and other chemokine receptor genes, including CCR2, CCRL2, CCR3, CCR5 and CXCR1, are found to form a gene cluster on ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 18 (CCL18) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. The functions of CCL18 have ... Because of these pseudo-exons, it is believed that CCL18 arose as a result of a gene fusion event between CCL3-like protein ... It was previously known as Pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine (PARC), dendritic cell (DC)-chemokine 1 (DC-CK1), ... Chemokines are classed as a special type of cytokine that is involved in immune cell trafficking. CCL18 in particular has some ...
Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
... identical in amino acid composition to CCL3 and CCL4. This chemokine is expressed in various tissues including spleen, bone ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 14 (CCL14) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. It is also commonly known as ... Human CCL14 is located on chromosome 17 within a cluster of other chemokines belonging to the CC family. Schulz-Knappe et al., ... Naruseet al., A YAC contig of the human CC chemokine genes clustered on chromosome 17q11.2. Genomics, 1996, 34: 236-240. v t e ...
When the 12-amino acid sequence of 'peptide 3'/CCL2 is aligned with the sequences of the other chemokines CCL3, CXCL8 and ... CCL3, CXCL8 and CXCL12 with roughly equal potency of 10μM, but not migration induced by other non-chemokine chemoattractants ... CCL2, CCL3, CCL5 and CXCL12 with THP-1 monocytes, and vs. CXCL8 with neutrophils. In addition NR58,3-14-3 does not ... In addition Val11 is also present in CCL3 and CXCL8. The corresponding 11th amino acid in CXCL12 is Ile. Ala4 in CCL2 is also ...
Activation of dectin-1 also triggers expression of many protecting antifungal cytokines and chemokines (TNF, CXCL2, IL-1β, IL-1 ... α, CCL3, GM-CSF, G-CSF and IL-6) and the development of Th17. Histoplasma capsulatum can evade recognition of β-glucan via ... This transcription factor is responsible for the production of numerous inflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as TNF, IL- ...
Breakthrough infection Broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies Bursa of Fabricius C-C chemokine receptor type 6 C-C chemokine ... CCL1 CCL11 CCL12 CCL13 CCL14 CCL15 CCL16 CCL17 CCL18 CCL19 CCL2 CCL20 CCL21 CCL22 CCL23 CCL24 CCL25 CCL26 CCL27 CCL28 CCL3 CCL5 ... CD4 CD4+ T cells and antitumor immunity CD74 CD94/NKG2 Cell-mediated immunity CELSR1 Central tolerance Chemokine Chemokine ... CR6261 CroFab Cross-presentation Cross-reactivity Cryptic self epitopes Cryptotope CX3CL1 CX3CR1 CXC chemokine receptors CXCL1 ...
... chemokine, IL-6, and interleukin 8 (IL-8).[82][80] IL-6 and IL-8 are the most conserved and robust features of SASP.[83] ... Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
In addition to other chemokines, such as CCL2, CCL3, and CCL4, the presence of CCL1 has been reported in the development of ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 1 (CCL1) is also known as small inducible cytokine A1 and I-309 in humans. CCL1 is a small ... CCL1 is encoded by CCL1 gene which is one of the several chemokine genes clustered on the chromosome 17q11.2-q12 in humans. It ... July 1998). "The chemokine receptor CCR8 is preferentially expressed in Th2 but not Th1 cells". Journal of Immunology. 161 (2 ...
... encoding protein Zinc finger protein 830 Several CC chemokines: CCL1, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL7, CCL8, CCL11, CCL13, CCL14, ... C-C motif chemokine ligand 4 like 1 (17q12) DDX52: DExD-box helicase 52 (17q12) ERBB2 loca leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2, ...
The chemokines CCL5/RANTES, CCL3/MIP-1α, CCL4/MIP-1β, all of which bind to CCR5, are inhibitory to HIV-1 replication in ... Chemokines are divided into four main subfamilies: C, CC, CXC, and CX3C. Microglial cells are sources of some chemokines and ... The chemokine receptor, CX3CR1, is expressed by microglia in the central nervous system. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is the exclusive ... Chemokines are cytokines that stimulate directional migration of inflammatory cells in vitro and in vivo. ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCL3 gene. CCL3 is a cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family that is ... "Entrez Gene: CCL3 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3". Wolpe SD, Davatelis G, Sherry B, Beutler B, Hesse DG, Nguyen HT, Moldawer LL ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3 (CCL3) also known as macrophage inflammatory protein 1-alpha (MIP-1-alpha) ... Human CCL3 genome location and CCL3 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Menten P, Wuyts A, Van Damme J (Dec 2002). " ...
Typical inflammatory chemokines include: CCL2, CCL3 and CCL5, CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL8. A typical example is CXCL-8, which acts ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines in that it has ... CCL1 for the ligand 1 of the CC-family of chemokines, and CCR1 for its respective receptor. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) ...
The CC chemokines CCL3, CCL5, CCL17 and CCL22 signal through this receptor. CCR5 is expressed on several cell types including ... This receptor has several CC chemokine ligands including CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL11, CCL13, CCL14 and CCL16. CCR6, a ... The CC chemokine receptors all work by activating the G protein Gi. CCR1 was the first CC chemokine receptor identified and ... CC chemokine receptors (or beta chemokine receptors) are integral membrane proteins that specifically bind and respond to ...
In maturing of DC production of chemokines have different impact on chemokine receptor function: CCR1 and CCR5 were down- ... CCL4 has been shown to interact with CCL3. CCL4 binds to G protein-Coupled Receptors CCR5 and CCR8. Macrophage inflammatory ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligands 4 (also CCL4) previously known as macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-1β), is a protein which in ... Production of chemokines provides DC with the capacity to self-regulate their migratory behavior as well as to recruit other ...
Chemokine ligands CXCL9, CXCL10, and CCL5 that bind to chemokine receptors such as CXCR3 and CCR5, Immune suppressive or ... Antigen-activated T cells secrete CCR5 ligands (CCL2 and CCL3) to recruit natural killer (NK) cells and other innate immune ... These initiate the following cascade: CXCR3 ligand chemokines (CXCL-9, -10 and -11) are produced in response to activated B ... To illustrate, growth factors and chemokines activated in response to injury are recruited by tumour cells, sustaining chronic ...
Several CC chemokines: CCL1, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL7, CCL8, CCL11, CCL13, CCL14, CCL15, CCL16, CCL18, and CCL23 ...
CCL chemokine ligand, CD cluster of differentiation, CRP C-reactive protein, CXCL C-X-C motif chemokine, ECP eosinophil ... Albumin, CCL13, CCL17, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL2, CRP, CXCL10, CXCL11, ECP, Eosinophil count, Glucose, IL-1B, IL-5, IL-6, IL-6R, ... Albumin, Amino acids, B lymphocyte %, Basophil %, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL13, CCL17, CD16-neg T lymphocytes %, CD4-pos T ... COP: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CCL: Chemokine ligand; CD: Cluster of differentiation; CRP: C-reactive protein; ...
Expression of the beta chemokines CCL3, CCL4, CCL5 and their receptors in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Neuropathol Appl ... Chemokine profile of different inflammatory myopathies reflects humoral versus cytotoxic immune responses. Ann N Y Acad Sci. ... Beta-chemokine receptor expression in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Muscle Nerve. 2005 May. 31(5):621-7. [QxMD MEDLINE ... Alpha-chemokine receptors CXCR1-3 and their ligands in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Acta Neuropathol (Berl). 2005 Jun. ...
... chemokine ligand 3 (CCL3), CCL4, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) than B. afzelii or B. garinii from patients in Slovenia (8). ... Jones KL, Muellegger RR, Means TK, Lee M, Glickstein LJ, Damle N, Higher mRNA levels of chemokines and cytokines associated ... We assessed protein levels of 22 cytokines and chemokines associated with innate and adaptive immune responses (innate: TNF, IL ... Isolates from the United States and Europe induced greater expression of most cytokines and chemokines tested compared with ...
On the other hand, CSF concentrations of the chemokine CCL11 is lower in adults with MS than in the CSF from adults with ADEM ... CCL3 and CCL5), Th1 cells (CXCL10), and Th2 cells (CCL1, CCL17, and CCL22) than healthy normal controls. [4] Moreover, ADEM- ... CSF cytokine and chemokine profiles in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. J Neuroimmunol. 2006 Jun. 175(1-2):52-8. [QxMD ... Cytokines and chemokines in cerebrospinal fluid and serum of adult patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. J Neurol ...
Query Trace: Hepatitis E and CCL3[original query] Genetic variants in chemokine CC subfamily genes influence hepatitis C virus ... The association of CCL3 and CCL4 polymorphisms with HCV clearance in Chinese Han population. Gene 2018 Apr . Liu Mei, Yue Ming ...
Expression of the beta chemokines CCL3, CCL4, CCL5 and their receptors in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Neuropathol Appl ... Various chemokines, cytokines, and chemokine receptors are upregulated in the inflammatory cell infiltrates, blood vessels, and ... Chemokine profile of different inflammatory myopathies reflects humoral versus cytotoxic immune responses. Ann N Y Acad Sci. ... Beta-chemokine receptor expression in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Muscle Nerve. 2005 May. 31(5):621-7. [QxMD MEDLINE ...
Finally, neutrophils correlated with CCL3 and IL-18, and ferritin with CCL3, IFN-γ, and CCL11. CXCL5 was the only chemokine ... Serum Cytokine/Chemokine Levels Cytokine/chemokine values varied both over time and between patient and control groups (Table 3 ... Cytokine/Chemokine Profiling. We studied serum cytokine/chemokine levels from the serum samples collected 8-12, 48-60, and 96- ... Serum Cytokine/Chemokine Differences Based on Time Intervals. Five cytokines/chemokines, IFN-α (p = 0.016), CXCL10 (p = 0.016 ...
Order Recombinant Mouse C-C Motif Chemokine 3 CCL3 MIP-1aProtein N-6His 01017050372 at Gentaur C-C Motif Chemokine 3/CCL3/MIP- ... C-C Motif Chemokine 3 (MIP-1 alpha,CCL3 ) is a member of the beta or CC subfamily of chemokines and is closely related to CCL4/ ... Chemokines, chemokine receptors, ligands , motif chemokines and cytokines are supplied by Elabscience in 1. ... It is cleared from the extracellular space by internalization via the decoy chemokine receptor D6. CCL3 promotes the ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCL3 gene. CCL3 is a cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family that is ... "Entrez Gene: CCL3 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3". Wolpe SD, Davatelis G, Sherry B, Beutler B, Hesse DG, Nguyen HT, Moldawer LL ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3 (CCL3) also known as macrophage inflammatory protein 1-alpha (MIP-1-alpha) ... Human CCL3 genome location and CCL3 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Menten P, Wuyts A, Van Damme J (Dec 2002). " ...
MIP-1α or CCL3. 5.4 ± 1.0. 7.3 ± 1.4. 6.7 ± 1.4. 7.4 ± 1.0. dP , 0.0001. NS. NS. ... Chemokines and chemokine receptors in mood disorders, schizophrenia, and cognitive impairment: a systematic review of biomarker ... These findings have prompted interest in soluble inflammatory molecules, called chemokines[9]. Chemokines are considered a ... The Role of Chemokines in the Pathophysiology of Major Depressive Disorder. Int J Mol Sci. 2019;20:2283. [PubMed] [DOI] [Cited ...
Expression of the beta chemokines CCL3, CCL4, CCL5 and their receptors in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Neuropathol Appl ... Chemokine profile of different inflammatory myopathies reflects humoral versus cytotoxic immune responses. Ann N Y Acad Sci. ... Beta-chemokine receptor expression in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Muscle Nerve. 2005 May. 31(5):621-7. [QxMD MEDLINE ... Alpha-chemokine receptors CXCR1-3 and their ligands in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Acta Neuropathol (Berl). 2005 Jun. ...
Numerous chemokine variants bearing no sequence resemblance elicit similar signaling behavior from the viral GPCR US28, ... We tested CX3CL1, CCL5, CCL3, and vMIP-II, as well as N-terminal chimeric chemokines, for their effects on Gq-mediated calcium ... 2017) Structure of CC Chemokine Receptor 5 with a Potent Chemokine Antagonist Reveals Mechanisms of Chemokine Recognition and ... 2006) The many roles of chemokines and chemokine receptors in inflammation New England Journal of Medicine 354:610-621. ...
View Human CCL3/MIP-1 alpha Antibody (AF-270-NA) datasheet. ... C-C motif chemokine 3; MIP1-(a); AI323804; CCL3; chemokine (C-C ... Chemotaxis Induced by CCL3/MIP‑1 alpha and Neutral-ization by Human CCL3/ MIP‑1 alpha Antibody. Recombinant Human CCL3/MIP-1a ( ... Gene copy number regulates the production of the human chemokine CCL3-L1. Authors: Townson JR, Barcellos LF, Nibbs RJ. Eur. J. ... CCL3/MIP‑1 alpha in Human Tonsil. CCL3/MIP-1a was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human tonsil using ...
... β and chemokines (CCL3 and CXCL8). These are not only important in orchestrating chronic inflammation but also influence the ... Furthermore, MCs can release chemotactic factors (chemokines) that attract lymphocytes and other inflammatory cells to inflamed ... some chemokines and retinoids also regulate MC differentiation [3]. The number of MCs within connective tissue is normally ...
The most relevant cytokines in myeloid cell recruitment are CXCL8 (also known as IL-8), CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), CCL3 and ... CCR2 is the receptor for CCL2, while CCR5 binds both to CCL3 and CCL5. CCR2/CCR5 inhibitors are being developed to ... Cell cycle-dependent expression of CXC chemokine receptor 3 by endothelial cells mediates angiostatic activity. J. Clin. ... Kitamura, T. & Pollard, J. W. Therapeutic potential of chemokine signal inhibition for metastatic breast cancer. Pharmacol. Res ...
Transfection of either miR-inhibitor-206-3p or miR-inhibitor-381-3p in macrophages induced chemokine CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, and ... Calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus (FK506) attenuated the MDI-GSH conjugate-mediated induction of CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, and CXCL8/IL8 ... MicroRNA-Mediated Calcineurin Signaling Activation Induces CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, IL8 and Chemotactic Activities in 4,4-Methylene ... CCL3, CCL5, and TGFB1 were upregulated in MDI or MDI-GSH conjugate exposed BALCs and macrophages, respectively. ...
Additionally, M2 related cytokine/chemokine receptors IL-4R and CCR1 were significantly dysregulated in IL-6KO BKC treated mice ... Multiplex protein analysis showed expression of multiple M1-related cytokines such IFN-g, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, and CCL7 ...
CCL3), C-C motif chemokine ligand-22 (CCL22) and C-X-C motif chemokine-1 (CXCL1) has been proposed to help differentiate VM ... More recently, a proinflammatory signature involving interleukin-1-beta (IL-1β), C-C motif chemokine ligand-3 ( ...
CCL3 was not secreted by HBECs and appeared to be confined to astrocytes in situ. The chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR3 were ... This study investigated the production of chemokines and expression of chemokine receptors by human brain endothelial cells ( ... Expression of chemokines and their receptors by human brain endothelium: Implications for multiple sclerosis.. Journal of ... Four chemokines (CCL2, CCL5, CXCL8 and CXCL10), were demonstrated in endothelial cells in situ, which was reflected in the ...
CCR1, a GPCR chemokine receptor, is endogenously expressed on MM cells, and can bind with CCL3. In a previous study, the ... Elevated CCL3 levels display a chemotactic ability on isolated osteoclast precursors. Increased levels of CCL3 in MM patients ... MM cells secrete and express CCL3/MIP1α which upregulates osteoclastogenesis. ... in which a multitude of growth factors and chemokines are present was examined. We hypothesized the six CCR1 antagonists would ...
... and CCL3 (MIP1A). PubMed ... chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 *Domain Mapping of Disease ... C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10provided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:10637 See related. Ensembl:ENSG00000169245 MIM: ... C-X-C motif chemokine 10. Names. 10 kDa interferon gamma-induced protein. gamma IP10. interferon-inducible cytokine IP-10. ... involved_in chemokine-mediated signaling pathway IBA Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor. more info ...
Chemokine Ligand. Chemokine Name. Size. Catalogue code. (Click to visit shop). CCL3. MIP-1alpha. 20ug. CN-01. ... Human Native Chemokines. Almac presents a series of native human chemokines, produced by chemical synthesis to ensure high ... Chemokine & Histone online shop. Comprehensive range of Chemokine and Histone products with worldwide shipping and online ... Chemokine & Histone online shop. Comprehensive range of Chemokine and Histone products with worldwide shipping and online ...
The increase in gene copy numbers for the 17q12 region encompassing several chemokines (i.e., CCL5 and CCL3) is consistent with ... Expression of the inflammatory chemokines CCL5, CCL3 and CXCL10 in juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and demonstration of CCL5 ... the observation that high mRNA expression levels of these chemokines may increase activation of the inflammatory system and ...
Product Background CCL3, also known as Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1a (MIP-1a), is a proinflammatory chemokine that ... Background CCL3, also known as Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1a (MIP-1a), is a proinflammatory chemokine that stimulates ... CCL3 binds to CCR1, CCR4, and CCR5 receptors, and it is one of the major HIV- suppressive factors produced by CD8+ T-cells. ... CCL3 binds to CCR1, CCR4, and CCR5 receptors, and it is one of the major HIV- suppressive factors produced by CD8+ T-cells. ...
... via the expression of adhesion molecules and chemokines. The aim of this study was to analyse the differences in the phenotype ... CD38/CD31, the CCL3 and CCL4 chemokines, and CD49d/vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 are interchained by sequential events ... Low or undetectable amounts of the chemokines, CCL2/MCP-1, CCL3/MIP-1α and CCL5/RANTES, after stimulation with the pro- ... CXCL8/IL-8 (A), CCL2/MCP-1 (B), CCL3/MIP-1α (C) and CCL5/RANTES (D) production in DEC and ADMEC supernatants after 4 h ...
In this literature review, we address the roles of CCR7 in the pathophysiology of CLL, and how this chemokine receptor is of ... In this literature review, we address the roles of CCR7 in the pathophysiology of CLL, and how this chemokine receptor is of ... Within the multitude of signaling pathways aberrantly regulated in CLL the homeostatic axis composed by the chemokine receptor ... Within the multitude of signaling pathways aberrantly regulated in CLL the homeostatic axis composed by the chemokine receptor ...
Production of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. After 24 h of incubation, the supernatants were harvested from the ... CCL3), and G-CSF) using Bio-Plex Pro™ multiplex immunoassays (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA) and utilizing xMAP technology ... Levels of 10 cytokines and chemokines were quantified (IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8 (CXCL8), IL-10, interferon gamma (IFN-γ ... Natural killer cell activation and modulation of chemokine receptor profile in vitro by an extract from the cyanophyta ...
MEF2 regulates expression of the chemokine receptors CXCR4, CCR2 and CCR5 and chemokines, such as CCL2, CCL3, CCL4 and CCL6 ( ... Chemokine/Chemokine Receptor Interactions in Extramedullary Leukaemia of the Skin in Childhood AML: Differential Roles for CCR2 ... 2. Dissemination of acute leukemia and the role of chemokines and chemokine receptors. Despite significant advances in ... A recent study also suggests that chemokine/chemokine receptor interactions orchestrate extramedullary dissemination in ...
... chemokine, IL-6, and interleukin 8 (IL-8).[82][80] IL-6 and IL-8 are the most conserved and robust features of SASP.[83] ... Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
Many homeostatic chemokines are expressed on the vasculature of the blood brain barrier (BBB) including CXCL12, CCL19, CCL20, ... Many homeostatic chemokines are expressed on the vasculature of the blood brain barrier including CXCL12, CCL19, CCL20, and ... In this review, we explore the diverse roles of these and other homeostatic chemokines expressed within the CNS, including the ... In this review, we explore the diverse roles of these and other homeostatic chemokines expressed within the CNS, including the ...
CCL3 (chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3) or CCL13 (chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 13). The proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 is ... CCL3 and CCL13 are both chemokine ligands, whose main task is to act as chemoattractants to draw active immune cells to the ... The same was found for the expression of proinflammatory factor CCL3, which was expressed more (p , 0.01) in samples from ... 7d). This concerns the expression of MHCII, CXCL8 (IL8), CCL3 and SAA. The expression of JUN was higher in the antigestagen- ...
NHP Chemokine/Cytokine Panel Detection Antibodies)740330 (LEGENDplex™ NHP Chemokine/Cytokine Panel Standard)740368 ( ... NHP Chemokine/Cytokine Panel Capture Beads are intended for use with the following reagents:740331 (LEGENDplex™ ... NHP CCL3 (MIP-1α) Capture Bead B3, 13X - LEGENDplex™ ... View information about CCL3 on UniProt.org Documentation * ... 740331 (LEGENDplex™ NHP Chemokine/Cytokine Panel Detection Antibodies). 740330 (LEGENDplex™ NHP Chemokine/Cytokine Panel ...
Proinflammatory chemokines like RANTES/CCL5 desensitize ,i,μ,/i,-opioid receptors in the periphery sensory neurons and it ... in the local overexpression of the chemokine regulated on activation and normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES/C-C motif ... By means of peripheral administration of the chemokines CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, and CXCL12, it is possible to detect pain patterns ... C. Abbadie, "Chemokines, chemokine receptors and pain," Trends in Immunology, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 529-534, 2005. ...
... chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL-2) (J), and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3 (CCL-3) (K) after injury (n = 2 or 3/group ... 4-1A,B). Proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production increased in WT mice after SCI compared with that in sham controls, ... we found that TRPV4 KO mice had reduced inflammation and synthesis of chemokines and cytokines after SCI as well as enhanced EC ... suppression of TRPV4 with a specific antagonist or in female Trpv4 KO mouse attenuated inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, ...
  • Another reported that IL-10, C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL-10, formerly IFN-γ inducible protein 10) and CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2, formerly monocyte chemoattractant protein 1) levels were higher in patients with high viral loads ( 12 ), but patients with severe disease had higher levels of CXCL10 and CCL2 than did patients with less-severe cases. (cdc.gov)
  • Inflammatory CC (CCL2, CCL3, CCL5) and CXC (CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL5, CXCL6, and CXCL8) chemokines recruit at the tumor site CCR2 + monocytes and CXCR2 + neutrophils that differentiate into tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) and tumor associated neutrophils (TANs), exerting pro- or anti-tumoral role ( 7 - 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Four chemokines (CCL2, CCL5, CXCL8 and CXCL10), were demonstrated in endothelial cells in situ, which was reflected in the chemokine production by primary HBEC and a brain endothelial cell line, hCEMC/D3. (open.ac.uk)
  • Calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus (FK506) attenuated the MDI-GSH conjugate-mediated induction of CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, and CXCL8/IL8 but not others. (cdc.gov)
  • Transfection of either miR-inhibitor-206-3p or miR-inhibitor-381-3p in macrophages induced chemokine CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, and CXCL8 transcription, whereas FK506 attenuated the miR-inhibitor-206-3p or miR-inhibitor-381-3p-mediated effects. (cdc.gov)
  • Our recent genetic scans in families identified haplotypes in the genes of CCL2, CCL3 and CCL11-CCL8-CCL13 which showed association with multiple sclerosis. (columbia.edu)
  • These observations are in consensus with previous studies, and add new data to support the involvement of CCL2, CCL7, CCL8 and CCL3 in the development of inflammatory demyelination. (columbia.edu)
  • A neutrophilic asthma phenotype may arise from the presence of enhanced levels of neutrophilic chemokines such as GROα, interleukin 8, CXCL10, and CCL2 which are all elevated in sputum of these patients. (archbronconeumol.org)
  • Analytes offered in the Human Qbeads Inflammation Panel Kit include: Human Interferon gamma (IFNγ), Interleukin-2 (IL-2), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), CCL2 (MCP-1), CCL3 (MIP-1α), CXCL9 (MIG), and CXCL10 (IP-10). (sartorius.com)
  • From the mouse corneal allograft model, TGF-β was found to play a key role in D6 up-regulation, leading to reduced CCL2, CCL5, and CCL3. (harvard.edu)
  • We have previously shown that the chemokines CCL2 and CCL5 play an important role in the adhesion of leukocytes to the brain microcirculation in EAE. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our results suggest that B 2 receptors have two major effects in the control of EAE severity: (i) B 2 regulates the expression of chemokines, including CCL2 and CCL5, and (ii) B 2 modulates leukocyte recruitment and inflammatory lesions in the CNS. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We investigated the effects of GMA on the ratio of CD14(+) CD16(+) proinflammatory monocytes/CD14(+) monocytes and cytokine/chemokine production by these leukocytes including CXCL8, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in five patients with active GPP. (adacyte.com)
  • First, in response to a second KA 'hit' in adulthood, there is an enhancement of both the upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, microglial activation, and expression of the chemokine CCL2 in adult animals who had previously experienced early-life seizures . (wordpress.com)
  • Similarly, murine bone marrow-derived mast cells also produced a variety of mediators in response to C. muridarum (Cm), including CXCL1, CXCL2, CCL2, CCL3, IL-6, and IL-12p70, although these responses did not reach significance due to variability across cultures. (dal.ca)
  • They influence the activity of other adaptive and innate immune cells via various cytokines, such as interferon-γ (IFN-γ), chemokines (CCL1, CCL2, CCL3, etc.), and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) [3]. (researchsquare.com)
  • C-C Motif Chemokine 3 (MIP-1 alpha,CCL3 ) is a member of the beta or CC subfamily of chemokines and is closely related to CCL4/MIP-1 beta. (mip-1a.com)
  • 1988) demonstrated 2 protein components of MIP1, called by them alpha (CCL3, this protein) and beta (CCL4). (wikipedia.org)
  • CCL3 has been shown to interact with CCL4. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of this study was to detect the expression levels of chemokines (CX3CL1, CXCL-11, CXCL-12, CCL3, CCL4, and CCL20) in the serum of esophageal cancer patients and a normal control group, and to explore the correlations of those expression levels with the pathological type, progression, and metastasis of esophageal cancer. (medscimonit.com)
  • Upon infection, significant upregulation of IL-1 beta, alongside IL-6, IL-8, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3 (CCL3), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4 (CCL4), nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), was observed with cells isolated from the degenerative discs of eight patients versus non-infected controls. (muni.cz)
  • NK cells producing the cytokines IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha and the beta chemokines CCL3, CCL4, and CCL5 were also increased in the EU IDUs, either after in vitro activation or without stimulation. (pasteur.fr)
  • as well as the chemokines CXCL10, CCL3, and CCL4 are essential inflammatory mediators in the mind. (globaltechbiz.com)
  • Ablation of COX-2 in forebrain neurons dampens human brain inflammation after position epilepticus partly by reducing the induction of CCL3, CCL4, CXCL10, IL-11, and TNF- (6). (globaltechbiz.com)
  • We verified that the expression of CCR5 and its ligands, CCL3, CCL4 and CCL5, were increased in the thymus with age. (beccajcampbell.com)
  • Moreover, we found that adipocyte differentiation appear to be influenced by the proinflammatory chemokines, CCL3, CCL4 and CCL5. (beccajcampbell.com)
  • This also confirmed that some antifungal drugs increase chemokine levels in the supernatants of human mononuclear cell cultures such as CCL3 and CCL4. (matrixscimed.org)
  • CCR5 mediates cell adhesion and migration induced by several chemokines including CCL3/MIP-1 alpha, CCL4/MIP-1 beta, CCL5/RANTES, and CCL8/MCP-2. (bio-techne.com)
  • The serum levels of CXCL8, CCL3 and CCL4 were increased in active GPP patients. (adacyte.com)
  • Further, CCL3 and CCL4 production from monocytes in active GPP patients were reduced after a course of GMA. (adacyte.com)
  • Chemokine CCL4" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (musc.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Chemokine CCL4" by people in this website by year, and whether "Chemokine CCL4" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (musc.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Chemokine CCL4" by people in Profiles. (musc.edu)
  • Supernatants have been analyzed with regard to CCL3, CCL4, as well as dissolvable CD54 (sCD54) simply by ODM-201 concentration ELISA. (ikk-signal.com)
  • Coculture of RPE tissues together with initialized lymphocytes triggered enterprise CCL3 as well as CCL4 generation by simply lymphocytes, mostly by simply dissolvable mediators. (ikk-signal.com)
  • Soluble CD54 reduced CCL3 along with CCL4 creation by simply RPE cellular material, along with hang-up of CCL3 along with CCL4 about coculture together with RPE cellular material was lowered by anti-CD54. (ikk-signal.com)
  • Obstructing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) abrogated the particular hang-up associated with CCL4, however, not CCL3, simply by RPE tissues. (ikk-signal.com)
  • RPE tissue can down-regulate higher amounts of CCL3 as well as CCL4 manufacturing through Capital t lymphocytes using the disolveable mediators sCD54 and PGE2. (ikk-signal.com)
  • Minimizing this kind of production of CCL3 and CCL4 may lower down the procede effect and also employment of more inflamed tissue, guarding your retina from an extreme immune system result. (ikk-signal.com)
  • It is produced as a protein precursor that is processed to generate a mature active protein containing 74 amino acids that and is 46% identical in amino acid composition to CCL3 and CCL4. (bosterbio.com)
  • Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3 (CCL3) also known as macrophage inflammatory protein 1-alpha (MIP-1-alpha) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCL3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • To probe the molecular basis of US28's unique ligand cross-reactivity, we deep-sequenced CX3CL1 chemokine libraries selected on 'molecular casts' of the US28 active-state and find that US28 can engage thousands of distinct chemokine sequences, many of which elicit diverse signaling outcomes. (elifesciences.org)
  • The structure of a G-protein-biased CX3CL1-variant in complex with US28 revealed an entirely unique chemokine amino terminal peptide conformation and remodeled constellation of receptor-ligand interactions. (elifesciences.org)
  • Thus, US28 accommodates and functionally discriminates amongst highly degenerate chemokine sequences by sensing the steric bulk of the ligands, which distort both receptor extracellular loops and the walls of the ligand binding pocket to varying degrees, rather than requiring sequence-specific bonding chemistries for recognition and signaling. (elifesciences.org)
  • This antimicrobial gene encodes a chemokine of the CXC subfamily and ligand for the receptor CXCR3. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we elucidate the possible causative role of chronic subclinical inflammation in jawbone of patients with atypical facial pain (AFP) and trigeminal neuralgia (TRN) in the local overexpression of the chemokine regulated on activation and normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES/C-C motif ligand 5 CCL5). (hindawi.com)
  • Because general immunosuppression or macrophage depletion leads to a host of adverse side effects, more recent studies have modulated the interaction of specific signaling molecules, including NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 16, and VEGF, to prevent the end-organ renal damage that accumulates in salt-sensitive disease. (elsevier.com)
  • Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (also CCL5 ) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CCL5 gene . (wikidoc.org)
  • Chemokine ligand 19 (CCL19), also known as macrophage inflammatory protein-3 beta (MIP-3β), is a member of the CC chemokine family, which plays key roles in inflammatory responses, T cell activation, homeostasis, and development (Yan et al. (stemcell.com)
  • Macrophage inflammatory protein 1-alpha (MIP-1α), also known as chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3 (CCL3), is a cytokine of the immune system involved in inflammation and fever. (quansysbio.com)
  • 6-MSITC inhibited interleukin (IL)-6 and C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10) production in TNF-α-stimulated TR146 cells, which are a human oral epithelial cell line. (tokushima-u.ac.jp)
  • The fetal outcomes, the apoptosis in placenta and JEG-3 cells, the expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (KC), and expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers were evaluated. (academic-accelerator.com)
  • Studies have also indicated that certain cytokines are predictive of severe COVID-19 such as C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10)/ interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10), interleukin 10 (IL-10), and IL-6. (fcdijack.com)
  • Recently, CCL3 (MIP-1alpha), a high-affinity CCR1 ligand, was identified as part of a model that independently predicts survival in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). (stanfordhealthcare.org)
  • Chemokine(C-C motif) ligand 14(CCL14) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. (bosterbio.com)
  • Chemokines, chemokine receptors, ligands , motif chemokines and cytokines are supplied by Elabscience in 1. (mip-1a.com)
  • CCL3 is a cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family that is involved in the acute inflammatory state in the recruitment and activation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes through binding to the receptors CCR1, CCR4 and CCR5. (wikipedia.org)
  • Various chemokines, cytokines, and chemokine receptors are upregulated in the inflammatory cell infiltrates, blood vessels, and myofibers in s-IBM. (medscape.com)
  • Chemokines, a large family of cytokines with chemotactic activity, and their cognate receptors are expressed by both cancer and stromal cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • We also provide recent findings about the role in cancer of atypical chemokine receptors that could become future targets for immunotherapy. (frontiersin.org)
  • Chemokines produced by tumor itself, cancer-associated fibroblasts and infiltrating leukocytes ( 27 , 28 ), through the binding of chemokine receptors expressed by tumor cells, directly promote cancer cell proliferation activating different signaling pathways, such as PI3K/AKT/NF-κB and MAPK/ERK pathway ( 29 - 31 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • This study investigated the production of chemokines and expression of chemokine receptors by human brain endothelial cells (HBEC), in vitro and in situ in multiple sclerosis tissue. (open.ac.uk)
  • The chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR3 were expressed by HBEC both in vitro and in situ, and CXCR3 was up-regulated in response to cytokine stimulation in vitro. (open.ac.uk)
  • CCL3 binds to CCR1, CCR4, and CCR5 receptors, and it is one of the major HIV- suppressive factors produced by CD8+ T-cells. (qedbio.com)
  • In the adult central nervous system (CNS), chemokines and their receptors are involved in developmental, physiological and pathological processes. (frontiersin.org)
  • These chemokines and their receptors are therefore involved in a range of homeostatic processes including immune surveillance, neuro/gliogenesis and modulation of synaptic transmission. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition to these anatomical barriers, the expression of chemokines and chemokine receptors at the BBB and blood-CSF barrier serves as an immunological checkpoint and prevents (during non-inflammatory/homeostatic conditions) or promotes (during neuroinflammation) the infiltration of circulating leukocytes into the deeper CNS parenchyma and ventricular or subarachnoid CSF spaces (Figure 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Proinflammatory chemokines like RANTES/CCL5 desensitize μ -opioid receptors in the periphery sensory neurons and it has been suggested that RANTES modifies the nociceptive reaction. (hindawi.com)
  • Human CCL3L1/LD78b binds and signals through chemokine receptors CCR1, CCR5. (reliatech.de)
  • Using the fluorescent streptavidin conjugates, one can study chemokine receptors binding, internalization or expression levels. (chemotactics.com)
  • MIP-1 Ž± binds the chemokine receptors CCR1, CCR4 and CCR5 to induce inflammatory responses, including the recruitment of granulocytes and neutrophil superoxide production. (shenandoah-bt.com)
  • A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. (musc.edu)
  • By contrast, suppression of TRPV4 with a specific antagonist or in female Trpv4 KO mouse attenuated inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, prevented the degradation of tight junction proteins, and preserve blood-spinal cord barrier integrity, thereby attenuate the scarring after SCI. (jneurosci.org)
  • Human Qbeads Inflammation Panel Kit allows the measurement of seven human cytokines and chemokines from either serum or in vitro samples. (sartorius.com)
  • Contrary to conventional T cells, MAITs recognize vitamin B2 metabolites as antigens and promptly produce a plethora of cytokines and chemokines upon activation (Birkinshaw et al. (springeropen.com)
  • Primary human cord blood-derived mast cells (CBMCs) stimulated with C. trachomatis (Ct) produced a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, such as TNF, IL-1β, IL-6, GM- CSF, IL-23, CCL3, CCL5 and CXCL8. (dal.ca)
  • The BALF levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, i.e. (perlierusa.com)
  • Cytokines and chemokines PBMC were cultured for 3 days in RPMI-1640 medium with 10% fetal calf serum, in the presence or absence of 2 g/ml HIVgp120 [National Institutes of Health (NIH) AIDS reagent programme]. (robmosaic.com)
  • Upon intradermal administration in mice, they observed massive neutrophil infiltration, activation of diverse inflammatory pathways, and production of various inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. (news-medical.net)
  • Recent studies have identified the immunological role of the VE from the secretion of cytokines and chemokines to the expression of adhesion molecules and antigen presentation [ 10 - 12 ] . (vpjournal.net)
  • It is cleared from the extracellular space by internalization via the decoy chemokine receptor D6. (mip-1a.com)
  • Interferon pathway-related cytokines/chemokines, including interleukin (IL) 18, macrophage inflammatory protein 3α, and IL-33, were elevated, but tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, CXCL8 (formerly IL-8), and cytokines acting through C-C chemokine receptor 2 and CCR5 were lower among case-patients than controls. (cdc.gov)
  • Human cytomegalovirus has hijacked and evolved a human G-protein-coupled receptor into US28, which functions as a promiscuous chemokine 'sink' to facilitate evasion of host immune responses. (elifesciences.org)
  • At Site 1, the receptor N-terminal region binds a groove on the globular body of the chemokine. (elifesciences.org)
  • At Site 2, the chemokine N-terminal peptide binds within a deep pocket formed by the receptor transmembrane helices (TMs) that is believed to function as the receptor activation switch. (elifesciences.org)
  • The chemokine SDF1 (stromal derived factor-1) and its receptor CXCR4 regulate trafficking of normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) as well as metastasis of solid tumor cells. (intechopen.com)
  • A recent study also suggests that chemokine/chemokine receptor interactions orchestrate extramedullary dissemination in childhood AML. (intechopen.com)
  • Moreover, signaling through the chemokine receptor CCR7 is crucial for infiltration of T-ALL cells in the central nervous system. (intechopen.com)
  • The expression of the chemokine receptor CCR5 in tick-borne encephalitis. (cdc.gov)
  • Here we demonstrate that HIF-2alpha upregulates multiple myeloma PC CXCL12 expression, decreasing migration toward CXCL12 and reducing adhesion to mesenchymal stromal cells in vitro We also found that HIF-2alpha strongly induced expression of the chemokine receptor CCR1 in multiple myeloma PCs. (garvan.org.au)
  • It functions as one of the natural ligands for the chemokine receptor chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (CCR5), and it suppresses in vitro replication of the R5 strains of HIV-1, which use CCR5 as a coreceptor. (creativebiomart.net)
  • it binds to C-C motif chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) to induce migration of macrophages, T cells, and B cells (Gibejova et al. (stemcell.com)
  • C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 [So. (gsea-msigdb.org)
  • Hypothesizing that the increased expression of chemokines and the CCR5 receptor may play a role in adipocyte recruitment and/or differentiation within the aging thymus, we examined the potential role for CCR5 signaling on adipocyte physiology using 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte cell line. (beccajcampbell.com)
  • Chemokine decoy receptor D6 mimicking trap (D6MT) prevents allosensitization and immune rejection in murine corneal allograft model. (harvard.edu)
  • This study examined the role of chemokine receptor D6 expression in a corneal allograft rejection, investigated the modulation of D6 expression in cells, and determined the effect of D6 on graft survival. (harvard.edu)
  • Chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1) is a G protein-coupled receptor that binds to members of the C-C chemokine family. (stanfordhealthcare.org)
  • Oral administration of FTY720 resulted in a marked reduction in lymphocyte number (lymphopenia), in particular, in naïve and central memory T and B cells expressing chemokine receptor CCR7 being present in the secondary lymphoid organs and in peripheral blood. (springeropen.com)
  • CCR5 chemokine receptor gene polymorphisms in ocular toxoplasmosis. (transhumanist.ru)
  • CC chemokine receptor type 5 ( CCR5 ) is a chemokine receptor that influences the immune response to infectious and parasitic diseases. (transhumanist.ru)
  • transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and chemokines (CCL3 and CXCL8). (ispub.com)
  • The importance of β-chemokines (or CC chemokine ligands - CCL) in the development of inflammatory lesions in the central nervous system of patients with multiple sclerosis and rodents with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis is strongly supported by descriptive studies and experimental models. (columbia.edu)
  • Increased growth creation in Rosa26-Foxm1 transgenic lung area has been linked to chronic pulmonary irritation, macrophage infiltration along with elevated term involving cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), Cdc25C phosphatase, cyclin E2, chemokine ligands CXCL5, CXCL1 and also CCL3, cathepsins and matrix metalloprotease-12. (alksignaling.com)
  • Background CC chemokine ligands (CCLs) are elevated during acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and correlate with secondary events. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • The panel included cytokines, chemokines, growth factors and ligands according to established SOPs. (medscape.com)
  • CCL3 bioactivity contributes to tumor metastasis and the inflammatory components of viral infection, rheumatoid arthritis, and hepatitis, although it also can suppress the replication of HIV. (mip-1a.com)
  • Product Background CCL3, also known as Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1a (MIP-1a), is a proinflammatory chemokine that stimulates chemotaxis and activation of different cell populations of the immune system. (qedbio.com)
  • PAMPs) and induce the innate immune response by activation of a signaling cascade resulting in the upregulation of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and type I IFNs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chemokines form a superfamily of secreted proteins involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. (creativebiomart.net)
  • MIP-1 alpha (macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha) is a member of the CC or beta chemokine subfamily that was originally purified from the conditioned media of an LPS-stimulated murine macrophage cell line. (reliatech.de)
  • CCL3 chemokine is a chemoattractant which recruits and activates leukocytes to sites of infection or inflammation, resulting in an enhanced local inflammatory response. (biolegend.com)
  • The cytokines/chemokines included are implicated in inflammatory responses to disease states including autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammation, and infections, including viral infections such as COVID-19. (sartorius.com)
  • Most of the cytokines expressed in the lungs are generally found to be linked to innate immunity, including chemokines, pro-inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and immunoregulatory cytokines. (fcdijack.com)
  • Macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 Ž±), also known as CCL3, is a cytokine produced by macrophages. (shenandoah-bt.com)
  • CCL3/Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1α Is Dually Involved in Parasite Persistence and Induction of a TNF- and IFNγ-Enriched Inflammatory Milieu in Trypanosoma cruzi-Induced Chronic Cardiomyopathy. (mip-1b.com)
  • TLR signalling activates a cascade of molecules resulting in the production the pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines and the up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Considering that inflammatory cytokines/chemokines had been associated with lung harm in serious influenza pneumonia10,11,12,15,16,17,25, we examined infiltrated cells and cytokine/chemokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) collected from the IFV-infected lungs of WT and mice. (perlierusa.com)
  • However, no reduction in cytokine/chemokine levels was evident on day 8, indicating that a CARD9-mediated innate response controls cytokine/chemokine production at an early time point after IFV infection and influences subsequent inflammatory cell recruitment and lung pathology at a later time point. (perlierusa.com)
  • Particle-stimulated macrophages and other cells release cytokines, chemokines, and other pro-inflammatory substances that perpetuate chronic inflammation, eventually leading to local bone loss and decreased new bone formation. (e-jbm.org)
  • Our understanding of the role of chemokine expression in the adult central nervous system (CNS) has shifted away from viewing these molecules primarily as proinflammatory mediators and more towards their ability to exert neuroprotective and reparative functions. (frontiersin.org)
  • The Mouse Proinflammatory Chemokine panel is a multiplex bead-based assay panel, using fluorescence-encoded beads suitable for use on various flow cytometers. (biolegend.com)
  • A Mix and Match system is available to customize assays for specificities within this proinflammatory chemokine panel. (biolegend.com)
  • The LEGENDplex™ Mouse Proinflammatory Chemokine Detection Antibodies product is intended for use with the Mix and Match Mouse Proinflammatory Chemokine Panel of products. (biolegend.com)
  • CCL3 exerts its biological functions through interactions with CCR1, CCR3, and CCR5. (mip-1a.com)
  • Interferon pathway activation and cytokines/chemokines acting through CCR2 and CCR5 improved health results among children with severe CCHF. (cdc.gov)
  • When compared to CCL3/LD78a, CCL3L1/LD78b has higher binding affinity to CCR5, which also functions as a coreceptor for HIV-1 entry. (reliatech.de)
  • On the contrary, chemokines, such as CCL21 and ELR − chemokines (CXCL4, CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11) inhibit angiogenesis and endothelial cell proliferation ( 26 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • IL-6, TNF-, CCL3/MIP-1, CXCL1/KC, and CXCL10/IP-10, which have been reported to contribute to lung pathology10,13,14, peaked on day 4 and were considerably lower in the mice than in the WT mice (Fig. 1D). (perlierusa.com)
  • CCR1 activation potently induces multiple myeloma PC migration toward CCL3 while abrogating the multiple myeloma PC migratory response to CXCL12. (garvan.org.au)
  • These data suggest that CCR1 may be useful for lymphoma classification and support a role for chemokine signaling in the pathogenesis of hematolymphoid neoplasia. (stanfordhealthcare.org)
  • CCL3 promotes the chemoattraction, adhesion to activated vascular endothelium, and cellular activation of many hematopoietic cell types including activated T cells, NK cells, neutrophils, monocytes, immature dendritic cells, and eosinophils. (mip-1a.com)
  • This chemokine, a member of the CC subfamily, functions as a chemoattractant for blood monocytes, memory T helper cells and eosinophils. (creativebiomart.net)
  • CCL3 is involved in activation and recruitment of lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes during acute inflammation. (biolegend.com)
  • Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils. (ouhsc.edu)
  • Description: Description of target: Cytokine that induces the release of T-cell-attracting chemokines from monocytes and, in particular, enhances the maturation of CD11c+ dendritic cells. (cromauv.org)
  • It mainly impacts myeloid cells and induces the release of T cell-attracting chemokines from monocytes and enhances the maturation of CD11c(+) dendritic cells. (cromauv.org)
  • Neutralizes the biological activity of recombinant human CCL3/MIP‑1 alpha. (rndsystems.com)
  • 17] In microarray experiments, cytokine and chemokine genes are differentially upregulated to a significantly greater degree in s-IBM and polymyositis than in dermatomyositis. (medscape.com)
  • This gene is one of several chemokine genes clustered on the q-arm of chromosome 17. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Combination treatment led to upregulation of immune response genes, including multiple chemokine genes such as CCL5, in macrophages, and downregulation of extracellular matrix genes in fibroblasts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes. (musc.edu)
  • CCL23 is one of several cytokine genes clustered on the q-arm of chromosome 17, in a locus containing several other CC chemokines. (prospecbio.com)
  • Suppression of type I IFN release by HDAC3/6i resulted in reduced expression of a subset of IFN-dependent genes, including the chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL11. (bmj.com)
  • After 3 days, culture supernatants were taken and levels of chemokines or cytokines were determined using a Luminex system (Biorad, Hemel Hempstead, UK), with specific reagents for IL-6, IL-10, IL-17 and CCL-3, CCL-4 and CCL-5 (R&D systems, Oxford, UK). (robmosaic.com)
  • However, the role of chemokine signaling in the pathogenesis of human lymphomas is unclear. (stanfordhealthcare.org)
  • bind US28 competitively, CCL3 (MIP1α) and CCL5 (RANTES) are only competitive with themselves. (elifesciences.org)
  • Elevated CCL3 levels display a chemotactic ability on isolated osteoclast precursors. (sivb.org)
  • CCL5 is an 8kDa protein classified as a chemotactic cytokine or chemokine . (wikidoc.org)
  • Chemotactic cytokines or chemokines play pivotal roles in various processes such as immune surveillance, organ development, angiogenesis, and immune responses. (biolegend.com)
  • CCL3 produces a monophasic fever of rapid onset whose magnitude is equal to or greater than that of fevers produced with either recombinant human tumor necrosis factor or recombinant human interleukin-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other mediators such as interleukin (IL)-3, IL-4, IL-9 and IL-10, nerve growth factor (NGF), some chemokines and retinoids also regulate MC differentiation [ 3 ]. (ispub.com)
  • In conclusion, these results indicate that MDI exposure to macrophages/BALCs may recruit immune cells into the airway via induction of chemokines by miR-206-3p and miR-381-3p-mediated calcineurin signalling activation. (cdc.gov)
  • CCL3 expression can be induced in a variety of hematopoietic cells, fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, and epithelial cells. (mip-1a.com)
  • The proper movement of immune cells is orchestrated by the spatial and temporal expression of chemokines. (frontiersin.org)
  • While endothelial cell expression of these chemokines is known to regulate the entry of leukocytes into the CNS during immunosurveillance, new data indicate that CXCL12 is also involved in diverse cellular activities including adult neurogenesis and neuronal survival, having an opposing role to the homeostatic chemokine, CXCL14, which appears to regulate synaptic inputs to neural precursors. (frontiersin.org)
  • Neuronal expression of CX 3 CL1, yet another homeostatic chemokine that promotes neuronal survival and communication with microglia, is partly regulated by CXCL12. (frontiersin.org)
  • The liquid chip (Luminex) technology was applied to detect the expression levels of the above-mentioned serum chemokines in the two groups. (medscimonit.com)
  • To investigate the expression of neutrophilic chemokines and adhesion molecules in bronchial biopsies from patients with stable COPD of different severity (GOLD stages I-IV) compared with age-matched control subjects, smokers with normal lung function and never smokers. (bmj.com)
  • Fewer studies have investigated the expression of CC chemokines in COPD. (bmj.com)
  • Expression profiling of chemokines, especially those involved in inflammation and immune disorders, is important in achieving a deeper understanding of disease states. (biolegend.com)
  • Anti-PD-L1 induced the expression of several chemokines that are associated with the recruitment of cytotoxic T cells, with a further increase in expression after combination therapy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • MILLIPLEX MAP Mouse Cytokine / Chemokine panel enables you to focus on the therapeutic potential of cytokines as well as the modulation of cytokine expression. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Recombinant Murine MIP-1β is a 7.8 kDa protein containing 69 amino acid residues, including the four highly conserved cysteine residues present in CC chemokines. (peprotech.com)
  • Chemokines expressed by the CNS vasculature have a role in regulating immune cell and neural progenitor cell occupancy within perivascular spaces. (frontiersin.org)
  • Analysis of publicly available tumor transcriptome profiles showed that the chemokine CCL5 was strongly associated with immune cell infiltration in various human cancers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For example, cytokine and chemokines mediate interactions between cells directly, regulating target immune cell responses. (emdmillipore.com)
  • In addition cytokine and chemokine research is essential in understanding the immune system and its multi-faceted response to most antigens, as well as disease states such as autoimmune disease, allergic reactions, sepsis and cancer. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Chemokines, are a family of small, secreted, and structurally related cytokines with a crucial role in inflammation and immunity ( 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Their involvement in plaque inflammation led us to investigate whether CCL3-5-18 are linked to the extent of coronary artery disease (CAD) and prognostic for primary events during follow-up. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • This chemokine plays a role in accumulation of leukocytes during inflammation. (anticorps-enligne.fr)
  • Many homeostatic chemokines are expressed on the vasculature of the blood brain barrier (BBB) including CXCL12, CCL19, CCL20, and CCL21. (frontiersin.org)
  • Several chemokines of the CXC and CC family are involved in neutrophil chemotaxis. (bmj.com)
  • Simultaneously analyze multiple cytokine and chemokine biomarkers with Bead-Based Multiplex Assays using the Luminex technology, in mouse serum, plasma and cell culture samples. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Methods We measured CCL3-5-18 serum concentrations in 712 patients with chest discomfort referred for cardiac CT angiography. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • Pre-incubation of NK cells with DHA attenuated NK cell-induced upregulation of Compact disc47 and Compact disc11b on neutrophils, acquired minor results on NK cell induction of cytokine/chemokine secretion or their phagocytic capability. (mentalnurse.org)
  • Pre-incubation of NK cells with DHA additional decreased the regularity of NKp46+ NK cells in the co-culture with neutrophils and reduced the concentrations of IFN-, CCL3 and GM-CSF. (mentalnurse.org)
  • This chemokine has been localized to chromosome 17 in humans. (wikidoc.org)
  • Human CCL14 is located on chromosome 17 within a cluster of other chemokines belonging to the CC family. (bosterbio.com)
  • Some chemokines present at tumor site can modify leukocyte activation, for instance CXCL16 acting on CXCR6 induces macrophage polarization toward a pro-tumoral phenotype in solid tumors ( 11 , 12 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • CCL3 induces dose-dependent inhibition of different strains of HIV-1, HIV-2, and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). (qedbio.com)
  • IL-2 and IFN-γ ) that are released by T cells , CCL5 also induces the proliferation and activation of certain natural-killer ( NK ) cells to form CHAK (CC-Chemokine-activated killer) cells. (wikidoc.org)
  • In addition to regulating leukocyte migration, CCL3 enhances IFN-γ secretion from activated T cells and thus induces Th1 response. (biolegend.com)
  • There were no statistically significant differences in chemokine expressions between metastatic esophageal cancer group and non-metastatic esophageal cancer group ( P >0.05). (medscimonit.com)
  • Although most lines of investigation focus on their ability to induce the migration of cells, recent studies indicate that chemokines also promote cellular interactions and activate signaling pathways that maintain CNS homeostatic functions. (frontiersin.org)
  • RNAdjuvant ® was the only one to induce most of the cytokines/chemokines tested with a pronounced Th1 cytokine pattern. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Almac presents a series of native human chemokines, produced by chemical synthesis to ensure high purity and reliable biological function. (almacgroup.com)
  • CCL3 is also known as stem cell inhibitor (SCI) and can inhibit the proliferation of hematopoietic progenitor cells. (mip-1a.com)
  • Human CCL3 is also demonstrated to inhibit proliferation of hematopoietic progenitor stem cells. (biolegend.com)
  • They code for MIP-1 alpha isoforms CCL3/LD78a and CCL3L1/LD78b, which share 94% amino acid sequence homology. (reliatech.de)
  • Human CCL3, amino acids Ala27-Ala92 (Accession# NM_002983.2) was expressed in E. coli . (biolegend.com)
  • MM cells secrete and express CCL3/MIP1α which upregulates osteoclastogenesis. (sivb.org)
  • CCL3 and CXCL12 production in vitro by dental pulp fibroblasts from pe" by Carla Renata Sipert, Ana Carolina Morandini et al. (pacific.edu)
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the production of the chemokines CCL3 and CXCL12 by cultured dental pulp fibroblasts from permanent (PDPF) and deciduous (DDPF) teeth under stimulation by Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS (PgLPS). (pacific.edu)
  • The cells were tested for viability through MTT assay, and production of the chemokines CCL3 and CXCL12 was determined through ELISA. (pacific.edu)
  • The numbers of CCL5+ cells in the submucosa of patients with COPD were 2-15 times higher than any other chemokines. (bmj.com)
  • Baf3-hCCR5 cells chemoattracted by human CCL3. (biolegend.com)
  • Secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine induced modulation of T cells. (ouhsc.edu)
  • Several elements of this stay uncertain and this research focused to ascertain exactly how RPE cells may influence making chemokines through To lymphocytes. (ikk-signal.com)
  • Cytotoxic T cells swarm by homotypic chemokine signalling. (peprotech.com)
  • Periprosthetic osteolysis is a common complication after total ankle arthroplasty (TAA), in which numerous types of cells communicate through an intricate paracrine network of cytokines, chemokines, and other molecules, resulting in bone loss or loosening of implant. (e-jbm.org)
  • Human CCL3 genome location and CCL3 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whereas the human CCL3/LD78a is a single-copy gene, the human CCL3L1/LD78b gene copy number varies within the population. (reliatech.de)
  • Moreover, the manifestation of IP-10 encoded by an IFN-responsive gene was considerably impaired in mice on day time 4 (Fig. 1D), albeit no significant decrease was observed in either Type I or Type II interferons, recommending that synergistic indicators of interferons and different cytokines/chemokines are necessary for the higher manifestation of IP-10 at an early on phase of disease. (perlierusa.com)
  • Leukocyte migration into the CNS is mediated by chemokines, expressed on the surface of brain endothelium. (open.ac.uk)
  • PgLPS induced the production of CCL3 by dental pulp fibroblasts at similar levels for both permanent and deciduous pulp fibroblasts. (pacific.edu)