A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.
A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.
Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.
Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.
CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.
A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.
A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.
Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.
A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.
Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.
An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.
CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.
Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.
Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.
The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.

A functional, discontinuous HIV-1 gp120 C3/C4 domain-derived, branched, synthetic peptide that binds to CD4 and inhibits MIP-1alpha chemokine binding. (1/787)

This paper describes a branched synthetic peptide [3.7] that incorporates sequence discontinuous residues of HIV-1 gp120 constant regions. The approach was to bring together residues of gp120 known to interact with human cell membranes such that the peptide could fold to mimic the native molecule. The peptide incorporates elements of both the conserved CD4 and CCR5 binding sites. The 3.7 peptide, which cannot be produced by conventional genetic engineering methods, is recognized by antiserum raised to native gp120. The peptide also binds to CD4 and competitively inhibits binding of QS4120 an antibody directed against the CDR2 region of CD4. When preincubated with the CD4+ve MM6 macrophage cell line, which expresses mRNA for the CCR3 and CCR5 chemokine receptors, both 3.7 and gp120 inhibit binding of the chemokine MIP-1alpha. The peptide also inhibits infection of primary macrophages by M-tropic HIV-1. Thus, 3.7 is a prototype candidate peptide for a vaccine against HIV-1 and represents a novel approach to the rational design of peptides that can mimic complex sequence discontinuous ligand binding sites of clinically relevant proteins.  (+info)

Induction of macrophage C-C chemokine expression by titanium alloy and bone cement particles. (2/787)

Particulate wear debris is associated with periprosthetic inflammation and loosening in total joint arthroplasty. We tested the effects of titanium alloy (Ti-alloy) and PMMA particles on monocyte/macrophage expression of the C-C chemokines, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), monocyte inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1alpha), and regulated upon activation normal T expressed and secreted protein (RANTES). Periprosthetic granulomatous tissue was analysed for expression of macrophage chemokines by immunohistochemistry. Chemokine expression in human monocytes/macrophages exposed to Ti-alloy and PMMA particles in vitro was determined by RT-PCR, ELISA and monocyte migration. We observed MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha expression in all tissue samples from failed arthroplasties. Ti-alloy and PMMA particles increased expression of MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha in macrophages in vitro in a dose- and time-dependent manner whereas RANTES was not detected. mRNA signal levels for MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha were also observed in cells after exposure to particles. Monocyte migration was stimulated by culture medium collected from macrophages exposed to Ti-alloy and PMMA particles. Antibodies to MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha inhibited chemotactic activity of the culture medium samples. Release of C-C chemokines by macrophages in response to wear particles may contribute to chronic inflammation at the bone-implant interface in total joint arthroplasty.  (+info)

Differential regulation of eosinophil chemokine signaling via CCR3 and non-CCR3 pathways. (3/787)

To investigate eosinophil stimulation by chemokines we developed a sensitive assay of leukocyte shape change, the gated autofluorescence/forward scatter assay. Leukocyte shape change responses are mediated through rearrangements of the cellular cytoskeleton in a dynamic process typically resulting in a polarized cell and are essential to the processes of leukocyte migration from the microcirculation into sites of inflammation. We examined the actions of the chemokines eotaxin, eotaxin-2, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), MCP-3, MCP-4, RANTES, macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), and IL-8 on leukocytes in mixed cell suspensions and focused on the responses of eosinophils to C-C chemokines. Those chemokines acting on CCR3 induced a rapid shape change in eosinophils from all donors; of these, eotaxin and eotaxin-2 were the most potent. Responses to MCP-4 were qualitatively different, showing marked reversal of shape change responses with agonist concentration and duration of treatment. In contrast, MIP-1alpha induced a potent response in eosinophils from a small and previously undescribed subgroup of donors via a non-CCR3 pathway likely to be CCR1 mediated. Incubation of leukocytes at 37 degrees C for 90 min in the absence of extracellular calcium up-regulated responses to MCP-4 and MIP-1alpha in the majority of donors, and there was a small increase in responses to eotaxin. MIP-1alpha responsiveness in vivo may therefore be a function of both CCR1 expression levels and the regulated efficiency of coupling to intracellular signaling pathways. The observed up-regulation of MIP-1alpha signaling via non-CCR3 pathways may play a role in eosinophil recruitment in inflammatory states such as occurs in the asthmatic lung.  (+info)

Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 modulates beta-chemokines and directly costimulates T cells in vivo. (4/787)

The potential roles of adhesion molecules in the expansion of T cell-mediated immune responses in the periphery were examined using DNA immunogen constructs as model antigens. We coimmunized cDNA expression cassettes encoding the adhesion molecules intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), lymphocyte function associated-3 (LFA-3), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) along with DNA immunogens, and we analyzed the resulting antigen-specific immune responses. We observed that antigen-specific T-cell responses can be enhanced by the coexpression of DNA immunogen and adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and LFA-3. Coexpression of ICAM-1 or LFA-3 molecules along with DNA immunogens resulted in a significant enhancement of T-helper cell proliferative responses. In addition, coimmunization with pCICAM-1 (and more moderately with pCLFA-3) resulted in a dramatic enhancement of CD8-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses. Although VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 are similar in size, VCAM-1 coimmunization did not have any measurable effect on cell-mediated responses. These results suggest that ICAM-1 and LFA-3 provide direct T-cell costimulation. These observations are further supported by the finding that coinjection with ICAM-1 dramatically enhanced the level of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and beta-chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), MIP-1beta, and regulated on activation normal T-cell expression and secreted (RANTES) produced by stimulated T cells. Through comparative studies, we observed that ICAM-1/LFA-1 T-cell costimulatory pathways are independent of CD86/CD28 pathways and that they may synergistically expand T-cell responses in vivo.  (+info)

Secretion of beta-chemokines by bronchoalveolar lavage cells during primary infection of macaques inoculated with attenuated nef-deleted or pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus strain mac251. (5/787)

Primary infection of macaques with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) as a model of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection represents a unique opportunity to investigate early lentivirus-host interactions. In order to gain insight into immunopathogenic events taking place in the lung during lentiviral infection, we analysed lymphocyte expansion in the lung and chemokine secretion by mononuclear cells obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BALMCs) during primary infection by a pathogenic and a non-pathogenic SIV. Two groups of cynomolgus macaques were inoculated intravenously with a fully pathogenic isolate of SIVmac251 or with an attenuated, nef-deleted, molecular clone of SIVmac251. Spontaneous MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta and RANTES production was assessed by ELISA in supernatants of short-term cultured BALMCs. Kinetics of haematological, virological and immunological parameters were investigated simultaneously. All 11 inoculated animals became infected. Monkeys inoculated with the nef-deleted SIV clone exhibited a significantly reduced plasma virus load and a less pronounced accumulation of lymphocytes in the lung compared to monkeys infected with the pathogenic SIVmac251 isolate. Compared to pre-infection levels, we observed an increase in the levels of RANTES, MIP1-alpha and MIP1-beta production in the two groups of monkeys, by the time of peak viraemia. Strikingly, a greater enhancement of RANTES and MIP-1alpha production was detected in monkeys infected with the attenuated virus. Given the potential influence of beta-chemokines on the immune response and virus replication, such results suggest that RANTES, MIP1-alpha and MIP1-beta could contribute to the singular features of the immune response elicited during infection of macaques with an attenuated SIV.  (+info)

Role of the C-C chemokine, TCA3, in the protective anticryptococcal cell-mediated immune response. (6/787)

Activated T lymphocytes play a crucial role in orchestrating cellular infiltration during a cell-mediated immune (CMI) reaction. TCA3, a C-C chemokine, is produced by Ag-activated T cells and is chemotactic for neutrophils and macrophages, two cell types in a murine CMI reaction. Using a gelatin sponge model for delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), we show that TCA3 is a component of the expression phase of an anticryptococcal CMI response in mice. TCA3 mRNA levels are augmented in anticryptococcal DTH reactions at the same time peak influxes of neutrophils and lymphocytes are observed. Neutralization of TCA3 in immunized mice results in reduced numbers of neutrophils and lymphocytes at DTH reaction sites. However, when rTCA3 is injected into sponges in naive mice, only neutrophils are attracted into the sponges, indicating TCA3 is chemotactic for neutrophils, but not lymphocytes. We show that TCA3 is indirectly attracting lymphocytes into DTH-reactive sponges by affecting at least one other chemokine that is chemotactic for lymphocytes. Of the two lymphocyte-attracting chemokines assessed, monocyte-chemotactic protein-1 and macrophage-inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), only MIP-1alpha was reduced when TCA3 was neutralized, indicating that TCA3 affects the levels of MIP-1alpha, which attracts lymphocytes into the sponges. TCA3 also plays a role in protection against Cryptococcus neoformans in the lungs and brains of infected mice, as evidenced by the fact that neutralization of TCA3 results in increased C. neoformans CFU in those two organs.  (+info)

Visualization of chemokine binding sites on human brain microvessels. (7/787)

The chemokines monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha) aid in directing leukocytes to specific locales within the brain and spinal cord during central nervous system inflammation. However, it remains unclear how these chemokines exert their actions across a vascular barrier, raising speculation that interaction with endothelial cells might be required. Therefore, experiments were performed to determine whether binding domains for these chemokines exist along the outer surface of brain microvessels, a feature that could potentially relay chemokine signals from brain to blood. Using a biotinylated chemokine binding assay with confocal microscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction, spatially resolved binding sites for MCP-1 and MIP-alpha around human brain microvessels were revealed for the first time. Binding of labeled MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha could be inhibited by unlabeled homologous but not heterologous chemokine, and was independent of the presence of heparan sulfate, laminin, or collagen in the subendothelial matrix. This is the first evidence of specific and separate binding domains for MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha on the parenchymal surface of microvessels, and highlights the prospect that specific interactions of chemokines with microvascular elements influence the extent and course of central nervous system inflammation.  (+info)

Macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha expression by synovial fluid neutrophils in rheumatoid arthritis. (8/787)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the contribution made by synovial fluid (SF) neutrophils to the augmented expression of macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha (MIP-1alpha) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Neutrophils were isolated from samples of SF from RA patients and peripheral blood (PB) samples from RA patients and healthy controls. Cell associated MIP-1alpha was visualised immunohistochemically, and cell associated MIP-1alpha as well as MIP-1alpha secreted into the SF was assayed by ELISA. Steady state expression of MIP-1alpha mRNA was assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: Freshly isolated SF neutrophils contained significantly higher concentrations of both MIP-1alpha protein and its transcript than PB neutrophils from either RA patients or healthy controls; incubation in the absence or presence of tumour necrosis factor alpha for 24 hours resulted in a significant increase in MIP-1alpha secretion by RA SF neutrophils compared with neutrophils obtained from either normal PB or RA PB; and expression of MIP-1alpha by SF neutrophils was well correlated with both RA disease activity and SF mononuclear cell (MNC) counts. CONCLUSION: Expression and secretion of MIP-1alpha by SF neutrophils may be indicative of local and systemic inflammation in RA. Moreover, this C-C chemokine may contribute to the recruitment of MNCs from the bloodstream into synovial joints and tissues.  (+info)

CCL3 is expressed during experimental GVHD and may be important for the inflammatory response caused by acute GVHD (12, 13). The results reported herewith confirm the relevance of CCL3 in mediating GVHD in mice. Moreover, we report for the first time that blockade of CCL3 with a CBP, evasin-1, which prevents CCL3 function (17), ameliorated GVHD and prevented death. Treatment with evasin-1 prevented the influx of leukocytes, especially CD8+, CD4+ cells and macrophages, to the small intestine and decreased tissue damage in the liver. Mechanistically, inhibition of leukocyte influx to the intestine was due to inhibition by evasin-1 of the ability of leukocytes to adhere to endothelial cells in affected tissues. The latter results suggest that mediation of leukocyte adherence and subsequent migration is the major mechanism by which CCL3 participates in murine GVHD. Finally, the protective effects of evasin-1 against GVHD did not interfere with the beneficial effect of the graft against a leukemic ...
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Abcams Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 3 alpha ELISA Kit suitable for Cell culture extracts, Tissue Extracts in human. Reliably quantify 1.5 pg/ml of…
Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 1 alpha / CCL3兔多克隆抗体(ab25128)可与小鼠, 大鼠样本反应并经WB, IP, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被4篇文献引用并得到1个独立的用户反馈。
Mouse macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2, also known as MIP-2-alpha) is the homolog of human chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2) protein, a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine subfamily. MIP-2 is also homologous to rat CINC-2. MIP-2 is expressed by activated monocytes and neutrophils at sites of inflammation. It has also been shown to control mucosal lymphocyte migration in mice. MIP-2/CXCL2 is also known as GRO2 oncogene, GRO-beta, SCYB, SCYB2, and melanoma growth stimulating activity beta (MSGA-beta).. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - An essential role of macrophage inflammatory protein 1α/CCL3 on the expression of hosts innate immunities against infectious complications. AU - Takahashi, Hitoshi. AU - Tashiro, Tsuguhiko. AU - Miyazaki, Masaru. AU - Kobayashi, Makiko. AU - Pollard, Richard B.. AU - Suzuki, Fujio. PY - 2002/12/1. Y1 - 2002/12/1. N2 - Sepsis was induced by well-controlled cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α)/CCL3 knock-out (CCL3-/-) and severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. CCL3-/- mice and their littermates (CCL3+/+ mice) treated with anti-CCL3 monoclonal antibodies were susceptible (0-20% survival) to CLP-induced sepsis, and CCL3-/- mice supplemented with recombinant (r)CCL3 (250 ng/mouse) and CCL3+/+ mice were resistant (70-80% survival). The resistance of SCID mice to CLP was markedly improved by the rCCL3 administration (88% survival), and SCID mice treated with saline were shown to be middling resistant to the same CLP (45% survival). ...
Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the Double-antibody Sandwich method for detection of Rat Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 3 Alpha (MIP3a) in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates and other biological fluids with no significant corss-reactivity with analogues from other species ...
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The capacity of DCs to reach the site of injury/infection and consequently to initiate immunity is determined by their ability to respond to selected chemokines. In this study, we show that MIP-3α is a major chemokine produced by activated epithelial cells, and selectively active on LCs and their precursors. MIP-3αs unique activity suggests that it plays a key role in the control of LC recruitment at inflamed epithelial surfaces and in the regulation of epithelial immunity.. Among all CC chemokines tested, MIP-3α appears to be the most potent chemokine inducing the migration of LC precursors and freshly isolated LCs but not of any other DC population. This result is in line with the specific expression of CCR6 by cells of the LC lineage in contrast with other receptors such as CCR1, CCR2, and CCR5 that are expressed on several other DC populations ((9)(34); and Caux, C., manuscript in preparation). This observation is in accordance with previous reports showing that both CCR6 expression and ...
MSD offers a range of individual assays utilizing U-PLEX Antibody Sets that provide a rapid and convenient method for measuring biomarkers in complex matrices. The individual assays are offered on MSD GOLD Small Spot Streptavidin Plates and use the same antibody sets and diluents as the U-PLEX multiplex assays. This allows for efficient transfer between the individual assay and a higher throughput multiplex configuration. Typical of assays developed on the MSD platform, the individual assays have high sensitivity, excellent precision, provide up to five-logs of linear dynamic range, and require minimal sample volume. Human MIP-1β (CCL4), also known as lymphocyte activation gene 1 protein (LAG-1), G-26 T-lymphocyte-secreted protein, HC21, PAT 744, protein H400, SIS-gamma, small-inducible cytokine A4, and T-cell activation protein 2 (ACT-2), is a 10.2 kDa protein that binds to CCR5. CCR5 is shared between MIP-1β, MIP-1α, RANTES, and CCL3L1. MIP-1β is one of the major HIV suppressive factors ...
Mouse macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2, also known as MIP-2-alpha) is the homolog of human chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2) protein, a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine subfamily. MIP-2 is also homologous to rat CINC-2. MIP-2 is expressed by activated monocytes and neutrophils at sites of inflammation. It has also been shown to control mucosal lymphocyte migration in mice. MIP-2/CXCL2 is also known as GRO2 oncogene, GRO-beta, SCYB, SCYB2, and melanoma growth stimulating activity beta (MSGA-beta).. ...
国内在庫あります!HRP標識済みウサギ・ポリクローナル抗体 ab106028 交差種: Hu 適用: WB,ELISA…Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 1 beta抗体一覧…
Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 1 beta兔多克隆抗体可与小鼠, 大鼠样本反应并经WB, IP, Neut, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被4篇文献引用。
In vitro replication of SIVcpz is suppressed by beta-chemokines and CD8+ T cells but not by natural killer cells of infected chimpanzees ...
Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1 alpha belongs to a family of chemotactic cytokines known as chemokines. MIP-1 alpha and MIP-1 beta are the 2 major forms, officially named CCL3, and CCL4, respectively.
Determination of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, MIP-1α, IL-10, TGF-β1 and FGFb levels in the cell-free supernatant obtained from monocytes from healthy subjects (CG, n
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Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins (MIP) belong to the family of chemotactic cytokines known as chemokines. In humans, there are two major forms, MIP-1α and MIP-1β that are now officially named CCL3 and CCL4, respectively. Both are major factors produced by macrophages after they are stimulated with bacterial endotoxins. They are crucial for immune responses towards infection and inflammation. They activate human granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils) which can lead to acute neutrophilic inflammation. They also induce the synthesis and release of other pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1 (IL-1), IL-6 and TNF-α from fibroblasts and macrophages. The genes for CCL3 and CCL4 are both located on human chromosome 17. They are produced by many cells, particularly macrophages, dendritic cells, and lymphocytes. MIP-1 are best known for their chemotactic and proinflammatory effects but can also promote homoeostasis. Biophysical analyses and mathematical modelling has shown ...
bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine. The present study evaluated the release of cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1, tumour necrosis factor and IL-6] and chemokines [macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α and MIP-1β] by THP-1 derived macrophages infected with BCG vaccine obtained by growing mycobacteria in Viscondessa de Moraes Institute medium medium (oral) or Sauton medium (intradermic) to compare the effects of live and heat-killed (HK) mycobacteria. Because BCG has been reported to lose viability during the lyophilisation process and during storage, we examined whether exposing BCG to different temperatures also triggers differences in the expression of some important cytokines and chemokines of the immune response. Interestingly, we observed that HK mycobacteria stimulated cytokine and chemokine production in a different pattern from that observed with live mycobacteria ...
Pulmonary infection is normally a major reason behind mortality and morbidity as well as the magnitude from the lung inflammatory response correlates with affected person survival. and peptidoglycan (PGN) implemented intratracheally significantly elevated the amounts of neutrophils retrieved in the bronchoalveolar lavage liquid (BALF). F344 got approximately 10-flip even more neutrophils in the BALF weighed against DA (< 0.001) and higher BALF concentrations of total proteins tumor necrosis aspect-α and macrophage inflammatory proteins 2. LTA/PGN administration in DA×F344 congenic strains (with LTA/PGN created significantly higher degrees of keratinocyte-derived chemokine and macrophage inflammatory proteins 2 than alveolar macrophages from DA rats. The distinctions had been linked to differential mitogen-activated proteins kinase phosphorylation. We conclude the fact that factors adding to irritation could be site and problem dependent. A better knowledge of site-specific irritation can lead ...
Researchers found that fibromyalgia patients have higher concentrations of inflammatory chemokines, a biomarker which could help diagnose FM.
Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-5 Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing 92 amino acids.
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Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1 beta (MIP-1 beta, CCL4, MIP-1ß) is one of two major factor MIP proteins produced by macrophages following their stimulat
Finnegan, C., Berg, W., Lewis, G.K. and DeVico, A.L. Antigenic Properties of The Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmembrane Glycoprotein During Cell-Cell Fusion. In press. Fouts, T., Montefiori, D., Hanson, C., Kalyanaraman, V., DeVico, A. and Pal, R. Broadly Reactive Neutralizing Antibodies Elicited By Crosslinked HIV-1 Envelope-CD4 Receptor Complexes. In press Finnegan, C., Berg, W., Lewis, G.K. and DeVico, A.L. Temporal Changes In Epitope Exposure on The HIV Envelope During Cell-Cell Fusion. J. Virol. 75: 11096-11105 2001.. Kamin-Lewis R, Abdelwahab SF, Trang C, Baker A, DeVico AL, Gallo RC, Lewis GK. Perforin-Low Memory CD8+ Cells Are the Predominant T Cells In Normal Humans That Synthesize The Beta -Chemokine Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1beta. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98: 9283-8 2001.. DeVico AL. Mucosal and Systemic HIV Env-Specific CD8(+) T Cells Develop After Intragastric Vaccination with Salmonella Env DNA Vector Vaccine 20: 623-629 2001.. Cocchi, F., DeVico, A.L. et al Higher ...
Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha, CCL3, MIP-1a) is one of two MIP proteins that are the major factors produced by macrophages following
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Potassium atom in PDB 3kbx: Human Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1 Alpha L3M_V63M
Thus, it appears that two chemokines, MIP-3α and SDF-1α, are produced constitutively by human keratinocytes, and therefore could both be involved in LC homing to the epidermis. Our findings that SDF-1α does not attract LC precursors (Fig. 1 C) and that these cells also fail to express CXCR4 on their surface (Fig. 6 A) speak against a role of SDF-1α in LC homing. Since ex vivo-purified LCs express CCR2 transcripts (Fig. 5 B), one could argue that this receptor is involved in the attraction of LCs into the epidermis. This is unlikely because (a) resting keratinocytes do not express the CCR2 ligand MCP-1 at the protein level ((33); Fig. 7 E), and (b) LC precursors do not express CCR2 on their surface (Fig. 6 A), and do not migrate in response to MCP-1 (Fig. 1 B). In this context, it is noteworthy that mice genetically manipulated to express MCP-1 in the epidermis have close to normal LC numbers while accumulating dermal DCs and macrophage-like cells (34).. In conclusion, among all the ...
Product Name: Mouse mAb anti- human Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1 alpha (MIP-1α), Clone 199Collection: AntibodySub Category: Monoclonal AntibodyImmunogen:
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Blocking HIV-1 cell entry has long been a major goal of anti-HIV drug development. Here, we report a successful design of two highly potent chimeric HIV entry inhibitors composed of one CCR5-targeting RANTES (regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted) variant (5P12-RANTES or 5P14-RANTES (Gaertner, H., Cerini, F., Escola, J. M., Kuenzi, G., Melotti, A., Offord, R., Rossitto-Borlat, I., Nedellec, R., Salkow-itz, J., Gorochov, G., Mosier, D., and Hartley, O. (2008) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 17706 -17711)) linked to a gp41 fusion inhibitor, C37. Chimeric inhibitors 5P12-linker-C37 and 5P14-linker-C37 showed extremely high antiviral potency in single cycle and replication-competent viral assays against R5-tropic viruses, with IC50 values as low as 0.004 nM. This inhi-bition was somewhat strain-dependent and was up to 100-fold better than the RANTES variant alone or in combination with unlinked C37. The chimeric inhibitors also fully retained the antiviral activity of C37 ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (CCL20) or liver activation regulated chemokine (LARC) or Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-3 (MIP3A) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. It is strongly chemotactic for lymphocytes and weakly attracts neutrophils. CCL20 is implicated in the formation and function of mucosal lymphoid tissues via chemoattraction of lymphocytes and dendritic cells towards the epithelial cells surrounding these tissues. CCL20 elicits its effects on its target cells by binding and activating the chemokine receptor CCR6. Gene expression of CCL20 can be induced by microbial factors such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor and interferon-γ, and down-regulated by IL-10. CCL20 is expressed in several tissues with highest expression observed in peripheral blood lymphocytes, lymph nodes, liver, appendix, and fetal lung and lower levels in thymus, testis, prostate and gut. The gene for CCL20 (scya20) is located on ...
CCL5 is an 8kDa protein classified as a chemotactic cytokine or chemokine. CCL5 is chemotactic for T cells, eosinophils, and basophils, and plays an active role in recruiting leukocytes into inflammatory sites. With the help of particular cytokines (i.e., IL-2 and IFN-γ) that are released by T cells, CCL5 also induces the proliferation and activation of certain natural-killer (NK) cells to form CHAK (CC-Chemokine-activated killer) cells.[6] It is also an HIV-suppressive factor released from CD8+ T cells[citation needed]. This chemokine has been localized to chromosome 17 in humans.[5]. RANTES was first identified in a search for genes expressed late (3-5 days) after T cell activation. It was subsequently determined to be a CC chemokine and expressed in more than 100 human diseases. RANTES expression is regulated in T lymphocytes by Kruppel like factor 13 (KLF13).[7][8][9][10] RANTES, along with the related chemokines MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta, has been identified as a natural HIV-suppressive ...
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MIP-3 alpha is a CC chemokine that is expressed in the liver, lymph nodes, appendix, PBL and lung and can signal through the CCR6 receptor. MIP-3 alpha is chemotactic towards lymphocytes and dendritic cells. Additionally, it promotes the adhesion of memory CD4+ T cells and inhibits colony formation of bone marrow myeloid immature progenitors. Recombinant human MIP-3 alpha is an 8.0 kDa protein containing 70 amino acid residues, including the four highly conserved cysteine residues present in CC chemokines ...
A summary of the article is shown below:. The present study aimed to ascertain the potential roles and mechanisms of action of micro (mi)RNA‑22 in ischemic stroke. The results indicated that miRNA‑22 expression was downregulated in ischemic stroke rats model, compared with a control group. The downregulation of miRNA‑22 upregulated the expression of inflammatory factors [including tumor necrosis factor‑α, interleukin (IL)‑1β, IL‑6 and IL‑18]. It could also induce the expression of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP‑2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), cyclooxygenase‑2 (COX‑2) and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in the in vitro model. By contrast, the overexpression of miRNA‑22 downregulated the expression of inflammatory factors, and suppressed the expression of MIP‑2, PGE2, COX‑2 and iNOS in the in vitro model. The downregulation of miRNA‑22 induced the protein expression of nuclear factor (NF)‑κB and phosphorylated‑p38 (p‑p38) mitogen‑activated protein kinase ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase is a regulator of chemokine production. T2 - Relevance for the pathogenesis of shock and inflammation. AU - Haskó, György. AU - Mabley, Jon G.. AU - Németh, Zoltán H.. AU - Pacher, Pál. AU - Deitch, Edwin A.. AU - Szabo, Csaba. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Background: Chemokines are key regulators of leukocyte traffic in various forms of inflammation and reperfusion injury. There is emerging evidence that the activation of the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) importantly contributes to the up-regulation of a variety of proinflammatory signal transduction pathways and associated genes. Materials and Methods: We tested whether the expression of the chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α and MIP-2 are under the control of PARP during inflammation. Results: Pharmacologic inhibition of PARP and genetic deletion of PARP suppressed the expression of MIP-1α and MIP-2 protein and mRNA in immunostimulated cultured murine ...
The purpose of this study was to determine whether certain chemokines, which are highly expressed in injured skeletal muscle, are involved in the repair and functional recovery of the muscle after traumatic injury. In wild-type control mice, mRNA transcripts of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 as well as their major receptors, CC
The question why CD4+/CD25+ T cells are reduced in asthmatic patients has not been answered yet; however, it has been observed that these cells reveal a reduced response to the chemokines CCL1 and CXCL1 suggesting an impaired recruitment to the lung [137, 138 ...
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Townson JR, Barcellos LF, Nibbs RJ (2002). "Gene copy number regulates the production of the human chemokine CCL3-L1". Eur. J. ... 1999). "The assignment of chemokine-chemokine receptor pairs: TARC and MIP-1 beta are not ligands for human CC-chemokine ... C-C motif chemokine 4-like is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCL4L1 gene. This gene is one of several cytokine ... "Entrez Gene: CCL4L1 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4-like 1". Retrieved 8 February 2013. Human CCL4L2 genome location and CCL4L2 ...
Townson JR, Barcellos LF, Nibbs RJ (October 2002). "Gene copy number regulates the production of the human chemokine CCL3-L1". ... This protein binds to several chemokine receptors including chemokine binding protein 2 (CCBP2 or D6) and chemokine (C-C motif ... This gene is one of several chemokine genes clustered on the q-arm of chromosome 17. Chemokines are a family of secreted ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3-like 1, also known as CCL3L1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CCL3L1 gene. ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligands 4, also known as CCL4, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CCL4 gene. CCL4, also known ... CCL4 has been shown to interact with CCL3. CCL4 binds to G protein-Coupled Receptors CCR5 and CCR8. Macrophage inflammatory ... Concentration of this chemokine has been shown to be inversely related with MicroRNA-125b. Concentration of CCL4 within the ... Combadiere C, Ahuja SK, Murphy PM (July 1995). "Cloning and functional expression of a human eosinophil CC chemokine receptor ...
The biological effect is carried out through ligation of chemokine receptors CCR1 (ligand CCL3) and CCR5 (ligands CCL3 and CCL4 ... December 2010). "Polymerization of MIP-1 chemokine (CCL3 and CCL4) and clearance of MIP-1 by insulin-degrading enzyme". The ... There are two chemokines in the MIP-3 group. MIP-3α (CCL20) and MIP-3β (CCL19). MIP-3α is binding to receptor CCR6. CCL20 is ... The genes for CCL3 and CCL4 are both located on human chromosome 17 and on murine chromosome 11. They are produced by many ...
The Gp120 envelope protein is a chemokine mimic. Though it lacks the unique structure of a chemokine, it is still capable of ... CCR5's cognate ligands include CCL3, CCL4 (also known as MIP 1α and 1β, respectively), and CCL3L1. CCR5 furthermore interacts ... It is a G protein-coupled receptor which functions as a chemokine receptor in the CC chemokine group. ... C-C chemokine receptor type 5, also known as CCR5 or CD195, is a protein on the surface of white blood cells that is involved ...
Chemokine-like protein TAFA-5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TAFA5 gene. This gene is a member of the TAFA ... These proteins contain conserved cysteine residues at fixed positions, and are distantly related to CCL3, a member of the CC- ... "TAFA5 TAFA chemokine like family member 5 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]". National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved ... chemokine family. The TAFA proteins are predominantly expressed in specific regions of the brain, and are postulated to ...
... host-derived pro-inflammatory chemokines (e.g. CXCL8, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL11, CXCL10), platelet-activating factor, and ... stimulates their expression the chemokine receptor, CCR5, to inhibit chemokine signaling, enhances their phagocyte activity, ... CMKLR1 (chemokine receptor-like 1), also termed the ChemR23 or E series resolvin receptor (ERV), is expressed on inflammation- ...
C-C chemokine receptor type 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCR1 gene. CCR1 has also recently been designated ... The ligands of this receptor include CCL3 (or MIP-1 alpha), CCL5 (or RANTES), CCL7 (or MCP-3), and CCL23 (or MPIF-1). ... "Entrez Gene: CCR1 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 1". Struyf S, Menten P, Lenaerts JP, Put W, D'Haese A, De Clercq E, Schols D, ... This gene and other chemokine receptor genes, including CCR2, CCRL2, CCR3, CCR5 and CXCR1, are found to form a gene cluster on ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 18 (CCL18) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. The functions of CCL18 have ... Because of these pseudo-exons, it is believed that CCL18 arose as a result of a gene fusion event between CCL3-like protein ... It was previously known as Pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine (PARC), dendritic cell (DC)-chemokine 1 (DC-CK1), ... Chemokines are classed as a special type of cytokine that is involved in immune cell trafficking. CCL18 in particular has some ...
positive regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production. • positive regulation of JUN kinase activity. • positive ... positive regulation of chemokine production. • cellular extravasation. • negative regulation of lipid storage. • negative ... positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • epithelial cell proliferation involved in salivary gland morphogenesis ... Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
... as well as chemokine and cytokine production, and expression of adhesion molecules such as E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. This ... Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • regulation of insulin secretion. • extrinsic apoptotic signaling ... Copeland KF (2006). "Modulation of HIV-1 transcription by cytokines and chemokines". Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry. 5 (12 ... Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
chemokine activity. • cytokine activity. • heparin binding. • protein binding. • CXCR3 chemokine receptor binding. ... Agonists: CCL3 (MIP-1α). *CCL4 (MIP-1β). *CCL5 (RANTES). *CCL8 ... "Entrez Gene: CXCL11 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11".. *^ a b ... C-X-C motif chemokine 11 is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also called Interferon-inducible T- ... This chemokine elicits its effects on its target cells by interacting with the cell surface chemokine receptor CXCR3, with a ...
Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
Activation of dectin-1 also triggers expression of many protecting antifungal cytokines and chemokines (TNF, CXCL2, IL-1b, IL- ... 1a, CCL3, GM-CSF, G-CSF and IL-6) and the development of Th17. Histoplasma capsulatum can evade recognition of β-glucan via ... This transcription factor is responsible for the production of numerous inflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as TNF, IL- ...
... identical in amino acid composition to CCL3 and CCL4. This chemokine is expressed in various tissues including spleen, bone ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 14 (CCL14) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. It is also commonly known as ... Human CCL14 is located on chromosome 17 within a cluster of other chemokines belonging to the CC family. Schulz-Knappe et al., ... Naruseet al., A YAC contig of the human CC chemokine genes clustered on chromosome 17q11.2. Genomics, 1996, 34: 236-240. v t e ...
When the 12-amino acid sequence of 'peptide 3'/CCL2 is aligned with the sequences of the other chemokines CCL3, CXCL8 and ... CCL3, CXCL8 and CXCL12 with roughly equal potency of 10μM, but not migration induced by other non-chemokine chemoattractants ... CCL2, CCL3, CCL5 and CXCL12 with THP-1 monocytes, and vs. CXCL8 with neutrophils. In addition NR58,3-14-3 does not ... In addition Val11 is also present in CCL3 and CXCL8. The corresponding 11th amino acid in CXCL12 is Ile. Ala4 in CCL2 is also ...
Breakthrough infection Broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies Bursa of Fabricius C-C chemokine receptor type 6 C-C chemokine ... CCL1 CCL11 CCL12 CCL13 CCL14 CCL15 CCL16 CCL17 CCL18 CCL19 CCL2 CCL20 CCL21 CCL22 CCL23 CCL24 CCL25 CCL26 CCL27 CCL28 CCL3 CCL5 ... CD4 CD4+ T cells and antitumor immunity CD74 CD94/NKG2 Cell-mediated immunity CELSR1 Central tolerance Chemokine Chemokine ... CR6261 CroFab Cross-presentation Cross-reactivity Cryptic self epitopes Cryptotope CX3CL1 CX3CR1 CXC chemokine receptors CXCL1 ...
In addition to other chemokines, such as CCL2, CCL3, and CCL4, the presence of CCL1 has been reported in the development of ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 1 (CCL1) is also known as small inducible cytokine A1 and I-309 in humans. CCL1 is a small ... CCL1 is encoded by CCL1 gene which is one of the several chemokine genes clustered on the chromosome 17q11.2-q12 in humans. It ... July 1998). "The chemokine receptor CCR8 is preferentially expressed in Th2 but not Th1 cells". Journal of Immunology. 161 (2 ...
... encoding protein Zinc finger protein 207 Several CC chemokines: CCL1, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL7, CCL8, CCL11, CCL13, CCL14, ... C-C motif chemokine ligand 4 like 1 (17q12) DDX52: DExD-box helicase 52 (17q12) ERBB2 loca leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2, ...
The chemokines CCL5/RANTES, CCL3/MIP-1α, CCL4/MIP-1β, all of which bind to CCR5, are inhibitory to HIV-1 replication in ... Chemokines are divided into four main subfamilies: C, CC, CXC, and CX3C. Microglial cells are sources of some chemokines and ... The chemokine receptor, CX3CR1, is expressed by microglia in the central nervous system. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is the exclusive ... Chemokines are cytokines that stimulate directional migration of inflammatory cells in vitro and in vivo. ...
Typical inflammatory chemokines include: CCL2, CCL3 and CCL5, CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL8. A typical example is CXCL-8, which acts ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines in that it has ... CCL1 for the ligand 1 of the CC-family of chemokines, and CCR1 for its respective receptor. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) ...
"Entrez Gene: CCL3 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3". Wolpe SD, Davatelis G, Sherry B, Beutler B, Hesse DG, Nguyen HT, Moldawer LL ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3 (CCL3) also known as macrophage inflammatory protein 1-alpha (MIP-1-alpha) is a protein that in ... CCL3 is a cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family that is involved in the acute inflammatory state in the recruitment and ... Human CCL3 genome location and CCL3 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Menten P, Wuyts A, Van Damme J (Dec 2002). " ...
The CC chemokines CCL3, CCL5, CCL17 and CCL22 signal through this receptor. CCR5 is expressed on several cell types including ... This receptor has several CC chemokine ligands including CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL11, CCL13, CCL14 and CCL16. CCR6, a ... The CC chemokine receptors all work by activating the G protein Gi. CCR1 was the first CC chemokine receptor identified and ... CC chemokine receptors (or beta chemokine receptors) are integral membrane proteins that specifically bind and respond to ...
Chemokine ligands CXCL9, CXCL10, and CCL5 that bind to chemokine receptors such as CXCR3 and CCR5, Immune suppressive or ... Antigen-activated T cells secrete CCR5 ligands (CCL2 and CCL3) to recruit natural killer (NK) cells and other innate immune ... These initiate the following cascade: CXCR3 ligand chemokines (CXCL-9, -10 and -11) are produced in response to activated B ... To illustrate, growth factors and chemokines activated in response to injury are recruited by tumour cells, sustaining chronic ...
chemokine receptor activity. • receptor activity. • protein binding. • C-C chemokine receptor activity. • C-C chemokine binding ... Agonists: CCL3 (MIP-1α). *CCL4 (MIP-1β). *CCL5 (RANTES). *CCL8 ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine ... "Entrez Gene: CCR6 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6".. *^ Wang K, Zhang H, Kugathasan S, Annese V, Bradfield JP, Russell RK, ... "Chemokine Receptors: CCR6". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
Chemokine. CCL. CCL1 · CCL2 · CCL3 · CCL4 · CCL5 · CCL6 · CCL7 · CCL8 · CCL9 · CCL11 · CCL12 · CCL13 · CCL14 · CCL15 · CCL16 · ...
Chemokine Receptors: CCR5". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... takođe poznat kao CCL3 i CCL4). On isto tako formira interakcije sa CCL3L1.[5][7] ... 1998). „Structural interactions between chemokine receptors, gp120 Env and CD4". Semin. Immunol. 10 (3): 249-57. PMID 9653051. ... Freedman BD, Liu QH, Del Corno M, Collman RG (2004). „HIV-1 gp120 chemokine receptor-mediated signaling in human macrophages". ...
Typical inflammatory chemokines include: CCL2, CCL3 and CCL5, CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL8. A typical example is CXCL-8, which acts ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ...
C-X-C chemokine receptor activity. • interleukin-8 binding. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. • chemokine receptor ... Agonists: CCL3 (MIP-1α). *CCL4 (MIP-1β). *CCL5 (RANTES). *CCL8 ... "Chemokine Receptors: CXCR1". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and ... This name and the corresponding gene symbol IL8RA have been replaced by the HGNC approved name C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 1 ... chemokine-mediated signaling pathway. • interleukin-8-mediated signaling pathway. • neutrophil degranulation. • chemotaxis. ...
Chemokines. CCL3, CCL26, CXCL7 Immunomodulatory imide drugs (IMiDs). thalidomide and its analogues (lenalidomide, pomalidomide ... Others including IL-2, IL-7, IL-12, various chemokines, synthetic cytosine phosphate-guanosine (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotides and ...
1996). "HCC-1, a novel chemokine from human plasma.". J. Exp. Med. 183: 295-299. CS1 održavanje: Eksplicitna upotreba et al. ( ... On je 46 % identičan po aminokiselinskoj kompoziciji sa CCL3 i CCL4. Ovaj hemokin je izražen u nizu tkiva uključujući slezinu, ... 1996). "A YAC contig of the human CC chemokine genes clustered on chromosome 17q11.2". Genomics 34: 236-240. CS1 održavanje: ...
... and CCL3) and increased production of an anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10).[8] ...
Several CC chemokines: CCL1, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL7, CCL8, CCL11, CCL13, CCL14, CCL15, CCL16, CCL18, and CCL23 ...
1995). "Molecular characterization of two murine eosinophil beta chemokine receptors.". J. Immunol. 155 (11): 5299-305. PMID ... Za CCL4 je bilo pokazano da interaguje sa CCL3.[6] Vidi još[uredi - уреди , uredi izvor]. *Macrofag inflamatorni protein ... Combadiere C, Ahuja SK, Murphy PM (1995). "Cloning and functional expression of a human eosinophil CC chemokine receptor.". J. ... 1994). "The chemokines IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and I-309 are monomers at physiologically relevant ...
MIP-1α/CCL-3, RANTES/CCL-5 ja interleukiin-8 suurenenud ekspressiooni. ... replication of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus and aberrant induction of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in ...
CCL3 Gene Structure. Chromosome: chr17 Genbank ID: NM_002983 Orientation: - Length coding sequence : 276 nucleotides. Region. ... Find PDB entities (unique chains) for CCL3 View list of all current human gene IDs ... Previous Names: "small inducible cytokine A3 (homologous to mouse Mip-1a)", "chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3" ...
We and others have shown that the human beta-chemokine CCL3-L1, unlike its related non-allelic isoform CCL3, has high affinity ... higher gene copy number correlates with an increased ratio of CCL3-L1 versus CCL3 mRNA, and enhanced chemokine production. ... The other isoforms (CCL3 and CCL4) remain at two copies per dpg. Importantly, in a model system of pro-inflammatory chemokine ... Gene copy number regulates the production of the human chemokine CCL3-L1.. Townson JR1, Barcellos LF, Nibbs RJ. ...
Chemokines CCL3, CCL4, and CCL5 are known agonists of chemokine receptors CCR1, CCR3, and CCR5 [12]. CXCL16 binds to receptor ... β was dose dependently and efficiently inhibited by chemokines CCL3, CCL4, and CCL5 (. ; , each), whereas chemokine CXCL16 was ... Here, we only investigated chemokines CCL3, CCL4, and CCL5 with a focus on CCL3. The concept should be confirmed with other ... We propose that when U937 cells are stimulated with ATP and chemokine CCL3 concomitantly, chemokine receptor CCR1 activates the ...
The chemokine CCL3 (MIP1α) is produced following RSV infection and is broadly chemotactic for both T cells and natural killer ( ... While fewer T cells were recruited to the lungs of either CCL3 knockout or anti-CCL3 treated RSV infected mice, more RSV- ... CCL3 depletion did not alter the recruitment of natural killer (NK) cells to the lungs during the early stage, but depletion ... Conclusions/Significance CCL3 regulates the balance of T cell populations in the lung and can alter the outcome of RSV ...
Research proven purified goat polyclnal MIP1 alpha or CCL3 antibody. Designed for immunohistochemistry, western blotting, ELISA ... Human CCL3L1/LD78b binds and signals through chemokine receptors CCR1, CCR5. When compared to CCL3/LD78a, CCL3L1/LD78b has ... Whereas the human CCL3/LD78a is a single-copy gene, the human CCL3L1/LD78b gene copy number varies within the population. ... MIP-1 alpha (macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha) is a member of the CC or beta chemokine subfamily that was originally ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Genetic variation in the CCL18-CCL3-CCL4 chemokine gene cluster influences HIV ... Genetic variation in the CCL18-CCL3-CCL4 chemokine gene cluster influences HIV type 1 transmission and AIDS disease progression ... Genetic variation in the CCL18-CCL3-CCL4 chemokine gene cluster influences HIV type 1 transmission and AIDS disease progression ... title = "Genetic variation in the CCL18-CCL3-CCL4 chemokine gene cluster influences HIV type 1 transmission and AIDS disease ...
Evasin-1 is characterized by its exquisite selectivity for three CC chemokines: CCL3, CCL4, and the closely related chemokine ... A group of B6D2F1 mice (CCL3−/− group) received C57BL/6J splenocytes from CCL3-deficient mice (C57BL/6J CCL3−/− → B6D2F1). ... CCL3 is a protein of the CC chemokine family known to be important for T cell recruitment in inflammatory diseases. The aim of ... When WT B6D2F1 mice received parental splenocytes of C57BL/6J CCL3−/− (CCL3−/− group), the levels of CCL3 in intestine were ...
You need info about Human C-C motif chemokine 3 (CCL3) ELISA Kit or any other Gentaur produtct? Contact us on Live Chat Our ... Human (Homo sapiens) CCL3 elisa. Shipping, handling and storage. The kit is shipped on ice packs. Upon receiving it store the ... Detects Human (Homo sapiens) CCL3; Additional information. ...
Chemokines are key inflammatory mediators, several of which (MCP-1, RANTES, MIP-1α, fractalkine, SDF-1 among others) have been ... The important roles chemokines play in inflammation and pain make them an attractive therapeutic target. Peroxisome ... The important roles chemokines play in inflammation and pain make them an attractive therapeutic target. Peroxisome ... PPAR agonists have wide-ranging effects including inhibition of chemokine expression and pain behavior reduction in animal ...
... ccl3, ccl5, cxcl11, cxcl12) single-domain Antibody scFv Fragment is available from creative biolabs. ... chemokine (ccl2, ccl3, ccl5, cxcl11, cxcl12) single-domain; ccl2; ccl3; ccl5; cxcl11; cxcl12; chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2; ... Chemokine (ccl2, Ccl3, Ccl5, Cxcl11, Cxcl12) Single-domain. *Recombinant Anti-chemokine (ccl2, ccl3, ccl5, cxcl11, cxcl12) ... ccl3, ccl5, cxcl11, cxcl12) single-domain Antibody Fab Fragment ( MOB-198-F(E) ) Recombinant Human Anti-chemokine (ccl2, ccl3, ...
chemokine receptor activity. • receptor activity. • protein binding. • C-C chemokine receptor activity. • C-C chemokine binding ... Agonists: CCL3 (MIP-1α). *CCL4 (MIP-1β). *CCL5 (RANTES). *CCL8 ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine ... "Entrez Gene: CCR6 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6".. *^ Wang K, Zhang H, Kugathasan S, Annese V, Bradfield JP, Russell RK, ... "Chemokine Receptors: CCR6". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
PTB individuals with bilateral or cavitary disease displayed significantly elevated levels of CCL1, CCL3, CXCL1, CXCL10 and ... Whether chemokines can perform the same role in PTB is not known. We examined the plasma levels of chemokines in individuals ... Finally, the chemokines were significantly reduced following successful ATT. Our data demonstrate that PTB is associated with ... We also examined the chemokines in PTB individuals at the end of anti-tuberculous chemotherapy (ATT). PTB individuals exhibited ...
This review will focus on recent murine and human studies that use chemokines as therapeutic anti-cancer vaccine adjuvants. ... Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing ... This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential ... Chemokine Approach. Cancer Type. Murine or Human. Reference. DC Vaccines. Use of CCL3 and CCL20 to improve DCs collection ...
"Entrez Gene: CCL3 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3". Wolpe SD, Davatelis G, Sherry B, Beutler B, Hesse DG, Nguyen HT, Moldawer LL ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3 (CCL3) also known as macrophage inflammatory protein 1-alpha (MIP-1-alpha) is a protein that in ... CCL3 is a cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family that is involved in the acute inflammatory state in the recruitment and ... Human CCL3 genome location and CCL3 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Menten P, Wuyts A, Van Damme J (Dec 2002). " ...
... or Ccl3−/− (n = 7) BM. The Ccl3−/− BM transplanted mice were also injected with WT (Ccl3+/+, n = 7) or Ccl3−/− (n = 6) ... CCR2 signaling regulates CCL3 expression in MAMs. (A) Levels of Ccl3 mRNA (left) and CCL3 protein (right) in BMDMs isolated ... We show that activation of CCR2 signaling prompts MAMs to secrete another chemokine, CCL3. The increased CCL3 secretion results ... Importantly, a single injection of Ccl3+/+ IMs but not IMs lacking CCL3 was sufficient to rescue the suppressive effect of Ccl3 ...
Typical inflammatory chemokines include: CCL2, CCL3 and CCL5, CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL8. A typical example is CXCL-8, which acts ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines in that it has ... CCL1 for the ligand 1 of the CC-family of chemokines, and CCR1 for its respective receptor. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) ...
In the present study, we investigated the role of CC-chemokine ligand 3 (CCL3) in the spinal cord in the development and ... Paclitaxel-treated rats showed a significant increase in the expression of mRNAs for CCL3 and its receptor CCR5 in the SDH. ... Our findings suggest a contribution of CCL3 and P2X7Rs in the SDH to paclitaxel-induced allodynia and may provide new ... Intrathecal administration of a CCL3-neutralizing antibody not only attenuated the development of paclitaxel-induced mechanical ...
Chemokine CCL3 * Chemokine CCL4 * Chemokine CXCL1 * Chemokine CXCL2 * Chemokines, CXC* * Chemotactic Factors / genetics ... The MIP proteins are members of a superfamily of cytokines called chemokines, many of which have been shown to possess ... While MIPs were originally identified as secretory products of endotoxin-stimulated mouse macrophages, these chemokines are ... it is likely these chemokines play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses and may contribute to the pathogenesis of ...
Chemokine CCL3 * Interleukin-12 Subunit p40 * Lipopolysaccharides * NF-kappa B p50 Subunit ... limits the enhanced production of LPS-induced cytokines/chemokines. Taken together, our studies reveal previously undescribed ... mye mice exhibited exaggerated inflammatory cytokine/chemokine production, and organ injury in response to lipopolysaccharide ( ... negative regulatory role for GRK2 in TLR4-induced p105-ERK pathway as well as in the consequent inflammatory cytokine/chemokine ...
Ccl3, C-C motif chemokine ligand 3; Nos2, nitric oxide synthase 2; Ccr2, C-C motif chemokine receptor 2; Col, collagen; Hif-1α ...
Typical inflammatory chemokines include: CCL2, CCL3 and CCL5, CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL8. A typical example is CXCL-8, which acts ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ...
... that CCL3 is the key chemokine involved in chemoattraction of immature DCs. Infected C57BL/6 mice displayed high levels of CCL3 ... To confirm the role of CCL3 in DC recruitment in vivo, C57BL/6 mice or mice genetically deficient in CCL3 (CCL3−/−) on the ... 4. CCL3 is a major DC-attracting chemokine in the ear dermis one day post L. major inoculation. (A) C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice ... C57BL/6 neutrophils secrete CCL3 a chemokine known to attract immature DCs, and that the production of chemokines by BALB/c ...
These include chemokines (CK), such as MIP-1α (macrophage inflammatory proteins-1 alpha, CCL3) and MIP-1β (CCL4), RANTES ( ... Chemokine Receptors on Blood and NK-Cells. Conventional and NK-cells present in the normal PB have different CKR repertoires ( ... 3.1.2. Chemokine Receptors on Conventional NK-Cells. In contrast to NK-cells, the majority of the NK-cells are CXCR1/CXCR2− and ... and the chemokine receptors CXCR3 and/or CCR5 (Figure 2): CD16+ CCR5/CXCR3− (or simply ), CD16+/− CCR5/CXCR3+ (or simply ), and ...
The aim of the study was to analyse the expression and production of these three chemokines within the joints of children with ... We show that high levels of all three chemokines are present in synovial fluid of children with JIA. We investigate the major ... All three of these chemokines are highly expressed at the level of mRNA, with the most significant increase in mRNA levels ... CXCL10 and CCL3, which are potential novel therapeutic targets in arthritis. ...
This scholarly study focuses upon three chemokines, namely CCL5, CCL3 and. * Post author By careersfromscience ... This scholarly study focuses upon three chemokines, namely CCL5, CCL3 and CXCL10, that are potential novel therapeutic targets ... chemokines might perform a primary part within the activation of leukocytes also. For instance, the chemokine CCL5 (also called ... chemokines and their receptors represent potential focuses on for new therapeutics [25,26] and medicines that prevent chemokine ...
Ccl3 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3 MGI:98260 .yui-skin-sam .yui-dt th{ background:url(http://www.informatics.jax.org/webshare/ ...
... the CC chemokines CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, CCL11, CCL17, CCL18, CCL19, CCL21, CCL22; the CXC chemokines CXCL8, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL12; ... Generally, CC chemokines potently attract monocytes, T lymphocytes, eosinophils, and basophils, whereas CXC chemokines are ... Differences between our study and previous studies, chemokine function, and chemokine levels are summarized in Table 4. Before ... The concentrations of IL-6 and the following chemokines were measured: the chemokine-like macrophage migration inhibitory ...
CCL3,. Chemotactic T cells and. -. CCL3-CCR1 axis serves an. (147). CCL5,. monocytes are involved. important role in the ... Among the four types of chemokines, there are two highly homologous XC chemokines: XC motif chemokine ligand 1 (XCL1) and XCL2 ... Chemokine receptors. Chemokines. Functions. Signaling pathways. Role in HCC. (Refs.). CXCR1. CXCL6,. Chemotactic neutrophils. - ... chemokines can bind to the atypical chemokine receptor (ACKR) subfamily, which is a key regulator of the chemokine network, and ...
CCL3 ELISA Kit suitable for Cell culture supernatant, Serum, Plasma in human. Reliably quantify 6 pg/ml of… ... Chemokine C C motif ligand 3. *G0/G1 switch regulatory protein 19 1 ... Human MIP1a ELISA Kit (CCL3). See all Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 1 alpha / CCL3 kits. ... Abcams MIP1a (CCL3) Human ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) kit is an in vitro enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for ...
CCL3 gene; CCL4 gene; Cerebellum; chemokine; Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 4; Child; Complex; cytokine; density; Development; ... Immune system status will be established by measuring cytokines, chemokines, immunoglobulins, and quantifying immune system ... chemokine; Child; Core Facility; cytokine; Data; Developmental Delay Disorders; Disease; Environmental Health; Fetus; Gene ...
  • We and others have shown that the human beta-chemokine CCL3-L1, unlike its related non-allelic isoform CCL3, has high affinity for the chemokine receptors D6, CCR3 and CCR5. (nih.gov)
  • Human CCL3L1/LD78b binds and signals through chemokine receptors CCR1, CCR5. (neuromics.com)
  • Here, for the first time, we present a review of the literature linking chemokines in neuropathic pain to activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). (frontiersin.org)
  • Among the genes repressed by activated PPARs are those of chemokines and their receptors. (frontiersin.org)
  • To date, there are more than 50 chemokines and 18 chemokine receptors identified [ 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Most chemokines bind to more than one receptor, while most receptors also display overlapping ligand specificity [ 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Paclitaxel also upregulated expression of purinoceptor P2X7 receptors (P2X7Rs), which have been implicated in the release of CCL3 from microglia, in the SDH. (biomedcentral.com)
  • All of these proteins exert their biological effects by interacting with G protein -linked transmembrane receptors called chemokine receptors , that are selectively found on the surfaces of their target cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies of chemokine receptors (CKR) in natural killer- (NK-) cells have already been published, but only a few gave detailed information on its differential expression on blood NK-cell subsets. (hindawi.com)
  • Functionally distinct subsets of leukocytes express different chemokine receptors: thus, recently activated, effector and memory T cells express high levels of the receptors that bind inflammatory chemokines, thought to facilitate their accumulation at inflammatory sites, compared to naïve cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have previously shown that inflammatory T cells in the joint in JIA are predominantly of an activated memory phenotype and express high levels of the chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR3, and that this correlates with the highly Th-1 skewed phenotype of synovial T cells, which make high levels of IFNγ [ 18 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Functionally specific subsets of leukocytes communicate different chemokine receptors: therefore, recently activated, memory space and effector T cellular material communicate high degrees of the receptors that bind inflammatory chemokines, considered to facilitate their build up at inflammatory sites, in comparison to na?ve cells. (careersfromscience.org)
  • We've previously demonstrated that inflammatory T cellular material within the joint in JIA are mainly of an triggered memory space phenotype and communicate high degrees of the chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR3, and that correlates using the Th-1 skewed phenotype of synovial T cellular material extremely, which will make high degrees of IFN [18]. (careersfromscience.org)
  • It has been found that chemokines and their receptors serve a pivotal role in HCC progression. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Thus, chemokines and their receptors directly or indirectly shape the tumor cell microenvironment, and regulate the biological behavior of the tumor. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Exosomes containing chemokines or expressing receptors for chemokines may improve chemotaxis to HCC and may thus be exploited for targeted drug delivery. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chemokines bind to a variety of different receptors, which belong to the G-protein-binding receptor family, and there are ~23 types of chemokine receptors that have been discovered ( 10 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chemokines and their receptors were initially thought to allow for an interaction between immune cells and the inflammatory sites ( 11 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • After binding to the receptors, chemokines primarily serve a role in migration of leukocytes, such as monocytes, eosinophils and dendritic cells (DCs) ( 11 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chemokines receptors are seven transmembrane spanning G protein-coupled receptors that allow cells to migrate towards increasing chemokine gradients. (biolegend.com)
  • Specific chemokine receptors are often required to gain entry (or exit) from certain organs and tissues like the thymus and bone marrow. (biolegend.com)
  • The polarization of T cells into Th1 and Th2 cells is associated with their expression of subsets of chemokine receptors. (wikipathways.org)
  • Chemokine signals are transduced by G-protein coupled receptors, which dissociate to activate diverse downstream pathways resulting in cellular polarization and actin reorganization. (wikipathways.org)
  • Performed additionally, immunofluorescence staining undoubtedly revealed that CCL3, CCL9, and their receptors (CCR1 and CCR5) are expressed predominantly by neurons. (frontiersin.org)
  • Chemotactic and growth signals initiated by chemokines are mediated by the activation of G-protein-coupled receptors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • With the aim of further understanding chemokine action in human ovarian cancer, we investigated CC chemokine receptors and their ligands in ascitic fluid samples. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This, to our knowledge, is the first detailed study of CC chemokines and their receptors in human ovarian cancer ascites. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Various chemokines, cytokines, and chemokine receptors are upregulated in the inflammatory cell infiltrates, blood vessels, and myofibers in s-IBM. (medscape.com)
  • Completion of these steps requires intricate leukocyte trafficking patterns coordinated by chemokines and their receptors ( 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Chemokines and their receptors are involved in the pathogenesis of renal diseases. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Recent advances in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate renal leukocyte recruitment suggest chemokines and chemokine receptors as novel targets for specific pharmacological intervention. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Design of dual antagonists for the chemokine receptors CCR2 and CCR5 will be greatly facilitated by knowledge of the structural differences of their binding sites. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Based on their roles in disease, chemokine receptors have been attractive targets for the pharmaceutical industry. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Notably, chemokine receptors can be rather promiscuous in their ability to bind different chemokines. (treatmentactiongroup.org)
  • The functions of all the known chemokine receptors and chemokines are not fully characterized, but broadly speaking, they seem to be involved in cell migration and/or inflammation. (treatmentactiongroup.org)
  • Cervical tissue was collected at 3, 12, and 24 h after inoculation and the expression array of chemokines, cytokines, and receptors was assessed to characterize the response during the initial developmental cycle. (asm.org)
  • In this study, expression of crucial chemokines and their receptors was investigated at different survival time points after spinal cord impact lesion. (egms.de)
  • The chemokine receptors CCR1, CXCR4 were strongly induced in the subpial white matter and dorsal columns of severely injured animals, more pronounced in the later survival time points. (egms.de)
  • CCL3 is a cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family that is involved in the acute inflammatory state in the recruitment and activation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes through binding to the receptors CCR1, CCR4 and CCR5. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among other homeostatic chemokine receptors include: CCR9, CCR10, and CXCR5, which are important as part of the cell addresses for tissue-specific homing of leukocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, using real-time PCR we have shown that CCL3-L1 and a novel CCL4 isoform (termed CCL4-L1) can vary from 1-6 copies per diploid genome (pdg) in Caucasians and are occasionally completely absent. (nih.gov)
  • The other isoforms (CCL3 and CCL4) remain at two copies per dpg. (nih.gov)
  • CCL3, CCL4, and CCL5 dose dependently inhibited BzATP-stimulated release of IL-1 β , whereas CXCL16 was ineffective. (hindawi.com)
  • CCL3 (MIP-1α), CCL4 (MIP-1β), and CCL18 (DC-CK1/PARC/AMAC-1) are potent chemoattractants produced by macrophages, natural killer cells, fibroblasts, mast cells, CD4 + T cells, and CD8 + T cells. (elsevier.com)
  • CCL3 and CCL4 are natural ligands for the primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) coreceptor CCR5 and are also known to activate and enhance the cytotoxicity of natural killer cells. (elsevier.com)
  • 3,000 participants enrolled in five United States-based natural-history cohorts with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were genotyped for 21 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a 47-kb interval on chromosome 17q12 containing the genes CCL3, CCL4, and CCL18. (elsevier.com)
  • These include chemokines (CK), such as MIP-1 α (macrophage inflammatory proteins-1 alpha, CCL3) and MIP-1 β (CCL4), RANTES (regulated activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted, CCL5), and ATAC (activation-induced, T cell derived, and chemokine-related cytokine, CXCL1). (hindawi.com)
  • We discovered lung-resident CD4+ T cells that expressed a disease-specific public CDR3β T cell receptor motif and were specific to Be-modified self-peptides derived from C-C motif ligand 4 (CCL4) and CCL3. (jci.org)
  • Furthermore, Be induced CCL3 and CCL4 secretion in the lungs of mice and humans. (jci.org)
  • In a murine model of CBD, the addition of LPS to Be oxide exposure enhanced CCL4 and CCL3 secretion in the lung and significantly increased the number and percentage of CD4+ T cells specific for the HLA-DP2-CCL/Be epitope. (jci.org)
  • C ) UniProt number and amino acid sequence of related human chemokine peptides derived from CCL4 and CCL3 (biometrical analysis peptides BA001 and BA002, respectively). (jci.org)
  • Therefore, the goal of our study was to evaluate the participation of macrophage inflammatory protein-1 (MIP-1) family members (CCL3, CCL4, CCL9) in a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced mouse model of diabetic neuropathic pain. (frontiersin.org)
  • Concomitantly, protein analysis has shown that, 7 days following STZ injection, the levels of CCL3 and CCL9 (but not CCL4) are increased in the lumbar spinal cord. (frontiersin.org)
  • Therefore, determining the role of C-C motif chemokine ligands in the MIP-1 family (namely, CCL3, CCL4, CCL9) in the development of diabetic neuropathy is highly important. (frontiersin.org)
  • MIP-1 alpha and MIP-1 beta are the 2 major forms, officially named CCL3, and CCL4, respectively. (cellsciences.com)
  • Previously our group has detected mRNA for CCL2 (MCP-1), CCL3 (MIP-1α), CCL4 (MIP-1β), and CCL5 (RANTES) in solid ovarian tumors by in situ hybridization. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CCR5, the receptor for chemotactic chemokines MIP1alpha, MIP1beta, and RANTES (CCL3, CCL4, CCL5), exerts major regulatory effects on CD4 + - and CD8 + T cell-mediated immunity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CCR5 and its ligands CCL3, CCL4, and CCL5 have emerged as key regulators of T-cell function. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CCR5 is expressed by both CD4 + and CD8 + activated T lymphocytes and monocytes and has three high-affinity ligands, CCL3, CCL4, and CCL5 ( Doms and Peiper, 1997 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Initial cell culture work on bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) found that surfen reduced concentrations of the chemokines CCL2, CCL4 and CCL5, with reduced messenger (m)RNA expression for Tumor Necrosis Factor, IL-6, IL-1β and inducible nitric oxide synthase. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 6 2 CCL5 belongs to the C-C chemokine family whose members include CCL3 and CCL4. (haematologica.org)
  • CCR5 is known to interact with CCL3, CCL4, and CCL8 in addition to CCL5. (treatmentactiongroup.org)
  • This receptor binds and responds to a variety of chemokines (CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL3L1). (reportsnreports.com)
  • 1988) demonstrated 2 protein components of MIP1, called by them alpha (CCL3, this protein) and beta (CCL4). (wikipedia.org)
  • CCL3 has been shown to interact with CCL4. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study focuses upon three chemokines, namely CCL5, CXCL10 and CCL3, which are potential novel therapeutic targets in arthritis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • All three of these chemokines are highly expressed at the level of mRNA, with the most significant increase in mRNA levels being demonstrated for CCL5 when compared with matched peripheral blood samples and controls. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CCL3 and CCL5 bound at high levels, and CXCL10 bound less strongly. (open.ac.uk)
  • The half-life of CCL3 and CCL5 at the cell surface was approximately 30 min and chemokines were cleared primarily by endocytosis into caveolae. (open.ac.uk)
  • Furthermore, in activated murine macrophages, BX471 completely blocked CCL3-induced CCL5 production. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • The sera and urine chemokines CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, CCL11, and CXCL8 were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test. (ajtmh.org)
  • These mice also showed reduced mRNA expression for the chemokines CCL3 and CCL5, with reduced concentrations of CCL2, CCL3 and CCL5. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CCL5 and other chemokines are expressed at higher levels in classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) tumor tissues than in healthy lymph nodes and in tissues with reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. (haematologica.org)
  • For example, binding of the chemokine CCL5 (which stands for chemokine ligand 5, also known as RANTES) to CCR5 can trigger the cell's migration to specific locations within the body. (treatmentactiongroup.org)
  • Pulmonary metastasis of breast cancer cells is promoted by a distinct population of macrophages, metastasis-associated macrophages (MAMs), which originate from inflammatory monocytes (IMs) recruited by the CC-chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2). (rupress.org)
  • We demonstrate here that, through activation of the CCL2 receptor CCR2, the recruited MAMs secrete another chemokine ligand CCL3. (rupress.org)
  • In the present study, we investigated the role of CC-chemokine ligand 3 (CCL3) in the spinal cord in the development and maintenance of mechanical allodynia using a rat model of paclitaxel-induced neuropathy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • GRK2▵mye mice exhibited exaggerated inflammatory cytokine/chemokine production, and organ injury in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a TLR4 ligand) when compared to wild-type littermates (GRK2fl/fl). (nih.gov)
  • Antigen standard for chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3 (CCL3) is a lysate prepared from HEK293T cells transiently transfected with a TrueORF gene-carrying pCMV plasmid and then lysed in RIPA Buffer. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3 (CCL3) also known as macrophage inflammatory protein 1-alpha (MIP-1-alpha) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCL gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mononuclear phagocytes and other leukocytes are thought to be responsible for both initiation of graft-versus-host reaction and for the subsequent injury to host tissues after complex interactions with cytokines and chemokines ( 1 , 2 , 7 - 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Neutrophils, through the early release of cytokines and chemokines, create a microenvironment critical for the shaping of the development of an antigen-specific immune response (reviewed in [1] , [2] ). (prolekare.cz)
  • Once at the site of injury, immune cells can react by releasing additional cytokines and chemokines, bringing more cells into the fold. (biolegend.com)
  • These events are mediated via the generation of adhesion molecules, cytokines, and chemokines. (ahajournals.org)
  • Other cellular activation processes lead to the production of cytokines and chemokines, which are proteins that recruit cells, molecules, and fluid to sites of infection. (springer.com)
  • Taken together, our studies reveal previously undescribed negative regulatory role for GRK2 in TLR4-induced p105-ERK pathway as well as in the consequent inflammatory cytokine/chemokine production and endotoxemia in mice. (nih.gov)
  • Cytokine proteins are classified as chemokines according to behavior and structural characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin (IL)-6, a multifunctional cytokine with regulatory functions in wound healing, and several chemokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) after rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). (arvojournals.org)
  • Chemokines are a class of small molecular proteins with similar structures, functions and chemotactic properties, and their molecular weights are ~10 kDa, and chemokines represent the largest member of the cytokine family ( 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The association of allergen with IgE bound to FcϵRI trigger signaling cascades leading to activation of kinases, phosphatases, and GTPases, which subsequently induce a variety of events, such as degranulation, cytoskeleton rearrangement, increased gene transcription, and cytokine/chemokine production, in the activated mast cells ( 1 , 2 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A superfamily of small, structurally related cytokine molecules, chemokines are characterized by their ability to affect trafficking of leukocytes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • [ 17 ] In microarray experiments, cytokine and chemokine genes are differentially upregulated to a significantly greater degree in s-IBM and polymyositis than in dermatomyositis. (medscape.com)
  • Magnetic bead-based assays for detecting 46 mouse cytokine, chemokine, and growth factor biomarkers. (bio-rad.com)
  • We selected most pathways Ccl21c participated on our site, such as Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, Chemokine signaling pathway, NF-kappa B signaling pathway, which may be useful for your reference. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Several chemokine and cytokine genes were expressed as early as 3 h after infection, but by 12 h, 41 genes were expressed. (asm.org)
  • Moreover, CCL3-L1, but not CCL3, is susceptible to cleavage by CD26, creating a truncated -2 form with enhanced affinity for CCR1 and CCR5. (nih.gov)
  • Genetic deletion of CCL3 or its receptor CCR1 in macrophages reduces the number of lung metastasis foci, as well as the number of MAMs accumulated in tumor-challenged lung in mice. (rupress.org)
  • Co-stimulation via FcϵRI, using IgE/antigen, and CCR1, using recombinant CCL3/macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), increased expression of phosphorylated, disassembled, and soluble vimentin in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-2H3 cells expressing human CCR1 (RBL-CCR1 cells) and bone marrow-derived murine mast cells, both models of mucosal type mast cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The aim of the present thesis was to investigate the role of chemokine receptor CCR1 for the progression of chronic kidney diseases, e.g. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and real time PCR (RT-PCR) was performed for CCL2/CCR2, CCL3/CCR1, SDF/CXCR4, and CX3CL1/CX3CR1. (egms.de)
  • Strong interaction with CCR5 means that CCL3-L1, and particularly its -2 variant, are by far the most potent natural HIV entry inhibitors described to date. (nih.gov)
  • Supernatants from samples with high copy number are able to more potently chemoattract CCR5-expressing cells, an effect blocked with anti-CCL3/CCL3-L1 antibodies. (nih.gov)
  • When compared to CCL3/LD78a, CCL3L1/LD78b has higher binding affinity to CCR5, which also functions as a coreceptor for HIV-1 entry. (neuromics.com)
  • Paclitaxel-treated rats showed a significant increase in the expression of mRNAs for CCL3 and its receptor CCR5 in the SDH. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A critical question facing developers of co-receptor inhibitors is whether CCR5 and CXCR4 inhibitor compounds interfere with chemokine/receptor interactions, and if so, whether such interference has harmful consequences. (treatmentactiongroup.org)
  • C-C Chemokine Receptor Type 5 (CHEMR13 or HIV 1 Fusion Coreceptor or CD195 or CCR5) pipeline Target constitutes close to 10 molecules. (reportsnreports.com)
  • C-C Chemokine Receptor Type 5 (CHEMR13 or HIV 1 Fusion Coreceptor or CD195 or CCR5) - C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) also known as CD195, is a surface protein located on the plasma membrane of white blood cells and is encoded by CCR5 gene. (reportsnreports.com)
  • It also reviews key players involved in C-C Chemokine Receptor Type 5 (CHEMR13 or HIV 1 Fusion Coreceptor or CD195 or CCR5) targeted therapeutics development with respective active and dormant or discontinued projects. (reportsnreports.com)
  • PTB individuals exhibited significantly higher levels of CCL1, CCL3, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL9 and CXCL10 in comparison to LTB and/or HC individuals. (nature.com)
  • PTB individuals with bilateral or cavitary disease displayed significantly elevated levels of CCL1, CCL3, CXCL1, CXCL10 and CXCL11 compared to those with unilateral or non-cavitary disease and also exhibited a significant positive relationship with bacterial burdens. (nature.com)
  • CXCL10-mediated protection within the liver was not dependent on CXC-chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2) signaling as anti-CXCR2 treatment of MHV-CXCL10-infected mice did not modulate viral clearance or liver pathology. (jimmunol.org)
  • Among the chemokines detected is the T cell chemoattractant chemokine CXCL10, which attracts activated T cells and NK cells bearing the receptor CXCR3 ( 18 , 19 , 20 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • For example, in addition to chemotaxis, chemokines modulate lymphocyte development, priming and effector function [ 2 ] and play a critical role in immune surveillance. (mdpi.com)
  • In addition to being known for mediating chemotaxis, chemokines are all approximately 8-10 kilodaltons in mass and have four cysteine residues in conserved locations that are key to forming their 3-dimensional shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neutrophil-secreted CCL3 was critical in chemotaxis of immature DCs, an effect lost upon CCL3 neutralisation. (prolekare.cz)
  • In addition, the potential application of chemokines in chemotaxis of exosomes as drug vehicles is discussed. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chemokines are a class of cytokines that induce chemotaxis (migration) of target cells. (biolegend.com)
  • While some chemotaxis is induced by inflammation or damaged cells, other chemokines function in homeostasis. (biolegend.com)
  • The residues in the predicted antagonist binding sites of each receptor were subsequently validated using site-directed mutagenesis and after transient expression, chemotaxis measurements, and radiolabeled chemokine competitive binding experiments were carried out. (aspetjournals.org)
  • MIP-1 alpha (macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha) is a member of the CC or beta chemokine subfamily that was originally purified from the conditioned media of an LPS-stimulated murine macrophage cell line. (neuromics.com)
  • CCL3 is a protein of the CC chemokine family known to be important for T cell recruitment in inflammatory diseases. (jimmunol.org)
  • The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects and putative mechanism of action of evasin-1, a novel CCL3-binding protein, in the pathogenesis of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). (jimmunol.org)
  • Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • 1997). "CCR6, a CC chemokine receptor that interacts with macrophage inflammatory protein 3alpha and is highly expressed in human dendritic cells" . (wikipedia.org)
  • Recombinant full length protein within Mouse Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 1 alpha/ CCL3 aa 1 to the C-terminus. (abcam.com)
  • Objective: Although the chemokines monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (Ccl2/JE/MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (Ccl3/MIP-1α) have recently been implicated in neutrophil migration, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Conclusions: Ccl2/JE/MCP-1 and Ccl3/MIP-1α mediate firm adherence and (subsequent) transmigration of neutrophils via protein synthesis and secondary generation of leukotrienes and PAF, which in turn directly activate neutrophils. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Intramolecular disulphide bonds typically join the first to third, and the second to fourth cysteine residues, numbered as they appear in the protein sequence of the chemokine. (wikidoc.org)
  • The first two cysteines, in a chemokine, are situated close together near the N-terminal end of the mature protein, with the third cysteine residing in the centre of the molecule and the fourth close to the C-terminal end . (wikidoc.org)
  • Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1 alpha belongs to a family of chemotactic cytokines known as chemokines. (cellsciences.com)
  • Because chemokines can determine host cell infiltration in solid ovarian cancer, we assessed CC chemokine protein and CC chemokine receptor expression in ovarian cancer ascites. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We used reverse transcription-PCR and RNase protection assay to determine CC chemokine and chemokine receptor mRNA expression and ELISA to measure CC chemokine protein levels. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Flow cytometry was used to identify cell populations and their chemokine receptor protein expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), monocyte chemotactic protein 1, also known as CCL2 (CCL2/MCP-1), and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α or CCL3 (CCL3/MIP-1α) were determined by specific immunoassays. (chiro.org)
  • CCL3 (NP_002974, 24 a.a. ~ 92 a.a) partial recombinant protein with GST tag. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In addition, PTB individuals with slower culture conversion displayed significantly elevated levels of CCL1, CCL3, CXCL1 and CXCL9 at the time of PTB diagnosis and prior to ATT. (nature.com)
  • Recently, it was postulated that C-C (CCL2, CCL3), C-X-C (CXCL1, CXCL5, CXCL12), and X-C (XCL1) motif chemokine ligands play a crucial role in the development of neuropathic pain, including the pain accompanying diabetes ( 7 - 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • We have demonstrated that chemokine ligands CCL2 and CCL3 are biomarkers that correlate with pelvic pain symptoms. (jove.com)
  • CCL2 and CCL3 Are Essential Mediators of Pelvic Pain in Experimental Autoimmune Prostatitis American Journal of Physiology. (jove.com)
  • We postulated that CCL2 and CCL3 play a functional role in CPPS and therefore examined their expression in EAP. (jove.com)
  • CCL2 and CCL3 mRNA was up-regulated force and time dependent after lesion: At later time points (15 and 42 days) the mRNA expression was stronger induced in the 2N- compared to the 1N-treatment group. (egms.de)
  • CCL2 and CCL3 immunoreactivity (ir) was seen in round inflammatory cells in the lesion in all three treatment groups at post operative day (DPO) 2 and 7. (egms.de)
  • To decipher the role of chemokines in TB infection and disease, we measured the levels of chemokines in PTB, LTB and HC individuals. (nature.com)
  • The major role of chemokines is to act as a chemoattractant to guide the migration of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of chemokines as biologic markers of disease activity. (ajtmh.org)
  • Intrathecal administration of a CCL3-neutralizing antibody not only attenuated the development of paclitaxel-induced mechanical allodynia but also reversed its maintenance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Single intrathecal administration of CCL3 or CCL9 neutralizing antibody (2 and 4 μg/5 μl) delayed neuropathic pain symptoms as measured at day 7 following STZ administration. (frontiersin.org)
  • Rabbit monoclonal antibody raised against a human CCL3 peptide using ARM Technology. (abnova.com)
  • Antibody reactive against human CCL3 peptide by ELISA and mammalian transfected lysate by Western Blot. (abnova.com)
  • There were significantly greater concentrations of the chemokines CCL3 and CCL11 in plasma of LE patients than in NI individuals. (ajtmh.org)
  • In a group of selected individuals, CCL11 was useful in diagnosis of leprosy, thereby suggesting that measurement of this chemokine may be useful as an aid in diagnosing leprosis. (ajtmh.org)
  • Belongs to the intercrine beta (chemokine CC) family. (abcam.com)
  • The important roles chemokines play in inflammation and pain make them an attractive therapeutic target. (frontiersin.org)
  • Given the bioactivities of MIP-1 alpha and beta and MIP-2 and the recent studies demonstrating their association with lung inflammation, it is likely these chemokines play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses and may contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory lung disease. (nih.gov)
  • Inflammatory chemokines are indispensable "gate-keepers" of inflammation and immunity against cancer, but tumor cells can subvert chemokines into acting as tumor-promoting molecules. (haematologica.org)
  • The CNS can exhibit features of inflammation in response to injury, infection or disease, whereby resident cells generate inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, prostaglandins, free radicals and complement, chemokines and adhesion molecules that recruit immune cells, and activate glia and microglia. (wiley.com)
  • For instance, CCL20 is also associated with inflammation since it can act as pro-inflammatory chemokine as well. (biology-online.org)
  • These findings collectively indicate that the CCL2-triggered chemokine cascade in macrophages promotes metastatic seeding of breast cancer cells thereby amplifying the pathology already extant in the system. (rupress.org)
  • While MIPs were originally identified as secretory products of endotoxin-stimulated mouse macrophages, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including neutrophils, fibroblasts, and epithelial cells. (nih.gov)
  • LPS-induced activation of NF-κB1p105-MEK-ERK pathway is significantly enhanced in the GRK2▵mye macrophages compared to GRK2fl/fl cells and importantly, inhibition of the p105 and ERK pathways in the GRK2▵mye macrophages, limits the enhanced production of LPS-induced cytokines/chemokines. (nih.gov)
  • Abcam's MIP1a (CCL3) Human ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) kit is an in vitro enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantitative measurement of Human MIP1a in serum, plasma (recommended using EDTA or Heparin plasma), and cell culture supernatants. (abcam.com)
  • We used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure chemokines in plasma of patients with leprosy (LE) and non-infected (NI) individuals. (ajtmh.org)
  • The main function of chemokines is leukocyte mobilization, and ATP typically triggers inflammasome assembly. (hindawi.com)
  • Chemokines are small secreted chemo-attractant molecules involved in such leukocyte trafficking, as well as playing important roles in lymphoid homeostasis and development [ 6 - 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chemokines Argatroban supplier are little secreted chemo-attractant substances involved in this kind of leukocyte trafficking, aswell because playing important functions in lymphoid advancement and homeostasis [6-8]. (careersfromscience.org)
  • Chemokines selectively regulate the recruitment and trafficking of leukocyte subsets to inflammatory sites. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Immune responses against cancer rely upon leukocyte trafficking patterns that are coordinated by chemokines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Homeostatic chemokines are chemokines that are responsible for basal leukocyte migration. (biology-online.org)
  • Chemokines are functionally divided into two groups: Homeostatic: are constitutively produced in certain tissues and are responsible for basal leukocyte migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whereas the human CCL3/LD78a is a single-copy gene, the human CCL3L1/LD78b gene copy number varies within the population. (neuromics.com)
  • A synthetic peptide of human CCL3 is used for rabbit immunization. (abnova.com)
  • Human CCL3 genome location and CCL3 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. (wikipedia.org)
  • This invention relates to antibodies or the use of antibodies directed against certain chemokines. (google.com)
  • certain chemokines can interact with more than one receptor. (treatmentactiongroup.org)
  • Specifically, these 16HBE14o- cells had increased levels of transcripts from genes associated with repair and inflammatory processes ( e.g. , matrix metalloproteinases, chemokines, and glutathione S-transferase). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chemokines are a group of related chemoattractant peptides that are essential regulators of the immune system, both during homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. (mdpi.com)
  • Some chemokines are considered pro- inflammatory and can be induced during an immune response to recruit cells of the immune system to a site of infection , while others are considered homeostatic and are involved in controlling the migration of cells during normal processes of tissue maintenance or development . (wikipedia.org)
  • These are known as homeostatic chemokines and are produced and secreted without any need to stimulate their source cell(s). (wikipedia.org)
  • Homeostatic chemokines are constitutively expressed in particular organs or tissues. (biolegend.com)
  • Due to their function of targeting cells to specific organs, homeostatic chemokines can also be involved in cancer and metastasis. (biolegend.com)
  • The main function of chemokines is to manage the migration of leukocytes (homing) in the respective anatomical locations in inflammatory and homeostatic processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Basal: homeostatic chemokines are basal produced in the thymus and lymphoid tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their homeostatic function in homing is best exemplified by the chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 (expressed within lymph nodes and on lymphatic endothelial cells) and their receptor CCR7 (expressed on cells destined for homing in cells to these organs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokines and ATP are among the mediators of inflammatory sites that can enter the circulation via damaged blood vessels. (hindawi.com)
  • We suggest that CCL chemokines inhibit ATP-induced release of IL-1 β from U937 cells by a triple-membrane-passing mechanism involving CCR, iPLA2, release of small mediators, and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits α 7 and α 9. (hindawi.com)
  • Chemokines are key inflammatory mediators, several of which (MCP-1, RANTES, MIP-1α, fractalkine, SDF-1 among others) have been linked to chronic, neuropathic pain in both human conditions and animal models. (frontiersin.org)
  • Key inflammatory mediators that are known to participate in chronic pain, including chemokines, have emerged as new therapeutic targets. (frontiersin.org)
  • While much remains to be understood about how PPAR agonists achieve this effect, it seems probable that inhibiting the expression of pain-causing inflammatory mediators like chemokines represents at least one mechanism for pain reduction. (frontiersin.org)
  • This study investigated whether the production of inflammatory mediators and chemotactic cytokines (chemokines) is altered in patients with chronic and recurrent neck pain (NP). (chiro.org)
  • Production of inflammatory mediators was consistently elevated in NP patients in this study, both in vitro and in vivo, and activation of inflammatory pathways was accompanied by up-regulation of CC chemokine synthesis. (chiro.org)
  • We speculate that Nox2 represses the development of inflammatory lung injury by modulating chemokine expression by the alveolar macrophage. (springer.com)
  • The present study identifies a novel chemokine signal mediated by CCL2 that links regenerating neurons with proregenerative macrophage activation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Manipulation of chemokine signaling mediating neuron-macrophage interactions may represent a novel therapeutic approach to promote axon regeneration after CNS injury. (jneurosci.org)
  • Intraganglionic CCL2 gene delivery recapitulates conditioning effects after spinal cord injury, suggesting that a chemokine signal mediating neuron-macrophage interaction may be a novel target for axon regeneration therapeutics. (jneurosci.org)
  • among those molecules, chemokines seem to be especially important. (frontiersin.org)
  • Gene copy number regulates the production of the human chemokine CCL3-L1. (nih.gov)
  • Importantly, in a model system of pro-inflammatory chemokine production (LPS-activated monocytes)higher gene copy number correlates with an increased ratio of CCL3-L1 versus CCL3 mRNA, and enhanced chemokine production. (nih.gov)
  • As a result of these studies, we hypothesize that genetic variation in CCL3-L1 gene copy number may affect the susceptibility to, or the progression or severity of, diseases in which this chemokine plays a role. (nih.gov)
  • These results reiterate the importance of chemokine gene variation in HIV-1/AIDS pathogenesis and emphasize that localized linkage disequilibrium makes the identification of causal mutations difficult. (elsevier.com)
  • Experimental evidence suggests a connection between the pain ameliorating effects of PPAR agonists and suppression of inflammatory gene expression, including chemokines. (frontiersin.org)
  • This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential vaccine adjuvants. (mdpi.com)
  • While a function of chemokines is to regulate lymphocyte trafficking, the view that chemokines act simply as "chemotactic cytokines" has evolved to include the many critical roles they play in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses. (mdpi.com)
  • This process is generated and mediated by a group of small chemotactic cytokines (chemokines), which form, based on the presence and position of the first cysteine (C) residues, 4 distinctive families. (chiro.org)
  • Thus, migration of T cells under a chemokine gradient into an inflamed site such as the joint in JIA may itself lead to further T cell activation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, migration of T cellular material under a chemokine gradient into an swollen site like the joint in JIA may itself result in further T cellular activation. (careersfromscience.org)
  • A major rol of chemokines is to act as chemoattractants in guiding migration of cells. (wikipathways.org)
  • The chemokines, by virtue of their specific cell receptor expression, can selectively mediate the local recruitment/activation of distinct leukocytes/cells, allowing for migration across the endothelium and beyond the vascular compartment. (ahajournals.org)
  • Inflammatory: inflammatory chemokines are produced in high concentrations during infection or injury and determine the migration of inflammatory leukocytes into the damaged area. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokines are a large subfamily of chemoattractant cytokines, which are classified into four highly conserved groups, CXC, CC, C, and CX 3 C, based on the position of the first two cysteines adjacent to the NH 2 terminus. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The MIP proteins are members of a superfamily of cytokines called chemokines, many of which have been shown to possess chemotactic activity for inflammatory and immune effector cells. (nih.gov)
  • Chemokines (Greek -kinos , movement) are a family of small cytokines , or signaling proteins secreted by cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokines are a family of small cytokines , or proteins secreted by cells . (wikidoc.org)
  • Proteins are classified as chemokines according to shared structural characteristics such as small size (they are all approximately 8-10 kilodaltons in size), and the presence of four cysteine residues in conserved locations that are key to forming their 3-dimensional shape. (wikidoc.org)
  • Proteins are classified into the chemokine family based on their structural characteristics, not just their ability to attract cells. (wikidoc.org)
  • Typical chemokine proteins are produced as pro-peptides , beginning with a signal peptide of approximately 20 amino acids that gets cleaved from the active (mature) portion of the molecule during the process of its secretion from the cell. (wikidoc.org)
  • Chemokines are small cytokines, or signaling proteins, secreted by cells. (wikipathways.org)
  • mRNA for the CC chemokines CCL2, -3, -4, -5, -8, and -22 was expressed in cell isolates from ascites samples, and the corresponding proteins were detected in ascitic fluid. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Expression of chemokines at the endothelial surface depends on their rate of synthesis, the capacity of the endothelium to bind chemokines and the rate of clearance from the surface. (open.ac.uk)
  • Upon sensing the inflammatory chemokine, cells will extravasate from the blood vessel and follow the gradient to its source. (biolegend.com)
  • Basophil-like leukemia cells crucially contribute to CML development by providing an inflammatory chemokine, CCL3. (bloodjournal.org)
  • We previously demonstrated that an inflammatory chemokine, CCL3, preferentially acts on normal hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) and crucially contributes to the maintenance of leukemia initiating cells (LICs) in bone marrow (BM) during the initiation process of CML. (bloodjournal.org)
  • for example, CCL20 can act also as pro-inflammatory chemokine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Altogether, our studies demonstrate that CCL3 plays a major role in mediating GVHD, but not graft-versus-leukemia in mice and suggest that blockade of CCL3 with evasin-1 has potential therapeutic application in patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation. (jimmunol.org)
  • Adoptive transfer of WT IMs increases the reduced number of lung metastasis foci in Ccl3 deficient mice. (rupress.org)
  • We show in vitro, as well as during infection, that the parasite induced the expression of CCL3 selectively in neutrophils from L. major resistant mice. (prolekare.cz)
  • Decreased DC recruitment in CCL3 −/− mice was corrected by the transfer of wild type neutrophils at the time of infection. (prolekare.cz)
  • Moreover, Ccl2/JE/ MCP-1- and Ccl3/MIP-1α-elicited leakage of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran as well as collagen IV remodeling within the venular basement membrane were completely absent in neutrophil-depleted mice. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • The chemokine SDF-1 binds to CXCR4, and these interactions are important in many settings, including embryonic development (mice genetically lacking CXCR4 die in utero). (treatmentactiongroup.org)
  • The present invention provides a means of inhibiting the growth and metastasis of cancer cells by administering anti-chemokine antibodies. (google.com)
  • It is possible to identify the particular chemokines which are over-expressed in the tumor using methods of the invention and administer antibodies against that over-expressed chemokine. (google.com)
  • Anti-CCL2 and anti-CCL3 neutralizing antibodies administered at EAP onset attenuated pelvic pain development, but only anti-CCL2 antibodies were effective therapeutically. (jove.com)
  • They code for MIP-1 alpha isoforms CCL3/LD78a and CCL3L1/LD78b, which share 94% amino acid sequence homology. (neuromics.com)
  • Altogether, we identified a novel role for neutrophil-secreted CCL3 in the first wave of DC recruitment to the site of infection with L. major , suggesting that the selective release of neutrophil-secreted chemokines may regulate the development of immune response to pathogens. (prolekare.cz)
  • Herein, we demonstrate that basophils can constitutively express CCL3 to negatively regulate the normal hematopoietic process, especially hematopoietic reconstitution after BM transplantation. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Differential expression of chemokines in patients with localized and diffuse cutaneous American leishmaniasis. (ajtmh.org)
  • To conclude strong and time-dependent expression of chemokines in subpial white matter radial glia is co-localized with proliferating cells and precursor markers. (egms.de)
  • You need info about Human C-C motif chemokine 3 (CCL3) ELISA Kit or any other Gentaur produtct? (gentaurshop.com)
  • Get higher sensitivity in only 90 minutes with Human MIP1a ELISA Kit (CCL3) ( ab181420 ) from our SimpleStep ELISA ® range. (abcam.com)
  • This DuoSet ELISA Development kit contains the basic components required for the development of sandwich ELISAs to measure natural and recombinant mouse CCL3/MIP-1alpha. (rndsystems.com)
  • Genetic variation in the chemokine system is likely to affect responses to infection, and influence the course of autoimmune and inflammatory disease. (nih.gov)
  • Chemokines are felt to play a major role latent TB infection (LTB) as they appear to be critical in the formation and maintenance of quiescent granulomas 4 and in the recruitment of cells from the periphery for positioning within the granuloma 5 . (nature.com)
  • Other chemokines are inflammatory and are released from a wide variety of cells in response to bacterial infection, viruses and agents that cause physical damage such as silica or the urate crystals that occur in gout . (wikipedia.org)
  • Inflammatory chemokines function mainly as chemoattractants for leukocytes , recruiting monocytes , neutrophils and other effector cells from the blood to sites of infection or tissue damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we have analyzed the role of neutrophil released chemokines in the early recruitment of dendritic cells (DCs) in an experimental model of Leishmania major infection. (prolekare.cz)
  • Depletion of neutrophils prior to infection, as well as pharmacological or genetic inhibition of CCL3, resulted in a significant decrease in DC recruitment at the site of parasite inoculation. (prolekare.cz)
  • In the event of infection, injury, or tissue damage, inflammatory chemokines are often released to address the problem. (biolegend.com)
  • Infiltration of T cells into the CNS is dictated by the secretion of chemokines that are expressed early in response to MHV infection ( 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • later observed that chlamydial infection of epithelial cells in vitro resulted in the production of interleukin 8 (IL-8), an important chemokine for PMNs, 20 to 24 h postinfection and required that the organisms be viable ( 26 ). (asm.org)
  • This pathway was inferred from Mus musculus pathway "Chemokine signaling pathway", WP2292 revision 89521, with a 91.0% conversion rate. (wikipathways.org)
  • Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing recruitment of antigen presenting cells (APCs) and effector cells to appropriate anatomical sites. (mdpi.com)
  • In the context of cancer, the chemokine-chemokine receptor system plays paradoxical roles. (mdpi.com)
  • Accumulating evidence in models of neuropathic pain in which peripheral nerves are lesioned has implicated spinal microglia and chemokines in pain hypersensitivity, but little is know about their roles in chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the present review, the literature on the multifactorial roles of exosomes in HCC from PubMed, Cochrane library and Embase were obtained, with a specific focus on the functions and mechanisms of chemokines in HCC. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • It has been found that chemokine networks may serve pivotal roles in inducing organ-specific metastasis ( 8 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • These findings highlight the important roles of CCL3 and CCL9 in the pathology of diabetic neuropathic pain and suggest that they play pivotal roles in opioid analgesia. (frontiersin.org)
  • Chemokines are involved in the inflammatory response, tumor immune response, proliferation, invasion and metastasis via modulation of various signaling pathways. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Knowledge of the structural basis of chemokine receptor subtype selectivity and the receptor conformations stabilized by dual antagonists could help facilitate the design of novel chemokine receptor antagonists. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Establishment of the TB granuloma is controlled by the synchronized expression of various chemokines. (nature.com)
  • Various chemokines and IL-6 are upregulated in patients in whom fibrotic membranes develop after primary RRD repair and may therefore be involved in the future development of postoperative PVR. (arvojournals.org)
  • There has been a great deal of work published on the induction of various chemokines and cytokines using in vitro culture systems. (asm.org)
  • There have been numerous in vitro studies showing that chlamydiae can elicit various chemokines and cytokines from tissue culture cells (reviewed in reference 19 ). (asm.org)
  • Attracted cells move toward areas of higher concentrations of the chemokine. (biolegend.com)
  • U937 cells secreted small factors in response to CCL3 that mediated the inhibition of IL-1 β release. (hindawi.com)
  • PPAR agonists have wide-ranging effects including inhibition of chemokine expression and pain behavior reduction in animal models. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we hypothesize that chemokines control ATP-dependent secretion of monocytic IL-1 β . (hindawi.com)
  • Chemokine elevations were accompanied by increases in mast cells and B cells at 5 days, monocytes and neutrophils at day 10, CD4+ T cells at day 20, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells at day 30. (jove.com)