Chemokine CCL27: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.Chemokine CCL21: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL22: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.Chemokine CCL17: A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Chemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CCL19: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL5: A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.Chemokine CCL20: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL1: A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.Chemokines, CC: Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.Receptors, Chemokine: Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Chemokine CCL3: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Chemokine CCL7: A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Receptors, CCR10: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL4: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Chemokine CXCL12: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.Receptors, CCR1: CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.Chemokine CXCL10: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemokine CCL8: A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.Receptors, CCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.Receptors, CCR2: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.Chemokine CCL11: A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Chemokine CCL24: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Receptors, CCR7: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.Receptors, CCR8: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.Chemokine CXCL1: A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Receptors, CCR4: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.Chemokines, CXC: Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.Chemokine CX3CL1: A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins: Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.Receptors, CCR5: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.Receptors, CCR3: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.Chemokine CXCL9: An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Mice, Inbred C57BLCell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Chemokine CXCL2: A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CXCL13: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.Receptors, CXCR4: CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Chemokine CXCL11: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Chemokine CXCL6: A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Chemokine CXCL5: A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Receptors, CXCR3: CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Receptors, Interleukin-8B: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Dermatitis, Atopic: A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Monocyte Chemoattractant Proteins: Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Receptors, CCR6: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Receptors, Interleukin-8A: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Receptors, CXCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Receptors, Cytokine: Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Chemokines, CX3C: Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.Receptors, CXCR5: CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Chemotactic Factors: Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Monokines: Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.Receptors, HIV: Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Carbon Tetrachloride PoisoningDuffy Blood-Group System: A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.Chemotactic Factors, Eosinophil: Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.Neutrophil Infiltration: The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Heterocyclic Compounds: Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Cell Migration Inhibition: Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Platelet Factor 4: A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Endothelium, Lymphatic: Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.

Molecular cloning of a novel CC chemokine, interleukin-11 receptor alpha-locus chemokine (ILC), which is located on chromosome 9p13 and a potential homologue of a CC chemokine encoded by molluscum contagiosum virus. (1/35)

Molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) encodes a CC chemokine MC148R which is likely to have been acquired from the host. By a homology search employing MC148R as a probe, we have identified a novel CC chemokine whose gene exists next to the IL-11 receptor alpha (IL-11Ralpha) gene in both humans and mice. Thus, this chemokine maps to chromosome 9p13 in humans where IL-11Ralpha has been assigned. We term this novel chemokine IL-11Ralpha-locus chemokine (ILC). ILC has the highest homology to MC148R among the known human CC chemokines. Furthermore, ILC is strongly and selectively expressed in the skin where infection of MCV also takes place. Thus, ILC is likely to be the original chemokine of MC148R.  (+info)

ESkine, a novel beta-chemokine, is differentially spliced to produce secretable and nuclear targeted isoforms. (2/35)

Using the murine embryonal stem cell system, we have identified a novel gene encoding a highly divergent member of the beta-chemokine family of proinflammatory mediators and have called this protein ESkine. Much of the coding sequence for ESkine overlaps with the 3'-end of a novel interleukin 11 receptor alpha-like sequence on murine chromosome 4. ESkine is produced as two splice variants. One of these variants encodes a classical chemokine with an associated signal peptide, while the other variant (PESKY) possesses the main body of the chemokine but has replaced the signal peptide with an alternative stretch of amino acids that allows for nuclear targeting of this isoform. This differential splicing arises as a result of alternative 5' exon usage. These differentially spliced forms are expressed at discrete tissue loci. Thus, while ESkine is highly expressed in the placenta, PESKY is mainly expressed in the Testes and brain and weakly in the developing embryo. Studies on the proinflammatory properties of ESkine reveal it to be active in inducing polarization of CD4(+) T cells but to be inactive on other hemopoietic cellular populations.  (+info)

Cutting edge: identification of the orphan receptor G-protein-coupled receptor 2 as CCR10, a specific receptor for the chemokine ESkine. (3/35)

A number of orphan G-protein coupled receptors (GPR) have been reported as putative chemokine receptors. One previously reported orphan receptor is an incomplete PCR clone, called GPR2. Here we report the cloning of full-length human (h)GPR2 and mouse (m)GPR2 cDNAs, and the identification of GPR2 as a receptor for a novel CC chemokine called ESkine. hGPR2 is expressed at high levels in testis and small intestine, and at lower levels in other tissues. mGPR2 was expressed at high levels in small intestine, colon, lymph nodes, and Peyer's patches and at lower levels in thymus and spleen. Stimulation of L1.2/hGPR2 transfectants with hESkine induced their migration and resulted in intracellular calcium mobilization. These results provide evidence that GPR2 is a specific receptor for ESkine. We propose that GPR2 be renamed as CCR10. The expression pattern of mGPR2/CCR10 suggests that it may play a role in the homing/trafficking of leukocytes within intestinal and lymphoid environments.  (+info)

Cutting edge: the orphan chemokine receptor G protein-coupled receptor-2 (GPR-2, CCR10) binds the skin-associated chemokine CCL27 (CTACK/ALP/ILC). (4/35)

We recently reported the identification of a chemokine (CTACK), which has been renamed CCL27 according to a new systematic chemokine nomenclature. We report that CCL27 binds the previously orphan chemokine receptor GPR-2, as detected by calcium flux and chemotactic responses of GPR-2 transfectants. We renamed this receptor CCR10. Because of the skin-associated expression pattern of CCL27, we focused on the expression of CCL27 and CCR10 in normal skin compared with inflammatory and autoimmune skin diseases. CCL27 is constitutively produced by keratinocytes but can also be induced upon stimulation with TNF-alpha and IL-1beta. CCR10 is not expressed by keratinocytes and is instead expressed by melanocytes, dermal fibroblasts, and dermal microvascular endothelial cells. CCR10 was also detected in T cells as well as in skin-derived Langerhans cells. Taken together, these observations suggest a role for this novel ligand/receptor pair in both skin homeostasis as well as a potential role in inflammatory responses.  (+info)

DNAWorks: an automated method for designing oligonucleotides for PCR-based gene synthesis. (5/35)

The availability of sequences of entire genomes has dramatically increased the number of protein targets, many of which will need to be overexpressed in cells other than the original source of DNA. Gene synthesis often provides a fast and economically efficient approach. The synthetic gene can be optimized for expression and constructed for easy mutational manipulation without regard to the parent genome. Yet design and construction of synthetic genes, especially those coding for large proteins, can be a slow, difficult and confusing process. We have written a computer program that automates the design of oligonucleotides for gene synthesis. Our program requires simple input information, i.e. amino acid sequence of the target protein and melting temperature (needed for the gene assembly) of synthetic oligonucleotides. The program outputs a series of oligonucleotide sequences with codons optimized for expression in an organism of choice. Those oligonucleotides are characterized by highly homogeneous melting temperatures and a minimized tendency for hairpin formation. With the help of this program and a two-step PCR method, we have successfully constructed numerous synthetic genes, ranging from 139 to 1042 bp. The approach presented here simplifies the production of proteins from a wide variety of organisms for genomics-based studies.  (+info)

The chemokine ESkine/CCL27 displays novel modes of intracrine and paracrine function. (6/35)

We have previously shown that the beta-chemokine ESkine/CCL27 is differentially spliced to produce two alternative forms. One is a secreted chemokine (ESkine), whereas the other (PESKY) lacks a signal peptide and is translocated to the nucleus. The role of this nuclear-targeted chemokine has not so far been defined, and it was the purpose of this study to examine this chemokine variant in more depth. To identify the region of PESKY involved in the nuclear translocation we tagged fragments with enhanced green fluorescent protein and expressed them in Chinese hamster ovary cells. We show PESKY nuclear translocation to be dependent on C-terminal residues that are shared with the signal peptide-bearing variant ESkine. Indeed we further demonstrate that ESkine can also use these C-terminal residues to enter the nucleus of cells following receptor (CCR10)-mediated internalization. To examine biological roles for PESKY we have overexpressed it in 3T3 cells. Such overexpression results in marked cytoskeletal rearrangements that are coincident with a radical reorganization of the cellular actin cytoskeleton. Microarray analyses and Ab neutralization studies indicate that these changes are mediated in part by insulin-like growth factor-1. Furthermore, monolayer wounding assays indicate that PESKY expression correlates with markedly increased migratory capacity. Thus, it is our contention that nuclear PESKY and ESkine both enter the nucleus by either intracrine or paracrine mechanisms and may facilitate cellular migration by inducing actin cytoskeletal relaxation. Therefore, nuclear ESkine/PESKY represents a novel paradigm for chemokine function.  (+info)

CCR4 versus CCR10 in human cutaneous TH lymphocyte trafficking. (7/35)

The chemokine receptors (CCRs) CCR4 and CCR10, and the cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA), have each been proposed as critical mediators of skin-specific TH lymphocyte homing in mice and humans. CLA initiates skin homing by mediating E-selectin-dependent tethering and rolling within cutaneous venules, but the specific roles of CCR4 and CCR10 are unclear. We have generated an antihuman CCR10 monoclonal antibody (mAb; 1B5) to illuminate the individual contributions of these molecules. This mAb allows us to compare CCR10, CCR4, and CLA expression within human TH populations. The mAb 1B5 recognizes functional CCR10 expression, as chemotactic responsiveness to cutaneous T-cell-attracting chemokine (CTACK)/CCL27 (a CCR10 ligand) parallels the staining of TH subsets. We find CCR10 expressed by only a minority (approximately 30%) of blood-borne, skin-homing (CLA+/CCR4+) TH cells. However, essentially all members of the relatively small "effector" (CLA+/CCR4+/CD27-/CCR7-) skin-homing TH population express CCR10. Most skin-infiltrating lymphocytes in allergic delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) and bacterial chancroid skin lesions express both CCR4 and CLA, but only about 10% express CCR10. This suggests for the 2 models of TH skin homing studied here that CCR10+ TH cells have no advantage over other CLA+/CCR4+ TH cells in homing to cutaneous sites. We conclude that the skin-homing TH compartment is itself divided into distinct subpopulations, the smaller of which expresses both CCR4 and CCR10, and the larger of which expresses only CCR4. Thus, CCR10 is unlikely to be necessary for cutaneous homing of TH cells in the models studied here. CCR10 may instead play a role in the movement of specialized "effector" cutaneous TH cells to and/or within epidermal microenvironments.  (+info)

Antitumor effect by interleukin-11 receptor alpha-locus chemokine/CCL27, introduced into tumor cells through a recombinant adenovirus vector. (8/35)

In this study, we examined antitumor activity of a mouse CC chemokine ILC/CCL27 and a mouse CX(3)C chemokine fractalkine/CX(3)CL1 in vivo. We generated recombinant adenovirus vectors with a fiber mutation, encoding mILC (Ad-RGD-mILC) and mFKN (Ad-RGD-mFKN). We confirmed tumor cells infected with Ad-RGD-mILC and Ad-RGD-mFKN to express and release these chemokines. Tumor rejection experiments in vivo were carried out by inoculating OV-HM cells infected with Ad-RGD-mILC or Ad-RGD-mFKN into immunocompetent mice. mILC significantly suppressed the tumor growth, whereas no such significant effect was observed by mFKN. The antitumor activity induced by mILC was T cell dependent, involving both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed accumulation of both CD3(+) lymphocytes and NK cells in the tumor tissue transduced with mILC and mFKN. However, there was a significant difference in the distribution of infiltrating cells. Furthermore, mFKN appeared to have an angiogenic activity, which might have masked its tumor suppressive activity. Collectively, ILC/CCL27 may be a good candidate molecule for cancer gene therapy.  (+info)

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In this project, we develop adjuvant nanovesicles for needle-free vaccination against viral and parasitic diseases.. Needle-free topical vaccination is attractive since it has the potential to make vaccine delivery more equitable, safer and equally or more efficient than parenteral (intramuscular or subcutaneous) vaccination. Major benefits include the possibility of self-administration, improved patient compliance, no requirement of "sharps" waste removal, and reduced storage and transport issues. Topical vaccination however, is challenged by the barrier that the stratum corneum interposed between antigens-adjuvants and the skin-associated lymphoid tissue (SALT) lying few hundred micrometers depth from skin surface. In this scenario, soft matter having elasto-mechanical properties enabling the penetration of the intact stratum corneum, could pave the way towards safer and efficient topical vaccination. We have developed ultradeformable archaeosomes made of sn 2,3 ether linked phytanyl saturated ...
Molluscum Contagiosum, aldara and molluscum contagiosum, molluscum contagiosum pictures, molluscum contagiosum treatment, molluscum contagiosum virus, penile molluscum contagiosum
The molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) is a species of virus in the poxvirus family, which causes the disease molluscum contagiosum in humans. Virions have a complex structure that is consistent with the structure of the other members of the poxvirus family: a surface membrane, a core, and lateral bodies. The virus may be contained within inclusion bodies and mature by budding through the membrane of the host cell, giving rise to a large amount of viral shedding in a short period of time. Approximate measurements of the virus are 200 nm in diameter, 320 nm in length, and 100 nm in height. Diagnosis is made on the clinical appearance; the virus cannot routinely be cultured. The diagnosis can be confirmed by excisional biopsy. There are 4 types of MCV, MCV-1 through -4. MCV-1 is the most prevalent in human infections, and MCV-2 is seen usually in adults and often sexually transmitted. Polymerase chain reaction techniques are being developed to help confirm lesions as being caused by MCV, and ...
Even though there are usually no painful symptoms that come along with the molluscum contagiosum virus, most sufferers want to get rid of it as soon as possible. While the body will naturally fight off the virus within a few years, waiting is not ideal for most people. This is why there are many new treatments for molluscum contagiosum - whether over-the-counter or at home remedies.. Some dermatologists may recommend using a treatment involving physical removal such as curettage, cryotherapy, or laser therapy, this is often painful and may result in skin discoloration and scarring. It is important to know that there are alternatives that you can try to help improve and eliminate your molluscum contagiosum. This review will go over one of them alternatives - Naturasil for Molluscum Contagiosum.. If you have any questions, free free to contact us or check out our FAQ section. Note: all ratings are based on reviews and research of the products and treatments. Always consult with your doctor or ...
In this video, I will share 4 natural home remedies for molluscum contagiosum virus treatment. These all remedies work amazingly to cure molluscum con...
Molluscum contagiosum is an infection caused by a poxvirus (molluscum contagiosum virus). The result of the infection is usually a benign, mild skin disease characterized by lesions (growths) that may appear anywhere on the body. Within 6-12 months, Molluscum contagiosum typically resolves without scarring but may take
Molluscum contagiosum virus causes a benign viral infection that is largely (if not exclusively) a disease of humans. Molluscum contagiosum virus causes characteristic skin lesions consisting of single or, more often, multiple, rounded, dome-shaped, pink, waxy papules that are 2-5 mm (rarely up to 1.
The author presents a good case of Molluscum Contagiosum in an HIV positive child - A Case of Molluscum Contagiosum in an HIV Patient - Clinical Cases
... is a mild skin disease caused by the molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV). This condition is relatively common, causing small bumps to raise on the skin, which can appear anywhere on the body. These bumps are pearl-like and lightly colored. They can be as small as a pinhead to no larger than an average pencil eraser. A doctor can diagnose the condition by looking at the bumps and by taking a small tissue sample (biopsy) for further examination.. It is common for the area around the bumps to be red and itchy. If these bumps develop, affected individuals should try to resist the urge to scratch or pick, because the virus can be spread to other parts of the body. The virus can also be spread from one person to another by direct physical contact or by objects that have been contaminated with the virus, such as towels or clothing. As such, people who live in crowded, warm areas are more likely to be in contact with the virus. Most people with this disease only develop about 10 to ...
What is molluscum contagiosum? Molluscum contagiosum is a skin infection that causes small pearly or flesh-colored bumps. The bumps may be clear, and the center often is indented. The infection is caused by a virus. The virus is easily spread but is not harmful. What are the symptoms? The bumps are round with a dimple...
View details of top molluscum contagiosum infection hospitals in Chennai. Get guidance from medical experts to select best molluscum contagiosum infection hospital in Chennai
Question - Child with molluscum contagiosum on torso spreading to arms, legs. What treatment is advisable? . Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Molluscum contagiosum, Ask a Dermatologist
What is Molluscum Contagiosum? How does it spread? Molluscum are caused a virus in the pox family, and it is very contagious. Molluscum symptoms include small bumps, itchiness, flaking skin.........
generated and posted on 2016.03.18 ∞. Skin-associated phagocytic leukocytes possessing long extensions and capable of antigen presentation. ...
Molluscum contagiosum is caused by a Molluscipox DNA virus which infects keratinocytes of the epidermal stratum spinosum, producing distinctive small umbilicated papules on the skin. Its genome encodes a variety of proteins that suppress the hosts immune response. In children it is spread by skin contact, producing few or many lesions, while in sexually active adults it causes anogenital lesions. Molluscum is self-limiting within a few years in the immunocompetent, but those with preexisting atopic eczema and immunosuppression, notably AIDS, commonly develop persistent diffuse eruptions with larger papules. Lesions can be removed mechanically or chemically. More severe infections can be treated with imiquimod or cidofovir....
Molluscum contagiosum are a viral infection where small bumps appear on the skin. Find out about your symptoms and possible treatment options.
Molluscum contagiosum is virus that infects humans usually in the main body part and extremeties. Unfortunately, this can be transmitted via contact, especially in sharing clothes and towels. Since this is a viral infection, it is best to consult your doctor for proper medication. The disease worsens when the person infected has an immunodeficie...
Finally think your molluscum contagiosum is about to go away? Check here to learn if you are in the final stages and almost free!
The name sounds dramatic, like a Harry Potter spell. Luckily, molluscum contagiosum isnt a big deal. Find out what to do about it in this article for teens.
My 4 year old son has Molluscum Contagiosum for almost 2 years now. Pediatrician said the bumps will clear up on their own and there isnt any real...
What is molluscum contagiosum? Molluscum contagiosum is a skin infection that causes small pearly or flesh-colored bumps. The bumps may be clear,and the center often is indented. The infection is caused by a virus. The virus is easily spread but is not harmful. What are the symptoms? The bumps are round with a dimple in the center. They are a little smaller in size than the eraser on the ...
Its really hard now that Im processing what i went through. It seemed normal and it was all i knew. it was painful when i got hurt. But i didnt realise how terrible my situation was.. I dont know how a person could survive such a life, I find it hard to believe that Im still alive. I feel like Im in a coma.. You never gave up on me. You had hope that one day i will be free. Which i wonder why. I feel like MobieG played a big role in preserving my life, I couldnt have done it alone.. Being sold to man is the most difficult part of my past life ...
Question - Bump in upper lip, not hurting or itching, white dots. Is this molluscum contagiosum? Shoud I avoid oral sex? . Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Molluscum contagiosum, Ask a Dermatologist
Intended Use: This kit is used to assay the sample of Serum, blood plasma,Saliva, Urine, and other related tissue Liquid. Test principle The kit uses a double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to assay the level of Chicken...
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Molluscum contagiosum is a common skin infection that is caused by a virus. The infection causes small, dimpled, skin-coloured bumps called papules to develop on the skin.
One of the most delightful things about having children is their propensity to develop wonderful skin conditions. Of these, molluscum contagiosum, or water warts, is one of the more challenging and frustrating conditions parents have to deal with. What Is Molluscum Contagiosum? Molluscum contagiosum, or water warts, as it is sometimes called, is caused by…
The inflammation around the molluscum is very slight. It appears to be an immune response to the application of Mollenol with inflammation around the molluscum infected areas.
|p|Recombinant Human Eotaxin-2/CCL24 is a single non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 78 amino acids.|/p| |p|Background: Eotaxin-2 (CCL24) is a novel CC chemokine recently identified. It is produced by activated monocytes and T lymphocytes. Eota
Case studies of patients who got successfully treated by Dr. Rajesh Shah at Life Force Homeopathy Clinic. Read case studies of multiple patients here.
Recurrence and progression of molluscum contagiosum despite treatment should raise the suspicion of immunosuppression. This patient was found to be HIV positive. Molluscum contagiosum occurs in 10% of HIV patient with advanced immunodeficiency and is therefore an AIDS defining sign. Its progressive nature can cause significant cosmetic disfigurement ...
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Hey guys. Basically Ive been lucky enough to contract molluscum contagiosum (especially annoying since most adults are apparently immune) and Im almost 100% sure it came from judo training. My doctors given me some penicillin to take out the bacterial infection (some of the molluscum have become infected) then hes gonna cryo the spots. My question is how long will this put me out of training for? Im reading websites which say 6 months is pretty standard. I cant have to just sit at
One of my children, who shall remain nameless, had a bump on their arm last summer. We went to the doctor and were told it was molluscum contagiosum. Its a common childhood virus. They will spread. It will take 1-3 years for them to resolve on their own. We can burn them off if youd […]. ...
Контагиозный моллюск - это вирусный дерматоз, заражение им обычно происходит при прямом половом контакте либо бытовым способом при использовании...
Molluscum contagiosum is really a contagious skin infection brought on by the molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) that triggers elevated, gem-like nodules or papules onto the skin - these growths are known as molluscum physiques, mollusca or condyloma subcutaneum. Herpes is one of the family known as the Poxviridae. The molluscum contagiosum virus is also referred to as the molluscipoxvirus.. MCV doesnt infect creatures only humans.. Molluscum contagiosum is much more generally observed in children younger than fifteen years, about 80% of reported cases - children aged between 1 and four years may take a hit probably the most. If this seems in teenagers or adults its frequently transmitted sexually, and for that reason might be considered an STD (std).. Molluscum contagiosum can spread via close, direct connection with an infected individual - most generally through skin-to-skin contact, including sexual contact or touching or scratching the bumps after which touching your skin - and through ...
Molluscum contagiosum (MC), sometimes called water warts, is a viral infection of the skin that results in small, raised, pink lesions with a dimple in the center.[1] They may occasionally be itchy or sore.[1] They may occur singularly or in groups.[1] Any area of the skin may be affected, with abdomen, legs, arms, neck, genital area, and face being most common.[1] Onset of the lesions is around 7 weeks after infection.[3] It usually goes away within a year without scarring.[1] MC is caused by a poxvirus called the molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV).[1] The virus is spread either by direct contact including sexual activity or via contaminated objects such as towels.[4] The condition can also be spread to other areas of the body by the person themselves.[4] Risk factors include a weak immune system, atopic dermatitis, and crowded living conditions.[2] Following one infection, it is possible to get reinfected.[9] Diagnosis is typically based on the appearance.[3] Prevention includes hand washing ...
Molluscum contagiosum is a skin disease that is contagious and infects upon direct contact with human skin. The chance of contracting this virus is relatively high especially for those individuals who are exposed to everyday skin contact and frequent public areas. Although the disease is not life threatening and would go away in 3 to 13 months, those who have weakened immune systems might find themselves more susceptible to the virus especially young kids.. Overview. Molluscum contagiosum or water warts come from a DNA poxvirus called molluscum contagiosum virus or MCV. The condition is characterized by bumps which can either be small or pink in colouring. They are round and firm when touched. Most bumps would appear in the groin area though it can be found also on the neck, legs and trunks of the body. Those infected would experience itchiness, swelling, lesions, blisters and some pain.. Treatment For Kids. Although the viral infection can go away by itself in a few months time which ranges ...
This article discusses skin-related problems that primarily affect horses during the summertime. Equine skin problems arise more frequently during the summer months for several reasons. First, horses tend to be more active. They are ridden more and are reproductively active and so they tend to incur more injuries and skin wounds and are exposed to infectious diseases. Second, intense summer solar radiation causes sunburn and photosensitization. Third, flies and other insects contribute to a whole host of different skin-associated problems and other diseases. Understanding how these factors contribute to equine skin diseases gives us clues as to how to prepare for and avoid these troublesome problems.. THE ACTIVE SUMMER LIFESTYLE. The fact that horses are more active in the summer means that there are more opportunities for accidents that result in skin wounds. More travel means more stress and contact with other horses, increasing exposure to contagious skin disease like Equine Ringworm. This ...
Did you know about Molluscum contagiosum in children? A viral skin infection resulting in painless bumps. Know how molluscum virus affects child & remedies
Molluscum contagiosum is a common viral skin infection. For most children, the rash isnt a big deal and goes away on its own over time.
Warts and molluscum contagiosum are caused by an infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV) from skin-to-skin contact or by coming into contact with anything that has been touched by someone with a wart.
The molluscum virus is a highly contagious form of the pox virus. Pictures, symptoms, how it spreads, compare treatment options. The molluscum contagiosum virus is different than warts.........
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Treatment for molluscum contagiosum (MC) isnt routinely recommended because most cases clear up on their own in around 6 to 18 months.. If left alone, MC doesnt tend to result in scarring or cause any symptoms other than spots. Squeezing or scratching the spots can cause pain and bleeding and may increase the chances of scarring. It also increases the risk of spreading the infection.. Many of the treatments available for MC can be painful or upsetting for young children and some may increase the chances of permanent scarring.. Treatment is usually only recommended for adults and older children who have spots that are particularly unsightly and are affecting their quality of life.. Treatment is also be recommended for people with weakened immune systems, as the condition can take several years to clear in these cases. ...
Likely molluscum contagiosum (genital warts) caused by HPV. It is not clear where this came from but it is most likely sexually transmitted.
... is a common wart-like viral skin infection. For most children, the rash is no big deal and goes away on its own over time.
An 8-year-old girl is brought to the office because of an outbreak of bumps on her face for the past 3 months (Figure 136-1). Occasionally she scratches them, but she is otherwise asymptomatic. The mother and child are unhappy with the appearance of the molluscum contagiosum and chose to try topical therapy. A topical treatment was chosen to avoid the risk of hypopigmentation that can occur in dark-skinned individuals with cryotherapy. ...
hi. my son is 6 years old. i am more than sure he caught MC from the public pool. the MC is on his right side of the lower ab area and spreading, slowly but surely. it seemed to always get worse each time he went swimming there. he first caught it this pass summer, and started with 10... we didnt know what it was... just let it be, and it disappeared. when he went back to the pool, i noticed it started to return. then he started itching...and noticed it got worse after the itch...... i finally made up my mind to do some "mommy" research, i found "MC" and read many stories of children contracting the virus from the pool. also, my son had a bad case of ezema when he was little. something else which makes him much more vulnurable to the virus. none of us ha contracted the virus, YET! anyway, im trying a mixture of freshly picked sea salt (i live near the ocean and gather salt from tidepools) and white vinegar soaked in vinegar and water. i sorta wahed the area with the vinegar wash, than pasted ...
Wow. Im in awe to hear of so many situations similar to mine, if not worse. I started this thread but didnt expect any responses. But this is overwhelming. Im glad there are people that know how I feel. This is causing me the worst anxiety of my life because I feel im lying to everyone. At first, my friends didnt say anything. But now after 5 months theyre always asking me why im not trying to meet any women or date. I have to keep making up excuses like "I havent found any that ive been interested in" or things like that. When in reality, ive found more than I ever have before. Ive met at least 4 women in the past 5 months I would have love to date. This is the main conern for me. Im sure all of us here can understand and all may have slightly different conerns.Im here to shed a slightly positive light. I posted about the drug store wart freezing systems. Well, theres good news. The package usually comes with 8-12 "applicators" which are said to be used once on one wart. Well, i ...
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When two chemokine receptors in the brain interact, leukemic cells (stained green) creep out of a small vein in the membrane covering the brain of a mouse and enter the cerebrospinal fluid. The chemokine CCL19, which is in the endothelium lining the vein, is stained blue in this immunofluorescent image.
Latest information about remove molluscum warts Find article, review, images and graphics related with remove molluscum warts here.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Skin-selective lymphocyte homing mechanisms in the pathogenesis of leukemic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. AU - Heald, Peter W.. AU - Yan, Shu Ling. AU - Edelson, Richard L.. AU - Tigelaar, Robert. AU - Picker, Louis. PY - 1993/8. Y1 - 1993/8. N2 - The concept of skin-associated lymphoid tissue embraces those cells and functions that are integrated in the cutaneous host defense. Recently, it has been possible to identify those circulating T-cells that are skin associated. These cells display the cell-surface phenotype of memory T cells (CD45RO+) and express the cutaneous lymphocyte antigen, a tissue-selective homing receptor involved in directing T-cell traffic to inflamed skin. To investigate the participation of this skin-associated T-cell subset in the pathogenesis of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, we studied 16 patients with erythrodermic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma for the presence of these surface proteins on circulating cells. Results were compared with eight patients in remission ...
The University of North Carolina Department of Dermatology is conducting a clinical trial to evaluate a drug called cantharidin in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum. Molluscum is a common dermatologic disorder caused by a poxvirus. Molluscum typically presents with many flesh-colored bumps on the skin. It goes away on its own, though can last several months to several years. Cantharidin is a topical medicine which is applied at the clinic visit. It is well tolerated by the majority of children ...
This video on how a Dermatologist treats Molluscum Contagiosum is part of the series of Dermatology videos on dermatology conditions, produced to help patients and their families, general practitioners and other specialists, and for those who are interested in Dermatology. You can watch all the videos on The London Skin and Hair Clinic YouTube channel.. Looking for further information? You can find out more about Mollusum contagiosum here. ...
... (vFLIP) that inhibits caspase-8-mediated apoptosis. contaminated cells and renewed MCMV duplication in macrophages partially. Nevertheless, MC159 do not really replace Meters45 completely, as it do not really slow down necroptosis in murine cells, but it decreased TNF-induced necroptosis in MCMV-infected individual HT-29 cells. MC159 differed from M45 in its effect on NF-B also. While MCMV-encoded Meters45 obstructed NF-B account activation by TNF- and interleukin-1 (IL-1), MC159 inhibited TNF- but not really IL-1-activated NF-B account activation in contaminated mouse fibroblasts. These outcomes indicate that the range of MC159t features differs depending on cell type and reflection program and that a cell lifestyle program for the distribution of MCV is normally required to determine the natural relevance of assumed virus-like gene features. IMPORTANCE 398493-79-3 MCV is a human-pathogenic poxvirus that cannot ...
Dermatologists saw the most cases, with the majority seeing 51-100 molluscum contagiosum cases/year. The most common cases seen were children with multiple lesions and adults with genital lesions. Respondents were most likely to recommend treatment to immunocompromised individuals, HIV patients, adults with genital lesions and children with multiple lesions. Cryotherapy was the top choice for all specialties with the exception of OB/GYNs, whose top choice was curettage. "Avoid intimate contact until lesions resolve", "Avoid touching lesions to reduce further spread", and "Dont be concerned, this will go away" were the top advice choices ...
Influenza (flu) (strongly known for all those young adults); Pneumococcal pneumonia. We contracted molluscum contagiosum directly on my vaginal declare 2 years back, simply to we first got it treated and at drinking water nitrogen, simply to it turned out prompt, even simply to proceeded to go apart included in two to three cases following short ten second training course. We waited I suppose half a year and that they didnt obtain far better, therefore I lastly the very bullet simply to obtained her freeze them many persons. I had been identified as having molluscum of about four - half a year ago, simply to havnt been extremely busy of about ridding information technology, seeing that my physician extremely casualy assured me personally this is deficiencies in big also provide simply to it does disappear completely basically. Thankfully, my male has never saw any kind of bumps in any way but then at the minimum today well accept whats taking place whether or not he should be able to! The ...
Pimple like rash on vagina - For about a week now I noticed that my 5 year old daughter has 5-10 pimple like rash near her vagina and butt and I tried destined but nothing works? Please see. Please see your dermatologist for evaluation and to discuss treatment options. This is probably molluscum contagiosum.
Disclaimer: This information is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice. It is provided for educational purposes only. You assume full responsibility for how you choose to use this information.. ...
Its members are primarily facultative parasites and commensals of humans and other animals, living in and around the sweat glands, sebaceous glands, and other areas of the skin. They are virtually ubiquitous and do not cause problems for most people, but propionibacteria have been implicated in acne and other skin conditions.[5] One study found the Propionibacterium was the most prevalent human skin-associated genus of microorganisms.[6]. Members of the genus Propionibacterium are widely used in the production of vitamin B12, tetrapyrrole compounds, and propionic acid, as well as in the probiotics and cheese industries.[7]. The strain Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii is used in cheesemaking to create CO2 bubbles that become "eyes"-round holes in the cheese.[8]. ...
Background Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a common skin condition in children. Consultation rates and current management in primary care, and how these have changed over time, are poorly described. An association between the presence of atopic eczema (AE) and MC has been shown, but the subsequent risk of developing MC in children with a diagnosis of AE is not known. Aim To describe the consultation rate and management of MC in general practice in the UK over time, and test the hypothesis that a history of AE increases the risk of developing MC in childhood. Design and setting Two studies are reported: a retrospective longitudinal study of MC cases and an age-sex matched case-cohort study of AE cases, both datasets being held in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink from 2004 to 2013. Method Data of all recorded MC and AE primary care consultations for children aged 0 to 14 years were collected and two main analyses were conducted using these data: a retrospective longitudinal analysis and an ...
Molluscum contagiosum is a common, benign, self limiting viral infection of the skin. It generally affects children and is caused by a human specific poxvirus. Infection is rare in children under 1 year of age and typically occurs in the 2-5 year age group.4 Although the prevalence of molluscum contagiosum is not known, one of six Dutch children have visited their doctor for the condition.5. Infection follows autoinoculation or contact with affected people.6 The incubation period is from two weeks to six months. The condition is more common in young children and in children who swim, who bathe together, and who are immunosuppressed. Little evidence supports the view that lesions (mollusca) are more common in children with atopic dermatitis.. Mollusca present as multiple dome shaped pearly or flesh coloured papules with a central depression (umbilication), which usually appear on the trunk and flexural areas (fig 1). They vary in size from 1 mm to 10 mm, with growth occurring over several weeks.4 ...
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Viral disorder of the skin and mucous membranes characterized by discrete flesh-coloured umbilicated papules which may show a central pore. The causative agent is a DNA virus of the pox virus group. Seen most frequently in children between the ages of 3 and 16, this disorder my appear at any age. The lesions are both contagious and auto-inoculable. In children they are generally located on the face, trunk, extremities (especially in the axillae), and sometimes on the mucous membranes of the lips, tongue and buccal mucosa. In adults, involvement of the pubic, genital and perineal areas is common.. ...
Molluscum contagiosum trojan (MCV) gene encodes a viral FLICE inhibitory proteins (vFLIP) that inhibits caspase-8-mediated apoptosis. contaminated cells and renewed MCMV duplication in macrophages partially. Nevertheless, MC159 do not really replace Meters45 completely, as it do not really slow down necroptosis in murine cells, but it decreased TNF-induced necroptosis in MCMV-infected individual HT-29 cells. MC159 … Continue reading Molluscum contagiosum trojan (MCV) gene encodes a viral FLICE inhibitory proteins. ...
Lemon Myrtle Oil has powerful anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-viral and anti-septic properties. Very useful in treating problem skin and has been found to be helpful in dealing with viral conditions such as molluscum contagiosum. Silver-MSM Cream with Lemon Myrtle and Lemon Scented Tea Tree Essential Oil 60 ml argentum plus Premium True Quality since... ...
本期文章:《免疫》:Online/在线发表 美国康奈尔大学David Artis研究团队发现,白介素33(IL33)通过诱导色氨酸羟化酶1的酶活促进炎性2型先天淋巴样细胞(ILC2)介导的免疫。相关论文
Molluscum contagiosum and warts are benign epidermal eruptions resulting from viral infections of the skin. Molluscum contagiosum eruptions are usually self-limited and without sequelae, although they can be more extensive in immunocompromised persons. Spontaneous disappearance of lesions is the norm, but treatment by local destruction (curettage, cryotherapy, or trichloroacetic acid) or immunologic modulation can shorten the disease course, possibly reducing autoinoculation and transmission. Warts result from a hyperkeratotic reaction to human papillomavirus infection; nongenital warts are classified as common, periungual, flat, filiform, or plantar, based on location and shape. Warts are treated by local destruction (acids, cryotherapy, electrodesiccation-curettage), chemotherapy, or immunotherapy. The choice of treatment varies with the age and wishes of the patient, the potential side effects of the treatment, and the location of the lesions.
CCR8 Receptors: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.
Molluscum contagiosum lesions can look like that. Those and other infections/conditions can sometimes flare up in the midst of immune recovery after effective HIV treatment is started. Your HIV...
What you probably are describing is Molluscum contagiosum, a condition that is very common in HIV-infected patients with low CD4+ counts (<100). These lesions have a wart-like appearance, can occur...
Purpose: : Evidences from literature shows that GITR-GITRL interaction plays important role in delivering co-stimulatory signals controlling regulatory T cells. Human GITR ligand has recently been shown to be constitutively expressed in retinal tissues. By expressing eYFP tagged human GITRL in human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, we investigated the biological significance of expression of GITRL on human ocular tissue. Methods: : Full length GITRL was amplified from a human ovarian cDNA library using GITRL specific primers and subcloned in a pEYFPC1 vector for expressing GITRL as an eYFP tagged protein in RPE cells. Using an RPE/T cell co-culture system we studied the invitro proliferative responses of purified CD3+ T cells or CD3+CD25-T cells co-cultured with lethally irradiated RPE cells in the presence or absence of anti-CD3 and anti CD28 antibody. For cytokine measurement, culture supernatants were collected from parallel RPE/T cell co-culture experiments. Results: : Both ...
This research focuses on the antimicrobial activity of the mouse chemokine CCL28. In addition to their well characterized chemotactic activity, many chemokines have been shown to be antimicrobial in vitro, including the mucosally expressed chemokine CCL28. I have investigated the primary sequence features required for antimicrobial activity, salt sensitive nature of killing/binding mechanism, and in vivo microbial interactions of CCL28. Through the use of protein mutation and expression techniques, I have shown that the holoprotein (108 amino acids) is necessary for full antimicrobial activity of CCL28. Furthermore, the C terminal region of CCL28 is essential for microbial killing as an almost complete loss of antimicrobial activity is seen following the removal of the C terminal 24 amino acids. The positively charged amino acids of the C-terminus directly contributed to the antimicrobial activity of CCL28. These experiments are the first to investigate the role of primary structure on the killing
... the orphan chemokine receptor G protein-coupled receptor-2 (GPR-2, CCR10) binds the skin-associated chemokine CCL27 (CTACK/ALP/ ... the 2 cysteines are separated by a single amino acid in CXC chemokines and are adjacent in CC chemokines. CCR10 is a chemokine ... C-C chemokine receptor type 10 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCR10 gene. Chemokines are a group of small ( ... "Entrez Gene: CCR10 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 10". Balkwill F (July 2004). "Cancer and the chemokine network". Nat. Rev. ...
T cell attraction to the epidermal chemokine CCL27". Nature Immunology. 8 (3): 285-93. doi:10.1038/ni1433. PMID 17259988.. ... "Chemokines and chemokine receptors: their manifold roles in homeostasis and disease" (PDF). Cell Mol Immunol. 1 (2): 95-104. ...
Sequence analysis has revealed CCL28 to be most similar to another CC chemokine called CCL27. The gene C5orf34 is found ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 28 (CCL28), also known as mucosae-associated epithelial chemokine (MEC), CCK1 and SCYA28, is a ... This chemokine is constitutively expressed in the colon, but its levels can be increased by pro-inflammatory cytokines and ... Feng N, Jaimes MC, Lazarus NH, Monak D, Zhang C, Butcher EC, Greenberg HB (May 2006). "Redundant role of chemokines CCL25/TECK ...
T cell attraction to the epidermal chemokine CCL27". Nature Immunology. 8 (3): 285-93. doi:10.1038/ni1433. PMID 17259988. ... Le Y, Zhou Y, Iribarren P, Wang J (Apr 2004). "Chemokines and chemokine receptors: their manifold roles in homeostasis and ... chemokines that promote chemotaxis; and interferons that have anti-viral effects, such as shutting down protein synthesis in ... chemokines that promote chemotaxis; and interferons that have anti-viral effects, such as shutting down protein synthesis in ...
T cell attraction to the epidermal chemokine CCL27" (PDF). Nature Immunology. 8 (3): 285-93. doi:10.1038/ni1433. PMID 17259988 ...
... binds the skin-associated chemokine CCL27 (CTACK/ALP/ILC)". J. Immunol. 164 (7): 3465-70. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.164.7.3465. PMID ... Chemokine-binding protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCBP2 gene. This gene encodes a beta chemokine ... 2000). "Cutting edge: identification of a novel chemokine receptor that binds dendritic cell- and T cell-active chemokines ... 2003). "Cutting edge: scavenging of inflammatory CC chemokines by the promiscuous putatively silent chemokine receptor D6". J. ...
T cell attraction to the epidermal chemokine CCL27." Nat Immunol 2007 Staton TL, Habtezion A, Winslow MM, Sato T, Love PE, ... "CC chemokine receptor (CCR)4 and the CCR10 ligand cutaneous T cell-attracting chemokine (CTACK) in lymphocyte trafficking to ... The team is also exploring mechanisms that imprint lymphocyte homing and chemokine receptor expression during tissue-specific ... "Rules of chemokine receptor association with T cell polarization in vivo." J Clin Invest 2001; 108: 9: 1331-9 Campbell DJ, Kim ...
... chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21, SCYA21 CCL27: chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 27, SCYA27 CHMP5: Charged multivesicular body ...
C-C chemokine receptor type 6 C-C chemokine receptor type 7 Calreticulin Cancer immunology Cancer immunoprevention Cancer ... receptors CCBP2 CCL1 CCL11 CCL12 CCL13 CCL14 CCL15 CCL16 CCL17 CCL18 CCL19 CCL2 CCL20 CCL21 CCL22 CCL23 CCL24 CCL25 CCL26 CCL27 ... CD4 CD4+ T cells and antitumor immunity CD74 CD94/NKG2 Cell-mediated immunity CELSR1 Central tolerance Chemokine Chemokine ... CR6261 CroFab Cross-presentation Cross-reactivity Cryptic self epitopes Cryptotope CX3CL1 CX3CR1 CXC chemokine receptors CXCL1 ...
chemokine receptor activity. • receptor activity. • protein binding. • C-C chemokine receptor activity. • C-C chemokine binding ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene.[5] CCR6 ... "Entrez Gene: CCR6 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6".. *^ Wang K, Zhang H, Kugathasan S, Annese V, Bradfield JP, Russell RK, ... "Chemokine Receptors: CCR6". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
2008). "Macrophage-specific metalloelastase (MMP-12) truncates and inactivates ELR+ CXC chemokines and generates CCL2, -7, -8, ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 8 (CCL8), also known as monocyte chemoattractant protein 2 (MCP2), is a protein that in humans is ... The gene for CCL8 is encoded by 3 exons and is located within a large cluster of CC chemokines on chromosome 17q11.2 in humans ... CCL8 is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. The CCL8 protein is produced as a precursor containing 109 amino ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 27 (CCL27) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family also known under the names IL- ... The orphan chemokine receptor G protein-coupled receptor-2 (GPR-2, CCR10) binds the skin-associated chemokine CCL27 (CTACK/ALP/ ... The gene for CCL27 is located on human chromosome 9. Morales et al. CTACK, a skin-associated chemokine that preferentially ... Molecular cloning of a novel CC chemokine, interleukin-11 receptor alpha-locus chemokine (ILC), which is located on chromosome ...
These include: CCL14, CCL19, CCL20, CCL21, CCL25, CCL27, CXCL12 and CXCL13. This classification is not strict; for example, ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines in that it has ... CCL1 for the ligand 1 of the CC-family of chemokines, and CCR1 for its respective receptor. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) ...
The orphan chemokine receptor G protein-coupled receptor-2 (GPR-2, CCR10) binds the skin-associated chemokine CCL27 (CTACK/ALP/ ... The CC chemokine receptors all work by activating the G protein Gi. CCR1 was the first CC chemokine receptor identified and ... Human CC chemokine liver-expressed chemokine/CCL16 is a functional ligand for CCR1, CCR2 and CCR5, and constitutively expressed ... Macrophage-derived chemokine is a functional ligand for the CC chemokine receptor 4. J. Biol. Chem. 273:1764-1768 (1998). Gong ...
These include: CCL14, CCL19, CCL20, CCL21, CCL25, CCL27, CXCL12 and CXCL13. This classification is not strict; for example, ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ...
CCL27 · CCL28 ... Chemokine. CCL. CCL1 · CCL2 · CCL3 · CCL4 · CCL5 · CCL6 · CCL7 ...
C-X-C chemokine receptor activity. • interleukin-8 binding. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. • chemokine receptor ... This name and the corresponding gene symbol IL8RA have been replaced by the HGNC approved name C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 1 ... "Chemokine Receptors: CXCR1". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... chemokine-mediated signaling pathway. • interleukin-8-mediated signaling pathway. • neutrophil degranulation. • chemotaxis. ...
chemokine activity. • cytokine activity. • heparin binding. • protein binding. • CXCR3 chemokine receptor binding. ... C-X-C motif chemokine 11 is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also called Interferon-inducible T- ... "Entrez Gene: CXCL11 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11".. *^ a b Cole KE, Strick CA, Paradis TJ, Ogborne KT, Loetscher M, Gladue ... This chemokine elicits its effects on its target cells by interacting with the cell surface chemokine receptor CXCR3, with a ...
positive regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production. • positive regulation of JUN kinase activity. • positive ... positive regulation of chemokine production. • cellular extravasation. • negative regulation of lipid storage. • negative ... positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • epithelial cell proliferation involved in salivary gland morphogenesis ...
... s are a subset of cytokines that are produced by a type of immune cell known as a lymphocyte.[1] They are protein mediators typically produced by T cells to direct the immune system response by signaling between its cells. Lymphokines have many roles, including the attraction of other immune cells, including macrophages and other lymphocytes, to an infected site and their subsequent activation to prepare them to mount an immune response. Circulating lymphocytes can detect a very small concentration of lymphokine and then move up the concentration gradient towards where the immune response is required. Lymphokines aid B cells to produce antibodies. Important lymphokines secreted by the T helper cell include:[2] ...
... binds to the death receptors DR4 (TRAIL-RI) and DR5 (TRAIL-RII). The process of apoptosis is caspase-8-dependent. Caspase-8 activates downstream effector caspases including procaspase-3, -6, and -7, leading to activation of specific kinases.[11] TRAIL also binds the receptors DcR1 and DcR2, which do not contain a cytoplasmic domain (DcR1) or contain a truncated death domain (DcR2). DcR1 functions as a TRAIL-neutralizing decoy-receptor. The cytoplasmic domain of DcR2 is functional and activates NFkappaB. In cells expressing DcR2, TRAIL binding therefore activates NFkappaB, leading to transcription of genes known to antagonize the death signaling pathway and/or to promote inflammation. Application of engineered ligands that have variable affinity for different death (DR4 and DR5) and decoy receptors (DCR1 and DCR2) may allow selective targeting of cancer cells by controlling activation of Type 1/Type 2 pathways of cell death and single cell fluctuations. Luminescent iridium complex-peptide ...
... (IL-24) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL24 gene. IL-24 is a cytokine belonging to the IL-10 family of cytokines that signals through two heterodimeric receptors: IL-20R1/IL-20R2 and IL-22R1/IL-20R2. This interleukin is also known as melanoma differentiation-associated 7 (mda-7) due to its discovery as a tumour suppressing protein. IL-24 appears to control in cell survival and proliferation by inducing rapid activation of particular transcription factors called STAT1 and STAT3. This cytokine is predominantly released by activated monocytes, macrophages and T helper 2 (Th2) cells[5] and acts on non-haematopoietic tissues such as skin, lung and reproductive tissues. IL-24 performs important roles in wound healing, arthritis, psoriasis and cancer.[6][7][8] Several studies have shown that cell death occurs in cancer cells/cell lines following exposure to IL-24.[9][10] The gene for IL-24 is located on chromosome 1 in humans.[11] ...
... as well as chemokine and cytokine production, and expression of adhesion molecules such as E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. This ...
positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • regulation of insulin secretion. • extrinsic apoptotic signaling ... Copeland KF (2006). "Modulation of HIV-1 transcription by cytokines and chemokines". Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry. 5 (12 ...
... is sometimes used interchangeably among scientists with the term cytokine.[3] Historically, cytokines were associated with hematopoietic (blood and lymph forming) cells and immune system cells (e.g., lymphocytes and tissue cells from spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes). For the circulatory system and bone marrow in which cells can occur in a liquid suspension and not bound up in solid tissue, it makes sense for them to communicate by soluble, circulating protein molecules. However, as different lines of research converged, it became clear that some of the same signaling proteins which the hematopoietic and immune systems use were also being used by all sorts of other cells and tissues, during development and in the mature organism. While growth factor implies a positive effect on cell division, cytokine is a neutral term with respect to whether a molecule affects proliferation. While some cytokines can be growth factors, such as G-CSF and GM-CSF, others have an inhibitory effect on ...
Interferon alfa 2b is an antiviral or antineoplastic drug, that was originally discovered in the laboratory of Charles Weissmann at the University of Zurich. It was developed at Biogen, and ultimately marketed by Schering-Plough under the tradename Intron-A. It has been used for a wide range of indications, including viral infections and cancers. This drug is approved around the world for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C, chronic hepatitis B, hairy cell leukemia, Behçet's disease, chronic myelogenous leukemia, multiple myeloma, follicular lymphoma, carcinoid tumor, mastocytosis and malignant melanoma. ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the interleukin 1 cytokine family. Protein structure modeling indicated that this cytokine may contain a 12-stranded beta-trefoil structure that is conserved between IL1A (IL-A alpha) and IL1B (IL-1 beta). This gene and eight other interleukin 1 family genes form a cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 2. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported.[8]. ...
4-1BB is a type 2 transmembrane glycoprotein receptor belonging to the TNF superfamily, expressed on activated T Lymphocytes.[1] 4-1BBL (4-1BB ligand) is found on APCs (antigen presenting cells) and binds to 4-1BB. ...
Macrophage-specific metalloelastase (MMP-12) truncates and inactivates ELR+ CXC chemokines and generates CCL2, -7, -8, and -13 ... Macrophage-specific metalloelastase (MMP-12) truncates and inactivates ELR+ CXC chemokines and generates CCL2, -7, -8, and -13 ... Macrophage-specific metalloelastase (MMP-12) truncates and inactivates ELR+ CXC chemokines and generates CCL2, -7, -8, and -13 ... Macrophage-specific metalloelastase (MMP-12) truncates and inactivates ELR+ CXC chemokines and generates CCL2, -7, -8, and -13 ...
The CC chemokine ILC, also called cutaneous T cell-attracting chemokine or CCL27, was reported to recruit T cells to the site ... In the present study, a CC family chemokine, ILC/CCL27, and a CX3C chemokine, FKN/CX3CL1, have been studied. ILC is expressed ... In this study, we examined antitumor activity of a mouse CC chemokine ILC/CCL27 and a mouse CX3C chemokine fractalkine/CX3CL1 ... Antitumor Effect by Interleukin-11 Receptor α-Locus Chemokine/CCL27, Introduced into Tumor Cells through a Recombinant ...
This is the first example of the use of CCL27 and CCL28 chemokines as adjuvants to influence a DNA vaccine strategy, suggesting ... This is the first example of the use of CCL27 and CCL28 chemokines as adjuvants to influence a DNA vaccine strategy, suggesting ... This is the first example of the use of CCL27 and CCL28 chemokines as adjuvants to influence a DNA vaccine strategy, suggesting ... This is the first example of the use of CCL27 and CCL28 chemokines as adjuvants to influence a DNA vaccine strategy, suggesting ...
CCL27). Includes lead product status, indications and partnerships. Provides pipeline & competitive intelligence, market ... Comprehensive view of all products targeting Chemokine CC motif ligand 27 ( ... Researchers published in Nature Medicine that CCL27 is primarily expressed by basal keratinocytes and that interactions between ... CCL27 and its receptor, CCR10, are involved in recruitment of T cells to the skin in inflammatory skin... ...
chemokine receptor activity. • receptor activity. • protein binding. • C-C chemokine receptor activity. • C-C chemokine binding ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene.[5] CCR6 ... "Entrez Gene: CCR6 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6".. *^ Wang K, Zhang H, Kugathasan S, Annese V, Bradfield JP, Russell RK, ... "Chemokine Receptors: CCR6". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 27, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The ... GeneCards Summary for CCL27 Gene CCL27 (C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 27) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CCL27 ... Aliases for CCL27 Gene Aliases for CCL27 Gene. * C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 27 2 3 5 ... No data available for DME Specific Peptides for CCL27 Gene Domains & Families for CCL27 Gene Gene Families for CCL27 Gene. HGNC ...
This review will focus on recent murine and human studies that use chemokines as therapeutic anti-cancer vaccine adjuvants. ... Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing ... This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential ... CCL27. CTACK/ILC. CCR10. homeostatic. CCL28. MEC. CCR3, CCR10. homeostatic. 2. Chemokines Modify Effector Cell and APC Function ...
PeproTechs chemokines include proteins that act through G protein-coupled receptors and conform to the prototypical chemokine ... Chemokines. This Chemokine category includes proteins that act through G protein-coupled receptors and conform to the ... with the exception of Lymphotactin that contains only one disulfide bond but is still considered a chemokine). ... prototypical chemokine protein structure containing four specific cross-linked cysteine residues ( ...
PeproTechs chemokines include proteins that act through G protein-coupled receptors and conform to the prototypical chemokine ...
These include: CCL14, CCL19, CCL20, CCL21, CCL25, CCL27, CXCL12 and CXCL13. This classification is not strict; for example, ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ...
Recombinant Mouse CCL27 protein is an Escherichia coli Full length protein 26 to 120 aa range, , 95% purity, , 0.100 Eu/µg ... IL 11 R alpha locus chemokine. *IL-11 R-alpha-locus chemokine ... Recombinant Mouse CCL27 protein. See all CCL27 proteins and ...
CCL27/CCL28-CCR10 Chemokine Signaling Mediates Migration of Lymphatic Endothelial Cells.. Karnezis T, Farnsworth RH, Harris NC ...
Human Cytokine/Chemokine 2. *6Ckine/CCL21. *BCA-1/BLC/CXCL13. *CTACK/CCL27 ...
Chemokines and their receptors play essential roles in immunology during inflammation and in homeostasis. ... Chemokines are a class of secreted molecules that induce chemotaxis (migration) of target cells. ... CCL27. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. a. ... Chemokine Receptor Biology poster. Order your copy of our ... Chemokines are also involved in the orchestration of wound healing.. For more information on inflammatory chemokines, see the ...
... and CTACK will receive the designation CCL27. We suggest that future studies call this chemokine by this new designation (CCL27 ... We designated this chemokine cutaneous T cell-attracting chemokine (CTACK). The CC chemokines with the greatest similarity to ... This study describes the identification of a CC chemokine, cutaneous T cell-attracting chemokine (CTACK), that is expressed in ... Here, we report the identification and characterization of a CC chemokine, cutaneous T cell-attracting chemokine (CTACK). Both ...
... the orphan chemokine receptor G protein-coupled receptor-2 (GPR-2, CCR10) binds the skin-associated chemokine CCL27 (CTACK/ALP/ ... the 2 cysteines are separated by a single amino acid in CXC chemokines and are adjacent in CC chemokines. CCR10 is a chemokine ... C-C chemokine receptor type 10 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCR10 gene. Chemokines are a group of small ( ... "Entrez Gene: CCR10 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 10". Balkwill F (July 2004). "Cancer and the chemokine network". Nat. Rev. ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-CCL27/CTACK Antibody (MM0152-7H44). Validated: WB, IHC, IHC-P, B/N. Tested Reactivity: Human. 100% ... Alternate Names for CCL27/CTACK Antibody (MM0152-7H44). *ALP. *C-C motif chemokine 27 ... Blogs on CCL27/CTACK. There are no specific blogs for CCL27/CTACK, but you can read our latest blog posts. ... Reviews for CCL27/CTACK Antibody (NBP2-12114) (0) There are no reviews for CCL27/CTACK Antibody (NBP2-12114). By submitting a ...
It is possible to identify the particular chemokines which are over-expressed in the tumor using methods of the invention and ... The present invention provides a means of inhibiting the growth and metastasis of cancer cells by administering anti-chemokine ... CCL25, CCL27. CCR9, CCR10. CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, CXCL5,. CXCR1, CXCR2, CXCR4,. CXCL6, CXCL7, CXCL8, CXCL12,. CXCR5, CXCR6. ... The patient is then given the antibodies against the over-expressed chemokine(s). However, the level of each chemokine may also ...
Identification of chemokines which are over-produced makes it possible to block specific chemokine activity using antibodies to ... It is possible to inhibit inflammatory processes by administration of antibodies to chemokines. ... CCL17, CCL20, CCL22, CCL27. Diabetes. CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11,. CXCR3. CCL2, CCL9. CCR2, CCR4. ... Chemokines: roles in leukocyte development, trafficking, and effector function. Anders et al. 2003. Chemokines and chemokine ...
Furthermore, CCL27 was predominantly secreted by skin whereas CCL28 was predominantly secreted by gingiva. In contrast, general ... These results indicate that the cytokines and chemokines triggering innate immunity and LC migration are different in skin and ... We found that proinflammatory IL-18 and chemokines CCL2, CCL20, and CXCL12, all involved in LC migration, were predominantly ... Oral mucosa and skin equivalents were compared regarding secretion of cytokines and chemokines involved in LC migration and ...
CCL27 (cutaneous T-cell-attracting chemokine, CTACK) has also been implicated in skin homing. This chemokine, preferentially ... Production and presentation of T-cell-specific chemokines, such as CC-chemokine ligand 17 (CCL17), CCL22 and CCL27, on the ... Several chemokines and their receptors are associated with skin-homing T cells73-75, including CC-chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) ... and its ligands CCL17 (thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, TARC) and CCL22 (macrophage-derived chemokine, MDC). ...
Individual cytokines are identified at left: CCL27, C-C motif chemokine ligand 27, also known as CTACK; PDGF-AA, platelet- ... derived growth factor α polypeptide; CCL11, C-C motif chemokine ligand 11; IL-16, interleukin 16; CCL22, C-C motif chemokine ... We analyzed 64 circulating cytokines and chemokines in plasma of 120 African American women enrolled in the Black Womens ... We used regression analysis to identify cytokines and chemokines associated with obesity, co-morbid T2D and hypertension, and ...
... chemokines, growth factors, and Th17 biomarkers. Premixed or custom panels and singleplex sets. ... CTACK/CCL27. •. 62. ENA-78/CXCL5. •. 20. Eotaxin/CCL11. •. 74. Eotaxin2/CCL24. •. 73. ... Available Bio-Plex Pro™ Mouse Cytokine & Chemokine Assays. Singleplex. Bio-Plex Pro Mouse Chemokine Panel 33-Plex. (12002231). ... Home,Life Science Research,Products,Bio-Plex® Multiplex Immunoassay System,Bio-Plex Pro™ Magnetic Cytokine, Chemokine, and ...
... chemokines, and growth factors with magnetic bead-based assays. Custom or premixed assay formats; low sample volumes. ... CTACK/CCL27. •. 62. ENA-78/CXCL5. •. 20. Eotaxin/CCL11. •. 74. Eotaxin2/CCL24. •. 73. ... Available Bio-Plex Pro™ Mouse Cytokine & Chemokine Assays. Singleplex. Bio-Plex Pro Mouse Chemokine Panel 33-Plex. (12002231). ... Chemokine, and Growth Factor Assays,Bio-Plex Pro™ Mouse Cytokine, Chemokine, and Growth Factor Assays ...
These include: CCL14, CCL19, CCL20, CCL21, CCL25, CCL27, CXCL12 and CXCL13. This classification is not strict; for example, ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines in that it has ... CCL1 for the ligand 1 of the CC-family of chemokines, and CCR1 for its respective receptor. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) ...
  • Diseases associated with CCL27 include Dermatitis and Atopic Dermatitis . (genecards.org)
  • Diseases associated with CCL27 include chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis and hypophosphatasia. (aimplexbio.com)
  • We performed a systematic, comprehensive time-course analysis of the expression and function of a broad variety of cytokines, growth factors, adhesion molecules, matrixmetalloproteinases and chemokines in a murine cutaneous wound healing model. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We systematically measured cytokines, growth factors, adhesion molecules, matrixmetalloproteinases and chemokines in a murine model for acute cutaneous wound healing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chemokine is a small group of molecules which is de﫿ned by the presence of four cysteines in highly conserved region. (bvsalud.org)
  • Naïve T cells express the adhesion molecule L-selectin, the chemokine receptor CCR7 and other molecules that allow these cells to migrate preferentially to secondary lymphoid organs where they can encounter antigen-presenting cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chemokines possess a number of conserved cysteine residues involved in intramolecular disulfide bond formation. (prospecbio.com)
  • The first 2 cysteine residues of this family are separated by 1 amino acids therefore, called CXC-Chemokines [Cysteine- Amino Acid-Cysteine-Chemokines]. (prospecbio.com)
  • Several of the Beta-Chemokines contain two additional conserved cysteine residues and sometimes the term C6-beta-Chemokines is used for this subgroup. (prospecbio.com)
  • The present invention provides a means of inhibiting the growth and metastasis of cancer cells by administering anti-chemokine antibodies. (google.com)
  • Gamma & Delta Chemokines are type 1 transmembrane glycoproteins with the chemokine domain resting on top of an extended mucin-like stalk. (prospecbio.com)
  • A soluble form of the chemokine moiety can be released from its transmembrane anchor by extracellular cleavage. (prospecbio.com)
  • This presents the opportunity to identify all relevant members of the chemokine superfamily involved in complex biological processes such as wound healing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Based on our findings that IL-17 conveys dual effects (stimulation of proinflammatory cytokines and down-regulation of chemokines) in fibroblasts with the inhibitory IL-17 effect prevailing at low concentrations ( 36 ), we hypothesized a regulatory role of IL-17 in vivo and investigated the potential of IL-17 for regulating the Th2 response to inhaled allergens. (rupress.org)
  • This invention relates to antibodies or the use of antibodies directed against certain chemokines. (google.com)
  • RT-PCR, confocal microscopy, and ELISA analysis indicated that keratinocytes exposed to TNF or IL1B but not to IL4 or IFNG in vitro express increased CCL27. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • We show in vitro for the first time that IL-17 inhibits chemokine TARC production by DCs, which play a key role in the Th2 response and therefore in allergic asthma ( 37 ). (rupress.org)
  • CCL27 was one of numerous potential early detection biomarkers specific to triple-negative breast cancer in multiple pathways identified. (nih.gov)
  • Unraveling the chemokine-driven communication pathways in this complex process could possibly lead to new therapeutic strategies in wound healing disorders. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CCL27 expression is regulated by both p38 MAPK and IKKβ signalling pathways. (jove.com)
  • Thymic stromal lymphopoietin receptor-mediated IL-6 and CC /CXC chemokines expression in human airway smooth muscle cells: role of MAPKs (ERK1/2, p38, and JNK) and STAT3 pathways. (baidu.com)
  • These are known as homeostatic chemokines and are produced and secreted without any need to stimulate their source cell(s). (wikipedia.org)
  • Homeostatic chemokines are constitutively expressed in particular organs or tissues. (biolegend.com)
  • Due to their function of targeting cells to specific organs, homeostatic chemokines can also be involved in cancer and metastasis. (biolegend.com)