A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.
A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.
Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.
Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.
CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.
A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.
A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.
Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.
A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.
Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.
An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.
CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.
Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.
Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.
The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.

Molecular cloning of a novel CC chemokine, interleukin-11 receptor alpha-locus chemokine (ILC), which is located on chromosome 9p13 and a potential homologue of a CC chemokine encoded by molluscum contagiosum virus. (1/35)

Molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) encodes a CC chemokine MC148R which is likely to have been acquired from the host. By a homology search employing MC148R as a probe, we have identified a novel CC chemokine whose gene exists next to the IL-11 receptor alpha (IL-11Ralpha) gene in both humans and mice. Thus, this chemokine maps to chromosome 9p13 in humans where IL-11Ralpha has been assigned. We term this novel chemokine IL-11Ralpha-locus chemokine (ILC). ILC has the highest homology to MC148R among the known human CC chemokines. Furthermore, ILC is strongly and selectively expressed in the skin where infection of MCV also takes place. Thus, ILC is likely to be the original chemokine of MC148R.  (+info)

ESkine, a novel beta-chemokine, is differentially spliced to produce secretable and nuclear targeted isoforms. (2/35)

Using the murine embryonal stem cell system, we have identified a novel gene encoding a highly divergent member of the beta-chemokine family of proinflammatory mediators and have called this protein ESkine. Much of the coding sequence for ESkine overlaps with the 3'-end of a novel interleukin 11 receptor alpha-like sequence on murine chromosome 4. ESkine is produced as two splice variants. One of these variants encodes a classical chemokine with an associated signal peptide, while the other variant (PESKY) possesses the main body of the chemokine but has replaced the signal peptide with an alternative stretch of amino acids that allows for nuclear targeting of this isoform. This differential splicing arises as a result of alternative 5' exon usage. These differentially spliced forms are expressed at discrete tissue loci. Thus, while ESkine is highly expressed in the placenta, PESKY is mainly expressed in the Testes and brain and weakly in the developing embryo. Studies on the proinflammatory properties of ESkine reveal it to be active in inducing polarization of CD4(+) T cells but to be inactive on other hemopoietic cellular populations.  (+info)

Cutting edge: identification of the orphan receptor G-protein-coupled receptor 2 as CCR10, a specific receptor for the chemokine ESkine. (3/35)

A number of orphan G-protein coupled receptors (GPR) have been reported as putative chemokine receptors. One previously reported orphan receptor is an incomplete PCR clone, called GPR2. Here we report the cloning of full-length human (h)GPR2 and mouse (m)GPR2 cDNAs, and the identification of GPR2 as a receptor for a novel CC chemokine called ESkine. hGPR2 is expressed at high levels in testis and small intestine, and at lower levels in other tissues. mGPR2 was expressed at high levels in small intestine, colon, lymph nodes, and Peyer's patches and at lower levels in thymus and spleen. Stimulation of L1.2/hGPR2 transfectants with hESkine induced their migration and resulted in intracellular calcium mobilization. These results provide evidence that GPR2 is a specific receptor for ESkine. We propose that GPR2 be renamed as CCR10. The expression pattern of mGPR2/CCR10 suggests that it may play a role in the homing/trafficking of leukocytes within intestinal and lymphoid environments.  (+info)

Cutting edge: the orphan chemokine receptor G protein-coupled receptor-2 (GPR-2, CCR10) binds the skin-associated chemokine CCL27 (CTACK/ALP/ILC). (4/35)

We recently reported the identification of a chemokine (CTACK), which has been renamed CCL27 according to a new systematic chemokine nomenclature. We report that CCL27 binds the previously orphan chemokine receptor GPR-2, as detected by calcium flux and chemotactic responses of GPR-2 transfectants. We renamed this receptor CCR10. Because of the skin-associated expression pattern of CCL27, we focused on the expression of CCL27 and CCR10 in normal skin compared with inflammatory and autoimmune skin diseases. CCL27 is constitutively produced by keratinocytes but can also be induced upon stimulation with TNF-alpha and IL-1beta. CCR10 is not expressed by keratinocytes and is instead expressed by melanocytes, dermal fibroblasts, and dermal microvascular endothelial cells. CCR10 was also detected in T cells as well as in skin-derived Langerhans cells. Taken together, these observations suggest a role for this novel ligand/receptor pair in both skin homeostasis as well as a potential role in inflammatory responses.  (+info)

DNAWorks: an automated method for designing oligonucleotides for PCR-based gene synthesis. (5/35)

The availability of sequences of entire genomes has dramatically increased the number of protein targets, many of which will need to be overexpressed in cells other than the original source of DNA. Gene synthesis often provides a fast and economically efficient approach. The synthetic gene can be optimized for expression and constructed for easy mutational manipulation without regard to the parent genome. Yet design and construction of synthetic genes, especially those coding for large proteins, can be a slow, difficult and confusing process. We have written a computer program that automates the design of oligonucleotides for gene synthesis. Our program requires simple input information, i.e. amino acid sequence of the target protein and melting temperature (needed for the gene assembly) of synthetic oligonucleotides. The program outputs a series of oligonucleotide sequences with codons optimized for expression in an organism of choice. Those oligonucleotides are characterized by highly homogeneous melting temperatures and a minimized tendency for hairpin formation. With the help of this program and a two-step PCR method, we have successfully constructed numerous synthetic genes, ranging from 139 to 1042 bp. The approach presented here simplifies the production of proteins from a wide variety of organisms for genomics-based studies.  (+info)

The chemokine ESkine/CCL27 displays novel modes of intracrine and paracrine function. (6/35)

We have previously shown that the beta-chemokine ESkine/CCL27 is differentially spliced to produce two alternative forms. One is a secreted chemokine (ESkine), whereas the other (PESKY) lacks a signal peptide and is translocated to the nucleus. The role of this nuclear-targeted chemokine has not so far been defined, and it was the purpose of this study to examine this chemokine variant in more depth. To identify the region of PESKY involved in the nuclear translocation we tagged fragments with enhanced green fluorescent protein and expressed them in Chinese hamster ovary cells. We show PESKY nuclear translocation to be dependent on C-terminal residues that are shared with the signal peptide-bearing variant ESkine. Indeed we further demonstrate that ESkine can also use these C-terminal residues to enter the nucleus of cells following receptor (CCR10)-mediated internalization. To examine biological roles for PESKY we have overexpressed it in 3T3 cells. Such overexpression results in marked cytoskeletal rearrangements that are coincident with a radical reorganization of the cellular actin cytoskeleton. Microarray analyses and Ab neutralization studies indicate that these changes are mediated in part by insulin-like growth factor-1. Furthermore, monolayer wounding assays indicate that PESKY expression correlates with markedly increased migratory capacity. Thus, it is our contention that nuclear PESKY and ESkine both enter the nucleus by either intracrine or paracrine mechanisms and may facilitate cellular migration by inducing actin cytoskeletal relaxation. Therefore, nuclear ESkine/PESKY represents a novel paradigm for chemokine function.  (+info)

CCR4 versus CCR10 in human cutaneous TH lymphocyte trafficking. (7/35)

The chemokine receptors (CCRs) CCR4 and CCR10, and the cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA), have each been proposed as critical mediators of skin-specific TH lymphocyte homing in mice and humans. CLA initiates skin homing by mediating E-selectin-dependent tethering and rolling within cutaneous venules, but the specific roles of CCR4 and CCR10 are unclear. We have generated an antihuman CCR10 monoclonal antibody (mAb; 1B5) to illuminate the individual contributions of these molecules. This mAb allows us to compare CCR10, CCR4, and CLA expression within human TH populations. The mAb 1B5 recognizes functional CCR10 expression, as chemotactic responsiveness to cutaneous T-cell-attracting chemokine (CTACK)/CCL27 (a CCR10 ligand) parallels the staining of TH subsets. We find CCR10 expressed by only a minority (approximately 30%) of blood-borne, skin-homing (CLA+/CCR4+) TH cells. However, essentially all members of the relatively small "effector" (CLA+/CCR4+/CD27-/CCR7-) skin-homing TH population express CCR10. Most skin-infiltrating lymphocytes in allergic delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) and bacterial chancroid skin lesions express both CCR4 and CLA, but only about 10% express CCR10. This suggests for the 2 models of TH skin homing studied here that CCR10+ TH cells have no advantage over other CLA+/CCR4+ TH cells in homing to cutaneous sites. We conclude that the skin-homing TH compartment is itself divided into distinct subpopulations, the smaller of which expresses both CCR4 and CCR10, and the larger of which expresses only CCR4. Thus, CCR10 is unlikely to be necessary for cutaneous homing of TH cells in the models studied here. CCR10 may instead play a role in the movement of specialized "effector" cutaneous TH cells to and/or within epidermal microenvironments.  (+info)

Antitumor effect by interleukin-11 receptor alpha-locus chemokine/CCL27, introduced into tumor cells through a recombinant adenovirus vector. (8/35)

In this study, we examined antitumor activity of a mouse CC chemokine ILC/CCL27 and a mouse CX(3)C chemokine fractalkine/CX(3)CL1 in vivo. We generated recombinant adenovirus vectors with a fiber mutation, encoding mILC (Ad-RGD-mILC) and mFKN (Ad-RGD-mFKN). We confirmed tumor cells infected with Ad-RGD-mILC and Ad-RGD-mFKN to express and release these chemokines. Tumor rejection experiments in vivo were carried out by inoculating OV-HM cells infected with Ad-RGD-mILC or Ad-RGD-mFKN into immunocompetent mice. mILC significantly suppressed the tumor growth, whereas no such significant effect was observed by mFKN. The antitumor activity induced by mILC was T cell dependent, involving both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed accumulation of both CD3(+) lymphocytes and NK cells in the tumor tissue transduced with mILC and mFKN. However, there was a significant difference in the distribution of infiltrating cells. Furthermore, mFKN appeared to have an angiogenic activity, which might have masked its tumor suppressive activity. Collectively, ILC/CCL27 may be a good candidate molecule for cancer gene therapy.  (+info)

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This graph shows the total number of publications written about Chemokine CCL4 by people in this website by year, and whether Chemokine CCL4 was a major or minor topic of these publications ...
Chemokine CCL11; CCL11 Chemokine. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several symptoms or a full patient history. A similarity measure between symptoms and diseases is provided.
In this project, we develop adjuvant nanovesicles for needle-free vaccination against viral and parasitic diseases.. Needle-free topical vaccination is attractive since it has the potential to make vaccine delivery more equitable, safer and equally or more efficient than parenteral (intramuscular or subcutaneous) vaccination. Major benefits include the possibility of self-administration, improved patient compliance, no requirement of sharps waste removal, and reduced storage and transport issues. Topical vaccination however, is challenged by the barrier that the stratum corneum interposed between antigens-adjuvants and the skin-associated lymphoid tissue (SALT) lying few hundred micrometers depth from skin surface. In this scenario, soft matter having elasto-mechanical properties enabling the penetration of the intact stratum corneum, could pave the way towards safer and efficient topical vaccination. We have developed ultradeformable archaeosomes made of sn 2,3 ether linked phytanyl saturated ...
MG132 treatment nearly completely blocked the steady disappearance of HA-SLC45A2-L374 and in addition blocked the speedy degradation of HA-SLC45A2-F374 at early run after situations (Figure 8, b and c). during melanosome maturation than OCA2 later on. Furthermore, the light skin-associated SLC45A2 allelic F374 variant restores just moderate pigmentation to SLC45A2-lacking melanocytes because of speedy proteasome-dependent …. ...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene is a proto-oncogene candidate. It is identified by its translocation into the immunoglobulin alpha-locus in some cases of B-cell leukemia. The protein encoded by this gene contains seven ankyrin repeats, which are most closely related to those found in I kappa B proteins. This protein functions as a transcriptional co-activator that activates through its association with NF-kappa B homodimers. The expression of this gene can be induced by NF-kappa B, which forms a part of the autoregulatory loop that controls the nuclear residence of p50 NF-kappa B. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Molluscum Contagiosum, aldara and molluscum contagiosum, molluscum contagiosum pictures, molluscum contagiosum treatment, molluscum contagiosum virus, penile molluscum contagiosum
The molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) is a species of virus in the poxvirus family, which causes the disease molluscum contagiosum in humans. Virions have a complex structure that is consistent with the structure of the other members of the poxvirus family: a surface membrane, a core, and lateral bodies. The virus may be contained within inclusion bodies and mature by budding through the membrane of the host cell, giving rise to a large amount of viral shedding in a short period of time. Approximate measurements of the virus are 200 nm in diameter, 320 nm in length, and 100 nm in height. Diagnosis is made on the clinical appearance; the virus cannot routinely be cultured. The diagnosis can be confirmed by excisional biopsy. There are 4 types of MCV, MCV-1 through -4. MCV-1 is the most prevalent in human infections, and MCV-2 is seen usually in adults and often sexually transmitted. Polymerase chain reaction techniques are being developed to help confirm lesions as being caused by MCV, and ...
Even though there are usually no painful symptoms that come along with the molluscum contagiosum virus, most sufferers want to get rid of it as soon as possible. While the body will naturally fight off the virus within a few years, waiting is not ideal for most people. This is why there are many new treatments for molluscum contagiosum - whether over-the-counter or at home remedies.. Some dermatologists may recommend using a treatment involving physical removal such as curettage, cryotherapy, or laser therapy, this is often painful and may result in skin discoloration and scarring. It is important to know that there are alternatives that you can try to help improve and eliminate your molluscum contagiosum. This review will go over one of them alternatives - Naturasil for Molluscum Contagiosum.. If you have any questions, free free to contact us or check out our FAQ section. Note: all ratings are based on reviews and research of the products and treatments. Always consult with your doctor or ...
In this video, I will share 4 natural home remedies for molluscum contagiosum virus treatment. These all remedies work amazingly to cure molluscum con...
Molluscum contagiosum is an infection caused by a poxvirus (molluscum contagiosum virus). The result of the infection is usually a benign, mild skin disease characterized by lesions (growths) that may appear anywhere on the body. Within 6-12 months, Molluscum contagiosum typically resolves without scarring but may take
Molluscum contagiosum virus causes a benign viral infection that is largely (if not exclusively) a disease of humans. Molluscum contagiosum virus causes characteristic skin lesions consisting of single or, more often, multiple, rounded, dome-shaped, pink, waxy papules that are 2-5 mm (rarely up to 1.
The author presents a good case of Molluscum Contagiosum in an HIV positive child - A Case of Molluscum Contagiosum in an HIV Patient - Clinical Cases
Molluscum contagiosum is a mild skin disease caused by the molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV). This condition is relatively common, causing small bumps to raise on the skin, which can appear anywhere on the body. These bumps are pearl-like and lightly colored. They can be as small as a pinhead to no larger than an average pencil eraser. A doctor can diagnose the condition by looking at the bumps and by taking a small tissue sample (biopsy) for further examination.. It is common for the area around the bumps to be red and itchy. If these bumps develop, affected individuals should try to resist the urge to scratch or pick, because the virus can be spread to other parts of the body. The virus can also be spread from one person to another by direct physical contact or by objects that have been contaminated with the virus, such as towels or clothing. As such, people who live in crowded, warm areas are more likely to be in contact with the virus. Most people with this disease only develop about 10 to ...
When you are constantly exposed to microbes, you will get affected with various types of infectious diseases. One of these is molluscum contagiosum, a variety of viral infection. This is a common condition for kids. If your child has this, you will probably see spots on his or her face, armpit, arms, hands, and neck. There are also times when the spots appear anywhere on your childs body. However, this is not seen on the soles and the palms. This infection is contagious and may affect you when you come into contact with people who have this. You may also get this condition through sexual contact. If ever you are affected with this infectious malady, you have to avoid scratching at your spots. Doing this will let the virus spread and will cause further infection.. You will know that you are affected with molluscum contagiosum when bumps appear on your skin. These bumps are usually round, small, and firm. Aside from the arms, face, and neck; the small lumps may also grow on the abdomen, thighs, ...
What is molluscum contagiosum? Molluscum contagiosum is a skin infection that causes small pearly or flesh-colored bumps. The bumps may be clear, and the center often is indented. The infection is caused by a virus. The virus is easily spread but is not harmful. What are the symptoms? The bumps are round with a dimple...
View details of top molluscum contagiosum infection hospitals in Chennai. Get guidance from medical experts to select best molluscum contagiosum infection hospital in Chennai
Question - Child with molluscum contagiosum on torso spreading to arms, legs. What treatment is advisable? . Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Molluscum contagiosum, Ask a Dermatologist
What is Molluscum Contagiosum? How does it spread? Molluscum are caused a virus in the pox family, and it is very contagious. Molluscum symptoms include small bumps, itchiness, flaking skin.........
Clients have used our topical CBD cream for an enormous range of purposes. The moisturizing parts can present lengthy-lasting hydration for dry or broken skin, whereas the infusion of natural CBD extract supplies a bunch of uses in its own proper. Of course, none of our CBD products will produce a high - ever.. CBD lotions and lotions are supposed to be utilized on to a selected space of the skin, and are usually not edible. They have additionally been used for burns, insect bites and stings, and different skin-associated issues like zits, eczema, and psoriasis. These lotions ship CBD to the outer layer of the pores and skin as a substitute of into the bloodstream, providing localized reduction.. Usually, you need to begin to feel the results of the CBD pretty rapidly, within 5 to 20 minutes. Your pain should subside, and its best to feel generally extra relaxed. For pores and skin issues, its going to take more time for the CBD to work its magic.. Imagine it or not, CBD is definitely an ...
generated and posted on 2016.03.18 ∞. Skin-associated phagocytic leukocytes possessing long extensions and capable of antigen presentation. ...
Molluscum contagiosum is caused by a Molluscipox DNA virus which infects keratinocytes of the epidermal stratum spinosum, producing distinctive small umbilicated papules on the skin. Its genome encodes a variety of proteins that suppress the hosts immune response. In children it is spread by skin contact, producing few or many lesions, while in sexually active adults it causes anogenital lesions. Molluscum is self-limiting within a few years in the immunocompetent, but those with preexisting atopic eczema and immunosuppression, notably AIDS, commonly develop persistent diffuse eruptions with larger papules. Lesions can be removed mechanically or chemically. More severe infections can be treated with imiquimod or cidofovir....
Molluscum contagiosum are a viral infection where small bumps appear on the skin. Find out about your symptoms and possible treatment options.
Molluscum contagiosum is virus that infects humans usually in the main body part and extremeties. Unfortunately, this can be transmitted via contact, especially in sharing clothes and towels. Since this is a viral infection, it is best to consult your doctor for proper medication. The disease worsens when the person infected has an immunodeficie...
Molluscum Contagiosum. In: Papadakis MA, McPhee SJ, Bernstein J. Papadakis M.A., & McPhee S.J., & Bernstein J(Eds.),Eds. Maxine A. Papadakis, et al.eds. Quick Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2019. McGraw-Hill; Accessed August 10, 2020. https://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=2566§ionid=206889583 ...
Finally think your molluscum contagiosum is about to go away? Check here to learn if you are in the final stages and almost free!
My 4 year old son has Molluscum Contagiosum for almost 2 years now. Pediatrician said the bumps will clear up on their own and there isnt any real...
The name sounds dramatic, like a Harry Potter spell. Luckily, molluscum contagiosum isnt a big deal. Find out what to do about it in this article for teens.
The mother of this 4-year-old girl was concerned that these lesions were sexually transmitted. The physician recognized them as molluscum, but was uncertain of the potential relationship of this rash to child abuse.
What is molluscum contagiosum? Molluscum contagiosum is a skin infection that causes small pearly or flesh-colored bumps. The bumps may be clear,and the center often is indented. The infection is caused by a virus. The virus is easily spread but is not harmful. What are the symptoms? The bumps are round with a dimple in the center. They are a little smaller in size than the eraser on the ...
Its really hard now that Im processing what i went through. It seemed normal and it was all i knew. it was painful when i got hurt. But i didnt realise how terrible my situation was.. I dont know how a person could survive such a life, I find it hard to believe that Im still alive. I feel like Im in a coma.. You never gave up on me. You had hope that one day i will be free. Which i wonder why. I feel like MobieG played a big role in preserving my life, I couldnt have done it alone.. Being sold to man is the most difficult part of my past life ...
Astfel, sunt plasturi cu acid salicilic si fenol, care se aplica pe negi si care vor avea un efect de uscare al acestora, urmat de exfolierea lor. Cu azot lichid se trateaza frecvent veruci vulgare, condiloame acuminate, molluscum contagiosum, cheratoze seboreice, cheratoze actinice si, mai rar, carcinoame bazocelulare.
Mainly affecting young children, molluscum contagiosum is a skin infection, which is spread through both direct contacts or by sharing things. When a child contracts molluscum contagiosum, then he/she gets benign bumps or balls on the skin. Parents may fear that the bumps are painful, but they are harmless. These bumps do disappear eventually but take their own sweet time. In most cases, the bumps will be present from a time period ranging from two months to four years. Extreme care must be taken care during this period to ensure that the child is comfortable and free of any kind of infection.. Let us now take a closer look at the benign bumps caused by this skin condition. They are skin coloured, smooth textured, waxy to touch, and umbilicated papules measuring 2-10 mm in diameter. These tiny bumps appear mainly on the face, stomach torso, arms and legs of kids. In the case of adults, these bumps can be found in the inner thigh, genitals and abdomen. It is generally seen that people with lesser ...
Question - Bump in upper lip, not hurting or itching, white dots. Is this molluscum contagiosum? Shoud I avoid oral sex? . Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Molluscum contagiosum, Ask a Dermatologist
caused by a poxvirus, molluscum contagiosum virus, skin-to-skin contact and spread between family members; one part of the body to another, children with atopic eczema; school-going children
Intended Use: This kit is used to assay the sample of Serum, blood plasma,Saliva, Urine, and other related tissue Liquid. Test principle The kit uses a double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to assay the level of Chicken...
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Mosquitoes transmit pathogens that cause dengue, malaria, and other diseases that present significant risks to the readiness and resilience of military personnel, and public health more generally. The ReVector program aims to maintain the health of military personnel operating in disease-endemic regions by reducing attraction and feeding by mosquitoes. Mosquitoes are attracted to the general area of humans by volatiles emitted in human breath. However, it is the heat and volatile molecules from human skin that direct mosquitoes to the specific sites on the body where they feed. Many of those volatile molecules are produced by the metabolism of organisms in the skin microbiome. Researchers on the ReVector program are working to develop precise, safe, and efficacious technologies to modulate the profile of skin-associated volatile molecules by changing the organisms that are present in the skin microbiome and/or their metabolic processes.. Although other approaches already exist to slow the spread ...
Molluscum contagiosum is a common skin infection that is caused by a virus. The infection causes small, dimpled, skin-coloured bumps called papules to develop on the skin.
Molluscum contagiosum represents a benign skin infection that predominantly affects children, sexually active adults, and immunocompromised individuals. Worldwide the incidence of this condition (caused by a specific type of poxvirus) ranges from 2 to 8%, and recently it has been linked to the epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
One of the most delightful things about having children is their propensity to develop wonderful skin conditions. Of these, molluscum contagiosum, or water warts, is one of the more challenging and frustrating conditions parents have to deal with. What Is Molluscum Contagiosum? Molluscum contagiosum, or water warts, as it is sometimes called, is caused by…
The inflammation around the molluscum is very slight. It appears to be an immune response to the application of Mollenol with inflammation around the molluscum infected areas.
|p|Recombinant Human Eotaxin-2/CCL24 is a single non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 78 amino acids.|/p| |p|Background: Eotaxin-2 (CCL24) is a novel CC chemokine recently identified. It is produced by activated monocytes and T lymphocytes. Eota
Recurrence and progression of molluscum contagiosum despite treatment should raise the suspicion of immunosuppression. This patient was found to be HIV positive. Molluscum contagiosum occurs in 10% of HIV patient with advanced immunodeficiency and is therefore an AIDS defining sign. Its progressive nature can cause significant cosmetic disfigurement ...
Case studies of patients who got successfully treated by Dr. Rajesh Shah at Life Force Homeopathy Clinic. Read case studies of multiple patients here.
Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA is a global healthcare leader working to help the world be well. From developing new therapies that treat and prevent disease to helping people in need, we are committed to improving health and well-being around the world. The Merck Manual was first published in 1899 as a service to the community. The legacy of this great resource continues as the Merck Manual in the US and Canada and the MSD Manual in the remainder of the world. Learn more about our commitment to Global Medical Knowledge.. ...
Hey guys. Basically Ive been lucky enough to contract molluscum contagiosum (especially annoying since most adults are apparently immune) and Im almost 100% sure it came from judo training. My doctors given me some penicillin to take out the bacterial infection (some of the molluscum have become infected) then hes gonna cryo the spots. My question is how long will this put me out of training for? Im reading websites which say 6 months is pretty standard. I cant have to just sit at
One of my children, who shall remain nameless, had a bump on their arm last summer. We went to the doctor and were told it was molluscum contagiosum. Its a common childhood virus. They will spread. It will take 1-3 years for them to resolve on their own. We can burn them off if youd […]. ...
Molluscum Contagiosum is a viral infection which affects our skin. Viruses are the nanoparticles of genetic material either DNA or RNA.
ILC NewsLine is an e-newsletter about recent news, milestones, and developments related to the International Linear Collider and the fields of high-energy, particle and accelerator physics and engineering.
ILC NewsLine is an e-newsletter about recent news, milestones, and developments related to the International Linear Collider and the fields of high-energy, particle and accelerator physics and engineering.
Контагиозный моллюск - это вирусный дерматоз, заражение им обычно происходит при прямом половом контакте либо бытовым способом при использовании...
... the orphan chemokine receptor G protein-coupled receptor-2 (GPR-2, CCR10) binds the skin-associated chemokine CCL27 (CTACK/ALP/ ... the 2 cysteines are separated by a single amino acid in CXC chemokines and are adjacent in CC chemokines. CCR10 is a chemokine ... C-C chemokine receptor type 10 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCR10 gene. Chemokines are a group of small ( ... "Entrez Gene: CCR10 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 10". Balkwill F (July 2004). "Cancer and the chemokine network". Nat. Rev. ...
Sequence analysis has revealed CCL28 to be most similar to another CC chemokine called CCL27. The gene C5orf34 is found ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 28 (CCL28), also known as mucosae-associated epithelial chemokine (MEC), CCK1 and SCYA28, is a ... This chemokine is constitutively expressed in the colon, but its levels can be increased by pro-inflammatory cytokines and ... Feng N, Jaimes MC, Lazarus NH, Monak D, Zhang C, Butcher EC, Greenberg HB (May 2006). "Redundant role of chemokines CCL25/TECK ...
T cell attraction to the epidermal chemokine CCL27". Nature Immunology. 8 (3): 285-93. doi:10.1038/ni1433. PMID 17259988. S2CID ... Le Y, Zhou Y, Iribarren P, Wang J (April 2004). "Chemokines and chemokine receptors: their manifold roles in homeostasis and ... chemokines that promote chemotaxis; and interferons that have anti-viral effects, such as shutting down protein synthesis in ... chemokines that promote chemotaxis; and interferons that have anti-viral effects, such as shutting down protein synthesis in ...
T cell attraction to the epidermal chemokine CCL27" (PDF). Nature Immunology. 8 (3): 285-93. doi:10.1038/ni1433. PMID 17259988 ...
T cell attraction to the epidermal chemokine CCL27". Nature Immunology. 8 (3): 285-93. doi:10.1038/ni1433. PMID 17259988.. ... "Chemokines and chemokine receptors: their manifold roles in homeostasis and disease" (PDF). Cell Mol Immunol. 1 (2): 95-104. ...
T cell attraction to the epidermal chemokine CCL27." Nat Immunol 2007 Staton TL, Habtezion A, Winslow MM, Sato T, Love PE, ... "CC chemokine receptor (CCR)4 and the CCR10 ligand cutaneous T cell-attracting chemokine (CTACK) in lymphocyte trafficking to ... The team is also exploring mechanisms that imprint lymphocyte homing and chemokine receptor expression during tissue-specific ... "Chemokine-like receptor 1 expression by macrophages in vivo: Regulation by TGF-beta and TLR ligands." Exp Hematol 2006; 34: 8: ...
Breakthrough infection Broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies Bursa of Fabricius C-C chemokine receptor type 6 C-C chemokine ... receptors CCBP2 CCL1 CCL11 CCL12 CCL13 CCL14 CCL15 CCL16 CCL17 CCL18 CCL19 CCL2 CCL20 CCL21 CCL22 CCL23 CCL24 CCL25 CCL26 CCL27 ... CD4 CD4+ T cells and antitumor immunity CD74 CD94/NKG2 Cell-mediated immunity CELSR1 Central tolerance Chemokine Chemokine ... CR6261 CroFab Cross-presentation Cross-reactivity Cryptic self epitopes Cryptotope CX3CL1 CX3CR1 CXC chemokine receptors CXCL1 ...
... binds the skin-associated chemokine CCL27 (CTACK/ALP/ILC)". J. Immunol. 164 (7): 3465-70. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.164.7.3465. PMID ... Chemokine-binding protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCBP2 gene. This gene encodes a beta chemokine ... 2000). "Cutting edge: identification of a novel chemokine receptor that binds dendritic cell- and T cell-active chemokines ... 2003). "Cutting edge: scavenging of inflammatory CC chemokines by the promiscuous putatively silent chemokine receptor D6". J. ...
2008). "Macrophage-specific metalloelastase (MMP-12) truncates and inactivates ELR+ CXC chemokines and generates CCL2, -7, -8, ... "Entrez Gene: chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 8". Van Coillie E, Fiten P, Nomiyama H, Sakaki Y, Miura R, Yoshie O, Van Damme J, ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 8 (CCL8), also known as monocyte chemoattractant protein 2 (MCP2), is a protein that in humans is ... The gene for CCL8 is encoded by 3 exons and is located within a large cluster of CC chemokines on chromosome 17q11.2 in humans ...
... chemokine receptor. CCR10 is receptor for CCL27 and CCL28 that was originally called orphan receptor GPR2. CCR10 has been ... The CC chemokine receptors all work by activating the G protein Gi. CCR1 was the first CC chemokine receptor identified and ... CC chemokine receptors (or beta chemokine receptors) are integral membrane proteins that specifically bind and respond to ... May 1997). "Molecular cloning of a novel human CC chemokine EBI1-ligand chemokine that is a specific functional ligand for EBI1 ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCL27 gene. This gene is one of several CC cytokine ... It elicits its chemotactic effects by binding to the chemokine receptor CCR10. The gene for CCL27 is located on human ... March 2003). "Increased serum cutaneous T cell-attracting chemokine (CCL27) levels in patients with atopic dermatitis and ... December 2004). "Human P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) interacts with the skin-associated chemokine CCL27 via ...
chemokine receptor activity. • receptor activity. • protein binding. • C-C chemokine receptor activity. • C-C chemokine binding ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene.[5] CCR6 ... "Entrez Gene: CCR6 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6".. *^ Wang K, Zhang H, Kugathasan S, Annese V, Bradfield JP, Russell RK, ... "Chemokine Receptors: CCR6". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
These include: CCL14, CCL19, CCL20, CCL21, CCL25, CCL27, CXCL12 and CXCL13. This classification is not strict; for example, ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ...
"DCs metabolize sunlight-induced vitamin D3 to 'program' T cell attraction to the epidermal chemokine CCL27". Mar 2007. str. 285 ... "Chemokines and chemokine receptors: their manifold roles in homeostasis and disease" (PDF). Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 1 ...
CCL27 · CCL28 ... Chemokine. CCL. CCL1 · CCL2 · CCL3 · CCL4 · CCL5 · CCL6 · CCL7 ...
C-X-C chemokine receptor activity. • interleukin-8 binding. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. • chemokine receptor ... This name and the corresponding gene symbol IL8RA have been replaced by the HGNC approved name C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 1 ... "Chemokine Receptors: CXCR1". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... chemokine-mediated signaling pathway. • interleukin-8-mediated signaling pathway. • neutrophil degranulation. • chemotaxis. ...
chemokine activity. • cytokine activity. • heparin binding. • protein binding. • CXCR3 chemokine receptor binding. ... C-X-C motif chemokine 11 is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also called Interferon-inducible T- ... "Entrez Gene: CXCL11 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11".. *^ a b Cole KE, Strick CA, Paradis TJ, Ogborne KT, Loetscher M, Gladue ... This chemokine elicits its effects on its target cells by interacting with the cell surface chemokine receptor CXCR3, with a ...
positive regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production. • positive regulation of JUN kinase activity. • positive ... positive regulation of chemokine production. • cellular extravasation. • negative regulation of lipid storage. • negative ... positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • epithelial cell proliferation involved in salivary gland morphogenesis ...
... s are a subset of cytokines that are produced by a type of immune cell known as a lymphocyte.[1] They are protein mediators typically produced by T cells to direct the immune system response by signaling between its cells. Lymphokines have many roles, including the attraction of other immune cells, including macrophages and other lymphocytes, to an infected site and their subsequent activation to prepare them to mount an immune response. Circulating lymphocytes can detect a very small concentration of lymphokine and then move up the concentration gradient towards where the immune response is required. Lymphokines aid B cells to produce antibodies. Important lymphokines secreted by the T helper cell include:[2] ...
... binds to the death receptors DR4 (TRAIL-RI) and DR5 (TRAIL-RII). The process of apoptosis is caspase-8-dependent. Caspase-8 activates downstream effector caspases including procaspase-3, -6, and -7, leading to activation of specific kinases.[11] TRAIL also binds the receptors DcR1 and DcR2, which do not contain a cytoplasmic domain (DcR1) or contain a truncated death domain (DcR2). DcR1 functions as a TRAIL-neutralizing decoy-receptor. The cytoplasmic domain of DcR2 is functional and activates NFkappaB. In cells expressing DcR2, TRAIL binding therefore activates NFkappaB, leading to transcription of genes known to antagonize the death signaling pathway and/or to promote inflammation. Application of engineered ligands that have variable affinity for different death (DR4 and DR5) and decoy receptors (DCR1 and DCR2) may allow selective targeting of cancer cells by controlling activation of Type 1/Type 2 pathways of cell death and single cell fluctuations. Luminescent iridium complex-peptide ...
... (IL-24) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL24 gene. IL-24 is a cytokine belonging to the IL-10 family of cytokines that signals through two heterodimeric receptors: IL-20R1/IL-20R2 and IL-22R1/IL-20R2. This interleukin is also known as melanoma differentiation-associated 7 (mda-7) due to its discovery as a tumour suppressing protein. IL-24 appears to control in cell survival and proliferation by inducing rapid activation of particular transcription factors called STAT1 and STAT3. This cytokine is predominantly released by activated monocytes, macrophages and T helper 2 (Th2) cells[5] and acts on non-haematopoietic tissues such as skin, lung and reproductive tissues. IL-24 performs important roles in wound healing, arthritis, psoriasis and cancer.[6][7][8] Several studies have shown that cell death occurs in cancer cells/cell lines following exposure to IL-24.[9][10] The gene for IL-24 is located on chromosome 1 in humans.[11] ...
... as well as chemokine and cytokine production, and expression of adhesion molecules such as E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. This ...
positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • regulation of insulin secretion. • extrinsic apoptotic signaling ... Copeland KF (2006). "Modulation of HIV-1 transcription by cytokines and chemokines". Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry. 5 (12 ...
... is sometimes used interchangeably among scientists with the term cytokine.[3] Historically, cytokines were associated with hematopoietic (blood and lymph forming) cells and immune system cells (e.g., lymphocytes and tissue cells from spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes). For the circulatory system and bone marrow in which cells can occur in a liquid suspension and not bound up in solid tissue, it makes sense for them to communicate by soluble, circulating protein molecules. However, as different lines of research converged, it became clear that some of the same signaling proteins which the hematopoietic and immune systems use were also being used by all sorts of other cells and tissues, during development and in the mature organism. While growth factor implies a positive effect on cell division, cytokine is a neutral term with respect to whether a molecule affects proliferation. While some cytokines can be growth factors, such as G-CSF and GM-CSF, others have an inhibitory effect on ...
Interferon alfa 2b is an antiviral or antineoplastic drug, that was originally discovered in the laboratory of Charles Weissmann at the University of Zurich. It was developed at Biogen, and ultimately marketed by Schering-Plough under the tradename Intron-A. It has been used for a wide range of indications, including viral infections and cancers. This drug is approved around the world for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C, chronic hepatitis B, hairy cell leukemia, Behçet's disease, chronic myelogenous leukemia, multiple myeloma, follicular lymphoma, carcinoid tumor, mastocytosis and malignant melanoma. ...
4-1BB is a type 2 transmembrane glycoprotein receptor belonging to the TNF superfamily, expressed on activated T Lymphocytes.[1] 4-1BBL (4-1BB ligand) is found on APCs (antigen presenting cells) and binds to 4-1BB. ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the interleukin 1 cytokine family. Protein structure modeling indicated that this cytokine may contain a 12-stranded beta-trefoil structure that is conserved between IL1A (IL-A alpha) and IL1B (IL-1 beta). This gene and eight other interleukin 1 family genes form a cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 2. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported.[8]. ...
CCL27: Novel Cytokine with Potential Role in Pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis. BioMed Research International, 2015: 1-10, ... penetrate into the CNS and trigger the inflammation cascade by inducing secretion of cytokine and chemokine. Among Th17 cells, ...
  • CTACK, a skin-associated chemokine that preferentially attracts skin-homing memory T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we report the identification and characterization of a CC chemokine, cutaneous T cell-attracting chemokine (CTACK). (pnas.org)
  • Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: CCL27/CTACK Antibody (MM0152-7H44) [NBP2-12114] - 10% Buffer formalin fixed and parffine embedded human placetal tissue section (4um) is subjected IHC staining using NBP2-12114. (novusbio.com)
  • There are no publications for CCL27/CTACK Antibody (NBP2-12114). (novusbio.com)
  • MBS036121 is a ready-to-use microwell, strip plate Sandwich ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) Kit for analyzing the presence of the Cutaneous T-Cell Attracting Chemokine (CTACK) ELISA Kit target analytes in biological samples. (mybiosource.com)
  • CTACK is a keratinocyte-derived CC chemokine which signals through the CCR10 receptor. (biovendor.com)
  • CTACK contains the four highly conserved cysteine residues present in most CC chemokines. (biovendor.com)
  • CCL27/CTACK Monoclonal antibody specifically detects CCL27/CTACK in Human samples. (fishersci.com)
  • CCL28 shares the most homology with CCL27/CTACK. (prospecbio.com)
  • In vitro investigations revealed that IL-17 inhibited CD4 + T cell activation ( 31 , 32 ), the expression of the chemokines Rantes (CCL5), Fractalkine (CX3CL1), and CTACK (CCL27), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in TNF-activated mesenchymal cells, interfering with the IFN-responsive factor-1 transcription factor and NF-κB activities ( 33 - 36 ). (rupress.org)
  • To date, there are more than 50 chemokines and 18 chemokine receptors identified [ 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Most chemokines bind to more than one receptor, while most receptors also display overlapping ligand specificity [ 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • a trait that enables the recruitment of diverse populations of well-defined chemokine subsets and receptors. (peprotech.com)
  • In order to exert biological effect, chemokines will bind with receptors of the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, which possess seven conserved transmembrane domains with which chemokines can interact. (peprotech.com)
  • Classified into subfamilies based on the motifs of their ligands, these receptors tend to interact with the chemokines of their eponymous subfamilies. (peprotech.com)
  • Chemokines and their receptors otherwise tend to interact indiscriminately to stimulate upregulation of adherent chemokines, co-stimulatory cytokines and signaling cascades that polarizes cells to direct chemotaxis. (peprotech.com)
  • All of these proteins exert their biological effects by interacting with G protein -linked transmembrane receptors called chemokine receptors , that are selectively found on the surfaces of their target cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokines are a group of small (approximately 8 to 14 kD), mostly basic, structurally related molecules that regulate cell trafficking of various types of leukocytes through interactions with a subset of 7-transmembrane, G protein-coupled receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been found that chemokines and their receptors serve a pivotal role in HCC progression. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Thus, chemokines and their receptors directly or indirectly shape the tumor cell microenvironment, and regulate the biological behavior of the tumor. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Exosomes containing chemokines or expressing receptors for chemokines may improve chemotaxis to HCC and may thus be exploited for targeted drug delivery. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chemokines bind to a variety of different receptors, which belong to the G-protein-binding receptor family, and there are ~23 types of chemokine receptors that have been discovered ( 10 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chemokines and their receptors were initially thought to allow for an interaction between immune cells and the inflammatory sites ( 11 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • After binding to the receptors, chemokines primarily serve a role in migration of leukocytes, such as monocytes, eosinophils and dendritic cells (DCs) ( 11 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chemokines receptors are seven transmembrane spanning G protein-coupled receptors that allow cells to migrate towards increasing chemokine gradients. (biolegend.com)
  • Specific chemokine receptors are often required to gain entry (or exit) from certain organs and tissues like the thymus and bone marrow. (biolegend.com)
  • Chemokine signals are transduced by G-protein coupled receptors, which dissociate to activate diverse downstream pathways resulting in cellular polarization and actin reorganization. (wikipathways.org)
  • Chemokines are a superfamily of small secreted proteins that attract their targets by interacting with G protein-coupled receptors expressed on the migrating cell ( 10 , 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. (umassmed.edu)
  • Click on one of the chemokine subfamilies shown in the Explore Pathways box below to see the specific chemokines that belong to each group, their receptors, and the different immune cell types that have been shown to express the chemokine receptors. (rndsystems.com)
  • CCL28 is known for regulating the chemotaxis of cells that express the chemokine receptors CCR3 and CCR10. (prospecbio.com)
  • What CCL28 does within the body is regulate chemotaxis of cells that express the chemokine receptors CCR3 and CCR10, making it a vital gene. (prospecbio.com)
  • CCL28 binds to chemokine receptors CCR3 and CCR10. (prospecbio.com)
  • Specificity: Peptide sequence shares less than 50% amino acid identity to other Chemokine receptors in this region. (researchd.com)
  • 50 % identical to other chemokine receptors in this region. (researchd.com)
  • A gene on chromosome 17q21.1-q21.3 that encodes a member of the chemokine receptor family, which is similar to G protein-coupled receptors. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Chemokines and chemokine receptors regulate tissue-specific migration, maintenance and functions of immune cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • It is highly selective for CCR10 over other GPCRs, including a number of other chemokine receptors, and is efficacious in a murine model of DNFB contact hypersensitivity. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • We report a novel systemically administered DNA vaccination strategy using intramuscular codelivery of CCL27 or CCL28, which elicited elevated peripheral IFN-γ and antigen-specific IgG while driving antigen-specific T-cell secretion of cytokine and antibody production in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and lung. (elsevier.com)
  • This is the first example of the use of CCL27 and CCL28 chemokines as adjuvants to influence a DNA vaccine strategy, suggesting further examination of this approach for manipulation of vaccine-induced immunity impacting both quality and phenotype of responses. (elsevier.com)
  • Its ligands are CCL27 and CCL28. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, CCL27 was predominantly secreted by skin whereas CCL28 was predominantly secreted by gingiva. (hindawi.com)
  • Handel, T.M. "Distinct signaling and glycosaminoglycan-binding properties of the CC chemokine receptor type 10 ligands, CCL27 and CCL28. (pointloma.edu)
  • We report the identification and characterization of a novel CC chemokine designated CCL28 and its receptor CCR10, known previously as orphan G-protein-coupled receptor GPR2. (uniprot.org)
  • CCL28 desensitized the calcium mobilization induced in CCR10 transfectants by CCL27, indicating that these chemokines share this new chemokine receptor. (uniprot.org)
  • CCL28, also known as Chemokine ligand 28, and known in addition as a mucosae-associated epithelial chemokine (MEC), is a chemokine. (prospecbio.com)
  • Analysis of sequence has shown that CCL28 is to be most similar to another CC chemokine known as CCL27. (prospecbio.com)
  • CCR10 (also known as GPR2) is a G-protein coupled receptor for chemokines CCL27 (SCYA27) and CCL28 (SCYA28). (ptglab.com)
  • Among them, chemokine receptor CCR10 and its ligands chemokines CCL27 and CCL28 are uniquely involved in the epithelial immunity. (bvsalud.org)
  • CCL27 is expressed predominantly in the skin by keratinocytes while CCL28 is expressed by epithelial cells of various mucosal tissues. (bvsalud.org)
  • Once at the site of injury, immune cells can react by releasing additional cytokines and chemokines, bringing more cells into the fold. (biolegend.com)
  • Oral mucosa and skin equivalents were compared regarding secretion of cytokines and chemokines involved in LC migration and general inflammation. (hindawi.com)
  • These results indicate that the cytokines and chemokines triggering innate immunity and LC migration are different in skin and gingiva. (hindawi.com)
  • We analyzed 64 circulating cytokines and chemokines in plasma of 120 African American women enrolled in the Black Women's Health Study. (nih.gov)
  • We used regression analysis to identify cytokines and chemokines associated with obesity, co-morbid T2D and hypertension, and compared results to obese women without these co-morbidities, as well as to lean women without the co-morbidities. (nih.gov)
  • We then used hierarchical clustering to generate inflammation signatures by combining the effects of identified cytokines and chemokines and summarized the signatures using an inflammation score. (nih.gov)
  • Hypernociceptive role of cytokines and chemokines: targets for analgesic drug development? (springer.com)
  • By contrast, NK cells are regulated both positively and negatively by cytokines and chemokines produced by other immune cells. (prolekare.cz)
  • There is also plenty of evidence that in tumour stroma a number of cytokines and chemokines are produced which may have ambivalent effects. (prolekare.cz)
  • RDI Divison of Fitzgerald Industries Intl offers a wide line of recombinant growth factors, cytokines and chemokines and antibodies. (researchd.com)
  • Cytokine proteins are classified as chemokines according to behavior and structural characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokines are a class of small molecular proteins with similar structures, functions and chemotactic properties, and their molecular weights are ~10 kDa, and chemokines represent the largest member of the cytokine family ( 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Magnetic bead-based assays for detecting 46 mouse cytokine, chemokine, and growth factor biomarkers. (bio-rad.com)
  • We selected most pathways CXCR4 participated on our site, such as Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, Chemokine signaling pathway, Endocytosis, which may be useful for your reference. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that was previously called GRO1 oncogene, GROα, KC, Neutrophil-activating protein 3 (NAP-3) and melanoma growth stimulating activity, alpha (MSGA-α). (creativebiomart.net)
  • CCL27 is a member of the CC cytokine family, and is involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. (nih.gov)
  • Cytokine proteins are classified as chemokines due to their behaviour and the structural characteristics that they hold. (prospecbio.com)
  • Attention is focused on the possibility of influencing the tumour process by using cytokine‑ and chemokine‑activated NK cells. (prolekare.cz)
  • CCL27 (C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 27) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • C-C motif chemokine ligand 27 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCL27 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quantitative real-time PCR and ELISA were also conducted to examine the secretion of chemotactic cytokines ligand 27 (CCL27) by HaCaT cells. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Psoriasis, Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), Chemotactic cytokines ligand 27 (CCL27), Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), NF-κB. (alliedacademies.org)
  • We found that proinflammatory IL-18 and chemokines CCL2, CCL20, and CXCL12, all involved in LC migration, were predominantly secreted by skin as compared to gingiva. (hindawi.com)
  • The potent antimicrobial chemokine CCL20 was investigated and compared with chemokines CCL2, CXCL1, CXCL8, and CCL27 and proinflammatory cytokines IL-1α and IL-6. (uva.nl)
  • Secretion of the antimicrobial chemokine CCL20 was clearly IL-1α independent. (uva.nl)
  • Increased serum cutaneous T cell-attracting chemokine (CCL27) levels in patients with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis vulgaris'J Allergy Clin Immunol. (nii.ac.jp)
  • RESULTS: There was a clear pattern of overall suppression of the mediators, especially those noted for their pro-inflammatory role in AD (monocyte chemoattractant protein [MCP]-1, regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted, cutaneous T-cell-attracting chemokine, Eotaxin, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, etc. (bvsalud.org)
  • Collectively, ILC/CCL27 may be a good candidate molecule for cancer gene therapy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this study, the ovarian carcinoma OV-HM cell line (18) was infected with a chemokine-encoding vector, Ad-RGD-mILC or Ad-RGD-mFKN, and inoculated into mice to test its antitumor activity in gene immunotherapy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • GO annotations related to this gene include chemokine activity . (genecards.org)
  • This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential vaccine adjuvants. (mdpi.com)
  • C-C chemokine receptor type 10 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCR10 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene for CCL27 is located on human chromosome 9. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes a CXC chemokine receptor specific for stromal cell-derived factor-1. (creativebiomart.net)
  • TNF-α treatment of LECs and its specific blockade in vitro reproduced differential regulation of a gene set that led to enhanced LEC mobility and macrophage attachment, which was mediated by the LEC-derived chemokine CXCL10. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This pathway was inferred from Mus musculus pathway "Chemokine signaling pathway", WP2292 revision 89521, with a 91.0% conversion rate. (wikipathways.org)
  • Researchers published in Nature Medicine that CCL27 is primarily expressed by basal keratinocytes and that interactions between CCL27 and its receptor, CCR10, are involved in recruitment of T cells to the skin in inflammatory skin. (biocentury.com)
  • CCL27) is mainly produced by keratinocytes and an exclusive chemoattractant for CC chemokine receptor 10-positive and cutaneous lymphocyte associated antigen-positive (CCR10 + /CLA + ) memory T cells [ 5 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • CCL27 was found to markedly increase in both the intralesional keratinocytes and serum of patients with psoriasis, and its expression level was highly correlated to the severity of the disease [ 6 , 7 ], suggesting the principal role that CCL27 occupies in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. (alliedacademies.org)
  • expression of CCL27 in normal keratinocytes and its strong upregulation in skin lesions of atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, and psoriasis patients. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • RT-PCR, confocal microscopy, and ELISA analysis indicated that keratinocytes exposed to TNF or IL1B but not to IL4 or IFNG in vitro express increased CCL27. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • found that exposure to the active form of vitamin D3 [1,25(OH) 2 D 3 ] stimulated the expression of the CC chemokine receptor 10 (CCR10) on T cells activated in vitro, allowing them to migrate toward the CCR10 ligand CCL27 (a chemokine secreted by epidermal keratinocytes). (sciencemag.org)
  • Chemokines are involved in the inflammatory response, tumor immune response, proliferation, invasion and metastasis via modulation of various signaling pathways. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • It has been found that chemokine networks may serve pivotal roles in inducing organ-specific metastasis ( 8 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Due to their function of targeting cells to specific organs, homeostatic chemokines can also be involved in cancer and metastasis. (biolegend.com)
  • The present invention provides a means of inhibiting the growth and metastasis of cancer cells by administering anti-chemokine antibodies. (google.com)
  • Expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 by tumor cells promotes metastasis, possibly by activating prosurvival signals that render cancer cells resistant to immune attack. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CGRP increased CCL27 production and promoted HaCaT cell chemotactic ability in vitro, whereas pre-treatment with SB203580 or CGRP8-37 was able to reduce CGRP-enhanced chemotaxis of HaCaT cells and CCL27 production, with inactivation of p38-MAPK and NF-κB pathways. (alliedacademies.org)
  • CCL27 was one of numerous potential early detection biomarkers specific to triple-negative breast cancer in multiple pathways identified. (nih.gov)
  • Chemokine receptor-mediated activation of prosurvival pathways such as Akt has been implicated as a mechanism by which cancer cells can evade host immunity ( 10 , 11 ) and increase their metastatic properties ( 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 also enhances the secretion of CCL22 by DC in vitro, which is a chemokine that attracts T cells into the skin ( 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • It was observed that lung interstitial macrophages derived from OVA‑induced asthmatic mice expressed phenotypic markers associated with alternatively activated macrophages (M2), including cluster of differentiation‑206, transglutaminase 2, arginase (Arg) 1 and chemokine ligand (CCL)17/CCL22/CCL24 secretion. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17) produced by mouse epidermal Langerhans cells is upregulated by TNF-alpha and IL-4 and downregulated by IFN-gamma. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Ultraviolet A irradiation inhibits thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/ccLl7) product ion by a human keratinocyte HaCaT cell line. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Mechanistically, IL-17 down modulated eosinophil-chemokine eotaxin (CCL11) and thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine/CCL17 (TARC) in lungs in vivo and ex vivo upon antigen restimulation. (rupress.org)
  • Th2 cells are recruited along concentration gradients of the thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine/CCL17 (TARC) ( 2 ) and produce the proallergic cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. (rupress.org)
  • METHODS: Using membrane-based human antibody array kit, customized to include 30 different, keratinocyte-derived mediator proteins, their expression levels (including interleukin [IL]-1, IL-6, IL-8, thymic stromal lymphopoietin, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor) were assessed in vitro. (bvsalud.org)
  • We hypothesized that if tumor cells could be genetically modified in vitro to produce chemokines in vivo , the chemokines would accumulate T cells in the tumor. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We show in vitro for the first time that IL-17 inhibits chemokine TARC production by DCs, which play a key role in the Th2 response and therefore in allergic asthma ( 37 ). (rupress.org)
  • Chemokine production by CRC cells was evaluated in vitro and in vivo, on generation of intraperitoneal or intracecal tumour xenografts in immune-deficient mice. (bmj.com)
  • These chemokines were expressed by tumour cells on exposure to gut bacteria in vitro and in vivo. (bmj.com)
  • After the initial PMN influx, the next stage of inflammation is directed in part by CC chemokines consisting of CCL2/monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, CCL7/MCP-3, CCL8/MCP-2, and CCL13/MCP-4, which target multiple leukocyte subsets (monocytes, T lymphocytes, basophils, and eosinophils). (bloodjournal.org)
  • We show that the inflammatory chemokine CCL2 and its receptor CCR2 are necessary for the accumulation of γδ TILs in B16 lesions, where they produce IFN-γ and display potent cytotoxic functions. (jimmunol.org)
  • 1997). "Cloning and characterization of a specific receptor for the novel CC chemokine MIP-3alpha from lung dendritic cells" . (wikipedia.org)
  • CCR3 is the receptor for eotaxin and a novel CC Chemokine, leukotactin-1. (researchd.com)
  • MMP-12 specifically cleaves human ELR + CXC chemokines (CXCL1, -2, -3, -5, and -8) at E-LR, the critical receptor-binding motif or, for CXCL6, carboxyl-terminal to it. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Chemokines are an important class of chemoattractant cytokines produced locally in tissues that provide the directional cues for the movement of blood-derived leukocytes in development, homeostasis, and inflammation. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The initial phase of inflammation involves a subset of CXC chemokines, which rapidly attract PMNs. (bloodjournal.org)
  • CCR10-CCL27 interactions are involved in T cell-mediated skin inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • CCL27 is associated with homing of memory T lymphocytes to the skin, and plays a role in T cell-mediated inflammation of the skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • While some chemotaxis is induced by inflammation or damaged cells, other chemokines function in homeostasis. (biolegend.com)
  • Some inflammatory chemokines have proven essential in memory T cell generation [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Inflammatory chemokines function mainly as chemoattractants for leukocytes , recruiting monocytes , neutrophils and other effector cells from the blood to sites of infection or tissue damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain inflammatory chemokines activate cells to initiate an immune response or promote wound healing . (wikipedia.org)
  • These chemokines also have a more diverse range of functions compared to inflammatory chemokines. (biolegend.com)
  • In the event of infection, injury, or tissue damage, inflammatory chemokines are often released to address the problem. (biolegend.com)
  • Many inflammatory chemokines attract a wide variety of cells in both the innate and adaptive arms of immunity. (biolegend.com)
  • These "inflammatory" chemokines are produced locally at the site of pathogen entry or tissue damage in response to multiple proinflammatory and microbial stimuli and mediate extravasation and recruitment of effector leukocytes. (rupress.org)
  • We confirmed tumor cells infected with Ad-RGD-mILC and Ad-RGD-mFKN to express and release these chemokines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing recruitment of antigen presenting cells (APCs) and effector cells to appropriate anatomical sites. (mdpi.com)
  • It is possible to identify the particular chemokines which are over-expressed in the tumor using methods of the invention and administer antibodies against that over-expressed chemokine. (google.com)
  • We have used the preclinical transplantable B16 melanoma model to profile chemokines in tumor lesions and assess their impact on γδ TIL recruitment in vivo. (jimmunol.org)
  • RayBio ® C-Series Human Chemokine Antibody Array 1 Kit. (raybiotech.com)
  • In addition to being known for mediating chemotaxis, chemokines are all approximately 8-10 kilodaltons in mass and have four cysteine residues in conserved locations that are key to forming their 3-dimensional shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also known for mediating chemotaxis, chemokines are around 8-10 kilodaltons in mass and usually have four cysteine residues kept in conserved locations, it's these that allow them to form their three dimensional shape. (prospecbio.com)
  • Proteins are classified as chemokines according to shared structural characteristics such as small size (they are all approximately 8-10 kilodaltons in size), and the presence of four cysteine residues in conserved locations that are key to forming their 3-dimensional shape. (wikidoc.org)
  • Classified into subfamilies by the structural conservation of both cysteine residues and disulfide bonds, chemokine nomenclature reflects several cysteine-grouping motifs and arrangements. (peprotech.com)
  • Chemokines have been classified into four main subfamilies: CXC, CC, CX3C and XC. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokines are a group of related chemoattractant peptides that are essential regulators of the immune system, both during homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. (mdpi.com)
  • Some chemokines are considered pro- inflammatory and can be induced during an immune response to recruit cells of the immune system to a site of infection , while others are considered homeostatic and are involved in controlling the migration of cells during normal processes of tissue maintenance or development . (wikipedia.org)
  • These are known as homeostatic chemokines and are produced and secreted without any need to stimulate their source cell(s). (wikipedia.org)
  • Homeostatic chemokines are constitutively expressed in particular organs or tissues. (biolegend.com)
  • However, other chemokines are considered homeostatic and focus on controlling the migration of cells during normal processes of tissue development and maintenance. (prospecbio.com)
  • For the first time, these findings define a chemokine system for homeostatic T cell traffic in normal human skin. (rupress.org)
  • Considerable attention has been paid recently to the application of chemokines to cancer immunotherapy, because of their chemotactic activity for a variety of immune cells, as well as angiostatic activity of some chemokines, such as IFN-inducible protein-10/CXCL10 and Mig/CXCL9. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This invention relates to antibodies or the use of antibodies directed against certain chemokines. (google.com)
  • Preparation of specific polyclonal antibodies to a C-C chemokine receptor, CCR1, and determination of CCR1expression on various types of leukocytes. (researchd.com)
  • We propose that the macrophage, specifically through MMP-12, assists in orchestrating the regulation of acute inflammatory responses by precise proteolysis of ELR + CXC and CC chemokines. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 1997). "CCR6, a CC chemokine receptor that interacts with macrophage inflammatory protein 3alpha and is highly expressed in human dendritic cells" . (wikipedia.org)
  • It specifically binds to chemokine receptor 10 (CCR10). (genecards.org)
  • Flow cytometric analysis showed that CCL27 binds extracellular matrix components and dermal microvascular endothelial cells and fibroblasts and mediates adhesion and transendothelial migration of CCR10+ circulating leukocytes. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • In this study, we examined antitumor activity of a mouse CC chemokine ILC/CCL27 and a mouse CX 3 C chemokine fractalkine/CX 3 CL1 in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Mucosal IL-17 administration inhibited asthma by reducing the pulmonary production of IL-5 and the chemokines TARC and eotaxin, which control eosinophil recruitment and asthma. (rupress.org)
  • C Chemokines - Contain only two conserved cysteine residues linked by a single disulfide bond. (peprotech.com)
  • CC Chemokines - Contain four conserved cysteine residues of which the first two, closest to the N-terminal, are adjacent to one another. (peprotech.com)
  • CXC Chemokines - Contain four conserved cysteine residues of which the first two, closest to the N-terminal, are separated by a single amino acid. (peprotech.com)
  • To date, >50 chemokines have been found, which can be divided into four families: CXC, CX3C, CC and XC, according to the different positions of the conserved N‑terminal cysteine residues. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • 50 chemokines have been identified, which can be divided into four families: CXC, CX3C, CC and XC, based on the different positions of the conserved N-terminal cysteine residues ( 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • All chemokines share a typical Greek key structure that is stabilised by disulphide bonds between conserved cysteine residues. (wikidoc.org)
  • Intramolecular disulphide bonds typically join the first to third, and the second to fourth cysteine residues, numbered as they appear in the protein sequence of the chemokine. (wikidoc.org)
  • The first two cysteines, in a chemokine, are situated close together near the N-terminal end of the mature protein, with the third cysteine residing in the centre of the molecule and the fourth close to the C-terminal end . (wikidoc.org)
  • Over the last few decades, chemokines are found to be involved in almost every aspect of tumorigenesis and antitumor immunity [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Representing the largest class of cytokines, chemokines play an essential role in both physiological and pathological activities by stimulating the migration of certain leukocytes through concentration gradients in a process known as chemotaxis. (peprotech.com)
  • Chemokines are a class of cytokines that induce chemotaxis (migration) of target cells. (biolegend.com)
  • The major role of chemokines is to act as a chemoattractant to guide the migration of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • While a function of chemokines is to regulate lymphocyte trafficking, the view that chemokines act simply as "chemotactic cytokines" has evolved to include the many critical roles they play in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses. (mdpi.com)
  • For example, in addition to chemotaxis, chemokines modulate lymphocyte development, priming and effector function [ 2 ] and play a critical role in immune surveillance. (mdpi.com)
  • On one hand, the chemokine network is used by tumors to evade immune surveillance, resist apoptosis, and metastasize. (mdpi.com)
  • On the other hand, the chemokine system also plays a crucial role in the induction of antitumor immune responses and optimal effector function regulation of immune cells [ 1 , 4 , 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The invasion of such matter generates an onslaught of inflammatory responses, recruiting several immune cells and proteins, including a special class of small cytokines called chemokines. (peprotech.com)
  • Critical to maintaining hemostasis through hematopoietic differentiation and immune surveillance, chemokines also help orchestrate both innate and adaptive immune responses. (peprotech.com)
  • Chemokine-triggered immune responses often require co-stimulation by primary proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1α, IFN-γ and TNF-α. (peprotech.com)
  • Some chemokines control cells of the immune system during processes of immune surveillance, such as directing lymphocytes to the lymph nodes so they can screen for invasion of pathogens by interacting with antigen-presenting cells residing in these tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokines also play fundamental roles in the development, homeostasis, and function of the immune system, and they have effects on cells of the central nervous system as well as on endothelial cells involved in angiogenesis or angiostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many chemokines are pro-inflammatory and can be induced during an immune response to recruit cells of the immune system to the site of an infection. (prospecbio.com)
  • INF‑ γ, GM‑CSF and TNF‑β) and chemokines and in this way they regulate both the natural and acquired immune response. (prolekare.cz)
  • Design Expression of genes encoding immune cell markers, chemokines and bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (16SrRNA) was assessed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR in fresh CRC samples and corresponding tumour-free tissues. (bmj.com)
  • A major rol of chemokines is to act as chemoattractants in guiding migration of cells. (wikipathways.org)
  • We showed possible implication of 4 chemokines, that is, HCC-4, I-TAC, MIP-3 α , and TARC in women with symptoms of preterm delivery. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, the potential application of chemokines in chemotaxis of exosomes as drug vehicles is discussed. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Use this table to quickly identify the chemokines that bind to each receptor. (biolegend.com)