Chemokine CCL27: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.Chemokine CCL21: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL22: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.Chemokine CCL17: A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Chemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CCL19: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL5: A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.Chemokine CCL20: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL1: A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.Chemokines, CC: Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.Receptors, Chemokine: Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Chemokine CCL3: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Chemokine CCL7: A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Receptors, CCR10: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL4: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Chemokine CXCL12: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.Receptors, CCR1: CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.Chemokine CXCL10: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemokine CCL8: A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.Receptors, CCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.Receptors, CCR2: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.Chemokine CCL11: A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Chemokine CCL24: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Receptors, CCR7: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.Receptors, CCR8: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.Chemokine CXCL1: A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Receptors, CCR4: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.Chemokines, CXC: Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.Chemokine CX3CL1: A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins: Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.Receptors, CCR5: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.Receptors, CCR3: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.Chemokine CXCL9: An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Mice, Inbred C57BLCell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Chemokine CXCL2: A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CXCL13: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.Receptors, CXCR4: CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Chemokine CXCL11: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Chemokine CXCL6: A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Chemokine CXCL5: A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Receptors, CXCR3: CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Receptors, Interleukin-8B: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Dermatitis, Atopic: A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Monocyte Chemoattractant Proteins: Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Receptors, CCR6: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Receptors, Interleukin-8A: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Receptors, CXCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Receptors, Cytokine: Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Chemokines, CX3C: Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.Receptors, CXCR5: CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Chemotactic Factors: Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Monokines: Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.Receptors, HIV: Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Carbon Tetrachloride PoisoningDuffy Blood-Group System: A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.Chemotactic Factors, Eosinophil: Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.Neutrophil Infiltration: The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Heterocyclic Compounds: Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Cell Migration Inhibition: Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Platelet Factor 4: A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Endothelium, Lymphatic: Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.

Glucocorticosteroids inhibit mRNA expression for eotaxin, eotaxin-2, and monocyte-chemotactic protein-4 in human airway inflammation with eosinophilia. (1/73)

How eosinophils are preferentially recruited to inflammatory sites remains elusive, but increasing evidence suggests that chemokines that bind to the CCR3 participate in this process. In this study, we investigated the transcript levels and chemotactic activity of CCR3-binding chemokines in nasal polyps, a disorder often showing prominent eosinophilia. We found that mRNA expression for eotaxin, eotaxin-2, and monocyte-chemotactic protein-4 was significantly increased in nasal polyps compared with turbinate mucosa from the same patients, or histologically normal nasal mucosa from control subjects. Interestingly, the novel CCR3-specific chemokine, eotaxin-2, showed the highest transcript levels. Consistent with these mRNA data, polyp tissue fluid exhibited strong chemotactic activity for eosinophils that was significantly inhibited by a blocking Ab against CCR3. When patients were treated systemically with glucocorticosteroids, the mRNA levels in the polyps were reduced to that found in turbinate mucosa for all chemokines. Together, these findings suggested an important role for CCR3-binding chemokines in eosinophil recruitment to nasal polyps. Such chemokines, therefore, most likely contribute significantly in the pathogenesis of eosinophil-related disorders; and the reduced chemokine expression observed after steroid treatment might reflect, at least in part, how steroids inhibit tissue accumulation of eosinophils.  (+info)

Molecular cloning of a novel human CC chemokine (Eotaxin-3) that is a functional ligand of CC chemokine receptor 3. (2/73)

Previously, we mapped the novel CC chemokine myeloid progenitor inhibitory factor 2 (MPIF-2)/eotaxin-2 to chromosome 7q11.23 (Nomiyama, H., Osborne, L. R., Imai, T., Kusuda, J., Miura, R., Tsui, L.-C., and Yoshie, O. (1998) Genomics 49, 339-340). Since chemokine genes tend to be clustered, unknown chemokines may be present in the vicinity of those mapped to new chromosomal loci. Prompted by this hypothesis, we analyzed the genomic region containing the gene for MPIF-2/eotaxin-2 (SCYA24) and have identified a novel CC chemokine termed eotaxin-3. The genes for MPIF-2/eotaxin-2 (SCYA24) and eotaxin-3 (SCYA26) are localized within a region of approximately 40 kilobases. By Northern blot analysis, eotaxin-3 mRNA was constitutively expressed in the heart and ovary. We have generated recombinant eotaxin-3 in a baculovirus expression system. Eotaxin-3 induced transient calcium mobilization specifically in CC chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3)-expressing L1.2 cells with an EC(50) of 3 nM. Eotaxin-3 competed the binding of (125)I-eotaxin to CCR3-expressing L1.2 cells with an IC(50) of 13 nM. Eotaxin-3 was chemotactic for normal peripheral blood eosinophils and basophils at high concentrations. Collectively, eotaxin-3 is yet another functional ligand for CCR3. The potency of eotaxin-3 as a CCR3 ligand seems, however, to be approximately 10-fold less than that of eotaxin. Identification of eotaxin-3 will further promote our understanding of the control of eosinophil trafficking and other CCR3-mediated biological phenomena. The strategy used in this study may also be applicable to identification of other unknown chemokine genes.  (+info)

C-C chemokines in allergen-induced late-phase cutaneous responses in atopic subjects: association of eotaxin with early 6-hour eosinophils, and of eotaxin-2 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-4 with the later 24-hour tissue eosinophilia, and relationship to basophils and other C-C chemokines (monocyte chemoattractant protein-3 and RANTES). (3/73)

The relationship of expression of the C-C chemokines eotaxin, eotaxin 2, RANTES, monocyte chemoattractant protein-3 (MCP-3), and MCP-4 to the kinetics of infiltrating eosinophils, basophils, and other inflammatory cells was examined in allergen-induced, late-phase allergic reactions in the skin of human atopic subjects. EG2+ eosinophils peaked at 6 h and correlated significantly with eotaxin mRNA and protein, whereas declining eosinophils at 24 h correlated significantly with eotaxin-2 and MCP-4 mRNA. In contrast, no significant correlations were observed between BB1+ basophil infiltrates, which peaked at 24 h, and expression of eotaxin, eotaxin-2, RANTES, MCP-3, and MCP-4 or elastase+ neutrophils (6-h peak), CD3+ and CD4+ T cells (24 h), and CD68+ macrophages (72 h). Furthermore, 83% of eosinophils, 40% of basophils, and 1% of CD3+ cells expressed the eotaxin receptor CCR3, while eotaxin protein was expressed by 43% of macrophages, 81% of endothelial cells, and 6% of T cells (6%). These data suggest that 1) eotaxin has a role in the early 6-h recruitment of eosinophils, while eotaxin-2 and MCP-4 appear to be involved in later 24-h infiltration of these CCR3+ cells; 2) different mechanisms may guide the early vs late eosinophilia; and 3) other chemokines and receptors may be involved in basophil accumulation of allergic tissue reactions in human skin.  (+info)

Migration of eosinophils across endothelial cell monolayers: interactions among IL-5, endothelial-activating cytokines, and C-C chemokines. (4/73)

Eosinophils are the predominant cell type recruited in inflammatory reactions in response to allergen challenge. The mechanisms of selective eosinophil recruitment in allergic reactions are not fully elucidated. In this study, the ability of several C-C chemokines to induce transendothelial migration (TEM) of eosinophils in vitro was assessed. Eotaxin, eotaxin-2, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-4, and RANTES induced eosinophil TEM across unstimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in a concentration-dependent manner with the following rank order of potency: eotaxin approximately eotaxin-2 > MCP-4 approximately RANTES. The maximal response induced by eotaxin or eotaxin-2 exceeded that of RANTES or MCP-4. Preincubation of eosinophils with anti-CCR3 Ab (7B11) completely blocked eosinophil TEM induced by eotaxin, MCP-4, and RANTES. Activation of endothelial cells with IL-1beta or TNF-alpha induced concentration-dependent migration of eosinophils, which was enhanced synergistically in the presence of eotaxin and RANTES. Anti-CCR3 also inhibited eotaxin-induced eosinophil TEM across TNF-alpha-stimulated HUVEC. The ability of eosinophil-active cytokines to potentiate eosinophil TEM was assessed by investigating eotaxin or RANTES-induced eosinophil TEM across resting and IL-1beta-stimulated HUVEC in the presence or absence of IL-5. The results showed synergy between IL-5 and the chemokines but not between IL-5 and the endothelial activator IL-1beta. Our data suggest that eotaxin, eotaxin-2, MCP-4, and RANTES induce eosinophil TEM via CCR3 with varied potency and efficacy. Activation of HUVEC by IL-1beta or TNF-alpha or priming of eosinophils by IL-5 both promote CCR3-dependent migration of eosinophils from the vasculature in conjunction with CCR3-active chemokines.  (+info)

CCR3-active chemokines promote rapid detachment of eosinophils from VCAM-1 in vitro. (5/73)

Selective eosinophil recruitment is the result of orchestrated events involving cell adhesion molecules, chemokines, and their receptors. The mechanisms by which chemokines regulate eosinophil adhesion and migration via integrins are not fully understood. In our study, we examined the effect of CCR3-active chemokines on eosinophil adhesion to VCAM-1 and BSA under both static and flow conditions. When eotaxin-2 or other CCR3-active chemokines were added to adherent eosinophils, it induced rapid and sustained eosinophil detachment from VCAM-1 in a concentration-dependent manner. Adhesion was detectably reduced within 3 min and was further reduced at 10-60 min. Simultaneously, eotaxin-2 enhanced eosinophil adhesion to BSA. Preincubation of eosinophils with the CCR3-blocking mAb 7B11 completely prevented chemokine-induced changes in adhesion to VCAM-1 and BSA. Using a different protocol, pretreatment of eosinophils with chemokines for 0-30 min before their use in adhesion assays resulted in inhibition of VCAM-1 adhesion and enhancement of BSA adhesion. By flow cytometry, expression of alpha4 integrins and a beta1 integrin activation epitope on eosinophils was decreased by eotaxin-2. In a flow-based adhesion assay, eotaxin-2 reduced eosinophil accumulation and the strength of attachment to VCAM-1. These results show that eotaxin-2 rapidly reduced alpha4 integrin function while increasing beta2 integrin function. These findings suggest that chemokines facilitate migration of eosinophils by shifting usage away from beta1 integrins toward beta2 integrins.  (+info)

Identification of potent, selective non-peptide CC chemokine receptor-3 antagonist that inhibits eotaxin-, eotaxin-2-, and monocyte chemotactic protein-4-induced eosinophil migration. (6/73)

Eosinophils have been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma and other allergic diseases. Several CC chemokines including eotaxin (CCL-11), eotaxin-2 (CCL-24), RANTES (CCL-5), and monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (MCP-3, CCL-7) and 4 (MCP-4, CCL-13) are potent eosinophil chemotactic and activating peptides acting through CC chemokine receptor-3 (CCR3). Thus, antagonism of CCR3 could have a therapeutic role in asthma and other eosinophil-mediated diseases. A high throughput, cellular functional screen was configured using RBL-2H3 cells stably expressing CCR3 (RBL-2H3-CCR3) to identify non-peptide receptor antagonists. A small molecule CCR3 antagonist was identified, SK&F 45523, and chemical optimization led to the generation of a number of highly potent, selective CCR3 antagonists including SB-297006 and SB-328437. These compounds were further characterized in vitro and demonstrated high affinity, competitive inhibition of (125)I-eotaxin and (125)I-MCP-4 binding to human eosinophils. The compounds were potent inhibitors of eotaxin- and MCP-4-induced Ca(2+) mobilization in RBL-2H3-CCR3 cells and eosinophils. Additionally, SB-328437 inhibited eosinophil chemotaxis induced by three ligands that activate CCR3 with similar potencies. Selectivity was affirmed using a panel of 10 seven-transmembrane receptors. This is the first description of a non-peptide CCR3 antagonist, which should be useful in further elucidating the pathophysiological role of CCR3 in allergic inflammatory diseases.  (+info)

Murine eotaxin-2: a constitutive eosinophil chemokine induced by allergen challenge and IL-4 overexpression. (7/73)

The generation of tissue eosinophilia is governed in part by chemokines; initial investigation has identified three chemokines in the human genome with eosinophil selectivity, referred to as eotaxin-1, -2, and -3. Elucidation of the role of these chemokines is dependent in part upon analysis of murine homologues; however, only one murine homologue, eotaxin-1, has been identified. We now report the characterization of the murine eotaxin-2 cDNA, gene and protein. The eotaxin-2 cDNA contains an open reading frame that encodes for a 119-amino acid protein. The mature protein, which is predicted to contain 93 amino acids, is most homologous to human eotaxin-2 (59.1% identity), but is only 38.9% identical with murine eotaxin-1. Northern blot analysis reveals three predominant mRNA species and highest constitutive expression in the jejunum and spleen. Additionally, allergen challenge in the lung with Aspergillus fumigatus or OVA revealed marked induction of eotaxin-2 mRNA. Furthermore, eotaxin-2 mRNA was strongly induced by both transgenic over-expression of IL-4 in the lung and administration of intranasal IL-4. Analysis of eotaxin-2 mRNA expression in mice transgenic for IL-4 but genetically deficient in STAT-6 revealed that the IL-4-induced expression was STAT-6 dependent. Recombinant eotaxin-2 protein induced dose-dependent chemotactic responses on murine eosinophils at concentrations between 1-1000 ng/ml, whereas no activity was displayed on murine macrophages or neutrophils. Functional analysis of recombinant protein variants revealed a critical role for the amino terminus. Thus, murine eotaxin-2 is a constitutively expressed eosinophil chemokine likely to be involved in homeostatic, allergen-induced, and IL-4-associated immune responses.  (+info)

Detection of mRNA for eotaxin-2 and eotaxin-3 in human dermal fibroblasts and their distinct activation profile on human eosinophils. (8/73)

As many new biologically active chemokines have been cloned exploring the genomic DNA sequence database in the vicinity of already known chemokine sequences without demonstrating their natural origin, it is important to transfer findings from in vitro experiments with chemokines into the in vivo situation. With respect to eosinophils and fibroblasts that play an important part in the pathogenesis of allergic and autoimmune diseases, the role of the recently discovered members of the eotaxin family, eotaxin-2 and eotaxin-3, is not really understood. In order to elucidate the origin and biologic potency of the eotaxin family this study was performed. Conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis was suitable to detect mRNA for eotaxin and eotaxin-3 but not for eotaxin-2 in dermal fibroblasts. In contrast to conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, LightCycler analysis revealed that dermal fibroblasts constitutively expressed mRNA not only for eotaxin and eotaxin-3 but also for eotaxin-2. Moreover, with this technique we investigated mRNA expression levels after stimulation of fibroblasts with interleukin-4 and interleukin-4 plus tumor necrosis factor-alpha: the rank order of expression levels within the eotaxin family was eotaxin > eotaxin-3 > eotaxin-2. To address the question of the efficacy of eotaxin-3, we compared its activity with eotaxin, eotaxin-2, monocyte chemotactic protein-3, monocyte chemotactic protein-4, and RANTES in different test systems for eosinophils. The efficacy of the CC chemokines at equimolar concentrations with respect to the chemotactic response of human eosinophils was eotaxin-3 = eotaxin = eotaxin-2 > RANTES > monocyte chemotactic protein-4. The rank order of activity with respect to actin polymerization and release of toxic reactive oxygen species was eotaxin-3 = eotaxin = eotaxin-2 and eotaxin = eotaxin-2 > eotaxin-3 = monocyte chemotactic protein-3 = monocyte chemotactic protein-4 = RANTES, respectively. This study indicated a distinct profile in expression levels of the members of the eotaxin family in dermal fibroblasts. Indeed, all three eotaxin ligands demonstrated activation of human eosinophils with similar efficacies for chemotaxis, cytoskeletal rearrangements, activation of Gi proteins and transients of [Ca2+]i, but a distinct profile of activity with respect to the binding to CCR3 and the release of toxic reactive oxygen species. These findings may help to understand further the role of CC chemokines in fibroblast/eosinophil activation, which is of interest particularly in allergic and autoimmune diseases.  (+info)

*CCL24

... is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. CCL24 interacts with chemokine receptor CCR3 to induce ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 24 (CCL24) also known as myeloid progenitor inhibitory factor 2 (MPIF-2) or eosinophil chemotactic ... This chemokine is also strongly chemotactic for resting T lymphocytes and slightly chemotactic for neutrophils. Elevated levels ... "Molecular and functional characterization of two novel human C-C chemokines as inhibitors of two distinct classes of myeloid ...

*Eosinophil

... or to sites of helminth infection in response to chemokines like CCL11 (eotaxin-1), CCL24 (eotaxin-2), CCL5 (RANTES), 5- ...

*Chemokine

Eosinophils: the migration of eosinophils into various tissues involved several chemokines of CC family: CCL11, CCL24, CCL26, ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines in that it has ... CCL1 for the ligand 1 of the CC-family of chemokines, and CCR1 for its respective receptor. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) ...

*CC chemokine receptors

CCR3 is a receptor for multiple inflammatory/inducible CC chemokines, including CCL11, CCL26, CCL7, CCL13, CCL15, CCL24 and ... The CC chemokine receptors all work by activating the G protein Gi. CCR1 was the first CC chemokine receptor identified and ... The orphan chemokine receptor G protein-coupled receptor-2 (GPR-2, CCR10) binds the skin-associated chemokine CCL27 (CTACK/ALP/ ... Human CC chemokine liver-expressed chemokine/CCL16 is a functional ligand for CCR1, CCR2 and CCR5, and constitutively expressed ...

*Eotaxin

In humans, there are three family members: CCL11 (eotaxin-1) CCL24 (eotaxin-2) CCL26 (eotaxin-3) Van Coillie E, Van Damme J, ... The eotaxins are a CC chemokine subfamily of eosinophil chemotactic proteins. ... Opdenakker G (March 1999). "The MCP/eotaxin subfamily of CC chemokines". Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 10 (1): 61-86. doi:10.1016 ...

*Index of immunology articles

CC chemokine receptors CCBP2 CCL1 CCL11 CCL12 CCL13 CCL14 CCL15 CCL16 CCL17 CCL18 CCL19 CCL2 CCL20 CCL21 CCL22 CCL23 CCL24 ... C-C chemokine receptor type 6 C-C chemokine receptor type 7 Calreticulin Cancer immunology Cancer immunoprevention Cancer ... CD4 CD4+ T cells and antitumor immunity CD74 CD94/NKG2 Cell-mediated immunity CELSR1 Central tolerance Chemokine Chemokine ... CR6261 CroFab Cross-presentation Cross-reactivity Cryptic self epitopes Cryptotope CX3CL1 CX3CR1 CXC chemokine receptors CXCL1 ...
Previous investigations have demonstrated a link between elevated levels of eosinophils, eosinophil activation, and adult IBD. However, there have been conflicting data regarding the individual contribution of the eosinophil-selective chemokines eotaxin-1 and eotaxin-2 in eosinophil recruitment in IBD. In the present study we demonstrate the following: 1) that eosinophil numbers are elevated in pediatric UC and that their level correlates with disease severity; 2) eotaxin-1 and not eotaxin-2 or eotaxin-3 is up-regulated in lesional colonic biopsy samples of pediatric UC patients; and 3) eotaxin-1 mRNA expression correlates with colonic eosinophil levels in pediatric UC. Using a chemical-induced colonic injury model, we define that eotaxin-1, and not eotaxin-2, is critical for eosinophil recruitment and that eotaxin-1 is predominantly derived from intestinal macrophages. Consistent with our experimental analysis, we show that eotaxin-1 is predominantly expressed by intestinal macrophages; ...
Clinical studies have demonstrated a link between the eosinophil-selective chemokines, eotaxins (eotaxin-1/CCL11 and eotaxin-2/CCL24), eosinophils, and the inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis (UC). However, the cellular source and individual contribution of the eotaxins to colonic eosinophilic accumulation in inflammatory bowel diseases remain unclear. In this study we demonstrate, by gene array and quantitative PCR, elevated levels of eotaxin-1 mRNA in the rectosigmoid colon of pediatric UC patients. We show that elevated levels of eotaxin-1 mRNA positively correlated with rectosigmoid eosinophil numbers. Further, colonic eosinophils appeared to be degranulating, and the levels positively correlated with disease severity. Using the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced intestinal epithelial injury model, we show that DSS treatment of mice strongly induced colonic eotaxin-1 and eotaxin-2 expression and eosinophil levels. Analysis of eosinophil-deficient mice ...
Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by the degradation of articular cartilage, marked by the breakdown of matrix proteins. Studies demonstrated the involvement of chemokines in this process, and some may potentially serve as diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets; however, the underlying signal transductions are not well understood. We investigated the effects of the CC chemokine eotaxin-1 (CCL11) on the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression and secretion in the human chondrocyte cell line SW1353 and primary chondrocytes. Eotaxin-1 significantly induced MMP-3 mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibitors of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 kinase were able to repress eotaxin-1-induced MMP-3 expression. On the contrary, Rp-adenosine-3,5-cyclic monophosphorothioate (Rp-cAMPs), a competitive cAMP antagonist for cAMP receptors, and H-89, a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, markedly enhanced eotaxin-1-induced MMP-3 expression. These results suggest that MMP-3 expression
Human CCL24/Eotaxin-2/MPIF-2 ELISA Kit (Colorimetric). High sensitivity ELISA kit for detection of CCL24/Eotaxin-2/MPIF-2. Backed by our 100% Guarantee.
|p|Recombinant Human Eotaxin-2/CCL24 is a single non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 78 amino acids.|/p| |p|Background: Eotaxin-2 (CCL24) is a novel CC chemokine recently identified. It is produced by activated monocytes and T lymphocytes. Eota
Looking for online definition of MPIF-1 in the Medical Dictionary? MPIF-1 explanation free. What is MPIF-1? Meaning of MPIF-1 medical term. What does MPIF-1 mean?
情報セキュリティ関連情報のユーザー、管理者、技術者に向けた発信、その前提となる情報収集、調査分析、研究開発、技術評価等の実施
References for Abcams Recombinant human Eotaxin 2 protein (ab54405). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Asthma is associated with eosinophilic airway inflammation and eosinophils are believed to be important in the pathogenesis of asthma. IL-5 has been considered the central mediator for eosinophilic proliferation, differentiation and eosinophilic inflammation, but results of recent studies suggest that besides IL-5, eotaxin may contribute to the pathogenesis of asthma. Eotaxin is CC chemokine first isolated from guinea pig bronchoalveolar lavage. It selectively binds to a specific receptor (CCR3) highly expressed on eosinophils, basophils, and mast cells being important in the pathogenesis of asthma. Eotaxin is produced mainly by epithelial cells of lung and gut, to mediate organ preferential attraction of eosinophils. Production of eotaxin is stimulated by IL-4, IL-13, TNF-α. Human eotaxin family includes: eotaxin-1 (CCL11), eotaxin-2 (CCL24) and eotaxin-3 (CCL26). It seems that eotaxin-3 may be expressed following allergen challenge. Studies with glucocorticosteroids have shown some inhibitory ...
article{7c45b648-bb75-40bb-a1de-8aa59d14e5c0, abstract = {Huntingtons disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by both neurological and systemic abnormalities. Immune activation is a well-established feature of the HD brain and we have previously demonstrated a widespread, progressive innate immune response detectable in plasma throughout the course of HD. In the present work we used multiplex ELISA to quantify levels of chemokines in plasma from controls and subjects at different stages of HD. We found an altered chemokine profile tracking with disease progression, with significant elevations of five chemokines (eotaxin-3, MIP-1β, eotaxin, MCP-1 and MCP-4) while three (eotaxin-3, MIP-1β and eotaxin) showed significant linear increases across advancing disease stages. We validated our results in a separate sample cohort including subjects at different stages of HD. Here we saw that chemokine levels (MCP-1 and eotaxin) correlated with clinical scores. We conclude ...

Ackr2 - Atypical chemokine receptor 2 - Rattus norvegicus (Rat) - Ackr2 gene & proteinAckr2 - Atypical chemokine receptor 2 - Rattus norvegicus (Rat) - Ackr2 gene & protein

CCL24, SCYA2/MCP-1, SCY3/MIP-1-alpha, SCYA5/RANTES and SCYA7/MCP-3. Upon active ligand stimulation, activates a beta-arrestin 1 ... or chemokine-scavenging receptor or chemokine decoy receptor. Acts as a receptor for chemokines including CCL2, CCL3, CCL3L1, ... increasing its efficiency in chemokine uptake and degradation. By scavenging chemokines in tissues, on the surfaces of ... resulting instead in chemokine sequestration, degradation, or transcytosis. Also known as interceptor (internalizing receptor) ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/O09027

CCL24 elisa kit | Human chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 24 ELISA Kit-NP 002982.2CCL24 elisa kit | Human chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 24 ELISA Kit-NP 002982.2

Human chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 24 ELISA Kit-NP_002982.2 (MBS703750) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ELISA Kits ... Chemokine Signaling Pathway antibodies. Chemokine Signaling Pathway Diagram. Chemokine Signaling Pathway antibodies. Chemokine ... Human Eotaxin 2/CCL24 ELISA Kit. Product Synonym Names Human Eotaxin 2/CCL24 ELISA Kit; Ckb-6; MPIF-2; MPIF2; SCYA24; CK-beta-6 ... chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 24 (CCL24), ELISA Kit. ★Popular Item★ Also Known As ...
more infohttps://www.mybiosource.com/prods/ELISA-Kit/Human/chemokine-C-C-motif-ligand-24/CCL24/datasheet.php?products_id=703750

Protein synthesis in human foetal brain & liver.Protein synthesis in human foetal brain & liver.

23696919 - Trophoblasts-derived chemokine ccl24 promotes the proliferation, growth and apoptosis o.... 7362789 - Pancreatitis, ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Protein-synthesis-in-human-foetal/2722219.html

施 俊明 - 研究成果
     - 臺北醫學大學施 俊明 - 研究成果 - 臺北醫學大學

Narayan, R. J., Adiga, S. P., Pellin, M. J., Curtiss, L. A., Hryn, A. J., Stafslien, S., Chisholm, B., Shih, C. C., Shih, C. M., Lin, S. J., Su, Y. Y., Jin, C., Zhang, J., Monteiro-Riviere, N. A. & Elam, J. W., 四月 28 2010, 於 : Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences. 368, 1917, p. 2033-2064 32 p.. 研究成果: 雜誌貢獻 › 文章 ...
more infohttps://tmu.pure.elsevier.com/zh/persons/chun-ming-shih-2/publications/

Human lactoferrin induces asthmatic symptoms in NC/Nga mice<...Human lactoferrin induces asthmatic symptoms in NC/Nga mice<...

... serum IgE and serum lactoferrin-specific IgG and IgE levels as well as the mRNA expression levels of cytokines and chemokines ... serum IgE and serum lactoferrin-specific IgG and IgE levels as well as the mRNA expression levels of cytokines and chemokines ... serum IgE and serum lactoferrin-specific IgG and IgE levels as well as the mRNA expression levels of cytokines and chemokines ... serum IgE and serum lactoferrin-specific IgG and IgE levels as well as the mRNA expression levels of cytokines and chemokines ...
more infohttps://okayama.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/human-lactoferrin-induces-asthmatic-symptoms-in-ncnga-mice

Cytokine expression in normal and inflamed esophageal mucosa: A study into the pathogenesis of allergic eosinophilic...Cytokine expression in normal and inflamed esophageal mucosa: A study into the pathogenesis of allergic eosinophilic...

TY - JOUR. T1 - Cytokine expression in normal and inflamed esophageal mucosa. T2 - A study into the pathogenesis of allergic eosinophilic esophagitis. AU - Gupta, Sandeep. AU - Fitzgerald, Joseph F.. AU - Kondratyuk, Tamara. AU - HogenEsch, Harm. PY - 2006/1. Y1 - 2006/1. N2 - Objectives: We studied the expression of cytokines and inflammatory cells in normal and inflamed esophageal mucosa of children with the aim of furthering our understanding of the pathophysiology of allergic eosinophilic esophagitis (AEE). Methods: Controls and AEE patients (≥15 eosinophils/high-power field on esophageal mucosal biopsies) between the ages of 1 and 18 years were recruited. Esophageal biopsies were obtained for histologic examination, immunohistochemical studies, and cytokine analysis. Results: Eight controls (4 males; mean age 9.99 years) and 11 AEE patients (8 males; mean age 7.15 years) were studied. mRNA expression of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13, eotaxin-1, eotaxin-2, eotaxin-3, ...
more infohttps://indiana.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/cytokine-expression-in-normal-and-inflamed-esophageal-mucosa-a-st

Analysis of monocyte infiltration in MPTP mice reveals that microglial CX3CR1 protects against neurotoxic over-induction of...Analysis of monocyte infiltration in MPTP mice reveals that microglial CX3CR1 protects against neurotoxic over-induction of...

Nigral chemokine profiling revealed early CCL2/7/12-CCR2 axis induction, suggesting monocyte infiltration in MPTP mice. CCL2 ... mice and assessed monocyte infiltration by combining laser microdissection-guided chemokine RNA profiling of the substantia ... Our aim was to reassess this open question, by taking advantage of the recent recognition that chemokine receptors CCR2 and ... four chemokines showing downregulation (Ccl20/28, Ccl17/Cxcl13). In addition, one chemokine (CCL24) showed a mixed regulation ( ...
more infohttps://jneuroinflammation.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12974-017-0830-9

NAVER Academic > Search...NAVER Academic > Search...

Adult, Animals, Asthma, immunology, metabolism, Cell Polarity, Chemokine CCL17, Chemokine CCL24, Eosinophilia, Epithelial Cells ... Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport, genetics, immunology, metabolism, Animals, Chemokine CXCL2, Chemokine CXCL5, Female, ...
more infohttps://academic.naver.com/search.naver?field=3&query=JOURNAL+OF+IMMUNOLOGY+183%EA%B6%8C+10%ED%98%B8

Male Sex Hormones Have A Role In AsthmaMale Sex Hormones Have A Role In Asthma

For example, levels of chemokine CCL24-a signaling protein known to recruit eosinophils-decreased by 81 percent in knockout ... This lowered inflammation was accompanied by decreased M2 polarization of alveolar macrophages as well as decreased chemokine ... has long been known to promote the production and secretion of inflammatory molecules that include chemokines and cytokines. ...
more infohttps://sandiegocountynews.com/male-sex-hormones-have-a-role-in-asthma/

JCI Insight -
Depletion of major pathogenic cells in asthma by targeting CRTh2JCI Insight - Depletion of major pathogenic cells in asthma by targeting CRTh2

Ccl24/Eotaxin2). Gene expression of all chemokines tested except Ccl24 was significantly upregulated by infection (Figure 5G). ... macrophage-attracting chemokine Ccl3 were also significantly inhibited, while Ccl2-encoding chemokines attractant to CCR2+ ... In addition to classic Th2 cytokine, IL6 and several chemokine transcripts measured (Ccl17, Ccl3, Ccl2, Ccl11, and Ccl8) were ... Chief players in type-2 inflammation are CD4+ Th2 cells that secrete IL4, IL5, and IL13, but also chemokines and other ...
more infohttps://insight.jci.org/articles/view/86689

Eotaxin. An essential mediator of eosinophil trafficking into mucosal tissues.  - PubMed - NCBIEotaxin. An essential mediator of eosinophil trafficking into mucosal tissues. - PubMed - NCBI

Chemokine CCL24. *Chemokines, CC/genetics. *Chemokines, CC/pharmacology. *Chemokines, CC/physiology. *Chemotactic Factors/ ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10460744?dopt=Abstract

CD11b+ Myeloid Cells Are the Key Mediators of Th2 Cell Homing into the Airway in Allergic Inflammation | The Journal of...CD11b+ Myeloid Cells Are the Key Mediators of Th2 Cell Homing into the Airway in Allergic Inflammation | The Journal of...

... resident lung cells are stimulated via STAT6 to produce chemokines, such as CCL17, CCL22, CCL11, and CCL24. These chemokines ... We then analyzed RNA from the lungs of these mice for chemokine production. The levels of CCL17, CCL22, and CCL24 RNA were all ... In these experiments, the expression of the chemokines CCL17, CCL22, and CCL24 was restored with wild-type or RAG1−/− bone ... F, Lung chemokine RNA copies normalized to copies of GAPDH RNA, and G, BAL chemokine protein levels in wild-type, STAT6−/−, and ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/182/1/623.long

Leading Researcher: Fibrosis Improved in Systemic Sclerosis and IPF Models With Monoclonal Antibody - Scleroderma NewsLeading Researcher: Fibrosis Improved in Systemic Sclerosis and IPF Models With Monoclonal Antibody - Scleroderma News

Previous research has shown that the pathway involving the chemokine CCL24 and its receptor CCR3 is significantly expressed in ... Despite the fact that CM-101 was developed against the human CCL24, it also has reactivity to murine CCL24. ... Tagged 4th Systemic Sclerosis World Congress, Adi Mor, CCL24, ChemomAb, CM-101, fibrosis, Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, IPF. ... This shared pathology also involves the expression of chemokines: small proteins with an important role in the immune system. ...
more infohttps://sclerodermanews.com/2016/02/24/cm-101-a-novel-monoclonal-antibody-blocking-ccl24-ameliorates-experimental-systemic-sclerosis-ssc-and-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-ipf/

Eosinophil FunctionEosinophil Function

The migration and movement of eosinophils is promoted by chemokines, such as CCL11, CCL24 and CCL26 and chemokine receptors, ... Eosinophil-platelet interactions can be strengthened via the expression of granulocytes and certain chemokines. This affects ... Eosinophils release their proinflammatory and cytotoxic granule proteins, and various chemokines in response to a fungal ...
more infohttps://www.news-medical.net/life-sciences/Eosinophil-Function.aspx

Recombinant Human Eotaxin-2/CCL24 |  Cell SciencesRecombinant Human Eotaxin-2/CCL24 | Cell Sciences

CCL24) is a novel CC chemokine recently identified. It is produced by activated monocytes and T lymphocytes. Eota ... p,Recombinant Human Eotaxin-2/CCL24 is a single non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 78 amino acids.,/p, ,p,Background ... Background: Eotaxin-2 (CCL24) is a novel CC chemokine recently identified. It is produced by activated monocytes and T ... Recombinant Human Eotaxin-2/CCL24 is a single non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 78 amino acids. ...
more infohttps://www.cellsciences.com/recombinant-human-ccl24-eotaxin-2-2

Recombinant Human Eotaxin-2/CCL24 |  Cell SciencesRecombinant Human Eotaxin-2/CCL24 | Cell Sciences

CCL24) is a novel CC chemokine recently identified. It is produced by activated monocytes and T lymphocytes. Eota ... p,Recombinant Human Eotaxin-2/CCL24 is a single non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 78 amino acids.,/p, ,p,Background ... Background: Eotaxin-2 (CCL24) is a novel CC chemokine recently identified. It is produced by activated monocytes and T ... Recombinant Human Eotaxin-2/CCL24 is a single non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 78 amino acids. ...
more infohttp://www.cellsciences.com/recombinant-human-ccl24-eotaxin-2-1

CCL24 - WikipediaCCL24 - Wikipedia

CCL24 is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. CCL24 interacts with chemokine receptor CCR3 to induce ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 24 (CCL24) also known as myeloid progenitor inhibitory factor 2 (MPIF-2) or eosinophil chemotactic ... This chemokine is also strongly chemotactic for resting T lymphocytes and slightly chemotactic for neutrophils. Elevated levels ... "Molecular and functional characterization of two novel human C-C chemokines as inhibitors of two distinct classes of myeloid ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CCL24

AllergyCases.org: Interleukin 33 (IL-33)AllergyCases.org: Interleukin 33 (IL-33)

Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4 is also known as CCL4 and MIP-1.. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 24 (CCL24) is a small cytokine ... CCL24 interacts with chemokine receptor CCR3 to induce chemotaxis in eosinophils.. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 also known as ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family that is also known as monocyte ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 17 (CCL17) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family that is also known as thymus ...
more infohttp://www.allergycases.org/2009/08/interleukin-33-il-33.html

CCL24 Mouse | ProSpecCCL24 Mouse | ProSpec

CCL24 Mouse Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 93 amino acids and having ... CCL24 functions as a chemotactic chemokine for resting t-lymphocytes, and eosinophils. CCL24 has lower chemotactic activity for ... CCL-24.. Introduction. Eotaxin-2, also called MPIF2 & Ckb6, is a novel CC chemokine produced by activated monocytes and T ... CCL24 is a strong suppressor of colony formation by a multipotential hematopoietic progenitor cell line and binds to CCR3. ...
more infohttps://www.prospecbio.com/CCL24_Mouse

Role of adhesion molecules and inflammation in Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infected mouse brain | Virology Journal |...Role of adhesion molecules and inflammation in Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infected mouse brain | Virology Journal |...

Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 24 (Ccl24). (A). 273.69 POR. P-WT ... Ccr2, a chemokine receptor that is involved in the migration of ... These cytokines and chemokines have been implicated in the regulation and suppression of inflammation in the tissues [16-19]. ... Kim BO, Liu Y, Zhou BY, He JJ: Induction of C chemokine XCL1 (lymphotactin/single C motif-1 alpha/activation-induced, T cell- ... Trebst C, Staugaitis SM, Tucky B, Wei T, Suzuki K, Aldape KD, Pardo CA, Troncoso J, Lassmann H, Ransohoff RM: Chemokine ...
more infohttps://virologyj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1743-422X-8-197

NIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Full ViewNIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Full View

In addition, TDI inhalation upregulated Th2 cytokine (IL-4, -5, -13, -10) and chemokine (Ccl11, Ccl24) expression and ... Neutralization of IL-5 did not affect the development of the cytokine/chemokine response driving recruitment of eosinophils. ...
more infohttp://www2a.cdc.gov/nioshtic-2/BuildQyr.asp?s1=toluene&f1=TI&Startyear=&terms=3&Adv=1&ct=&B1=Search&Limit=500&Sort=DP+DESC&whichdate=DP&D1=10&EndYear=&PageNo=4&RecNo=36&View=f&

NIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Full ViewNIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Full View

In addition, TDI inhalation upregulated Th2 cytokine (IL-4, -5, -13, -10) and chemokine (Ccl11, Ccl24) expression and ... Neutralization of IL-5 did not affect the development of the cytokine/chemokine response driving recruitment of eosinophils. ...
more infohttp://www2a.cdc.gov/nioshtic-2/BuildQyr.asp?s1=genetic&f1=TI&Startyear=&t1=1&s2=genetic&terms=3&Adv=1&ct=&B1=Search&f2=KW&Limit=500&Sort=DP+DESC&D1=10&EndYear=&PageNo=24&RecNo=239&View=f&

CCL24 ELISA & Assay KitsCCL24 ELISA & Assay Kits

Compare and order CCL24 ELISA Kits. View citations, images, detection ranges, sensitivity, prices and more. Recommended ... CC chemokine CCL24 , small inducible cytokine A24 , eotaxin-2-like protein , eosinophil chemotactic protein-2 , small chemokine ... Protein level used designations for CCL24 C-C motif chemokine 24 , CK-beta-6 , eosinophil chemotactic protein 2 , eotaxin-2 , ... Images for product: Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 24 (CCL24) ELISA Kit ...
more infohttps://www.antibodies-online.com/regulation-of-actin-filament-polymerization-pathway-56/ccl24-elisa-kit-3303/

Transcriptional profiling reveals intrinsic mRNA alterations in multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from bone marrow...Transcriptional profiling reveals intrinsic mRNA alterations in multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from bone marrow...

5a). Among the chemokine receptors, CXCR3 was mostly expressed (Fig. 5b). Additionally, CXCL12, CCL2, CCL24, and CXCL5 were ... Our analyses detected increased absolute expression of genes encoding CXCL12, CCL24, chemokine-like factor (CKLF), CXCL5, and, ... Absolute gene expression of genes encoding a chemokines and b chemokine receptors. Genes with multiple probes were represented ... chemokine-like factor; COX2, cyclooxygenase-2; CXCL12, (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 chemokine; DAVID, Database for Annotation, ...
more infohttps://stemcellres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13287-016-0351-y
  • By scavenging chemokines in tissues, on the surfaces of lymphatic vessels, and in placenta, plays an essential role in the resolution (termination) of the inflammatory response and in the regulation of adaptive immune responses. (uniprot.org)
  • The CCL24 protein was lyophilized from a concentrated (1mg/ml) sterile solution containing 20mM Phosphate buffer pH-7.4 and 0.15M sodium chloride. (prospecbio.com)
  • Lyophilized Eotaxin-2 although stable at room temperature for 3 weeks, should be stored desiccated below -18°C. Upon reconstitution CCL24 should be stored at 4°C between 2-7 days and for future use below -18°C. For long term storage it is recommended to add a carrier protein (0.1% HSA or BSA). (prospecbio.com)
  • These data reveal that CD11b + myeloid cells in the lung help orchestrate the adaptive immune response in asthma, in part, through the production of STAT6-inducible chemokines and the recruitment of Th2 lymphocytes into the airway. (jimmunol.org)
  • Some chemokines control cells of the immune system during processes of immune surveillance, such as directing lymphocytes to the lymph nodes so they can screen for invasion of pathogens by interacting with antigen-presenting cells residing in these tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • During CNS neurodegeneration, neuronal damage leads to activation of microglia and astrocytes, which in turn can amplify the neuroinflammatory response by chemokine secretion leading to CNS infiltration of peripheral immune cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The ELISA analytical biochemical technique of the MBS703750 kit is based on CCL24 antibody-CCL24 antigen interactions (immunosorbency) and an HRP colorimetric detection system to detect CCL24 antigen targets in samples. (mybiosource.com)
  • Antibody specific for eotaxin 2/CCL24 has been pre-coated onto a microplate. (mybiosource.com)
  • Standards and samples are pipetted into the wells and any eotaxin 2/CCL24 present is bound by the immobilized antibody. (mybiosource.com)
  • After removing any unbound substances, a biotin-conjugated antibody specific for eotaxin 2/CCL24 is added to the wells. (mybiosource.com)
  • ChemomAb, an Israeli biotech company specialized in the development of monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of immune mediated disorders and orphan indications, developed a monoclonal antibody, called CM-101, capable of targeting CCL24. (sclerodermanews.com)
  • Large numbers of responsive cytokines, chemokines and immune regulatory genes linked to innate immune cell recruitment and tumor regression were identified, as were several immunosuppressive factors that may contribute to the observed escape of some tumors from metronomic CPA-induced, immune-based regression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the critical cellular source of STAT6-mediated chemokine production has not been defined. (jimmunol.org)
  • This assay has high sensitivity and excellent specificity for detection of human eotaxin 2/CCL24. (mybiosource.com)
  • Following a wash to remove any unbound avidin-enzyme reagent, a substrate solution is added to the wells and color develops in proportion to the amount of eotaxin 2/CCL24 bound in the initial step. (mybiosource.com)
  • The concentration gradients of the kit standards or positive controls render a theoretical kit detection range of 78.125 pg/ml -5000 pg/ml in biological research samples containing CCL24, with an estimated sensitivity of 67.660 pg/ml. (mybiosource.com)