A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.
A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.
Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.
Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.
CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.
A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.
A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.
Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.
A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.
Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.
An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.
CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.
Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Carbon tetrachloride poisoning is a condition characterized by the systemic toxicity induced by exposure to carbon tetrachloride, a volatile chlorinated hydrocarbon solvent, causing central nervous system depression, cardiovascular collapse, and potentially fatal liver and kidney damage.
A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.
Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.
The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.

Glucocorticosteroids inhibit mRNA expression for eotaxin, eotaxin-2, and monocyte-chemotactic protein-4 in human airway inflammation with eosinophilia. (1/73)

How eosinophils are preferentially recruited to inflammatory sites remains elusive, but increasing evidence suggests that chemokines that bind to the CCR3 participate in this process. In this study, we investigated the transcript levels and chemotactic activity of CCR3-binding chemokines in nasal polyps, a disorder often showing prominent eosinophilia. We found that mRNA expression for eotaxin, eotaxin-2, and monocyte-chemotactic protein-4 was significantly increased in nasal polyps compared with turbinate mucosa from the same patients, or histologically normal nasal mucosa from control subjects. Interestingly, the novel CCR3-specific chemokine, eotaxin-2, showed the highest transcript levels. Consistent with these mRNA data, polyp tissue fluid exhibited strong chemotactic activity for eosinophils that was significantly inhibited by a blocking Ab against CCR3. When patients were treated systemically with glucocorticosteroids, the mRNA levels in the polyps were reduced to that found in turbinate mucosa for all chemokines. Together, these findings suggested an important role for CCR3-binding chemokines in eosinophil recruitment to nasal polyps. Such chemokines, therefore, most likely contribute significantly in the pathogenesis of eosinophil-related disorders; and the reduced chemokine expression observed after steroid treatment might reflect, at least in part, how steroids inhibit tissue accumulation of eosinophils.  (+info)

Molecular cloning of a novel human CC chemokine (Eotaxin-3) that is a functional ligand of CC chemokine receptor 3. (2/73)

Previously, we mapped the novel CC chemokine myeloid progenitor inhibitory factor 2 (MPIF-2)/eotaxin-2 to chromosome 7q11.23 (Nomiyama, H., Osborne, L. R., Imai, T., Kusuda, J., Miura, R., Tsui, L.-C., and Yoshie, O. (1998) Genomics 49, 339-340). Since chemokine genes tend to be clustered, unknown chemokines may be present in the vicinity of those mapped to new chromosomal loci. Prompted by this hypothesis, we analyzed the genomic region containing the gene for MPIF-2/eotaxin-2 (SCYA24) and have identified a novel CC chemokine termed eotaxin-3. The genes for MPIF-2/eotaxin-2 (SCYA24) and eotaxin-3 (SCYA26) are localized within a region of approximately 40 kilobases. By Northern blot analysis, eotaxin-3 mRNA was constitutively expressed in the heart and ovary. We have generated recombinant eotaxin-3 in a baculovirus expression system. Eotaxin-3 induced transient calcium mobilization specifically in CC chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3)-expressing L1.2 cells with an EC(50) of 3 nM. Eotaxin-3 competed the binding of (125)I-eotaxin to CCR3-expressing L1.2 cells with an IC(50) of 13 nM. Eotaxin-3 was chemotactic for normal peripheral blood eosinophils and basophils at high concentrations. Collectively, eotaxin-3 is yet another functional ligand for CCR3. The potency of eotaxin-3 as a CCR3 ligand seems, however, to be approximately 10-fold less than that of eotaxin. Identification of eotaxin-3 will further promote our understanding of the control of eosinophil trafficking and other CCR3-mediated biological phenomena. The strategy used in this study may also be applicable to identification of other unknown chemokine genes.  (+info)

C-C chemokines in allergen-induced late-phase cutaneous responses in atopic subjects: association of eotaxin with early 6-hour eosinophils, and of eotaxin-2 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-4 with the later 24-hour tissue eosinophilia, and relationship to basophils and other C-C chemokines (monocyte chemoattractant protein-3 and RANTES). (3/73)

The relationship of expression of the C-C chemokines eotaxin, eotaxin 2, RANTES, monocyte chemoattractant protein-3 (MCP-3), and MCP-4 to the kinetics of infiltrating eosinophils, basophils, and other inflammatory cells was examined in allergen-induced, late-phase allergic reactions in the skin of human atopic subjects. EG2+ eosinophils peaked at 6 h and correlated significantly with eotaxin mRNA and protein, whereas declining eosinophils at 24 h correlated significantly with eotaxin-2 and MCP-4 mRNA. In contrast, no significant correlations were observed between BB1+ basophil infiltrates, which peaked at 24 h, and expression of eotaxin, eotaxin-2, RANTES, MCP-3, and MCP-4 or elastase+ neutrophils (6-h peak), CD3+ and CD4+ T cells (24 h), and CD68+ macrophages (72 h). Furthermore, 83% of eosinophils, 40% of basophils, and 1% of CD3+ cells expressed the eotaxin receptor CCR3, while eotaxin protein was expressed by 43% of macrophages, 81% of endothelial cells, and 6% of T cells (6%). These data suggest that 1) eotaxin has a role in the early 6-h recruitment of eosinophils, while eotaxin-2 and MCP-4 appear to be involved in later 24-h infiltration of these CCR3+ cells; 2) different mechanisms may guide the early vs late eosinophilia; and 3) other chemokines and receptors may be involved in basophil accumulation of allergic tissue reactions in human skin.  (+info)

Migration of eosinophils across endothelial cell monolayers: interactions among IL-5, endothelial-activating cytokines, and C-C chemokines. (4/73)

Eosinophils are the predominant cell type recruited in inflammatory reactions in response to allergen challenge. The mechanisms of selective eosinophil recruitment in allergic reactions are not fully elucidated. In this study, the ability of several C-C chemokines to induce transendothelial migration (TEM) of eosinophils in vitro was assessed. Eotaxin, eotaxin-2, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-4, and RANTES induced eosinophil TEM across unstimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in a concentration-dependent manner with the following rank order of potency: eotaxin approximately eotaxin-2 > MCP-4 approximately RANTES. The maximal response induced by eotaxin or eotaxin-2 exceeded that of RANTES or MCP-4. Preincubation of eosinophils with anti-CCR3 Ab (7B11) completely blocked eosinophil TEM induced by eotaxin, MCP-4, and RANTES. Activation of endothelial cells with IL-1beta or TNF-alpha induced concentration-dependent migration of eosinophils, which was enhanced synergistically in the presence of eotaxin and RANTES. Anti-CCR3 also inhibited eotaxin-induced eosinophil TEM across TNF-alpha-stimulated HUVEC. The ability of eosinophil-active cytokines to potentiate eosinophil TEM was assessed by investigating eotaxin or RANTES-induced eosinophil TEM across resting and IL-1beta-stimulated HUVEC in the presence or absence of IL-5. The results showed synergy between IL-5 and the chemokines but not between IL-5 and the endothelial activator IL-1beta. Our data suggest that eotaxin, eotaxin-2, MCP-4, and RANTES induce eosinophil TEM via CCR3 with varied potency and efficacy. Activation of HUVEC by IL-1beta or TNF-alpha or priming of eosinophils by IL-5 both promote CCR3-dependent migration of eosinophils from the vasculature in conjunction with CCR3-active chemokines.  (+info)

CCR3-active chemokines promote rapid detachment of eosinophils from VCAM-1 in vitro. (5/73)

Selective eosinophil recruitment is the result of orchestrated events involving cell adhesion molecules, chemokines, and their receptors. The mechanisms by which chemokines regulate eosinophil adhesion and migration via integrins are not fully understood. In our study, we examined the effect of CCR3-active chemokines on eosinophil adhesion to VCAM-1 and BSA under both static and flow conditions. When eotaxin-2 or other CCR3-active chemokines were added to adherent eosinophils, it induced rapid and sustained eosinophil detachment from VCAM-1 in a concentration-dependent manner. Adhesion was detectably reduced within 3 min and was further reduced at 10-60 min. Simultaneously, eotaxin-2 enhanced eosinophil adhesion to BSA. Preincubation of eosinophils with the CCR3-blocking mAb 7B11 completely prevented chemokine-induced changes in adhesion to VCAM-1 and BSA. Using a different protocol, pretreatment of eosinophils with chemokines for 0-30 min before their use in adhesion assays resulted in inhibition of VCAM-1 adhesion and enhancement of BSA adhesion. By flow cytometry, expression of alpha4 integrins and a beta1 integrin activation epitope on eosinophils was decreased by eotaxin-2. In a flow-based adhesion assay, eotaxin-2 reduced eosinophil accumulation and the strength of attachment to VCAM-1. These results show that eotaxin-2 rapidly reduced alpha4 integrin function while increasing beta2 integrin function. These findings suggest that chemokines facilitate migration of eosinophils by shifting usage away from beta1 integrins toward beta2 integrins.  (+info)

Identification of potent, selective non-peptide CC chemokine receptor-3 antagonist that inhibits eotaxin-, eotaxin-2-, and monocyte chemotactic protein-4-induced eosinophil migration. (6/73)

Eosinophils have been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma and other allergic diseases. Several CC chemokines including eotaxin (CCL-11), eotaxin-2 (CCL-24), RANTES (CCL-5), and monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (MCP-3, CCL-7) and 4 (MCP-4, CCL-13) are potent eosinophil chemotactic and activating peptides acting through CC chemokine receptor-3 (CCR3). Thus, antagonism of CCR3 could have a therapeutic role in asthma and other eosinophil-mediated diseases. A high throughput, cellular functional screen was configured using RBL-2H3 cells stably expressing CCR3 (RBL-2H3-CCR3) to identify non-peptide receptor antagonists. A small molecule CCR3 antagonist was identified, SK&F 45523, and chemical optimization led to the generation of a number of highly potent, selective CCR3 antagonists including SB-297006 and SB-328437. These compounds were further characterized in vitro and demonstrated high affinity, competitive inhibition of (125)I-eotaxin and (125)I-MCP-4 binding to human eosinophils. The compounds were potent inhibitors of eotaxin- and MCP-4-induced Ca(2+) mobilization in RBL-2H3-CCR3 cells and eosinophils. Additionally, SB-328437 inhibited eosinophil chemotaxis induced by three ligands that activate CCR3 with similar potencies. Selectivity was affirmed using a panel of 10 seven-transmembrane receptors. This is the first description of a non-peptide CCR3 antagonist, which should be useful in further elucidating the pathophysiological role of CCR3 in allergic inflammatory diseases.  (+info)

Murine eotaxin-2: a constitutive eosinophil chemokine induced by allergen challenge and IL-4 overexpression. (7/73)

The generation of tissue eosinophilia is governed in part by chemokines; initial investigation has identified three chemokines in the human genome with eosinophil selectivity, referred to as eotaxin-1, -2, and -3. Elucidation of the role of these chemokines is dependent in part upon analysis of murine homologues; however, only one murine homologue, eotaxin-1, has been identified. We now report the characterization of the murine eotaxin-2 cDNA, gene and protein. The eotaxin-2 cDNA contains an open reading frame that encodes for a 119-amino acid protein. The mature protein, which is predicted to contain 93 amino acids, is most homologous to human eotaxin-2 (59.1% identity), but is only 38.9% identical with murine eotaxin-1. Northern blot analysis reveals three predominant mRNA species and highest constitutive expression in the jejunum and spleen. Additionally, allergen challenge in the lung with Aspergillus fumigatus or OVA revealed marked induction of eotaxin-2 mRNA. Furthermore, eotaxin-2 mRNA was strongly induced by both transgenic over-expression of IL-4 in the lung and administration of intranasal IL-4. Analysis of eotaxin-2 mRNA expression in mice transgenic for IL-4 but genetically deficient in STAT-6 revealed that the IL-4-induced expression was STAT-6 dependent. Recombinant eotaxin-2 protein induced dose-dependent chemotactic responses on murine eosinophils at concentrations between 1-1000 ng/ml, whereas no activity was displayed on murine macrophages or neutrophils. Functional analysis of recombinant protein variants revealed a critical role for the amino terminus. Thus, murine eotaxin-2 is a constitutively expressed eosinophil chemokine likely to be involved in homeostatic, allergen-induced, and IL-4-associated immune responses.  (+info)

Detection of mRNA for eotaxin-2 and eotaxin-3 in human dermal fibroblasts and their distinct activation profile on human eosinophils. (8/73)

As many new biologically active chemokines have been cloned exploring the genomic DNA sequence database in the vicinity of already known chemokine sequences without demonstrating their natural origin, it is important to transfer findings from in vitro experiments with chemokines into the in vivo situation. With respect to eosinophils and fibroblasts that play an important part in the pathogenesis of allergic and autoimmune diseases, the role of the recently discovered members of the eotaxin family, eotaxin-2 and eotaxin-3, is not really understood. In order to elucidate the origin and biologic potency of the eotaxin family this study was performed. Conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis was suitable to detect mRNA for eotaxin and eotaxin-3 but not for eotaxin-2 in dermal fibroblasts. In contrast to conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, LightCycler analysis revealed that dermal fibroblasts constitutively expressed mRNA not only for eotaxin and eotaxin-3 but also for eotaxin-2. Moreover, with this technique we investigated mRNA expression levels after stimulation of fibroblasts with interleukin-4 and interleukin-4 plus tumor necrosis factor-alpha: the rank order of expression levels within the eotaxin family was eotaxin > eotaxin-3 > eotaxin-2. To address the question of the efficacy of eotaxin-3, we compared its activity with eotaxin, eotaxin-2, monocyte chemotactic protein-3, monocyte chemotactic protein-4, and RANTES in different test systems for eosinophils. The efficacy of the CC chemokines at equimolar concentrations with respect to the chemotactic response of human eosinophils was eotaxin-3 = eotaxin = eotaxin-2 > RANTES > monocyte chemotactic protein-4. The rank order of activity with respect to actin polymerization and release of toxic reactive oxygen species was eotaxin-3 = eotaxin = eotaxin-2 and eotaxin = eotaxin-2 > eotaxin-3 = monocyte chemotactic protein-3 = monocyte chemotactic protein-4 = RANTES, respectively. This study indicated a distinct profile in expression levels of the members of the eotaxin family in dermal fibroblasts. Indeed, all three eotaxin ligands demonstrated activation of human eosinophils with similar efficacies for chemotaxis, cytoskeletal rearrangements, activation of Gi proteins and transients of [Ca2+]i, but a distinct profile of activity with respect to the binding to CCR3 and the release of toxic reactive oxygen species. These findings may help to understand further the role of CC chemokines in fibroblast/eosinophil activation, which is of interest particularly in allergic and autoimmune diseases.  (+info)

Chemokine CCL27, also known as CTACK (Cutaneous T-cell attracting chemokine) or Exodus-3, is a small signaling protein that belongs to the CC chemokine family. Chemokines are a group of cytokines, or cell signaling molecules, that play an important role in immune function and inflammation by recruiting immune cells to sites of infection or tissue injury.

Chemokine CCL27 is primarily produced by keratinocytes, the major cell type in the epidermis, and it plays a crucial role in skin immunity by attracting specific subsets of T cells to the skin. It binds to and activates the CCR10 receptor on the surface of these T cells, leading to their migration towards the site of chemokine production.

In addition to its role in skin immunity, Chemokine CCL27 has also been implicated in several diseases, including psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and certain types of cancer.

Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21 (CCL21), also known as secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine (SLC) or exodus-2, is a type of chemokine that belongs to the CC subfamily. Chemokines are small signaling proteins that play crucial roles in regulating immune responses and inflammation by recruiting various leukocytes to sites of infection or injury through specific receptor binding.

CCL21 is primarily expressed in high endothelial venules (HEVs) within lymphoid tissues, such as lymph nodes, spleen, and Peyer's patches. It functions as a chemoattractant for immune cells like dendritic cells, T cells, and B cells, guiding them to enter the HEVs and migrate into the lymphoid organs. This process is essential for initiating adaptive immune responses against pathogens or antigens.

CCL21 exerts its effects by binding to chemokine receptors CCR7 and atypical chemokine receptor ACKR3 (also known as CXCR7). The interaction between CCL21 and these receptors triggers intracellular signaling cascades, leading to cell migration and activation. Dysregulation of CCL21 expression or function has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including autoimmune diseases, cancer, and inflammatory disorders.

Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 22, also known as CCL22 or MDC (macrophage-derived chemokine), is a type of protein that belongs to the CC chemokine family. Chemokines are small signaling proteins that are involved in immune responses and inflammation. They help to recruit immune cells to sites of infection or tissue injury by binding to specific receptors on the surface of these cells.

CCL22 is produced by a variety of cells, including macrophages, dendritic cells, and some types of tumor cells. It binds to a specific chemokine receptor called CCR4, which is found on the surface of regulatory T cells (Tregs), Th2 cells, and some other immune cells. By binding to CCR4, CCL22 helps to recruit these cells to sites where it is produced.

CCL22 has been shown to play a role in several physiological and pathological processes, including the development of allergic inflammation, the regulation of immune responses, and the progression of certain types of cancer.

Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 17 (CCL17), also known as thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC), is a small signaling protein that belongs to the CC chemokine family. Chemokines are a group of cytokines, or cell signaling molecules, that play an important role in immune function by recruiting immune cells to sites of infection or inflammation.

CCL17 is produced by various types of cells, including dendritic cells, macrophages, and endothelial cells, in response to stimulation by pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13. CCL17 binds to its receptor, CCR4, which is expressed on the surface of Th2 cells, regulatory T cells, and some other immune cells.

CCL17 plays a role in the recruitment of these cells to sites of inflammation, and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases, including allergies, asthma, atopic dermatitis, and certain types of cancer. In particular, CCL17 has been shown to promote the migration of Th2 cells, which are involved in the immune response to parasites and allergens, to sites of inflammation.

In addition to its role in immune function, CCL17 has also been found to have angiogenic properties, meaning it can stimulate the growth of new blood vessels. This has led to interest in its potential as a therapeutic target for diseases characterized by abnormal blood vessel formation, such as cancer and diabetic retinopathy.

Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2, also known as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), is a small signaling protein that belongs to the chemokine family. Chemokines are a group of cytokines, or regulatory proteins, that play important roles in immune responses and inflammation by recruiting various immune cells to sites of infection or injury.

CCL2 specifically acts as a chemoattractant for monocytes, memory T cells, and dendritic cells, guiding them to migrate towards the source of infection or tissue damage. It does this by binding to its receptor, CCR2, which is expressed on the surface of these immune cells.

CCL2 has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and various cancers, where it contributes to the recruitment of immune cells that can exacerbate tissue damage or promote tumor growth and metastasis. Therefore, targeting CCL2 or its signaling pathways has emerged as a potential therapeutic strategy for these diseases.

Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19 (CCL19), also known as macrophage inflammatory protein-3 beta (MIP-3β) or exodus-3, is a small signaling protein that belongs to the CC chemokine family. Chemokines are a group of cytokines, or cell signaling molecules, that play crucial roles in immunity and inflammation by directing the migration of various immune cells to sites of infection, injury, or inflammation through a process called chemotaxis.

CCL19 is primarily produced by mature dendritic cells, a type of antigen-presenting cell that plays a key role in initiating and regulating adaptive immunity. CCL19 attracts various immune cells expressing its receptor, CCR7, including T cells, B cells, and dendritic cells, to the T cell zones of secondary lymphoid organs such as lymph nodes and spleen. This facilitates the encounter between antigen-presenting cells and T cells, leading to the activation of T cells and the generation of adaptive immune responses.

In addition to its role in immunity and inflammation, CCL19 has been implicated in various physiological and pathological processes, such as lymphoid organ development, angiogenesis, and cancer metastasis. Dysregulation of CCL19 expression or function has been associated with several diseases, including autoimmune disorders, chronic inflammation, and malignancies.

Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5, also known as RANTES (Regulated on Activation, Normal T cell Expressed and Secreted), is a chemokine that plays a crucial role in the immune system. It is a small signaling protein that attracts and activates immune cells, such as leukocytes, to the sites of infection or inflammation. Chemokine CCL5 binds to specific receptors on the surface of target cells, including CCR1, CCR3, and CCR5, and triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling events that result in cell migration and activation.

Chemokine CCL5 is involved in various physiological and pathological processes, such as wound healing, immune surveillance, and inflammation. It has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including HIV infection, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and cancer. In HIV infection, Chemokine CCL5 can bind to and inhibit the entry of the virus into CD4+ T cells by blocking the interaction between the viral envelope protein gp120 and the chemokine receptor CCR5. However, in advanced stages of HIV infection, the virus may develop resistance to this inhibitory effect, leading to increased viral replication and disease progression.

Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20, also known as CCL20 or EXODUS, is a small signaling protein that belongs to the chemokine family. Chemokines are a group of cytokines, or cell signaling molecules, that play crucial roles in immune responses and inflammation by recruiting various immune cells to the sites of infection or injury.

CCL20 specifically binds to its receptor CCR6 and plays an essential role in attracting immune cells like T lymphocytes (T cells), dendritic cells, and B lymphocytes (B cells) to the site of inflammation. It is produced by various cell types, including epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and immune cells, in response to infection, injury, or other stimuli.

CCL20 has been implicated in several physiological and pathological processes, such as:

1. Homeostatic regulation of immune cell trafficking: CCL20 helps maintain the normal migration and positioning of immune cells in various tissues under steady-state conditions.
2. Inflammatory responses: CCL20 is upregulated during inflammation, contributing to the recruitment of immune cells to the affected area.
3. Autoimmune diseases: Overexpression or dysregulation of CCL20 has been associated with several autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and multiple sclerosis.
4. Cancer: CCL20 is involved in tumorigenesis and cancer progression by promoting the recruitment of immune cells that can either support or suppress tumor growth.
5. Infectious diseases: CCL20 plays a role in host defense against various pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and parasites, by attracting immune cells to the site of infection.

Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 1 (CCL1), also known as I-309, is a small signaling protein belonging to the chemokine family. Chemokines are a group of cytokines, or cell signaling molecules, that play important roles in immune responses and inflammation. They mediate their effects by interacting with specific receptors on the surface of target cells, thereby inducing directed cell movement and activation.

CCL1 is produced by various types of cells, including T lymphocytes, monocytes, and endothelial cells. It primarily binds to and signals through CCR8, a chemokine receptor expressed on the surface of several immune cells, such as T helper 2 (Th2) cells, regulatory T cells (Tregs), and dendritic cells.

The primary function of CCL1 is to recruit immune cells, particularly Th2 cells and Tregs, to sites of inflammation or infection. This chemokine plays a role in the pathogenesis of various diseases, including allergies, asthma, and certain types of cancer. Modulating CCL1 activity has been suggested as a potential therapeutic strategy for these conditions; however, further research is needed to fully understand its functions and develop effective treatments.

Chemokines are a family of small proteins that are involved in immune responses and inflammation. They mediate the chemotaxis (directed migration) of various cells, including leukocytes (white blood cells). Chemokines are classified into four major subfamilies based on the arrangement of conserved cysteine residues near the amino terminus: CXC, CC, C, and CX3C.

CC chemokines, also known as β-chemokines, are characterized by the presence of two adjacent cysteine residues near their N-terminal end. There are 27 known human CC chemokines, including MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1), RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted), and eotaxin.

CC chemokines play important roles in the recruitment of immune cells to sites of infection or injury, as well as in the development and maintenance of immune responses. They bind to specific G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) on the surface of target cells, leading to the activation of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate cell migration, proliferation, and survival.

Dysregulation of CC chemokines and their receptors has been implicated in various inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, as well as in cancer. Therefore, targeting CC chemokine-mediated signaling pathways has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of these conditions.

Chemokine receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that bind to chemokines, which are small signaling proteins involved in immune cell trafficking and inflammation. These receptors play a crucial role in the regulation of immune responses, hematopoiesis, and development. Chemokine receptors are expressed on the surface of various cells, including leukocytes, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts. Upon binding to their respective chemokines, these receptors activate intracellular signaling pathways that lead to cell migration, activation, or proliferation. There are several subfamilies of chemokine receptors, including CXCR, CCR, CX3CR, and XCR, each with distinct specificities for different chemokines. Dysregulation of chemokine receptor signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as autoimmune diseases, cancer, and viral infections.

Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3 (CCL3), also known as macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1α), is a small signaling protein belonging to the chemokine family. Chemokines are a group of cytokines, or cell signaling molecules, that play important roles in immune responses and inflammation. They mediate their effects by interacting with specific receptors on the surface of target cells, leading to various biological responses such as chemotaxis (directed migration) of immune cells.

CCL3 is primarily produced by activated T cells, monocytes, macrophages, and other immune cells in response to infection or injury. It plays a crucial role in recruiting immune cells like monocytes, neutrophils, and dendritic cells to the sites of inflammation or infection. CCL3 also contributes to the activation and differentiation of immune cells, thereby participating in the regulation of adaptive immunity. Dysregulation of CCL3 has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammation, and cancer.

Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 7 (CCL7), also known as monocyte chemotactic protein 3 (MCP-3), is a small signaling protein that belongs to the CC-chemokine family. Chemokines are a group of cytokines, or cell signaling molecules, that play crucial roles in immune responses and inflammation by recruiting various immune cells to the sites of infection or injury.

CCL7 is produced by different types of cells, including monocytes, macrophages, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and certain tumor cells. It exerts its functions by binding to specific chemokine receptors found on the surface of target cells, primarily CCR1, CCR2, and CCR3. The primary role of CCL7 is to attract monocytes, memory T cells, and dendritic cells to the site of inflammation or injury, thereby contributing to the initiation and progression of immune responses.

CCL7 has been implicated in several pathological conditions, such as atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, and HIV infection. Its expression is often upregulated during these conditions, leading to excessive recruitment of immune cells, which can result in tissue damage and further exacerbate the disease process. Understanding the role of CCL7 in various diseases may provide insights into developing novel therapeutic strategies for their treatment.

Chemokines are a family of small cytokines, or signaling proteins, that are secreted by cells and play an important role in the immune system. They are chemotactic, meaning they can attract and guide the movement of various immune cells to specific locations within the body. Chemokines do this by binding to G protein-coupled receptors on the surface of target cells, initiating a signaling cascade that leads to cell migration.

There are four main subfamilies of chemokines, classified based on the arrangement of conserved cysteine residues near the amino terminus: CXC, CC, C, and CX3C. Different chemokines have specific roles in inflammation, immune surveillance, hematopoiesis, and development. Dysregulation of chemokine function has been implicated in various diseases, including autoimmune disorders, infections, and cancer.

In summary, Chemokines are a group of signaling proteins that play a crucial role in the immune system by directing the movement of immune cells to specific locations within the body, thus helping to coordinate the immune response.

CCR10 (C-C chemokine receptor type 10) is a type of protein called a G protein-coupled receptor that is found on the surface of certain cells, including immune cells. It binds to specific chemical signals called chemokines, which can attract these cells to different locations in the body. CCR10 has been shown to be involved in the migration and activation of immune cells, particularly during inflammation and immune responses.

CCR10 specifically binds to the chemokine CCL28 (also known as mucosae-associated epithelial chemokine or MEC), which is produced by various tissues, including the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urogenital tracts. The binding of CCL28 to CCR10 can trigger a variety of cellular responses, including the activation of signaling pathways that regulate cell survival, proliferation, and migration.

In addition to its role in immune function, CCR10 has also been implicated in the development and progression of certain diseases, such as cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. For example, some studies have suggested that CCR10 may contribute to tumor growth and metastasis by promoting the migration of cancer cells to specific tissues. However, more research is needed to fully understand the functions and clinical relevance of CCR10 in health and disease.

Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4, also known as CCL4 or MIP-1β (Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1β), is a small signaling protein that belongs to the chemokine family. Chemokines are a group of cytokines, or regulatory proteins, that play crucial roles in immunity and inflammation by directing the migration of various immune cells to sites of infection, injury, or tissue damage.

CCL4 is produced primarily by T cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. It exerts its functions by binding to specific chemokine receptors found on the surface of target cells, particularly CCR5 and CXCR3. The primary role of CCL4 is to recruit immune cells like T cells, eosinophils, and monocytes/macrophages to areas of inflammation or infection, where it contributes to the elimination of pathogens and facilitates tissue repair.

Aberrant regulation of chemokines, including CCL4, has been implicated in various disease conditions such as chronic inflammation, autoimmune disorders, and viral infections like HIV. In HIV infection, CCL4 plays a significant role in the viral replication and pathogenesis by acting as a co-receptor for virus entry into host cells.

Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (CXCL12), also known as stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1), is a small signaling protein belonging to the chemokine family. Chemokines are a group of cytokines, or signaling molecules, that play important roles in immune responses and inflammation by recruiting and activating various immune cells.

CXCL12 is produced by several types of cells, including stromal cells, endothelial cells, and certain immune cells. It exerts its effects by binding to a specific receptor called C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), which is found on the surface of various cell types, including immune cells, stem cells, and some cancer cells.

The CXCL12-CXCR4 axis plays crucial roles in various physiological processes, such as embryonic development, tissue homeostasis, hematopoiesis (the formation of blood cells), and neurogenesis (the formation of neurons). Additionally, this signaling pathway has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including cancer metastasis, inflammatory diseases, and HIV infection.

In summary, Chemokine CXCL12 is a small signaling protein that binds to the CXCR4 receptor and plays essential roles in various physiological processes and pathological conditions.

CCR1 (C-C chemokine receptor type 1) is a type of protein found on the surface of certain immune cells, including monocytes, neutrophils, and dendritic cells. It belongs to the family of G protein-coupled receptors that play a crucial role in the immune system's response to infection and inflammation.

CCR1 receptors bind to specific chemokines, which are small signaling proteins that help regulate the movement of immune cells throughout the body. When a chemokine binds to the CCR1 receptor, it triggers a series of intracellular signals that ultimately lead to the activation and migration of immune cells to the site of infection or inflammation.

CCR1 has been implicated in various physiological and pathological processes, including the development of atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and certain types of cancer. As such, CCR1 has become a target for the development of new therapies aimed at modulating the immune response in these conditions.

Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10), also known as interferon-gamma-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), is a small cytokine protein that belongs to the chemokine family. Chemokines are a group of signaling proteins that play crucial roles in immune responses and inflammation by recruiting various immune cells to the sites of infection or injury.

CXCL10 is primarily produced by several cell types, including monocytes, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts, in response to stimulation by interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), a cytokine that is critical for the activation of immune cells during an immune response. CXCL10 specifically binds to and activates its receptor, CXCR3, which is expressed on various immune cells such as T lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, and monocytes.

The binding of CXCL10 to CXCR3 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling events that result in the activation and migration of these immune cells towards the site of inflammation or infection. Consequently, CXCL10 plays essential roles in various physiological and pathological processes, including the recruitment of immune cells to sites of viral infections, tumor growth, and autoimmune diseases.

In summary, Chemokine CXCL10 is a crucial signaling protein that mediates immune cell trafficking and activation during inflammation and immune responses.

Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 8, also known as CCL8 or MCP-2 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-2), is a small signaling protein that belongs to the CC chemokine family. Chemokines are a group of cytokines, or cell signaling molecules, that play a crucial role in immune responses and inflammation by recruiting immune cells to sites of infection or injury.

CCL8 is produced by various cell types, including monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and endothelial cells. It exerts its effects by binding to chemokine receptors, particularly CCR1, CCR2, CCR3, and CCR5, which are expressed on the surface of various immune cells such as monocytes, T cells, eosinophils, and basophils.

CCL8 is involved in several physiological and pathological processes, including:

1. Chemotaxis: It attracts immune cells to the site of inflammation or infection by inducing their migration through a concentration gradient.
2. Immune cell activation: CCL8 can activate immune cells, promoting their proliferation, differentiation, and effector functions.
3. Inflammatory responses: By recruiting immune cells to sites of injury or infection, CCL8 contributes to the development of inflammation.
4. Viral infections: CCL8 has been implicated in the recruitment of immune cells during viral infections, such as HIV and HCV.
5. Cancer: CCL8 may contribute to tumor progression by promoting angiogenesis, recruiting immunosuppressive cells, and enhancing cancer cell migration and invasion.

Abnormal regulation of CCL8 has been associated with various diseases, including inflammatory disorders, infections, and cancer.

CCR, or Chemokine Receptors, are a type of G protein-coupled receptors that bind to specific chemokines, which are small signaling proteins involved in immune responses and inflammation. There are several subtypes of CCRs, including CCR1, CCR2, CCR3, CCR4, CCR5, CCR6, CCR7, CCR8, CCR9, and CCR10, each with different functions and patterns of expression.

These receptors play a crucial role in the regulation of leukocyte trafficking, activation, and effector functions during immune responses. They are also involved in various physiological and pathological processes, such as hematopoiesis, development, angiogenesis, tissue repair, and cancer.

Some CCRs have been identified as co-receptors for HIV entry into host cells, particularly CCR5 and CXCR4, making them targets for HIV therapy and prevention strategies. Dysregulation of CCR signaling has been implicated in various diseases, including autoimmune disorders, chronic inflammation, and cancer.

CCR2 (C-C chemokine receptor type 2) is a type of protein found on the surface of certain immune cells, including monocytes and memory T cells. It is a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds to specific chemokines, which are small signaling proteins that help regulate the movement of immune cells throughout the body.

CCR2 plays an important role in the immune response by mediating the migration of monocytes and other immune cells to sites of inflammation or injury. When a chemokine binds to CCR2, it triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that cause the cell to move towards the source of the chemokine.

In addition to its role in the immune response, CCR2 has been implicated in various disease processes, including atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer metastasis. In these contexts, CCR2 antagonists have been explored as potential therapeutic agents to block the recruitment of immune cells and reduce inflammation or tumor growth.

Chemokine CCL11, also known as eotaxin-1, is a small chemotactic cytokine that belongs to the CC subfamily of chemokines. Chemokines are a group of proteins that play crucial roles in immunity and inflammation by recruiting immune cells to sites of infection or tissue injury.

CCL11 specifically attracts eosinophils, a type of white blood cell that is involved in allergic reactions and the immune response to parasitic worm infections. It does this by binding to its specific receptor, CCR3, which is expressed on the surface of eosinophils and other cells.

CCL11 is produced by a variety of cells, including epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and immune cells such as macrophages and Th2 lymphocytes. It has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including asthma, allergies, and certain neurological disorders.

Chemokine CCL24, also known as Eotaxin-2, is a type of small signaling protein that belongs to the CC chemokine family. Chemokines are involved in immune responses and inflammation, and they help direct the movement of cells around the body by interacting with specific receptors on their surfaces.

CCL24 is primarily produced by epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells, and it plays a crucial role in recruiting eosinophils, a type of white blood cell that is involved in allergic reactions and inflammatory responses, to sites of injury or infection. CCL24 exerts its effects by binding to the CCR3 receptor on the surface of eosinophils and other immune cells.

Abnormal levels of CCL24 have been implicated in several diseases, including asthma, allergies, and certain types of cancer. For example, increased levels of CCL24 have been found in the airways of people with asthma, and they have been associated with more severe disease and poorer lung function. Similarly, elevated levels of CCL24 have been detected in the tumor microenvironment of several cancers, where they may contribute to the recruitment of immune cells that promote tumor growth and metastasis.

CCR7 (C-C chemokine receptor type 7) is a type of protein found on the surface of certain immune cells, including T cells and dendritic cells. It is a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds to specific chemokines, which are small signaling proteins that help regulate the migration and activation of immune cells during an immune response.

CCR7 recognizes and binds to two main chemokines, CCL19 and CCL21, which are produced by specialized cells in lymphoid organs such as lymph nodes and the spleen. When CCR7 on an immune cell binds to one of these chemokines, it triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that cause the cell to migrate towards the source of the chemokine.

This process is important for the proper functioning of the immune system, as it helps to coordinate the movement of immune cells between different tissues and organs during an immune response. For example, dendritic cells in the peripheral tissues can use CCR7 to migrate to the draining lymph nodes, where they can present antigens to T cells and help stimulate an adaptive immune response. Similarly, activated T cells can use CCR7 to migrate to the site of an infection or inflammation, where they can carry out their effector functions.

CCR8 (C-C chemokine receptor type 8) is a type of cell surface receptor that belongs to the class of rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). It specifically binds to certain chemokines, which are a type of signaling molecule that can attract immune cells to sites of infection or inflammation. CCR8 has been shown to play a role in the regulation of immune cell trafficking and activation, particularly during allergic responses and the development of certain types of cancer. It is expressed on various immune cells including T helper 2 (Th2) cells, regulatory T cells (Tregs), and dendritic cells. The binding of chemokines to CCR8 triggers a signaling cascade that can activate various cellular responses, such as changes in gene expression and cell migration.

Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1), also known as growth-regulated oncogene-alpha (GRO-α), is a small signaling protein belonging to the chemokine family. Chemokines are a group of cytokines, or cell signaling molecules, that play important roles in immune responses and inflammation by recruiting immune cells to sites of infection or tissue injury.

CXCL1 specifically binds to and activates the CXCR2 receptor, which is found on various types of immune cells, such as neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes. The activation of the CXCR2 receptor by CXCL1 leads to a series of intracellular signaling events that result in the directed migration of these immune cells towards the site of chemokine production.

CXCL1 is involved in various physiological and pathological processes, including wound healing, angiogenesis, and tumor growth and metastasis. It has been implicated in several inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and atherosclerosis, as well as in cancer progression and metastasis.

Chemotaxis, Leukocyte is the movement of leukocytes (white blood cells) towards a higher concentration of a particular chemical substance, known as a chemotactic factor. This process plays a crucial role in the immune system's response to infection and injury.

When there is an infection or tissue damage, certain cells release chemotactic factors, which are small molecules or proteins that can attract leukocytes to the site of inflammation. Leukocytes have receptors on their surface that can detect these chemotactic factors and move towards them through a process called chemotaxis.

Once they reach the site of inflammation, leukocytes can help eliminate pathogens or damaged cells by phagocytosis (engulfing and destroying) or releasing toxic substances that kill the invading microorganisms. Chemotaxis is an essential part of the immune system's defense mechanisms and helps to maintain tissue homeostasis and prevent the spread of infection.

CCR4 (C-C chemokine receptor type 4) is a type of protein found on the surface of certain immune cells, including T lymphocytes and regulatory T cells. It is a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds to specific chemokines, which are small signaling proteins involved in inflammation and immunity.

CCR4 binds to chemokines such as CCL17 (thymus and activation-regulated chemokine) and CCL22 (macrophage-derived chemokine), which are produced by various cell types, including dendritic cells, macrophages, and endothelial cells. The binding of these chemokines to CCR4 triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that regulate the migration and activation of immune cells.

CCR4 has been implicated in several physiological and pathological processes, including the development of Th2-mediated immune responses, allergic inflammation, and cancer. In particular, CCR4 has been identified as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of certain types of cancer, such as adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, due to its role in promoting the recruitment and activation of tumor-associated immune cells.

Chemokines are a family of small signaling proteins that are involved in immune regulation and inflammation. They mediate their effects by interacting with specific cell surface receptors, leading to the activation and migration of various types of immune cells. Chemokines can be divided into four subfamilies based on the arrangement of conserved cysteine residues near the N-terminus: CXC, CC, C, and CX3C.

CXC chemokines are characterized by the presence of a single amino acid (X) between the first two conserved cysteine residues. They play important roles in the recruitment and activation of neutrophils, which are critical effector cells in the early stages of inflammation. CXC chemokines can be further divided into two subgroups based on the presence or absence of a specific amino acid sequence (ELR motif) near the N-terminus: ELR+ and ELR-.

ELR+ CXC chemokines, such as IL-8, are potent chemoattractants for neutrophils and play important roles in the recruitment of these cells to sites of infection or injury. They bind to and activate the CXCR1 and CXCR2 receptors on the surface of neutrophils, leading to their migration towards the source of the chemokine.

ELR- CXC chemokines, such as IP-10 and MIG, are involved in the recruitment of T cells and other immune cells to sites of inflammation. They bind to and activate different receptors, such as CXCR3, on the surface of these cells, leading to their migration towards the source of the chemokine.

Overall, CXC chemokines play important roles in the regulation of immune responses and inflammation, and dysregulation of their expression or activity has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases.

Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CX3CL1), also known as fractalkine, is a protein that belongs to the chemokine family. Chemokines are a group of small signaling proteins involved in immune responses and inflammation. CX3CL1 is unique among chemokines because it exists both as a soluble protein and as a membrane-bound protein on the surface of certain cells.

As a chemoattractant, CX3CL1 plays a crucial role in recruiting immune cells, particularly T cells and monocytes/macrophages, to sites of infection or injury. The interaction between CX3CL1 and its receptor, CX3CR1, expressed on the surface of these immune cells, mediates their migration and activation.

In addition to its role in immunity and inflammation, CX3CL1 has been implicated in various physiological and pathological processes, such as neuronal development, neuroinflammation, and neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease.

Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins (MIPs) are a group of chemokines, which are a type of signaling protein involved in immune responses and inflammation. Specifically, MIPs are chemotactic cytokines that attract monocytes, macrophages, and other immune cells to sites of infection or tissue damage. They play a crucial role in the recruitment and activation of these cells during the immune response.

There are several subtypes of MIPs, including MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and MIP-3α (also known as CCL3, CCL4, and CCL20, respectively). These proteins bind to specific G protein-coupled receptors on the surface of target cells, triggering a cascade of intracellular signaling events that lead to cell migration and activation.

MIPs have been implicated in a variety of inflammatory and immune-related conditions, including autoimmune diseases, cancer, and infectious diseases. They are also being studied as potential targets for the development of new therapies aimed at modulating the immune response in these conditions.

CCR5 (C-C chemokine receptor type 5) is a type of protein found on the surface of certain white blood cells, including T-cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. It belongs to the family of G protein-coupled receptors, which are involved in various cellular responses.

CCR5 acts as a co-receptor for HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) entry into host cells, along with CD4. The virus binds to both CCR5 and CD4, leading to fusion of the viral and cell membranes and subsequent infection of the cell.

Individuals who have a genetic mutation that prevents CCR5 from functioning are resistant to HIV infection, highlighting its importance in the viral life cycle. Additionally, CCR5 antagonists have been developed as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of HIV infection.

CCR3 (C-C chemokine receptor type 3) is a type of cell surface receptor that binds to specific chemokines, which are a group of small signaling proteins involved in immune responses and inflammation. CCR3 is primarily expressed on the surface of certain types of immune cells, including eosinophils, basophils, and Th2 lymphocytes.

The binding of chemokines to CCR3 triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that regulate various cellular functions, such as chemotaxis (directed migration), activation, and degranulation. CCR3 plays an important role in the pathophysiology of several diseases, including asthma, allergies, and inflammatory bowel disease, where it contributes to the recruitment and activation of immune cells that mediate tissue damage and inflammation.

Therefore, CCR3 is a potential target for the development of therapies aimed at modulating immune responses and reducing inflammation in these conditions.

Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 (CXCL9), also known as monokine induced by interferon-gamma (MIG), is a small protein that belongs to the chemokine family. Chemokines are a group of signaling proteins that play crucial roles in immune responses, including attracting and activating specific types of immune cells to sites of infection or inflammation.

CXCL9 is primarily produced by various cell types, such as monocytes, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts, upon stimulation with interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). This chemokine specifically binds to the C-X-C motif receptor 3 (CXCR3) on the surface of various immune cells, such as T lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, and monocytes.

The primary function of CXCL9 is to recruit and activate these immune cells to areas where it is expressed, which typically occurs in response to infection or tissue damage. By attracting and activating these immune cells, CXCL9 helps to orchestrate the immune response against pathogens and contributes to the resolution of inflammation. Dysregulation of CXCL9 expression has been implicated in various diseases, including autoimmune disorders, chronic inflammatory conditions, and cancer.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Cell movement, also known as cell motility, refers to the ability of cells to move independently and change their location within tissue or inside the body. This process is essential for various biological functions, including embryonic development, wound healing, immune responses, and cancer metastasis.

There are several types of cell movement, including:

1. **Crawling or mesenchymal migration:** Cells move by extending and retracting protrusions called pseudopodia or filopodia, which contain actin filaments. This type of movement is common in fibroblasts, immune cells, and cancer cells during tissue invasion and metastasis.
2. **Amoeboid migration:** Cells move by changing their shape and squeezing through tight spaces without forming protrusions. This type of movement is often observed in white blood cells (leukocytes) as they migrate through the body to fight infections.
3. **Pseudopodial extension:** Cells extend pseudopodia, which are temporary cytoplasmic projections containing actin filaments. These protrusions help the cell explore its environment and move forward.
4. **Bacterial flagellar motion:** Bacteria use a whip-like structure called a flagellum to propel themselves through their environment. The rotation of the flagellum is driven by a molecular motor in the bacterial cell membrane.
5. **Ciliary and ependymal movement:** Ciliated cells, such as those lining the respiratory tract and fallopian tubes, have hair-like structures called cilia that beat in coordinated waves to move fluids or mucus across the cell surface.

Cell movement is regulated by a complex interplay of signaling pathways, cytoskeletal rearrangements, and adhesion molecules, which enable cells to respond to environmental cues and navigate through tissues.

Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2, also known as CXCL2, is a small signaling protein that belongs to the chemokine family. Chemokines are a group of cytokines, or cell signaling molecules, that play crucial roles in immune responses and inflammation. They mediate their effects by interacting with specific receptors on the surface of target cells, guiding the migration of various immune cells to sites of infection, injury, or inflammation.

CXCL2 is primarily produced by activated monocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils, as well as endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and certain types of tumor cells. Its primary function is to attract and activate neutrophils, which are key effector cells in the early stages of inflammation and host defense against invading pathogens. CXCL2 exerts its effects by binding to its specific receptor, CXCR2, which is expressed on the surface of neutrophils and other immune cells.

In addition to its role in inflammation and immunity, CXCL2 has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including cancer, atherosclerosis, and autoimmune diseases. Its expression can be regulated by several factors, such as pro-inflammatory cytokines, bacterial products, and growth factors. Understanding the role of CXCL2 in health and disease may provide insights into the development of novel therapeutic strategies for treating inflammation-associated disorders.

Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 13 (CXCL13), also known as B cell-attracting chemokine 1 (BCA-1) or B lymphocyte chemoattractant (BLC), is a small signaling protein belonging to the CXC chemokine family. Chemokines are a group of chemotactic cytokines that play crucial roles in immunological and inflammatory processes, mainly by recruiting and activating various leukocytes.

CXCL13 is primarily produced by stromal cells, including follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) within secondary lymphoid organs such as lymph nodes, spleen, and Peyer's patches. This chemokine specifically binds to the C-X-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CXCR5), which is expressed on various immune cells, most notably B cells, follicular helper T cells (Tfh), and some dendritic cell subsets.

The primary function of CXCL13 is to orchestrate the migration and positioning of immune cells, particularly B cells, within secondary lymphoid organs during an immune response. By attracting CXCR5-expressing B cells and Tfh cells, CXCL13 plays a critical role in the formation and maintenance of germinal centers (GCs), which are specialized microanatomical structures where affinity maturation and class switch recombination of B cells occur.

Abnormal levels or functions of CXCL13 have been implicated in several pathological conditions, including autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), certain types of cancer, and neurological disorders like multiple sclerosis (MS) and Alzheimer's disease.

C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) is a type of protein found on the surface of some cells, including white blood cells, and is a type of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). CXCR4 binds specifically to the chemokine ligand CXCL12 (also known as stromal cell-derived factor 1, or SDF-1), which plays a crucial role in the trafficking and homing of immune cells, particularly hematopoietic stem cells and lymphocytes. The binding of CXCL12 to CXCR4 triggers various intracellular signaling pathways that regulate cell migration, proliferation, survival, and differentiation.

In addition to its role in the immune system, CXCR4 has been implicated in several physiological and pathological processes, such as embryonic development, neurogenesis, angiogenesis, cancer metastasis, and HIV infection. In cancer, the overexpression of CXCR4 or increased levels of its ligand CXCL12 have been associated with poor prognosis, tumor growth, and metastasis in various types of malignancies, including breast, lung, prostate, colon, and ovarian cancers. In HIV infection, the CXCR4 coreceptor, together with CD4, facilitates viral entry into host cells, particularly during the later stages of the disease when the virus shifts its preference from CCR5 to CXCR4 as a coreceptor.

In summary, CXCR4 is a cell-surface receptor that binds specifically to the chemokine ligand CXCL12 and plays essential roles in immune cell trafficking, hematopoiesis, cancer metastasis, and HIV infection.

Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11 (CXCL11) is a small cytokine protein that belongs to the chemokine family, which are chemotactic cytokines involved in immune cell trafficking and inflammation. CXCL11 specifically binds to the CXCR3 receptor found on the surface of certain immune cells, including T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells, and plays a role in their recruitment to sites of infection or injury.

CXCL11 is produced by various cell types, including monocytes, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts, in response to pro-inflammatory signals such as interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). It has been shown to have potent chemoattractant properties for Th1 lymphocytes and NK cells, contributing to the development of cell-mediated immune responses. Additionally, CXCL11 has been implicated in several physiological and pathological processes, including angiogenesis, tumorigenesis, and autoimmune diseases.

Chemotaxis is a term used in biology and medicine to describe the movement of an organism or cell towards or away from a chemical stimulus. This process plays a crucial role in various biological phenomena, including immune responses, wound healing, and the development and progression of diseases such as cancer.

In chemotaxis, cells can detect and respond to changes in the concentration of specific chemicals, known as chemoattractants or chemorepellents, in their environment. These chemicals bind to receptors on the cell surface, triggering a series of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to changes in the cytoskeleton and directed movement of the cell towards or away from the chemical gradient.

For example, during an immune response, white blood cells called neutrophils use chemotaxis to migrate towards sites of infection or inflammation, where they can attack and destroy invading pathogens. Similarly, cancer cells can use chemotaxis to migrate towards blood vessels and metastasize to other parts of the body.

Understanding chemotaxis is important for developing new therapies and treatments for a variety of diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and inflammatory disorders.

Chemokine CXCL6 is a type of small signaling protein that belongs to the CXC chemokine family. Its primary function is to attract and guide the movement (chemotaxis) of specific types of immune cells, such as neutrophils, to sites of inflammation or infection in the body.

CXCL6 is also known as granulocyte chemotactic protein 2 (GCP-2) and is produced by various cell types, including monocytes, macrophages, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts. It binds to and activates the CXCR1 and CXCR2 receptors found on the surface of neutrophils, which triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that lead to the migration of these cells towards the source of the chemokine.

In addition to its role in inflammation and immune response, CXCL6 has been implicated in several disease processes, including cancer, atherosclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Elevated levels of CXCL6 have been found in the tumor microenvironment, where it may promote tumor growth and metastasis by recruiting immune cells that support tumor progression.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Dendritic cells (DCs) are a type of immune cell that play a critical role in the body's defense against infection and cancer. They are named for their dendrite-like projections, which they use to interact with and sample their environment. DCs are responsible for processing antigens (foreign substances that trigger an immune response) and presenting them to T cells, a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the immune system's response to infection and cancer.

DCs can be found throughout the body, including in the skin, mucous membranes, and lymphoid organs. They are able to recognize and respond to a wide variety of antigens, including those from bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. Once they have processed an antigen, DCs migrate to the lymph nodes, where they present the antigen to T cells. This interaction activates the T cells, which then go on to mount a targeted immune response against the invading pathogen or cancerous cells.

DCs are a diverse group of cells that can be divided into several subsets based on their surface markers and function. Some DCs, such as Langerhans cells and dermal DCs, are found in the skin and mucous membranes, where they serve as sentinels for invading pathogens. Other DCs, such as plasmacytoid DCs and conventional DCs, are found in the lymphoid organs, where they play a role in activating T cells and initiating an immune response.

Overall, dendritic cells are essential for the proper functioning of the immune system, and dysregulation of these cells has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including autoimmune disorders and cancer.

Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 5 (CXCL5), also known as epithelial neutrophil-activating peptide 78 (ENA-78) or liver-activated peptide (LAP), is a small signaling protein belonging to the CXC chemokine family. Chemokines are a group of cytokines, or cell signaling molecules, that play important roles in immune responses and inflammation by recruiting various immune cells to sites of infection or injury through specific receptor-mediated interactions.

CXCL5 is primarily produced by epithelial cells, macrophages, and neutrophils in response to bacterial infections, tissue damage, or proinflammatory cytokines. This chemokine exerts its functions by binding to its receptor CXCR2, which is expressed on the surface of various immune cells, including neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes. The primary role of CXCL5 is to attract neutrophils to the site of inflammation or infection, where they can help eliminate pathogens and promote tissue repair.

Apart from its involvement in immune responses and inflammation, CXCL5 has been implicated in several physiological and pathological processes, such as embryonic development, wound healing, cancer progression, and metastasis. Dysregulation of CXCL5 signaling has been associated with various diseases, including chronic inflammatory disorders, autoimmune diseases, and cancer.

Cytokines are a broad and diverse category of small signaling proteins that are secreted by various cells, including immune cells, in response to different stimuli. They play crucial roles in regulating the immune response, inflammation, hematopoiesis, and cellular communication.

Cytokines mediate their effects by binding to specific receptors on the surface of target cells, which triggers intracellular signaling pathways that ultimately result in changes in gene expression, cell behavior, and function. Some key functions of cytokines include:

1. Regulating the activation, differentiation, and proliferation of immune cells such as T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and macrophages.
2. Coordinating the inflammatory response by recruiting immune cells to sites of infection or tissue damage and modulating their effector functions.
3. Regulating hematopoiesis, the process of blood cell formation in the bone marrow, by controlling the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.
4. Modulating the development and function of the nervous system, including neuroinflammation, neuroprotection, and neuroregeneration.

Cytokines can be classified into several categories based on their structure, function, or cellular origin. Some common types of cytokines include interleukins (ILs), interferons (IFNs), tumor necrosis factors (TNFs), chemokines, colony-stimulating factors (CSFs), and transforming growth factors (TGFs). Dysregulation of cytokine production and signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammation, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders.

A "knockout" mouse is a genetically engineered mouse in which one or more genes have been deleted or "knocked out" using molecular biology techniques. This allows researchers to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes, as well as potential associations with human diseases. The mice are generated by introducing targeted DNA modifications into embryonic stem cells, which are then used to create a live animal. Knockout mice have been widely used in biomedical research to investigate gene function, disease mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets.

CXCR3 is a type of chemokine receptor that is primarily expressed on the surface of certain immune cells, including T lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell involved in immune response). It belongs to the Class A orphan G protein-coupled receptors family.

CXCR3 has three known subtypes, CXCR3-A, CXCR3-B, and CXCR3-C, each with different roles in regulating immune cell functions. These receptors bind to specific chemokines, which are small signaling proteins that help direct the movement of immune cells towards sites of inflammation or infection.

The chemokines that bind to CXCR3 include CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11, which are produced by various cell types in response to inflammation or injury. Once bound to these chemokines, CXCR3 activates intracellular signaling pathways that trigger a range of responses, such as cell migration, activation, and proliferation.

In the context of disease, CXCR3 has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including cancer, autoimmune diseases, and viral infections, due to its role in regulating immune cell trafficking and activation.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

Monocytes are a type of white blood cell that are part of the immune system. They are large cells with a round or oval shape and a nucleus that is typically indented or horseshoe-shaped. Monocytes are produced in the bone marrow and then circulate in the bloodstream, where they can differentiate into other types of immune cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells.

Monocytes play an important role in the body's defense against infection and tissue damage. They are able to engulf and digest foreign particles, microorganisms, and dead or damaged cells, which helps to clear them from the body. Monocytes also produce cytokines, which are signaling molecules that help to coordinate the immune response.

Elevated levels of monocytes in the bloodstream can be a sign of an ongoing infection, inflammation, or other medical conditions such as cancer or autoimmune disorders.

Macrophages are a type of white blood cell that are an essential part of the immune system. They are large, specialized cells that engulf and destroy foreign substances, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi, as well as damaged or dead cells. Macrophages are found throughout the body, including in the bloodstream, lymph nodes, spleen, liver, lungs, and connective tissues. They play a critical role in inflammation, immune response, and tissue repair and remodeling.

Macrophages originate from monocytes, which are a type of white blood cell produced in the bone marrow. When monocytes enter the tissues, they differentiate into macrophages, which have a larger size and more specialized functions than monocytes. Macrophages can change their shape and move through tissues to reach sites of infection or injury. They also produce cytokines, chemokines, and other signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response and recruit other immune cells to the site of infection or injury.

Macrophages have a variety of surface receptors that allow them to recognize and respond to different types of foreign substances and signals from other cells. They can engulf and digest foreign particles, bacteria, and viruses through a process called phagocytosis. Macrophages also play a role in presenting antigens to T cells, which are another type of immune cell that helps coordinate the immune response.

Overall, macrophages are crucial for maintaining tissue homeostasis, defending against infection, and promoting wound healing and tissue repair. Dysregulation of macrophage function has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and chronic inflammatory conditions.

'Gene expression regulation' refers to the processes that control whether, when, and where a particular gene is expressed, meaning the production of a specific protein or functional RNA encoded by that gene. This complex mechanism can be influenced by various factors such as transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs, and post-transcriptional modifications, among others. Proper regulation of gene expression is crucial for normal cellular function, development, and maintaining homeostasis in living organisms. Dysregulation of gene expression can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

T-lymphocytes, also known as T-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the adaptive immune system's response to infection. They are produced in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus gland. There are several different types of T-cells, including CD4+ helper T-cells, CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells, and regulatory T-cells (Tregs).

CD4+ helper T-cells assist in activating other immune cells, such as B-lymphocytes and macrophages. They also produce cytokines, which are signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response. CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells directly kill infected cells by releasing toxic substances. Regulatory T-cells help maintain immune tolerance and prevent autoimmune diseases by suppressing the activity of other immune cells.

T-lymphocytes are important in the immune response to viral infections, cancer, and other diseases. Dysfunction or depletion of T-cells can lead to immunodeficiency and increased susceptibility to infections. On the other hand, an overactive T-cell response can contribute to autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammation.

Inflammation is a complex biological response of tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. It is characterized by the following signs: rubor (redness), tumor (swelling), calor (heat), dolor (pain), and functio laesa (loss of function). The process involves the activation of the immune system, recruitment of white blood cells, and release of inflammatory mediators, which contribute to the elimination of the injurious stimuli and initiation of the healing process. However, uncontrolled or chronic inflammation can also lead to tissue damage and diseases.

Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to amplify and detect specific DNA sequences. This technique is particularly useful for the detection and quantification of RNA viruses, as well as for the analysis of gene expression.

The process involves two main steps: reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the first step, reverse transcriptase enzyme is used to convert RNA into complementary DNA (cDNA) by reading the template provided by the RNA molecule. This cDNA then serves as a template for the PCR amplification step.

In the second step, the PCR reaction uses two primers that flank the target DNA sequence and a thermostable polymerase enzyme to repeatedly copy the targeted cDNA sequence. The reaction mixture is heated and cooled in cycles, allowing the primers to anneal to the template, and the polymerase to extend the new strand. This results in exponential amplification of the target DNA sequence, making it possible to detect even small amounts of RNA or cDNA.

RT-PCR is a sensitive and specific technique that has many applications in medical research and diagnostics, including the detection of viruses such as HIV, hepatitis C virus, and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). It can also be used to study gene expression, identify genetic mutations, and diagnose genetic disorders.

An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a type of analytical biochemistry assay used to detect and quantify the presence of a substance, typically a protein or peptide, in a liquid sample. It takes its name from the enzyme-linked antibodies used in the assay.

In an ELISA, the sample is added to a well containing a surface that has been treated to capture the target substance. If the target substance is present in the sample, it will bind to the surface. Next, an enzyme-linked antibody specific to the target substance is added. This antibody will bind to the captured target substance if it is present. After washing away any unbound material, a substrate for the enzyme is added. If the enzyme is present due to its linkage to the antibody, it will catalyze a reaction that produces a detectable signal, such as a color change or fluorescence. The intensity of this signal is proportional to the amount of target substance present in the sample, allowing for quantification.

ELISAs are widely used in research and clinical settings to detect and measure various substances, including hormones, viruses, and bacteria. They offer high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, making them a reliable choice for many applications.

Flow cytometry is a medical and research technique used to measure physical and chemical characteristics of cells or particles, one cell at a time, as they flow in a fluid stream through a beam of light. The properties measured include:

* Cell size (light scatter)
* Cell internal complexity (granularity, also light scatter)
* Presence or absence of specific proteins or other molecules on the cell surface or inside the cell (using fluorescent antibodies or other fluorescent probes)

The technique is widely used in cell counting, cell sorting, protein engineering, biomarker discovery and monitoring disease progression, particularly in hematology, immunology, and cancer research.

Interleukin-8 (IL-8) receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that bind to and are activated by the cytokine IL-8. There are two main types of IL-8 receptors, known as CXCR1 and CXCR2.

IL-8B, also known as CXCR2, is a gene that encodes for the Interleukin-8 receptor B. This receptor is found on the surface of various cells, including neutrophils, monocytes, and endothelial cells. It plays a crucial role in the immune response, particularly in the recruitment and activation of neutrophils to sites of infection or inflammation.

IL-8B has a high affinity for IL-8 and other related chemokines, such as CXCL1, CXCL5, and CXCL7. Upon binding to its ligand, IL-8B activates various signaling pathways that lead to the mobilization and migration of neutrophils towards the site of inflammation. This process is critical for the elimination of invading pathogens and the resolution of inflammation.

However, excessive or prolonged activation of IL-8B has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including chronic inflammation, cancer, and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, targeting IL-8B with therapeutic agents has emerged as a promising strategy for the treatment of these conditions.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, inflammatory skin condition that is commonly known as eczema. It is characterized by dry, itchy, and scaly patches on the skin that can become red, swollen, and cracked over time. The condition often affects the skin on the face, hands, feet, and behind the knees, and it can be triggered or worsened by exposure to certain allergens, irritants, stress, or changes in temperature and humidity. Atopic dermatitis is more common in people with a family history of allergies, such as asthma or hay fever, and it often begins in infancy or early childhood. The exact cause of atopic dermatitis is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors that affect the immune system and the skin's ability to maintain a healthy barrier function.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Up-regulation is a term used in molecular biology and medicine to describe an increase in the expression or activity of a gene, protein, or receptor in response to a stimulus. This can occur through various mechanisms such as increased transcription, translation, or reduced degradation of the molecule. Up-regulation can have important functional consequences, for example, enhancing the sensitivity or response of a cell to a hormone, neurotransmitter, or drug. It is a normal physiological process that can also be induced by disease or pharmacological interventions.

Monocyte chemoattractant proteins (MCPs) are a group of chemokines, which are small signaling proteins that attract immune cells to sites of infection or inflammation. Specifically, MCPs are responsible for recruiting monocytes and other immune cells to areas of tissue damage or infection.

There are several subtypes of MCPs, including MCP-1 (CCL2), MCP-2 (CCL8), MCP-3 (CCL7), and MCP-4 (CCL13). These proteins bind to specific receptors on the surface of monocytes and other immune cells, triggering a series of intracellular signaling events that result in cell migration towards the site of injury or infection.

MCPs play an important role in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer. For example, elevated levels of MCP-1 have been associated with increased monocyte recruitment to the arterial wall, leading to the formation of plaques that can cause heart attacks and strokes. Similarly, high levels of MCPs have been found in the synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, contributing to joint inflammation and damage.

Overall, Monocyte chemoattractant proteins are crucial components of the immune system's response to injury and infection, but their dysregulation can contribute to the development of various diseases.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

In medical terms, the skin is the largest organ of the human body. It consists of two main layers: the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (inner layer), as well as accessory structures like hair follicles, sweat glands, and oil glands. The skin plays a crucial role in protecting us from external factors such as bacteria, viruses, and environmental hazards, while also regulating body temperature and enabling the sense of touch.

Transgenic mice are genetically modified rodents that have incorporated foreign DNA (exogenous DNA) into their own genome. This is typically done through the use of recombinant DNA technology, where a specific gene or genetic sequence of interest is isolated and then introduced into the mouse embryo. The resulting transgenic mice can then express the protein encoded by the foreign gene, allowing researchers to study its function in a living organism.

The process of creating transgenic mice usually involves microinjecting the exogenous DNA into the pronucleus of a fertilized egg, which is then implanted into a surrogate mother. The offspring that result from this procedure are screened for the presence of the foreign DNA, and those that carry the desired genetic modification are used to establish a transgenic mouse line.

Transgenic mice have been widely used in biomedical research to model human diseases, study gene function, and test new therapies. They provide a valuable tool for understanding complex biological processes and developing new treatments for a variety of medical conditions.

Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a type of cytokine, which is a small signaling protein involved in immune response and inflammation. IL-8 is also known as neutrophil chemotactic factor or NCF because it attracts neutrophils, a type of white blood cell, to the site of infection or injury.

IL-8 is produced by various cells including macrophages, epithelial cells, and endothelial cells in response to bacterial or inflammatory stimuli. It acts by binding to specific receptors called CXCR1 and CXCR2 on the surface of neutrophils, which triggers a series of intracellular signaling events leading to neutrophil activation, migration, and degranulation.

IL-8 plays an important role in the recruitment of neutrophils to the site of infection or tissue damage, where they can phagocytose and destroy invading microorganisms. However, excessive or prolonged production of IL-8 has been implicated in various inflammatory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer.

A ligand, in the context of biochemistry and medicine, is a molecule that binds to a specific site on a protein or a larger biomolecule, such as an enzyme or a receptor. This binding interaction can modify the function or activity of the target protein, either activating it or inhibiting it. Ligands can be small molecules, like hormones or neurotransmitters, or larger structures, like antibodies. The study of ligand-protein interactions is crucial for understanding cellular processes and developing drugs, as many therapeutic compounds function by binding to specific targets within the body.

CCR6 (C-C Motif Chemokine Receptor 6) is a type of protein found on the surface of certain cells, including immune cells. It is a type of chemokine receptor, which are proteins that help cells migrate to specific locations in the body in response to chemical signals called chemokines.

CCR6 specifically binds to a chemokine known as CCL20 (C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 20). When CCL20 binds to CCR6, it triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that can lead to the activation and migration of immune cells, particularly T cells and dendritic cells.

CCR6 has been implicated in various physiological and pathological processes, including inflammation, immune responses, and cancer. For example, CCR6 has been shown to play a role in the recruitment of Th17 cells, a type of T cell that is involved in the development of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Additionally, CCR6 has been found to be overexpressed in certain types of cancer, where it may contribute to tumor growth and metastasis.

CD4-positive T-lymphocytes, also known as CD4+ T cells or helper T cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the immune response. They express the CD4 receptor on their surface and help coordinate the immune system's response to infectious agents such as viruses and bacteria.

CD4+ T cells recognize and bind to specific antigens presented by antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells or macrophages. Once activated, they can differentiate into various subsets of effector cells, including Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg cells, each with distinct functions in the immune response.

CD4+ T cells are particularly important in the immune response to HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), which targets and destroys these cells, leading to a weakened immune system and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections. The number of CD4+ T cells is often used as a marker of disease progression in HIV infection, with lower counts indicating more advanced disease.

Interleukin-8 (IL-8) receptors are a type of cell surface receptor that bind to and are activated by the cytokine IL-8. There are two main types of IL-8 receptors, known as CXCR1 and CXCR2. Both of these receptors belong to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family and play important roles in the immune response, particularly in the recruitment and activation of neutrophils, a type of white blood cell that helps to fight infection.

IL-8A, also known as CXCR1, is a specific subtype of IL-8 receptor. It is a 354-amino acid protein that is expressed on the surface of many different types of cells, including neutrophils, monocytes, and certain tumor cells. When IL-8 binds to CXCR1, it activates a variety of signaling pathways within the cell that lead to changes in gene expression, cell activation, and chemotaxis (directed movement) towards the source of IL-8.

CXCR1 plays an important role in the immune response to bacterial and fungal infections, as well as in the development and progression of certain inflammatory diseases and cancers. It is also a target for drug development, particularly in the areas of cancer therapy and inflammatory disease.

Lymph nodes are small, bean-shaped organs that are part of the immune system. They are found throughout the body, especially in the neck, armpits, groin, and abdomen. Lymph nodes filter lymph fluid, which carries waste and unwanted substances such as bacteria, viruses, and cancer cells. They contain white blood cells called lymphocytes that help fight infections and diseases by attacking and destroying the harmful substances found in the lymph fluid. When an infection or disease is present, lymph nodes may swell due to the increased number of immune cells and fluid accumulation as they work to fight off the invaders.

CXCR (C-X-C chemokine receptor) is a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds to certain chemokines, which are small signaling proteins involved in immunity and inflammation. Specifically, CXCR receptors bind to C-X-C chemokines, a subfamily of chemokines characterized by the presence of three amino acids (X) between two conserved cysteine residues.

The CXCR family includes several members, such as CXCR1, CXCR2, CXCR3, CXCR4, and CXCR5, among others. These receptors play crucial roles in various physiological processes, including the recruitment of immune cells to sites of infection or injury, hematopoiesis, angiogenesis, and cancer metastasis.

One of the most well-studied members of this family is CXCR4, which binds to the chemokine CXCL12 (also known as stromal cell-derived factor 1 or SDF-1). The CXCR4/CXCL12 axis has been implicated in several diseases, including HIV infection, cancer, and inflammatory disorders.

In summary, CXCR receptors are a group of G protein-coupled receptors that bind to C-X-C chemokines, playing essential roles in immunity, inflammation, and other physiological processes.

A cell line that is derived from tumor cells and has been adapted to grow in culture. These cell lines are often used in research to study the characteristics of cancer cells, including their growth patterns, genetic changes, and responses to various treatments. They can be established from many different types of tumors, such as carcinomas, sarcomas, and leukemias. Once established, these cell lines can be grown and maintained indefinitely in the laboratory, allowing researchers to conduct experiments and studies that would not be feasible using primary tumor cells. It is important to note that tumor cell lines may not always accurately represent the behavior of the original tumor, as they can undergo genetic changes during their time in culture.

NF-κB (Nuclear Factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) is a protein complex that plays a crucial role in regulating the immune response to infection and inflammation, as well as in cell survival, differentiation, and proliferation. It is composed of several subunits, including p50, p52, p65 (RelA), c-Rel, and RelB, which can form homodimers or heterodimers that bind to specific DNA sequences called κB sites in the promoter regions of target genes.

Under normal conditions, NF-κB is sequestered in the cytoplasm by inhibitory proteins known as IκBs (inhibitors of κB). However, upon stimulation by various signals such as cytokines, bacterial or viral products, and stress, IκBs are phosphorylated, ubiquitinated, and degraded, leading to the release and activation of NF-κB. Activated NF-κB then translocates to the nucleus, where it binds to κB sites and regulates the expression of target genes involved in inflammation, immunity, cell survival, and proliferation.

Dysregulation of NF-κB signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions such as cancer, chronic inflammation, autoimmune diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, targeting NF-κB signaling has emerged as a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of these diseases.

Carbon tetrachloride is a colorless, heavy, and nonflammable liquid with a mild ether-like odor. Its chemical formula is CCl4. It was previously used as a solvent and refrigerant, but its use has been largely phased out due to its toxicity and ozone-depleting properties.

Inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact with carbon tetrachloride can cause harmful health effects. Short-term exposure can lead to symptoms such as dizziness, headache, nausea, and vomiting. Long-term exposure has been linked to liver and kidney damage, as well as an increased risk of cancer.

Carbon tetrachloride is also a potent greenhouse gas and contributes to climate change. Its production and use are regulated by international agreements aimed at protecting human health and the environment.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Cytokine receptors are specialized protein molecules found on the surface of cells that selectively bind to specific cytokines. Cytokines are signaling molecules used for communication between cells, and they play crucial roles in regulating immune responses, inflammation, hematopoiesis, and cell survival.

Cytokine receptors have specific binding sites that recognize and interact with the corresponding cytokines. This interaction triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to changes in gene expression and various cellular responses. Cytokine receptors can be found on many different types of cells, including immune cells, endothelial cells, and structural cells like fibroblasts.

Cytokine receptors are typically composed of multiple subunits, which may include both extracellular and intracellular domains. The extracellular domain is responsible for cytokine binding, while the intracellular domain is involved in signal transduction. Cytokine receptors can be classified into several families based on their structural features and signaling mechanisms, such as the hematopoietic cytokine receptor family, the interferon receptor family, the tumor necrosis factor receptor family, and the interleukin-1 receptor family.

Dysregulation of cytokine receptors and their signaling pathways has been implicated in various diseases, including autoimmune disorders, chronic inflammation, and cancer. Therefore, understanding the biology of cytokine receptors is essential for developing targeted therapies to treat these conditions.

Regulatory T-lymphocytes (Tregs), also known as suppressor T cells, are a subpopulation of T-cells that play a critical role in maintaining immune tolerance and preventing autoimmune diseases. They function to suppress the activation and proliferation of other immune cells, thereby regulating the immune response and preventing it from attacking the body's own tissues.

Tregs constitutively express the surface markers CD4 and CD25, as well as the transcription factor Foxp3, which is essential for their development and function. They can be further divided into subsets based on their expression of other markers, such as CD127 and CD45RA.

Tregs are critical for maintaining self-tolerance by suppressing the activation of self-reactive T cells that have escaped negative selection in the thymus. They also play a role in regulating immune responses to foreign antigens, such as those encountered during infection or cancer, and can contribute to the immunosuppressive microenvironment found in tumors.

Dysregulation of Tregs has been implicated in various autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis, as well as in cancer and infectious diseases. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms that regulate Treg function is an important area of research with potential therapeutic implications.

Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a cytokine, a type of small signaling protein involved in immune response and inflammation. It is primarily produced by activated macrophages, although other cell types such as T-cells, natural killer cells, and mast cells can also produce it.

TNF-α plays a crucial role in the body's defense against infection and tissue injury by mediating inflammatory responses, activating immune cells, and inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death) in certain types of cells. It does this by binding to its receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2, which are found on the surface of many cell types.

In addition to its role in the immune response, TNF-α has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and psoriasis, as well as cancer, where it can promote tumor growth and metastasis.

Therapeutic agents that target TNF-α, such as infliximab, adalimumab, and etanercept, have been developed to treat these conditions. However, these drugs can also increase the risk of infections and other side effects, so their use must be carefully monitored.

Chemokines are a family of small signaling proteins that play a crucial role in the immune system by recruiting immune cells to sites of infection or injury. They do this by binding to specific receptors on the surface of immune cells and guiding their movement towards the source of the chemokine.

CX3C is a subfamily of chemokines that contains only one member, called fractalkine (CX3CL1). Fractalkine is unique among chemokines because it exists in two forms: a soluble form and a membrane-bound form. The soluble form acts as a chemoattractant for immune cells, while the membrane-bound form functions as an adhesion molecule that helps to tether immune cells to the site of inflammation.

Fractalkine plays important roles in the immune response, including the recruitment and activation of immune cells such as natural killer (NK) cells, T cells, and monocytes/macrophages. It is also involved in the development and maintenance of the nervous system, where it helps to regulate the migration and differentiation of neural progenitor cells.

Abnormalities in fractalkine signaling have been implicated in a variety of diseases, including neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease, as well as inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and atherosclerosis.

CXCR5 is a type of chemokine receptor that is primarily expressed on the surface of certain immune cells, including B cells and some T cells. It belongs to the family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and plays a crucial role in the trafficking and homing of these immune cells to specific tissues in the body.

CXCR5 specifically binds to a chemokine ligand called CXCL13, which is produced by various cell types, including stromal cells in lymphoid organs. The binding of CXCL13 to CXCR5 triggers a signaling cascade that leads to the activation of several downstream signaling pathways, ultimately resulting in the migration and accumulation of immune cells in the vicinity of the CXCL13 source.

In the context of the immune system, CXCR5 is essential for the formation of germinal centers, which are specialized structures within lymphoid organs where B cells undergo activation, proliferation, and differentiation into antibody-secreting plasma cells. The interaction between CXCL13 and CXCR5 helps to recruit B cells and follicular T helper (Tfh) cells to the germinal center, where they can engage in productive interactions that drive humoral immune responses.

Abnormalities in CXCR5 signaling have been implicated in various pathological conditions, including autoimmune diseases, cancer, and infectious diseases. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying CXCR5 function is of great interest for the development of novel therapeutic strategies to target these disorders.

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

Chemotactic factors are substances that attract or repel cells, particularly immune cells, by stimulating directional movement in response to a chemical gradient. These factors play a crucial role in the body's immune response and inflammation process. They include:

1. Chemokines: A family of small signaling proteins that direct the migration of immune cells to sites of infection or tissue damage.
2. Cytokines: A broad category of signaling molecules that mediate and regulate immunity, inflammation, and hematopoiesis. Some cytokines can also act as chemotactic factors.
3. Complement components: Cleavage products of the complement system can attract immune cells to the site of infection or tissue injury.
4. Growth factors: Certain growth factors, like colony-stimulating factors (CSFs), can stimulate the migration and proliferation of specific cell types.
5. Lipid mediators: Products derived from arachidonic acid metabolism, such as leukotrienes and prostaglandins, can also act as chemotactic factors.
6. Formyl peptides: Bacterial-derived formylated peptides can attract and activate neutrophils during an infection.
7. Extracellular matrix (ECM) components: Fragments of ECM proteins, like collagen and fibronectin, can serve as chemotactic factors for immune cells.

These factors help orchestrate the immune response by guiding the movement of immune cells to specific locations in the body where they are needed.

CD8-positive T-lymphocytes, also known as CD8+ T cells or cytotoxic T cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the adaptive immune system. They are named after the CD8 molecule found on their surface, which is a protein involved in cell signaling and recognition.

CD8+ T cells are primarily responsible for identifying and destroying virus-infected cells or cancerous cells. When activated, they release cytotoxic granules that contain enzymes capable of inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death) in the target cells. They also produce cytokines such as interferon-gamma, which can help coordinate the immune response and activate other immune cells.

CD8+ T cells are generated in the thymus gland and are a type of T cell, which is a lymphocyte that matures in the thymus and plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity. They recognize and respond to specific antigens presented on the surface of infected or cancerous cells in conjunction with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules.

Overall, CD8+ T cells are an essential component of the immune system's defense against viral infections and cancer.

Endothelial cells are the type of cells that line the inner surface of blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and heart chambers. They play a crucial role in maintaining vascular homeostasis by controlling vasomotor tone, coagulation, platelet activation, and inflammation. Endothelial cells also regulate the transport of molecules between the blood and surrounding tissues, and contribute to the maintenance of the structural integrity of the vasculature. They are flat, elongated cells with a unique morphology that allows them to form a continuous, nonthrombogenic lining inside the vessels. Endothelial cells can be isolated from various tissues and cultured in vitro for research purposes.

Lymphocyte activation is the process by which B-cells and T-cells (types of lymphocytes) become activated to perform effector functions in an immune response. This process involves the recognition of specific antigens presented on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells or macrophages.

The activation of B-cells leads to their differentiation into plasma cells that produce antibodies, while the activation of T-cells results in the production of cytotoxic T-cells (CD8+ T-cells) that can directly kill infected cells or helper T-cells (CD4+ T-cells) that assist other immune cells.

Lymphocyte activation involves a series of intracellular signaling events, including the binding of co-stimulatory molecules and the release of cytokines, which ultimately result in the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and effector functions. The activation process is tightly regulated to prevent excessive or inappropriate immune responses that can lead to autoimmunity or chronic inflammation.

Monokines are cytokines that are produced and released by monocytes, which are a type of white blood cell. These proteins play an important role in the immune response, including inflammation, immunoregulation, and hematopoiesis (the formation of blood cells).

Monokines include several types of cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-12 (IL-12). These molecules help to regulate the activity of other immune cells, such as T cells and B cells, and can also have direct effects on infected or damaged tissues.

Monokines are involved in a variety of physiological and pathological processes, including host defense against infection, tissue repair and regeneration, and the development of chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and atherosclerosis.

HIV receptors are specific molecules found on the surface of certain human cells that the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) uses to enter and infect those cells. The two primary HIV receptors are CD4 and CCR5 or CXCR4 co-receptors.

1. CD4 Receptor: This is a glycoprotein found on the surface of helper T cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. HIV first binds to the CD4 receptor via its envelope protein gp120. However, this binding alone is not sufficient for virus entry. The interaction between gp120 and CD4 triggers conformational changes in the viral envelope that expose the binding site for a co-receptor.

2. CCR5 or CXCR4 Co-receptors: These are chemokine receptors also found on the surface of certain cells, including helper T cells and macrophages. After HIV binds to the CD4 receptor, it interacts with either the CCR5 or CXCR4 co-receptor, which facilitates the fusion of the viral and cell membranes and the release of the viral genetic material into the host cell.

The specificity of HIV for these receptors plays a crucial role in its pathogenesis, as it determines which cells are susceptible to infection. Additionally, variations in the genes encoding these receptors can influence an individual's susceptibility to HIV infection and the rate of disease progression.

Carbon tetrachloride poisoning refers to the harmful effects on the body caused by exposure to carbon tetrachloride, a volatile and toxic chemical compound. This substance has been widely used in various industrial applications, such as a solvent for fats, oils, and rubber, a fire extinguishing agent, and a refrigerant. However, due to its high toxicity, the use of carbon tetrachloride has been significantly reduced or phased out in many countries.

Ingestion, inhalation, or skin absorption of carbon tetrachloride can lead to poisoning, which may cause various symptoms depending on the severity and duration of exposure. Acute exposure to high concentrations of carbon tetrachloride can result in:

1. Central nervous system depression: Dizziness, headache, confusion, drowsiness, and, in severe cases, loss of consciousness or even death.
2. Respiratory irritation: Coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and pulmonary edema (fluid accumulation in the lungs).
3. Cardiovascular effects: Increased heart rate, low blood pressure, and irregular heart rhythms.
4. Gastrointestinal symptoms: Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea.
5. Liver damage: Hepatitis, jaundice, and liver failure in severe cases.
6. Kidney damage: Acute kidney injury or failure.

Chronic exposure to carbon tetrachloride can lead to long-term health effects, including:

1. Liver cirrhosis (scarring of the liver) and liver cancer.
2. Kidney damage and kidney disease.
3. Peripheral neuropathy (damage to the nerves in the limbs), causing numbness, tingling, or weakness.
4. Increased risk of miscarriage and birth defects in pregnant women exposed to carbon tetrachloride.

Treatment for carbon tetrachloride poisoning typically involves supportive care, such as oxygen therapy, fluid replacement, and monitoring of vital signs. In some cases, specific treatments like activated charcoal or gastric lavage may be used to remove the substance from the body. Prevention is crucial in minimizing exposure to this harmful chemical by following safety guidelines when handling it and using appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE).

The Duffy blood group system is a system of identifying blood types based on the presence or absence of certain antigens on the surface of red blood cells. The antigens in this system are proteins called Duffy antigens, which are receptors for the malarial parasite Plasmodium vivax.

There are two major Duffy antigens, Fya and Fyb, and individuals can be either positive or negative for each of these antigens. This means that there are four main Duffy blood types: Fy(a+b-), Fy(a-b+), Fy(a+b+), and Fy(a-b-).

The Duffy blood group system is important in blood transfusions to prevent a potentially dangerous immune response known as a transfusion reaction. If a person receives blood that contains antigens that their body recognizes as foreign, their immune system may attack the transfused red blood cells, leading to symptoms such as fever, chills, and in severe cases, kidney failure or even death.

Additionally, the Duffy blood group system has been found to be associated with susceptibility to certain diseases. For example, individuals who are negative for both Fya and Fyb antigens (Fy(a-b-)) are resistant to infection by Plasmodium vivax, one of the malarial parasites that causes malaria in humans. This is because the Duffy antigens serve as receptors for the parasite to enter and infect red blood cells.

Chemotactic factors are substances that attract and guide cells, particularly immune cells, to specific locations in the body. Eosinophils are a type of white blood cell that play a role in the immune response, particularly against parasites and in allergic reactions. Therefore, chemotactic factors for eosinophils are substances that attract eosinophils to specific sites in the body.

These factors can be produced by various cells, including mast cells, basophils, and T-lymphocytes, in response to an infection or inflammation. They work by binding to receptors on the surface of eosinophils and activating signaling pathways that cause the eosinophils to migrate towards the source of the chemotactic factor.

Examples of chemotactic factors for eosinophils include:

1. Eotaxins: These are a group of chemokines (a type of signaling protein) that specifically attract eosinophils. They are produced by various cells, including endothelial cells, epithelial cells, and immune cells.
2. Leukotrienes: These are lipid mediators produced by mast cells and basophils in response to an allergic reaction or infection. They can attract eosinophils to the site of inflammation.
3. Platelet-activating factor (PAF): This is a lipid mediator produced by various cells, including endothelial cells and immune cells. It can attract eosinophils and activate them, leading to degranulation and release of their contents.
4. Complement components: The complement system is a group of proteins that play a role in the immune response. Some complement components, such as C3a and C5a, can act as chemotactic factors for eosinophils.

Overall, chemotactic factors for eosinophils play an important role in the immune response by recruiting these cells to sites of infection or inflammation. However, excessive activation of eosinophils and production of chemotactic factors can contribute to the development of various diseases, such as asthma and allergies.

Neutrophil infiltration is a pathological process characterized by the accumulation of neutrophils, a type of white blood cell, in tissue. It is a common feature of inflammation and occurs in response to infection, injury, or other stimuli that trigger an immune response. Neutrophils are attracted to the site of tissue damage by chemical signals called chemokines, which are released by damaged cells and activated immune cells. Once they reach the site of inflammation, neutrophils help to clear away damaged tissue and microorganisms through a process called phagocytosis. However, excessive or prolonged neutrophil infiltration can also contribute to tissue damage and may be associated with various disease states, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and ischemia-reperfusion injury.

Neutrophils are a type of white blood cell that are part of the immune system's response to infection. They are produced in the bone marrow and released into the bloodstream where they circulate and are able to move quickly to sites of infection or inflammation in the body. Neutrophils are capable of engulfing and destroying bacteria, viruses, and other foreign substances through a process called phagocytosis. They are also involved in the release of inflammatory mediators, which can contribute to tissue damage in some cases. Neutrophils are characterized by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm, which contain enzymes and other proteins that help them carry out their immune functions.

Heterocyclic compounds are organic compounds that contain at least one atom within the ring structure, other than carbon, such as nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur or phosphorus. These compounds make up a large class of naturally occurring and synthetic materials, including many drugs, pigments, vitamins, and antibiotics. The presence of the heteroatom in the ring can have significant effects on the physical and chemical properties of the compound, such as its reactivity, stability, and bonding characteristics. Examples of heterocyclic compounds include pyridine, pyrimidine, and furan.

A lung is a pair of spongy, elastic organs in the chest that work together to enable breathing. They are responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide through the process of respiration. The left lung has two lobes, while the right lung has three lobes. The lungs are protected by the ribcage and are covered by a double-layered membrane called the pleura. The trachea divides into two bronchi, which further divide into smaller bronchioles, leading to millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli, where the exchange of gases occurs.

Leukocytes, also known as white blood cells (WBCs), are a crucial component of the human immune system. They are responsible for protecting the body against infections and foreign substances. Leukocytes are produced in the bone marrow and circulate throughout the body in the bloodstream and lymphatic system.

There are several types of leukocytes, including:

1. Neutrophils - These are the most abundant type of leukocyte and are primarily responsible for fighting bacterial infections. They contain enzymes that can destroy bacteria.
2. Lymphocytes - These are responsible for producing antibodies and destroying virus-infected cells, as well as cancer cells. There are two main types of lymphocytes: B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes.
3. Monocytes - These are the largest type of leukocyte and help to break down and remove dead or damaged tissues, as well as microorganisms.
4. Eosinophils - These play a role in fighting parasitic infections and are also involved in allergic reactions and inflammation.
5. Basophils - These release histamine and other chemicals that cause inflammation in response to allergens or irritants.

An abnormal increase or decrease in the number of leukocytes can indicate an underlying medical condition, such as an infection, inflammation, or a blood disorder.

Gene expression is the process by which the information encoded in a gene is used to synthesize a functional gene product, such as a protein or RNA molecule. This process involves several steps: transcription, RNA processing, and translation. During transcription, the genetic information in DNA is copied into a complementary RNA molecule, known as messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA then undergoes RNA processing, which includes adding a cap and tail to the mRNA and splicing out non-coding regions called introns. The resulting mature mRNA is then translated into a protein on ribosomes in the cytoplasm through the process of translation.

The regulation of gene expression is a complex and highly controlled process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment, such as growth factors, hormones, and stress signals. This regulation can occur at various stages of gene expression, including transcriptional activation or repression, RNA processing, mRNA stability, and translation. Dysregulation of gene expression has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and neurological conditions.

Inflammation mediators are substances that are released by the body in response to injury or infection, which contribute to the inflammatory response. These mediators include various chemical factors such as cytokines, chemokines, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and histamine, among others. They play a crucial role in regulating the inflammatory process by attracting immune cells to the site of injury or infection, increasing blood flow to the area, and promoting the repair and healing of damaged tissues. However, an overactive or chronic inflammatory response can also contribute to the development of various diseases and conditions, such as autoimmune disorders, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.

Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is a soluble cytokine that is primarily produced by the activation of natural killer (NK) cells and T lymphocytes, especially CD4+ Th1 cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of the immune response against viral and intracellular bacterial infections, as well as tumor cells. IFN-γ has several functions, including activating macrophages to enhance their microbicidal activity, increasing the presentation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II molecules on antigen-presenting cells, stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of T cells and NK cells, and inducing the production of other cytokines and chemokines. Additionally, IFN-γ has direct antiproliferative effects on certain types of tumor cells and can enhance the cytotoxic activity of immune cells against infected or malignant cells.

Th2 cells, or T helper 2 cells, are a type of CD4+ T cell that plays a key role in the immune response to parasites and allergens. They produce cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 which promote the activation and proliferation of eosinophils, mast cells, and B cells, leading to the production of antibodies such as IgE. Th2 cells also play a role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis.

It's important to note that an imbalance in Th1/Th2 response can lead to immune dysregulation and disease states. For example, an overactive Th2 response can lead to allergic reactions while an underactive Th2 response can lead to decreased ability to fight off parasitic infections.

It's also worth noting that there are other subsets of CD4+ T cells such as Th1, Th17, Treg and others, each with their own specific functions and cytokine production profiles.

Cell migration inhibition refers to the process or agents that restrict the movement of cells, particularly in the context of cancer metastasis. Cell migration is a critical biological process involved in various physiological and pathological conditions, including embryonic development, wound healing, and tumor cell dissemination. Inhibiting cell migration can help prevent the spread of cancer to distant organs, thereby improving treatment outcomes and patient survival rates.

Various factors and mechanisms contribute to cell migration inhibition, such as:

1. Modulation of signaling pathways: Cell migration is regulated by complex intracellular signaling networks that control cytoskeletal rearrangements, adhesion molecules, and other components required for cell motility. Inhibiting specific signaling proteins or pathways can suppress cell migration.
2. Extracellular matrix (ECM) modifications: The ECM provides structural support and biochemical cues that guide cell migration. Altering the composition or organization of the ECM can hinder cell movement.
3. Inhibition of adhesion molecules: Cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions are mediated by adhesion molecules, such as integrins and cadherins. Blocking these molecules can prevent cells from attaching to their surroundings and migrating.
4. Targeting cytoskeletal components: The cytoskeleton is responsible for the mechanical forces required for cell migration. Inhibiting cytoskeletal proteins, such as actin or tubulin, can impair cell motility.
5. Use of pharmacological agents: Several drugs and compounds have been identified to inhibit cell migration, either by targeting specific molecules or indirectly affecting the overall cellular environment. These agents include chemotherapeutic drugs, natural compounds, and small molecule inhibitors.

Understanding the mechanisms underlying cell migration inhibition can provide valuable insights into developing novel therapeutic strategies for cancer treatment and other diseases involving aberrant cell migration.

HIV-1 (Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1) is a species of the retrovirus genus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is primarily transmitted through sexual contact, exposure to infected blood or blood products, and from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. HIV-1 infects vital cells in the human immune system, such as CD4+ T cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells, leading to a decline in their numbers and weakening of the immune response over time. This results in the individual becoming susceptible to various opportunistic infections and cancers that ultimately cause death if left untreated. HIV-1 is the most prevalent form of HIV worldwide and has been identified as the causative agent of the global AIDS pandemic.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Eosinophils are a type of white blood cell that play an important role in the body's immune response. They are produced in the bone marrow and released into the bloodstream, where they can travel to different tissues and organs throughout the body. Eosinophils are characterized by their granules, which contain various proteins and enzymes that are toxic to parasites and can contribute to inflammation.

Eosinophils are typically associated with allergic reactions, asthma, and other inflammatory conditions. They can also be involved in the body's response to certain infections, particularly those caused by parasites such as worms. In some cases, elevated levels of eosinophils in the blood or tissues (a condition called eosinophilia) can indicate an underlying medical condition, such as a parasitic infection, autoimmune disorder, or cancer.

Eosinophils are named for their staining properties - they readily take up eosin dye, which is why they appear pink or red under the microscope. They make up only about 1-6% of circulating white blood cells in healthy individuals, but their numbers can increase significantly in response to certain triggers.

Intercellular signaling peptides and proteins are molecules that mediate communication and interaction between different cells in living organisms. They play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell growth, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). These signals can be released into the extracellular space, where they bind to specific receptors on the target cell's surface, triggering intracellular signaling cascades that ultimately lead to a response.

Peptides are short chains of amino acids, while proteins are larger molecules made up of one or more polypeptide chains. Both can function as intercellular signaling molecules by acting as ligands for cell surface receptors or by being cleaved from larger precursor proteins and released into the extracellular space. Examples of intercellular signaling peptides and proteins include growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, hormones, neurotransmitters, and their respective receptors.

These molecules contribute to maintaining homeostasis within an organism by coordinating cellular activities across tissues and organs. Dysregulation of intercellular signaling pathways has been implicated in various diseases, such as cancer, autoimmune disorders, and neurodegenerative conditions. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying intercellular signaling is essential for developing targeted therapies to treat these disorders.

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are large molecules found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. They consist of a hydrophilic polysaccharide called the O-antigen, a core oligosaccharide, and a lipid portion known as Lipid A. The Lipid A component is responsible for the endotoxic activity of LPS, which can trigger a powerful immune response in animals, including humans. This response can lead to symptoms such as fever, inflammation, and septic shock, especially when large amounts of LPS are introduced into the bloodstream.

Down-regulation is a process that occurs in response to various stimuli, where the number or sensitivity of cell surface receptors or the expression of specific genes is decreased. This process helps maintain homeostasis within cells and tissues by reducing the ability of cells to respond to certain signals or molecules.

In the context of cell surface receptors, down-regulation can occur through several mechanisms:

1. Receptor internalization: After binding to their ligands, receptors can be internalized into the cell through endocytosis. Once inside the cell, these receptors may be degraded or recycled back to the cell surface in smaller numbers.
2. Reduced receptor synthesis: Down-regulation can also occur at the transcriptional level, where the expression of genes encoding for specific receptors is decreased, leading to fewer receptors being produced.
3. Receptor desensitization: Prolonged exposure to a ligand can lead to a decrease in receptor sensitivity or affinity, making it more difficult for the cell to respond to the signal.

In the context of gene expression, down-regulation refers to the decreased transcription and/or stability of specific mRNAs, leading to reduced protein levels. This process can be induced by various factors, including microRNA (miRNA)-mediated regulation, histone modification, or DNA methylation.

Down-regulation is an essential mechanism in many physiological processes and can also contribute to the development of several diseases, such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Epithelial cells are types of cells that cover the outer surfaces of the body, line the inner surfaces of organs and glands, and form the lining of blood vessels and body cavities. They provide a protective barrier against the external environment, regulate the movement of materials between the internal and external environments, and are involved in the sense of touch, temperature, and pain. Epithelial cells can be squamous (flat and thin), cuboidal (square-shaped and of equal height), or columnar (tall and narrow) in shape and are classified based on their location and function.

Mononuclear leukocytes are a type of white blood cells (leukocytes) that have a single, large nucleus. They include lymphocytes (B-cells, T-cells, and natural killer cells), monocytes, and dendritic cells. These cells play important roles in the body's immune system, including defending against infection and disease, and participating in immune responses and surveillance. Mononuclear leukocytes can be found in the bloodstream as well as in tissues throughout the body. They are involved in both innate and adaptive immunity, providing specific and nonspecific defense mechanisms to protect the body from harmful pathogens and other threats.

Cell adhesion refers to the binding of cells to extracellular matrices or to other cells, a process that is fundamental to the development, function, and maintenance of multicellular organisms. Cell adhesion is mediated by various cell surface receptors, such as integrins, cadherins, and immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecules (Ig-CAMs), which interact with specific ligands in the extracellular environment. These interactions lead to the formation of specialized junctions, such as tight junctions, adherens junctions, and desmosomes, that help to maintain tissue architecture and regulate various cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival. Disruptions in cell adhesion can contribute to a variety of diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and degenerative disorders.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

Th1 cells, or Type 1 T helper cells, are a subset of CD4+ T cells that play a crucial role in the cell-mediated immune response. They are characterized by the production of specific cytokines, such as interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-2 (IL-2). Th1 cells are essential for protecting against intracellular pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, and parasites. They activate macrophages to destroy ingested microorganisms, stimulate the differentiation of B cells into plasma cells that produce antibodies, and recruit other immune cells to the site of infection. Dysregulation of Th1 cell responses has been implicated in various autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and type 1 diabetes.

Lymphoid tissue is a specialized type of connective tissue that is involved in the immune function of the body. It is composed of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell), which are responsible for producing antibodies and destroying infected or cancerous cells. Lymphoid tissue can be found throughout the body, but it is particularly concentrated in certain areas such as the lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, and Peyer's patches in the small intestine.

Lymphoid tissue provides a site for the activation, proliferation, and differentiation of lymphocytes, which are critical components of the adaptive immune response. It also serves as a filter for foreign particles, such as bacteria and viruses, that may enter the body through various routes. The lymphatic system, which includes lymphoid tissue, helps to maintain the health and integrity of the body by protecting it from infection and disease.

T-lymphocyte subsets refer to distinct populations of T-cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity. The two main types of T-lymphocytes are CD4+ and CD8+ cells, which are defined by the presence or absence of specific proteins called cluster differentiation (CD) molecules on their surface.

CD4+ T-cells, also known as helper T-cells, play a crucial role in activating other immune cells, such as B-lymphocytes and macrophages, to mount an immune response against pathogens. They also produce cytokines that help regulate the immune response.

CD8+ T-cells, also known as cytotoxic T-cells, directly kill infected cells or tumor cells by releasing toxic substances such as perforins and granzymes.

The balance between these two subsets of T-cells is critical for maintaining immune homeostasis and mounting effective immune responses against pathogens while avoiding excessive inflammation and autoimmunity. Therefore, the measurement of T-lymphocyte subsets is essential in diagnosing and monitoring various immunological disorders, including HIV infection, cancer, and autoimmune diseases.

Gene expression profiling is a laboratory technique used to measure the activity (expression) of thousands of genes at once. This technique allows researchers and clinicians to identify which genes are turned on or off in a particular cell, tissue, or organism under specific conditions, such as during health, disease, development, or in response to various treatments.

The process typically involves isolating RNA from the cells or tissues of interest, converting it into complementary DNA (cDNA), and then using microarray or high-throughput sequencing technologies to determine which genes are expressed and at what levels. The resulting data can be used to identify patterns of gene expression that are associated with specific biological states or processes, providing valuable insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms of diseases and potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

In recent years, gene expression profiling has become an essential tool in various fields, including cancer research, drug discovery, and personalized medicine, where it is used to identify biomarkers of disease, predict patient outcomes, and guide treatment decisions.

Platelet Factor 4 (PF4), also known as CXCL4, is a chemokine that is primarily secreted by activated platelets and involved in hemostasis and inflammation. It is a small protein with a molecular weight of approximately 8 kDa and is stored in the alpha granules of resting platelets. Upon activation, platelets release PF4 into the bloodstream, where it plays a role in attracting immune cells to sites of injury or infection.

PF4 can bind to various negatively charged molecules, including heparin, DNA, and RNA, which can lead to the formation of immune complexes. In some cases, these immune complexes can trigger an abnormal immune response, resulting in conditions such as heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) or vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT).

In summary, Platelet Factor 4 is a chemokine released by activated platelets that plays a role in hemostasis and inflammation but can also contribute to the development of certain immune-related disorders.

Stromal cells, also known as stromal/stroma cells, are a type of cell found in various tissues and organs throughout the body. They are often referred to as the "connective tissue" or "supporting framework" of an organ because they play a crucial role in maintaining the structure and function of the tissue. Stromal cells include fibroblasts, adipocytes (fat cells), and various types of progenitor/stem cells. They produce and maintain the extracellular matrix, which is the non-cellular component of tissues that provides structural support and biochemical cues for other cells. Stromal cells also interact with immune cells and participate in the regulation of the immune response. In some contexts, "stromal cells" can also refer to cells found in the microenvironment of tumors, which can influence cancer growth and progression.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Innate immunity, also known as non-specific immunity or natural immunity, is the inherent defense mechanism that provides immediate protection against potentially harmful pathogens (like bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites) without the need for prior exposure. This type of immunity is present from birth and does not adapt to specific threats over time.

Innate immune responses involve various mechanisms such as:

1. Physical barriers: Skin and mucous membranes prevent pathogens from entering the body.
2. Chemical barriers: Enzymes, stomach acid, and lysozyme in tears, saliva, and sweat help to destroy or inhibit the growth of microorganisms.
3. Cellular responses: Phagocytic cells (neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages) recognize and engulf foreign particles and pathogens, while natural killer (NK) cells target and eliminate virus-infected or cancerous cells.
4. Inflammatory response: When an infection occurs, the innate immune system triggers inflammation to increase blood flow, recruit immune cells, and remove damaged tissue.
5. Complement system: A group of proteins that work together to recognize and destroy pathogens directly or enhance phagocytosis by coating them with complement components (opsonization).

Innate immunity plays a crucial role in initiating the adaptive immune response, which is specific to particular pathogens and provides long-term protection through memory cells. Both innate and adaptive immunity work together to maintain overall immune homeostasis and protect the body from infections and diseases.

Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid is a type of clinical specimen obtained through a procedure called bronchoalveolar lavage. This procedure involves inserting a bronchoscope into the lungs and instilling a small amount of saline solution into a specific area of the lung, then gently aspirating the fluid back out. The fluid that is recovered is called bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

BAL fluid contains cells and other substances that are present in the lower respiratory tract, including the alveoli (the tiny air sacs where gas exchange occurs). By analyzing BAL fluid, doctors can diagnose various lung conditions, such as pneumonia, interstitial lung disease, and lung cancer. They can also monitor the effectiveness of treatments for these conditions by comparing the composition of BAL fluid before and after treatment.

BAL fluid is typically analyzed for its cellular content, including the number and type of white blood cells present, as well as for the presence of bacteria, viruses, or other microorganisms. The fluid may also be tested for various proteins, enzymes, and other biomarkers that can provide additional information about lung health and disease.

Transfection is a term used in molecular biology that refers to the process of deliberately introducing foreign genetic material (DNA, RNA or artificial gene constructs) into cells. This is typically done using chemical or physical methods, such as lipofection or electroporation. Transfection is widely used in research and medical settings for various purposes, including studying gene function, producing proteins, developing gene therapies, and creating genetically modified organisms. It's important to note that transfection is different from transduction, which is the process of introducing genetic material into cells using viruses as vectors.

Drug-Induced Liver Injury (DILI) is a medical term that refers to liver damage or injury caused by the use of medications or drugs. This condition can vary in severity, from mild abnormalities in liver function tests to severe liver failure, which may require a liver transplant.

The exact mechanism of DILI can differ depending on the drug involved, but it generally occurs when the liver metabolizes the drug into toxic compounds that damage liver cells. This can happen through various pathways, including direct toxicity to liver cells, immune-mediated reactions, or metabolic idiosyncrasies.

Symptoms of DILI may include jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), fatigue, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and dark urine. In severe cases, it can lead to complications such as ascites, encephalopathy, and bleeding disorders.

The diagnosis of DILI is often challenging because it requires the exclusion of other potential causes of liver injury. Liver function tests, imaging studies, and sometimes liver biopsies may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment typically involves discontinuing the offending drug and providing supportive care until the liver recovers. In some cases, medications that protect the liver or promote its healing may be used.

The endothelium is a thin layer of cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels. The lymphatic endothelium, specifically, is the type of endothelial cell that forms the walls of lymphatic vessels. These vessels are an important part of the immune system and play a crucial role in transporting fluid, waste products, and immune cells throughout the body.

The lymphatic endothelium helps to regulate the movement of fluids and cells between the tissues and the bloodstream. It also contains specialized structures called valves that help to ensure the unidirectional flow of lymph fluid towards the heart. Dysfunction of the lymphatic endothelium has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including lymphedema, inflammation, and cancer metastasis.

Coculture techniques refer to a type of experimental setup in which two or more different types of cells or organisms are grown and studied together in a shared culture medium. This method allows researchers to examine the interactions between different cell types or species under controlled conditions, and to study how these interactions may influence various biological processes such as growth, gene expression, metabolism, and signal transduction.

Coculture techniques can be used to investigate a wide range of biological phenomena, including the effects of host-microbe interactions on human health and disease, the impact of different cell types on tissue development and homeostasis, and the role of microbial communities in shaping ecosystems. These techniques can also be used to test the efficacy and safety of new drugs or therapies by examining their effects on cells grown in coculture with other relevant cell types.

There are several different ways to establish cocultures, depending on the specific research question and experimental goals. Some common methods include:

1. Mixed cultures: In this approach, two or more cell types are simply mixed together in a culture dish or flask and allowed to grow and interact freely.
2. Cell-layer cultures: Here, one cell type is grown on a porous membrane or other support structure, while the second cell type is grown on top of it, forming a layered coculture.
3. Conditioned media cultures: In this case, one cell type is grown to confluence and its culture medium is collected and then used to grow a second cell type. This allows the second cell type to be exposed to any factors secreted by the first cell type into the medium.
4. Microfluidic cocultures: These involve growing cells in microfabricated channels or chambers, which allow for precise control over the spatial arrangement and flow of nutrients, waste products, and signaling molecules between different cell types.

Overall, coculture techniques provide a powerful tool for studying complex biological systems and gaining insights into the mechanisms that underlie various physiological and pathological processes.

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Expression profiling of chemokines, especially those involved in inflammation and immune disorders, is important in achieving a ... Chemotactic cytokines or chemokines play pivotal roles in various processes such as immune surveillance, organ development, ... The Human Proinflammatory Chemokine Panel 2 (11-plex) is a multiplex bead-based assay panel, using fluorescence-encoded beads ... Expression profiling of chemokines, especially those involved in inflammation and immune disorders, is important in achieving a ...
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CCL24 is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. CCL24 interacts with chemokine receptor CCR3 to induce ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 24 (CCL24) also known as myeloid progenitor inhibitory factor 2 (MPIF-2) or eosinophil chemotactic ... This chemokine is also strongly chemotactic for resting T lymphocytes and slightly chemotactic for neutrophils. Elevated levels ... "Molecular and functional characterization of two novel human C-C chemokines as inhibitors of two distinct classes of myeloid ...
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Eotaxin-2) Recombinant Human Eotaxin-2 (CCL24) Catalogue #: CHM238 View Details (Exodus-2) Recombinant Human Exodus-2 (CCL21) ... Albumin Antibiotics Biological Buffers Chemokines Cytokines DNA/RNA Reagents Labware Microbial Media MRC Nucleotides ...
In keeping with these findings, we noted that several of these cytokines and chemokines were also present in the patients ... IL-16 and CCL24), neutrophilic (CXCL1 and CXCL8), and monocytic (CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, and CCL7) inflammation (Figure 3D), ... D) Luminex cytokine assay measurement of cytokine and chemokine concentrations in peripheral sera from the patient at 8 months ... Functional and immunological studies showed a pronounced alteration in chemokine and cytokine production in the patients ...
In addition, TDI inhalation upregulated Th2 cytokine (IL-4, -5, -13, -10) and chemokine (Ccl11, Ccl24) expression and ... Neutralization of IL-5 did not affect the development of the cytokine/chemokine response driving recruitment of eosinophils. ...
CCL24. 6369. CCL24. C-C motif chemokine ligand 24 [Sou.... CD2. 914. CD2. CD2 molecule [Source:HGNC Symbol;A.... ...
Human Chemokine(C-C motif) ligand 24(CCL24) ELISA Kit. NSL0739Hu Sunlong 96 wells. ... Description: ILINCK,NCC4,SCYA16,Chemokine CC-4,Chemokine LEC,IL-10-inducible chemokine,LCC-1,Liver-expressed chemokine, ... Human CCL16(Chemokine C-C-Motif Ligand 16) ELISA Kit. Human CCL16(Chemokine C-C-Motif Ligand 16) ELISA Kit ... Description: A sandwich ELISA kit for detection of Chemokine C-C-Motif Ligand 16 from Human in samples from blood, serum, ...
Macrophage-Derived Chemokine CCL23 C-C motif chemokine ligand 23 CCL24 Eotaxin-2 ...
AIMS: We aimed to investigate the effect and mechanism of pleiotropic chemokine CCL24 in heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: ... Cardiac M2 macrophages, CCL24 and circulation CCL24 increased in heart failure patients. Treatment with CCL24 Ab hindered Ang ... the same as plasma CCL24. Treatment with CCL24 antibody hindered Ang II (1500 ng/kg/min)-induced cardiac adverse remodeling ... In CCL24 Ab group RNA-seq found that it was related to immune responses and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, CytoF revealed M2 ...
Chemokine CCL22. *Chemokine CCL24. *Chemokine CCL26. *Chemokine CCL27. *Chemokine CCL3. *Chemokine CCL4 ... A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other ... "Chemokine CCL4" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Chemokine receptor 5 and its ligands in the immune response to murine tuberculosis. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2005 May; 85(3):185- ...
C-C chemokine receptor type 3, Eosinophil eotaxin receptor, CKR3, C-C CKR-3, CMKBR3, B-chemokine receptor, CD193 antigen ... Other CCR3 ligands include CCL5, CCL24, CCL26, CCL8, CCL7, and CCL121. ... Alternative Name C-C chemokine receptor type 3, Eosinophil eotaxin receptor, CKR3, C-C CKR-3, CMKBR3, B-chemokine receptor, ... CCR3 (C-C chemokine receptor type 3) is a seven transmembrane G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) that acts as a key regulator in ...
Chemokine CCL21 [D23.529.374.200.110.890] * Chemokine CCL22 [D23.529.374.200.110.900] * Chemokine CCL24 [D23.529.374.200. ... CCL19 Chemokine EBI1-Ligand Chemokine ELC Chemokine Epstein-Barr Virus-Induced Molecule 1 Ligand Chemokine Exodus-3 Chemokine ... 2008; CCL19 CHEMOKINE (now CHEMOKINE CCL19) was indexed under CHEMOKINES CC 1998-2007 & under CHEMOKINES 1997. History Note. ... Chemokines [D12.644.276.374.200] * Chemokines, CC [D12.644.276.374.200.110] * Chemokine CCL1 [D12.644.276.374.200.110.050] ...
The expression of a broad panel of chemokine receptors on the freshly isolated T lymphocytes was examined by flow cytometry. In ... The aim of this study was to identify potential chemokine receptors involved in the recruitment of T lymphocytes to normal ... Importantly, T lymphocytes from CRC compared to normal colonic tissue displayed a distinct chemokine receptor expression ... The recruitment of T lymphocytes is largely dependent on their expression of various chemokine receptors. ...
Human CCL24, also designated eotaxin-2 and Macrophage inflammatory protein 3 (MIP-2), attracts eosinophils and resting T cells ... Recombinant human CCL24 1-78 is secreted from cells after cleavage of the signal peptide as originally described by Forssmann ... a novel CC chemokine that is selective for the chemokine receptor CCR3, and acts like eotaxin on human eosinophil and basophil ... Human CCL24, also designated eotaxin-2 and Macrophage inflammatory protein 3 (MIP-2), attracts eosinophils and resting T cells ...
... other genes in cytokine or chemokine pathways for instance Cxcl3, and Cxcl5, Cxcr3, Cxcr5, Ccl2, Ccl19, Ccl24, Ccr2, Ccr6, Tn. ...
... encoding four CXC chemokines, four CC chemokines, as well as IL-1. The receptor activity group comprises a varied list that ... 4B). The CCR3 receptor, which binds CCL8 and CCL24, was not upregulated in is definitely differentially required for the ... 3A). Additional CXCL chemokines were either not recognized or not elevated in inflamed livers (Table 3). Manifestation of genes ... unique chemokine subfamilies: specifically, is critical for overexpression of specific CXCL genes but dispensable for ...
"Neutrophil recruitment by human IL-17 via C-X-C chemokine release in the airways". Journal of Immunology. 162 (4): 2347-52. ... "Requirement of interleukin 17 receptor signaling for lung CXC chemokine and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor expression, ... "Cooperation of interleukin-17 and interferon-gamma on chemokine secretion in human fetal intestinal epithelial cells" ...
B lymphocyte chemokine/CXCL13. Chemotactic for B cells (BLC). DDB1. DNA damage-binding protein 1 Protein, which is both ... CCL24. Eotaxin-2. Stimulates the migration of human eosinophil and basophil leukocytes.. ... Has anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic properties by limiting the induction of chemokines, fibronectin and collagen expression ...
Chemokine CCL22. Quimiocina CCL22. Quimiocina CCL24. Chemokine CCL24. Quimiocina CCL24. Quimiocina CCL27. Chemokine CCL27. ...
CCL3; chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3; SCYA3, small inducible cytokine A3 (homologous to mouse Mip 1a); C-C motif chemokine 3; ... CCL1 CCL11 Ccl12 CCL13 CCL14 CCL15 CCL16 CCL17 CCL18 CCL19 CCL2 CCL20 CCL21 Ccl21c CCL22 CCL23 CCL24 CCL25 CCL26 CCL27 Ccl27a ...
Chemokines CCL5, CCL7, CCL11, CCL13, CCL24, CCL28. Endothelial cell, epithelial cell and smooth muscle. Chemotaxis. ... CCL5, CCL11, CCL24 and CCL26 Filaggrin. COL29A1 ORMDL3 SMAD3 SPINK5 Chemoattractants. Epithelial integrity. Protection against ...
MeSH Terms: Allergens/immunology; Animals; Animals, Newborn; Chemokine CCL24/immunology; Chemokine CCL24/metabolism*; ... Ozone+HDM animals showed significantly increased CCL24 and CCL26 protein in lavage, but the concentration of CCL11, CCL24, and ... CCL24 was found to be induced only by combined ozone and HDM exposure, however expression was not associated with the presence ... Title: Increased CCL24/eotaxin-2 with postnatal ozone exposure in allergen-sensitized infant monkeys is not associated with ...
Chemokine CCL24 / genetics* Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... CCL24 and STYXL1-SRRM3 were novel. The disease-risk alleles in CCL24 and IL23R were associated with reduced CCL24 and IL23R ... Genetic control of CCL24, POR, and IL23R contributes to the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis Akira Meguro 1 , Mami Ishihara 1 , ... Genetic control of CCL24, POR, and IL23R contributes to the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis Akira Meguro et al. Commun Biol. 2020. ...
... chemokine ligands and receptors (CCL20, CCL22, CCL24 and members of the CXC family as well as CXCR2); Cytokines and receptors ( ... Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and Chemokine signaling, Toll-like receptor signaling, B cell receptor signaling, NOD- ... The systemic expression of proinflammatory chemokines (IL-8) and cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, and IL-17) was examined in sera using ... NOD-like receptor and Chemokine signaling pathways (Additional file 3: Table S3). The top GO enriched biological process was ...
4 chemokine (Ccl8, Ccl11, Ccl24, Cxcl10), and 8 asthma-related genes (Arg1, Ear11, Mcpt1, Sprr2a, Chi3l3, Chi3l4, Chia, Slc7a2 ... Ccl24. Ear11. Mcpt1. Arg1. Chi3l3. Chi3l4. Chia. Pde4b. Pde4d. Slc7a2. Tgf β1. ... However, when examined by qRT-PCR, four asthma-related genes were identified as up-regulated (Arg1, Ccl24, Slc7a2, Mcpt1). In ... 2006). Four genes linked to asthma or lung inflammation (Arg1, Ccl24, Slc7a2, Mcpt1) that did not pass all the microarray ...
In addition, TDI inhalation upregulated Th2 cytokine (IL-4, -5, -13, -10) and chemokine (Ccl11, Ccl24) expression and ... Neutralization of IL-5 did not affect the development of the cytokine/chemokine response driving recruitment of eosinophils. ...
2008; CCL24 CHEMOKINE (now CHEMOKINE CCL24) was indexed under CHEMOKINES, CC 1998-2007 & under CHEMOKINES 1997. History Note. ... Chemokine CCL24 Preferred Concept UI. M0275219. Registry Number. 0. Scope Note. A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 ... Chemokines [D12.644.276.374.200] * Chemokines, CC [D12.644.276.374.200.110] * Chemokine CCL1 [D12.644.276.374.200.110.050] ... Chemokines [D12.776.467.374.200] * Chemokines, CC [D12.776.467.374.200.110] * Chemokine CCL1 [D12.776.467.374.200.110.050] ...
2008; CCL24 CHEMOKINE (now CHEMOKINE CCL24) was indexed under CHEMOKINES, CC 1998-2007 & under CHEMOKINES 1997. History Note. ... Chemokine CCL24 Preferred Concept UI. M0275219. Registry Number. 0. Scope Note. A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 ... Chemokines [D12.644.276.374.200] * Chemokines, CC [D12.644.276.374.200.110] * Chemokine CCL1 [D12.644.276.374.200.110.050] ... Chemokines [D12.776.467.374.200] * Chemokines, CC [D12.776.467.374.200.110] * Chemokine CCL1 [D12.776.467.374.200.110.050] ...
C-C motif chemokine 22 O88430. activated T-lymphocytes. Ccl24. C-C motif chemokine 24 Q9JKC0. resting T-lymphocytes, ... C-C motif chemokine 17 F6R5P4. memory T-helper cells. Ccl19. C-C motif chemokine 19 O70460. CD4 T-cells, CD8 T-cells, resting B ... C-C motif chemokine 27 Q9Z1X0. skin-associated memory T-lymphocytes. Ccl28. C-C motif chemokine 28 Q9JIL2. resting CD4, CD8 T- ... C-C motif chemokine 21a P84444. thymocytes and activated T-cells. Ccl21b. C-C motif chemokine 21b P86792. thymocytes and ...
Query Trace: Leukemia and CCL24[original query]. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in genes encoding for CC chemokines were not ...
Chemokine receptors. CCL24 {Sp: Human} CCL7 {Sp: Human} CCL13 {Sp: Human} CCL2 {Sp: Human} CCL8 {Sp: Human} CCL16 {Sp: Human} ... Chemokine receptors. ACKR2 ACKR2. Ackr2. Ackr2. Chemokine receptors. adrenomedullin {Sp: Rat} CXCL11 {Sp: Human} CXCL12α {Sp: ... CCL11, CCL24 and CCL26 are the principal endogenous agonists Chemokine receptors. CCL17 {Sp: Human} CCL22 {Sp: Human} , CCL22 { ... Chemokine receptors. CCL27 {Sp: Human} CCL28 {Sp: Human} CCL27 {Sp: Mouse} CCL28 {Sp: Mouse} CCR10 CCR10. Ccr10. Ccr10. ...
Chemokine. / C-c Motif Chemokine 24. DTO Classes. Protein. / Signaling. / Chemokine. / C-c Motif Chemokine 24. ...
C-C motif chemokine ligand.... CCL24. 6369. CCL24. C-C motif chemokine ligand.... ... chemokines and several antagonists of NF-?B, e.g. TNFAIP3 (A20) and IER3.. ...
B) Normalized counts of selected M2-associated (Arg1 and Mrc1), M1-associated (Cd86 and Cd80), and chemokine (Ccl8 and Ccl24) ...
... as well as chemokines (CCL7, CCL11, CCL24) and products of alternatively activated macrophages. The huApoE4 mice had an ...
Chemokine CCL2 N0000178819 Chemokine CCL20 N0000178684 Chemokine CCL21 N0000178711 Chemokine CCL22 N0000178667 Chemokine CCL24 ... Chemokine CCL27 N0000178616 Chemokine CCL3 N0000178622 Chemokine CCL4 N0000171240 Chemokine CCL5 N0000178647 Chemokine CCL7 ... Chemokine CCL8 N0000178661 Chemokine CX3CL1 N0000178595 Chemokine CXCL1 N0000178589 Chemokine CXCL10 N0000178688 Chemokine ... Chemokine CXCL12 N0000178765 Chemokine CXCL13 N0000178594 Chemokine CXCL2 N0000178764 Chemokine CXCL5 N0000178659 Chemokine ...
Chemokine CCL24 is the second member of eotaxins, a group of eosinophils selectively chemoattractants. Via binding to its only ... Trophoblasts-derived chemokine CCL24 promotes the proliferation, growth and apoptosis of decidual stromal cells in human early ... We found that trophoblasts secrete chemokine CCL24, whereas DSCs express receptor CCR3. DSCs and trophoblasts co-culture had an ... nevertheless whether CCL24 is located there and which role CCL24/CCR3 axis played is unclear. In this article, we assessed the ...
HN - 2008(1998) BX - CCL22 Chemokine MH - Chemokine CCL24 UI - D054423 MN - D12.644.276.374.200.110.910 MN - D12.776.467.374. ... CCL3 Chemokine BX - CCL3L1 Chemokine BX - CCL3L2 Chemokine BX - CCL3L3 Chemokine BX - Chemokine CCL3L1 BX - Chemokine CCL3L2 BX ... CCL4L1 Chemokine BX - CCL4L2 Chemokine BX - Chemokine CCL4L1 BX - Chemokine CCL4L2 MH - Chemokine CCL11 UI - D054413 MN - ... HN - 2008(1997) BX - CCL24 Chemokine MH - Chemokine CCL27 UI - D054425 MN - D12.644.276.374.200.110.930 MN - D12.776.467.374. ...
HN - 2008(1998) BX - CCL22 Chemokine MH - Chemokine CCL24 UI - D054423 MN - D12.644.276.374.200.110.910 MN - D12.776.467.374. ... CCL3 Chemokine BX - CCL3L1 Chemokine BX - CCL3L2 Chemokine BX - CCL3L3 Chemokine BX - Chemokine CCL3L1 BX - Chemokine CCL3L2 BX ... CCL4L1 Chemokine BX - CCL4L2 Chemokine BX - Chemokine CCL4L1 BX - Chemokine CCL4L2 MH - Chemokine CCL7 UI - D054410 MN - ... HN - 2008(1997) BX - CCL24 Chemokine MH - Chemokine CCL27 UI - D054425 MN - D12.644.276.374.200.110.930 MN - D12.776.467.374. ...
ZIMMERMANN, N.; HERSHEY, G.K.; FOSTER, P.S.; ROTHENBERG, M.E. Chemokines in asthma: cooperative interaction between chemokines ... Under inflammatory conditions, IL-5 and the eotaxins CCL11, CCL24 and CCL26 have been shown to cooperate in selectively ... Modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules. Planta Med., v.69, n.2, p.973-983, 2004. ... Quercetin blocks airway epithelial cell chemokine expression. Am. J. Respir. Cell. Mol. Biol., v.35, n.5, p.602-610, 2006. ...
The chemokine CXCL6 restricts human trophoblast cell migration and invasion by suppressing MMP-2 activity in the first ... Control of extravillous trophoblast function by the eotaxins CCL11, CCL24 and CCL26.. Chau SE; Murthi P; Wong MH; Whitley GS; ...
... and CCL24-activated mouse eosinophils, weve discovered buy 54-36-4 that CCL24 can serve as a stimulator for mEARs secretion, ... In a few experiments, cells buy 54-36-4 had been pretreated 20 min before and during chemokine arousal at 37C with 5 mM. ... Inside our research we centered on eotaxin-1 (CCL11) and eotaxin-2 (CCL24) which bind the CCR3 G-protein combined receptor. ... with 100 ng/ml of reecombinant mouse CCL11 or CCL24 (Peprotech, Rocky Hill, NJ, USA), or 300 ng/ml individual CCL11 (R&D ...
Chemokine CCL11 Chemokine CCL17 Chemokine CCL19 Chemokine CCL2 Chemokine CCL20 Chemokine CCL21 Chemokine CCL22 Chemokine CCL24 ... Chemokine CCL27 Chemokine CCL3 Chemokine CCL4 Chemokine CCL5 Chemokine CCL7 Chemokine CCL8 Chemokine CX3CL1 Chemokine CXCL1 ... Chemokine CXCL10 Chemokine CXCL11 Chemokine CXCL12 Chemokine CXCL13 Chemokine CXCL2 Chemokine CXCL5 Chemokine CXCL6 Chemokine ... CXCL9 Chemokines Chemokines, C Chemokines, CC Chemokines, CX3C Chemokines, CXC Chemoprevention Chemoradiotherapy ...
Chemokine CCL22. Quimiocina CCL22. Quimiocina CCL22. Chemokine CCL24. Quimiocina CCL24. Quimiocina CCL24. ... Chemokine CXCL13. Quimiocina CXCL13. Quimiocina CXCL13. Chloroplast Thioredoxins. Tiorredoxinas de Cloroplastos. Tiorredoxinas ...

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