A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.
A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.
Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.
Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.
CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.
A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.
A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.
Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.
A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.
Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.
An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.
CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.
Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.
Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.
The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.

Glucocorticosteroids inhibit mRNA expression for eotaxin, eotaxin-2, and monocyte-chemotactic protein-4 in human airway inflammation with eosinophilia. (1/73)

How eosinophils are preferentially recruited to inflammatory sites remains elusive, but increasing evidence suggests that chemokines that bind to the CCR3 participate in this process. In this study, we investigated the transcript levels and chemotactic activity of CCR3-binding chemokines in nasal polyps, a disorder often showing prominent eosinophilia. We found that mRNA expression for eotaxin, eotaxin-2, and monocyte-chemotactic protein-4 was significantly increased in nasal polyps compared with turbinate mucosa from the same patients, or histologically normal nasal mucosa from control subjects. Interestingly, the novel CCR3-specific chemokine, eotaxin-2, showed the highest transcript levels. Consistent with these mRNA data, polyp tissue fluid exhibited strong chemotactic activity for eosinophils that was significantly inhibited by a blocking Ab against CCR3. When patients were treated systemically with glucocorticosteroids, the mRNA levels in the polyps were reduced to that found in turbinate mucosa for all chemokines. Together, these findings suggested an important role for CCR3-binding chemokines in eosinophil recruitment to nasal polyps. Such chemokines, therefore, most likely contribute significantly in the pathogenesis of eosinophil-related disorders; and the reduced chemokine expression observed after steroid treatment might reflect, at least in part, how steroids inhibit tissue accumulation of eosinophils.  (+info)

Molecular cloning of a novel human CC chemokine (Eotaxin-3) that is a functional ligand of CC chemokine receptor 3. (2/73)

Previously, we mapped the novel CC chemokine myeloid progenitor inhibitory factor 2 (MPIF-2)/eotaxin-2 to chromosome 7q11.23 (Nomiyama, H., Osborne, L. R., Imai, T., Kusuda, J., Miura, R., Tsui, L.-C., and Yoshie, O. (1998) Genomics 49, 339-340). Since chemokine genes tend to be clustered, unknown chemokines may be present in the vicinity of those mapped to new chromosomal loci. Prompted by this hypothesis, we analyzed the genomic region containing the gene for MPIF-2/eotaxin-2 (SCYA24) and have identified a novel CC chemokine termed eotaxin-3. The genes for MPIF-2/eotaxin-2 (SCYA24) and eotaxin-3 (SCYA26) are localized within a region of approximately 40 kilobases. By Northern blot analysis, eotaxin-3 mRNA was constitutively expressed in the heart and ovary. We have generated recombinant eotaxin-3 in a baculovirus expression system. Eotaxin-3 induced transient calcium mobilization specifically in CC chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3)-expressing L1.2 cells with an EC(50) of 3 nM. Eotaxin-3 competed the binding of (125)I-eotaxin to CCR3-expressing L1.2 cells with an IC(50) of 13 nM. Eotaxin-3 was chemotactic for normal peripheral blood eosinophils and basophils at high concentrations. Collectively, eotaxin-3 is yet another functional ligand for CCR3. The potency of eotaxin-3 as a CCR3 ligand seems, however, to be approximately 10-fold less than that of eotaxin. Identification of eotaxin-3 will further promote our understanding of the control of eosinophil trafficking and other CCR3-mediated biological phenomena. The strategy used in this study may also be applicable to identification of other unknown chemokine genes.  (+info)

C-C chemokines in allergen-induced late-phase cutaneous responses in atopic subjects: association of eotaxin with early 6-hour eosinophils, and of eotaxin-2 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-4 with the later 24-hour tissue eosinophilia, and relationship to basophils and other C-C chemokines (monocyte chemoattractant protein-3 and RANTES). (3/73)

The relationship of expression of the C-C chemokines eotaxin, eotaxin 2, RANTES, monocyte chemoattractant protein-3 (MCP-3), and MCP-4 to the kinetics of infiltrating eosinophils, basophils, and other inflammatory cells was examined in allergen-induced, late-phase allergic reactions in the skin of human atopic subjects. EG2+ eosinophils peaked at 6 h and correlated significantly with eotaxin mRNA and protein, whereas declining eosinophils at 24 h correlated significantly with eotaxin-2 and MCP-4 mRNA. In contrast, no significant correlations were observed between BB1+ basophil infiltrates, which peaked at 24 h, and expression of eotaxin, eotaxin-2, RANTES, MCP-3, and MCP-4 or elastase+ neutrophils (6-h peak), CD3+ and CD4+ T cells (24 h), and CD68+ macrophages (72 h). Furthermore, 83% of eosinophils, 40% of basophils, and 1% of CD3+ cells expressed the eotaxin receptor CCR3, while eotaxin protein was expressed by 43% of macrophages, 81% of endothelial cells, and 6% of T cells (6%). These data suggest that 1) eotaxin has a role in the early 6-h recruitment of eosinophils, while eotaxin-2 and MCP-4 appear to be involved in later 24-h infiltration of these CCR3+ cells; 2) different mechanisms may guide the early vs late eosinophilia; and 3) other chemokines and receptors may be involved in basophil accumulation of allergic tissue reactions in human skin.  (+info)

Migration of eosinophils across endothelial cell monolayers: interactions among IL-5, endothelial-activating cytokines, and C-C chemokines. (4/73)

Eosinophils are the predominant cell type recruited in inflammatory reactions in response to allergen challenge. The mechanisms of selective eosinophil recruitment in allergic reactions are not fully elucidated. In this study, the ability of several C-C chemokines to induce transendothelial migration (TEM) of eosinophils in vitro was assessed. Eotaxin, eotaxin-2, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-4, and RANTES induced eosinophil TEM across unstimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in a concentration-dependent manner with the following rank order of potency: eotaxin approximately eotaxin-2 > MCP-4 approximately RANTES. The maximal response induced by eotaxin or eotaxin-2 exceeded that of RANTES or MCP-4. Preincubation of eosinophils with anti-CCR3 Ab (7B11) completely blocked eosinophil TEM induced by eotaxin, MCP-4, and RANTES. Activation of endothelial cells with IL-1beta or TNF-alpha induced concentration-dependent migration of eosinophils, which was enhanced synergistically in the presence of eotaxin and RANTES. Anti-CCR3 also inhibited eotaxin-induced eosinophil TEM across TNF-alpha-stimulated HUVEC. The ability of eosinophil-active cytokines to potentiate eosinophil TEM was assessed by investigating eotaxin or RANTES-induced eosinophil TEM across resting and IL-1beta-stimulated HUVEC in the presence or absence of IL-5. The results showed synergy between IL-5 and the chemokines but not between IL-5 and the endothelial activator IL-1beta. Our data suggest that eotaxin, eotaxin-2, MCP-4, and RANTES induce eosinophil TEM via CCR3 with varied potency and efficacy. Activation of HUVEC by IL-1beta or TNF-alpha or priming of eosinophils by IL-5 both promote CCR3-dependent migration of eosinophils from the vasculature in conjunction with CCR3-active chemokines.  (+info)

CCR3-active chemokines promote rapid detachment of eosinophils from VCAM-1 in vitro. (5/73)

Selective eosinophil recruitment is the result of orchestrated events involving cell adhesion molecules, chemokines, and their receptors. The mechanisms by which chemokines regulate eosinophil adhesion and migration via integrins are not fully understood. In our study, we examined the effect of CCR3-active chemokines on eosinophil adhesion to VCAM-1 and BSA under both static and flow conditions. When eotaxin-2 or other CCR3-active chemokines were added to adherent eosinophils, it induced rapid and sustained eosinophil detachment from VCAM-1 in a concentration-dependent manner. Adhesion was detectably reduced within 3 min and was further reduced at 10-60 min. Simultaneously, eotaxin-2 enhanced eosinophil adhesion to BSA. Preincubation of eosinophils with the CCR3-blocking mAb 7B11 completely prevented chemokine-induced changes in adhesion to VCAM-1 and BSA. Using a different protocol, pretreatment of eosinophils with chemokines for 0-30 min before their use in adhesion assays resulted in inhibition of VCAM-1 adhesion and enhancement of BSA adhesion. By flow cytometry, expression of alpha4 integrins and a beta1 integrin activation epitope on eosinophils was decreased by eotaxin-2. In a flow-based adhesion assay, eotaxin-2 reduced eosinophil accumulation and the strength of attachment to VCAM-1. These results show that eotaxin-2 rapidly reduced alpha4 integrin function while increasing beta2 integrin function. These findings suggest that chemokines facilitate migration of eosinophils by shifting usage away from beta1 integrins toward beta2 integrins.  (+info)

Identification of potent, selective non-peptide CC chemokine receptor-3 antagonist that inhibits eotaxin-, eotaxin-2-, and monocyte chemotactic protein-4-induced eosinophil migration. (6/73)

Eosinophils have been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma and other allergic diseases. Several CC chemokines including eotaxin (CCL-11), eotaxin-2 (CCL-24), RANTES (CCL-5), and monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (MCP-3, CCL-7) and 4 (MCP-4, CCL-13) are potent eosinophil chemotactic and activating peptides acting through CC chemokine receptor-3 (CCR3). Thus, antagonism of CCR3 could have a therapeutic role in asthma and other eosinophil-mediated diseases. A high throughput, cellular functional screen was configured using RBL-2H3 cells stably expressing CCR3 (RBL-2H3-CCR3) to identify non-peptide receptor antagonists. A small molecule CCR3 antagonist was identified, SK&F 45523, and chemical optimization led to the generation of a number of highly potent, selective CCR3 antagonists including SB-297006 and SB-328437. These compounds were further characterized in vitro and demonstrated high affinity, competitive inhibition of (125)I-eotaxin and (125)I-MCP-4 binding to human eosinophils. The compounds were potent inhibitors of eotaxin- and MCP-4-induced Ca(2+) mobilization in RBL-2H3-CCR3 cells and eosinophils. Additionally, SB-328437 inhibited eosinophil chemotaxis induced by three ligands that activate CCR3 with similar potencies. Selectivity was affirmed using a panel of 10 seven-transmembrane receptors. This is the first description of a non-peptide CCR3 antagonist, which should be useful in further elucidating the pathophysiological role of CCR3 in allergic inflammatory diseases.  (+info)

Murine eotaxin-2: a constitutive eosinophil chemokine induced by allergen challenge and IL-4 overexpression. (7/73)

The generation of tissue eosinophilia is governed in part by chemokines; initial investigation has identified three chemokines in the human genome with eosinophil selectivity, referred to as eotaxin-1, -2, and -3. Elucidation of the role of these chemokines is dependent in part upon analysis of murine homologues; however, only one murine homologue, eotaxin-1, has been identified. We now report the characterization of the murine eotaxin-2 cDNA, gene and protein. The eotaxin-2 cDNA contains an open reading frame that encodes for a 119-amino acid protein. The mature protein, which is predicted to contain 93 amino acids, is most homologous to human eotaxin-2 (59.1% identity), but is only 38.9% identical with murine eotaxin-1. Northern blot analysis reveals three predominant mRNA species and highest constitutive expression in the jejunum and spleen. Additionally, allergen challenge in the lung with Aspergillus fumigatus or OVA revealed marked induction of eotaxin-2 mRNA. Furthermore, eotaxin-2 mRNA was strongly induced by both transgenic over-expression of IL-4 in the lung and administration of intranasal IL-4. Analysis of eotaxin-2 mRNA expression in mice transgenic for IL-4 but genetically deficient in STAT-6 revealed that the IL-4-induced expression was STAT-6 dependent. Recombinant eotaxin-2 protein induced dose-dependent chemotactic responses on murine eosinophils at concentrations between 1-1000 ng/ml, whereas no activity was displayed on murine macrophages or neutrophils. Functional analysis of recombinant protein variants revealed a critical role for the amino terminus. Thus, murine eotaxin-2 is a constitutively expressed eosinophil chemokine likely to be involved in homeostatic, allergen-induced, and IL-4-associated immune responses.  (+info)

Detection of mRNA for eotaxin-2 and eotaxin-3 in human dermal fibroblasts and their distinct activation profile on human eosinophils. (8/73)

As many new biologically active chemokines have been cloned exploring the genomic DNA sequence database in the vicinity of already known chemokine sequences without demonstrating their natural origin, it is important to transfer findings from in vitro experiments with chemokines into the in vivo situation. With respect to eosinophils and fibroblasts that play an important part in the pathogenesis of allergic and autoimmune diseases, the role of the recently discovered members of the eotaxin family, eotaxin-2 and eotaxin-3, is not really understood. In order to elucidate the origin and biologic potency of the eotaxin family this study was performed. Conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis was suitable to detect mRNA for eotaxin and eotaxin-3 but not for eotaxin-2 in dermal fibroblasts. In contrast to conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, LightCycler analysis revealed that dermal fibroblasts constitutively expressed mRNA not only for eotaxin and eotaxin-3 but also for eotaxin-2. Moreover, with this technique we investigated mRNA expression levels after stimulation of fibroblasts with interleukin-4 and interleukin-4 plus tumor necrosis factor-alpha: the rank order of expression levels within the eotaxin family was eotaxin > eotaxin-3 > eotaxin-2. To address the question of the efficacy of eotaxin-3, we compared its activity with eotaxin, eotaxin-2, monocyte chemotactic protein-3, monocyte chemotactic protein-4, and RANTES in different test systems for eosinophils. The efficacy of the CC chemokines at equimolar concentrations with respect to the chemotactic response of human eosinophils was eotaxin-3 = eotaxin = eotaxin-2 > RANTES > monocyte chemotactic protein-4. The rank order of activity with respect to actin polymerization and release of toxic reactive oxygen species was eotaxin-3 = eotaxin = eotaxin-2 and eotaxin = eotaxin-2 > eotaxin-3 = monocyte chemotactic protein-3 = monocyte chemotactic protein-4 = RANTES, respectively. This study indicated a distinct profile in expression levels of the members of the eotaxin family in dermal fibroblasts. Indeed, all three eotaxin ligands demonstrated activation of human eosinophils with similar efficacies for chemotaxis, cytoskeletal rearrangements, activation of Gi proteins and transients of [Ca2+]i, but a distinct profile of activity with respect to the binding to CCR3 and the release of toxic reactive oxygen species. These findings may help to understand further the role of CC chemokines in fibroblast/eosinophil activation, which is of interest particularly in allergic and autoimmune diseases.  (+info)

Previous investigations have demonstrated a link between elevated levels of eosinophils, eosinophil activation, and adult IBD. However, there have been conflicting data regarding the individual contribution of the eosinophil-selective chemokines eotaxin-1 and eotaxin-2 in eosinophil recruitment in IBD. In the present study we demonstrate the following: 1) that eosinophil numbers are elevated in pediatric UC and that their level correlates with disease severity; 2) eotaxin-1 and not eotaxin-2 or eotaxin-3 is up-regulated in lesional colonic biopsy samples of pediatric UC patients; and 3) eotaxin-1 mRNA expression correlates with colonic eosinophil levels in pediatric UC. Using a chemical-induced colonic injury model, we define that eotaxin-1, and not eotaxin-2, is critical for eosinophil recruitment and that eotaxin-1 is predominantly derived from intestinal macrophages. Consistent with our experimental analysis, we show that eotaxin-1 is predominantly expressed by intestinal macrophages; ...
Clinical studies have demonstrated a link between the eosinophil-selective chemokines, eotaxins (eotaxin-1/CCL11 and eotaxin-2/CCL24), eosinophils, and the inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis (UC). However, the cellular source and individual contribution of the eotaxins to colonic eosinophilic accumulation in inflammatory bowel diseases remain unclear. In this study we demonstrate, by gene array and quantitative PCR, elevated levels of eotaxin-1 mRNA in the rectosigmoid colon of pediatric UC patients. We show that elevated levels of eotaxin-1 mRNA positively correlated with rectosigmoid eosinophil numbers. Further, colonic eosinophils appeared to be degranulating, and the levels positively correlated with disease severity. Using the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced intestinal epithelial injury model, we show that DSS treatment of mice strongly induced colonic eotaxin-1 and eotaxin-2 expression and eosinophil levels. Analysis of eosinophil-deficient mice ...
Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by the degradation of articular cartilage, marked by the breakdown of matrix proteins. Studies demonstrated the involvement of chemokines in this process, and some may potentially serve as diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets; however, the underlying signal transductions are not well understood. We investigated the effects of the CC chemokine eotaxin-1 (CCL11) on the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression and secretion in the human chondrocyte cell line SW1353 and primary chondrocytes. Eotaxin-1 significantly induced MMP-3 mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibitors of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 kinase were able to repress eotaxin-1-induced MMP-3 expression. On the contrary, Rp-adenosine-3,5-cyclic monophosphorothioate (Rp-cAMPs), a competitive cAMP antagonist for cAMP receptors, and H-89, a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, markedly enhanced eotaxin-1-induced MMP-3 expression. These results suggest that MMP-3 expression
Human CCL24/Eotaxin-2/MPIF-2 ELISA Kit (Colorimetric). High sensitivity ELISA kit for detection of CCL24/Eotaxin-2/MPIF-2. Backed by our 100% Guarantee.
|p|Recombinant Human Eotaxin-2/CCL24 is a single non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 78 amino acids.|/p| |p|Background: Eotaxin-2 (CCL24) is a novel CC chemokine recently identified. It is produced by activated monocytes and T lymphocytes. Eota
|H3|Mouse Eotaxin-1 ELISA Kit|/H3||H4|Brand|/H4||p|BioAim Scientific (Kanada)|/p||h4|short description|/h4||p|The Bioaim Mouse Eotaxin ELISA kit is a solid phase sandwich ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) for the quantitative measurement of Eotaxi
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Eosinophils are specialized myeloid cells associated with allergy and helminth infections. Blood eosinophils demonstrate circadian cycling, as described over 80 years ago, and are abundant in the healthy gastrointestinal tract. Although a cytokine, interleukin (IL)-5, and chemokines such as eotaxins mediate eosinophil development and survival, and tissue recruitment, respectively, the processes underlying the basal regulation of these signals remain unknown. Here we show that serum IL-5 levels are maintained by long-lived type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) resident in peripheral tissues. ILC2 cells secrete IL-5 constitutively and are induced to co-express IL-13 during type 2 inflammation, resulting in localized eotaxin production and eosinophil accumulation. In the small intestine where eosinophils and eotaxin are constitutive, ILC2 cells co-express IL-5 and IL-13; this co-expression is enhanced after caloric intake. The circadian synchronizer vasoactive intestinal peptide also stimulates ILC2 cells
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References for Abcams Recombinant human Eotaxin 2 protein (ab54405). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Asthma is associated with eosinophilic airway inflammation and eosinophils are believed to be important in the pathogenesis of asthma. IL-5 has been considered the central mediator for eosinophilic proliferation, differentiation and eosinophilic inflammation, but results of recent studies suggest that besides IL-5, eotaxin may contribute to the pathogenesis of asthma. Eotaxin is CC chemokine first isolated from guinea pig bronchoalveolar lavage. It selectively binds to a specific receptor (CCR3) highly expressed on eosinophils, basophils, and mast cells being important in the pathogenesis of asthma. Eotaxin is produced mainly by epithelial cells of lung and gut, to mediate organ preferential attraction of eosinophils. Production of eotaxin is stimulated by IL-4, IL-13, TNF-α. Human eotaxin family includes: eotaxin-1 (CCL11), eotaxin-2 (CCL24) and eotaxin-3 (CCL26). It seems that eotaxin-3 may be expressed following allergen challenge. Studies with glucocorticosteroids have shown some inhibitory ...
article{7c45b648-bb75-40bb-a1de-8aa59d14e5c0, abstract = {Huntingtons disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by both neurological and systemic abnormalities. Immune activation is a well-established feature of the HD brain and we have previously demonstrated a widespread, progressive innate immune response detectable in plasma throughout the course of HD. In the present work we used multiplex ELISA to quantify levels of chemokines in plasma from controls and subjects at different stages of HD. We found an altered chemokine profile tracking with disease progression, with significant elevations of five chemokines (eotaxin-3, MIP-1β, eotaxin, MCP-1 and MCP-4) while three (eotaxin-3, MIP-1β and eotaxin) showed significant linear increases across advancing disease stages. We validated our results in a separate sample cohort including subjects at different stages of HD. Here we saw that chemokine levels (MCP-1 and eotaxin) correlated with clinical scores. We conclude ...
In humans, there are three family members: CCL11 (eotaxin-1) CCL24 (eotaxin-2) CCL26 (eotaxin-3) Van Coillie E, Van Damme J, ... The eotaxins are a CC chemokine subfamily of eosinophil chemotactic proteins. ... Opdenakker G (March 1999). "The MCP/eotaxin subfamily of CC chemokines". Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 10 (1): 61-86. doi:10.1016 ...
... or to sites of helminth infection in response to chemokines like CCL11 (eotaxin-1), CCL24 (eotaxin-2), CCL5 (RANTES), 5- ...
CC chemokine receptors CCBP2 CCL1 CCL11 CCL12 CCL13 CCL14 CCL15 CCL16 CCL17 CCL18 CCL19 CCL2 CCL20 CCL21 CCL22 CCL23 CCL24 ... Breakthrough infection Broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies Bursa of Fabricius C-C chemokine receptor type 6 C-C chemokine ... CD4 CD4+ T cells and antitumor immunity CD74 CD94/NKG2 Cell-mediated immunity CELSR1 Central tolerance Chemokine Chemokine ... CR6261 CroFab Cross-presentation Cross-reactivity Cryptic self epitopes Cryptotope CX3CL1 CX3CR1 CXC chemokine receptors CXCL1 ...
Eosinophils: the migration of eosinophils into various tissues involved several chemokines of CC family: CCL11, CCL24, CCL26, ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines in that it has ... CCL1 for the ligand 1 of the CC-family of chemokines, and CCR1 for its respective receptor. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) ...
... is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. CCL24 interacts with chemokine receptor CCR3 to induce ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 24 (CCL24) also known as myeloid progenitor inhibitory factor 2 (MPIF-2) or eosinophil chemotactic ... This chemokine is also strongly chemotactic for resting T lymphocytes and slightly chemotactic for neutrophils. Elevated levels ... "Molecular and functional characterization of two novel human C-C chemokines as inhibitors of two distinct classes of myeloid ...
CCR3 is a receptor for multiple inflammatory/inducible CC chemokines, including CCL11, CCL26, CCL7, CCL13, CCL15, CCL24 and ... The CC chemokine receptors all work by activating the G protein Gi. CCR1 was the first CC chemokine receptor identified and ... CC chemokine receptors (or beta chemokine receptors) are integral membrane proteins that specifically bind and respond to ... May 1997). "Molecular cloning of a novel human CC chemokine EBI1-ligand chemokine that is a specific functional ligand for EBI1 ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCL24 gene. This gene belongs to the subfamily of ... "Entrez Gene: C-C motif chemokine ligand 24". Retrieved 2018-05-09. Papadopoulos NG, Papi A, Meyer J, Stanciu LA, Salvi S, ... CCL24) induce recruitment of eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, and macrophages as well as features of early- and late-phase ...
Molecular and functional characterization of two novel human C-C chemokines as inhibitors of two distinct classes of myeloid ... CCL24 je mali citokin iz CC hemokin familije. CCL24 interaguje sa hemokinskim receptorom CCR3 i indukuje hemotaksu eozinofila.[ ... CCL24, hemokine (C-C motiv) ligand 24, takođe poznat kao mijeloidni progenitor inhibitorni faktor 2 (MPIF-2), ili eozinofilni ... Cloning and functional characterization of a novel human CC chemokine that binds to the CCR3 receptor and activates human ...
Eosinophils: the migration of eosinophils into various tissues involved several chemokines of CC family: CCL11, CCL24, CCL26, ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ...
"Cloning and functional characterization of a novel human CC chemokine that binds to the CCR3 receptor and activates human ... CCL24 je mali citokin iz CC hemokin familije. CCL24 interaguje sa hemokinskim receptorom CCR3 i indukuje hemotaksu eozinofila.[ ... CCL24, hemokin (C-C motiv) ligand 24, takođe poznat kao mijeloidni progenitor inhibitorni faktor 2 (MPIF-2), ili eozinofilni ... hemotaksni protein 2 (eotaksin-2), je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran CCL24 genom.[1] Taj gen je lociran na ljudskom ...
chemokine receptor activity. • receptor activity. • protein binding. • C-C chemokine receptor activity. • C-C chemokine binding ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene.[5] CCR6 ... "Entrez Gene: CCR6 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6".. *^ Wang K, Zhang H, Kugathasan S, Annese V, Bradfield JP, Russell RK, ... "Chemokine Receptors: CCR6". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
CCL24 · CCL25 · CCL26 · CCL27 · CCL28 ... Chemokine. CCL. CCL1 · CCL2 · CCL3 · CCL4 · CCL5 · CCL6 · CCL7 ...
positive regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production. • positive regulation of JUN kinase activity. • positive ... positive regulation of chemokine production. • cellular extravasation. • negative regulation of lipid storage. • negative ... positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • epithelial cell proliferation involved in salivary gland morphogenesis ...
... s are a subset of cytokines that are produced by a type of immune cell known as a lymphocyte.[1] They are protein mediators typically produced by T cells to direct the immune system response by signaling between its cells. Lymphokines have many roles, including the attraction of other immune cells, including macrophages and other lymphocytes, to an infected site and their subsequent activation to prepare them to mount an immune response. Circulating lymphocytes can detect a very small concentration of lymphokine and then move up the concentration gradient towards where the immune response is required. Lymphokines aid B cells to produce antibodies. Important lymphokines secreted by the T helper cell include:[2] ...
... binds to the death receptors DR4 (TRAIL-RI) and DR5 (TRAIL-RII). The process of apoptosis is caspase-8-dependent. Caspase-8 activates downstream effector caspases including procaspase-3, -6, and -7, leading to activation of specific kinases.[11] TRAIL also binds the receptors DcR1 and DcR2, which do not contain a cytoplasmic domain (DcR1) or contain a truncated death domain (DcR2). DcR1 functions as a TRAIL-neutralizing decoy-receptor. The cytoplasmic domain of DcR2 is functional and activates NFkappaB. In cells expressing DcR2, TRAIL binding therefore activates NFkappaB, leading to transcription of genes known to antagonize the death signaling pathway and/or to promote inflammation. Application of engineered ligands that have variable affinity for different death (DR4 and DR5) and decoy receptors (DCR1 and DCR2) may allow selective targeting of cancer cells by controlling activation of Type 1/Type 2 pathways of cell death and single cell fluctuations. Luminescent iridium complex-peptide ...
... (IL-24) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL24 gene. IL-24 is a cytokine belonging to the IL-10 family of cytokines that signals through two heterodimeric receptors: IL-20R1/IL-20R2 and IL-22R1/IL-20R2. This interleukin is also known as melanoma differentiation-associated 7 (mda-7) due to its discovery as a tumour suppressing protein. IL-24 appears to control in cell survival and proliferation by inducing rapid activation of particular transcription factors called STAT1 and STAT3. This cytokine is predominantly released by activated monocytes, macrophages and T helper 2 (Th2) cells[5] and acts on non-haematopoietic tissues such as skin, lung and reproductive tissues. IL-24 performs important roles in wound healing, arthritis, psoriasis and cancer.[6][7][8] Several studies have shown that cell death occurs in cancer cells/cell lines following exposure to IL-24.[9][10] The gene for IL-24 is located on chromosome 1 in humans.[11] ...
... as well as chemokine and cytokine production, and expression of adhesion molecules such as E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. This ...
positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • regulation of insulin secretion. • extrinsic apoptotic signaling ... Copeland KF (2006). "Modulation of HIV-1 transcription by cytokines and chemokines". Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry. 5 (12 ...
... is sometimes used interchangeably among scientists with the term cytokine.[3] Historically, cytokines were associated with hematopoietic (blood and lymph forming) cells and immune system cells (e.g., lymphocytes and tissue cells from spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes). For the circulatory system and bone marrow in which cells can occur in a liquid suspension and not bound up in solid tissue, it makes sense for them to communicate by soluble, circulating protein molecules. However, as different lines of research converged, it became clear that some of the same signaling proteins which the hematopoietic and immune systems use were also being used by all sorts of other cells and tissues, during development and in the mature organism. While growth factor implies a positive effect on cell division, cytokine is a neutral term with respect to whether a molecule affects proliferation. While some cytokines can be growth factors, such as G-CSF and GM-CSF, others have an inhibitory effect on ...
chemokine activity. • cytokine activity. • heparin binding. • protein binding. • CXCR3 chemokine receptor binding. ... C-X-C motif chemokine 11 is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also called Interferon-inducible T- ... "Entrez Gene: CXCL11 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11".. *^ a b Cole KE, Strick CA, Paradis TJ, Ogborne KT, Loetscher M, Gladue ... This chemokine elicits its effects on its target cells by interacting with the cell surface chemokine receptor CXCR3, with a ...
Interferon alfa 2b is an antiviral or antineoplastic drug, that was originally discovered in the laboratory of Charles Weissmann at the University of Zurich. It was developed at Biogen, and ultimately marketed by Schering-Plough under the tradename Intron-A. It has been used for a wide range of indications, including viral infections and cancers. This drug is approved around the world for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C, chronic hepatitis B, hairy cell leukemia, Behçet's disease, chronic myelogenous leukemia, multiple myeloma, follicular lymphoma, carcinoid tumor, mastocytosis and malignant melanoma. ...
4-1BB is a type 2 transmembrane glycoprotein receptor belonging to the TNF superfamily, expressed on activated T Lymphocytes.[1] 4-1BBL (4-1BB ligand) is found on APCs (antigen presenting cells) and binds to 4-1BB. ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the interleukin 1 cytokine family. Protein structure modeling indicated that this cytokine may contain a 12-stranded beta-trefoil structure that is conserved between IL1A (IL-A alpha) and IL1B (IL-1 beta). This gene and eight other interleukin 1 family genes form a cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 2. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported.[8]. ...
C-X-C chemokine receptor activity. • interleukin-8 binding. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. • chemokine receptor ... This name and the corresponding gene symbol IL8RA have been replaced by the HGNC approved name C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 1 ... "Chemokine Receptors: CXCR1". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... chemokine-mediated signaling pathway. • interleukin-8-mediated signaling pathway. • neutrophil degranulation. • chemotaxis. ...
CCL24 C-C motif chemokine ligand 24 [Homo sapiens] CCL24 C-C motif chemokine ligand 24 [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID:6369 ... CCL24provided by HGNC. Official Full Name. C-C motif chemokine ligand 24provided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:10623 See ... CCL24 C-C motif chemokine ligand 24 [ Homo sapiens (human) ] Gene ID: 6369, updated on 2-Mar-2021 ... C-C motif chemokine 24. Names. CK-beta-6. chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 24. eosinophil chemotactic protein 2. eotaxin-2. myeloid ...
Human chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 24 ELISA Kit-NP_002982.2 (MBS703750) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ELISA Kits ... Chemokine Signaling Pathway antibodies. Chemokine Signaling Pathway Diagram. Chemokine Signaling Pathway antibodies. Chemokine ... Human Eotaxin 2/CCL24 ELISA Kit. Product Synonym Names Human Eotaxin 2/CCL24 ELISA Kit; Ckb-6; MPIF-2; MPIF2; SCYA24; CK-beta-6 ... chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 24 (CCL24), ELISA Kit. ★Popular Item★ Also Known As ...
Compare C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, ... Chemokine CC-1, Chemokine CC-3, Small Inducible Cytokine Subfamily A (Cys-Cys) Member 14) ... Chemokine CC-1, Chemokine CC-3, Small Inducible Cytokine Subfamily A (Cys-Cys) Member 14) ... C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established antibody-based ...
This review will focus on recent murine and human studies that use chemokines as therapeutic anti-cancer vaccine adjuvants. ... Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing ... This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential ... CCL24. Eotaxin-2/MPIF-2. CCR3. homeostatic. CCL25. TECK. CCR9. homeostatic. CCL26. Eotaxin-3. CCR3. inflammatory. ...
PeproTechs chemokines include proteins that act through G protein-coupled receptors and conform to the prototypical chemokine ... Chemokine Subfamilies and Nomenclature. C Chemokines - Contain only two conserved cysteine residues linked by a single ... Chemokines and their receptors otherwise tend to interact indiscriminately to stimulate upregulation of adherent chemokines, co ... including a special class of small cytokines called chemokines.. Representing the largest class of cytokines, chemokines play ...
PeproTechs chemokines include proteins that act through G protein-coupled receptors and conform to the prototypical chemokine ... Chemokine. Diese Kategorie enthält Proteine, die durch G-Protein-gekoppelte Rezeptoren agieren, und der prototypischen ... Proteinstruktur der Chemokine entsprechen, die vier spezifisch kreuzvernetzte Cystein-Reste enthält (Lymphotactin ist eine ...
... and eotaxin-3/CCL26 bind specifically and exclusively to CC chemokine receptor (CCR) 3, which is a potential therapeutic target ... Eotaxin-1/CCL11, eotaxin-2/CCL24, and eotaxin-3/CCL26 bind specifically and exclusively to CC chemokine receptor (CCR) 3, which ... Bronchial epithelial cells represent an important source of chemokines, and thus we investigated in vitro and in vivo ...
Eosinophils: the migration of eosinophils into various tissues involved several chemokines of CC family: CCL11, CCL24, CCL26, ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ...
CCL24 (Chemokine c-c motif ligand 24, eotaxin-2) is a chemokine that promotes immune cell trafficking and activation as well as ... that targets the human chemokine CCL24. Previous studies have shown that administration of CM-101, by binding CCL24 with high ... CCL24 is a chemokine that was previously shown to be involved in proinflammatory and profibrotic processes. It was demonstrated ... Objectives We aimed to assess the expression of the CCL24 chemokine in systemic sclerosis (SSc) and to evaluate the possible ...
Jin L, Liu WR, Tian MX, Jiang XF, Wang H, Zhou PY, Ding ZB, Peng YF, Dai Z, Qiu SJ, et al: CCL24 contributes to HCC malignancy ... Among the four types of chemokines, there are two highly homologous XC chemokines: XC motif chemokine ligand 1 (XCL1) and XCL2 ... Chemokine receptors. Chemokines. Functions. Signaling pathways. Role in HCC. (Refs.). CXCR1. CXCL6,. Chemotactic neutrophils. - ... chemokines can bind to the atypical chemokine receptor (ACKR) subfamily, which is a key regulator of the chemokine network, and ...
CCL24_HUMAN antibody. *Chemokine CC Motif Ligand 24 antibody. *CK beta 6 antibody ...
C-C motif chemokine 2 K14624 CCL2; C-C motif chemokine 2 K16597 CCL11; C-C motif chemokine 11 K21097 CCL24; C-C motif chemokine ... 288593 Ccl24; C-C motif chemokine 24 precursor 685958 Ccl26; C-C motif chemokine 26 precursor 362505 Ccl27; C-C motif chemokine ... 288593 Ccl24; C-C motif chemokine 24 precursor 685958 Ccl26; C-C motif chemokine 26 precursor 114492 Ccl28; C-C motif chemokine ... 288593 Ccl24; C-C motif chemokine 24 precursor 360750 Ccl25; C-C motif chemokine 25 precursor 685958 Ccl26; C-C motif chemokine ...
Chemokines and their receptors play essential roles in immunology during inflammation and in homeostasis. ... Chemokines are a class of secreted molecules that induce chemotaxis (migration) of target cells. ... CCL24. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. a. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. ... Chemokine Receptor Biology poster. Order your copy of our ... Chemokines are also involved in the orchestration of wound healing.. For more information on inflammatory chemokines, see the ...
CCL24. Scya24. Eotaxin-2, MPIF-2, Ckβ6. O00175 CCL25. Scya25. TECK, Ckβ15. O15444 ... C chemokines. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CC chemokines. The CC chemokines (or β-chemokines) have two adjacent cysteines near their amino terminus. There have been at ...
It is possible to identify the particular chemokines which are over-expressed in the tumor using methods of the invention and ... The present invention provides a means of inhibiting the growth and metastasis of cancer cells by administering anti-chemokine ... The patient is then given the antibodies against the over-expressed chemokine(s). However, the level of each chemokine may also ... wherein said composition further comprises an antibody, or a fragment of an antibody, that binds to a chemokine or chemokine ...
CCL24. GNB3. MAP2K1. WASL. CXCL11. GNG7. ADCY4. Diacylglycerol. PLCB4. CCL27. Gm3785. Ccl2. GRK2. GNG13. GNG10. CCR8. GNGT1. ... Chemokines are small cytokines, or signaling proteins, secreted by cells. A major rol of chemokines is to act as ... c-C motif chemokine 12-like. CXCL12. CCR1. CX3CR1. GNG2. DOCK2. RAC1. GNB4. Jak-STAT signaling pathway. CCR2. PIK3R2. HRAS. ... Ontology Term : chemokine mediated signaling pathway added !. 90740. view. 23:30, 13 December 2016. Khanspers. New pathway. ...
A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by ... Chemokine CCL24 9. Interleukin-2 (IL2) 10. Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF-beta) ... TARC Chemokine; Thymus and Activation-Regulated Chemokine; CCL17, Chemokine; Chemokine, CCL17; Chemokine, TARC; Thymus and ... Chemokine CCL17. Subscribe to New Research on Chemokine CCL17 A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS ...
CCL24 is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. CCL24 interacts with chemokine receptor CCR3 to induce ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 24 (CCL24) also known as myeloid progenitor inhibitory factor 2 (MPIF-2) or eosinophil chemotactic ... This chemokine is also strongly chemotactic for resting T lymphocytes and slightly chemotactic for neutrophils. Elevated levels ... "Molecular and functional characterization of two novel human C-C chemokines as inhibitors of two distinct classes of myeloid ...
Ccl24. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 24. NM_019577. Gene Info. Ccl26. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 26. NM_001013412. Gene Info. ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 11. NM_011330. Gene Info. Ccl21a. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21A (serine). NM_001193667. NM_ ... Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 7. NM_007719. Gene Info. Cd40. CD40 antigen. NM_011611. NM_170704. NM_170703. NM_170702. Gene ... Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 13. NM_018866. Gene Info. Dab2ip. Disabled 2 interacting protein. NM_001114124. NM_001001602. NM ...
High sensitivity ELISA kit for detection of CCL24/Eotaxin-2/MPIF-2. Backed by our 100% Guarantee. ... chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 24. *Ckb-6. *Eosinophil chemotactic protein 2 ... Additional CCL24/Eotaxin-2/MPIF-2 Products. CCL24/Eotaxin-2/MPIF-2 KA1709 * CCL24/Eotaxin-2/MPIF-2 Antibodies ... Home » CCL24/Eotaxin-2/MPIF-2 » CCL24 ELISA Kits » Human CCL24/Eotaxin-2/MPIF-2 ELISA Kit (Colorimetric) ...
CCL24/MPIF-2 (aa 24-119). Mouse. 528-MP. 150-600 ng/ml. ... CXCL7/Thymus Chemokine-1 (aa 48-109). Mouse. 1091-CK. 1-5 ng/ml ... Available Chemokines and the Effect of Modification. Recombinant Chemokines (amino acids). Species. Catalog Number. Effect of ... Browse our complete line of chemokine-related products. View Larger. Fig. 1 Recombinant Human CXCL1/GRO alpha chemoattracts ... New Chemokines Expressed in Mammalian Cell Lines. Recombinant Protein. Species. Source. Catalog Number. ...
... chemokines, growth factors, and Th17 biomarkers. Premixed or custom panels and singleplex sets. ... Eotaxin2/CCL24. •. 73. Fractalkine/CX3CL1. •. 25. GM-CSF. •. 22. I-309/CCL1. •. 26. ... Available Bio-Plex Pro™ Mouse Cytokine & Chemokine Assays. Singleplex. Bio-Plex Pro Mouse Chemokine Panel 33-Plex. (12002231). ... Home,Life Science Research,Products,Bio-Plex® Multiplex Immunoassay System,Bio-Plex Pro™ Magnetic Cytokine, Chemokine, and ...
... chemokines, and growth factors with magnetic bead-based assays. Custom or premixed assay formats; low sample volumes. ... Eotaxin2/CCL24. •. 73. Fractalkine/CX3CL1. •. 25. GM-CSF. •. 22. I-309/CCL1. •. 26. ... Available Bio-Plex Pro™ Mouse Cytokine & Chemokine Assays. Singleplex. Bio-Plex Pro Mouse Chemokine Panel 33-Plex. (12002231). ... Chemokine, and Growth Factor Assays,Bio-Plex Pro™ Mouse Cytokine, Chemokine, and Growth Factor Assays ...
GenScript offers a broad range of active chemokine proteins with excellent lot-to-lot consistency, superior activity and ... Eotaxin-2/CCL24, Human - 20 μg $159.00 Z02846-1. Eotaxin-2/CCL24, Human - 1 mg $2100.00 ... Chemokines. Chemokines are a family of small cytokines, or proteins secreted by cells, with a molecular mass between 8 and 10 ... Members of the chemokine family are divided into four groups depending on the location of their first two cysteine residues. ...
23696919 - Trophoblasts-derived chemokine ccl24 promotes the proliferation, growth and apoptosis o.... 7362789 - Pancreatitis, ...
nonregular use], CCL24 (OR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.3-1.8), CCL13 (OR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.2-1.2), soluble interleukin 1 receptor II [( ... Results: Aspirin use was nominally associated with (Ptrend across categories ≤ 0.05) decreased levels of chemokine C-C motif ... 1). Regular aspirin use was inversely associated with chemokine C-C motif ligand 15 [(CCL15) OR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-0.8; moderate ... CCL13, CCL15, and CCL17 each belong to a class of small chemoattractant proteins called chemokines, which are important for ...
CCL24) is a novel CC chemokine recently identified. It is produced by activated monocytes and T lymphocytes. Eota ... p,Recombinant Human Eotaxin-2/CCL24 is a single non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 78 amino acids.,/p, ,p,Background ... Background: Eotaxin-2 (CCL24) is a novel CC chemokine recently identified. It is produced by activated monocytes and T ... Recombinant Human Eotaxin-2/CCL24 is a single non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 78 amino acids. ...
Related Protein CCL3L1; CCL17; CCL24; CXCL10; CXCL3; CCL3; CCL19A.1; CXCL12B; CCL34B.4; CCL3L3 ... C-C motif chemokine 21c;6Ckine;Ccl21-leu;C-C motif chemokine 21b;beta chemokine exodus-2;beta-chemokine exodus-2;Small- ... Ccl21c has several biochemical functions, for example, chemokine activity, chemokine receptor binding. Some of the functions ... Recombinant Mouse Chemokine (C-C motif) Ligand 21C (Leucine). E. coli. Mouse. N/A. +Inquiry. ...
Compare and order CCL24 ELISA Kits. View citations, images, detection ranges, sensitivity, prices and more. Recommended ... CC chemokine CCL24 , small inducible cytokine A24 , eotaxin-2-like protein , eosinophil chemotactic protein-2 , small chemokine ... Protein level used designations for CCL24 C-C motif chemokine 24 , CK-beta-6 , eosinophil chemotactic protein 2 , eotaxin-2 , ... Images for product: Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 24 (CCL24) ELISA Kit ...
CCL24; C-C motif chemokine 24 [KO:K21097]. 113268003 CCL26; C-C motif chemokine 26 [KO:K21096]. ... Identification and characterization of U83A viral chemokine, a broad and potent beta-chemokine agonist for human CCRs with ... soluble protein that preferentially inhibits beta chemokine activity yet lacks sequence homology to known chemokine receptors. ... Chemokine-directed trafficking of receptor stimulus to different g proteins: selective inducible and constitutive signaling by ...
  • Eotaxin-1/CCL11, eotaxin-2/CCL24, and eotaxin-3/CCL26 bind specifically and exclusively to CC chemokine receptor (CCR) 3, which is a potential therapeutic target in treating the peribronchial eosinophilia associated with allergic airway diseases. (nih.gov)
  • The migration and movement of eosinophils is promoted by chemokines, such as CCL11, CCL24 and CCL26 and chemokine receptors, such as CCR3. (news-medical.net)
  • In this study, we demonstrate that STAT6 in bone marrow-derived myeloid cells was sufficient for the production of CCL17, CCL22, CCL11, and CCL24 and for Th2 lymphocyte and eosinophil recruitment into the allergic airway. (jimmunol.org)
  • The chemokine CCL11 has been found in higher concentrations in people suffering from schizophrenia. (quanterix.com)
  • In addition, TDI inhalation upregulated Th2 cytokine (IL-4, -5, -13, -10) and chemokine (Ccl11, Ccl24) expression and eosinophil infiltration into the nasal mucosa of mice with TDI rhinitis. (cdc.gov)
  • these data suggest that CCL26 and CCL24 (show CCL24 ELISA Kits ) are likely involved in the pathogenesis of chronic nasal hypereosinophilia, with a complex cooperation and different involvement of the various members of eotaxin (show CCL11 ELISA Kits ) family. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Clinical studies have demonstrated a link between the eosinophil-selective chemokines, eotaxins (eotaxin-1/CCL11 and eotaxin-2/CCL24), eosinophils, and the inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC). (diva-portal.org)
  • To date, there are more than 50 chemokines and 18 chemokine receptors identified [ 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Most chemokines bind to more than one receptor, while most receptors also display overlapping ligand specificity [ 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • a trait that enables the recruitment of diverse populations of well-defined chemokine subsets and receptors. (peprotech.com)
  • In order to exert biological effect, chemokines will bind with receptors of the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, which possess seven conserved transmembrane domains with which chemokines can interact. (peprotech.com)
  • Classified into subfamilies based on the motifs of their ligands, these receptors tend to interact with the chemokines of their eponymous subfamilies. (peprotech.com)
  • Chemokines and their receptors otherwise tend to interact indiscriminately to stimulate upregulation of adherent chemokines, co-stimulatory cytokines and signaling cascades that polarizes cells to direct chemotaxis. (peprotech.com)
  • All of these proteins exert their biological effects by interacting with G protein -linked transmembrane receptors called chemokine receptors , that are selectively found on the surfaces of their target cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been found that chemokines and their receptors serve a pivotal role in HCC progression. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Thus, chemokines and their receptors directly or indirectly shape the tumor cell microenvironment, and regulate the biological behavior of the tumor. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Exosomes containing chemokines or expressing receptors for chemokines may improve chemotaxis to HCC and may thus be exploited for targeted drug delivery. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chemokines bind to a variety of different receptors, which belong to the G-protein-binding receptor family, and there are ~23 types of chemokine receptors that have been discovered ( 10 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chemokines and their receptors were initially thought to allow for an interaction between immune cells and the inflammatory sites ( 11 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • After binding to the receptors, chemokines primarily serve a role in migration of leukocytes, such as monocytes, eosinophils and dendritic cells (DCs) ( 11 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chemokines receptors are seven transmembrane spanning G protein-coupled receptors that allow cells to migrate towards increasing chemokine gradients. (biolegend.com)
  • Specific chemokine receptors are often required to gain entry (or exit) from certain organs and tissues like the thymus and bone marrow. (biolegend.com)
  • Chemokine signals are transduced by G-protein coupled receptors, which dissociate to activate diverse downstream pathways resulting in cellular polarization and actin reorganization. (wikipathways.org)
  • A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. (curehunter.com)
  • Cervical tissue was collected at 3, 12, and 24 h after inoculation and the expression array of chemokines, cytokines, and receptors was assessed to characterize the response during the initial developmental cycle. (asm.org)
  • We defined expression profiles of AAMφ-associated cytokines, chemokines, and their receptors, providing evidence that AAMφ contribute toward recruitment and maintenance of eosinophilia. (bloodjournal.org)
  • These results indicate that a specific set of chemokines enhance the inflammatory and protective anti-viral responses mediated by TNF and lymphotoxin, and illustrate how viruses optimize anti-TNF strategies with the addition of a chemokine binding domain as soluble decoy receptors. (nature.com)
  • To our knowledge, however, there has been no report on the expression of chemokine receptors in ASMC. (jimmunol.org)
  • The study aimed to evaluate the association between plasma levels of chemokines and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors (sTNFR) and liver histological changes among patients with chronic HCV infection. (nih.gov)
  • CCR3 is one of more than 20 distinct chemokine receptors expressed in human leukocytes. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • This study was undertaken to characterize the expression of chemokine receptors in the synovial tissue of RA and non-RA patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The mRNA expression of chemokine receptors and their ligands was determined using gene microarrays and PCR. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Microarray analysis showed the mRNA for CXCR5 to be more abundant in RA than non-RA synovial tissue, and of the chemokine receptors studied CXCR5 showed the greatest upregulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chemokine activity is dependent on the presence of and interaction with chemokine receptors on the leukocyte surface. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chemokines are chemoattractants that exert their activity through recruitment, migration and trafficking of cells bearing chemokine receptors into areas of inflammatory loci. (tonbobio.com)
  • Many chemokine receptors can bind several chemokines and alternatively, chemokines may bind to several receptors. (tonbobio.com)
  • The Mouse Chemokines & Receptors RT² Profiler ™ PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 genes that encode chemokines and their receptors. (sabiosciences.com)
  • This gene encodes a beta chemokine receptor, which is predicted to be a seven transmembrane protein similar to G protein-coupled receptors. (avivasysbio.com)
  • qPCR was used to verify the secretion of CCL5, CCL24, CCL26 and expression of CCR3 and IL-3. (alliedacademies.org)
  • LGG treatment was associated with a total decrease of allergic responses, secretion of CCL5, CCL24 and CCL26. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Auf www.antikoerper-online.de finden Sie aktuell 112 Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 26 (CCL26) Antikörper von 16 unterschiedlichen Herstellern. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • On www.antibodies-online.com are 22 Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 26 (CCL26) ELISA Kits from 15 different suppliers available. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Once at the site of injury, immune cells can react by releasing additional cytokines and chemokines, bringing more cells into the fold. (biolegend.com)
  • The role of cytokines and chemokines in anti-viral defense has been demonstrated, but their relative contribution to protective anti-viral responses in vivo is not fully understood. (nature.com)
  • ASMC produce inflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as IL IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, eotaxin, and RANTES that may act in both an autocrine and paracrine manner ( 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Cytokines and chemokines are widely involved in cancer cell progression and thus represent promising candidate factors for new biomarkers. (hindawi.com)
  • Expression analysis revealed 52 cytokines and chemokines primarily involved in proliferation and inflammation and differentially expressed not only in malignant and nonmalignant renal cells but also in the four RCC cell lines. (hindawi.com)
  • This is the first study examining the expression of 84 cytokines and chemokines in four RCC cell lines compared to that in a nonmalignant renal cell line. (hindawi.com)
  • Among other mechanisms, cytokines and chemokines are suspected to play a crucial role in proliferation and progression of various malignancies. (hindawi.com)
  • Even though some studies suggested an impact in RCC, the role of cytokines and chemokines in RCC progression is poorly understood [ 1 , 11 , 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • After classification of the RCC cells in cell lines of high and low cell growth rates, a transcriptional profiling specific for 84 cytokines and chemokines (Table 1 ) was carried out and compared to the corresponding cell growth properties. (hindawi.com)
  • The aim of this analysis was to identify cell growth-associated cytokines and chemokines by comparison of malignant and nonmalignant expression patterns, particularly with regard to the identification of putative biomarkers for RCC progression. (hindawi.com)
  • Several cytokines and chemokines associated with mobilizing innate immune response cells [ 17 , 18 ] were also identified in these models of metronomic CPA-induced regression, including CXCL14, IL-12β, and CXCL12/SDF1α. (biomedcentral.com)
  • On the 13th day, airway hypersensitivity was assessed (AHR), a bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) cell analysis was conducted, serum IgE and serum lactoferrin-specific IgG and IgE levels as well as the mRNA expression levels of cytokines and chemokines in the lung were measured, and a histopathological analysis of the lung was performed. (elsevier.com)
  • For example, in addition to chemotaxis, chemokines modulate lymphocyte development, priming and effector function [ 2 ] and play a critical role in immune surveillance. (mdpi.com)
  • Representing the largest class of cytokines, chemokines play an essential role in both physiological and pathological activities by stimulating the migration of certain leukocytes through concentration gradients in a process known as chemotaxis. (peprotech.com)
  • In addition to being known for mediating chemotaxis, chemokines are all approximately 8-10 kilodaltons in mass and have four cysteine residues in conserved locations that are key to forming their 3-dimensional shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the potential application of chemokines in chemotaxis of exosomes as drug vehicles is discussed. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chemokines are a class of cytokines that induce chemotaxis (migration) of target cells. (biolegend.com)
  • While some chemotaxis is induced by inflammation or damaged cells, other chemokines function in homeostasis. (biolegend.com)
  • CCL24 interacts with chemokine receptor CCR3 to induce chemotaxis in eosinophils. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokines primarily act to promote leukocyte chemotaxis to sites of inflammation. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • Selective depletion of CD11b + myeloid cells in the lung identified these cells as the critical cellular source for the chemokines CCL17 and CCL22. (jimmunol.org)
  • It was observed that lung interstitial macrophages derived from OVA‑induced asthmatic mice expressed phenotypic markers associated with alternatively activated macrophages (M2), including cluster of differentiation‑206, transglutaminase 2, arginase (Arg) 1 and chemokine ligand (CCL)17/CCL22/CCL24 secretion. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Objectives We aimed to assess the expression of the CCL24 chemokine in systemic sclerosis (SSc) and to evaluate the possible pathogenic implications of the CCL24/CCR3 axis using both in vitro and in vivo models. (bmj.com)
  • Methods We used ELISA and fluorescence immunohistochemistry to determine CCL24 levels in serum and CCL24/CCR3 expression in skin biopsies of SSc patients. (bmj.com)
  • CCL24/CCR3 expression was strongly increased in SSc skin. (bmj.com)
  • CCL24 is a strong suppressor of colony formation by a multipotential hematopoietic progenitor cell line and binds to CCR3. (prospecbio.com)
  • CCL24 interaguje sa hemokinskim receptorom CCR3 i indukuje hemotaksu eozinofila . (wikipedia.org)
  • Eotaxin-2 is a CC chemokine that signals through the CCR3 receptor. (reliatech.de)
  • context" : "http://schema.org", "@type" : "Product", "name" : " Dog C-C chemokine receptor type 3 (CCR3) ELISA Kit", "image" : "https://www.elisagenie. (elisagenie.com)
  • CCL24 functions as a chemotactic chemokine for resting t-lymphocytes, and eosinophils. (prospecbio.com)
  • Eosinophils release their proinflammatory and cytotoxic granule proteins, and various chemokines in response to a fungal infection. (news-medical.net)
  • Neutralization of IL-5 did not affect the development of the cytokine/chemokine response driving recruitment of eosinophils. (cdc.gov)
  • show that dermal TRMs can maintain an M2 phenotype in this T H 1 environment through IL-4/CCL24-mediated interactions with eosinophils. (sciencemag.org)
  • MBS703750 is a ready-to-use microwell, strip plate Sandwich ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) Kit for analyzing the presence of the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 24 (CCL24) ELISA Kit target analytes in biological samples. (mybiosource.com)
  • Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 24 (CCL24) also known as myeloid progenitor inhibitory factor 2 (MPIF-2) or eosinophil chemotactic protein 2 (eotaxin-2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCL24 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • C-C motif chemokine ligand 24 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCL24 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • CCL24 , hemokine (C-C motiv) ligand 24 , takođe poznat kao mijeloidni progenitor inhibitorni faktor 2 (MPIF-2), ili eozinofilni hemotaksni protein 2 (eotaksin-2), je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran CCL24 genom . (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 24 (CCL24) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family that is also known as Myeloid progenitor inhibitory factor 2 (MPIF-2) and Eosinophil chemotactic protein 2 (Eotaxin-2). (allergycases.org)
  • The invasion of such matter generates an onslaught of inflammatory responses, recruiting several immune cells and proteins, including a special class of small cytokines called chemokines. (peprotech.com)
  • Chemokines (Greek -kinos , movement) are a family of small cytokines , or signaling proteins secreted by cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytokine proteins are classified as chemokines according to behavior and structural characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokines are a class of small molecular proteins with similar structures, functions and chemotactic properties, and their molecular weights are ~10 kDa, and chemokines represent the largest member of the cytokine family ( 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chemokines are a family of small cytokines , or proteins secreted by cells . (wikidoc.org)
  • Proteins are classified as chemokines according to shared structural characteristics such as small size (they are all approximately 8-10 kilodaltons in size), and the presence of four cysteine residues in conserved locations that are key to forming their 3-dimensional shape. (wikidoc.org)
  • Proteins are classified into the chemokine family based on their structural characteristics, not just their ability to attract cells. (wikidoc.org)
  • Typical chemokine proteins are produced as pro-peptides , beginning with a signal peptide of approximately 20 amino acids that gets cleaved from the active (mature) portion of the molecule during the process of its secretion from the cell. (wikidoc.org)
  • Chemokines are small cytokines, or signaling proteins, secreted by cells. (wikipathways.org)
  • Chemokines are small secreted proteins that function in leukocyte trafficking, recruitment, and activation and have a role in many pathophysiological processes such as infectious and autoimmune diseases, inflammation, cancer, and vascular disease. (rndsystems.com)
  • Chemokines are a family of small cytokines, or proteins secreted by cells, with a molecular mass between 8 and 10 kDa. (genscript.com)
  • GenScript offers a comprehensive catalog of chemokine proteins with excellent lot-to-lot consistency, superior activity and significantly low endotoxin levels. (genscript.com)
  • Among these signals, small molecular weight chemoattractant proteins known as chemokines are potentially important contributors as they participate in both directing leukocyte migration and function. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition to the cysteine-rich domains (CRDs), characteristic of the ligand binding region of cellular TNFRs, CrmB and CrmD have a C-terminal domain unrelated to host proteins that binds chemokines and was named SECRET (smallpox virus-encoded chemokine receptor) domain 16 . (nature.com)
  • Human Eotaxin is a CC chemokine (β-chemokine) composed of 74 amino acids (molecular weight 8.4 kDa), and is one of a subfamily of eosinophil chemotactic proteins produced by a number of normal cells and cell lines. (quanterix.com)
  • This study analyzed and compared the presence of 100 proteins including chemokines, cytokines and soluble factors in six different types of media supplements: serum, plasma, recalcified plasma, heat inactivated serum, heat inactivated plasma and heat inactivated recalcified plasma. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 17 (CCL17) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family that is also known as thymus and activation regulated chemokine (TARC). (allergycases.org)
  • Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family that is also known as monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). (allergycases.org)
  • Human CC chemokine CCL23 enhances expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and invasion of vascular endothelial cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Analysis of gene expression in HREC (Figure 4) indicated that high glucose upregulated the transcript levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) (D), IL-8 (E), IL-10 (F), TNF-[alpha] (G), and C-C motif chemokine ligand 23 ( CCL23 ) (I). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This review will focus on recent murine and human studies that use chemokines as therapeutic anti-cancer vaccine adjuvants. (mdpi.com)
  • Cloning and characterization of a novel murine beta chemokine receptor, D6. (uniprot.org)
  • NCBI/Uniprot data below describe general gene information for CCL24 . (mybiosource.com)
  • This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential vaccine adjuvants. (mdpi.com)
  • This gene, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 14, is one of several CC cytokine genes clustered on 17q11.2. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Read-through transcripts are also expressed that include exons from the upstream cytokine gene, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 15, and are represented as GeneID: 348249. (creativebiomart.net)
  • This gene is mapped to chromosome 3p21.3, a region that includes a cluster of chemokine receptor genes. (avivasysbio.com)
  • Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • Discover related pathways, diseases and genes to CCL24/Eotaxin-2/MPIF-2 ELISA Kit (KA1709). (novusbio.com)
  • Several chemokine and cytokine genes were expressed as early as 3 h after infection, but by 12 h, 41 genes were expressed. (asm.org)
  • Large numbers of responsive cytokines, chemokines and immune regulatory genes linked to innate immune cell recruitment and tumor regression were identified, as were several immunosuppressive factors that may contribute to the observed escape of some tumors from metronomic CPA-induced, immune-based regression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There has been a great deal of work published on the induction of various chemokines and cytokines using in vitro culture systems. (asm.org)
  • There have been numerous in vitro studies showing that chlamydiae can elicit various chemokines and cytokines from tissue culture cells (reviewed in reference 19 ). (asm.org)
  • Assignment of the human CC chemokine MPIF-2/eotaxin-2 (SCYA24) to chromosome 7q11.23. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also called macrophage inflammatory protein 2-alpha (MIP2-alpha), Growth-regulated protein beta (Gro-beta) and Gro oncogene-2 (Gro-2). (allergycases.org)
  • Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4 is also known as CCL4 and MIP-1. (allergycases.org)
  • From a clinical point of view, cytokine and chemokine secretion into the blood stream makes them very suitable as noninvasive clinical markers. (hindawi.com)
  • Atypical chemokine receptor that controls chemokine levels and localization via high-affinity chemokine binding that is uncoupled from classic ligand-driven signal transduction cascades, resulting instead in chemokine sequestration, degradation, or transcytosis. (uniprot.org)
  • Skin fibroblasts and endothelial cells treated with CCL24 or SSc serum with or without CM-101 were used to follow cell activation and differentiation. (bmj.com)
  • Blockade of CCL24 with CM-101 significantly reduced the activation of dermal fibroblasts and their transition to myofibroblasts induced by SSc serum. (bmj.com)
  • A comparison of serum and plasma levels of soluble factors found that 2 were greater in plasma but 18 factors were greater in serum including 11 chemokines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While a function of chemokines is to regulate lymphocyte trafficking, the view that chemokines act simply as "chemotactic cytokines" has evolved to include the many critical roles they play in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses. (mdpi.com)
  • This chemokine is also strongly chemotactic for resting T lymphocytes and slightly chemotactic for neutrophils. (wikipedia.org)
  • CCL24 has lower chemotactic activity for neutrophils but none for monocytes and activated lymphocytes. (prospecbio.com)
  • CX3C Chemokines - Contain four conserved cysteine residues of which the first two, closest to the N-terminal, are separated by three amino acids. (peprotech.com)
  • They all also possess conserved amino acids that are important for creating their 3-dimensional or tertiary structure , such as (in most cases) four cysteines that interact with each other in pairs to create a Greek key shape that is a characteristic of chemokines. (wikidoc.org)
  • Recombinant Human Eotaxin-2/CCL24 is a single non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 78 amino acids. (cellsciences.com)
  • CCL24 Mouse Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 93 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 10.3 kDa. (prospecbio.com)
  • A synthesized peptide derived from human CCL24, corresponding to a region within C-terminal amino acids. (thermofisher.com)
  • Eosinophil-platelet interactions can be strengthened via the expression of granulocytes and certain chemokines. (news-medical.net)
  • STAT6-mediated chemokine production in the lung is required for Th2 lymphocyte and eosinophil homing into the airways in allergic pulmonary inflammation, and thus is a potential therapeutic target in asthma. (jimmunol.org)
  • 1995) Cloning and functional expression of a human eosinophil CC chemokine receptor. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • IL-4 and IL-10 stimulation of dermal TRMs triggered production of CCL24, which promoted further eosinophil recruitment and close interactions with TRMs. (sciencemag.org)
  • The present invention provides a means of inhibiting the growth and metastasis of cancer cells by administering anti-chemokine antibodies. (google.com)
  • We further investigated the efficacy of an anti-CCL24 monoclonal antibody (mAb), CM-101, in inhibiting cell activation as well as dermal and pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in experimental animal models. (bmj.com)
  • Using CM-101, a monoclonal antibody that selectively targets CCL24, we significantly decreased the inflammatory and fibrotic features of bleomycin-induced experimental dermal and pulmonary fibrosis mouse models. (bmj.com)
  • Choose from our CCL24/Eotaxin-2/MPIF-2 polyclonal antibodies and browse our CCL24/Eotaxin-2/MPIF-2 monoclonal antibody catalog. (novusbio.com)
  • Human CCL24 (O00175, 1 a.a. - 119 a.a.) full-length recombinant protein. (abnova.com)
  • Trophoblasts-derived chemokine CCL24 promotes the proliferation, growth and apoptosis of decidual stromal cells in human early pregnancy. (nih.gov)
  • RNAdjuvant ® was the only one to induce most of the cytokines/chemokines tested with a pronounced Th1 cytokine pattern. (biomedcentral.com)
  • PAMPs) and induce the innate immune response by activation of a signaling cascade resulting in the upregulation of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and type I IFNs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Conversely, spindle MDMs exhibited enhanced respiratory burst and higher expression of the chemokine (C-C motif) ligands 18 and 24 (CCL18 and CCL24). (nih.gov)
  • cytokine and chemokine production was evaluated by Bio-Plex ProTM. (biomedcentral.com)
  • No significant cross-reactivity or interference between human eotaxin 2/CCL24 and analogues was observed. (mybiosource.com)
  • Production and regulation of eotaxin-2/CCL24 in a differentiated human leukemic cell line, HT93. (nih.gov)
  • This assay has high sensitivity and excellent specificity for detection of human eotaxin 2/CCL24. (mybiosource.com)
  • ELISA: Human CCL24/Eotaxin-2/MPIF-2 ELISA Kit (Colorimetric) [KA1709] - These standard curves are provided for demonstration only. (novusbio.com)
  • CCL24 (Human) ELISA Kit is an in vitro enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantitative measurement of human CCL24. (novusbio.com)
  • Our CCL24/Eotaxin-2/MPIF-2 Antibodies can be used in a variety of model species: Human, Mouse. (novusbio.com)
  • RayBio ® C-Series Human Chemokine Antibody Array 1 Kit. (raybiotech.com)
  • Detects 38 Human Chemokines. (raybiotech.com)
  • Human CCL24 wild-type allele is located in the vicinity of 7q11.23 and is approximately 2 kb in length. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 1997). "CCR6, a CC chemokine receptor that interacts with macrophage inflammatory protein 3alpha and is highly expressed in human dendritic cells" . (wikipedia.org)
  • To assess the linearity of the assay, samples were spiked with high concentrations of human eotaxin 2/CCL24 in various matrices and diluted with the Sample Diluent to produce samples with values within the dynamic range of the assay. (cog395.com)
  • The recovery of human eotaxin 2/CCL24 spiked to levels throughout the range of the assay in various matrices was evaluated. (cog395.com)
  • Some chemokines are considered pro- inflammatory and can be induced during an immune response to recruit cells of the immune system to a site of infection , while others are considered homeostatic and are involved in controlling the migration of cells during normal processes of tissue maintenance or development . (wikipedia.org)
  • The major role of chemokines is to act as a chemoattractant to guide the migration of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A major rol of chemokines is to act as chemoattractants in guiding migration of cells. (wikipathways.org)
  • This invention relates to antibodies or the use of antibodies directed against certain chemokines. (google.com)
  • These are known as homeostatic chemokines and are produced and secreted without any need to stimulate their source cell(s). (wikipedia.org)
  • Homeostatic chemokines are constitutively expressed in particular organs or tissues. (biolegend.com)
  • Due to their function of targeting cells to specific organs, homeostatic chemokines can also be involved in cancer and metastasis. (biolegend.com)
  • Use this table to quickly identify the chemokines that bind to each receptor. (biolegend.com)
  • The ELISA analytical biochemical technique of the MBS703750 kit is based on CCL24 antibody-CCL24 antigen interactions (immunosorbency) and an HRP colorimetric detection system to detect CCL24 antigen targets in samples. (mybiosource.com)
  • Antibody specific for eotaxin 2/CCL24 has been pre-coated onto a microplate. (mybiosource.com)
  • Standards and samples are pipetted into the wells and any eotaxin 2/CCL24 present is bound by the immobilized antibody. (mybiosource.com)
  • After removing any unbound substances, a biotin-conjugated antibody specific for eotaxin 2/CCL24 is added to the wells. (mybiosource.com)
  • Each CCL24/Eotaxin-2/MPIF-2 Antibody is fully covered by our Guarantee+, to give you complete peace of mind and the support when you need it. (novusbio.com)
  • Conclusions CCL24 plays an important role in pathological processes of skin and lung inflammation and fibrosis. (bmj.com)
  • Chronic inflammation is characterized by aberrant long-term expression of circulating inflammatory factors such as chemokines, cytokines, and growth factors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Chemokines and their receptor-mediated signal transduction are critical for the recruitment of effector immune cells to the inflammation site. (avivasysbio.com)
  • This pathway was inferred from Mus musculus pathway "Chemokine signaling pathway", WP2292 revision 89521, with a 91.0% conversion rate. (wikipathways.org)
  • We selected most pathways Ccl21c participated on our site, such as Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, Chemokine signaling pathway, NF-kappa B signaling pathway, which may be useful for your reference. (creativebiomart.net)
  • We selected most pathways CCL14 participated on our site, such as Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, Chemokine signaling pathway, which may be useful for your reference. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Classified into subfamilies by the structural conservation of both cysteine residues and disulfide bonds, chemokine nomenclature reflects several cysteine-grouping motifs and arrangements. (peprotech.com)
  • These cysteines provide tertiary structure for the chemokine through disulfide bonds. (biolegend.com)
  • Chemokines are a specialized class of soluble factors mainly active in inflammatory processes. (tonbobio.com)
  • later observed that chlamydial infection of epithelial cells in vitro resulted in the production of interleukin 8 (IL-8), an important chemokine for PMNs, 20 to 24 h postinfection and required that the organisms be viable ( 26 ). (asm.org)
  • The patterns of surface markers chemokine ligand and interleukin, and the metabolic enzyme activity of lung interstitial macrophages were investigated using flow cytometry analysis, reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blot analysis, and ELISA. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Naturally occurring modifications, such as N-terminal truncation, can affect the biological potency and the receptor specificity of chemokines. (rndsystems.com)