Chemokine CCL27: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.Chemokine CCL21: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL22: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.Chemokine CCL17: A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Chemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CCL19: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL5: A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.Chemokine CCL20: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL1: A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.Chemokines, CC: Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.Receptors, Chemokine: Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Chemokine CCL3: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Chemokine CCL7: A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Receptors, CCR10: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL4: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Chemokine CXCL12: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.Receptors, CCR1: CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.Chemokine CXCL10: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemokine CCL8: A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.Receptors, CCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.Receptors, CCR2: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.Chemokine CCL11: A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Chemokine CCL24: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Receptors, CCR7: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.Receptors, CCR8: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.Chemokine CXCL1: A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Receptors, CCR4: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.Chemokines, CXC: Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.Chemokine CX3CL1: A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins: Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.Receptors, CCR5: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.Receptors, CCR3: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.Chemokine CXCL9: An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Mice, Inbred C57BLCell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Chemokine CXCL2: A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CXCL13: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.Receptors, CXCR4: CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Chemokine CXCL11: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Chemokine CXCL6: A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Chemokine CXCL5: A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Receptors, CXCR3: CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Receptors, Interleukin-8B: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Dermatitis, Atopic: A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Monocyte Chemoattractant Proteins: Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Receptors, CCR6: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Receptors, Interleukin-8A: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Receptors, CXCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Receptors, Cytokine: Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Chemokines, CX3C: Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.Receptors, CXCR5: CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Chemotactic Factors: Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Monokines: Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.Receptors, HIV: Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Carbon Tetrachloride PoisoningDuffy Blood-Group System: A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.Chemotactic Factors, Eosinophil: Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.Neutrophil Infiltration: The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Heterocyclic Compounds: Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Cell Migration Inhibition: Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Platelet Factor 4: A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Endothelium, Lymphatic: Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.

Selective recruitment of CCR4-bearing Th2 cells toward antigen-presenting cells by the CC chemokines thymus and activation-regulated chemokine and macrophage-derived chemokine. (1/183)

Helper T cells are classified into Th1 and Th2 subsets based on their profiles of cytokine production. Th1 cells are involved in cell-mediated immunity, whereas Th2 cells induce humoral responses. Selective recruitment of these two subsets depends on specific adhesion molecules and specific chemoattractants. Here, we demonstrate that the T cell-directed CC chemokine thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) was abundantly produced by monocytes treated with granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or IL-3, especially in the presence of IL-4 and by dendritic cells derived from monocytes cultured with GM-CSF + IL-4. The receptor for TARC and another macrophage/dendritic cell-derived CC chemokine macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) is CCR4, a G protein-coupled receptor. CCR4 was found to be expressed on approximately 20% of adult peripheral blood effector/memory CD4+ T cells. T cells attracted by TARC and MDC generated cell lines predominantly producing Th2-type cytokines, IL-4 and IL-5. Fractionated CCR4+ cells but not CCR4- cells also selectively gave rise to Th2-type cell lines. When naive CD4+ T cells from adult peripheral blood were polarized in vitro, Th2-type cells selectively expressed CCR4 and vigorously migrated toward TARC and MDC. Taken together, CCR4 is selectively expressed on Th2-type T cells and antigen-presenting cells may recruit Th2 cells expressing CCR4 by producing TARC and MDC in Th2-dominant conditions.  (+info)

Chemokine Up-regulation and activated T cell attraction by maturing dendritic cells. (2/183)

Langerhans' cells migrating from contact-sensitized skin were found to up-regulate expression of macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) during maturation into lymph node dendritic cells (DCs). Naive T cells did not migrate toward MDC, but antigen-specific T cells rapidly acquired MDC responsiveness in vivo after a subcutaneous injection of antigen. In chemotaxis assays, maturing DCs attracted activated T cells more strongly than naive T cells. These studies identified chemokine up-regulation as part of the Langerhans' cell maturation program to immunogenic T cell-zone DC. Preferential recruitment of activated T cells may be a mechanism used by maturing DCs to promote encounters with antigen-specific T cells.  (+info)

Mouse monocyte-derived chemokine is involved in airway hyperreactivity and lung inflammation. (3/183)

The cloning, expression, and function of the murine (m) homologue of human (h) monocyte-derived chemokine (MDC) is reported here. Like hMDC, mMDC is able to elicit the chemotactic migration in vitro of activated lymphocytes and monocytes. Among activated lymphocytes, Th2 cells were induced to migrate most efficiently. mMDC mRNA and protein expression is modulated during the course of an allergic reaction in the lung. Neutralization of mMDC with specific Abs in a model of lung inflammation resulted in prevention of airway hyperreactivity and significant reduction of eosinophils in the lung interstitium but not in the airway lumen. These data suggest that mMDC is essential in the transit/retention of leukocytes in the lung tissue rather than in their extravasation from the blood vessel or during their transepithelial migration into the airways. These results also highlight the relevance of factors, such as mMDC, that regulate the migration and accumulation of leukocytes within the tissue during the development of the key physiological endpoint of asthma, airway hyperreactivity.  (+info)

Cutting edge: developmental switches in chemokine responses during T cell maturation. (4/183)

We show that developmental transitions during thymocyte maturation are associated with dramatic changes in chemotactic responses to chemokines. Macrophage-derived chemokine, a chemokine expressed in the thymic medulla, attracts thymocytes only during a brief window of development, between the late cortical and early medullary stages. All medullary phenotypes (CD4 or CD8 single positive) but not immature thymocytes respond to the medullary stroma-expressed (and secondary lymphoid tissue-associated) chemokines secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine and macrophage inflammatory protein-3beta. The appearance of these responses is associated with the phenotypic stage of cortex to medulla migration and with up-regulation of mRNA for the receptors CCR4 (for macrophage-derived chemokine and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine) and CCR7 (for secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine and macrophage inflammatory protein-3beta). In contrast, most immature and medullary thymocytes migrate to thymus-expressed chemokine, an ability that is lost only with up-regulation of the peripheral homing receptor L-selectin during the latest stages of thymocyte maturation associated with export to the periphery. Developmental switches in chemokine responses may help regulate critical migratory events during T cell development.  (+info)

Macrophage-derived chemokine is localized to thymic medullary epithelial cells and is a chemoattractant for CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(low) thymocytes. (5/183)

Macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) is a recently identified CC chemokine that is a potent chemoattractant for dendritic cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and the Th2 subset of peripheral blood T cells. In normal tissues, MDC mRNA is expressed principally in the thymus. Immunohistochemical analysis performed on 5 human postnatal thymuses showed high MDC immunoreactivity, which was selectively localized to epithelial cells within the medulla. To examine the effects of MDC on immature T cells, we have identified cDNA clones for mouse and rat MDC. Expression of MDC in murine tissues is also highly restricted, with significant levels of mRNA found only in the thymus. Thymocytes express high-affinity binding sites for MDC (kd = 0.7 nmol/L), and, in vitro, MDC is a chemoattractant for these cells. MDC-responsive murine thymocytes express mRNA for CCR4, a recently identified receptor for MDC. Phenotypic analysis of MDC-responsive cells shows that they are enriched for a subset of double-positive cells that express high levels of CD3 and CD4 and that have reduced levels of CD8. This subset of MDC-responsive cells is consistent with the observed expression of MDC within the medulla, because more mature cells are found there. MDC may therefore play a role in the migration of T-cell subsets during development within the thymus.  (+info)

Differential responsiveness to constitutive vs. inducible chemokines of immature and mature mouse dendritic cells. (6/183)

Upon exposure to immune or inflammatory stimuli, dendritic cells (DC) migrate from peripheral tissues to lymphoid organs, where they present antigen. The molecular basis for the peculiar trafficking properties of DC is largely unknown. In this study, mouse DC were generated from CD34+ bone marrow precursors and cultured with granulocyte-macrophage-CSF and Flt3 ligand for 9 days. Chemokines active on immature DC include MIP1alpha, RANTES, MIP1beta, MCP-1, MCP-3, and the constitutively expressed SDF1, MDC, and ELC. TNF-alpha-induced DC maturation caused reduction of migration to inducible chemokines (MIP1alpha, RANTES, MIP1beta, MCP-1, and MCP-3) and increased migration to SDF1, MDC, and ELC. Similar results were obtained by CD40 ligation or culture in the presence of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. TNF-alpha down-regulated CC chemokine receptor (CCR)1, CCR2, and CCR5 and up-regulated CCR7 mRNA levels, in agreement with functional data. This study shows that selective responsiveness of mature and immature DC to inducible vs. constitutively produced chemokines can contribute to the regulated trafficking of DC.  (+info)

Overproduction of Th2-specific chemokines in NC/Nga mice exhibiting atopic dermatitis-like lesions. (7/183)

We have examined the expression of chemokines and their receptors in the atopic dermatitis-like (AD-like) lesions of NC/Nga mice. Such lesions develop when the mice are kept in conventional conditions, but not when they are kept isolated from specific pathogens. The thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine TARC is unexpectedly highly expressed in the basal epidermis of 14-week-old mice with lesions, whereas it is not expressed in the skin without lesions. Production of TARC by keratinocytes was confirmed by culturing murine keratinocytic cell line cells (PAM212) with TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, or IL-1beta. Expression of another Th2 chemokine, macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC), was observed in the skin from mice kept in both conventional and pathogen-free conditions, but expression of MDC was increased severalfold in the skin with lesions. The cellular origin of MDC was identified to be dermal dendritic cells. Infiltration of the skin by IL-4-producing T cells and mast cells, and the increase of CCR4 mRNA in the skin, coincided with the development of AD lesions. These observations indicate that TARC and MDC actively participate in the pathogenesis of AD-like lesions in NC/Nga mice and that these Th2 chemokines could be novel targets for intervention therapy of AD in humans.  (+info)

Mouse langerhans cells differentially express an activated T cell-attracting CC chemokine. (8/183)

Epidermal Langerhans cells represent an immature population of dendritic cells, not yet able to prime naive T cells. Following in vitro culture Langerhans cells mature into potent immunostimulatory cells. We constructed a representative cDNA library of in vitro matured murine Langerhans cells. Applying a differential screening procedure 112 differentially expressed cDNA clones were isolated. Thirty-six clones represented cDNA fragments of the same gene, identifying it to be the most actively expressed gene induced in maturing Langerhans cells. A full-length cDNA was sequenced completely. The open reading frame codes for a protein of 92 amino acids containing a leader peptide of 24 amino acids, yielding a mature protein of 7.8 kDa molecular weight. Database searches revealed 99.4% sequence identity on the nucleotide level to the recently described mouse CC chemokine ABCD-1, as well as 74% sequence identity to the human CC chemokine, the macrophage-derived chemokine/stimulated T cell chemotactic protein. Expression was analyzed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction on a large panel of cell types. Unlike the macrophage-derived chemokine, expression was not detected in macrophages stimulated by various cytokines. Expression is restricted to cultured Langerhans cells, in vitro cultured dendritic cells, and lipopolysaccharide-activated B cells. Recombinant protein was expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris and purified to homogeneity. Whereas no chemotactic activity was observed in chemotaxis assays for naive T cells, B cells, cultured dendritic cells, and Langerhans cells, a strong chemoattractant activity was exerted on activated T cells. Thus, production of this chemokine by dendritic cells may be essential for the establishment and amplification of T cell responses.  (+info)

MDC, human recombinant protein, C-C motif chemokine 22, Small-inducible cytokine A22, Macrophage-derived chemokine, MDC (1-69), Stim validated in (PBV10332r-20), Abcepta
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Purified Rabbit Anti-Mouse MDC polyclonal antibody generated using |i|E. coli|/i|-expressed mouse MDC. |br| MDC (macrophage-derived chemokine) is a 69-amino acid CC chemokine with a NH2-terminal sequence of 24 residues as a signal sequence. It was origin
Monoklonale und polyklonale CCL26 Antikörper für viele Methoden. Ausgesuchte Qualitäts-Hersteller für CCL26 Antikörper. Hier bestellen.
Polyclonal antibody for TARC/CCL17 detection. Host: Rabbit.Size: 100μg/vial. Tested applications: ELISA. Reactive species: Mouse. TARC/CCL17 information: Molecular Weight: 10467 MW; Subcellular Localization: Secreted .
|p|Recombinant Mouse CCL22/MDC is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 68 amino acids.|/p| |p|Background: CCL22/MDC is a CC chemokine that is produced in B cells, macrophages, monocyte-derived dendritic cells, activated NK cells and CD
Polyclonal antibody for PARC/CCL18 detection. Host: Rabbit.Size: 100μg/vial. Tested applications: ELISA. Reactive species: Human. PARC/CCL18 information: Molecular Weight: 9849 MW; Subcellular Localization: Secreted; Tissue Specificity: Expressed at high
Mouse monoclonal CCL21 antibody [MM0146-2H26] validated for WB and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to recombinant full length protein
EK2891小鼠巨噬细胞来源的趋化因子(MDC/CCL22)ELISA试剂盒MouseMacrophage-DerivedChemokine,MDCELISAkitEK2892小鼠巨噬细胞集落刺激因子(M-CSF)ELISA试剂盒MouseMacrophageColony-StimulatingFactor,M-CSFELISAkitEK2893小鼠L选择素(L-Selectin/CD62L)EL
TARC小鼠单克隆抗体[MM0141-6J30](ab89463)可与人样本反应并经WB实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic and relapsing inflammatory skin disease characterized by the predominant infiltration of TH2-type cells in lesional skin. Thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17) is a chemokine that attracts CC chemokine receptor 4-positive (CCR4+) or CCR8+ cells. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the participation of TARC in AD. Methods: We measured serum TARC levels in 40 patients with AD, 20 healthy control subjects, and 20 patients with psoriasis. We also examined disease activity by using SCORAD score; serum soluble E-selectin, soluble IL-2 receptor, IgE, and GM-CSF levels; and eosinophil numbers in peripheral blood, as well as correlations between TARC levels and these factors. The positivity of CCR4 of CD4+CD45RO+ cells in PBMCs was examined by using FACS analysis. Immunohistochemical staining of TARC and GM-CSF was performed in the lesional skin of patients with AD. Results: The serum TARC levels of patients with AD were ...
CCL21 antibody (Biotin) (chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21C (leucine)) for ELISA, WB. Anti-CCL21 pAb (GTX74049) is tested in Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Bell, R B. and Ivor, K L., "The effects of a macrophage-derived cytotoxin on the growth and metabolism of target cells." (1976). Subject Strain Bibliography 1976. 826 ...
Background: Few clinical studies have focused on the alcoholindependent cardiovascular effects of the phenolic compounds of red wine (RW). Objective: We aimed to evaluate the effects of ethanol and phenolic compounds of RW on the expression of inflammatory biomarkers related to atherosclerosis in subjects at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Design: Sixty-seven high-risk, male volunteers were included in a randomized, crossover consumption trial. After a washout period, all subjects received RW (30 g alcohol/d), the equivalent amount of dealcoholized red wine (DRW), or gin (30 g alcohol/d) for 4 wk. Before and after each intervention period, 7 cellular and 18 serum inflammatory biomarkers were evaluated. Results: Alcohol increased IL-10 and decreased macrophage-derived chemokine concentrations, whereas the phenolic compounds of RW decreased serum concentrations of intercellular adhesion molecule- 1, E-selectin, and IL-6 and inhibited the expression of lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 ...
... On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several symptoms or a full patient history. A similarity measure between symptoms and diseases is provided.
LEAF™ |!Low Endotoxin, Azide-Free|Purified anti-human MCP-1 Antibody - Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) also known as monocyte chemotactic and activating factor (MCAF) was identified based on its ability to chemoattract monocytes.
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Publications (selected). Li X, Syrovets T, Genze F, Pitterle K, Oberhuber A, Orend KH, Simmet Th. Plasmin triggers chemotaxis in monocyte-derived dendritic cells through Akt2-dependent pathways and promotes a T-helper type-1 response. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010; 30:582-90. Li X, Syrovets T, Paskas S, Laumonnier Y, Simmet Th. Mature dendritic cells express functional thrombin receptors triggering chemotaxis and CCL18/pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine induction. J Immunol. 2008; 181:1215-23. Popovic M, Laumonnier Y, Burysek L, Syrovets T, Simmet Th. Thrombin-induced expression of endothelial CX3CL1 potentiates monocyte CCL2 production and transendothelial migration. J Leukoc Biol. 2008; 84:215-23. Li Q, Laumonnier Y, Syrovets T, Simmet Th. Plasmin Triggers Cytokine Induction in Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007; 27:1383-9. Laumonnier Y, Syrovets T, Burysek L, Simmet Th. Identification of the annexin II heterotetramer as a receptor for the ...
Methods and Results Tregs were isolated by magnetic cell sorting-column and analysed by fl ow cytometry. Macrophages were cultured with or without Tregs in the presence of oxidised LDL (oxLDL) for 48 h to transform foam cells. After co-culture with Tregs, macrophages showed a decrease in lipid accumulation, which was accompanied by a significantly downregulated expression of CD36 and SRA but no obvious difference in ABCA1 expression.. ...
Smith, Michael P. et al "The Immune Microenvironment Confers Resistance to MAPK Pathway Inhibitors through Macrophage-Derived TNFα." Cancer Discovery 4.10 (2014): 1214-1229. Web. 03 July. 2020. ...
Mycobacterium tuberculosis-induced cellular aggregation is essential for granuloma formation and may assist establishment and early spread of M. tuberculosis infection. The M. tuberculosis ESX1 mutant, which has a non-functional type VII secretion system, induced significantly less production of the host macrophage-derived chemokine fractalkine (CX3CL1). Upon infection of human macrophages ESX1-dependent fractalkine production mediated selective recruitment of CD11b+ monocytic cells and increased infection of neighbouring cells consistent with early local spread of infection. Fractalkine levels were raised in vivo at tuberculous disease sites in humans and were significantly associated with increased CD11b+ monocytic cellular recruitment and extent of granulomatous disease. These findings suggest a novel fractalkine-dependent ESX1-mediated mechanism in early tuberculous disease pathogenesis in humans. Modulation of M. tuberculosis-mediated fractalkine induction may represent a potential ...
Human and murine CCR8 are homologous G protein-coupled receptors whose reported ligands include human I-309, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1β, TCA3, and liver-expressed chemokine (LEC; references (34)(35)(36)(37)). In addition, the virally encoded chemokines, vMIP-I and vMIP-II, can also bind CCR8 (38)(39)(40). The selective expression of CCR8 in Th2 T cells (11)(12) suggests that it may have an important role in the function of these cells. However, there are currently no experimental data demonstrating such a role. To investigate this possibility, and to study other potential functions of CCR8, we have generated and analyzed CCR8-deficient mice. Using models of Th2 (schistosomal) cell-mediated immune responses as well as two models of Th2-mediated allergic airway disease, we show impairment of Th2 type cytokine expression and eosinophil mobilization in CCR8−/− mice. This defect was specific to the in vivo Th2 type response, as the ...
CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential players in the control of immune responses. Recently, accordingly to their origin, two main subsets of Tregs have been described: thymus-derived Tregs (tTregs) and peripherally derived Tregs (pTregs). Numerous signaling pathways including the IL-2/STAT5 or the TGF-β/Smad3 pathways play a crucial role in segregating the two lineages. Here, we review some of the information existing on the distinct requirements of IL-2, TGF-β and TNF-α three major cytokines involved in tTreg and pTreg generation, homeostasis and function. Today it is clear that signaling via the IL-2Rβ chain (CD122) common to IL-2 and IL-15 is required for proper differentiation of tTregs and for tTreg and pTreg survival in the periphery. This notion has led to the development of promising therapeutic strategies based on low-dose IL-2 administration to boost the patients own Treg compartment and dampen autoimmunity and inflammation. Also, solid evidence points to TGF-β
When two chemokine receptors in the brain interact, leukemic cells (stained green) creep out of a small vein in the membrane covering the brain of a mouse and enter the cerebrospinal fluid. The chemokine CCL19, which is in the endothelium lining the vein, is stained blue in this immunofluorescent image.
Abcams MDC ELISA Kit (ab100591) suitable for Cell culture supernatant, Serum, Plasma in human. Reliably quantify 1.5 pg/ml of MDC.
View Abcd1/Abcd1 either: (involves: 129S4/SvJae * C57BL/6) or (involves: 129/Sv * 129S4/SvJae * C57BL/6): phenotypes, images, diseases, and references.
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Loss-of-function mutations in genes encoding TET DNA dioxygenase occur frequently in hematopoietic malignancy, but rarely in solid tumors which instead commonly have reduced activity. The impact of decreased TET activity in solid tumors is not known. Here we show that TET2 mediates interferon γ (IFNγ)-JAK-STAT signaling pathway to control chemokine and PD-L1 expression, lymphocyte infiltration and cancer immunity. IFNγ stimulated STAT1 to bind TET2 and recruit TET2 to hydroxymethylate chemokine and PD-L1 genes. Reduced TET activity was associated with decreased TH1-type chemokines and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and the progression of human colon cancer. Deletion of Tet2 in murine melanoma and colon tumor cells reduced chemokine expression and TILs, enabling tumors to evade anti-tumor immunity and to resist anti-PD-L1 therapy. Conversely, stimulating TET activity by systematic injection of its co-factor, ascorbate/vitamin C, increased chemokine and TILs, leading to enhanced ...
Ccl2 - Ccl2 (untagged) - Mouse chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (Ccl2), (10ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
The question why CD4+/CD25+ T cells are reduced in asthmatic patients has not been answered yet; however, it has been observed that these cells reveal a reduced response to the chemokines CCL1 and CXCL1 suggesting an impaired recruitment to the lung [137, 138 ...
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Principal Investigator:SHOJI Shunsuke, Project Period (FY):1993 - 1995, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:Respiratory organ internal medicine
IL-31 plays a role in this disease by inducing chemokine genes CCL1, CCL17, and CCL22. The chemokines transcribed from these ...
Its gene is located on human chromosome 16 along with some CC chemokines known as CCL17 and CCL22. Fractalkine is found ... with none in CC chemokines and only one intervening amino acid in CXC chemokines. CX3CL1 is produced as a long protein (with ... Fractalkine also known as chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CX3CL1 gene. ... Nomiyama H, Imai T, Kusuda J, Miura R, Callen DF, Yoshie O (1998). "Human chemokines fractalkine (SCYD1), MDC (SCYA22) and TARC ...
The gene for CCL17 is located on chromosome 16, in humans, along with other chemokines called CCL22 and CX3CL1. GRCh38: Ensembl ... 1999). "The assignment of chemokine-chemokine receptor pairs: TARC and MIP-1 beta are not ligands for human CC-chemokine ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 17 (CCL17) (also known as TARC) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family is also ... This chemokine specifically binds and induces chemotaxis in T cells and elicits its effects by interacting with the chemokine ...
Treg infiltration into the tumor microenvironment is facilitated by the binding of the chemokine receptor CCR4, which is ... expressed on Tregs, to its ligand CCL22, which is secreted by many types of tumor cells. Treg expansion at the site of the ... the chemotaxis is probably driven by the production of chemokines by the tumor. ...
CCL22 (Macrophage-derived chemokine) Chemokines are a group of small structurally related proteins that regulate cell ... "Macrophage-derived chemokine is a functional ligand for the CC chemokine receptor 4". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (3): 1764-8. doi: ... "The T cell-directed CC chemokine TARC is a highly specific biological ligand for CC chemokine receptor 4". J. Biol. Chem. 272 ( ... C-C chemokine receptor type 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCR4 gene. CCR4 has also recently been designated ...
Cathelicidin CC chemokine receptors CCBP2 CCL1 CCL11 CCL12 CCL13 CCL14 CCL15 CCL16 CCL17 CCL18 CCL19 CCL2 CCL20 CCL21 CCL22 ... C-C chemokine receptor type 6 C-C chemokine receptor type 7 Calreticulin Cancer immunology Cancer immunoprevention Cancer ... CD4 CD4+ T cells and antitumor immunity CD74 CD94/NKG2 Cell-mediated immunity CELSR1 Central tolerance Chemokine Chemokine ... CR6261 CroFab Cross-presentation Cross-reactivity Cryptic self epitopes Cryptotope CX3CL1 CX3CR1 CXC chemokine receptors CXCL1 ...
CCL17 and CCL22. T-lymphocytes: the four key chemokines that are involved in the recruitment of T lymphocytes to the site of ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines in that it has ... CCL1 for the ligand 1 of the CC-family of chemokines, and CCR1 for its respective receptor. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) ...
Human CCL22 genome location and CCL22 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Robertson MJ (2002). "Role of chemokines in ... C-C motif chemokine 22 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCL22 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is secreted ... The gene for CCL22 is located in human chromosome 16 in a cluster with other chemokines called CX3CL1 and CCL17. GRCh38: ... "Entrez Gene: CCL22 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 22". Vulcano M, Albanesi C, Stoppacciaro A, Bagnati R, D'Amico G, Struyf S, ...
The CC chemokines CCL3, CCL5, CCL17 and CCL22 signal through this receptor. CCR5 is expressed on several cell types including ... The CC chemokine receptors all work by activating the G protein Gi. CCR1 was the first CC chemokine receptor identified and ... The orphan chemokine receptor G protein-coupled receptor-2 (GPR-2, CCR10) binds the skin-associated chemokine CCL27 (CTACK/ALP/ ... Human CC chemokine liver-expressed chemokine/CCL16 is a functional ligand for CCR1, CCR2 and CCR5, and constitutively expressed ...
CCL22 and CCL17. Furthermore, CXCR3 expression by T-cells is induced following T-cell activation and activated T-cells are ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ...
chemokine receptor activity. • receptor activity. • protein binding. • C-C chemokine receptor activity. • C-C chemokine binding ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene.[5] CCR6 ... "Entrez Gene: CCR6 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6".. *^ Wang K, Zhang H, Kugathasan S, Annese V, Bradfield JP, Russell RK, ... "Chemokine Receptors: CCR6". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
Sallusto F, Martin-Fontecha A, Lanzavecchia A. Dendritic cell traffic control by chemokines. In: Chemokine Biology: Basis ... CD40L+ T cells by producing CCL22. Eur J Immunol 2002, 32:1403-1413. Geginat J, Sallusto F, Lanzavecchia A. Cytokine-driven ... Role of chemokine receptors in positioning T cells for priming and Th1- or Th2-mediated responses. Immunol Today 1998, 19: 568- ... A novel CC chemokine ABCD-1 produced by dendritic cells and activated B cells, exclusively attracts activated T lymphocytes. In ...
CCL22 · CCL23 · CCL24 · CCL25 · CCL26 · CCL27 · CCL28 ... Chemokine. CCL. CCL1 · CCL2 · CCL3 · CCL4 · CCL5 · CCL6 · CCL7 ...
positive regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production. • positive regulation of JUN kinase activity. • positive ... positive regulation of chemokine production. • cellular extravasation. • negative regulation of lipid storage. • negative ... positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • epithelial cell proliferation involved in salivary gland morphogenesis ...
... s are a subset of cytokines that are produced by a type of immune cell known as a lymphocyte.[1] They are protein mediators typically produced by T cells to direct the immune system response by signaling between its cells. Lymphokines have many roles, including the attraction of other immune cells, including macrophages and other lymphocytes, to an infected site and their subsequent activation to prepare them to mount an immune response. Circulating lymphocytes can detect a very small concentration of lymphokine and then move up the concentration gradient towards where the immune response is required. Lymphokines aid B cells to produce antibodies. Important lymphokines secreted by the T helper cell include:[2] ...
... binds to the death receptors DR4 (TRAIL-RI) and DR5 (TRAIL-RII). The process of apoptosis is caspase-8-dependent. Caspase-8 activates downstream effector caspases including procaspase-3, -6, and -7, leading to activation of specific kinases.[11] TRAIL also binds the receptors DcR1 and DcR2, which do not contain a cytoplasmic domain (DcR1) or contain a truncated death domain (DcR2). DcR1 functions as a TRAIL-neutralizing decoy-receptor. The cytoplasmic domain of DcR2 is functional and activates NFkappaB. In cells expressing DcR2, TRAIL binding therefore activates NFkappaB, leading to transcription of genes known to antagonize the death signaling pathway and/or to promote inflammation. Application of engineered ligands that have variable affinity for different death (DR4 and DR5) and decoy receptors (DCR1 and DCR2) may allow selective targeting of cancer cells by controlling activation of Type 1/Type 2 pathways of cell death and single cell fluctuations. Luminescent iridium complex-peptide ...
... (IL-24) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL24 gene. IL-24 is a cytokine belonging to the IL-10 family of cytokines that signals through two heterodimeric receptors: IL-20R1/IL-20R2 and IL-22R1/IL-20R2. This interleukin is also known as melanoma differentiation-associated 7 (mda-7) due to its discovery as a tumour suppressing protein. IL-24 appears to control in cell survival and proliferation by inducing rapid activation of particular transcription factors called STAT1 and STAT3. This cytokine is predominantly released by activated monocytes, macrophages and T helper 2 (Th2) cells[5] and acts on non-haematopoietic tissues such as skin, lung and reproductive tissues. IL-24 performs important roles in wound healing, arthritis, psoriasis and cancer.[6][7][8] Several studies have shown that cell death occurs in cancer cells/cell lines following exposure to IL-24.[9][10] The gene for IL-24 is located on chromosome 1 in humans.[11] ...
... as well as chemokine and cytokine production, and expression of adhesion molecules such as E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. This ...
positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • regulation of insulin secretion. • extrinsic apoptotic signaling ... Copeland KF (2006). "Modulation of HIV-1 transcription by cytokines and chemokines". Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry. 5 (12 ...
... is sometimes used interchangeably among scientists with the term cytokine.[3] Historically, cytokines were associated with hematopoietic (blood and lymph forming) cells and immune system cells (e.g., lymphocytes and tissue cells from spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes). For the circulatory system and bone marrow in which cells can occur in a liquid suspension and not bound up in solid tissue, it makes sense for them to communicate by soluble, circulating protein molecules. However, as different lines of research converged, it became clear that some of the same signaling proteins which the hematopoietic and immune systems use were also being used by all sorts of other cells and tissues, during development and in the mature organism. While growth factor implies a positive effect on cell division, cytokine is a neutral term with respect to whether a molecule affects proliferation. While some cytokines can be growth factors, such as G-CSF and GM-CSF, others have an inhibitory effect on ...
chemokine activity. • cytokine activity. • heparin binding. • protein binding. • CXCR3 chemokine receptor binding. ... C-X-C motif chemokine 11 is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also called Interferon-inducible T- ... "Entrez Gene: CXCL11 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11".. *^ a b Cole KE, Strick CA, Paradis TJ, Ogborne KT, Loetscher M, Gladue ... This chemokine elicits its effects on its target cells by interacting with the cell surface chemokine receptor CXCR3, with a ...
Interferon alfa 2b is an antiviral or antineoplastic drug, that was originally discovered in the laboratory of Charles Weissmann at the University of Zurich. It was developed at Biogen, and ultimately marketed by Schering-Plough under the tradename Intron-A. It has been used for a wide range of indications, including viral infections and cancers. This drug is approved around the world for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C, chronic hepatitis B, hairy cell leukemia, Behçet's disease, chronic myelogenous leukemia, multiple myeloma, follicular lymphoma, carcinoid tumor, mastocytosis and malignant melanoma. ...
4-1BB is a type 2 transmembrane glycoprotein receptor belonging to the TNF superfamily, expressed on activated T Lymphocytes.[1] 4-1BBL (4-1BB ligand) is found on APCs (antigen presenting cells) and binds to 4-1BB. ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the interleukin 1 cytokine family. Protein structure modeling indicated that this cytokine may contain a 12-stranded beta-trefoil structure that is conserved between IL1A (IL-A alpha) and IL1B (IL-1 beta). This gene and eight other interleukin 1 family genes form a cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 2. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported.[8]. ...
... mechanisms are required for directional migration of T lymphocytes in response to the CCR4 ligands CCL17 and CCL22". Journal of ... and intervene in various processes from long term depression in neurons to leukocyte signal pathways started by chemokine ...
C-X-C chemokine receptor activity. • interleukin-8 binding. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. • chemokine receptor ... This name and the corresponding gene symbol IL8RA have been replaced by the HGNC approved name C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 1 ... "Chemokine Receptors: CXCR1". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... chemokine-mediated signaling pathway. • interleukin-8-mediated signaling pathway. • neutrophil degranulation. • chemotaxis. ...
Acts as a receptor for chemokines including CCL2, CCL3, CCL3L1, CCL4, CCL5, CCL7, CCL8, CCL11, CCL13, CCL17, CCL22, CCL23, ... Also known as interceptor (internalizing receptor) or chemokine-scavenging receptor or chemokine decoy receptor. ... increasing its efficiency in chemokine uptake and degradation. By scavenging chemokines in tissues, on the surfaces of ... resulting instead in chemokine sequestration, degradation, or transcytosis. ...
Macrophage-derived chemokine induces human eosinophil chemotaxis in a CC chemokine receptor 3- and CC chemokine receptor 4- ... Biological context of CCL22. *Several other chemokines in addition to CXCL10 were able to increase CCL22-mediated chemotaxis [ ... Regulatory relationships of CCL22. *Macrophage-derived chemokine induces human eosinophil chemotaxis in a CC chemokine receptor ... Linked chromosome 16q13 chemokines, macrophage-derived chemokine, fractalkine, and thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine, ...
MDC (Macrophage-Derived Chemokine, CCL22, STCP-1, ABCD-1). 9 results found in Proteins. 1 result found in Planar Arrays. ... You are here: Home Products by Molecule of Interest MDC (Macrophage-Derived Chemokine, CCL22, STCP-1, ABCD-1) ...
Recombinant human CCL22/MDC, fused to His-tag at N-terminus, was expressed as insoluble protein aggregate inE.coliand purified ... CCL22 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 22 [ Homo sapiens ]. Synonyms :. CCL22; chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 22; MDC; ABCD-1; SCYA22 ... Recombinant Human Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 22, His-tagged. Download Datasheet See All CCL22 Products Bring this labeled ... CCL22/MDC is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family.This protien displays chemotactic activity for natural ...
The chemokines CCL17 and CCL22 attract CCR4-bearing cells, which are especially polarised to Th2-type cells and regulatory T ... Quantification of the chemokines CCL17 and CCL22 in human colorectal adenocarcinomas. Wågsäter, Dick ... CCL17; CCL22; polymorphism; protein expression; colorectal cancer National Category Cancer and Oncology Identifiers. URN: urn: ... Chemokines are believed to play a crucial role in local immunoresponse by regulating leukocyte movement in various tissues, ...
CCL22) from Prospec cat# chm-370. ProteoGenix provides you the best Chemokines proteins.Shop now from our 200 000 + products. ... More info about Recombinant Mouse Macrophage-Derived Chemokine (CCL22) Protein. Brand: Prospec. ... Buy Recombinant Mouse Macrophage-Derived Chemokine (CCL22) Protein now. Add to cart ... Data sheet of Recombinant Mouse Macrophage-Derived Chemokine (CCL22) Protein. Brand. Prospec. ...
Macrophage-Derived Chemokine) ELISA Kit OSCAR DIAGNOSTIC SERVICES PVT. LTD.is an India based Company in Delhi. ... Rat MDC/CCL22 (Macrophage-Derived Chemokine) ELISA Kit » Rat MDC/CCL22 (Macrophage-Derived Chemokine) ELISA Kit Rat MDC/CCL22 ( ... Rat MDC/CCL22 (Macrophage-Derived Chemokine) ELISA Kit Rat MDC/CCL22 (Macrophage-Derived Chemokine) ELISA Kit Rat MDC/CCL22 ( ... Rat MDC/CCL22 (Macrophage-Derived Chemokine) ELISA Kit Rat MDC/CCL22 (Macrophage-Derived Chemokine) ELISA Kit Rat MDC/CCL22 ( ...
This review will focus on recent murine and human studies that use chemokines as therapeutic anti-cancer vaccine adjuvants. ... Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing ... This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential ... CCL22. MDC/STCP-1. CCR4. inflammatory and homeostatic. CCL23. MPIF-1/CKβ8/CKβ8-1. CCR1. ...
... thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, TARC) and CCL22 (macrophage-derived chemokine, MDC) [60, 61]. Similar results were ... Chemokine Receptors on Blood and NK-Cells. Conventional and NK-cells present in the normal PB have different CKR repertoires ( ... 3.1.2. Chemokine Receptors on Conventional NK-Cells. In contrast to NK-cells, the majority of the NK-cells are CXCR1/CXCR2− and ... and the chemokine receptors CXCR3 and/or CCR5 (Figure 2): CD16+ CCR5/CXCR3− (or simply ), CD16+/− CCR5/CXCR3+ (or simply ), and ...
Tumor cells and microenvironmental macrophages produce the chemokine CCL22, which mediates trafficking of T(reg) cells to the ...
Higher circulating levels of chemokines CXCL10, CCL20 and CCL22 in patients with ischemic heart disease.. Safa A1, Rashidinejad ... CCL20 and CCL22 were associated with IHD. The serum levels of chemokines may influence by the certain traditional risk factors ... The mean serum concentrations of CXCL10, CCL20 and CCL22 in AMI patients (395.97±21.20Pg/mL, 108.38±10.31Pg/mL and 1852.58± ... Serum samples from all participants were tested for the CXCL10, CCL20 and CCL22 levels by using ELISA. The SNPs were determined ...
CCL22 and CCL17. Furthermore, CXCR3 expression by T-cells is induced following T-cell activation and activated T-cells are ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ...
C-C motif chemokine ligand 11; IL-16, interleukin 16; CCL22, C-C motif chemokine ligand 22; IL-1β, interleukin 1β; TGF-α, ... Only the distribution of CCL22 in Cluster 3 differed significantly (P-value = 0.003) from the distribution of CCL22 in patients ... Individual cytokines are identified at left: CCL27, C-C motif chemokine ligand 27, also known as CTACK; PDGF-AA, platelet- ... We analyzed 64 circulating cytokines and chemokines in plasma of 120 African American women enrolled in the Black Womens ...
Methods: The Th1-associated chemokines CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, and the Th2- associated chemokines CCL17, CCL18 and CCL22 were ... The circulating Th1-like chemokines CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, Th2-like chemokines CCL17, CCL18 and CCL22, and the allergen-induced ... Open this publication in new window or tab ,,High cord blood levels of the T-helper 2-associated chemokines CCL17 and CCL22 ... Allergy; CCL17; CCL22; chemokines; pregnancy; Th2 National Category Medical and Health Sciences Identifiers. urn:nbn:se:liu: ...
... thymus and activation-regulated chemokine; also known as CCL17) and MDC (macrophage-derived chemokine; CCL22). TSLP-activated ...
CCL22; the CXC chemokines CXCL8, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL12; and CX3CL1. This set represented all chemokines present in the ... Generally, CC chemokines potently attract monocytes, T lymphocytes, eosinophils, and basophils, whereas CXC chemokines are ... Differences between our study and previous studies, chemokine function, and chemokine levels are summarized in Table 4. Before ... The concentrations of IL-6 and the following chemokines were measured: the chemokine-like macrophage migration inhibitory ...
MDC/CCL22. macrophage-derived chemokine. SMA. smooth muscle actin. TARC/CCL17. thymus and activation-regulated chemokine. TSLP ... The Th2 chemoattractants thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17) and macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC/CCL22) ... Cytokine and chemokines release in DC supernatants was measured by human chemokines and the inflammatory cytokines CBA (BD) or ... D) Chemokine production by DCs activated with the following stimuli: medium alone, 20 ng/ml TNF; 15 ng/ml TSLP; HDF sup and CAF ...
... and monocyte-derived chemokine (MDC; CCL22 (6)(7)(8)). In addition, several typical inflammatory chemokines are upregulated in ... Abbreviations used in this paper: BCA-1, B cell-attracting chemokine 1; CCR7, CC chemokine receptor 7; CXCR5, CXC chemokine ... Chemokines shown to be produced in LNs, PPs, or the spleen include secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine (SLC; CCL21) (systematic ... 1999) In vivo-activated CD4 T cells upregulate CXC chemokine receptor 5 and reprogram their response to lymphoid chemokines. J ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 17. CCL22. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 22 ... TGF-beta-miR-34a-CCL22 signaling-induced Treg cell recruitment promotes venous metastases of HBV-positive hepatocellular ... During EBV immune evasion, viral proteins, immune cells, chemokines, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and pro-apoptosis molecules ...
CC chemokine STCP-1. *Ccl22. *CCL22_HUMAN. *Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 22 ... Sandwich ELISA - MDC (CCL22) Human ELISA Kit (ab100591)This image is courtesy of an anonymous Abreview ... Get results in 90 minutes with Human MDC ELISA Kit (CCL22) (ab179885) from our SimpleStep ELISA® range. ... Data shows secreation of MDC (CCL22) by human macrophages isolated by negative selection in culture for 3 days. ...
Ccl22. *CCL22_HUMAN. *Chemokine (C C motif) ligand 22. *DC/B CK ... Immunology Innate Immunity Chemokines Beta Chemokines (CC) ...
These include surface markers, enzymes, secreted proteins, chemokines, cytokines, signal transduction proteins and ... Chemokines. CCL17 and CCL22. CCL17; also known as Thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) [60]; and CCL22; also known ... Macrophage-derived chemokine is a functional ligand for the CC chemokine receptor 4. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:1764-8. ... CCL17 and CCL22 induce naïve T cell differentiation into Th2 cells [66, 67], indicating the pathogenic role of CCL17 and CCL22 ...
Chemokines and their receptors play essential roles in immunology during inflammation and in homeostasis. ... Chemokines are a class of secreted molecules that induce chemotaxis (migration) of target cells. ... CCL22. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. a. b. b. b. b. b. b. ... Chemokine Receptor Biology poster. Order your copy of our ... Chemokines are also involved in the orchestration of wound healing.. For more information on inflammatory chemokines, see the ...
Yamashita, U., and Kuroda, E. (2002). Regulation of macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC, CCL22) production. Crit. Rev. Immunol. ... as well as CCL22 that encodes a chemokine secreted by both macrophages and dendritic cells (Yamashita and Kuroda, 2002) and ... Cytokines and Chemokines Quantification. Two, 6, and 14 h post-infection, the levels of the cytokines IL-6, TNF-α and the ... Figure 2. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines induced by the different S. epidermidis populations. BALB/c mice were ...
It is possible to identify the particular chemokines which are over-expressed in the tumor using methods of the invention and ... The present invention provides a means of inhibiting the growth and metastasis of cancer cells by administering anti-chemokine ... that binds to a chemokine or chemokine receptor selected from the group consisting of CCL1, CCL4, CCL17, CCL19, CCL21, CCL22, ... that binds to a chemokine or chemokine receptor selected from the group consisting of CCL1, CCL4, CCL17, CCL19, CCL21, CCL22, ...
  • Higher circulating levels of chemokines CXCL10, CCL20 and CCL22 in patients with ischemic heart disease. (cdc.gov)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the CXCL10, CCL20 and CCL22 levels and the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs4508917, rs6749704 and rs4359426 in chemokine genes in patients with IHD to clarify any association. (cdc.gov)
  • Serum samples from all participants were tested for the CXCL10, CCL20 and CCL22 levels by using ELISA. (cdc.gov)
  • Further, IFN-gamma-inducible protein 10 (IP-10 or CXCL10), a type 1 (Th1) chemokine, can also be produced by CpG DNA stimulation [ 22 , 23 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Conversely, these mice or ASA-treated wild-type mice displayed enhanced expression of CXCL10 (C-X-C motif chemokine 10) and infiltration of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in the TME, consistent with a relief of MDSC-mediated immunosuppression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The present invention provides a means of inhibiting the growth and metastasis of cancer cells by administering anti-chemokine antibodies. (google.com)
  • Magnetic bead-based assays for the detection and measurement of 46 mouse cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. (bio-rad.com)
  • In this study, we have used GAG binding-deficient chemokine mutants and cell-based functional (migration) assays to demonstrate that chemokine cooperativity is caused by competitive binding of chemokines to GAGs. (jimmunol.org)
  • This review focuses on the recent development of biomarkers for assessing the efficacy of anti-PD1 antibodies using routine blood tests such as the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, eosinophil ratio, serum markers such as lactate dehydrogenase, programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression on melanoma cells, microsatellite instability and mismatch repair deficiency assays, as well as soluble CD163, and tumor-associated macrophage-related chemokines (e.g. (frontiersin.org)
  • While a function of chemokines is to regulate lymphocyte trafficking, the view that chemokines act simply as "chemotactic cytokines" has evolved to include the many critical roles they play in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses. (mdpi.com)
  • Here, we determined the chemotactic response profile and chemokine receptor expression of human blood-borne CD4 + CD25 + Treg cells. (rupress.org)
  • Chemokine receptor expression is exquisitely regulated depending on the stage of activation and differentiation of T cells and coordinates tissue localization and encounters with APCs ( 3 )( 4 )( 5 ). (rupress.org)
  • Rivino L, Messi M, Jarrossay D, Lanzavecchia A, Sallusto F, Geginat J. Chemokine receptor expression identifies pre- T helper (Th)1, pre-Th2 and nonpolarized cells among human central memory T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing recruitment of antigen presenting cells (APCs) and effector cells to appropriate anatomical sites. (mdpi.com)
  • On the other hand, the chemokine system also plays a crucial role in the induction of antitumor immune responses and optimal effector function regulation of immune cells [ 1 , 4 , 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Some chemokines are considered pro- inflammatory and can be induced during an immune response to recruit cells of the immune system to a site of infection , while others are considered homeostatic and are involved in controlling the migration of cells during normal processes of tissue maintenance or development . (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokines released by infected or damaged cells form a concentration gradient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Attracted cells move through the gradient towards the higher concentration of chemokine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells that are attracted by chemokines follow a signal of increasing chemokine concentration towards the source of the chemokine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other chemokines are inflammatory and are released from a wide variety of cells in response to bacterial infection, viruses and agents that cause physical damage such as silica or the urate crystals that occur in gout . (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumor cells and microenvironmental macrophages produce the chemokine CCL22, which mediates trafficking of T(reg) cells to the tumor. (nih.gov)
  • Memory but not naive T cells from tonsils are CXCR5 + and migrate in response to the B cell-attracting chemokine 1 (BCA-1), which is selectively expressed by reticular cells and blood vessels within B cell follicles. (rupress.org)
  • Peripheral blood CXCR5 + T cells also belong to the CD4 + memory T cell subset but, in contrast to tonsillar cells, are in a resting state and migrate weakly to chemokines. (rupress.org)
  • The outcome of these defensive mechanisms relies on the finely tuned traffic of T and B cells as well as antigen-presenting cells, suggesting that chemokines may be involved in the recruitment and proper positioning of leukocytes within these compartments. (rupress.org)
  • Attracted cells move toward areas of higher concentrations of the chemokine. (biolegend.com)
  • Due to their function of targeting cells to specific organs, homeostatic chemokines can also be involved in cancer and metastasis. (biolegend.com)
  • Upon sensing the inflammatory chemokine, cells will extravasate from the blood vessel and follow the gradient to its source. (biolegend.com)
  • However, further examination of the effect of SCRG1 in Raw264.7 cells did reveal a potent anti‑inflammatory effect whereby SCRG1 suppressed LPS‑induced CCL22 production. (nih.gov)
  • SCRG1 also induced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal‑regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in these cells and, moreover, a mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK)/ERK kinase inhibitor U0126 significantly suppressed the effect of SCRG1 on LPS‑induced chemokine CCL22 production. (nih.gov)
  • A mechanism is proposed by which MSCs play their immunosuppressive role through suppressing chemokine expression in monocyte/macrophage lineage cells. (nih.gov)
  • There is some suggestion that this chemokine receptor is restricted to memory T-cells within the lymphocyte pool. (wikipedia.org)
  • HBV Promotes the Recruitment of IL-17 secreting T cells via Chemokines CCL22 and CCL17. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Our studies show for the first time that papillomas contain an enrichment of functional CD4 + regulatory T cells (Treg), express Treg/T H 2-like tropic chemokines (CCL17, CCL22), and contain T cells that are CD127 negative and express CD69 and PD-1, a phenotype of chronically activated and exhausted T cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • D ) Heatmaps depicting relative expression of ΔNp63-dependent chemokines in control and ΔNp63-KD of HCC1806 and SUM159 cells. (jci.org)
  • E - G ) Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis of indicated chemokines in control and ΔNp63-KD HCC1806 ( E ), SUM159 ( F ), and EpRas cells ( G ). The relative expression of control was considered fold change 1, depicted by the dotted lines. (jci.org)
  • I ) Representative images of chemokine antibody arrays from control and ΔNp63-KD HCC1806 cells. (jci.org)
  • These Treg cells were found to vigorously respond to several inflammatory and lymphoid chemokines. (rupress.org)
  • Given the central role of chemokines in the regulation of immunity, we postulated that some of these molecules could participate in turning off adaptive immune responses by recruiting cells with immunoregulatory functions. (rupress.org)
  • In this study, we demonstrate that STAT6 in bone marrow-derived myeloid cells was sufficient for the production of CCL17, CCL22, CCL11, and CCL24 and for Th2 lymphocyte and eosinophil recruitment into the allergic airway. (jimmunol.org)
  • In contrast, STAT6 in airway-lining cells did not mediate chemokine production or support cellular recruitment. (jimmunol.org)
  • These data reveal that CD11b + myeloid cells in the lung help orchestrate the adaptive immune response in asthma, in part, through the production of STAT6-inducible chemokines and the recruitment of Th2 lymphocytes into the airway. (jimmunol.org)
  • APC recruitment is expected to contribute to the development of an antitumoral immune response, and such an effect has been demonstrated in a number of animal studies in which the forced expression of chemokines, such as RANTES, by tumor cell lines resulted in a decreased pathogenicity of these cells in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • In natural killer cells, CCL22 binding induces phosphorylation on yet undefined Ser/Thr residues, most probably by beta-adrenergic receptor kinases 1 and 2. (abcam.com)
  • In this paper, we discuss the current knowledge about the role of TAMs in HCC development, highlighting the role of TAM-derived cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors in the initiation and progression of liver cancer and outlining the signaling pathways involved in the interplay between cancer cells and TAMs. (hindawi.com)
  • The chemokines also play fundamental roles in the development, homeostasis, and function of the immune system, and they have effects on cells of the central nervous system as well as on endothelial cells involved in angiogenesis or angiostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • On one hand, the chemokine network is used by tumors to evade immune surveillance, resist apoptosis, and metastasize. (mdpi.com)
  • This tract will discuss the contribution of chemokines to the development of innate and adaptive granuloma formation, as well as describe their relationship to more recently evolved cytokines generated during adaptive immune responses. (frontiersin.org)
  • Researchers speculate that CCL22 (or possibly also other chemokines) inhibits the immune reaction - and does not stimulate it like CCL17. (uni-bonn.de)
  • Our findings in this study implicate significance of the COX-2 pathway in gliomagenesis through chemokine-mediated immune cell infiltration in the TME. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These are known as homeostatic chemokines and are produced and secreted without any need to stimulate their source cell(s). (wikipedia.org)
  • Get results in 90 minutes with Human MDC ELISA Kit (CCL22) ( ab179885 ) from our SimpleStep ELISA ® range. (abcam.com)
  • Structurally, chemokines are classified into four groups (C, CC, CXC, and CX3C) according to the number and location of the conserved cysteine residues in the primary structure of these molecules (Figure 1 ). (hindawi.com)
  • Circulating CXCL11, CCL18 and CCL22 levels during pregnancy and postpartum correlated with the corresponding chemokine levels in the offspring at various time points during childhood. (diva-portal.org)
  • The present study is to investigate which kinds of solvent extracts of Inulae Flos inhibit the chemokine productions in HaCaT cell and whether the inhibitory capacity of Inulae Flos is related with constitutional compounds. (hindawi.com)
  • These results suggest that the inhibitory effects of Inulae Flos on chemokine production in HaCaT cell could be related with constituent compounds contained, especially 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and luteolin. (hindawi.com)
  • The concentrations of eight compounds of Inulae Flos were quantified in extract by different solvent compositions and solvent fractions to determine the relationships between the inhibitory effect of Inulae Flos and its constituent compounds on chemokine productions in HaCaT cell. (hindawi.com)