A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.
Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.
Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins
Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Gene Expression Regulation
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.
Monocyte Chemoattractant Proteins
Disease Models, Animal
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Duffy Blood-Group System
Chemotactic Factors, Eosinophil
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Cell Migration Inhibition
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Amino Acid Sequence
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Gene Expression Profiling
Platelet Factor 4
A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid
Drug-Induced Liver Injury
Selective recruitment of CCR4-bearing Th2 cells toward antigen-presenting cells by the CC chemokines thymus and activation-regulated chemokine and macrophage-derived chemokine. (1/183)Helper T cells are classified into Th1 and Th2 subsets based on their profiles of cytokine production. Th1 cells are involved in cell-mediated immunity, whereas Th2 cells induce humoral responses. Selective recruitment of these two subsets depends on specific adhesion molecules and specific chemoattractants. Here, we demonstrate that the T cell-directed CC chemokine thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) was abundantly produced by monocytes treated with granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or IL-3, especially in the presence of IL-4 and by dendritic cells derived from monocytes cultured with GM-CSF + IL-4. The receptor for TARC and another macrophage/dendritic cell-derived CC chemokine macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) is CCR4, a G protein-coupled receptor. CCR4 was found to be expressed on approximately 20% of adult peripheral blood effector/memory CD4+ T cells. T cells attracted by TARC and MDC generated cell lines predominantly producing Th2-type cytokines, IL-4 and IL-5. Fractionated CCR4+ cells but not CCR4- cells also selectively gave rise to Th2-type cell lines. When naive CD4+ T cells from adult peripheral blood were polarized in vitro, Th2-type cells selectively expressed CCR4 and vigorously migrated toward TARC and MDC. Taken together, CCR4 is selectively expressed on Th2-type T cells and antigen-presenting cells may recruit Th2 cells expressing CCR4 by producing TARC and MDC in Th2-dominant conditions. (+info)
Chemokine Up-regulation and activated T cell attraction by maturing dendritic cells. (2/183)Langerhans' cells migrating from contact-sensitized skin were found to up-regulate expression of macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) during maturation into lymph node dendritic cells (DCs). Naive T cells did not migrate toward MDC, but antigen-specific T cells rapidly acquired MDC responsiveness in vivo after a subcutaneous injection of antigen. In chemotaxis assays, maturing DCs attracted activated T cells more strongly than naive T cells. These studies identified chemokine up-regulation as part of the Langerhans' cell maturation program to immunogenic T cell-zone DC. Preferential recruitment of activated T cells may be a mechanism used by maturing DCs to promote encounters with antigen-specific T cells. (+info)
Mouse monocyte-derived chemokine is involved in airway hyperreactivity and lung inflammation. (3/183)The cloning, expression, and function of the murine (m) homologue of human (h) monocyte-derived chemokine (MDC) is reported here. Like hMDC, mMDC is able to elicit the chemotactic migration in vitro of activated lymphocytes and monocytes. Among activated lymphocytes, Th2 cells were induced to migrate most efficiently. mMDC mRNA and protein expression is modulated during the course of an allergic reaction in the lung. Neutralization of mMDC with specific Abs in a model of lung inflammation resulted in prevention of airway hyperreactivity and significant reduction of eosinophils in the lung interstitium but not in the airway lumen. These data suggest that mMDC is essential in the transit/retention of leukocytes in the lung tissue rather than in their extravasation from the blood vessel or during their transepithelial migration into the airways. These results also highlight the relevance of factors, such as mMDC, that regulate the migration and accumulation of leukocytes within the tissue during the development of the key physiological endpoint of asthma, airway hyperreactivity. (+info)
Cutting edge: developmental switches in chemokine responses during T cell maturation. (4/183)We show that developmental transitions during thymocyte maturation are associated with dramatic changes in chemotactic responses to chemokines. Macrophage-derived chemokine, a chemokine expressed in the thymic medulla, attracts thymocytes only during a brief window of development, between the late cortical and early medullary stages. All medullary phenotypes (CD4 or CD8 single positive) but not immature thymocytes respond to the medullary stroma-expressed (and secondary lymphoid tissue-associated) chemokines secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine and macrophage inflammatory protein-3beta. The appearance of these responses is associated with the phenotypic stage of cortex to medulla migration and with up-regulation of mRNA for the receptors CCR4 (for macrophage-derived chemokine and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine) and CCR7 (for secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine and macrophage inflammatory protein-3beta). In contrast, most immature and medullary thymocytes migrate to thymus-expressed chemokine, an ability that is lost only with up-regulation of the peripheral homing receptor L-selectin during the latest stages of thymocyte maturation associated with export to the periphery. Developmental switches in chemokine responses may help regulate critical migratory events during T cell development. (+info)
Macrophage-derived chemokine is localized to thymic medullary epithelial cells and is a chemoattractant for CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(low) thymocytes. (5/183)Macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) is a recently identified CC chemokine that is a potent chemoattractant for dendritic cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and the Th2 subset of peripheral blood T cells. In normal tissues, MDC mRNA is expressed principally in the thymus. Immunohistochemical analysis performed on 5 human postnatal thymuses showed high MDC immunoreactivity, which was selectively localized to epithelial cells within the medulla. To examine the effects of MDC on immature T cells, we have identified cDNA clones for mouse and rat MDC. Expression of MDC in murine tissues is also highly restricted, with significant levels of mRNA found only in the thymus. Thymocytes express high-affinity binding sites for MDC (kd = 0.7 nmol/L), and, in vitro, MDC is a chemoattractant for these cells. MDC-responsive murine thymocytes express mRNA for CCR4, a recently identified receptor for MDC. Phenotypic analysis of MDC-responsive cells shows that they are enriched for a subset of double-positive cells that express high levels of CD3 and CD4 and that have reduced levels of CD8. This subset of MDC-responsive cells is consistent with the observed expression of MDC within the medulla, because more mature cells are found there. MDC may therefore play a role in the migration of T-cell subsets during development within the thymus. (+info)
Differential responsiveness to constitutive vs. inducible chemokines of immature and mature mouse dendritic cells. (6/183)Upon exposure to immune or inflammatory stimuli, dendritic cells (DC) migrate from peripheral tissues to lymphoid organs, where they present antigen. The molecular basis for the peculiar trafficking properties of DC is largely unknown. In this study, mouse DC were generated from CD34+ bone marrow precursors and cultured with granulocyte-macrophage-CSF and Flt3 ligand for 9 days. Chemokines active on immature DC include MIP1alpha, RANTES, MIP1beta, MCP-1, MCP-3, and the constitutively expressed SDF1, MDC, and ELC. TNF-alpha-induced DC maturation caused reduction of migration to inducible chemokines (MIP1alpha, RANTES, MIP1beta, MCP-1, and MCP-3) and increased migration to SDF1, MDC, and ELC. Similar results were obtained by CD40 ligation or culture in the presence of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. TNF-alpha down-regulated CC chemokine receptor (CCR)1, CCR2, and CCR5 and up-regulated CCR7 mRNA levels, in agreement with functional data. This study shows that selective responsiveness of mature and immature DC to inducible vs. constitutively produced chemokines can contribute to the regulated trafficking of DC. (+info)
Overproduction of Th2-specific chemokines in NC/Nga mice exhibiting atopic dermatitis-like lesions. (7/183)We have examined the expression of chemokines and their receptors in the atopic dermatitis-like (AD-like) lesions of NC/Nga mice. Such lesions develop when the mice are kept in conventional conditions, but not when they are kept isolated from specific pathogens. The thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine TARC is unexpectedly highly expressed in the basal epidermis of 14-week-old mice with lesions, whereas it is not expressed in the skin without lesions. Production of TARC by keratinocytes was confirmed by culturing murine keratinocytic cell line cells (PAM212) with TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, or IL-1beta. Expression of another Th2 chemokine, macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC), was observed in the skin from mice kept in both conventional and pathogen-free conditions, but expression of MDC was increased severalfold in the skin with lesions. The cellular origin of MDC was identified to be dermal dendritic cells. Infiltration of the skin by IL-4-producing T cells and mast cells, and the increase of CCR4 mRNA in the skin, coincided with the development of AD lesions. These observations indicate that TARC and MDC actively participate in the pathogenesis of AD-like lesions in NC/Nga mice and that these Th2 chemokines could be novel targets for intervention therapy of AD in humans. (+info)
Mouse langerhans cells differentially express an activated T cell-attracting CC chemokine. (8/183)Epidermal Langerhans cells represent an immature population of dendritic cells, not yet able to prime naive T cells. Following in vitro culture Langerhans cells mature into potent immunostimulatory cells. We constructed a representative cDNA library of in vitro matured murine Langerhans cells. Applying a differential screening procedure 112 differentially expressed cDNA clones were isolated. Thirty-six clones represented cDNA fragments of the same gene, identifying it to be the most actively expressed gene induced in maturing Langerhans cells. A full-length cDNA was sequenced completely. The open reading frame codes for a protein of 92 amino acids containing a leader peptide of 24 amino acids, yielding a mature protein of 7.8 kDa molecular weight. Database searches revealed 99.4% sequence identity on the nucleotide level to the recently described mouse CC chemokine ABCD-1, as well as 74% sequence identity to the human CC chemokine, the macrophage-derived chemokine/stimulated T cell chemotactic protein. Expression was analyzed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction on a large panel of cell types. Unlike the macrophage-derived chemokine, expression was not detected in macrophages stimulated by various cytokines. Expression is restricted to cultured Langerhans cells, in vitro cultured dendritic cells, and lipopolysaccharide-activated B cells. Recombinant protein was expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris and purified to homogeneity. Whereas no chemotactic activity was observed in chemotaxis assays for naive T cells, B cells, cultured dendritic cells, and Langerhans cells, a strong chemoattractant activity was exerted on activated T cells. Thus, production of this chemokine by dendritic cells may be essential for the establishment and amplification of T cell responses. (+info)
Elevation of macrophage-derived chemokine in eosinophilic pneumonia : a role of alveolar macrophages - Aono, Yoshinori -...
Macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC/CCL22) and thymus-and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17) are ligands for CC chemokine receptor 4. Recently, TARC has been reported to play a role in the pathogenesis of idiopathic eosinophilic pneumonia (IEP). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of MDC in IEP and other interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). MDC and TARC in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured by enzymelinked immunosorbent assay in patients with ILDs and healthy volunteers (HV). We also examined the expression of MDC mRNA in alveolar macrophages (AM) by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Both MDC and TARC were detected only in BALF obtained from IEP patients. The concentration of MDC was higher than that of TARC in all cases. The level of MDC in IEP correlated with that of TARC. AM from IEP patients expressed a significantly higher amount of MDC than that from HV at the levels of protein and mRNA. MDC in BALF from IEP ...
MDC, human recombinant protein - C-C motif chemokine 22, Small-inducible cytokine A22, Macrophage-derived chemokine, MDC (1-69)...
MDC, human recombinant protein, C-C motif chemokine 22, Small-inducible cytokine A22, Macrophage-derived chemokine, MDC (1-69), Stim validated in (PBV10332r-20), Abcepta
Exhaled breath condensate levels of eotaxin and macrophage-derived chemokine in stable adult asthma patients - Ko - 2005 -...
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Rabbit Anti-Mouse MDC/CCL22 pAb | Cell Sciences
Purified Rabbit Anti-Mouse MDC polyclonal antibody generated using |i|E. coli|/i|-expressed mouse MDC. |br| MDC (macrophage-derived chemokine) is a 69-amino acid CC chemokine with a NH2-terminal sequence of 24 residues as a signal sequence. It was origin
Produktübersicht anti-CCL26 Antikörper
Monoklonale und polyklonale CCL26 Antikörper für viele Methoden. Ausgesuchte Qualitäts-Hersteller für CCL26 Antikörper. Hier bestellen.
Polyclonal antibody for TARC/CCL17 detection. Host: Rabbit.Size: 100μg/vial. Tested applications: ELISA. Reactive species: Mouse. TARC/CCL17 information: Molecular Weight: 10467 MW; Subcellular Localization: Secreted .
Recombinant Mouse MDC/CCL22 | Cell Sciences
|p|Recombinant Mouse CCL22/MDC is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 68 amino acids.|/p| |p|Background: CCL22/MDC is a CC chemokine that is produced in B cells, macrophages, monocyte-derived dendritic cells, activated NK cells and CD
Polyclonal antibody for PARC/CCL18 detection. Host: Rabbit.Size: 100μg/vial. Tested applications: ELISA. Reactive species: Human. PARC/CCL18 information: Molecular Weight: 9849 MW; Subcellular Localization: Secreted; Tissue Specificity: Expressed at high
Anti-CCL21 antibody [MM0146-2H26] (ab89396) | Abcam
Mouse monoclonal CCL21 antibody [MM0146-2H26] validated for WB and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to recombinant full length protein
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Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic and relapsing inflammatory skin disease characterized by the predominant infiltration of TH2-type cells in lesional skin. Thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17) is a chemokine that attracts CC chemokine receptor 4-positive (CCR4+) or CCR8+ cells. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the participation of TARC in AD. Methods: We measured serum TARC levels in 40 patients with AD, 20 healthy control subjects, and 20 patients with psoriasis. We also examined disease activity by using SCORAD score; serum soluble E-selectin, soluble IL-2 receptor, IgE, and GM-CSF levels; and eosinophil numbers in peripheral blood, as well as correlations between TARC levels and these factors. The positivity of CCR4 of CD4+CD45RO+ cells in PBMCs was examined by using FACS analysis. Immunohistochemical staining of TARC and GM-CSF was performed in the lesional skin of patients with AD. Results: The serum TARC levels of patients with AD were ...
Chemokine CCL4 | Profiles RNS
This graph shows the total number of publications written about Chemokine CCL4 by people in this website by year, and whether Chemokine CCL4 was a major or minor topic of these publications ...
anti-CCL21 antibody (Biotin) | GeneTex
CCL21 antibody (Biotin) (chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21C (leucine)) for ELISA, WB. Anti-CCL21 pAb (GTX74049) is tested in Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
The effects of a macrophage-derived cytotoxin on the growth and metabo by R B. Bell and K L. Ivor
Bell, R B. and Ivor, K L., The effects of a macrophage-derived cytotoxin on the growth and metabolism of target cells. (1976). Subject Strain Bibliography 1976. 826 ...
Differential effects of polyphenols and alcohol of red wine on the expression of adhesion molecules and inflammatory cytokines...
Background: Few clinical studies have focused on the alcoholindependent cardiovascular effects of the phenolic compounds of red wine (RW). Objective: We aimed to evaluate the effects of ethanol and phenolic compounds of RW on the expression of inflammatory biomarkers related to atherosclerosis in subjects at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Design: Sixty-seven high-risk, male volunteers were included in a randomized, crossover consumption trial. After a washout period, all subjects received RW (30 g alcohol/d), the equivalent amount of dealcoholized red wine (DRW), or gin (30 g alcohol/d) for 4 wk. Before and after each intervention period, 7 cellular and 18 serum inflammatory biomarkers were evaluated. Results: Alcohol increased IL-10 and decreased macrophage-derived chemokine concentrations, whereas the phenolic compounds of RW decreased serum concentrations of intercellular adhesion molecule- 1, E-selectin, and IL-6 and inhibited the expression of lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 ...
Chemokine CCL11; CCL11 Chemokine
Chemokine CCL11; CCL11 Chemokine. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several symptoms or a full patient history. A similarity measure between symptoms and diseases is provided.
Unique Effects Alamosa MHC1355 - MDC Interior Solutions
Alamosas shimmering backdrop is brought to life with a bold pattern and soft texture. This modern but subtle design allows it to work in any space, and is offered in 7 metallic colorways. ...
LEAF |Low Endotoxin, Azide-Free|Purified anti-human MCP-1 Antibody anti-CCL2 - 5D3-F7
LEAF™ |!Low Endotoxin, Azide-Free|Purified anti-human MCP-1 Antibody - Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) also known as monocyte chemotactic and activating factor (MCAF) was identified based on its ability to chemoattract monocytes.
Anti-CCL5 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody (PE (Phycoerythrin)rCP/Cy5.5) [clone: VL1] | VWR
Special note about Community Feature Content. Any content and/or opinions uploaded, expressed or submitted through any Community Feature or any other publicly available section of the Web Site (including password-protected areas), and all articles and responses to questions, other than the content explicitly authorized by the Company, are solely the opinions and responsibility of the person or entity submitting them and do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the Company. By way of example, any recommended or suggested use of products or services available from the Company that is posted through a Community Feature is not a sign of approval or recommendation by the Company. If you choose to follow any such recommendation you do so at your own risk.. Links to Third Party Sites. The Web Site may contain links to other websites on the internet. The Company is not responsible for the content, products, services or practices of any third party websites, including without limitation sites linked to ...
Institut für Naturheilkunde & Klinische Pharmakologie - Pharmacology of Inflammation
Publications (selected). Li X, Syrovets T, Genze F, Pitterle K, Oberhuber A, Orend KH, Simmet Th. Plasmin triggers chemotaxis in monocyte-derived dendritic cells through Akt2-dependent pathways and promotes a T-helper type-1 response. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010; 30:582-90. Li X, Syrovets T, Paskas S, Laumonnier Y, Simmet Th. Mature dendritic cells express functional thrombin receptors triggering chemotaxis and CCL18/pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine induction. J Immunol. 2008; 181:1215-23. Popovic M, Laumonnier Y, Burysek L, Syrovets T, Simmet Th. Thrombin-induced expression of endothelial CX3CL1 potentiates monocyte CCL2 production and transendothelial migration. J Leukoc Biol. 2008; 84:215-23. Li Q, Laumonnier Y, Syrovets T, Simmet Th. Plasmin Triggers Cytokine Induction in Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007; 27:1383-9. Laumonnier Y, Syrovets T, Burysek L, Simmet Th. Identification of the annexin II heterotetramer as a receptor for the ...
ASSA13-03-42 The Role of CD4+CD25+ Regulatory T Cells in Macrophage-Derived Foam-Cell Formation | Heart
Methods and Results Tregs were isolated by magnetic cell sorting-column and analysed by fl ow cytometry. Macrophages were cultured with or without Tregs in the presence of oxidised LDL (oxLDL) for 48 h to transform foam cells. After co-culture with Tregs, macrophages showed a decrease in lipid accumulation, which was accompanied by a significantly downregulated expression of CD36 and SRA but no obvious difference in ABCA1 expression.. ...
Citation tools | Cancer Discovery
Smith, Michael P. et al The Immune Microenvironment Confers Resistance to MAPK Pathway Inhibitors through Macrophage-Derived TNFα. Cancer Discovery 4.10 (2014): 1214-1229. Web. 03 July. 2020. ...
ESX1-dependent fractalkine mediates chemotaxis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in humans - Surrey Research Insight...
Mycobacterium tuberculosis-induced cellular aggregation is essential for granuloma formation and may assist establishment and early spread of M. tuberculosis infection. The M. tuberculosis ESX1 mutant, which has a non-functional type VII secretion system, induced significantly less production of the host macrophage-derived chemokine fractalkine (CX3CL1). Upon infection of human macrophages ESX1-dependent fractalkine production mediated selective recruitment of CD11b+ monocytic cells and increased infection of neighbouring cells consistent with early local spread of infection. Fractalkine levels were raised in vivo at tuberculous disease sites in humans and were significantly associated with increased CD11b+ monocytic cellular recruitment and extent of granulomatous disease. These findings suggest a novel fractalkine-dependent ESX1-mediated mechanism in early tuberculous disease pathogenesis in humans. Modulation of M. tuberculosis-mediated fractalkine induction may represent a potential ...
Aberrant in Vivo T Helper Type 2 Cell Response and Impaired Eosinophil Recruitment in Cc Chemokine Receptor 8 Knockout Mice |...
Human and murine CCR8 are homologous G protein-coupled receptors whose reported ligands include human I-309, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1β, TCA3, and liver-expressed chemokine (LEC; references (34)(35)(36)(37)). In addition, the virally encoded chemokines, vMIP-I and vMIP-II, can also bind CCR8 (38)(39)(40). The selective expression of CCR8 in Th2 T cells (11)(12) suggests that it may have an important role in the function of these cells. However, there are currently no experimental data demonstrating such a role. To investigate this possibility, and to study other potential functions of CCR8, we have generated and analyzed CCR8-deficient mice. Using models of Th2 (schistosomal) cell-mediated immune responses as well as two models of Th2-mediated allergic airway disease, we show impairment of Th2 type cytokine expression and eosinophil mobilization in CCR8−/− mice. This defect was specific to the in vivo Th2 type response, as the ...
JCI - Pivotal role of the CCL5/CCR5 interaction for recruitment of endothelial progenitor cells in mouse wound healing
Reagents and Abs. Recombinant murine CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, VEGF, and GM-CSF were purchased from R&D Systems. The following mAbs and polyclonal Abs (pAbs) were used for immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence analyses: rat anti-mouse Ly-6G mAb, rat anti-mouse CD31 mAb, and FITC-conjugated rat anti-mouse c-Kit mAb (BD Biosciences); rat anti-mouse F4/80 mAb (AbD Serotec); rabbit anti-F4/80 pAbs (Abcam); mouse anti-α-SMA mAb (DakoCytomation); goat anti-CCL3/MIP-1α pAbs (GeneTex); rabbit anti-CCL4/MIP-1β pAbs (Torrey Pines Biolabs); goat anti-CCL5/RANTES pAbs, rabbit anti-Tie-2 pAbs, goat anti-CCR5 pAbs, and mouse anti-α-tubulin mAb (SantaCruz Biotechnology). For flow cytometric analysis, the following Abs were commercially obtained: PE-conjugated rat anti-mouse Flk-1 mAb, FITC-conjugated rat anti-mouse CD34 mAb, and FITC-conjugated rat anti-mouse c-Kit mAb (BD Biosciences); PE-conjugated rat anti-mouse Tie-2 mAb and biotin-conjugated hamster anti-CCR5 mAb (eBioscience).. Animals. Specific ...
Frontiers | Role of Cytokines in Thymus- Versus Peripherally Derived-Regulatory T Cell Differentiation and Function | Immunology
CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential players in the control of immune responses. Recently, accordingly to their origin, two main subsets of Tregs have been described: thymus-derived Tregs (tTregs) and peripherally derived Tregs (pTregs). Numerous signaling pathways including the IL-2/STAT5 or the TGF-β/Smad3 pathways play a crucial role in segregating the two lineages. Here, we review some of the information existing on the distinct requirements of IL-2, TGF-β and TNF-α three major cytokines involved in tTreg and pTreg generation, homeostasis and function. Today it is clear that signaling via the IL-2Rβ chain (CD122) common to IL-2 and IL-15 is required for proper differentiation of tTregs and for tTreg and pTreg survival in the periphery. This notion has led to the development of promising therapeutic strategies based on low-dose IL-2 administration to boost the patients own Treg compartment and dampen autoimmunity and inflammation. Also, solid evidence points to TGF-β
Leukemic and Chemokine Cells (1 of 2) [image] | EurekAlert! Science News
When two chemokine receptors in the brain interact, leukemic cells (stained green) creep out of a small vein in the membrane covering the brain of a mouse and enter the cerebrospinal fluid. The chemokine CCL19, which is in the endothelium lining the vein, is stained blue in this immunofluorescent image.
Human MDC ELISA Kit | Abcam
Abcams MDC ELISA Kit (ab100591) suitable for Cell culture supernatant, Serum, Plasma in human. Reliably quantify 1.5 pg/ml of MDC.
CCL2 (MCP-1) Antibody, PE (12-7099-80)
Invitrogen Anti-CCL2 (MCP-1) Monoclonal (5D3-F7), eBioscience™, Catalog # 12-7099-80. Tested in Flow Cytometry (Flow) applications. This antibody reacts with Human samples. Supplied as 25 µg purified antibody (0.2 mg/mL).
Phenotypes for Abcd1 MGI:2446588 MGI Mouse
View Abcd1/Abcd1 either: (involves: 129S4/SvJae * C57BL/6) or (involves: 129/Sv * 129S4/SvJae * C57BL/6): phenotypes, images, diseases, and references.
Field Guide: A-Z | MDC Discover Nature
We protect and manage the fish, forest, and wildlife of the state. We facilitate and provide opportunity for all citizens to use, enjoy, and learn about these resources.. ...
Field Guide: A-Z | MDC Discover Nature
We protect and manage the fish, forest, and wildlife of the state. We facilitate and provide opportunity for all citizens to use, enjoy, and learn about these resources.. ...
JCI - Welcome
As there is growing evidence for the tumor microenvironments (TME) role in tumorigenesis, we investigated the role of fibroblast-expressed kinases in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Using a high-throughput kinome screen combined with 3D invasion assays, we identified fibroblast-expressed PIK3Cδ (f-PIK3Cδ) as a key regulator of progression. Although PIK3Cδ was expressed in primary fibroblasts derived from TNBC patients, it was undetectable in breast cancer cell lines. Genetic and pharmacologic gain- and loss-of functions experiments verified the contribution of f-PIK3Cδ in TNBC cell invasion. Integrated secretomics and transcriptomics analyses revealed a paracrine mechanism via which f-PIK3Cδ confers its pro-tumorigenic effects. Inhibition of f-PIK3Cδ promoted the secretion of factors, including PLGF and BDNF, which led to upregulation of NR4A1 in TNBC cells where it acts as a tumor suppressor. Inhibition of PIK3Cδ in an orthotopic BC mouse model reduced tumor growth only after ...
OriGene - Ccl2 (NM 011333) cDNA Clone
Ccl2 - Ccl2 (untagged) - Mouse chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (Ccl2), (10ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
MDC Sport Classic Stirrup
Based on an Italian design, the MDC Sport Line brings to the market a combination of features not currently available from any one stirrup manufacturer. MDC Sport Stirrups offer th...
INT297288 - wiki-pain
The question why CD4+/CD25+ T cells are reduced in asthmatic patients has not been answered yet; however, it has been observed that these cells reveal a reduced response to the chemokines CCL1 and CXCL1 suggesting an impaired recruitment to the lung [137, 138 ...
Gentaur Molecular :Reliatech \ Anti Human, mab CCL 23 Source Mouse \ 101-M267
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KAKEN - Research Projects | Alveolar macrophage-derived chemotactic factor for airway epithelial cells (KAKENHI-PROJECT...
Principal Investigator：SHOJI Shunsuke, Project Period (FY)：1993 - 1995, Research Category：Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field：Respiratory organ internal medicine
What does MDC stand for?
Looking for the definition of MDC? Find out what is the full meaning of MDC on Abbreviations.com! Movement for Democratic Change is one option -- get in to view more @ The Webs largest and most authoritative acronyms and abbreviations resource.
Recombinant Human CCL1 I-309 carrier-free
Recombinant Human CCL1 (I-309) (carrier-free) - CCL1 was initially identified as a secreted protein derived from activated T cells.
IL-31 plays a role in this disease by inducing chemokine genes CCL1, CCL17, and CCL22. The chemokines transcribed from these ...
... as well as its partner chemokine CCL22 induce chemotaxis in T-helper cells. They do this by binding to CCR4, a chemokine ... "The assignment of chemokine-chemokine receptor pairs: TARC and MIP-1 beta are not ligands for human CC-chemokine receptor 8". ... In humans the gene for CCL17 is located on chromosome 16 along with other chemokines including CCL22 and CX3CL1. GRCh38: ... CCL17 is one of the few chemokines that are not stored in the body, except in the thymus; these chemokines are made when needed ...
Its gene is located on human chromosome 16 along with some CC chemokines known as CCL17 and CCL22. Fractalkine is found ... with none in CC chemokines and only one intervening amino acid in CXC chemokines. CX3CL1 is produced as a long protein (with ... Fractalkine also known as chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CX3CL1 gene. ... Nomiyama H, Imai T, Kusuda J, Miura R, Callen DF, Yoshie O (1998). "Human chemokines fractalkine (SCYD1), MDC (SCYA22) and TARC ...
Regulatory T cell
Treg infiltration into the tumor microenvironment is facilitated by the binding of the chemokine receptor CCR4, which is ... expressed on Tregs, to its ligand CCL22, which is secreted by many types of tumor cells. Treg expansion at the site of the ... the chemotaxis is probably driven by the production of chemokines by the tumor. ...
CCL22 (Macrophage-derived chemokine) Chemokines are a group of small structurally related proteins that regulate cell ... "Macrophage-derived chemokine is a functional ligand for the CC chemokine receptor 4". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (3): 1764-8. doi: ... "The T cell-directed CC chemokine TARC is a highly specific biological ligand for CC chemokine receptor 4". J. Biol. Chem. 272 ( ... C-C chemokine receptor type 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCR4 gene. CCR4 has also recently been designated ...
Macrophage-derived chemokine (CCL22), a human cytokine Metalloproteinase-like disintegrin-like cysteine-rich proteins, another ...
Index of immunology articles
Cathelicidin CC chemokine receptors CCBP2 CCL1 CCL11 CCL12 CCL13 CCL14 CCL15 CCL16 CCL17 CCL18 CCL19 CCL2 CCL20 CCL21 CCL22 ... Breakthrough infection Broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies Bursa of Fabricius C-C chemokine receptor type 6 C-C chemokine ... CD4 CD4+ T cells and antitumor immunity CD74 CD94/NKG2 Cell-mediated immunity CELSR1 Central tolerance Chemokine Chemokine ... CR6261 CroFab Cross-presentation Cross-reactivity Cryptic self epitopes Cryptotope CX3CL1 CX3CR1 CXC chemokine receptors CXCL1 ...
C-C motif chemokine 22 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCL22 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is secreted ... The gene for CCL22 is located in human chromosome 16 in a cluster with other chemokines called CX3CL1 and CCL17. GRCh38: ... "Entrez Gene: CCL22 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 22". Vulcano M, Albanesi C, Stoppacciaro A, Bagnati R, D'Amico G, Struyf S, ... 2001). "Dendritic cells as a major source of macrophage-derived chemokine/CCL22 in vitro and in vivo". Eur. J. Immunol. 31 (3 ...
CCL17 and CCL22. T-lymphocytes: the four key chemokines that are involved in the recruitment of T lymphocytes to the site of ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines in that it has ... CCL1 for the ligand 1 of the CC-family of chemokines, and CCR1 for its respective receptor. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) ...
CC chemokine receptors
The CC chemokines CCL3, CCL5, CCL17 and CCL22 signal through this receptor. CCR5 is expressed on several cell types including ... The CC chemokine receptors all work by activating the G protein Gi. CCR1 was the first CC chemokine receptor identified and ... CC chemokine receptors (or beta chemokine receptors) are integral membrane proteins that specifically bind and respond to ... May 1997). "Molecular cloning of a novel human CC chemokine EBI1-ligand chemokine that is a specific functional ligand for EBI1 ...
CCL22 and CCL17. Furthermore, CXCR3 expression by T-cells is induced following T-cell activation and activated T-cells are ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ...
C-C chemokine receptor type 6
chemokine receptor activity. • receptor activity. • protein binding. • C-C chemokine receptor activity. • C-C chemokine binding ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene. CCR6 ... "Entrez Gene: CCR6 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6".. *^ Wang K, Zhang H, Kugathasan S, Annese V, Bradfield JP, Russell RK, ... "Chemokine Receptors: CCR6". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
साँचा:Cytokines - विकिपीडिया
CCL22 · CCL23 · CCL24 · CCL25 · CCL26 · CCL27 · CCL28 ... Chemokine. CCL. CCL1 · CCL2 · CCL3 · CCL4 · CCL5 · CCL6 · CCL7 ...
Tumor necrosis factor alpha
positive regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production. • positive regulation of JUN kinase activity. • positive ... positive regulation of chemokine production. • cellular extravasation. • negative regulation of lipid storage. • negative ... positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • epithelial cell proliferation involved in salivary gland morphogenesis ...
... s are a subset of cytokines that are produced by a type of immune cell known as a lymphocyte. They are protein mediators typically produced by T cells to direct the immune system response by signaling between its cells. Lymphokines have many roles, including the attraction of other immune cells, including macrophages and other lymphocytes, to an infected site and their subsequent activation to prepare them to mount an immune response. Circulating lymphocytes can detect a very small concentration of lymphokine and then move up the concentration gradient towards where the immune response is required. Lymphokines aid B cells to produce antibodies. Important lymphokines secreted by the T helper cell include: ...
... binds to the death receptors DR4 (TRAIL-RI) and DR5 (TRAIL-RII). The process of apoptosis is caspase-8-dependent. Caspase-8 activates downstream effector caspases including procaspase-3, -6, and -7, leading to activation of specific kinases. TRAIL also binds the receptors DcR1 and DcR2, which do not contain a cytoplasmic domain (DcR1) or contain a truncated death domain (DcR2). DcR1 functions as a TRAIL-neutralizing decoy-receptor. The cytoplasmic domain of DcR2 is functional and activates NFkappaB. In cells expressing DcR2, TRAIL binding therefore activates NFkappaB, leading to transcription of genes known to antagonize the death signaling pathway and/or to promote inflammation. Application of engineered ligands that have variable affinity for different death (DR4 and DR5) and decoy receptors (DCR1 and DCR2) may allow selective targeting of cancer cells by controlling activation of Type 1/Type 2 pathways of cell death and single cell fluctuations. Luminescent iridium complex-peptide ...
... (IL-24) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL24 gene. IL-24 is a cytokine belonging to the IL-10 family of cytokines that signals through two heterodimeric receptors: IL-20R1/IL-20R2 and IL-22R1/IL-20R2. This interleukin is also known as melanoma differentiation-associated 7 (mda-7) due to its discovery as a tumour suppressing protein. IL-24 appears to control in cell survival and proliferation by inducing rapid activation of particular transcription factors called STAT1 and STAT3. This cytokine is predominantly released by activated monocytes, macrophages and T helper 2 (Th2) cells and acts on non-haematopoietic tissues such as skin, lung and reproductive tissues. IL-24 performs important roles in wound healing, arthritis, psoriasis and cancer. Several studies have shown that cell death occurs in cancer cells/cell lines following exposure to IL-24. The gene for IL-24 is located on chromosome 1 in humans. ...
... as well as chemokine and cytokine production, and expression of adhesion molecules such as E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. This ...
positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • regulation of insulin secretion. • extrinsic apoptotic signaling ... Copeland KF (2006). "Modulation of HIV-1 transcription by cytokines and chemokines". Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry. 5 (12 ...
... is sometimes used interchangeably among scientists with the term cytokine. Historically, cytokines were associated with hematopoietic (blood and lymph forming) cells and immune system cells (e.g., lymphocytes and tissue cells from spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes). For the circulatory system and bone marrow in which cells can occur in a liquid suspension and not bound up in solid tissue, it makes sense for them to communicate by soluble, circulating protein molecules. However, as different lines of research converged, it became clear that some of the same signaling proteins which the hematopoietic and immune systems use were also being used by all sorts of other cells and tissues, during development and in the mature organism. While growth factor implies a positive effect on cell division, cytokine is a neutral term with respect to whether a molecule affects proliferation. While some cytokines can be growth factors, such as G-CSF and GM-CSF, others have an inhibitory effect on ...
chemokine activity. • cytokine activity. • heparin binding. • protein binding. • CXCR3 chemokine receptor binding. ... C-X-C motif chemokine 11 is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also called Interferon-inducible T- ... "Entrez Gene: CXCL11 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11".. *^ a b Cole KE, Strick CA, Paradis TJ, Ogborne KT, Loetscher M, Gladue ... This chemokine elicits its effects on its target cells by interacting with the cell surface chemokine receptor CXCR3, with a ...
Interferon alfa 2b is an antiviral or antineoplastic drug, that was originally discovered in the laboratory of Charles Weissmann at the University of Zurich. It was developed at Biogen, and ultimately marketed by Schering-Plough under the tradename Intron-A. It has been used for a wide range of indications, including viral infections and cancers. This drug is approved around the world for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C, chronic hepatitis B, hairy cell leukemia, Behçet's disease, chronic myelogenous leukemia, multiple myeloma, follicular lymphoma, carcinoid tumor, mastocytosis and malignant melanoma. ...
4-1BB is a type 2 transmembrane glycoprotein receptor belonging to the TNF superfamily, expressed on activated T Lymphocytes. 4-1BBL (4-1BB ligand) is found on APCs (antigen presenting cells) and binds to 4-1BB. ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the interleukin 1 cytokine family. Protein structure modeling indicated that this cytokine may contain a 12-stranded beta-trefoil structure that is conserved between IL1A (IL-A alpha) and IL1B (IL-1 beta). This gene and eight other interleukin 1 family genes form a cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 2. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported.. ...
... mechanisms are required for directional migration of T lymphocytes in response to the CCR4 ligands CCL17 and CCL22". Journal of ... and intervene in various processes from long term depression in neurons to leukocyte signal pathways started by chemokine ...
Interleukin 8 receptor, alpha
C-X-C chemokine receptor activity. • interleukin-8 binding. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. • chemokine receptor ... This name and the corresponding gene symbol IL8RA have been replaced by the HGNC approved name C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 1 ... "Chemokine Receptors: CXCR1". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... chemokine-mediated signaling pathway. • interleukin-8-mediated signaling pathway. • neutrophil degranulation. • chemotaxis. ...
Tüümus - Vikipeedia
Elevated serum levels of macrophage-derived chemokine and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine in autistic children, J ... CCL22, CC25, CXCL7, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, CXCL12, CXCL16. ... focus on chemokines and their receptors. Lühikokkuvõte, Crit ...
Chemokine CCL22 | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst
"Chemokine CCL22" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Chemokine CCL22" was a major or minor topic of ... "Chemokine CCL22" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Følsgaard NV, Chawes BL, Bønnelykke K, Jenmalm MC, Bisgaard H. Cord blood Th2-related chemokine CCL22 levels associate with ... CCR4 agonists CCL22 and CCL17 are elevated in pediatric OMS sera: rapid and selective down-regulation of CCL22 by ACTH or ...
WikiGenes - CCL22 - chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 22
Macrophage-derived chemokine induces human eosinophil chemotaxis in a CC chemokine receptor 3- and CC chemokine receptor 4- ... Biological context of CCL22. *Several other chemokines in addition to CXCL10 were able to increase CCL22-mediated chemotaxis [ ... Regulatory relationships of CCL22. *Macrophage-derived chemokine induces human eosinophil chemotaxis in a CC chemokine receptor ... Linked chromosome 16q13 chemokines, macrophage-derived chemokine, fractalkine, and thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine, ...
MDC (Macrophage-Derived Chemokine, CCL22, STCP-1, ABCD-1) | BioVendor
Quantification of the chemokines CCL17 and CCL22 in human colorectal adenocarcinomas
The chemokines CCL17 and CCL22 attract CCR4-bearing cells, which are especially polarised to Th2-type cells and regulatory T ... Quantification of the chemokines CCL17 and CCL22 in human colorectal adenocarcinomas. Wågsäter, Dick ... CCL17; CCL22; polymorphism; protein expression; colorectal cancer National Category Cancer and Oncology Identifiers. URN: urn: ... Chemokines are believed to play a crucial role in local immunoresponse by regulating leukocyte movement in various tissues, ...
Recombinant Human Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 22, His-tagged CCL22-112H - Creative BioMart
Recombinant human CCL22/MDC, fused to His-tag at N-terminus, was expressed as insoluble protein aggregate inE.coliand purified ... CCL22 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 22 [ Homo sapiens ]. Synonyms :. CCL22; chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 22; MDC; ABCD-1; SCYA22 ... Recombinant Human Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 22, His-tagged. Download Datasheet See All CCL22 Products Bring this labeled ... CCL22/MDC is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family.This protien displays chemotactic activity for natural ...
Buy Recombinant Mouse Macrophage-Derived Chemokine (CCL22) Protein
CCL22) from Prospec cat# chm-370. ProteoGenix provides you the best Chemokines proteins.Shop now from our 200 000 + products. ... More info about Recombinant Mouse Macrophage-Derived Chemokine (CCL22) Protein. Brand: Prospec. ... Buy Recombinant Mouse Macrophage-Derived Chemokine (CCL22) Protein now. Add to cart ... Data sheet of Recombinant Mouse Macrophage-Derived Chemokine (CCL22) Protein. Brand. Prospec. ...
Anti-Macrophage-Derived Chemokine (CCL22) Protein (Recombinant) abx261564 | Gentaursearch
CCL22) Protein (Recombinant) datasheet and description hight quality product and Backed by our Guarantee ... chemokine receptors, ligands , motif chemokines and cytokines are supplied by abbex in 1, Chemokines. ... Anti-Macrophage-Derived Chemokine (CCL22) Protein (Recombinant). Technique: E, abbex advises they will be reconstituted in a ... chemokine activity, this GO :0008009 : chemokine activity, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 22. ...
Rat MDC/CCL22 (Macrophage-Derived Chemokine) ELISA Kit Manufacturers in Delhi
Macrophage-Derived Chemokine) ELISA Kit OSCAR DIAGNOSTIC SERVICES PVT. LTD.is an India based Company in Delhi. ... Rat MDC/CCL22 (Macrophage-Derived Chemokine) ELISA Kit » Rat MDC/CCL22 (Macrophage-Derived Chemokine) ELISA Kit Rat MDC/CCL22 ( ... Rat MDC/CCL22 (Macrophage-Derived Chemokine) ELISA Kit Rat MDC/CCL22 (Macrophage-Derived Chemokine) ELISA Kit Rat MDC/CCL22 ( ... Rat MDC/CCL22 (Macrophage-Derived Chemokine) ELISA Kit Rat MDC/CCL22 (Macrophage-Derived Chemokine) ELISA Kit Rat MDC/CCL22 ( ...
Vaccines | Free Full-Text | Chemokines as Cancer Vaccine Adjuvants | HTML
This review will focus on recent murine and human studies that use chemokines as therapeutic anti-cancer vaccine adjuvants. ... Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing ... This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential ... CCL22. MDC/STCP-1. CCR4. inflammatory and homeostatic. CCL23. MPIF-1/CKβ8/CKβ8-1. CCR1. ...
Higher circulating levels of chemokines CXCL10, CCL20 and CCL22 in patients with ischemic heart disease. - PubMed - NCBI
Higher circulating levels of chemokines CXCL10, CCL20 and CCL22 in patients with ischemic heart disease.. Safa A1, Rashidinejad ... CCL20 and CCL22 were associated with IHD. The serum levels of chemokines may influence by the certain traditional risk factors ... The mean serum concentrations of CXCL10, CCL20 and CCL22 in AMI patients (395.97±21.20Pg/mL, 108.38±10.31Pg/mL and 1852.58± ... Serum samples from all participants were tested for the CXCL10, CCL20 and CCL22 levels by using ELISA. The SNPs were determined ...
Human epithelial cells trigger dendritic cell mediated allergic inflammation by producing TSLP. - PubMed - NCBI
Chemokines Profiling of Patients with Preterm Birth
MDC/CCL22, MIF, MIP-3,i,α,/i,/CCL20, MIP-3-,i,β,/i,/CCL19, MPIF-1/CCL23, NAP-2/CXCL7, MSP,i,α,/i,, OPN, PARC/CCL18, PF4, SDF-1/ ... which allows the simultaneous determination of 40 chemokines per sample. The sets consist of the following chemokines: 6Ckine/ ... i,Results.,/i, We showed possible implication of 4 chemokines, that is, HCC-4, I-TAC, MIP-3,i,α,/i,, and TARC in women with ... i,Conclusion.,/i, On the basis of our findings, it seems that the chemokines may play role in the pathogenesis of preterm labor ...
An update: Epstein-Barr virus and immune evasion via microRNA regulation | SpringerLink
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 17. CCL22. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 22 ... TGF-beta-miR-34a-CCL22 signaling-induced Treg cell recruitment promotes venous metastases of HBV-positive hepatocellular ... During EBV immune evasion, viral proteins, immune cells, chemokines, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and pro-apoptosis molecules ...
Immunological interactions between mother and child during pregnancy in relation to the development of allergic diseases in the...
Methods: The Th1-associated chemokines CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, and the Th2- associated chemokines CCL17, CCL18 and CCL22 were ... The circulating Th1-like chemokines CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, Th2-like chemokines CCL17, CCL18 and CCL22, and the allergen-induced ... Open this publication in new window or tab ,,High cord blood levels of the T-helper 2-associated chemokines CCL17 and CCL22 ... Allergy; CCL17; CCL22; chemokines; pregnancy; Th2 National Category Medical and Health Sciences Identifiers. urn:nbn:se:liu: ...
Chemokine Receptor Expression on Normal Blood CD56+ NK-Cells Elucidates Cell Partners That Comigrate during the Innate and...
... thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, TARC) and CCL22 (macrophage-derived chemokine, MDC) [60, 61]. Similar results were ... Chemokine Receptors on Blood and NK-Cells. Conventional and NK-cells present in the normal PB have different CKR repertoires ( ... 3.1.2. Chemokine Receptors on Conventional NK-Cells. In contrast to NK-cells, the majority of the NK-cells are CXCR1/CXCR2− and ... and the chemokine receptors CXCR3 and/or CCR5 (Figure 2): CD16+ CCR5/CXCR3− (or simply ), CD16+/− CCR5/CXCR3+ (or simply ), and ...
MILLIPLEX MAP Mouse Cytokine/Chemokine Magnetic Bead Panel II, MECY2MAG-73K Simultaneously analyze multiple cytokine and...
MECY2MAG-73K Simultaneously analyze multiple cytokine and chemokine biomarkers with Bead-Based Multiplex Assays using the ... MILLIPLEX MAP Mouse Cytokine/Chemokine Magnetic Bead Panel II, ... MDC/CCL22) standard curve range: 2-10,000 pg/mL. (MIP-3α/CCL20 ... Mouse Cytokine/Chemokine Panel II Standard, 1 vial, lyophilized. Mouse Cytokine/Chemokine Panel II Quality Control 1, 1 vial, ... Panel Type: MAGNETIC Cytokines/Chemokines The MILLIPLEX. MAP Mouse Cytokine/Chemokine Magnetic Bead Panel II, contains all the ...
Inflammatory signatures distinguish metabolic health in African American women with obesity. - PubMed - NCBI
C-C motif chemokine ligand 11; IL-16, interleukin 16; CCL22, C-C motif chemokine ligand 22; IL-1β, interleukin 1β; TGF-α, ... Only the distribution of CCL22 in Cluster 3 differed significantly (P-value = 0.003) from the distribution of CCL22 in patients ... Individual cytokines are identified at left: CCL27, C-C motif chemokine ligand 27, also known as CTACK; PDGF-AA, platelet- ... We analyzed 64 circulating cytokines and chemokines in plasma of 120 African American women enrolled in the Black Womens ...
Human MDC ELISA Kit | Abcam
CC chemokine STCP-1. *Ccl22. *CCL22_HUMAN. *Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 22 ... Sandwich ELISA - MDC (CCL22) Human ELISA Kit (ab100591)This image is courtesy of an anonymous Abreview ... Get results in 90 minutes with Human MDC ELISA Kit (CCL22) (ab179885) from our SimpleStep ELISA® range. ... Data shows secreation of MDC (CCL22) by human macrophages isolated by negative selection in culture for 3 days. ...
Chemokine - Wikipedia
CCL22 and CCL17. Furthermore, CXCR3 expression by T-cells is induced following T-cell activation and activated T-cells are ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ...
Recombinant human MDC protein (ab638) | Abcam
1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Is an Autonomous Regulator of the Transcriptional Changes Leading to a Tolerogenic Dendritic Cell...
... the chemokine CCL22, the inhibitory receptors CD300LF and CYP24A1. We found that monocyte-derived DCs are able to turn on 1,25- ... CCL22 content of supernatants was measured by sandwich ELISA specific for CCL22 (human MDC immunoassay; R&D Systems) as ... CCL22 (a chemokine attracting regulatory T cells) (14, 33); and CD300LF (an inhibitory receptor also known as IREM-1) (34). ... CCL22, and CD300LF was determined by qPCR. A, CYP24A1, CCL22, and CD300LF expression of differentiating DCs treated with 10 nM ...
Intratumor T helper type 2 cell infiltrate correlates with cancer-associated fibroblast thymic stromal lymphopoietin production...
MDC/CCL22. macrophage-derived chemokine. SMA. smooth muscle actin. TARC/CCL17. thymus and activation-regulated chemokine. TSLP ... The Th2 chemoattractants thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17) and macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC/CCL22) ... Cytokine and chemokines release in DC supernatants was measured by human chemokines and the inflammatory cytokines CBA (BD) or ... D) Chemokine production by DCs activated with the following stimuli: medium alone, 20 ng/ml TNF; 15 ng/ml TSLP; HDF sup and CAF ...
KEGG BRITE: KEGG Orthology (KO) - Rattus norvegicus (rat)
C-C motif chemokine 3 K12964 CCL4; C-C motif chemokine 4 K21083 CCL17; C-C motif chemokine 17 K21095 CCL22; C-C motif chemokine ... 117551 Ccl22; C-C motif chemokine 22 precursor 116637 Ccl4; C-C motif chemokine 4 precursor 29538 Ccl20; C-C motif chemokine 20 ... 117551 Ccl22; C-C motif chemokine 22 precursor 81780 Ccl5; C-C motif chemokine 5 precursor 360579 Ccl9; C-C motif chemokine 9 ... 117551 Ccl22; C-C motif chemokine 22 precursor 288593 Ccl24; C-C motif chemokine 24 precursor 360750 Ccl25; C-C motif chemokine ...
Specific recruitment of regulatory T cells in ovarian carcinoma fosters immune privilege and predicts reduced survival
Type III TGF-β receptor downregulation generates an immunotolerant tumor microenvironment
Alternatively activated macrophages; a double-edged sword in allergic asthma | Journal of Translational Medicine | Full Text
These include surface markers, enzymes, secreted proteins, chemokines, cytokines, signal transduction proteins and ... Chemokines. CCL17 and CCL22. CCL17; also known as Thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) ; and CCL22; also known ... Macrophage-derived chemokine is a functional ligand for the CC chemokine receptor 4. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:1764-8. ... CCL17 and CCL22 induce naïve T cell differentiation into Th2 cells [66, 67], indicating the pathogenic role of CCL17 and CCL22 ...
MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1
0 (CCL22 protein, human); 0 (Chemokine CCL22); 0 (IL2RB protein, human); 0 (Interferon Regulatory Factors); 0 (Interleukin-2 ... Quimiocina CCL22/gen tica. Epistasia Gen tica. Glioblastoma/gen tica. Glioblastoma/metabolismo. Seres Humanos. Fatores ... CCL22, IL2RB, and IRF4) is predictive of patient survival. The prognostic value was validated in two independent cohorts. ...
Chemokine Levels in Subretinal Fluid Obtained during Scleral Buckling Surgery after Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment | IOVS |...
CCL22; the CXC chemokines CXCL8, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL12; and CX3CL1. This set represented all chemokines present in the ... Generally, CC chemokines potently attract monocytes, T lymphocytes, eosinophils, and basophils, whereas CXC chemokines are ... Differences between our study and previous studies, chemokine function, and chemokine levels are summarized in Table 4. Before ... The concentrations of IL-6 and the following chemokines were measured: the chemokine-like macrophage migration inhibitory ...
Role of chemokines in hepatocellular carcinoma (Review)
Wiedemann GM, Röhrle N, Makeschin MC, Fesseler J, Endres S, Mayr D and Anz D: Peritumoural CCL1 and CCL22 expressing cells in ... Among the four types of chemokines, there are two highly homologous XC chemokines: XC motif chemokine ligand 1 (XCL1) and XCL2 ... Chemokine receptors. Chemokines. Functions. Signaling pathways. Role in HCC. (Refs.). CXCR1. CXCL6,. Chemotactic neutrophils. - ... chemokines can bind to the atypical chemokine receptor (ACKR) subfamily, which is a key regulator of the chemokine network, and ...
Cxc Chemokine Receptor 5 Expression Defines Follicular Homing T Cells with B Cell Helper Function | JEM
... and monocyte-derived chemokine (MDC; CCL22 (6)(7)(8)). In addition, several typical inflammatory chemokines are upregulated in ... Abbreviations used in this paper: BCA-1, B cell-attracting chemokine 1; CCR7, CC chemokine receptor 7; CXCR5, CXC chemokine ... Chemokines shown to be produced in LNs, PPs, or the spleen include secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine (SLC; CCL21) (systematic ... 1999) In vivo-activated CD4 T cells upregulate CXC chemokine receptor 5 and reprogram their response to lymphoid chemokines. J ...
RECEPTORSCCL17 and CCL22Macrophage-derivedCCR4ProteinsCytokines and chemokinesCytokine and chemokineTARCCXCL10ProteinSecondary lymphoid tissue chemokineCCL20ChemotaxisCCL21ImmuneSignaling pathwayChemotacticBeta-chemokineCCL25InflammationChemoattractantRs4359426 in CCL22 geneGeneMoleculesMonocyte-derivedAnti-chemokine antibodiesCXCL12DendriticVitro and in vivoReceptor ExpressionCell-attractinLymphocytesELISABindCCL18CellsMouse CytokineHomeostatic chemokinesCX3CL1InterleukinTissuesCCL2Serum levelsMolecularRegulateCysteine residues
- A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. (harvard.edu)
- It interacts with cell surface chemokine receptors CCR4. (creativebiomart.net)
- To date, there are more than 50 chemokines and 18 chemokine receptors identified [ 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
- Most chemokines bind to more than one receptor, while most receptors also display overlapping ligand specificity [ 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
- Studies of chemokine receptors (CKR) in natural killer- (NK-) cells have already been published, but only a few gave detailed information on its differential expression on blood NK-cell subsets. (hindawi.com)
- All of these proteins exert their biological effects by interacting with G protein -linked transmembrane receptors called chemokine receptors , that are selectively found on the surfaces of their target cells. (wikipedia.org)
- It has been found that chemokines and their receptors serve a pivotal role in HCC progression. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Thus, chemokines and their receptors directly or indirectly shape the tumor cell microenvironment, and regulate the biological behavior of the tumor. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Exosomes containing chemokines or expressing receptors for chemokines may improve chemotaxis to HCC and may thus be exploited for targeted drug delivery. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Chemokines bind to a variety of different receptors, which belong to the G-protein-binding receptor family, and there are ~23 types of chemokine receptors that have been discovered ( 10 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- Chemokines and their receptors were initially thought to allow for an interaction between immune cells and the inflammatory sites ( 11 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- After binding to the receptors, chemokines primarily serve a role in migration of leukocytes, such as monocytes, eosinophils and dendritic cells (DCs) ( 11 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- We have also characterized the kinetics of generation of 1,25-vitD by using three early and robustly regulated genes, the chemokine CCL22, the inhibitory receptors CD300LF and CYP24A1. (jimmunol.org)
- Chemokines receptors are seven transmembrane spanning G protein-coupled receptors that allow cells to migrate towards increasing chemokine gradients. (biolegend.com)
- Specific chemokine receptors are often required to gain entry (or exit) from certain organs and tissues like the thymus and bone marrow. (biolegend.com)
- Chemokine signals are transduced by G-protein coupled receptors, which dissociate to activate diverse downstream pathways resulting in cellular polarization and actin reorganization. (wikipathways.org)
- The protein encoded by this gene is secreted by dendritic cells and macrophages, and elicits its effects on its target cells by interacting with cell surface chemokine receptors such as CCR4. (wikipedia.org)
- Cells in the lamina propria, in turn, produce mediators (vii) that act on cytokine and chemokine receptors on intestinal epithelial cells. (jci.org)
- Epithelial cells also express TLRs that respond to microbial products (e.g., bacterial flagellin signals through TLR5) and chemokine receptors (CCR6, CXCR4, CCR5, and CX3CR1) and can be induced to produce antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), such as -defensins and cathelicidin (viii). (jci.org)
- CC chemokine receptors (or beta chemokine receptors) are integral membrane proteins that specifically bind and respond to cytokines of the CC chemokine family. (wikipedia.org)
- They represent one subfamily of chemokine receptors, a large family of G protein-linked receptors that are known as seven transmembrane (7-TM) proteins since they span the cell membrane seven times. (wikipedia.org)
- The CC chemokine receptors all work by activating the G protein Gi. (wikipedia.org)
- This molecule was originally designated CCR11 due to its ability to bind several CC chemokines (including CCL19, CCL21 and CCL25) and its structural similarity to chemokine receptors. (wikipedia.org)
- but not to ligands for other chemokine receptors. (jimmunol.org)
- Chemokine CC receptors (CCRs) predominantly recognize CC chemokines. (genecards.org)
- There are 10 chemokine CC receptors. (genecards.org)
- The innate immune system is the first line of defense for protecting the host against invading microbial pathogens and involves a number of host defense systems, including chemokine-directed movement of inflammatory cells and pathogen detection via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) [ 1 - 3 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Chemokines bind to chemokine receptors, which are cell-surface G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), leading to subsequent inflammatory signaling events involving various second messengers [ 4 , 5 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Clearly, similar signaling pathways are evoked by these two disparate groups of receptors, but the manner in which chemokine receptors and TLRs interact during innate immunity is poorly understood. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
CCL17 and CCL225
- Increased mRNA expression of CCL22 in cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMC), and increased CCL17 and CCL22 levels in CB were observed in children later developing allergic symptoms and sensitisation as compared with children who did not. (diva-portal.org)
- The CC chemokines CCL3, CCL5, CCL17 and CCL22 signal through this receptor. (wikipedia.org)
- PD-L1, PD-L2, CCL17, and CCL22 mRNA was also identified in papillomas by quantitative PCR. (aacrjournals.org)
- CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4), a specific receptor for CCL17 and CCL22, is generally recognized as a receptor expressed on T helper 2 (Th2) cells [ 8 - 10 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Epstein-Barr virus-positive pyothorax-associated lymphoma expresses CCL17 and CCL22 chemokines that attract CCR4-expressing regulatory T cells. (amedeo.com)
- CCR4 ligands include macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC). (biomedcentral.com)
- The former was driven by interferon-γ and the latter by a production of CCR4-binding chemokines along with a component of induced proliferation. (sciencemag.org)
- CCL22 seems to have a different effect on CCR4 than CCL17. (uni-bonn.de)
- CCR4 (C-C Motif Chemokine Receptor 4) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
- Clone REA279 recognizes the CD194 antigen, a seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptor also known as C-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CCR4). (miltenyibiotec.com)
- These include chemokines (CK), such as MIP-1 α (macrophage inflammatory proteins-1 alpha, CCL3) and MIP-1 β (CCL4), RANTES (regulated activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted, CCL5), and ATAC (activation-induced, T cell derived, and chemokine-related cytokine, CXCL1). (hindawi.com)
- Chemokines (Greek -kinos , movement) are a family of small cytokines , or signaling proteins secreted by cells . (wikipedia.org)
- Cytokine proteins are classified as chemokines according to behavior and structural characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
- Chemokines are a class of small molecular proteins with similar structures, functions and chemotactic properties, and their molecular weights are ~10 kDa, and chemokines represent the largest member of the cytokine family ( 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- Chemokines comprise a large family of structurally related chemoattractant proteins that regulate the composition of cellular infiltrates at sites of inflammation or, alternatively, the physiological leukocyte migration during hematopoiesis, antigen sampling in secondary lymphoid tissues, and immune surveillance ( 1 )( 2 )( 3 )( 4 )( 5 )( 6 ). (rupress.org)
- Chemokines are a family of small cytokines , or proteins secreted by cells . (wikidoc.org)
- Proteins are classified as chemokines according to shared structural characteristics such as small size (they are all approximately 8-10 kilodaltons in size), and the presence of four cysteine residues in conserved locations that are key to forming their 3-dimensional shape. (wikidoc.org)
- Proteins are classified into the chemokine family based on their structural characteristics, not just their ability to attract cells. (wikidoc.org)
- Typical chemokine proteins are produced as pro-peptides , beginning with a signal peptide of approximately 20 amino acids that gets cleaved from the active (mature) portion of the molecule during the process of its secretion from the cell. (wikidoc.org)
- Chemokines are small cytokines, or signaling proteins, secreted by cells. (wikipathways.org)
- If they find something suspicious, they alert the killer troops by releasing certain chemoattractant proteins (chemokines) that resemble odorants. (uni-bonn.de)
Cytokines and chemokines7
- We analyzed 64 circulating cytokines and chemokines in plasma of 120 African American women enrolled in the Black Women's Health Study. (nih.gov)
- We used regression analysis to identify cytokines and chemokines associated with obesity, co-morbid T2D and hypertension, and compared results to obese women without these co-morbidities, as well as to lean women without the co-morbidities. (nih.gov)
- We then used hierarchical clustering to generate inflammation signatures by combining the effects of identified cytokines and chemokines and summarized the signatures using an inflammation score. (nih.gov)
- Once at the site of injury, immune cells can react by releasing additional cytokines and chemokines, bringing more cells into the fold. (biolegend.com)
- Plasma pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic effects on cytokines and chemokines were also assessed. (aacrjournals.org)
- In patients with CLL, pilaralisib significantly reduced plasma levels of several cytokines and chemokines involved in B-cell trafficking. (aacrjournals.org)
- Mϕ play a crucial role in human host defense by secreting cytokines and chemokines, presenting antigen to T lymphocytes and clearing infectious agents. (pnas.org)
Cytokine and chemokine4
- MILLIPLEX MAP Mouse Cytokine/Chemokine Magnetic Bead Panel II, MECY2MAG-73K Simultaneously analyze multiple cytokine and chemokine biomarkers with Bead-Based Multiplex Assays using the Luminex technology, in mouse serum, plasma and cell culture samples. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Proper immune clearance of intracellular pathogens requires precise cytokine and chemokine signaling. (frontiersin.org)
- The cytokine and chemokine micromilieu of papillomas is T H 2-like with a marked absence of IFN-γ expression. (aacrjournals.org)
- Intrathecal Th17- and B cell-associated cytokine and chemokine responses in relation to clinical outcome in Lyme neuroborreliosis: a large retrospective study. (liu.se)
- We showed possible implication of 4 chemokines, that is, HCC-4, I-TAC, MIP-3 α , and TARC in women with symptoms of preterm delivery. (hindawi.com)
- High affinity receptor for the C-C type chemokines CCL17/TARC, CCL22/MDC and CKLF isoform 1/CKLF1. (uniprot.org)
- It is a receptor for the CC chemokine - MIP-1, RANTES, TARC and MCP-1. (genecards.org)
- CD194 is the specific receptor for the chemokines CCL17 (TARC) and CCL22 (MDC). (miltenyibiotec.com)
- Higher circulating levels of chemokines CXCL10, CCL20 and CCL22 in patients with ischemic heart disease. (cdc.gov)
- The aim of this study was to evaluate the CXCL10, CCL20 and CCL22 levels and the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs4508917, rs6749704 and rs4359426 in chemokine genes in patients with IHD to clarify any association. (cdc.gov)
- Serum samples from all participants were tested for the CXCL10, CCL20 and CCL22 levels by using ELISA. (cdc.gov)
- Here we describe a pathogen-mediated mechanism of evading CXCL10, a chemokine with diverse antimicrobial functions, including T cell recruitment. (frontiersin.org)
- Cytokine cleavage by GP63 demonstrated specificity, as GP63 cleaved CXCL10 and its homologs, which all bind the CXCR3 receptor, but not distantly related chemokines, such as CXCL8 and CCL22. (frontiersin.org)
- To investigate the relative contribution of different Th associated cytokine/chemokine responses, we used a multiple bead array to measure the levels of CXCL10 (Th1 marker), CCL22 (Th2 marker), IL-17 (Th17 marker) and CXCL8 (general inflammation marker), in serum and in CSF from untreated patients with confirmed NB (n = 133), and non-NB patients (n = 96), and related the findings to clinical data. (nih.gov)
- Further, IFN-gamma-inducible protein 10 (IP-10 or CXCL10), a type 1 (Th1) chemokine, can also be produced by CpG DNA stimulation [ 22 , 23 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Conversely, these mice or ASA-treated wild-type mice displayed enhanced expression of CXCL10 (C-X-C motif chemokine 10) and infiltration of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in the TME, consistent with a relief of MDSC-mediated immunosuppression. (aacrjournals.org)
- Recombinant human CCL22/MDC, fused to His-tag at N-terminus, was expressed as insoluble protein aggregate in E.coli and purified by conventional chromatography, after refolding of the isolated inclusion bodies in a renaturation buffer. (creativebiomart.net)
- Intramolecular disulphide bonds typically join the first to third, and the second to fourth cysteine residues, numbered as they appear in the protein sequence of the chemokine. (wikidoc.org)
- The first two cysteines, in a chemokine, are situated close together near the N-terminal end of the mature protein, with the third cysteine residing in the centre of the molecule and the fourth close to the C-terminal end . (wikidoc.org)
- C-C motif chemokine 22 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCL22 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- In addition, the upregulated ileal genes of the Lactobacillus -dominant calves were related to leukocyte and lymphocyte chemotaxis, the cytokine/chemokine-mediated signaling pathway, and inflammatory responses, while the upregulated ileal genes of the Bacteroides -dominant calves were related to cell adhesion, response to stimulus, cell communication and regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades. (asm.org)
- The specific ligand of this receptor is CCL25 To note, the chemokine binding protein D6 had previously been named CCR9, but this molecule is a scavenger receptor not a true (signaling) chemokine receptor. (wikipedia.org)
- Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that was previously called GRO1 oncogene, GROα, KC, Neutrophil-activating protein 3 (NAP-3) and melanoma growth stimulating activity, alpha (MSGA-α). (creativebiomart.net)
- Recombinant human MDC is an 8.1 kDa protein containing 69 amino acid residues including the four highly conserved cysteine residues present in the CC chemokines. (mpbio.com)
- Recombinant Murine MDC is a 7.8 kDa protein containing 68 amino acid residues including the four highly conserved cysteine residues present in the CC chemokines. (biovendor.com)
- Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include G protein-coupled receptor activity and C-C chemokine receptor activity . (genecards.org)
- The chemokines are labelled selectively at or near the C -terminus of the protein in a selective manner which ensures that only a single dye molecule is incorporated. (almacgroup.com)
- It is a protein that's present in the human body and is often referred to as being a chemokine ligand 1 protein. (prospecbio.com)
- As mentioned, this is a very long protein with 373 amino acids present, and it has a chemokine domain on the top of a mucin-like stalk that extends outwards from the cell. (prospecbio.com)
Secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine1
- Tonsillar CXCR5 + T cells do not respond to other chemokines present in secondary lymphoid tissues, including secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine (SLC), EBV-induced molecule 1 ligand chemokine (ELC), and stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1). (rupress.org)
- For example, in addition to chemotaxis, chemokines modulate lymphocyte development, priming and effector function [ 2 ] and play a critical role in immune surveillance. (mdpi.com)
- In addition to being known for mediating chemotaxis, chemokines are all approximately 8-10 kilodaltons in mass and have four cysteine residues in conserved locations that are key to forming their 3-dimensional shape. (wikipedia.org)
- In addition, the potential application of chemokines in chemotaxis of exosomes as drug vehicles is discussed. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Chemokines are a class of cytokines that induce chemotaxis (migration) of target cells. (biolegend.com)
- While some chemotaxis is induced by inflammation or damaged cells, other chemokines function in homeostasis. (biolegend.com)
- Although both can include a number of organic and inorganic substances, the most commonly researched inducers of chemotaxis are chemokines, or cytokines secreted by cells for the purpose of driving cellular movement and activation. (peprotech.com)
- Considering the significance of chemotaxis in cellular movement during a number of biological processes, including immune response and development, it is of no surprise that a relatively large amount of emphasis has been placed upon research concerning chemotaxis and, more specifically, the Chemokines functioning to direct cellular movement. (peprotech.com)
- Its ligands include the related chemokines CCL19 and CCL21, (previously called ELC and SLC). (wikipedia.org)
- Chemokines are a group of related chemoattractant peptides that are essential regulators of the immune system, both during homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. (mdpi.com)
- While a function of chemokines is to regulate lymphocyte trafficking, the view that chemokines act simply as "chemotactic cytokines" has evolved to include the many critical roles they play in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses. (mdpi.com)
- On one hand, the chemokine network is used by tumors to evade immune surveillance, resist apoptosis, and metastasize. (mdpi.com)
- On the other hand, the chemokine system also plays a crucial role in the induction of antitumor immune responses and optimal effector function regulation of immune cells [ 1 , 4 , 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
- Some chemokines are considered pro- inflammatory and can be induced during an immune response to recruit cells of the immune system to a site of infection , while others are considered homeostatic and are involved in controlling the migration of cells during normal processes of tissue maintenance or development . (wikipedia.org)
- Some chemokines control cells of the immune system during processes of immune surveillance, such as directing lymphocytes to the lymph nodes so they can screen for invasion of pathogens by interacting with antigen-presenting cells residing in these tissues. (wikipedia.org)
- Certain inflammatory chemokines activate cells to initiate an immune response or promote wound healing . (wikipedia.org)
- Chemokines are involved in the inflammatory response, tumor immune response, proliferation, invasion and metastasis via modulation of various signaling pathways. (spandidos-publications.com)
- A family of molecules called chemokines coordinate recruitment of the immune cells required to eliminate infection. (frontiersin.org)
- We observe that other common human intracellular pathogens, including Chlamydia trachomatis and Salmonella enterica , reduce levels of the same chemokines, suggesting a strong selective pressure to avoid this component of the immune response. (frontiersin.org)
- In response, the intestinal epithelium can change its phenotype to produce chemokines and cytokines (v) that act on underlying cells of the innate and adaptive immune system in the lamina propria (vi). (jci.org)
- Researchers speculate that CCL22 (or possibly also other chemokines) inhibits the immune reaction - and does not stimulate it like CCL17. (uni-bonn.de)
- The chemokines also play fundamental roles in the development, homeostasis, and function of the immune system, and they have effects on cells of the central nervous system as well as on endothelial cells involved in angiogenesis or angiostasis. (genecards.org)
- Our findings in this study implicate significance of the COX-2 pathway in gliomagenesis through chemokine-mediated immune cell infiltration in the TME. (aacrjournals.org)
- Expression of genes encoding immune cell markers, chemokines and bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (16SrRNA) was assessed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR in fresh CRC samples and corresponding tumour-free tissues. (ovid.com)
- Chemokine production by CRC cells was evaluated in vitro and in vivo, on generation of intraperitoneal or intracecal tumour xenografts in immune-deficient mice. (ovid.com)
- Previous studies have indicated that TAMs promote angiogenesis, metastasis, and immune suppression in cancers through the secretion of cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and matrix metalloproteases. (nature.com)
- By virtue of potent effects on resident and invading cells, microglial cyto- and chemokines regulate innate defense mechanisms, help the initiation and influence the type of immune responses, participate in the recruitment of leukocytes to the CNS, and support attempts of tissue repair and recovery. (jove.com)
- This pathway was inferred from Mus musculus pathway "Chemokine signaling pathway", WP2292 revision 89521, with a 91.0% conversion rate. (wikipathways.org)
- We selected most pathways CCL1 participated on our site, such as Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, Chemokine signaling pathway, which may be useful for your reference. (creativebiomart.net)
- CCL22/MDC is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family.This protien displays chemotactic activity for natural killer cells, chronically activated T lymphocytes, monocytes and dendritic cells. (creativebiomart.net)
- Chemokines are a family of small molecular weight cytokines, which are involved in leukocytes stimulation and chemotactic gradient determining. (hindawi.com)
- CC chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7), the selective receptor for SLC and ELC, is present on the bulk of resting T cells in peripheral blood and mature dendritic cells and mediates rapid adhesion to integrin ligands and chemotactic migration ( 1 )( 2 )( 3 )( 4 )( 6 )( 7 ). (rupress.org)
- Therefore, chemokine receptor expression and chemotactic responses of murine TCRαβ NKT cells were examined to define their homing potential. (jimmunol.org)
- Belongs to the intercrine beta (chemokine CC) family. (abcam.com)
- We found a similar pattern for the CAF-associated chemokines CCL17, CCL18, CCL22, CCL25, CXCL12 and IL6 with high expression in BCC and peritumoural skin but absence in buttock skin. (biomedcentral.com)
- Recruitment of leukocytes is one of the earliest events in the pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and chemokines play an important role in the migration of these cells into the inflammation sites. (cdc.gov)
- The major role of chemokines is to act as a chemoattractant to guide the migration of cells. (wikipedia.org)
Rs4359426 in CCL22 gene3
- The aim of this study was to investigate the association of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs4359426, in CCL22 gene, with multiple sclerosis (MS) in patients from southeast of Iran. (magiran.com)
- There were no significant differences in the frequencies of genotypes and alleles at SNP rs4359426 in CCL22 gene between MS patients and controls. (magiran.com)
- These results do not show any association between the investigated genotypes and alleles at rs4359426 in CCL22 gene with MS or its patterns in MS patients. (magiran.com)
- This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential vaccine adjuvants. (mdpi.com)
- The gene for CCL22 is located in human chromosome 16 in a cluster with other chemokines called CX3CL1 and CCL17. (wikipedia.org)
- CCR1 was the first CC chemokine receptor identified and binds multiple inflammatory/inducible (see inducible gene) CC chemokines (including CCL4, CCL5, CCL6, CCL14, CCL15, CCL16 and CCL23). (wikipedia.org)
- It is now well accepted that intestinal epithelial cells can be induced to express and secrete specific arrays of cytokines, chemokines, and antimicrobial defense molecules. (jci.org)
- It has been speculated that the chemokine, integrin and other adhesion (ICAM-1) molecules may play a role in skin specific homing of T and B leukemic cells. (medscape.com)
- Chemokines are a group of small polypeptide, structurally related molecules that regulate cell trafficking of various types of leukocytes. (genecards.org)
- MDC is a CC chemokine that is produced in B cells, macrophages, monocyte-derived dendritic cells, activated NK cells and CD4 T cells. (mpbio.com)
- The present invention provides a means of inhibiting the growth and metastasis of cancer cells by administering anti-chemokine antibodies. (google.com)
- CAFs are present within BCC stroma and associated with increased expression of chemokines involved in tumour progression and immunosuppression (CXCL12, CCL17). (biomedcentral.com)
- The study highlights the importance of the chemokine-dependent communication between T cells and dendritic cells in the context of allergy, and potentially also in autoimmune disorders such as rheumatism or atherosclerosis. (uni-bonn.de)
Vitro and in vivo1
- These chemokines were expressed by tumour cells on exposure to gut bacteria in vitro and in vivo. (ovid.com)
- Chemokine receptor expression on TILs was evaluated by flow cytometry on cell suspensions from digested tissues. (ovid.com)
- Memory but not naive T cells from tonsils are CXCR5 + and migrate in response to the B cell-attracting chemokine 1 (BCA-1), which is selectively expressed by reticular cells and blood vessels within B cell follicles. (rupress.org)
- This chemokine may play a role in the trafficking of activated T lymphocytes to inflammatory sites and other aspects of activated T lymphocyte physiology. (creativebiomart.net)
- CCR3 is a receptor for multiple inflammatory/inducible CC chemokines, including CCL11, CCL26, CCL7, CCL13, CCL15, CCL24 and CCL5 that attract eosinophils, and CCL28 that attracts B and T lymphocytes to mucosal tissues. (wikipedia.org)
- Get results in 90 minutes with Human MDC ELISA Kit (CCL22) ( ab179885 ) from our SimpleStep ELISA ® range. (abcam.com)
- Use this table to quickly identify the chemokines that bind to each receptor. (biolegend.com)
- Circulating CXCL11, CCL18 and CCL22 levels during pregnancy and postpartum correlated with the corresponding chemokine levels in the offspring at various time points during childhood. (diva-portal.org)
- Development of allergic symptoms and sensitisation were associated with increased total IgE, CCL17, CCL18 and CCL22 levels during childhood. (diva-portal.org)
- Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing recruitment of antigen presenting cells (APCs) and effector cells to appropriate anatomical sites. (mdpi.com)
- A generic term, "cytokines" includes myokines (produced by muscle cells), lymphokines (produced by activated Th cells), interleukins (acting as mediators between T cells) and chemokines (responsible for T-cell migration). (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Chemokines released by infected or damaged cells form a concentration gradient. (wikipedia.org)
- Attracted cells move through the gradient towards the higher concentration of chemokine. (wikipedia.org)
- Cells that are attracted by chemokines follow a signal of increasing chemokine concentration towards the source of the chemokine. (wikipedia.org)
- Other chemokines are inflammatory and are released from a wide variety of cells in response to bacterial infection, viruses and agents that cause physical damage such as silica or the urate crystals that occur in gout . (wikipedia.org)
- Inflammatory chemokines function mainly as chemoattractants for leukocytes , recruiting monocytes , neutrophils and other effector cells from the blood to sites of infection or tissue damage. (wikipedia.org)
- Tumor cells and microenvironmental macrophages produce the chemokine CCL22, which mediates trafficking of T(reg) cells to the tumor. (nih.gov)
- Peripheral blood CXCR5 + T cells also belong to the CD4 + memory T cell subset but, in contrast to tonsillar cells, are in a resting state and migrate weakly to chemokines. (rupress.org)
- The outcome of these defensive mechanisms relies on the finely tuned traffic of T and B cells as well as antigen-presenting cells, suggesting that chemokines may be involved in the recruitment and proper positioning of leukocytes within these compartments. (rupress.org)
- employ to suppress host chemokines: a Leishmania- encoded protease cleaves chemokines known to recruit T cells that fight off infection. (frontiersin.org)
- CCL22 is a chemokine that induces the migration of Th2- and regulatory T cells to the inflammatory sites. (magiran.com)
- Attracted cells move toward areas of higher concentrations of the chemokine. (biolegend.com)
- Due to their function of targeting cells to specific organs, homeostatic chemokines can also be involved in cancer and metastasis. (biolegend.com)
- Many inflammatory chemokines attract a wide variety of cells in both the innate and adaptive arms of immunity. (biolegend.com)
- Upon sensing the inflammatory chemokine, cells will extravasate from the blood vessel and follow the gradient to its source. (biolegend.com)
- A major rol of chemokines is to act as chemoattractants in guiding migration of cells. (wikipathways.org)
- In the early 1990s, my laboratory discovered that intestinal epithelial cells could alter their phenotype and produce proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines when stimulated by pathogenic enteric luminal microbes or proinflammatory agonists produced by cells in the underlying mucosa. (jci.org)
- A ) Intestinal epithelial cells can be induced to express chemokines and cytokines in response to encounter with enteric microbial pathogens. (jci.org)
- HBV Promotes the Recruitment of IL-17 secreting T cells via Chemokines CCL22 and CCL17. (physiciansweekly.com)
- There is some suggestion that this chemokine receptor is restricted to memory T-cells within the lymphocyte pool. (wikipedia.org)
- Our studies show for the first time that papillomas contain an enrichment of functional CD4 + regulatory T cells (Treg), express Treg/T H 2-like tropic chemokines (CCL17, CCL22), and contain T cells that are CD127 negative and express CD69 and PD-1, a phenotype of chronically activated and exhausted T cells. (aacrjournals.org)
- We conclude that autocrine production of MIF by ovarian cancer cells stimulates other cytokines, chemokines, and angiogenic factors that may promote colonization of the peritoneum and neovascularization of tumor deposits. (aacrjournals.org)
- We investigated chemokines attracting T cells into human CRCs, their cellular sources and microenvironmental triggers. (ovid.com)
- Gut microbiota stimulate chemokine production by CRC cells, thus favouring recruitment of beneficial T cells into tumour tissues. (ovid.com)
- This makes it a cell-binding chemokine, and it is largely produced in endothelial cells. (prospecbio.com)
- Similarly, when this chemokine binds to the surface of cells, it helps encourage leukocytes to fix themselves to the endothelial cells. (prospecbio.com)
- Various tests have found that this version of the chemokine is excellent at attracting both monocytes and T cells to the area it's present in. (prospecbio.com)
- Magnetic bead-based assays for detecting 46 mouse cytokine, chemokine, and growth factor biomarkers. (bio-rad.com)
- Interleukin (IL)-6, a multifunctional cytokine with regulatory functions in wound healing, and several chemokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) after rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). (arvojournals.org)
- ASA treatment also reduced the MDSC-attracting chemokine CCL2 (C-C motif ligand 2) in the TME along with numbers of CD11b + Ly6G hi Ly6C lo granulocytic MDSCs in both the bone marrow and the TME. (aacrjournals.org)
- In both MS and control groups, no significant differences were observed between subjects with CC, CA and AA genotypes or between subjects with C and A alleles concerning rs4359426 with respect to the serum levels of CCL22. (magiran.com)
- The serum levels of chemokine did not also influence by genetic variation of SNP rs4359426. (magiran.com)
- TSLP-containing supernatants from activated CAFs induced in vitro myeloid DCs to up-regulate the TSLP receptor (TSLPR), secrete Th2-attracting chemokines, and acquire TSLP-dependent Th2-polarizing capability in vitro. (rupress.org)
- To date, >50 chemokines have been found, which can be divided into four families: CXC, CX3C, CC and XC, according to the different positions of the conserved N‑terminal cysteine residues. (spandidos-publications.com)
- 50 chemokines have been identified, which can be divided into four families: CXC, CX3C, CC and XC, based on the different positions of the conserved N-terminal cysteine residues ( 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- All chemokines share a typical Greek key structure that is stabilised by disulphide bonds between conserved cysteine residues. (wikidoc.org)