Chemokine CCL27: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.Chemokine CCL21: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL22: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.Chemokine CCL17: A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Chemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CCL19: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL5: A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.Chemokine CCL20: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL1: A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.Chemokines, CC: Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.Receptors, Chemokine: Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Chemokine CCL3: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Chemokine CCL7: A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Receptors, CCR10: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL4: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Chemokine CXCL12: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.Receptors, CCR1: CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.Chemokine CXCL10: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemokine CCL8: A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.Receptors, CCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.Receptors, CCR2: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.Chemokine CCL11: A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Chemokine CCL24: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Receptors, CCR7: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.Receptors, CCR8: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.Chemokine CXCL1: A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Receptors, CCR4: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.Chemokines, CXC: Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.Chemokine CX3CL1: A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins: Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.Receptors, CCR5: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.Receptors, CCR3: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.Chemokine CXCL9: An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Mice, Inbred C57BLCell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Chemokine CXCL2: A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CXCL13: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.Receptors, CXCR4: CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Chemokine CXCL11: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Chemokine CXCL6: A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Chemokine CXCL5: A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Receptors, CXCR3: CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Receptors, Interleukin-8B: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Dermatitis, Atopic: A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Monocyte Chemoattractant Proteins: Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Receptors, CCR6: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Receptors, Interleukin-8A: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Receptors, CXCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Receptors, Cytokine: Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Chemokines, CX3C: Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.Receptors, CXCR5: CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Chemotactic Factors: Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Monokines: Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.Receptors, HIV: Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Carbon Tetrachloride PoisoningDuffy Blood-Group System: A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.Chemotactic Factors, Eosinophil: Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.Neutrophil Infiltration: The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Heterocyclic Compounds: Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Cell Migration Inhibition: Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Platelet Factor 4: A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Endothelium, Lymphatic: Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
Expression and cellular localization of the CC chemokines PARC and ELC in human atherosclerotic plaques. (1/347)Local immune responses are thought to play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. Histological studies have shown that human atherosclerotic lesions contain T lymphocytes throughout all stages of development, many of which are in an activated state. A number of novel CC chemokines have been described recently, which are potent chemoattractants for lymphocytes: PARC (pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine), ELC (EBI1-ligand chemokine), LARC (liver and activation-regulated chemokine), and SLC (secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine). Using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization, we have found gene expression for PARC and ELC but not for LARC or SLC in human atherosclerotic plaques. Immunohistochemical staining of serial plaque sections with specific cell markers revealed highly different expression patterns of PARC and ELC. PARC mRNA was restricted to CD68+ macrophages (n = 14 of 18), whereas ELC mRNA was widely expressed by macrophages and intimal smooth muscle cells (SMC) in nearly all of the lesions examined (n = 12 of 14). ELC mRNA was also found to be expressed in the medial SMC wall of highly calcified plaques (n = 4). Very low levels of ELC mRNA expression could also be detected in normal mammary arteries but no mRNA expression for PARC was detected in these vessels (n = 4). In vitro, ELC mRNA was found to be up-regulated in aortic SMC stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-a and interferon-gamma but not in SMC stimulated with serum. Both PARC and ELC mRNA were expressed by monocyte-derived macrophages but not monocytes. The expression patterns of PARC and ELC mRNA in human atherosclerotic lesions suggest a potential role for these two recently described CC chemokines in attracting T lymphocytes into atherosclerotic lesions. (+info)
Cutting edge: secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine (SLC) and CC chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) participate in the emigration pathway of mature dendritic cells from the skin to regional lymph nodes. (2/347)Dendritic cells (DCs) emigrate to regional lymph nodes (LNs) during immune responses via afferent lymphatic channels. Secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine (SLC), a CC chemokine, is expressed in secondary lymphoid organs and mediates the chemotaxis of lymphocytes and DCs via its receptor, CC chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7). By dual-label fluorescence confocal microscopy, we showed MHC class II-positive cells within SLC-staining lymphatic channels in the mouse dermis. SLC was a potent in vitro chemoattractant for cultured, migratory skin DCs, and it enhanced the emigration of MHC class II-positive DCs from mouse skin explants by an average of 2.5-fold. Mature or cytokine-activated, but not resting, Langerhans cells expressed CCR7 mRNA by RT-PCR. Anti-SLC Abs, but not control or anti-eotaxin Abs, blocked the in vivo migration of 51Cr-labeled, skin-derived DCs from footpads to draining LNs by 50% (n = 9, p < 0. 005). Thus, we provide direct evidence that SLC and CCR7 participate in the emigration of DCs from peripheral tissue to LNs via lymphatics. (+info)
Cutting edge: species specificity of the CC chemokine 6Ckine signaling through the CXC chemokine receptor CXCR3: human 6Ckine is not a ligand for the human or mouse CXCR3 receptors. (3/347)The CC chemokine known as 6Ckine (SLC, Exodus-2, or TCA4) has been identified as a ligand for CCR7. Mouse 6Ckine has also been shown to signal through mouse CXCR3 and share some of the activities of IFN-gamma inducible protein 10 and monokine induced by IFN-gamma. Nonetheless, human 6Ckine has not been shown to bind CXCR3 receptor or have angiostatic activity. In this study, we report that human 6Ckine does not induce a calcium flux in either human CXCR3 or mouse CXCR3 transfected cells, although it is an equally potent agonist as mouse 6Ckine and human macrophage inflammatory protein-3beta in human CCR7 transfected cells. Mouse 6Ckine (but not human 6Ckine) is capable of competing with radiolabeled IFN-gamma inducible protein 10 for human CXCR3. In addition, radiolabeled human 6Ckine does not bind to either human CXCR3 or mouse CXCR3. Together these data suggest that human CC chemokine 6Ckine is not a ligand for the human or mouse CXC chemokine receptor CXCR3. (+info)
The CC chemokine receptor-7 ligands 6Ckine and macrophage inflammatory protein-3 beta are potent chemoattractants for in vitro- and in vivo-derived dendritic cells. (4/347)Dendritic cell migration to secondary lymphoid tissues is critical for Ag presentation to T cells necessary to elicit an immune response. Despite the importance of dendritic cell trafficking in immunity, at present little is understood about the mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon. Using a novel transwell chemotaxis assay system, we demonstrate that the CC chemokine receptor-7 (CCR7) ligands 6Ckine and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-3 beta are selective chemoattractants for MHC class IIhigh B7-2high bone marrow-derived dendritic cells at a potency 1000-fold higher than their known activity on naive T cells. Furthermore, these chemokines stimulate the chemotaxis of freshly isolated lymph node dendritic cells, as well as the egress of skin dendritic cells ex vivo. Because these chemokines are expressed in lymphoid organs and 6Ckine has been localized to high endothelial venules and lymphatic endothelium, we propose that they may play an important role in the homing of dendritic cells to lymphoid tissues. (+info)
Secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine (SLC) is chemotactic for mature dendritic cells. (5/347)Dendritic cells (DC) take up antigen from the periphery and migrate to the lymphoid organs where they present the processed antigens to T cells. The propensity of DC to migrate changes during DC maturation and is probably dependent on alterations in the expression of chemokine receptors on the surface of DC. Secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine (SLC), a recently discovered chemokine for naive T cells, is primarily expressed in secondary lymphoid organs and may be important for colocalizing T cells with other cell types important for T-cell activation. We show here that SLC is a potent chemokine for mature DC but does not act on immature DC. SLC also induced calcium mobilization specifically in mature DC. SLC and Epstein-Barr virus-induced molecule 1 ligand chemokine completely cross-desensitized the calcium response of each other, indicating that they share similar signaling pathways in DC. The finding that SLC is a potent chemokine for DC as well as naive T cells suggests that it plays a role in colocalizing these two cell types leading to cognate T-cell activation. (+info)
Cutting edge: developmental switches in chemokine responses during T cell maturation. (6/347)We show that developmental transitions during thymocyte maturation are associated with dramatic changes in chemotactic responses to chemokines. Macrophage-derived chemokine, a chemokine expressed in the thymic medulla, attracts thymocytes only during a brief window of development, between the late cortical and early medullary stages. All medullary phenotypes (CD4 or CD8 single positive) but not immature thymocytes respond to the medullary stroma-expressed (and secondary lymphoid tissue-associated) chemokines secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine and macrophage inflammatory protein-3beta. The appearance of these responses is associated with the phenotypic stage of cortex to medulla migration and with up-regulation of mRNA for the receptors CCR4 (for macrophage-derived chemokine and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine) and CCR7 (for secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine and macrophage inflammatory protein-3beta). In contrast, most immature and medullary thymocytes migrate to thymus-expressed chemokine, an ability that is lost only with up-regulation of the peripheral homing receptor L-selectin during the latest stages of thymocyte maturation associated with export to the periphery. Developmental switches in chemokine responses may help regulate critical migratory events during T cell development. (+info)
SLC/exodus2/6Ckine/TCA4 induces chemotaxis of hematopoietic progenitor cells: differential activity of ligands of CCR7, CXCR3, or CXCR4 in chemotaxis vs. suppression of progenitor proliferation. (7/347)Chemokines induce chemotaxis of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC), and suppress their proliferation. In this study we report that SLC/ Exodus2/6Ckine/TCA4 (hereafter termed SLC) is a chemoattractant for human CD34+ HPC. SLC mainly induces preferential chemotaxis of macrophage progenitors. We examined the chemotactic activity of CXCR3 ligands on CD34+ HPC because it has been reported that SLC is a potential ligand of CXC chemokine receptor, CXCR3, in addition to a CC chemokine receptor, CCR7. It was found that the CXCR3 ligands, MIG and interferon-gamma inducible protein-10 (IP-10), unlike SLC, did not induce chemotaxis of CD34+ HPC. In this regard, CCR7 ligands (SLC and CKbeta-11), but not IP-10 and MIG, induce actin polymerization in CD34+ cells. On the other hand, CCR7 ligands and CXCR3 ligands, but not the CXCR4 ligand SDF-1, showed inhibitory activity for proliferation of myeloid progenitor cells. Our results suggest that SLC is a potential trafficking factor for HPC, and that chemokines that bind CCR7, CXCR4, and CXCR3 have differential biological activities on HPC in terms of suppression and chemotaxis. (+info)
In vivo-activated CD4 T cells upregulate CXC chemokine receptor 5 and reprogram their response to lymphoid chemokines. (8/347)Migration of antigen-activated CD4 T cells to B cell areas of lymphoid tissues is important for mounting T cell-dependent antibody responses. Here we show that CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR)5, the receptor for B lymphocyte chemoattractant (BLC), is upregulated on antigen-specific CD4 T cells in vivo when animals are immunized under conditions that promote T cell migration to follicles. In situ hybridization of secondary follicles for BLC showed high expression in mantle zones and low expression in germinal centers. When tested directly ex vivo, CXCR5(hi) T cells exhibited a vigorous chemotactic response to BLC. At the same time, the CXCR5(hi) cells showed reduced responsiveness to the T zone chemokines, Epstein-Barr virus-induced molecule 1 (EBI-1) ligand chemokine (ELC) and secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine (SLC). After adoptive transfer, CXCR5(hi) CD4 T cells did not migrate to follicles, indicating that additional changes may occur after immunization that help direct T cells to follicles. To further explore whether T cells could acquire an intrinsic ability to migrate to follicles, CD4(-)CD8(-) double negative (DN) T cells from MRL-lpr mice were studied. These T cells normally accumulate within follicles of MRL-lpr mice. Upon transfer to wild-type recipients, DN T cells migrated to follicle proximal regions in all secondary lymphoid tissues. Taken together, our findings indicate that reprogramming of responsiveness to constitutively expressed lymphoid tissue chemokines plays an important role in T cell migration to the B cell compartment of lymphoid tissues. (+info)
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IL-22 regulates lymphoid chemokine production and assembly of tertiary lymphoid organs - Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics,...
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Expression of ELC mRNA is decreased in the LNs and spleens of plt mice. Tissues from +/+ (A and C) and plt (B and D) mice were analyzed as described in the
Complete information for CCL15-CCL14 gene (RNA Gene), CCL15-CCL14 Readthrough (NMD Candidate), including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
ATLOs promote lymphocyte recruitment and recirculation into the arterial wall. CFSE labeling and i.v. application of splenocytes was performed as described in M
Ccl2 - Ccl2 (untagged) - Mouse chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (Ccl2), (10ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
The CC Chemokine Receptor-7 Ligands 6Ckine and Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-3β Are Potent Chemoattractants for In Vitro- and...
Dendritic cells are believed to be crititcal in both initiating and modulating immune responses (32). Central to their role as immune sentinels is their ability to capture, process, and transport Ag to secondary lymphoid tissues where they serve as potent APCs capable of stimulating T cells in T cell areas. Trafficking of both T cells and dendritic cells to lymphoid organs followed by precise microenvironmental localization is necessary for efficient immune surveillance and is thought to be directed by chemokines (12). 6Ckine, a recently discovered CC chemokine (13, 14, 15), has been shown to be expressed by HEV in lymph nodes (16, 17), is capable of rapidly triggering integrin binding to vascular ligands (18), and is a potent chemoattractant for T lymphocytes (14, 15, 16, 17, 19), making it a leading candidate for mediating T cell homing. 6Ckine is also expressed by endothelial cells in lymphatic venules (17), the major route of dendritic cell entry into lymph nodes (33), suggesting that it may ...
A Haptotaxis Assay for Leukocytes Based on Surface-Bound Chemokine Gradients | The Journal of Immunology
The migration of leukocytes in response to chemokine gradients is an important process in the homeostasis of the human immune system and inflammation. In vivo the migration takes place on the surface of the endothelium to which the chemokine gradient is immobilized via interaction with glycosaminoglycans. To study leukocyte migration in response to surface-bound chemokines, we generated chemokine gradients by a simple stamping method: agarose stamps were soaked with chemokine solution to form continuous chemokine gradients by diffusion. These gradients could be easily transferred to a petri dish surface by stamping. We show that neutrophil granulocytes recognize these gradients and migrate toward increasing chemokine concentrations dependent on the slope of the gradient. Single-cell responses were recorded, and statistical analyses of cell behavior and migration were performed. For analysis of chemotaxis/haptotaxis, we propose a chemotactic precision index that is broadly applicable, valid, and ...
Several lines of evidence indicate a requirement for LTα1β2 in splenic T zone development that is fixed during the first few weeks after birth. First, in contrast to the severely defective splenic T zones of mice congenitally deficient in LTα1β2, in studies where LTα1β2 function was blocked in adult animals, effects on T zone organization were minimal (45) and T zone chemokine expression was only mildly diminished (14). Second, when adult mice are depleted of LTα-expressing cells by irradiation and reconstitution with LTα-deficient bone marrow, T zones remain visible (data not shown and see reference 46) and there is little reduction in CCL21 expression (Fig. 4). Therefore, once the splenic CCL21-expressing T zone stromal network has developed, it has only a weak requirement for continued LTβR-signaling to be maintained. By contrast, treatment of newborn mice with LTα1β2 antagonist had a marked inhibitory effect on subsequent CCL21 and gp38 expression in the adult (Figs. 5 and 6). ...
When two chemokine receptors in the brain interact, leukemic cells (stained green) creep out of a small vein in the membrane covering the brain of a mouse and enter the cerebrospinal fluid. The chemokine CCL19, which is in the endothelium lining the vein, is stained blue in this immunofluorescent image.
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19 (CCL19) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCL19 gene. This gene is one of several CC cytokine genes clustered on the p-arm of chromosome 9. Cytokines are a family of secreted proteins involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. The CC cytokines are proteins characterized by two adjacent cysteines. The cytokine encoded by this gene may play a role in normal lymphocyte recirculation and homing. It also plays an important role in trafficking of T cells in thymus, and in T cell and B cell migration to secondary lymphoid organs. It specifically binds to chemokine receptor CCR7. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19 (CCL19) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family that is also known as EBI1 ligand chemokine (ELC) and macrophage inflammatory protein-3-beta (MIP-3-beta). CCL19 is expressed abundantly in thymus and lymph nodes, with moderate levels in trachea and colon and low levels in stomach, small intestine, lung, kidney and spleen. ...
CCL2-induced chemokine cascade promotes breast cancer metastasis by enhancing retention of metastasis-associated macrophages |...
Previously, we showed that a chemokine CCL2 recruits IMs to metastatic sites where they differentiate to MAMs (Qian et al., 2011). In this study, we revealed a novel role for CCL2 as a trigger of a prometastatic chemokine cascade involving CCL3 signaling via CCR1 that is required for efficient metastasis. These data illustrate a signaling relay that amplifies the pathology already in the system by promoting retention of recruited monocytes that stimulate tumor cell establishment at the metastatic site.. Our in vivo and in vitro results indicate that CCL2 can increase CCL3 expression in MAMs at the metastasis site. The CCL2-induced CCL3 expression is likely to be specific to the prometastatic macrophage lineage, as neutralization of CCL2 by antibodies significantly reduced Ccl3 expression in IMs and MAMs, but not in resident monocytes or macrophages. Consistent with this interpretation, expression of Ccl3 was highest in MAMs compared with other leukocytes in the tumor-bearing lung. Importantly, a ...
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Chemokines are believed to play a crucial role in local immunoresponse by regulating leukocyte movement in various tissues, including the intestinal mucosa. It has been suggested that they are key players in cancer biology, and several studies have identified leukocyte infiltration as a hallmark of most cancers. The chemokines CCL17 and CCL22 attract CCR4-bearing cells, which are especially polarised to Th2-type cells and regulatory T cells (Treg). Recent studies have revealed the participation of the CCL17 and CCL22 proteins in diseases such as atopic dermatitis and lymphoma. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of CCL17 and CCL22 protein expression in colorectal cancer (CRC) and to ascertain whether an association exists between promoter -431C,T CCL17 and -961G,A CCL22 gene polymorphisms in CRC versus non-CRC subjects. Using the ELISA assay, we noted a significantly higher expression of CCL22 in tumour tissue with a 2.3-fold up-regulation (tumour vs. paired normal tissue, n=78) but ...
Transplantation of embryonic spleen tissue reveals a role for adult non-lymphoid cells in initiating lymphoid tissue...
In this report we describe a transplantation system where embryonic spleens are grafted into adult hosts. This model can be used to analyze the cellular and molecular requirements for the development and organization of splenic microenvironments.Whole embryonic day 15 (ED15) spleens, grafted under the kidney capsule of adult mice, were colonized by host-derived lymphocytes and DC and developed normal splenic architecture. Grafts were also able to form germinal centers in response to T-dependent antigen. Using this system we demonstrated that adult host-derived lymphotoxin (LT) a was sufficient for the development of ED15 LTa/ grafts. Grafting of ED15 LTa/ spleens into RAG/ hosts followed by transfer of LT a/ splenocytes revealed no requirement for lymphocyte-derived LT a in the induction of CCL21 or the development of T-zone stroma. These data suggest that interactions between adult lymphoid-tissue inducer-like cells and embryonic stromal cells initiated T-zone development. Furthermore,adult ...
Complete information for CCL13 gene (Protein Coding), C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 13, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
The directed orientation of T cell signaling molecules and associated membrane rafts towards a chemokine gradient or a contact point with antigen presenting cell.
The question why CD4+/CD25+ T cells are reduced in asthmatic patients has not been answered yet; however, it has been observed that these cells reveal a reduced response to the chemokines CCL1 and CXCL1 suggesting an impaired recruitment to the lung [137, 138 ...
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The molar mass of CCl4 is about 153.82 grams per mole. The molar mass of a compound is defined as the atomic weight of all the atoms contained in one mole of the substance. One molecule of CCl4...
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. CCL2 ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
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Chemokines belong to a class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. Their name is derived from chemotactic cytokines" based on their ability to induce and mediate chemotaxis in nearby responsive cells. Formerly, they were called SIS family of cytokines, SIG family of cytokines, SCY family of cytokines, Platelet factor-4 superfamily or intercrines. Chemokines can be divided into at least four structural branches: c (chemokines, c), cc (chemokines, cc), cx3c (chemokines, cx3c), and cxc (chemokines, cxc). The classification is according to the variations in a shared cysteine motif. Chemokines may also be classified based on their functions. Homeostatic chemokines are chemokines that are responsible for basal leukocyte migration. Examples of homeostatic chemokines are CCL14, CCL19, CCL20, CCL21, CXCL12 and CXCL13. Nevertheless, some of them are not exclusive to this function. For instance, CCL20 is also associated with inflammation since it can act as ...
For the ICAO airport code see Candle Lake Airpark, for the diradical compound see Dichlorocarbene. The chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) is also referred to as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) and small inducible cytokine A2. CCL2 is a small cytokine that belongs to the CC chemokine family. CCL2 recruits monocytes, memory T cells, and dendritic cells to the sites of inflammation produced by either tissue injury or infection. In the human genome, CCL2 and many other CC chemokines are located on chromosome 17 (17q11.2-q21.1). The gene span is 1,927 bases and the CCL2 gene resides on the Watson (plus) strand. The CCL2 gene has three exons and two introns. The CCL2 protein precursor contains a signal peptide of 23 amino acids. In turn, the mature CCL2 is 76 amino acids long. The CCL2 predicted weight is 11.025 kiloDaltons (kDa). The gene homologous to CCL2 in the mouse is Sig-je. In humans, the levels of CCL2 can vary considerably. In the white people of European descent, the ...
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This research focuses on the antimicrobial activity of the mouse chemokine CCL28. In addition to their well characterized chemotactic activity, many chemokines have been shown to be antimicrobial in vitro, including the mucosally expressed chemokine CCL28. I have investigated the primary sequence features required for antimicrobial activity, salt sensitive nature of killing/binding mechanism, and in vivo microbial interactions of CCL28. Through the use of protein mutation and expression techniques, I have shown that the holoprotein (108 amino acids) is necessary for full antimicrobial activity of CCL28. Furthermore, the C terminal region of CCL28 is essential for microbial killing as an almost complete loss of antimicrobial activity is seen following the removal of the C terminal 24 amino acids. The positively charged amino acids of the C-terminus directly contributed to the antimicrobial activity of CCL28. These experiments are the first to investigate the role of primary structure on the killing
Rat CCL2 is a member of the β (CC) subfamily of chemokines that is a chemoattractant for monocytes and basophils but not eosinophils or neutrophils. Rat CCL2 is secreted as a 14 kDa glycoprotein monomer but noncovalent dimers probably occur. The first five amino acids of the mature protein are essential for activity; deletion of the N-terminal glutamine, which is pyrrolidone carboxylic acid modified, dramatically decreases activity on basophils and, surprisingly, stimulates eosinophil chemotaxis. The rat CCL2 propeptide shares 82% amino acid (a.a.) identity with mouse CCL2 over the 148 a.a. sequence and 57%, 52%, 52%, 52% and 52% a.a. identity with equine, human, porcine, canine and guinea pig CCL2, respectively, over the first 100 aa. Rat and mouse CCL2 have a 49 aa extension at the C-terminus as compared to human CCL2. Fibroblasts, tumor cells, smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, and mononuclear phagocytes can produce CCL2 either constitutively or upon mitogenic stimulation. CCL2 is best ...
MCP1 / CCL2 antibody  (chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2) for Neut, WB. Anti-MCP1 / CCL2 mAb (GTX10390) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
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The structure was refined using the CNS program. The R value is 0.171 for 371553 reflections in the resolution range 49.98 to 2.9 Ångstroms with Fobs , 0.0 sigma(Fobs) and with I , 0.0 sigma(I) ...
Jafarnejad M, Zawieja DC, Brook BS, Nibbs RJB, Moore JEet al., 2017, A Novel Computational Model Predicts Key Regulators of Chemokine Gradient Formation in Lymph Nodes and Site-Specific Roles for CCL19 and ACKR4., J Immunol, Vol: 199, Pages: 2291-2304 The chemokine receptor CCR7 drives leukocyte migration into and within lymph nodes (LNs). It is activated by chemokines CCL19 and CCL21, which are scavenged by the atypical chemokine receptor ACKR4. CCR7-dependent navigation is determined by the distribution of extracellular CCL19 and CCL21, which form concentration gradients at specific microanatomical locations. The mechanisms underpinning the establishment and regulation of these gradients are poorly understood. In this article, we have incorporated multiple biochemical processes describing the CCL19-CCL21-CCR7-ACKR4 network into our model of LN fluid flow to establish a computational model to investigate intranodal chemokine gradients. Importantly, the model recapitulates CCL21 gradients ...
Brief report: a single neoplastic clone in sequential biopsy specimens from a patient with primary gastric-mucosa-associated...
Brief report: a single neoplastic clone in sequential biopsy specimens from a patient with primary gastric-mucosa-associated lymphoid-tissue lymphoma and Sjögrens syndrome. New England Journal of Medicine New England Journal of Medicine 0028-4793 10.1056/NEJM199307153290305
CCL21, CCL25, CXCL13) are constitutively expressed and control physiologic trafficking of cells of the adoptive immune system during hematopoiesis and immunosurveillance ...
CCL12, hemokin (C-C motiv) ligand 12, je mali citokin iz CC hemokin familije koji je bio opisan kod miševa. On je takođe poznat kao monocitni hemotaksni protein 5 (MCP-5). Usled njegove sličnosti sa ljudskim hemokinom MCP-1, on se ponekad naziva MCP-1-slični hemokin. CCL12 specifično privlači eozinofile, monocite i limfocite. Ovaj hemokin se prvenstveno nalazi u limfnim čvorovima i timusu pod normalnim uslovima. Njegovo izražavanje može biti snažno indukovano u makrofagama. Smatra se da CCL12 koordinira ćelijsko kretanje u toku ranih alergijskih reakcija, i imunski odgovor na patogene. Gen za CCL12 se nalazi u klusteru CC hemokina na mišjem hromozomu 11. ...
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CCL5 (Human) ELISA Kit is a sandwich enzyme immunoassay for the quantitative measurement of human CCL5. (KA0411) - Products - Abnova
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Single cell cloning and recombinant monoclonal antibodies generation from RA synovial B cells reveal frequent targeting of...
A common feature of RA is the formation of discrete clusters of infiltrating lymphomononuclear cells forming lymphoid aggregates or ELS.7 ,8 ,10 These structures resembling secondary lymphoid organs sustain a functional ectopic-GC response and support B-cell differentiation into high affinity autoantibody-producing cells.29 ,31 ELS formation is dependent on the activation of the LT-β/lymphoid chemokines pathway in ectopic sites32 and is driven by chronic antigenic stimulation.31 As such, ELS (also observed in non-autoimmune conditions such as chronic infections, allograft rejections and cancer31) are unique in their ability to mount disease-specific and antigen-specific immune responses. Indeed, ectopic-GCs produce antibodies against citrullinated proteins in RA,10 ,33 ,34 ribonucleoproteins Ro/La in SS,35 ,36 thyroglobulin and thyroperoxidase in Hashimotos thyroiditis37 and acetylcholine receptor in myasthenia gravis.38. Here, we exploited these unique features of ectopic-GC to unravel the ...
Intralymphatic CCL21 Promotes Tissue Egress of Dendritic Cells through Afferent Lymphatic Vessels - Research Collection
To induce adaptive immunity, dendritic cells (DCs) migrate through afferent lymphatic vessels (LVs) to draining lymph nodes (dLNs). This process occurs in several consecutive steps. Upon entry into lymphatic capillaries, DCs first actively crawl into downstream collecting vessels. From there, they are next passively and rapidly transported to the dLN by lymph flow. Here, we describe a role for the chemokine CCL21 in intralymphatic DC crawling. Performing time-lapse imaging in murine skin, we found that blockade of CCL21-but not the absence of lymph flow-completely abolished DC migration from capillaries toward collecting vessels and reduced the ability of intralymphatic DCs to emigrate from skin. Moreover, we found that in vitro low laminar flow established a CCL21 gradient along lymphatic endothelial monolayers, thereby inducing downstream-directed DC migration. These findings reveal a role for intralymphatic CCL21 in promoting DC trafficking to dLNs, through the formation of a flow-induced ...
Certainly one of the wildest and most remote destinations in Botswana, Gcwihaba is a fascinating underground labyrinthe of caverns and pits, linked passages, fantastical stalagmite and stalactite formations, and beautifully coloured flowstones that appear like waterfalls of rock.. Moving from the more commonly used northern entrance, youll first come across thousands of bats hanging upside down from the cave walls. The most common species are the commersons Leaf-nosed Bat - the largest insectivorous bat in Southern Africa, the tiny Dents Horseshoe Bat and the Egyptian Slit-faced Bat. They are harmless, but as you approach, be prepared for a possible mass exodus- clouds of screeching, fleeing bats winging through the dusty darkness.. Some caverns are up to 10 metres high, some are so tiny that one needs to squeeze, or crawl on the belly, to get through them; and some stalactites measure up to six metres in height, meeting their cousin stalagmites to form organic columns that seem to support ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
LEGEND MAX™ Mouse CCL11 ELISA Kit with Pre-coated Plates - CCL11, also known as Eotaxin, is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family.
|p|Recombinant Human MCP4/CCL13 is a single non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 75 amino acids.|/p| |p|Background: MCP-4/CCL13 is a chemoattractant for monocytes and eosinophils, and activates basophils. In addition, it has been reported to be
Chemical Contaminants - CCL 4 | Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List (CCL) and Regulatory Determination | US EPA
1Chemical Abstract Service Registration Number (CASRN#) - Chemical abstract service registry numbers are used in reference works, databases, and regulatory compliance documents by many organizations around the world to identify substances with a standardized name.. 2 Due to varying chemical structures, there are several other CASRNs associated with nonylphenol in addition to 25154-52-3, including: 104-40-5, 84852-15-3, 91672-41-2, and 139-84-4. The CASRN provided by the nominator was selected for CCL 4, and the additional possible CASRNs are delineated here.. Top of Page. ...
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"CCL21 Chemokine Therapy for Lung Cancer". International Trends in Immunity. 1 (1): 10-15. ISSN 2326-3121. PMC 4175527 . PMID ... A vault has been packaged with a chemokine for potential use to activate the immune system to attack lung cancer, and this ... "Novel CCL21-vault nanocapsule intratumoral delivery inhibits lung cancer growth". PLoS One. 6 (5): e18758. doi:10.1371/journal. ...
The chemokine CCL21 then binds to its receptor CCR7 expressed on the T cell. This binding induces a conformational change in ... They also secrete the chemokine CCL21. Naïve T cells express CCR7 receptor and adhesion molecules L-selectin and LFA-1. As ...
"CCL21 Chemokine Therapy for Lung Cancer". International Trends in Immunity. 1 (1): 10-15. ISSN 2326-3121. PMC 4175527 . PMID ... This vault is packaged with a chemokine and will be used to activate the immune system to attack lung cancer. As of 2012[update ... "Novel CCL21-vault nanocapsule intratumoral delivery inhibits lung cancer growth". PLoS One. 6 (5): e18758. doi:10.1371/journal. ...
For example, Naive T cells express the CCR7 receptor for the chemokine CCL21. and B cells exhibit CXCR5 receptors for chemokine ... FRCs express chemokines such as CCL21 and CCL19 which assist the movement of T cells and dentritic cells with CCR7 receptors. ... For example, the chemokine CCL21 attaches to the surface of the FRCs through collagen and glycosaminoglycan molecules. FRCs ... This type of receptor interacts with the chemokine CCL21, produced by fibroblastic reticular cells. Due to this interaction, ...
In any case, CCL21 binds to C-C chemokine receptor type 7 and chemokine receptor CXCR3 receptors on microglia in the thalamus. ... A very important molecule in the thalamus appears to be cysteine-cysteine chemokine ligand 21 (CCL21). The concentration of ... The source of CCL21 is not exactly known, but two possibilities exist. First, it might be made in primary nociceptive neurons ... Both pathways depend on the production of chemokines and other molecules important in the inflammatory response. ...
Chemokines influence these movements, especially CCL21, which is bound to lymphatic endothelial cell membranes. The influence ... 2013). Interstitial dendritic cell guidance by haptotactic chemokine gradients. Science, 339(6117), 328-332. doi:10.1126/ ... eosinophils and some T cells are influenced by RANTES chemokines. In the autoimmune disorder rheumatoid arthritis and in ...
This receptor has been shown to bind dendritic cell- and T cell-activated chemokines including CCL19/ELC, CCL21/SLC, and CCL25/ ... 2000). "Cutting edge: identification of a novel chemokine receptor that binds dendritic cell- and T cell-active chemokines ... C-C chemokine receptor type 11 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCRL1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... "Entrez Gene: CCRL1 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor-like 1". Human ACKR4 genome location and ACKR4 gene details page in the UCSC ...
The DNA vaccine contained the CCL21 secretory chemokine as a way to enhance the likelihood of eliciting the immune response by ... which co-encoded secretory chemokine CCL21 and survivin protein in C57BL/6J mice, Xiang et al. have been able to elicit an ...
Coiled coil domain-containing protein 180 CCL21: chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21, SCYA21 CCL27: chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 27 ...
Cathelicidin CC chemokine receptors CCBP2 CCL1 CCL11 CCL12 CCL13 CCL14 CCL15 CCL16 CCL17 CCL18 CCL19 CCL2 CCL20 CCL21 CCL22 ... C-C chemokine receptor type 6 C-C chemokine receptor type 7 Calreticulin Cancer immunology Cancer immunoprevention Cancer ... CD4 CD4+ T cells and antitumor immunity CD74 CD94/NKG2 Cell-mediated immunity CELSR1 Central tolerance Chemokine Chemokine ... CR6261 CroFab Cross-presentation Cross-reactivity Cryptic self epitopes Cryptotope CX3CL1 CX3CR1 CXC chemokine receptors CXCL1 ...
chemokine receptor activity. • receptor activity. • protein binding. • C-C chemokine receptor activity. • C-C chemokine binding ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene. CCR6 ... "Entrez Gene: CCR6 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6".. *^ Wang K, Zhang H, Kugathasan S, Annese V, Bradfield JP, Russell RK, ... "Chemokine Receptors: CCR6". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
... -dependent chemotaxis has been reported in response to the chemokines CXCL12/SDF-1 in T lymphocytes, CXCL13/BLC in B ... lymphocytes and CCL19/ELC in thymocytes (immature lymphocytes) emigrating from the thymus as well as CCL21/SLC in ex vivo ... 2007). "DOCK2 is required for chemokine-promoted human T lymphocyte adhesion under shear stress mediated by the integrin ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21 (CCL21) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. This chemokine is also known ... The gene for CCL21 is located on human chromosome 9. CCL21 elicits its effects by binding to a cell surface chemokine receptor ... Human CCL21 genome location and CCL21 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Nagira M, Imai T, Hieshima K, et al. (1997 ... 2003). "Endothelial induction of the T-cell chemokine CCL21 in T-cell autoimmune diseases". Blood. 101 (3): 801-6. doi:10.1182/ ...
C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1, CCL15, CCL21, CCL23 and CCL28. CC chemokines induce the migration of ... The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines in that it has ... Chemokines of this subfamily usually contain four cysteines (C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six ... CCL1 for the ligand 1 of the CC-family of chemokines, and CCR1 for its respective receptor. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) ...
Its ligands include the related chemokines CCL19 and CCL21, (previously called ELC and SLC). CCR8 is associated with Th2 ... This molecule was originally designated CCR11 due to its ability to bind several CC chemokines (including CCL19, CCL21 and ... The CC chemokine receptors all work by activating the G protein Gi. CCR1 was the first CC chemokine receptor identified and ... The orphan chemokine receptor G protein-coupled receptor-2 (GPR-2, CCR10) binds the skin-associated chemokine CCL27 (CTACK/ALP/ ...
C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1, CCL15, CCL21, CCL23 and CCL28. CC chemokines induce the migration of ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ... CXC chemokinesEdit. The two N-terminal cysteines of CXC chemokines (or α-chemokines) are separated by one amino acid, ...
CCL21). CCR7 has also recently been designated CD197 (cluster of differentiation 197). The protein encoded by this gene is a ... "Macrophage-derived chemokine and EBI1-ligand chemokine attract human thymocytes in different stage of development and are ... "Molecular cloning of a novel human CC chemokine EBI1-ligand chemokine that is a specific functional ligand for EBI1, CCR7". The ... identification of a novel chemokine receptor that binds dendritic cell- and T cell-active chemokines including ELC, SLC, and ...
This chemokine-induced latency model has been used in a comprehensive comparison of in vitro models for evaluating latency ... "CCR7 ligands CCL19 and CCL21 increase permissiveness of resting memory CD4+ T cells to HIV-1 infection: a novel model of HIV-1 ... "Establishment of HIV-1 latency in resting CD4+ T cells depends on chemokine-induced changes in the actin cytoskeleton". ... cells contribute to the ongoing HIV reservoir and that HIV DNA is preferentially found in CD4 T cells expressing the chemokine ...
This chemokine elicits its effects on its target cells by binding to the chemokine receptor chemokine receptor CCR7. It ... 2004). "CCL19/CCL21-triggered signal transduction and migration of dendritic cells requires prostaglandin E2". Blood. 103 (5): ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19 (CCL19) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family that is also known as EBI1 ... 2000). "Macrophage-derived chemokine and EBI1-ligand chemokine attract human thymocytes in different stage of development and ...
CCL21 · CCL22 · CCL23 · CCL24 · CCL25 · CCL26 · CCL27 · CCL28 ... Chemokine. CCL. CCL1 · CCL2 · CCL3 · CCL4 · CCL5 · CCL6 · CCL7 · CCL8 · CCL9 · CCL11 · CCL12 · CCL13 · CCL14 · CCL15 · CCL16 · ...
positive regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production. • positive regulation of JUN kinase activity. • positive ... positive regulation of chemokine production. • cellular extravasation. • negative regulation of lipid storage. • negative ... positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • epithelial cell proliferation involved in salivary gland morphogenesis ...
... s are a subset of cytokines that are produced by a type of immune cell known as a lymphocyte. They are protein mediators typically produced by T cells to direct the immune system response by signaling between its cells. Lymphokines have many roles, including the attraction of other immune cells, including macrophages and other lymphocytes, to an infected site and their subsequent activation to prepare them to mount an immune response. Circulating lymphocytes can detect a very small concentration of lymphokine and then move up the concentration gradient towards where the immune response is required. Lymphokines aid B cells to produce antibodies. Important lymphokines secreted by the T helper cell include: ...
... binds to the death receptors DR4 (TRAIL-RI) and DR5 (TRAIL-RII). The process of apoptosis is caspase-8-dependent. Caspase-8 activates downstream effector caspases including procaspase-3, -6, and -7, leading to activation of specific kinases. TRAIL also binds the receptors DcR1 and DcR2, which do not contain a cytoplasmic domain (DcR1) or contain a truncated death domain (DcR2). DcR1 functions as a TRAIL-neutralizing decoy-receptor. The cytoplasmic domain of DcR2 is functional and activates NFkappaB. In cells expressing DcR2, TRAIL binding therefore activates NFkappaB, leading to transcription of genes known to antagonize the death signaling pathway and/or to promote inflammation. Application of engineered ligands that have variable affinity for different death (DR4 and DR5) and decoy receptors (DCR1 and DCR2) may allow selective targeting of cancer cells by controlling activation of Type 1/Type 2 pathways of cell death and single cell fluctuations. Luminescent iridium complex-peptide ...
... (IL-24) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL24 gene. IL-24 is a cytokine belonging to the IL-10 family of cytokines that signals through two heterodimeric receptors: IL-20R1/IL-20R2 and IL-22R1/IL-20R2. This interleukin is also known as melanoma differentiation-associated 7 (mda-7) due to its discovery as a tumour suppressing protein. IL-24 appears to control in cell survival and proliferation by inducing rapid activation of particular transcription factors called STAT1 and STAT3. This cytokine is predominantly released by activated monocytes, macrophages and T helper 2 (Th2) cells and acts on non-haematopoietic tissues such as skin, lung and reproductive tissues. IL-24 performs important roles in wound healing, arthritis, psoriasis and cancer. Several studies have shown that cell death occurs in cancer cells/cell lines following exposure to IL-24. The gene for IL-24 is located on chromosome 1 in humans. ...
... as well as chemokine and cytokine production, and expression of adhesion molecules such as E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. This ...
positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • regulation of insulin secretion. • extrinsic apoptotic signaling ... Copeland KF (2006). "Modulation of HIV-1 transcription by cytokines and chemokines". Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry. 5 (12 ...
C-X-C chemokine receptor activity. • interleukin-8 binding. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. • chemokine receptor ... This name and the corresponding gene symbol IL8RA have been replaced by the HGNC approved name C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 1 ... "Chemokine Receptors: CXCR1". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... chemokine-mediated signaling pathway. • interleukin-8-mediated signaling pathway. • neutrophil degranulation. • chemotaxis. ...
... is sometimes used interchangeably among scientists with the term cytokine. Historically, cytokines were associated with hematopoietic (blood and lymph forming) cells and immune system cells (e.g., lymphocytes and tissue cells from spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes). For the circulatory system and bone marrow in which cells can occur in a liquid suspension and not bound up in solid tissue, it makes sense for them to communicate by soluble, circulating protein molecules. However, as different lines of research converged, it became clear that some of the same signaling proteins which the hematopoietic and immune systems use were also being used by all sorts of other cells and tissues, during development and in the mature organism. While growth factor implies a positive effect on cell division, cytokine is a neutral term with respect to whether a molecule affects proliferation. While some cytokines can be growth factors, such as G-CSF and GM-CSF, others have an inhibitory effect on ...
However, CCL21 doesnt follow this trend as it has six cysteines instead of the normal four. This is what led to it being ... Having said that, it does follow the typical structural feature of other cytokines in the CC chemokine family by having two ... all chemokines follow a similar structural makeup. Theyre noticeable for having four cysteines. ... About CCL21:. CCL21 is often referred to as Exodus-2 and is considered to be a minor cytokine of the CC chemokine family. All ...
We now show that the lymph node-associated chemokine, CCL21 or secondary lymphoid chemokine, is also strongly up-regulated on ... Hepatic expression of secondary lymphoid chemokine (CCL21) promotes the development of portal-associated lymphoid tissue in ... Hepatic Expression of Secondary Lymphoid Chemokine (CCL21) Promotes the Development of Portal-Associated Lymphoid Tissue in ... Hepatic Expression of Secondary Lymphoid Chemokine (CCL21) Promotes the Development of Portal-Associated Lymphoid Tissue in ...
The extracellular domain of human CCL21 (AAH27918.1)(Ser24-Pro134) is fused to the N-terminus of the Fc region of a mutant ... CCL21. Synonyms:. CCL21; chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21; SCYA21, small inducible cytokine subfamily A (Cys Cys), member 21; C- ... Chemokine receptors bind chemokines, organism-specific biosystem; Chemokine signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem; ... Recombinant Human Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 21, HIgG1 Fc-tagged, mutant. Download Datasheet See All CCL21 Products. Bring ...
... M. A ...
The homeostatic chemokine CCL21 predicts mortality and may play a pathogenic role in heart failure. Abstract ... A myriad of functions and complex regulation of the CCR7/CCL19/CCL21 chemokine axis in the adaptive immune system. Abstract ... Chemokines and common variable immunodeficiency; possible contribution of CCL19, CCL21 and CCR7 to immune dysregulation. ... Homeostatic chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 promote inflammation in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with ongoing ...
The homeostatic chemokine CCL21 predicts mortality and may play a pathogenic role in heart failure ... Background: CCL19 and CCL21, acting through CCR7, are termed homeostatic chemokines. Based on their role in concerting ... The homeostatic chemokine CCL21 predicts mortality and may play a pathogenic role in heart failure. ... Our findings in CCR7 deficient mice may suggest that CCL21 is not only a marker, but also a mediator of myocardial failure. ...
chemokine receptor activity. • receptor activity. • protein binding. • C-C chemokine receptor activity. • C-C chemokine binding ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene. CCR6 ... "Entrez Gene: CCR6 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6".. *^ Wang K, Zhang H, Kugathasan S, Annese V, Bradfield JP, Russell RK, ... "Chemokine Receptors: CCR6". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
K. Vaahtomeri et al., "Locally triggered release of the chemokine CCL21 promotes dendritic cell transmigration across lymphatic ... We find that the chemokine CCL21, which is the decisive guidance cue for intravasation, mainly localizes in the trans-Golgi ... Locally triggered release of the chemokine CCL21 promotes dendritic cell transmigration across lymphatic endothelia. K. ... Locally triggered release of the chemokine CCL21 promotes dendritic cell transmigration across lymphatic endothelia. Cell ...
CCL21. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21. CD. Cluster of differentiation 3 ... BLK and CCL21. No pathogenic variants were found in these genes. Of note, PLCL1 gene was not covered in the patients WES data ...
Lack of p110δ activity in these cell populations correlated with lower LTβR, CCL19 and CCL21 mRNA levels; these molecules ... Chemokines Is the Subject Area "Chemokines" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
This review will focus on recent murine and human studies that use chemokines as therapeutic anti-cancer vaccine adjuvants. ... Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing ... This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential ... CCL21 has also been implemented in DC vaccine strategies. Although considered to be a homeostatic chemokine, CCL21 influences T ...
Immune-Regulatory Chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 in Vascular Disease. The chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 bind the receptor CCR7 to ... Chemokine-Like Functions of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor. *Immune-Regulatory Chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 in Vascular ... Chemokine-Like Functions of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor. *Immune-Regulatory Chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 in Vascular ... The Chemokine CXCL10 and the T Cell Connection. CXCL10 or IP-10 (IFN-γ-induced protein of 10 kDa) is a T cell chemokine and ...
For example, CCL21 (CC chemokine ligand 21) and CCL19 (CC chemokine ligand 19) recruit antigen-presenting dendritic cells and ... increases the affinity for chemokine ligands and may contribute to receptor ligand bias. Chemokine sulfotyrosine (sY) binding ... For many chemokine receptors, N-terminal posttranslational modifications, particularly the sulfation of tyrosine residues, ... In light of the structural similarity between sulfotyrosine and phosphotyrosine (pY), the interactions of CCL21 with peptide ...
B16F0-CMV-CCL21 and B16F0-UB-CCL21) were selected according to the expression of the chemokine (Fig. 1A ). The levels of the ... CCL21 expression and secretion in B16F0 melanoma cells. A, CCL21 expression in pCMV-CCL21-transfected and pCUB-CCL21- ... Lane 1, B16F0; lane 2, B16F0-CMV-CCL21; lane 3, B16F0-UB-CCL21; lane 4, culture medium from B16F0-CMV-CCL21; lane 5, culture ... 105 B16F0-UB-CCL21 cells secreted 5.4 times more chemokine (820 pg) than B16F0-CMV-CCL21 cells (150 pg; Fig. 1C). ...
PeproTechs chemokines include proteins that act through G protein-coupled receptors and conform to the prototypical chemokine ... Chemokines. This Chemokine category includes proteins that act through G protein-coupled receptors and conform to the ... with the exception of Lymphotactin that contains only one disulfide bond but is still considered a chemokine). ... prototypical chemokine protein structure containing four specific cross-linked cysteine residues ( ...
PeproTechs chemokines include proteins that act through G protein-coupled receptors and conform to the prototypical chemokine ...
A model for chemokine cooperativity. (A) In the absence of cooperative chemokines, CCL19/CCL21 binds to its seven-transmembrane ... How would chemokine cooperativity influence chemokine function, and how will chemokine cooperativity be altered by (patho) ... Chemokine cooperativity is mediated by both chemokine monomers and dimers. Chemokine heterodimerization has previously been ... We became interested in chemokine cooperativity while testing the ability of several chemokines to activate the chemokine ...
Buy our Recombinant human CCL21 protein. Ab9852 is an active full length protein produced in Escherichia coli and has been ... C C motif chemokine ligand 21. *C-C motif chemokine 21. *CCL21 ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21. *Chemokine CC motif ligand 21 ...
Recombinant Human CCL21 protein is an Escherichia coli Full length protein 24 to 134 aa range, , 95% purity, ,= 1.000 Eu/µg ... CCL21_HUMAN. *Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21. *Chemokine CC motif ligand 21 ...
The amplitude and kinetics of chemokine ligand (CCL19/CCL21)-induced Ca2+ influx were associated with chemokine receptor 7 ... The amplitude and kinetics of chemokine ligand (CCL19/CCL21)-induced Ca2+ influx were associated with chemokine receptor 7 ... The amplitude and kinetics of chemokine ligand (CCL19/CCL21)-induced Ca2+ influx were associated with chemokine receptor 7 ... The amplitude and kinetics of chemokine ligand (CCL19/CCL21)-induced Ca2+ influx were associated with chemokine receptor 7 ...
Acts as a ligand for C-C chemokine receptor CCR3 which triggers Ca(2+) mobilization in eosinophils (PubMed:10415065, PubMed: ... CCL21 [O00585]. 2. EBI-7783416,EBI-953695. CCL28 [Q9NRJ3]. 2. EBI-7783416,EBI-7783254. ... IPR039809 Chemokine_b/g/d. IPR000827 Chemokine_CC_CS. IPR001811 Chemokine_IL8-like_dom. IPR036048 Interleukin_8-like_sf. ... IPR039809 Chemokine_b/g/d. IPR000827 Chemokine_CC_CS. IPR001811 Chemokine_IL8-like_dom. IPR036048 Interleukin_8-like_sf. ...
C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1, CCL15, CCL21, CCL23 and CCL28. CC chemokines induce the migration of ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ... CXC chemokinesEdit. The two N-terminal cysteines of CXC chemokines (or α-chemokines) are separated by one amino acid, ...
Functional SLC/CCL21 is produced by AdSLC/CCL21-transduced human DC. Supernatants from 1 × 106 AdSLC/CCL21-transduced DC at 48 ... AdSLC/CCL21-transduced DC enhance the priming of naïve human T cells in vitro. Uninfected and AdSLC/CCL21-transduced, HLA-A201- ... Recombinant CCL21 (10-5000 ng/ml) was used to generate a standard curve from which the effective concentration of CCL21 in the ... Numbers above columns for DC-SLC/CCL21 represent the percentage (bars, SE) of CD4+(A) or CD8+(B) T cells producing IFN-γ. ...
Binds to CCL21. Probably promotes cell chemotaxis response. ... Receptor for the C-X-C chemokine CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 and ... IPR004070 Chemokine_CXCR3. IPR000355 Chemokine_rcpt. IPR000276 GPCR_Rhodpsn. IPR017452 GPCR_Rhodpsn_7TM. ... IPR004070 Chemokine_CXCR3. IPR000355 Chemokine_rcpt. IPR000276 GPCR_Rhodpsn. IPR017452 GPCR_Rhodpsn_7TM. ... R-HSA-380108 Chemokine receptors bind chemokines. R-HSA-418594 G alpha (i) signalling events. ...
CCL19 and CCL21ReceptorsCXCL12CXCL136CkineSecondary lymphoid chemokineProteinsBindsLymphaticRole of ChemokinesCCL2ChemoattractantRecombinantExtracellularImmuneCellsSignaling pathwayInflammatory chemokineTumorsConcentrationCCR2TumorImmunitySecretionLeukocyte migrationLymphorganogenic chemokinesAntibodyCXCR4Cytokine and chemokineGeneMiceDifferent chemokinesAntibodiesCX3CLymphoid organsModulateSeveral chemokines
- It is activated by chemokines CCL19 and CCL21, which are scavenged by the atypical chemokine receptor ACKR4. (imperial.ac.uk)
- Their physiologic role has not been established except that chemotaxis of immune cells as well as other cell types to secondary lymphoid tissues is dependent on CCL19 and CCL21 production by endothelial cells. (aacrjournals.org)
- As the CCX-CKR ligands CCL19 and CCL21 are involved in the development of all adaptive immune responses, and together with the other CCX-CKR ligand, CCL25, orchestrate immune responses to antigen encountered in the gut, I next investigated the development of antigen specific immunity and tolerance in CCX-CKR KO mice. (gla.ac.uk)
- To date, there are more than 50 chemokines and 18 chemokine receptors identified [ 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
- Most chemokines bind to more than one receptor, while most receptors also display overlapping ligand specificity [ 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
- In this update, we will highlight these recent developments, in particular the identification of components regulating the transcriptional machinery of the proatherogenic chemokine CCL5, distinct roles of its receptors CCR1 and CCR5 in plaque formation and immunobalance, and differential site- and stage-specific effects of T cell-activating chemokines and their receptors, eg, CXCL10 and CXCR3. (ahajournals.org)
- The contribution of the transmembrane chemokines CX 3 CL1 and CXCL16 with their respective receptors CX 3 CR1 and CXCR6 in the recruitment of T cell and monocyte subsets and shear-mediated plaque modulation will be discussed. (ahajournals.org)
- 1,2 By signaling through G protein-coupled chemokine receptors, chemokines govern a variety of cell responses including cell activation and transmigration in leukocytes, as well as in nonhematopoietic cells. (ahajournals.org)
- The role of the CC chemokine ligand-5 (CCL5/RANTES) and its receptors CCR1 and CCR5 in atherosclerosis have been addressed in a number of studies. (ahajournals.org)
- This Chemokine category includes proteins that act through G protein-coupled receptors and conform to the prototypical chemokine protein structure containing four specific cross-linked cysteine residues (with the exception of Lymphotactin that contains only one disulfide bond but is still considered a chemokine). (peprotech.com)
- Chemokines comprise a family of secreted proteins that activate G protein-coupled chemokine receptors and thereby control the migration of leukocytes during inflammation or immune surveillance. (jimmunol.org)
- The chemokine family encompasses nearly 50 members, which are classified based on the relative position of their conserved N-terminal cysteine residues (CC, CXC, CX 3 C, and C). Chemokines elicit intracellular responses via G protein-coupled receptors. (jimmunol.org)
- Upon ligand binding, chemokine receptors activate G proteins of the Gα i family, leading to inhibition of adenylyl cyclases and mobilization of Ca 2+ from intracellular stores. (jimmunol.org)
- Furthermore, activated chemokine receptors bind to the scaffolding protein β-arrestin ( 1 - 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
- All of these proteins exert their biological effects by interacting with G protein -linked transmembrane receptors called chemokine receptors , that are selectively found on the surfaces of their target cells. (wikipedia.org)
- For many chemokine receptors, N-terminal posttranslational modifications, particularly the sulfation of tyrosine residues, increases the affinity for chemokine ligands and may contribute to receptor ligand bias. (mdpi.com)
- Studies of chemokine receptors (CKR) in natural killer- (NK-) cells have already been published, but only a few gave detailed information on its differential expression on blood NK-cell subsets. (hindawi.com)
- Chemokines receptors are seven transmembrane spanning G protein-coupled receptors that allow cells to migrate towards increasing chemokine gradients. (biolegend.com)
- Specific chemokine receptors are often required to gain entry (or exit) from certain organs and tissues like the thymus and bone marrow. (biolegend.com)
- For decades, chemokines and their receptors have received a great deal of attention for their multiple roles in controlling leukocyte functions during inflammation and immunity. (biomedcentral.com)
- Chemotaxis has been the function of chemokine receptors most extensively studied in DCs ( 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
- In this regard, in the immature DCs, it has been shown that the chemotaxis was mediated by inflammatory chemokine receptors CCR1, CCR2, CCR5, CCR6, CXCR1, and CXCR2, which guide these cells to inflammatory sites ( 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
- They regulate trafficking of various cells through binding to chemokine receptors, which are also structurally related and contain seven transmembrane domain coupled to a G protein ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- 7 , 8 Clinical studies have correlated the involvement of chemokine receptors with nodal homing of B-cell non-Hodgkin (NHL) and Hodgkin lymphoma. (bloodjournal.org)
- Chemokines are a family of small cytokines that exert gradient dependent chemoattraction of cells bearing specific cognate receptors. (bmj.com)
- The chemokine system is considerably complex, as indicated by the high number of ligands and receptors, and by the fact that the same chemokine may bind more than one receptor and the same receptor more than one chemokine. (bmj.com)
- Receptor-ligand promiscuity is a hallmark of the inflammatory CC-chemokine/receptor system, where most ligands bind more than one receptor and most receptors bind more than one ligand. (aspetjournals.org)
- Pharmacologic mechanisms that may in part account for these differences are difficult to assess on primary cells and in in vivo systems because of the presence of alternative receptors and the confounding variety of regulatory mechanisms of the chemokine response. (aspetjournals.org)
- For example, binding preferences and activity of a given chemokine are modulated by proteoglycan binding, protease processing, and oligomerization of chemokines as well as chemokine receptors, adding several layers of complexity. (aspetjournals.org)
- Knowledge about intrinsically different effects of different chemokines on the same receptor should help to better direct drug developing efforts targeting chemokine receptors. (aspetjournals.org)
- CD197, like other chemokine receptors, has seven-transmembrane spanning domains and signals via G proteins. (miltenyibiotec.com)
- Immature monocyte-derived DCs (MDDC) showed decreased CD14 expression, increased cell surface markers DC-SIGN and CD1a and enhanced levels of receptors for the chemokines CCL3 (CCR1/CCR5) and CXCL8 (CXCR1/CXCR2) compared with human CD14(+) monocytes. (kuleuven.be)
- Moreover, two CXC chemokines not sharing receptors (CXCL12 and CXCL8) cooperated in immature MDDC chemotaxis, whereas two CC chemokines (CCL3 and CCL7) sharing CCR1 did not. (kuleuven.be)
- CXCR4 receptor and its unique ligand, the CXCL12 chemokine, have been recently implicated in cancer metastasis. (aacrjournals.org)
- Differing activities of homeostatic chemokines CCL19, CCL21, and CXCL12 in lymphocyte and dendritic cell recruitment and lymphoid neogenesis. (springer.com)
- also known as CXCL12) via its receptor CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) has been shown to be of great importance in the development of many tissues including the nervous system ( Tran and Miller, 2003 ). (jneurosci.org)
- Finally, CXCL12 and CCL3 did not cooperate, but CXCL12 synergized with CCL21 in mature MDDC chemotaxis. (kuleuven.be)
- Measurements of chemokine levels revealed an increase in three of the four known major B cell chemoattractants CXCL13, CCL19 and CXCL12 in LNB CSF. (biomedcentral.com)
- We show that in aged apoE(-/-) mice, medial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) beneath intimal plaques in abdominal aortae become activated through lymphotoxin beta receptor (LTbetaR) to express the lymphorganogenic chemokines CXCL13 and CCL21. (nih.gov)
- Treatment of apoE(-/-) mice with LTbetaR-Ig to interrupt LTbetaR signaling in SMCs strongly reduced HEV abundance, CXCL13, and CCL21 expression, and disrupted the structure and maintenance of ATLOs. (nih.gov)
- 14 In addition, medial SMC underlying intimal plaques became activated and expressed the lymphorganogenic chemokines CXCL13 (B-lymphocyte chemoattractant) and CCL21 (secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine). (ahajournals.org)
- The chemokine, B Lymphocyte Chemoattractant (BLC)/CXCL13, was the most significantly upregulated cytokine across all patients. (bloodjournal.org)
- The chemokine CXCL13 is known to dictate homing and motility of B cells in lymphoid tissue and has been implicated in the formation of ectopic lymphoid tissue in chronic inflammation. (biomedcentral.com)
- Here, we assessed the role of CXCL13 - in comparison to other chemokines - in the recruitment of B cells to the CSF of patients with acute LNB. (biomedcentral.com)
- As well as being referred to as Exodus-2 by some people, CCL21 has also been called 6Ckine by many scientists and researchers. (prospecbio.com)
- The CC chemokine thymus-derived chemotactic agent 4 (TCA-4, secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine, 6Ckine, exodus-2) triggers lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1-mediated arrest of rolling T lymphocytes in peripheral lymph node high endothelial venules. (nih.gov)
- Here, we used intravital microscopy of murine PLNs to study the role of thymus-derived chemotactic agent (TCA)-4 (secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine, 6Ckine, Exodus-2) in homing of adoptively transferred T cells from T-GFP mice, a transgenic strain that expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP) selectively in naive T lymphocytes (T(GFP) cells). (nih.gov)
- Hepatic expression of secondary lymphoid chemokine (CCL21) promotes the development of portal-associated lymphoid tissue in chronic inflammatory li. (nih.gov)
- We now show that the lymph node-associated chemokine, CCL21 or secondary lymphoid chemokine, is also strongly up-regulated on CD34(+) vascular endothelium in portal associated lymphoid tissue in PSC. (nih.gov)
- Previous studies have shown that secondary lymphoid chemokine, CCL21, can be used for modulation of tumor-specific immune responses. (aacrjournals.org)
- One of them, secondary lymphoid chemokine CCL21 (also known as SLC or C6kine), is prominently expressed in high endothelial venules and within T-cell zones of secondary lymphoid organs, where it recruits naive T cells and antigen-presenting cell (APC), such as dendritic cell, via a mechanism known as chemoattraction. (aacrjournals.org)
- Chemokines (Greek -kinos , movement) are a family of small cytokines , or signaling proteins secreted by cells . (wikipedia.org)
- Cytokine proteins are classified as chemokines according to behavior and structural characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
- Chemokines are small proteins that are involved in immune and inflammatory responses. (aacrjournals.org)
- Chemokines are secreted proteins that direct the migration of immune cells and are involved in numerous disease states. (mdpi.com)
- These include chemokines (CK), such as MIP-1 α (macrophage inflammatory proteins-1 alpha, CCL3) and MIP-1 β (CCL4), RANTES (regulated activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted, CCL5), and ATAC (activation-induced, T cell derived, and chemokine-related cytokine, CXCL1). (hindawi.com)
- The chemokines are a family of small proteins that have been widely studied because of their key role in orchestrating the migration of leukocytes during inflammatory responses. (jneurosci.org)
- TNFR-1/LTβR cross-talk resulted in augmented secretion of lymphorganogenic chemokine proteins. (ahajournals.org)
- Reactome pathway analyses identified cytokine signaling, chemokine signaling, and the complement cascade as the most enriched pathways compared to the background proteins assayed. (bloodjournal.org)
- 12782716 ). Binds to CCL21. (uniprot.org)
- CCL21 binds a lymphatic EC marker podoplanin with high affinity, is expressed on the basal lamina of lymphatics, and is shed into the perivascular stroma, (51) which may contribute to the formation of a peri-lymphatic CCL21 concentration gradient. (thefreedictionary.com)
- 46) Podoplanin expressed on lymphatic ECs can capture CCL21 (see above) and also binds a lectin-type molecule CLEC-2. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The chemokine receptor CCR2, which has been implicated in a variety of inflammatory, autoimmune, and cardiovascular conditions, binds several natural chemokine ligands. (aspetjournals.org)
- In contrast, CCL21 is absent from LYVE-1(+) lymphatic vessel endothelium. (nih.gov)
- We find that the chemokine CCL21, which is the decisive guidance cue for intravasation, mainly localizes in the trans-Golgi network and intracellular vesicles of lymphatic endothelial cells. (ist.ac.at)
- When we reconstitute the transmigration process in vitro, we find that secretion of CCL21-positive vesicles is triggered by a DC contact-induced calcium signal, and selective calcium chelation in lymphatic endothelium attenuates transmigration. (ist.ac.at)
- Altogether, our data demonstrate a chemokine-mediated feedback between DCs and lymphatic endothelium, which facilitates transendothelial migration. (ist.ac.at)
- Locally triggered release of the chemokine CCL21 promotes dendritic cell transmigration across lymphatic endothelia," Cell Reports , vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 902-909, 2017. (ist.ac.at)
- Here, we examined the role of intermediate-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (KCa3.1) and chloride channel (CLC3) in lymphatic chemokine-induced migration of DCs. (elsevier.com)
- CCL21 is expressed by afferent lymphatic endothelial cells and by HEV cells in mice (in humans CCL21 is only exposed on the lumen, but not expressed, by the HEVs) ( 7 , 8 , 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
- We further verified that VEGF-C induces lymphatic CCL21 up-regulation in vivo by direct injection of VEGF-C protein intradermally in the mouse. (epfl.ch)
- Since the role of chemokines in atherosclerotic vascular disease has been reviewed in this journal, significant progress has been accomplished in defining the regulation of chemokine expression and function in atherosclerosis. (ahajournals.org)
- The considerable leap in insight over recent years leads us to anticipate further advances in comprehending the role of chemokines in atherosclerosis, allowing targeted interventions for its prevention and therapy. (ahajournals.org)
- The major role of chemokines is to act as a chemoattractant to guide the migration of cells. (wikipedia.org)
- We have therefore focused on the role of chemokines, and these two integrin heterodimers, in CLL cell motility on and through endothelium ( 3 , 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Microarrays showed that simultaneous TNFR-1/LTβR activation resulted in elevated mRNA encoding leukocyte homeostatic chemokines CCL2, CCL5, CXCL1, and CX3CL1. (ahajournals.org)
- Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1 or CCL2) is a prototypic inflammatory chemokine, which targets monocytes, T lymphocytes, and other cells expressing the C-C chemokine receptor (CCR2). (bmj.com)
- Although the precise mechanisms that direct leukocyte homing into renal tissues are not fully identified, it has been reported that intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and the chemokines CCL2 and CX3CL1 probably are involved in leukocyte migration in diabetic nephropathy. (asnjournals.org)
- Chemokines are a group of related chemoattractant peptides that are essential regulators of the immune system, both during homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. (mdpi.com)
- Chemokines (ie, chemoattractant cytokines) are a family of small secreted molecules that mediate leukocyte migration. (nih.gov)
- The extracellular domain of human CCL21 (AAH27918.1)(Ser24-Pro134) is fused to the N-terminus of the Fc region of a mutant human IgG1 was expressed in CHO cell. (creativebiomart.net)
- The amplitude and kinetics of chemokine ligand (CCL19/CCL21)-induced Ca2+ influx were associated with chemokine receptor 7 expression levels, extracellular-free Ca2+ and Cl-, and independent of extracellular K+. (elsevier.com)
- On one hand, the chemokine network is used by tumors to evade immune surveillance, resist apoptosis, and metastasize. (mdpi.com)
- On the other hand, the chemokine system also plays a crucial role in the induction of antitumor immune responses and optimal effector function regulation of immune cells [ 1 , 4 , 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
- Some chemokines are considered pro- inflammatory and can be induced during an immune response to recruit cells of the immune system to a site of infection , while others are considered homeostatic and are involved in controlling the migration of cells during normal processes of tissue maintenance or development . (wikipedia.org)
- Some chemokines control cells of the immune system during processes of immune surveillance, such as directing lymphocytes to the lymph nodes so they can screen for invasion of pathogens by interacting with antigen-presenting cells residing in these tissues. (wikipedia.org)
- Certain inflammatory chemokines activate cells to initiate an immune response or promote wound healing . (wikipedia.org)
- Here, using B16F0 melanoma cells stably expressing CCL21 under the control of cytomegalovirus and ubiquitin promoters, we showed that CCL21-activated immune responses depend on the amount of melanoma-derived chemokine, which, in turn, depends on the strength of the promoter. (aacrjournals.org)
- Moreover, melanoma-derived CCL21 facilitated immune-mediated remission of preestablished, distant wild-type melanomas. (aacrjournals.org)
- Overall, these results suggest that elevated levels of tumor-derived CCL21 are required for the activation of strong melanoma-specific immune responses and generation of protective immunologic memory. (aacrjournals.org)
- It has thus been suggested that this chemokine may promote recruitment of APC and T lymphocytes to a tumor mass to facilitate antigen recognition and enhance tumor-specific immune responses. (aacrjournals.org)
- In support of this concept, it was recently shown that the presence of CCL21 in the vicinity of a tumor induces infiltration of tumors with dendritic cell and CD8 + T cell and leads to immune-mediated inhibition of melanoma ( 3 ), lung ( 4 ), and colon ( 5 ) carcinomas in experimental animals. (aacrjournals.org)
- It is becoming increasingly more evident that chemokines play an integral role in the initiation of a specific immune response. (nih.gov)
- A vault has been packaged with a chemokine for potential use to activate the immune system to attack lung cancer, and this approach has undergone phase I trials. (wikipedia.org)
- The ability of chemokines to convey remarkably versatile but context-specific signals identifies them as powerful modulators of immune responses generated in response to diverse pathogenic or non-infectious insults. (biomedcentral.com)
- Furthermore, agonism of HCAR2/GPR109A balances uncontrolled immune cell recruitment by blocking this single chemokine-receptor interaction as an 'entry' signal, and may open the way for promising, future pharmacological targeting in DR. (arvojournals.org)
- At the time of starting my project, there were no published reports describing the biological function of CCX-CKR in vivo and the principal aim of my thesis was to characterise the immune system of the recently generated CCX-CKR KO mouse with particular focus on the intestinal immune compartment where all three of the chemokine ligands are expressed. (gla.ac.uk)
- Thus, chemokine synergy in immature and mature MDDC migration is dose-dependently regulated by chemokines via alterations in their chemokine receptor expression pattern according to their role in immune responses. (kuleuven.be)
- The engineered cells were then injected, 10 million at a time, directly into patients' lung cancer tumors to stimulate an immune response - the first time the chemokine has been administered to humans. (healthcanal.com)
- The vault nanoparticles containing the CCL21 have been engineered to slowly release the protein into the tumor over time, producing an enduring immune response. (healthcanal.com)
- The main producers of CCL21 are endothelial cells (the cells that line the inside surface of blood vessels) which are present all over the body. (prospecbio.com)
- Primarily, endothelial cells in the lymph nodes, appendix and spleen, will produce the most CCL21. (prospecbio.com)
- Therefore, the main function of CCL21 is to attract both dendritic and T cells to a particular part of the body. (prospecbio.com)
- Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing recruitment of antigen presenting cells (APCs) and effector cells to appropriate anatomical sites. (mdpi.com)
- Chemokines can be located in different vascular cell types, eg, endothelial cells (ECs) but also inflammatory cells and can be detected within atherosclerotic lesions, where they function as messengers to direct leukocytes to sites of inflammation but may also control homeostasis and other activities of emigrated cells. (ahajournals.org)
- Chemokines released by infected or damaged cells form a concentration gradient. (wikipedia.org)
- Attracted cells move through the gradient towards the higher concentration of chemokine. (wikipedia.org)
- Cells that are attracted by chemokines follow a signal of increasing chemokine concentration towards the source of the chemokine. (wikipedia.org)
- Other chemokines are inflammatory and are released from a wide variety of cells in response to bacterial infection, viruses and agents that cause physical damage such as silica or the urate crystals that occur in gout . (wikipedia.org)
- Inflammatory chemokines function mainly as chemoattractants for leukocytes , recruiting monocytes , neutrophils and other effector cells from the blood to sites of infection or tissue damage. (wikipedia.org)
- Mice that rejected CCL21-positive tumors acquired protective immunity against melanoma, which was transferable to naive mice via splenocytes and central memory T cells. (aacrjournals.org)
- Splenocytes isolated from these CCL21-treated mice showed greatly enhanced CTL activity against tumor cells ( 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Chemokines: can effector cells be redirected to the site of the tumor? (nih.gov)
- CD4 + and CD8 + T cells migrate to the injection sites containing SLC/CCL21-expressing DC. (nih.gov)
- Attracted cells move toward areas of higher concentrations of the chemokine. (biolegend.com)
- Due to their function of targeting cells to specific organs, homeostatic chemokines can also be involved in cancer and metastasis. (biolegend.com)
- Many inflammatory chemokines attract a wide variety of cells in both the innate and adaptive arms of immunity. (biolegend.com)
- Upon sensing the inflammatory chemokine, cells will extravasate from the blood vessel and follow the gradient to its source. (biolegend.com)
- The present invention provides a means of inhibiting the growth and metastasis of cancer cells by administering anti-chemokine antibodies. (google.com)
- CCL21 Promotes Chemoresistance and Upregulates P-gp in HCT116 Cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
- CCL21 Induces Cancer Stem Cell-Like Properties of HCT116 Cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
- To further verify the role of Snail in CCL21 promoted chemoresistance, we overexpressed Snail in HCT116 cells by transfection of pcDNA3. (thefreedictionary.com)
- CCL21 protein production from transduced DC was detected in supernatants (24-72 hours, 3.5-6.7 ng/4-5 × 10 6 cells). (biomedcentral.com)
- Despite compelling data correlating homeostatic chemokine receptor expression and human lymphoma pathogenesis, genetic models that either mimic lymphoma dissemination or dissect a crosstalk of lymphoma and stromal cells are missing. (bloodjournal.org)
- Coexpression of the chemokines ELC and SLC by T zone stromal cells and deletion of the ELC gene in the plt/plt mouse. (springer.com)
- Ins2-CCL21 transgenic, non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice express CCL21 in pancreatic β-cells and do not develop autoimmune diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Ins2-CCL21 mice develop TLOs by 4 weeks of age consisting of naïve CD4 + T cells compartmentalized within networks of CD45 - gp38 + CD31 - fibroblastic reticular cell (FRC)-like cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Importantly, 12 week-old Ins2-CCL21 TLOs contained FRC-like cells with higher contractility, regulatory, and anti-inflammatory properties and enhanced expression of β-cell autoantigens compared to non-transgenic NOD TLOs found in inflamed islets. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Overall, our findings suggest that CCL21 promotes TLOs that differ from inflammatory TLOs found in T1D islets in that they resemble lymph nodes, contain FRC-like cells expressing β-cell autoantigens and are able to induce systemic and antigen-specific tolerance leading to diabetes prevention. (diabetesjournals.org)
- En route to their target organs migratory cells have to overcome various architectural hindrances, including interstitial matrix structures, basement membranes, and intercellular junctions. (rupress.org)
- 2 Additionally, the effects of chemokines are not limited to inflammation as the majority of cells express at least one chemokine receptor. (bmj.com)
- We show here that the αLβ2 of CLL cells is already in variably activated conformations, which are not further altered by chemokine treatment. (aacrjournals.org)
- Our most recent work ( 4 ) showed that the chemokine-induced clustering of αLβ2 is defective in CLL cells and that combined stimulation by α4β1 engagement and autocrine vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) overcomes this defect, allowing αLβ2-dependent motility and TEM. (aacrjournals.org)
- We also showed that CLL cells, which express little or no α4β1 at their surface, display a markedly reduced ability to undergo chemokine-stimulated TEM ( 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Luther, S.A., Tang, H.L., Hyman, P.L., Farr, A.G. & Cyster, J.G. Coexpression of the chemokines ELC and SLC by T zone stromal cells and deletion of the ELC gene in the plt/plt mouse. (nature.com)
- 2003) Characterization of CC-chemokine receptor 7 expression on murine T cells in lymphoid tissues. (miltenyibiotec.com)
- The vaults, barrel-shaped nanoscale capsules found in the cytoplasm of all mammalian cells, were engineered to slowly release a protein - the chemokine CCL21 - into tumors. (healthcanal.com)
- However, in these various experimental tumor models, the utilization of CCL21 as a protein, even at a very high dosage or in combination with dendritic cell-based and DNA-based vaccines ( 5 - 8 ), resulted in temporal remission of tumors or in their complete obliteration in 20% to 60% of experimental animals. (aacrjournals.org)
- In addition, intratumoral injections of CCL21-transduced DC into established murine lung tumors resulted in complete regression and protective anti-tumor immunity. (biomedcentral.com)
- To establish a more efficient treatment for immunotherapy against solid tumors, we have evaluated the antitumor effect by coexpression of a chemokine CCL21/secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine and a costimulatory molecule LIGHT in colon carcinoma C26. (ebscohost.com)
- Tumors induce tolerance towards their antigens by producing the chemokine CCL21, leading to the formation of tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs). (diabetesjournals.org)
- The positional information required for such migratory behavior is governed by the binding of chemokines to membrane-tethered glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which establishes a chemokine concentration gradient. (jimmunol.org)
- Chemokines work through concentration gradients. (biolegend.com)
- The concentration of this chemokine is increased in the ventral posterolateral nucleus of the thalamus where secondary nociceptive neurons make connections with other neurons. (wikipedia.org)
- Recently, chemokines have attracted considerable interest within the field of tumor immunotherapy. (aacrjournals.org)
- Using adenoviral gene transfer, CCL21 was expressed in tumor-associated antigen-pulsed dendritic cell. (aacrjournals.org)
- With respect to cancer, chemokines are being studied for both their role in tumor biology and as promising immunotherapy candidates. (nih.gov)
- We review several areas of chemokine importance in tumor immunity and discuss the experimental evidence that is leading to the clinical use of this cytokine family in new treatment approaches for patients with cancer. (nih.gov)
- It is possible to identify the particular chemokines which are over-expressed in the tumor using methods of the invention and administer antibodies against that over-expressed chemokine. (google.com)
- Induction of cytokine (interleukin-1alpha and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) and chemokine (CCL20, CCL27, and CXCL8) alarm signals after allergen and irritant exposure. (springer.com)
- Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene . (wikipedia.org)
- This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential vaccine adjuvants. (mdpi.com)
- Viable and biologically active clinical grade CCL21 gene-modified DC can be generated from cryopreserved PBMC. (biomedcentral.com)
- A multiplex immunoassay was used to determine levels of 15 different chemokines and IL-6 in subretinal fluid samples obtained during scleral buckling surgery for primary RRD. (arvojournals.org)
- At first, different chemokines binding the same receptor were referred to as functionally redundant, although differences between their effects in vivo were recognized early on. (aspetjournals.org)
- Chemokines have been classified into four main subfamilies: CXC, CC, CX3C and XC. (wikipedia.org)
- Another surface receptor, the CX3C chemokine fractalkine receptor CX3CR1, is almost exclusively expressed in microglia throughout the CNS, which is involved in progression of neurodegenerative disease by altering microglial activities [ 16 , 17 ] (Figure 2 ). (hindawi.com)
- Interleukin (IL)-6, a multifunctional cytokine with regulatory functions in wound healing, and several chemokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) after rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). (arvojournals.org)
- 5- 7 However, MCP-1 is only one of several chemokines upregulated in pancreatitis, and evidence for its pathogenic role was lacking. (bmj.com)