Chemokine CCL27: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.Chemokine CCL21: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL22: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.Chemokine CCL17: A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Chemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CCL19: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL5: A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.Chemokine CCL20: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL1: A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.Chemokines, CC: Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.Receptors, Chemokine: Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Chemokine CCL3: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Chemokine CCL7: A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Receptors, CCR10: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL4: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Chemokine CXCL12: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.Receptors, CCR1: CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.Chemokine CXCL10: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemokine CCL8: A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.Receptors, CCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.Receptors, CCR2: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.Chemokine CCL11: A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Chemokine CCL24: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Receptors, CCR7: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.Receptors, CCR8: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.Chemokine CXCL1: A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Receptors, CCR4: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.Chemokines, CXC: Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.Chemokine CX3CL1: A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins: Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.Receptors, CCR5: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.Receptors, CCR3: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.Chemokine CXCL9: An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Mice, Inbred C57BLCell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Chemokine CXCL2: A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CXCL13: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.Receptors, CXCR4: CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Chemokine CXCL11: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Chemokine CXCL6: A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Chemokine CXCL5: A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Receptors, CXCR3: CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Receptors, Interleukin-8B: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Dermatitis, Atopic: A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Monocyte Chemoattractant Proteins: Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Receptors, CCR6: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Receptors, Interleukin-8A: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Receptors, CXCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Receptors, Cytokine: Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Chemokines, CX3C: Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.Receptors, CXCR5: CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Chemotactic Factors: Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Monokines: Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.Receptors, HIV: Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Carbon Tetrachloride PoisoningDuffy Blood-Group System: A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.Chemotactic Factors, Eosinophil: Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.Neutrophil Infiltration: The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Heterocyclic Compounds: Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Cell Migration Inhibition: Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Platelet Factor 4: A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Endothelium, Lymphatic: Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.

Expression and cellular localization of the CC chemokines PARC and ELC in human atherosclerotic plaques. (1/275)

Local immune responses are thought to play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. Histological studies have shown that human atherosclerotic lesions contain T lymphocytes throughout all stages of development, many of which are in an activated state. A number of novel CC chemokines have been described recently, which are potent chemoattractants for lymphocytes: PARC (pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine), ELC (EBI1-ligand chemokine), LARC (liver and activation-regulated chemokine), and SLC (secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine). Using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization, we have found gene expression for PARC and ELC but not for LARC or SLC in human atherosclerotic plaques. Immunohistochemical staining of serial plaque sections with specific cell markers revealed highly different expression patterns of PARC and ELC. PARC mRNA was restricted to CD68+ macrophages (n = 14 of 18), whereas ELC mRNA was widely expressed by macrophages and intimal smooth muscle cells (SMC) in nearly all of the lesions examined (n = 12 of 14). ELC mRNA was also found to be expressed in the medial SMC wall of highly calcified plaques (n = 4). Very low levels of ELC mRNA expression could also be detected in normal mammary arteries but no mRNA expression for PARC was detected in these vessels (n = 4). In vitro, ELC mRNA was found to be up-regulated in aortic SMC stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-a and interferon-gamma but not in SMC stimulated with serum. Both PARC and ELC mRNA were expressed by monocyte-derived macrophages but not monocytes. The expression patterns of PARC and ELC mRNA in human atherosclerotic lesions suggest a potential role for these two recently described CC chemokines in attracting T lymphocytes into atherosclerotic lesions.  (+info)

Cutting edge: immature dendritic cells generated from monocytes in the presence of TGF-beta 1 express functional C-C chemokine receptor 6. (2/275)

Although CD34+ progenitor-derived immature dendritic cells (DCs) express CCR6, several recent studies reported that monocyte-derived immature DCs do not do so. We observed that DCs generated from monocytes in the presence of GM-CSF, IL-4, and TGF-beta 1 consistently responded to liver and activation-regulated chemokine (LARC, also known as macrophage inflammatory protein-3 alpha). These immature DCs expressed one class of high-affinity binding sites for LARC, and expressed both CCR6 mRNA and protein. Therefore, LARC-CCR6 interaction presumably also contributes to the regulation of trafficking of monocyte-derived DCs, and utilization of TGF-beta can potentially provide a ready source of CCR6+ monocyte-derived DCs for therapeutic purposes.  (+info)

Beta-defensins: linking innate and adaptive immunity through dendritic and T cell CCR6. (3/275)

Defensins contribute to host defense by disrupting the cytoplasmic membrane of microorganisms. This report shows that human beta-defensins are also chemotactic for immature dendritic cells and memory T cells. Human beta-defensin was selectively chemotactic for cells stably transfected to express human CCR6, a chemokine receptor preferentially expressed by immature dendritic cells and memory T cells. The beta-defensin-induced chemotaxis was sensitive to pertussis toxin and inhibited by antibodies to CCR6. The binding of iodinated LARC, the chemokine ligand for CCR6, to CCR6-transfected cells was competitively displaced by beta-defensin. Thus, beta-defensins may promote adaptive immune responses by recruiting dendritic and T cells to the site of microbial invasion through interaction with CCR6.  (+info)

MIP-3alpha induces human eosinophil migration and activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (p42/p44 MAPK). (4/275)

The CC chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein-3alpha (MIP-3alpha) is the product of recent electronic cloning efforts, however, little characterization of its spectrum of biological effects has been undertaken. Human eosinophils exhibited pertussis-toxin-sensitive migration in response to human recombinant (hr)MIP-3alpha. Messenger RNA for the MIP-3alpha receptor, CCR-6, and low levels of surface expression were demonstrated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and FACS analysis. Analyses of cell signaling revealed dose-dependent increases in intracellular calcium mobilization, calcium transients that were, however, greatly reduced when compared with MCP-3-induced responses. Further investigations of MIP-3alpha-induced signal transduction revealed time- and dose-dependent, partially pertussis toxin-dependent, increases in phosphorylation of the p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) that occurred at 10- to 100-fold lower concentrations, and that were linked to a phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway. These results suggest that MIP-3alpha can regulate multiple, parallel signal transduction pathways in eosinophils, and suggest that MAPK activation by MIP-3alpha in eosinophils is a significant signaling pathway for migration induction.  (+info)

In breast carcinoma tissue, immature dendritic cells reside within the tumor, whereas mature dendritic cells are located in peritumoral areas. (5/275)

We have analyzed the presence of immature and mature dendritic cells (DCs) within adenocarcinoma of the breast using immunohistochemistry. Immature DCs were defined by expression of CD1a-, Langerin-, and intracellular major histocompatibility complex class II-rich vesicles. Mature DCs were defined by expression of CD83 and DC-Lamp. Breast carcinoma cells were defined by morphology and/or cytokeratin expression. We demonstrate two levels of heterogeneity of DCs infiltrating breast carcinoma tissue: (a) immature CD1a(+) DCs, mostly of the Langerhans cell type (Langerin(+)), were retained within the tumor bed in 32/32 samples and (b) mature DCs, CD83(+)DC-Lamp(+), present in 20/32 samples, are confined to peritumoral areas. The high numbers of immature DCs found in the tumor may be best explained by high levels of macrophage inflammatory protein 3alpha expression by virtually all tumor cells. Confirming the immature/mature DC compartmentalization pattern, in vitro-generated immature DCs adhere to the tumor cells, whereas mature DCs adhere selectively to peritumoral areas. In some cases, T cells are clustering around the mature DCs in peritumoral areas, thus resembling the DC-T cell clusters of secondary lymphoid organs, which are characteristic of ongoing immune reactions.  (+info)

Down-regulation of the beta-chemokine receptor CCR6 in dendritic cells mediated by TNF-alpha and IL-4. (6/275)

Chemokines are involved in the control of dendritic cell (DC) trafficking, which is critical for the immune response. We have generated DC from human umbilical cord blood CD34+ progenitors cultured with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and stem cell factor. Using an anti-CCR6 monoclonal antibody, we observed that these cells showed maximum expression of this beta-chemokine receptor when they were immature, as determined by their relatively low expression of several DC maturation markers such as CD1a, CD11c, CD14, CD40, CD80, and CD83. Immature DC responded strongly to macrophage inflammatory protein-3alpha (MIP-3alpha), the CCR6 ligand, in migration and calcium mobilization assays. CCR6 expression decreased in parallel with the DC maturation induced by prolonged TNF-alphaq treatments. Interleukin-4 was also able to decrease CCR6 protein levels. Our findings suggest that the MIP-3alpha/CCR6 interaction plays an important role in the trafficking of immature DC to chemokine production sites such as injured or inflamed peripheral tissues, where DC undergo maturation on contact with antigens.  (+info)

Macrophage inflammatory protein 3alpha is involved in the constitutive trafficking of epidermal langerhans cells. (7/275)

Certain types of dendritic cells (DCs) appear in inflammatory lesions of various etiologies, whereas other DCs, e.g., Langerhans cells (LCs), populate peripheral organs constitutively. Until now, the molecular mechanism behind such differential behavior has not been elucidated. Here, we show that CD1a(+) LC precursors respond selectively and specifically to the CC chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-3alpha. In contrast, CD14(+) precursors of DC and monocytes are not attracted by MIP-3alpha. LCs lose the migratory responsiveness to MIP-3alpha during their maturation, and non-LC DCs do not acquire MIP-3alpha sensitivity. The notion that MIP-3alpha may be responsible for selective LC recruitment into the epidermis is further supported by the following observations: (a) MIP-3alpha is expressed by keratinocytes and venular endothelial cells in clinically normal appearing human skin; (b) LCs express CC chemokine receptor (CCR)6, the sole MIP-3alpha receptor both in situ and in vitro; and (c) non-LC DCs that are not found in normal epidermis lack CCR6. The mature forms of LCs and non-LC DCs display comparable sensitivity for MIP-3beta, a CCR7 ligand, suggesting that DC subtype-specific chemokine responses are restricted to the committed precursor stage. Although LC precursors express primarily CCR6, non-LC DC precursors display a broad chemokine receptor repertoire. These findings reflect a scenario where the differential expression of chemokine receptors by two different subpopulations of DCs determines their functional behavior. One type, the LC, responds to MIP-3alpha and enters skin to screen the epidermis constitutively, whereas the other type, the "inflammatory" DC, migrates in response to a wide array of different chemokines and is involved in the amplification and modulation of the inflammatory tissue response.  (+info)

The exodus subfamily of CC chemokines inhibits the proliferation of chronic myelogenous leukemia progenitors. (8/275)

Chemokines are a family of related proteins that regulate leukocyte infiltration into inflamed tissue and play important roles in disease processes. Among the biologic activities of chemokines is inhibition of proliferation of normal hematopoietic progenitors. However, chemokines that inhibit normal progenitors rarely inhibit proliferation of hematopoietic progenitors from patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). We and others recently cloned a subfamily of CC chemokines that share similar amino-terminal peptide sequences and a remarkable ability to chemoattract T cells. These chemokines, Exodus-1/LARC/MIP-3alpha, Exodus-2/SLC/6Ckine/TCA4, and Exodus-3/CKbeta11/MIP-3beta, were found to inhibit proliferation of normal human marrow progenitors. The study described here found that these chemokines also inhibited the proliferation of progenitors in every sample of marrow from patients with CML that was tested. This demonstration of consistent inhibition of CML progenitor proliferation makes the 3 Exodus chemokines unique among chemokines. (Blood. 2000;95:1506-1508)  (+info)

9780806143705 Our cheapest price for The Northern Cheyenne Exodus in History and Memory is $10.96. Free shipping on all orders over $35.00.
Chapter five of the book of Exodus, we left Moses in great despair. He did what he thought God was calling him to do. He went to the Pharaoh and demanded the
Exodus Cry exists to break the cycle of commercial sexual exploitation and help those who have been sold for sex, because every person should be free. Learn ...
2017-11-24 - Accra Hearts of Oak defender, Inusah Musah, says the current player exodus which has hit the club will have no significant negative effect on their performance next season, tagging the situation as a regular phenomenon.
I recently had a parasitic resonance develop in my door panel so I took it off to address the issue. The Anarchy is a pretty potent driver. One thing Ive noticed lately
Working Preacher is a ministry brought to you by Luther Seminary. The Working Preacher team believes that God uses good biblical preaching to change lives. We have enlisted hundreds of friends -- biblical scholars, theologians, homileticians and pastors dedicated to the craft of biblical preaching -- to provide you timely, compelling and trustworthy content.
Helots Run Chapter 2|continued from Chapter 2 The family walked wearily|exodus but quickly south down the road. Teres kept glancing off to her right at ...
We go way back with Will and Dave, the creators of Mr. Pickles. They come from Richmond, VA as well and even shot our first music video for Unleash the Bastards. Weve remained good friends throughout all our endeavors and when they asked us to be part of this tour there was no hesitation on our part. The icing on the cake was when Exodus came on board. Were no stranger to touring with these maniacs and weve shared some wild times on the road over the years (at least from what I can remember!) Its gonna be one helluva trip, hitting the US club circuit with our brothers in Exodus and seeing our old friends along the way." ...
Read Exodus 10 commentary using John Gills Exposition of the Bible. Study the bible online using commentary on Exodus 10 and more!
Read more about Rohingya exodus to Bangladesh reaches 389,000: UN on Business Standard. The number of Muslim Rohingya who have crossed into Bangladesh to escape ethnic unrest in Myanmar since August 25 hit 389,000 today, a UN spokesman said. The figure rose 10,000 in 24 hours, indicating the Rohingya crisis remains acute. UN refugee
A mystery fever that has claimed more than hundred lives in past four weeks in Kanpur, is forcing mass exodus from the villages in its vicinity.
Exodus--Hey kids! Its a flying elf--kill it with fire! No, really, Exodus was . . .well, Im not sure what the hell Exodus was supposed to be. The first harbinger of those moments when the X-Office would think up stuff and jam it into the books without thinking it through completely, Exodus came at the tail end of a whole bunch of new X-Men villains who were built up as huge threats despite being neither effective nor charismatic (Fabian Cortez! Trevor Fitzroy! Sienna Blaze! The Soul Skinner!) or ones that clumsily had "X" somewhere in the title (X-Cutioner, X-Treme, and some others. No X-Pialidocious, though.) Exodus was set up to be Magnetos right hand man and in service of that was given a ridiculous costume (seriously, whats up with the shoulder hooks?) an utterly inscrutable power set (basically "whatever the plot demands") and one of the most batshit insane origin stories ever: He was a knight from 1000 years ago who fought the Black Knight and went into a coma and look at the time: ...
Exodus 16:13 And it came to pass in the evening, that quails came up, and covered the camp; and in the morning the dew lay round the camp. Read verse in The Darby Translation
Modern humans left Africa over 60,000 years ago in a migration that many believe was responsible for nearly all of the human population that exist outside Africa today.
Complete-A-Sketch Volume 3 is another progression in the series. Although it builds on skills learned in Volumes 1 & 2 , neither need to be completed to learn from and enjoy this book. The primary focus of this volume is perspective , or three-dimensional art, of the most realistic variety. Perspective line art is used primarily by people in architectural and art fields. Like Volumes 1 & 2, the lessons start with the most basic shapes, cubes, cylinders, one point perspective and two point perspectives, etc.
After years of money flowing in, in the past year the trend has been reversing: cash is beginning to flow out of China. The Wall Street Journal estimates that $225 billion left China in the 12 months leading up to September.
This is a different version of Mafia in which every player will have a role. This means if you sign up you should be online everyday to participate. It sucks when we have to wait for one player to submit an action. Basic Mafia rules apply. To join just post saying you want to play. Heres a link to the first game of this series Pokemon Mafia Genesis Heres a link to my most successful mafia game The Official Pokemon Mafia Thread
This trek spends a few days deep in the bewildering majesty of the Cordillera Vilcabamba before joining the classic Inca Trail for the approach to Machu Picchu. This high route skirts many of the great peaks and passes close to Mt. Salcantay (6271m) and its creaking glaciers. The trek continues through remote villages and crosses the spectacular Inca Chiriasqa Pass. It finishes by exploring the Inca temples and fortresses of Cuzco and the Sacred Valley.
Dateline: First day of Nissan, one year after the Exodus - the 8th day of Tabernacle dedication. Place: Sinai Desert. Scene: After...
Exodus of young people! Retail apocalypse! We hear phrases like this all the time, but are they real? How can we tell? Our guest speaker, CT Data Collaboratives Rachel Leventhal-Weiner, will help CMSC Network members expand their data literacy, critically assess data and collect information that will help create a compelling case for Main Street
Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Genome Research Limited (reg no. 2742969) is a charity registered in England with number 1021457 , Legal , Cookie Policy , Data Sharing Unless otherwise stated the content of this website is copyright Genome Research Limited, licenced under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. URI: ; retrieved at 12.25 am, 11th December 2017. ...
He actually talks about both the Joseph segments of Genesis and the account of the Exodus during his lectures. Apart from disagreeing about the number of Israelites who fled Egypt, he actually endorses the stories as pretty reliable firsthand accounts. He says that while we dont find any real physical evidence of these events, we shouldnt expect to given a number of factors and actually tells people that they shouldnt discount the biblical narratives because of that. Also points out that the customs and geographical markers from the biblical narratives could only have come from someone personally familiar with Egypt during the time period of the Exodus. He even specifically rules out the idea that the Exodus narrative is the creation of Jews living in the exilic/post-exilic period, saying that theyd have given incorrect place names and geographic markers. Pretty amazing to hear someone who seems to be a straight secularist with impressive academic credentials admit all this ...
books.google.comhttps://books.google.com/books/about/The_Exodus_of_Corporate_Headquarters_fro.html?id=aKeaAAAAIAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareThe Exodus of Corporate Headquarters from New York City ...
Hi I have just booked this trip and am really looking forward to it. It would be great to hear from anyone else going on this trip too. This will be my third African adventure with Exodus. Best wishes Andrea
Left: the Logo that used to adorn the HQ building of Exodus is now displayed over my garage sink.. From 2000-2003 I experienced nearly a complete business cycle at Exodus Communications. EXDS was a high flying (5 splits in 12 months), then the fastest falling company in the valley, we went Chapter 11 (twice).. The beautiful towers on Mission College on 101 were built with Exodus paper stock money. These gorgeous towers are now occupied by Yahoo and EMC, in a selfish way, I still I have some ownership over them. Im not too hung up over the physical aspect, because I still keep in touch with many of the friends I made there.. While the shine of Podtech and Social Media is in my eye, and the market is picking up, I want to remind myself to take a look at what I learned in Web 1.0.. I wont lose the lessons from an important experience, I still remember Exodus and what it means to me.. ...
Alan Chambers, president of Exodus International, talks about his past and his longing for male love and attention which eventually lead him to seek fulfillment in a homosexual lifestyle. ...
Emeson, E E., "Bcg and c. Parvum enhance selective recruitment of specifically reactive t-lymphocytes. Abstr." (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 2521 ...
Could the chemicals and toxins around us be the cause for the sudden surge of human diseases and illnesses? Is our environment really safe for us to live in?. Everyday Roots program discusses about the shocking truth about the numerous toxic chemicals and additives used regularly - in our cosmetics to foods. Learn more about it here!. ...
And, in a way that I didnt think was possible at the end of season one, or for pretty much all of seasons two and three, I trust these guys now. Yes, ending "Exodus" that way was a tactical error given all the build-up (in retrospect, the very least they should have done was zoomed down to show a shadowy figure in a Dharma jumpsuit holding an assault rifle), but the rest of "Exodus" was wonderful, and the eventual payoff with Desmond was worth it in the end. Whatever missteps the show has made, some caused by external forces, some not, its been so consistently assured and entertaining for these past two seasons that I feel confident Cuselof really do know what theyre doing here -- that, whether the grand plan was really sketched out from the beginning, or made up at a later date, its mostly going to work out as it should in the final season, and if I have to show a little patience to find out exactly what happened when Juliet made Jugheads core go kablooey, well... I think I can handle that ...
It seems astonishing that more people are now leaving Northern Ireland than at any time in the last 30 years. Three decades ago the province was still in the Troubles grip. It was a vi
Parashah 13: Shmot (Names) 1:1-6:1 - These are the names of the sons of Israel who came into Egypt with Yaakov; each man came with his household:
And, in a way that I didnt think was possible at the end of season one, or for pretty much all of seasons two and three, I trust these guys now. Yes, ending "Exodus" that way was a tactical error given all the build-up (in retrospect, the very least they should have done was zoomed down to show a shadowy figure in a Dharma jumpsuit holding an assault rifle), but the rest of "Exodus" was wonderful, and the eventual payoff with Desmond was worth it in the end. Whatever missteps the show has made, some caused by external forces, some not, its been so consistently assured and entertaining for these past two seasons that I feel confident Cuselof really do know what theyre doing here -- that, whether the grand plan was really sketched out from the beginning, or made up at a later date, its mostly going to work out as it should in the final season, and if I have to show a little patience to find out exactly what happened when Juliet made Jugheads core go kablooey, well... I think I can handle that ...
Myanmar leader Aung San Suu Kyi delivers her first speech on the Rohingya crisis since attacks by Muslim insurgents on August 25. No repoter narration.}
Theres more bad news for the cable television business, courtesy of a new report from MoffettNathanson analyst Michael Nathanson. He says cable networks saw a total viewership decline of almost
Bible Reader with fully formatted text and multiple versions and languages available. Navigate by book, topic, passage, search and more. Download the most popular Bible versions to use even when the Internet is unavailable.
Bible Reader with fully formatted text and multiple versions and languages available. Navigate by book, topic, passage, search and more. Download the most popular Bible versions to use even when the Internet is unavailable.
Nearly 3,00,000 Rohingya Muslims have fled Myanmar s Rakhine state into Bangladesh in the 15 days since new violence erupted, the United Nations said on Saturday
The flight of banks and top corporations from Catalonia is turning into a stampede as the Spanish state tightens the garrote on the rebel government in Barcelona, exposing the desperate weakness of the independence movement.
Ccl2 - Ccl2 (untagged) - Mouse chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (Ccl2), (10ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Team members Rank (within team) User Score WU 1 Tetengo 1907 6 2 Xan-Diesel 1161 4 3 Iamadam 1161 4 4 Danalog 1148 1 5 rubixtoo 927 3 6 WintsPS3 861 3 7 Cusslnggrunt 587 2 8 Kaelesh 443 1 9 singdall64 343 1 10 cooterbrown 340 2 11 PS3gtwo 287 1 12 Greendragon 287 1 13 Exodus 206 1 14 LordDamion 186 1 15 Durhai 186 1 16 Regdar-Sylph 186 1 17 John_T 186 1 18 james_fueston 186 1 19 Jay 27 1 20 cobaltrocket 5 1 21 Mark_E._Deardorff 3 1 22 DodoBird 0 1 23 PS3 0 ...
For the most part the non managerial people are good to work with, however there has been an exodus of good hard working people over the past few years. I cant say the same thing about senior management however. Health insurance is good...
The Big If The fourth commandment Exodus 20.8; Deuteronomy 5.12 Remember, observe the Sabbath day, to keep it holy. Isaiah 58.13, 14 If you turn back your
Abcams Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 1 alpha / CCL3 ELISA Kit suitable for Cell culture supernatant, Serum, Plasma in human. Reliably quantify 6 pg/ml of…
On Friday, January 6, 2012, Justin Lee, the Executive Director of the Gay Christian Network (GCN) invited Alan Chambers, President of Exodus International to be part of a panel at the annual conference. Also on that panel were: keynote speaker to the conference, Jeremy Marks, Courage UK, Wendy Gritter, former Canadian Exodus ministry partner and now with New Direction and John Smid, former leader of Love in Action, a reparative therapy residency program. (The audio is hosted online currently at GCN, a membership site, and the video, when ready, will be linked as here.) The panel selected was an excellent choice. Each confronted the myth of gay to straight conversion from their own experiences and leadership in the ex-gay movement.. To those that do not closely follow the dialogue and dynamics of the gay and/or Christian issue, the painstaking, almost hour-long discussion of a simple word "gay" may have seemed tedious. The clarification of the language however was core to the issue. Being "gay" ...
MOSES NEVER EXISTED, EXODUS NEVER HAPPENED, New Website proves. - posted in Main Forum: MOSES NEVER EXISTED, EXODUS NEVER HAPPENED, New Website proves. Many Judaists believes they are a
Effective today October 21, 2016 Wayland Games Ltd are the new owners of the Wild West Exodus brand. I will still be involved with potential future story and character creation as needed by their team. I will always be available to talk to our fans and discuss the universe of WWX whenever needed. My love for the game and its characters has not lessened in any way. I personally feel that this change will bring success and growth to an already popular game. Wayland Games and their Wild West Exodus team have many exciting details to share with everyone over the next several weeks. Stay tuned to more news and highlights of what is planned and when it will take shape. I personally thank you all again and wish Wayland Games all the luck in the world. "In Jesse We Trust" Romeo Filip Outlaw ...
I have accepted globalization and I have accepted that Filipino nurses are bound to go. Let us tame the exodus; you cannot stop them; that is their human right. Let us tame it," said Tan, an educator at the University of the Philippines (UP) College of Medicine and founder of Health Futures Foundation, Inc., which trains community health workers nationwide ...
Make poles of acacia wood and overlay them with gold. Insert the poles into the rings on the sides of the ark in order to carry the ark with them.
Anti-Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 1 alpha / CCL3 antibody (ab32609) has been cited in 1 publications. Find out more about the references
12 "He who strikes a man so that he dies shall surely be put to death. 13 But [k]if he did not lie in wait for him, but God let him fall into his hand, then I will appoint you a place to which he may flee. 14 If, however, a man acts presumptuously toward his neighbor, so as to kill him craftily, you are to take him even from My altar, that he may die.. 15 "He who strikes his father or his mother shall surely be put to death.. 16 "He who [l]kidnaps a man, whether he sells him or he is found in his [m]possession, shall surely be put to death.. 17 "He who curses his father or his mother shall surely be put to death.. 18 "If men have a quarrel and one strikes the other with a stone or with his fist, and he does not die but [n]remains in bed, 19 if he gets up and walks around outside on his staff, then he who struck him shall go unpunished; he shall only pay for his [o]loss of time, and [p]shall take care of him until he is completely healed.. 20 "If a man strikes his male or female slave with a rod ...
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เขาทำเอโฟดด้วยทองคำ ด้วยด้ายสีฟ้า สีม่วง สีแดงเข้ม และผ้าป่านเนื้อละเอียด. Mısırdan Çıkış 39:2 Turkish ...
Petra & Wadi Rum Trek, a 8 day tour from Amman to Wadi Rum, Petra and 1 destinations. No Booking Fees - Best Price Guarantee - 24/7 Customer Support & Unbiased Advice!
Two blasts rocked an area on the Myanmar side of the border with Bangladesh on Monday, accompanied by the sound of gunfire and thick black smoke, as violence that has sent nearly 90,000 Muslim Rohingya fleeing to Bangladesh showed no sign of easing.
Classic South India - Premium, a 14 day tour from Chennai (Madras) to Kanchipuram, Chennai (Madras) and 8 destinations. No Booking Fees - Best Price Guarantee - 24/7 Customer Support & Unbiased Advice!
UPDATE: Research In Motion has denied an analysts report Thursday that the company has seized production of its PlayBook tablet PC.
For 12 long years, every administration that has occupied the Presidential Office has failed to do what was necessary to ensure the nation could keep pace with a rapidly changing world. The cost of such inaction is becoming increasingly salient and will become heavier still, with the risk that Taiwan will become obsolete not as a result of political isolation, but from an irreversible exodus of brainpower and capital.
Further thoughts on Vaera. The story of yetziat mitzraim -- the Exodus from Egypt -- reveals the glory of Gods great empathy for His people.
Mrs. June had the best post up recently that I spent several hours reading. (You know, with 500 interruptions it tends to take awhile.) It really was good! The first part is appalling, but not surprising. The second part was very encouraging. Also, have you heard of The Exodus Mandate? I know many people are not ready to take such a radical stance, but I have to agree that Christian parents need to seriously consider their education choice--not just blow it off. Its a serious thing with consequences and should be prayed about and considered carefully. Unlike me who just sent my kid off to public school Kindergarten without a single thought. Never even considered an alternative. Its just what you DO, right? Well....I think differently now. Check out the quote from John Wesley on Mrs. Junes post. Wow ...
tefillin: small box-like structure worn by Jewish adult males at the weekday morning service. The boxes have leather attachments and contain scripture verses. One box is placed on the head and another across the chest to apply Exodus 13:1-10;11-16; and Deuteronomy 6:4-9; 11:13-21 - Love the Lord with all your heart and mind ...
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Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 1 alpha / CCL3兔多克隆抗体(ab25128)可与小鼠, 大鼠样本反应并经WB, IP, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被4篇文献引用并得到1个独立的用户反馈。
We therefore would still have references to the Exodus event in Israelite literature by the 700s.. The fact we have multiple such references (and there are others) means the tradition was widespread and thus has to be dated earlier to allow time for it to become popular and be mentioned multiple times in the surviving literature.. We thus would conclude that the story had to be circulating by around 850 B.C.-a century before the prophets just mentioned.. Dating the Exodus That leads us to the question of when the Exodus occurred.. The traditional date for the event is in the 1400s B.C. However, more recently a date in the 1200s B.C. has been proposed.. The latter seems more likely, and it corresponds to the earliest extra-biblical reference we have to Israel.. This is found on an Egyptian monument known as the Merneptah Stele, which celebrates a military victory over the Israelites by the Egyptian pharaoh, Merneptah, who reigned between 1213 and 1203 B.C.. The inscription on the stele is ...
The server is transferring to a better host! Server IP: 72.9.146.83 New builds: Added the nether! (currently disabled until MyHome likes it)...
No one was all too surprised when my cousin Ann-Marie married a Greek. Although predominantly Irish, my mothers side of the family all grew up in the Parc Extension neighbourhood of Montreal. In their opinion, Parc Ex was a fantastic place to grow up in the late 70s and early 80s. As my cousin Tommy notes, "Every alley had a hockey team!" Yet few remnants survive of the largely Greek, family friendly neighbourhood. Greeks used to own most of the commercial property on Jean-Talon between Acadie and Parc, though only a few Greek businesses exist there today. Most of my family members have moved out of the area, and only cousins weddings and their childrens baptisms have brought us back to Koimisis Tis Theotokou Orthodox church on St. Roch. Parc Ex lives on in laughter, or, "Hey, bro, remember that," times, but never in PX itself (local lingo). My experience of the Greek lifestyle in Parc Ex, in a few words, is free shots of Sambuca, tzatziki, and that confusing circular dance to what I am ...
PHR concludes that Israeli soldiers must have seen Bader, yet did not secure his evacuation. He later died of his injuries.. Execution; human shielding. Ramadan Qdeih and 60 members of his extended family waited the bombardment out in the basement of Muhammad Tawfiq Qdeih, his father. They tried to leave it to join the first exodus march described above, but were forced back by gunfire. On the night of 23 July, Israeli soldiers fired teargas into the basement, but people didnt dare leave. On 24 July, most left to join the second exodus. But Ramadans father was terrified and returned to the house, and 26 relatives stayed with him. The next day, Israeli soldiers used a bulldozer to knock down the garage door and entered the house. Muhammad, the father, shouted in Hebrew to the soldiers that civilians were present; they were all ordered to climb up the stairs. Muhammad was then shot twice at close range; he died immediately in front of his family. The soldiers ordered the women, children and ...
DJ saw the distress beacon indicator light up on the part of his panel devoted to external communications. He still had no command interface to JA, but by careful examination of the stuttering images on his display screens, he could piece together JAs view of the battle as though it were taking place in a strobe-heavy disco. He winced as he saw JA backed across the plain of Worcester-3s retracted downtown space and into the unrescinded warehouse district, its armor acquiring dents and shiny furrows where EVA-05s fists and blades battered at it. The robot weaved on its feet under the pounding like a punch-drunk fighter, its arms feebly trying to protect its sensors and vital systems, unable to counterattack. He gritted his teeth in sympathy and anger, almost feeling pain with each ringing impact and each jarring screech of blade against armor. Jet Alone was tough, but it wouldnt stand up to this pounding forever, and DJ could almost feel its robotic equivalent of fatigue as the damage ...
This fascinating trip combines two truly outstanding places in South America. Flying into the Peruvian highlands, we encounter Cuzco, a city replete with Inca architecture and colonial charm. A beautiful train ride through mountains and cloud forest takes us to the extraordinary lost city of Machu Picchu. Ecuadors Galapagos archipelago is one of the worlds leading ecological sites, with incredible fauna both on land and at sea as well as striking volcanic landscapes.
If delivering a status report on the activities of NERV for the SEELE ruling council made Gendō Ikari at all nervous, he failed to show it. Instead, he stood with his usual ramrod posture before them, unable to see them in the darkened room thanks to the glare of the video projector, and talked them through the clips hed brought to illustrate operational points.. "Third Angel, codename Zachiel," said Ikari. "Attacked Worcester-3 ." At his deft manipulation of the remote control, the still image of the spindly black creature flowed into motion, flattening tanks, splintering an air-launched cruise missile, wrecking a Raiden DX-3 interceptor with the energy lance in its arm, and shrugging off the N2 explosion that had created Lake Oppenheimer.. "Conventional resistance proved entirely useless, as predicted," Ikari continued.. The screen changed to DJ Crofts file photo, showing the teenage boy from mid-chest up, in street clothes, the straps of his shoulder holster hidden under a lightweight ...
And the angel of G‑d who had been going ahead of the camp of Israel now moved and went behind them, and the pillar of cloud went from in front of them and stood behind them. Thus [the pillar of cloud] came between the camp of Egypt and the camp of Israel, making it cloud and darkness [to the Egyptians], but it gave light by night [to the Jews], so that the one came not near the other all the night. Then Moses stretched out his hand over the sea, and G‑d drove the sea back with a strong east wind all that night, and made the sea dry land; thus the waters were divided." (Ex. 14:14) ...
Though, I gotta say that there are some continuity issues between this and Exodus/WFC. Seibertron.com was right. TF: Prime is a forced continuity with the book and game in the same way that Cybertron/Galaxy Force was retconned with the rest of its trilogy. For example, Megatron and Starscream speak of Dark Energon as though they are just now beginning to understand it, and the Autobots completely unfamiliar wit hthe substance, when both sides had become well aware of it and understood what it could do all throughout WFC/Exodus. And, Dark Eenrgons primary ability is to reanimate the dead into mindless beastial zombies, instead of merely being a power-up with addictive and corruptive side effects. And, most of all, Megatron and Starscream act as though theyve never used Dark Energon on themselves, and when Megatron tries to use it on himself, he and Starscream act as though this were the first time they (or any a living being, for that matter) has ever done so ...
Sonia Papiu started her first year of residency as a psychiatrist in the Romanian city of Cluj in January, but she plans to move abroad within the year, seeking better learning opportunities and hospital conditions. She will not be alone. I dont think any of my colleagues are planning to stay, she said. I think I could learn more abroad.
A compilation of poems by Americans writing about American art in the twentieth century, including such writers as Nancy Willard, Jane Yolen, and X.J. Kennedy.
The Hebrew clergy/illuminati, equipped with Talmudic & Pharisaic opportunism and deceit, decided to erase the Israelites remote Arabian history and invent a whole new one in Egypt and Palestine
The Hebrew clergy/illuminati, equipped with Talmudic & Pharisaic opportunism and deceit, decided to erase the Israelites remote Arabian history and invent a whole new one in Egypt and Palestine
Often, far too often, during canvassing over the past few years when we are looking for fellow Bermudians we are finding out that they no longer
Indias tropical south is a land full of fertile forests, sweeping grasslands and tea plantations. We visit the two southern states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala, both with distinctive cultures and contrasting scenery. Kerala is a true tropical paradise with an idyllic coastline and lush tropical mountains, which is evident as we travel between the old spice town of Cochin and the beautiful hill station of Munnar.
An estimated 270,000 Rohingya have sought refuge in Bangladesh over the past two weeks, the U.N. refugee agency said on Friday, announcing a dramatic jump in numbers fleeing violence in neighboring Myanmars Rakhine State.
The mass exodus of international fighters from the Sengoku roster continues. Bellator Fighting Championships on Thursday announced that it has acquired the
Common Thread (Vinyl) by EX2, released 16 April 2016 1. Slumpzilla 2. Exit Exodus 3. Blame Game feat. Awol One & Origin 4. Common Thread 5. Elements Endangered feat. Vyrus 6. Peace Of Mind 7. 562 Remix 8. Nostalgic Amnesia 9. Life Is Grand 10. Everything Explained feat. Origin
A sermon for Proper 23 Exodus 32:1-14, Psalm 106:1-6, Philippians 4:1-9, Matthew 22:1-14 Its been devastating. Nothing, has gone as expected. Nothing, is as it should have been. Everything is gone; what was, is no more. Whats to be is worse than imagined, its unknowable. Shackled, he kneels in the ashes of annihilation; his bound…
Bangladesh, which already hosted some 250,000 Rohingya before the current exodus, wants the latest arrivals to return swiftly and is keen to enlist help from China, a staunch ally of Myanmar.
Trial - Restless Blood Lyrics. Morbid transit of eternal damnation Unveild is the genesis, when the stars ablazing Exodus of death, cradle me to sleep Eternal eyes glar
A month after the exodus began, those dispersed in some 68 camps and settlements along the border do not have safe drinking water and hygiene facilities, according to the WHO.
And they shall make an ark of shittim wood,.... A chest or coffer to put things into, and into this were to be put the two tables of stone on which the law was written, and it was to be made of the wood before mentioned, Exodus 25:5 this was a very eminent type of Christ, with whom the name of an ark, chest, or coffer where treasure lies, agrees; for the treasures of wisdom and knowledge, and the riches of grace, even all the fulness of it, lie in him; and all the epithets of this ark are suitable to him, as when it is called the ark of God, the ark of his strength, the glory of God, the face of God, Jehovah, and God himself, the holy ark, and ark of the covenant: and its being made of "shittim wood", which is an incorruptible wood, a wood that rots not, by which the Septuagint version here, and in Exodus 25:5 and elsewhere render it, may denote the duration of Christ in his person, and the natures united in it; in his divine nature, from everlasting to everlasting, he is God; in his human ...
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The New Jewish Exodus: Canada Seen as Safe Haven for French Jews in Wake of Anti-Semitic Attacks - Canada Immigration and Visa Information. Canadian Immigration Services and Free Online Evaluation.
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They covet vernal pools, those ephemeral puddles that will dry by July. These temporary ponds cannot house fish and other aquatic predators, creating a safe nursery for amphibians. But, the amphibians cant waste their time--the pools will dry, and if the larvae cannot mature, they perish. Starting in late February and early March, the salamanders stage a sluggish exodus from their subterranean hovels to their ice-rimmed breeding pools ...
Personal Workshop [Click]: Host a program or piece of hardware from your grip on Personal Workshop and place power counters on it equal to its install cost. 1 [Credits]: Remove 1 power counter from a hosted card. When your turn begins, remove...
Any translation straddles the fine line between paraphrase and literal. Its true that not all words and phrases can be translated literally, especially when the original language contains "idioms". Unless it can be established that the original phrase can only mean cancer then room must be made for circumstantial variations on the precise meaning. In the case of ?????????????? ?????????????? isnt it sound to defer to the origin of the word and phrase? The word ?????????????? shares its root with the Hebrew "shakhan". This word, which is translated in the KJV as "boil" is found in Exodus 9:9-11, Exodus 9:11 (pleural), Leviticus 8:31, 13:18-20, 23, II Kings 20:7, Isaiah 38:21 and Job 2:7. The word "shakhan" does not mean "cancer" in all of the listed occurences. Leprosy is not the same as melanoma. Melanoma is not always visible on the skin. However, leprosy and boils do. Its not to say that the word cannot mean cancer/melanoma but it does not always mean cancer. So, in spite of Dr. Lamsas ...
While I agree that the US govt. actions are deplorable, I have second thoughts about the streaming sites that have been tampered with. I checked out one of the "new" .eu sites and was not impressed. I block just about everything...call it paranoia...but to see CNN live I had to temporarily allow script after script and then finally got a request to download a special player. Yeah, sure. The much discussed Spanish site also required a lot of permitting and the only window I got to open was a "demo". I dont know what it was for. Even though I selected English the page was entirely in Spanish. Clicking play in the demo locked up Firefox. I can only assume these sites work only if the viewer is very trusting and blocks nothing. And while most of them are probably ok, I dont see this experience being worth the risk. And watching the endless cookies being laid on me from all our favorite ad servers suggests that the real beef is that these sites serve up tv shows and such and then lace them with ...
On a Sunday in late April, Pastor Clarence Jones asked his congregation to join him. "Oh magnify the Lord with me and let us exalt his name together.
CCL20, hemokin (C-C motiv) ligand 20, ili jetrenom aktivacijom regulisani hemokin (LARC), ili makrofagni inflamatorni protein-3 (MIP3A) je mali citokin iz CC hemokin familije. On je snažno hemotaksan za limfocite, a slabo provlači neutrofile.[1] CCL20 je impliciran u formiranje i funkciju mukoznog limfoidnog tkiva putem hemoatrakcije limfocita i dendritskih ćelija prema epitelnim ćelijama koje okružuju ta tkiva. CCL20 dejstvuje na svoje ciljne ćelije vezivanjem i aktiviranjem hemokinskog receptora CCR6.[2][3] CCL20 genska ekspresija može biti indukovana mikrobnim faktorima kao što su lipopolisaharidi (LPS), i inflamatorni citokini poput faktor nekroze tumora i interferon-γ, i umanjena uticajem citokina IL-10.[4] CCL20 je izražen u više vrsta tkiva. Najobimnije izražavanje je primećeno u perifernim krvnim limfocitima, limfnim čvorovima, jetri, slepom crevu, i fetalnim plućima, a u nižim nivoima u timusu, testisima, prostati i crevima.[1][5] CCL20 gen (scya20) je lociran na ...
Complete information for CCL15-CCL14 gene (RNA Gene), CCL15-CCL14 Readthrough (NMD Candidate), including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for CCL20 gene (Protein Coding), C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 20, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Some bittcoin have the inhibition to meet more than one key to have a transaction. Once you have become a safe you can sign and then visit it into the primary. I only use web here or blockage wallet to keep small studies of bitcoins, recombinant to a dealer in my pocket for daily medications. Not freaked Some wallets surface areas on the Sodium Salt. Retention A hardware wallet is a high-security bitcoin fetus that enables you to store your funds offline. Skip to everyday. This is the most potent and increasing Bitcoin wallet that you can do in Buy Bitcoin Wholesale does not want, facilitate or even in futures, options inches or any other form of adults trading. Exodus is the first desktop wallet to have ShapeShift built in for exchanging cryptocurrencies. Enter the date and time or blockheight required to release the coins:. Select an Operating System. Size: 0 bytes. Continue Reading. It can be broadcasted once it has been signed. Block :? By continuing to use our site, you please click for ...
If you feel confused about what you should be reading and believing on food labels, you arent alone! Integrated Learning Therapy practitioners focus on young people so lets see if we can offer some guidelines to steer you in the right direction regarding your children.. First of all, it is necessary to realise that labels are there for two main reasons. They tell us the name of the food or drink that we are looking at, what ingredients it is made of, its weight and where it comes from. They also are designed to tempt us into buying the product. It is their job to look attractive - hence they are colourful, have appealing pictures (aimed at the children) and try to highlight the nutritional and health credentials of the content (aimed at parents). Unfortunately, we cant always believe the hype on the packaging. We simply have to be prepared to spend a few moments reading the label.. Listing ingredients. Ingredients are listed in their weight-descending order at the time the product is being ...
Team members Rank (within team) User Score WU 1 Danalog 3094 3 2 Tetengo 2547 8 3 Xan-Diesel 2075 8 4 Iamadam 2075 7 5 rubixtoo 1567 5 6 WintsPS3 1461 5 7 cooterbrown 1201 5 8 PS3 887 13 9 Greendragon 627 2 10 Cusslnggrunt 587 2 11 smitty 500 1 12 StubsOnAsura 500 1 13 Administrator 475 2 14 Kaelesh 443 1 15 Balein 343 1 16 EienYuri 343 1 17 PunkFloyd 343 1 18 SKudo 343 1 19 singdall64 343 1 20 Jon 343 1 21 Rainydayzz 300 1 22 PS3gtwo 287 1 23 lord_dodobird 236 1 24 Dr_Barkingturtle 218 1 25 prefferred_customer 218 1 26 Exodus 206 1 27 Kaain 186 1 28 DodoBird 186 2 29 Inferknite 186 1 30 Allakhazam 186 1 31 LordDamion 186 1 32 Lumalie 186 1 33 Durhai 186 1 34 _ 186 1 35 Mutz 186 1 36 Narfalicious 186 1 37 Regdar-Sylph 186 1 38 Francis_Tower 186 1 39 Soracloud 186 1 40 John_T 186 1 41 james_fueston 186 1 42 Martin 87 1 43 Jay 27 1 44 cobaltrocket 5 1 45 Mark_E._Deardorff 3 ...
Chemokine expression in human erythroid leukemia cell line AS-E2: macrophage inflammatory protein-3alpha/CCL20 is induced by ... Chemokines, chemokine receptors and hematopoiesis. „Immunol Rev". 177, s. 150-74, Oct 2000. PMID: 11138773. ...
As a result, the intestinal epithelial cells express chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20) and Beta defensin 3. CCL20 and Beta defensin 3 ...
They include the chemokine CCL20, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), specific odorants,, natriuretic peptide type C (NPPC), and ... A role for the chemokine receptor CCR6 in mammalian sperm motility and chemotaxis. J. Cell. Physiol. 229, 68-78. Zamir, N., ...
They include the chemokine CCL20, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), specific odorants,, natriuretic peptide type C (NPPC), and ...
2004). "Calcium triggers beta-defensin (hBD-2 and hBD-3) and chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein-3 alpha (MIP-3alpha/ ... CCL20) expression in monolayers of activated human keratinocytes". Exp. Dermatol. 12 (6): 755-60. doi:10.1111/j.0906-6705.2003. ...
... a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family that is now officially called Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (CCL20), ... The London Action Resource Centre, a social centre in London Liver and activation-regulated chemokine, ...
... which induces chemokines such as CCL2 and CCL20 independently of IRF3. STING is also thought to activate the NF-κB ...
... ravtansine Cathelicidin CC chemokine receptors CCBP2 CCL1 CCL11 CCL12 CCL13 CCL14 CCL15 CCL16 CCL17 CCL18 CCL19 CCL2 CCL20 ... C-C chemokine receptor type 6 C-C chemokine receptor type 7 Calreticulin Cancer immunology Cancer immunoprevention Cancer ... CD4 CD4+ T cells and antitumor immunity CD74 CD94/NKG2 Cell-mediated immunity CELSR1 Central tolerance Chemokine Chemokine ... CR6261 CroFab Cross-presentation Cross-reactivity Cryptic self epitopes Cryptotope CX3CL1 CX3CR1 CXC chemokine receptors CXCL1 ...
Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 (CXCL9) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also known as ... CCL20 and MIP-3beta/CCL19". European Journal of Immunology. 31 (7): 1981-8. doi:10.1002/1521-4141(200107)31:7. 3.0.CO;2-X. PMID ... Campbell JD, Stinson MJ, Simons FE, Rector ES, HayGlass KT (July 2001). "In vivo stability of human chemokine and chemokine ... Shields PL, Morland CM, Salmon M, Qin S, Hubscher SG, Adams DH (December 1999). "Chemokine and chemokine receptor interactions ...
2000). "Regulation of CCR6 chemokine receptor expression and responsiveness to macrophage inflammatory protein-3alpha/CCL20 in ... chemokine receptor activity. • receptor activity. • protein binding. • C-C chemokine receptor activity. • C-C chemokine binding ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene.[5] CCR6 ... 2002). "The structure of human macrophage inflammatory protein-3alpha /CCL20. Linking antimicrobial and CC chemokine receptor-6 ...
This classification is not strict; for example, CCL20 can act also as pro-inflammatory chemokine. Inflammatory: these are ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines in that it has ... CCL1 for the ligand 1 of the CC-family of chemokines, and CCR1 for its respective receptor. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) ...
... elicits its effects on its target cells by binding and activating the chemokine receptor CCR6. Gene expression of CCL20 ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (CCL20) or liver activation regulated chemokine (LARC) or Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-3 ( ... 2002). "Expression of the C-C chemokine MIP-3 alpha/CCL20 in human epidermis with impaired permeability barrier function". Exp ... 2001). "Genomic organization of the CC chemokine mip-3alpha/CCL20/larc/exodus/SCYA20, showing gene structure, splice variants, ...
CCR6, a receptor for CCL20, is expressed on unactivated memory T-cells and some dendritic cells. CCR6 is also expressed on Th17 ... The CC chemokine receptors all work by activating the G protein Gi. CCR1 was the first CC chemokine receptor identified and ... The orphan chemokine receptor G protein-coupled receptor-2 (GPR-2, CCR10) binds the skin-associated chemokine CCL27 (CTACK/ALP/ ... Human CC chemokine liver-expressed chemokine/CCL16 is a functional ligand for CCR1, CCR2 and CCR5, and constitutively expressed ...
2002). "Expression of the C-C chemokine MIP-3 alpha/CCL20 in human epidermis with impaired permeability barrier function.". Exp ... 2001). "Genomic organization of the CC chemokine mip-3alpha/CCL20/larc/exodus/SCYA20, showing gene structure, splice variants, ... 1997). "Molecular cloning of a novel human CC chemokine liver and activation-regulated chemokine (LARC) expressed in liver. ... 2001). "Inducible expression of a CC chemokine liver- and activation-regulated chemokine (LARC)/macrophage inflammatory protein ...
This classification is not strict; for example, CCL20 can act also as pro-inflammatory chemokine.[2] ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ...
IL-17 induces the production of many other cytokines (such as IL-6, G-CSF, GM-CSF, IL-1β, TGF-β, TNF-α), chemokines (including ... New immature DCs are also recruited by CCL20 via chemotaxis where their activation restarts and amplifies the cycle of ... After binding to the receptor, IL-17 activates several signalling cascades that, in turn, lead to the induction of chemokines. ... Acting as chemoattractants, these chemokines recruit the immune cells, such as monocytes and neutrophils to the site of ...
IL-17 induces the production of many other cytokines (such as IL-6, G-CSF, GM-CSF, IL-1β, TGF-β, TNF-α), chemokines (including ... IL-8 and CCL20.[6][19][24] Increased concentration of IL-6 alters the epidermal environment by decreasing the ability of T ... lead to the induction of chemokines. Acting as chemoattractants, these chemokines recruit the immune cells, such as monocytes ... IL-17F is able to induce several cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules in bronchial epithelial cells, vein endothelial ...
STING may play an important role in the production of MCP-1 and CCL7 chemokines. STING deficient monocytes are intrinsically ... CCL20, etc. Several reports suggested that STING is associated with the activation of selective autophagy. Mycobacterium ...
CCL20 · CCL21 · CCL22 · CCL23 · CCL24 · CCL25 · CCL26 · CCL27 · CCL28 ... Chemokine. CCL. CCL1 · CCL2 · CCL3 · CCL4 · CCL5 · CCL6 · CCL7 · CCL8 · CCL9 · CCL11 · CCL12 · CCL13 · CCL14 · CCL15 · CCL16 · ...
positive regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production. • positive regulation of JUN kinase activity. • positive ... positive regulation of chemokine production. • cellular extravasation. • negative regulation of lipid storage. • negative ... positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • epithelial cell proliferation involved in salivary gland morphogenesis ...
... s are a subset of cytokines that are produced by a type of immune cell known as a lymphocyte.[1] They are protein mediators typically produced by T cells to direct the immune system response by signaling between its cells. Lymphokines have many roles, including the attraction of other immune cells, including macrophages and other lymphocytes, to an infected site and their subsequent activation to prepare them to mount an immune response. Circulating lymphocytes can detect a very small concentration of lymphokine and then move up the concentration gradient towards where the immune response is required. Lymphokines aid B cells to produce antibodies. Important lymphokines secreted by the T helper cell include:[2] ...
... binds to the death receptors DR4 (TRAIL-RI) and DR5 (TRAIL-RII). The process of apoptosis is caspase-8-dependent. Caspase-8 activates downstream effector caspases including procaspase-3, -6, and -7, leading to activation of specific kinases.[11] TRAIL also binds the receptors DcR1 and DcR2, which do not contain a cytoplasmic domain (DcR1) or contain a truncated death domain (DcR2). DcR1 functions as a TRAIL-neutralizing decoy-receptor. The cytoplasmic domain of DcR2 is functional and activates NFkappaB. In cells expressing DcR2, TRAIL binding therefore activates NFkappaB, leading to transcription of genes known to antagonize the death signaling pathway and/or to promote inflammation. Application of engineered ligands that have variable affinity for different death (DR4 and DR5) and decoy receptors (DCR1 and DCR2) may allow selective targeting of cancer cells by controlling activation of Type 1/Type 2 pathways of cell death and single cell fluctuations. Luminescent iridium complex-peptide ...
... (IL-24) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL24 gene. IL-24 is a cytokine belonging to the IL-10 family of cytokines that signals through two heterodimeric receptors: IL-20R1/IL-20R2 and IL-22R1/IL-20R2. This interleukin is also known as melanoma differentiation-associated 7 (mda-7) due to its discovery as a tumour suppressing protein. IL-24 appears to control in cell survival and proliferation by inducing rapid activation of particular transcription factors called STAT1 and STAT3. This cytokine is predominantly released by activated monocytes, macrophages and T helper 2 (Th2) cells[5] and acts on non-haematopoietic tissues such as skin, lung and reproductive tissues. IL-24 performs important roles in wound healing, arthritis, psoriasis and cancer.[6][7][8] Several studies have shown that cell death occurs in cancer cells/cell lines following exposure to IL-24.[9][10] The gene for IL-24 is located on chromosome 1 in humans.[11] ...
... as well as chemokine and cytokine production, and expression of adhesion molecules such as E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. This ...
positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • regulation of insulin secretion. • extrinsic apoptotic signaling ... Copeland KF (2006). "Modulation of HIV-1 transcription by cytokines and chemokines". Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry. 5 (12 ...
C-X-C chemokine receptor activity. • interleukin-8 binding. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. • chemokine receptor ... This name and the corresponding gene symbol IL8RA have been replaced by the HGNC approved name C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 1 ... "Chemokine Receptors: CXCR1". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... chemokine-mediated signaling pathway. • interleukin-8-mediated signaling pathway. • neutrophil degranulation. • chemotaxis. ...
The potent antimicrobial chemokine CCL20 was investigated and compared with chemokines CCL2, CXCL1, CXCL8, and CCL27 and ... Secretion of the antimicrobial chemokine CCL20 was clearly IL-1α independent. These results indicate that salivary peptides can ... Saliva-Derived Host Defense Peptides Histatin1 and LL-37 Increase Secretion of Antimicrobial Skin and Oral Mucosa Chemokine ... CCL20 in an IL-1α-Independent Manner Journal. Journal of Immunology Research. Volume. 2017. Article number. 3078194. Number of ...
CCL20 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 [ Homo sapiens ]. Synonyms:. CCL20; chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20; CKb4; LARC; MIP-3- ... Recombinant Mouse Chemokine (C-C motif) Ligand 20. Download Datasheet See All CCL20 Products. Bring this labeled protein ... CCL-20 holdes antibacterial activity e.coli atcc 25922 and s.aureus atcc 29213. CCL-20 gene transcription is activated by H. ... MIP-3 alpha is invloved in chemokine-mediated lymphocyte trafficking during gastric inflammation in Helicobacter infection. CCL ...
Although, CCL20 expression was observed in spleen and thymus after 24h of TBI, it was not expressed in degenerating cortex or ... Analysis of spleen mRNA by PCR microarray of an inflammation panel led to the identification of CCL20 as an important pro- ... Splenectomy partially but significantly decreased the CCL20 expression in brain tissues. These results demonstrate that the ... or thymus-derived CCL20 might play a role in promoting neuronal injury and central nervous system inflammation in response to ...
C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 20, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The ... GeneCards Summary for CCL20 Gene CCL20 (C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 20) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CCL20 ... Aliases for CCL20 Gene Aliases for CCL20 Gene. * C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 20 2 3 5 ... Publications for CCL20 Gene * Genomic organization of the CC chemokine mip-3alpha/CCL20/larc/ exodus/SCYA20, showing gene ...
2000). "Regulation of CCR6 chemokine receptor expression and responsiveness to macrophage inflammatory protein-3alpha/CCL20 in ... chemokine receptor activity. • receptor activity. • protein binding. • C-C chemokine receptor activity. • C-C chemokine binding ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene.[5] CCR6 ... 2002). "The structure of human macrophage inflammatory protein-3alpha /CCL20. Linking antimicrobial and CC chemokine receptor-6 ...
Measurement of cytokines and chemokines.. Mouse IL-17 and CCL20 were measured by ELISA using Quantikine M (R&D Systems), with a ... CCL20 production by inflamed synoviocytes and Th17 cells. CCL20 is so far known to be the sole ligand for CCR6 and able to ... We show in this report that Th17 cells predominantly express CC chemokine receptor (CCR) 6 and produce its ligand, CCL20. ... Production of IL-17 and CCL20 in RA joints. (A and B) The concentrations of IL-17 and CCL20 in synovial fluid from RA or OA ...
In this study, we show that Trim32 activates, and Piasy inhibits, keratinocyte production of CC chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20), a ... As CCL20 is activated by Th17 cytokines, the upregulation of CCL20 production by Trim32 provides a positive feedback loop of ... Further, Trim32/Piasy regulation of CCL20 is mediated through Piasy interaction with the RelA/p65 subunit of NF-kappaB. ... psoriatic chemokine essential for recruitment of DCs and T helper (Th)17 cells to the skin. ...
This review will focus on recent murine and human studies that use chemokines as therapeutic anti-cancer vaccine adjuvants. ... Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing ... This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential ... was genetically fused to chemokines CCL7, CXCL10 [54] and CCL20 [53]. Immunization with chemokine-sFv protein elicited a T-cell ...
3. CC Chemokines and Thyroid Hormone Analogues. 3.1. CCL20. Among the homeostatic chemokines in the CNS that contribute to ... 5. C Chemokines. The C chemokines are XCL1 (lymphotactin-α) and XCL2 (lymphotactin-β). The single receptor to which these ... Tetrac also affects expression of the genes for other CNS-relevant chemokines, including CCL20, CCL26, CXCL2, CXCL3, and CXCL10 ... 4. CXC Chemokines and Thyroid Hormone Analogues. 4.1. CXCL2. A product of microglia, chemokine CXCL2 has important chemotactic ...
Higher circulating levels of chemokines CXCL10, CCL20 and CCL22 in patients with ischemic heart disease.. Safa A1, Rashidinejad ... CCL20 and CCL22 were associated with IHD. The serum levels of chemokines may influence by the certain traditional risk factors ... The mean serum concentrations of CXCL10, CCL20 and CCL22 in AMI patients (395.97±21.20Pg/mL, 108.38±10.31Pg/mL and 1852.58± ... Serum samples from all participants were tested for the CXCL10, CCL20 and CCL22 levels by using ELISA. The SNPs were determined ...
Background The chemokine CCL20 and its receptor CCR6 are putative medication targets in inflammatory bowel disease, and CCL20 ... CCL20 is usually a C-C-L chemokine made up of the four characteristic cysteine residues with a well-conserved comparative ... The chemokine CCL20 is certainly of particular curiosity in IBD, credited to its function in framing tum defenses [7, 8]. ... Background The chemokine CCL20 and its receptor CCR6 are putative medication. January 8, 2018 ...
Structural basis for chemokine receptor CCR6 activation by the endogenous protein ligand CCL20.. Wasilko, D.J., Johnson, Z.L., ... Cryo-EM structure of the human chemokine receptor CCR6 in complex with CCL20 and a Go protein. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb6WWZ/pdb ... Chemokines are important protein-signaling molecules that regulate various immune responses by activating chemokine receptors ... Chemokines are important protein-signaling molecules that regulate various immune responses by activating chemokine receptors ...
Cyto/chemokine profile of in vitro scratched keratinocyte model: Implications of significant upregulation of CCL20, CXCL8 and ... T1 - Cyto/chemokine profile of in vitro scratched keratinocyte model. T2 - Implications of significant upregulation of CCL20, ... Cyto/chemokine profile of in vitro scratched keratinocyte model: Implications of significant upregulation of CCL20, CXCL8 and ... Cyto/chemokine profile of in vitro scratched keratinocyte model : Implications of significant upregulation of CCL20, CXCL8 and ...
Chemokines are essential for homeostasis and activation of the immune system. The chemokine ligand/receptor pairing CCL20/CCR6 ... and CCL20(3-70) strongly induced migration of lymphocytes with an order of potency of CCL20 , CCL20(2-70) , CCL20(3-70) (data ... CCL20(A4-70), CCL20(5-70), and CCL20(6-70). C, The inhibition of CCL20-mediated chemotaxis of LPS-stimulated murine splenocytes ... Treatment of mice with chemokine antagonists or neutralizing Abs. Chemokines, chemokine antagonists, and CCR6 peptides were ...
This classification is not strict; for example, CCL20 can act also as pro-inflammatory chemokine.[2] ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20. CCL20. 4.20. 8.79. Interleukin-6 (interferon, beta 2). IL6. 4.02. 4.8. ...
E. Schutyser, S. Struyf, and J. van Damme, "The CC chemokine CCL20 and its receptor CCR6," Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews, ... Chemokine Receptors on Blood and NK-Cells. Conventional and NK-cells present in the normal PB have different CKR repertoires ( ... 3.1.2. Chemokine Receptors on Conventional NK-Cells. In contrast to NK-cells, the majority of the NK-cells are CXCR1/CXCR2− and ... and the chemokine receptors CXCR3 and/or CCR5 (Figure 2): CD16+ CCR5/CXCR3− (or simply ), CD16+/− CCR5/CXCR3+ (or simply ), and ...
Although CCL20 is its major ligand it can also act as a receptor for non-chemokine ligands such as beta-defensins (PubMed: ... Binds to CCL20 and subsequently transduces a signal by increasing the intracellular calcium ion levels (PubMed:20068036). ... The ligand-receptor pair CCL20-CCR6 is responsible for the chemotaxis of dendritic cells (DC), effector/ memory T-cells and B- ... Positively regulates sperm motility and chemotaxis via its binding to CCL20 (PubMed:23765988). ...
CCR6, the Sole Receptor for the Chemokine CCL20, Promotes Spontaneous Intestinal Tumorigenesis  Nandi, Bisweswar; Pai, ... Interactions between the inflammatory chemokine CCL20 and its receptor CCR6 have been associated with colorectal cancer growth ... and metastasis, however, a causal role for CCL20 signaling through CCR6 in promoting intestinal ... ...
CCL20_HUMAN. *Chemokine (C C motif) ligand 20. *Chemokine CC motif ligand 20 ... Abcams MIP3a (CCL20) Human ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) kit is an in vitro enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for ... Get results in 90 minutes with Human MIP3a ELISA Kit (CCL20) (ab178015) from our SimpleStep ELISA® range. ... Human MIP3a ELISA Kit (CCL20). See all Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 3 alpha kits. ...
... and dendritic cells is thought to create inflammatory and pro-proliferative circuits mediated by chemokines and cytokines. ... In particular, keratinocytes respond to IL-17 producing chemokines (CCL20, CXCL-1, -3, -5, CXCL-8, CCL20), AMPs [i.e., LCN2, ... CC chemokine ligands; CCR: C-C chemokine receptor; CXCL: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand; CXCR: C-X-C motif chemokine receptor; ... CC chemokine ligands; CCR: C-C chemokine receptor; CXCL: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand; CXCR: C-X-C motif chemokine receptor; ...
This study is the first to demonstrate that a commensal strain can attenuate CCL20 secretion in HT-29 IECs. Collectively, the ... Background: Human intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) secrete the chemokine CCL20 in response to infection by various ... and CCL20 levels were measured after 6 hr. B. infantis caused a dose-dependent inhibition of baseline CCL20 secretion by ... induced CCL20 secretion. The data are expressed as per cent of pathogen-induced CCL20 secretion and represent the mean ± ...
Schutyser, E., Struyf, S., and Van Damme, J. (2003). The CC chemokine CCL20 and its receptor CCR6. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. ... FIGURE 2. Chemokine receptor expression of CD161+ CD4+ T cells in healthy donor blood. Healthy donor blood was stained as ... Additionally there appear to be many other cytokines and chemokines which may be co-secreted with IFN-γ or IL-22 by the CD161+ ... We found co-expression of CCR6 (45%), as well as CCR2 (30%; Figures 2A,D). We noted high expression of CXCR3, a chemokine ...
CCL20. C-C motif chemokine ligand 20. CCN1. Cyclin A2. CCN1. Cysteine rich angiogenic inducer 61 ...
Chemokines and their receptors play essential roles in immunology during inflammation and in homeostasis. ... Chemokines are a class of secreted molecules that induce chemotaxis (migration) of target cells. ... CCL20. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. a. b. b. b. b. ... Chemokine Receptor Biology poster. Order your copy of our ... Chemokines are also involved in the orchestration of wound healing.. For more information on inflammatory chemokines, see the ...
  • This report shows that interleukin (IL) 17-producing T helper type 17 (Th17) cells predominantly express CC chemokine receptor (CCR) 6 in an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). (rupress.org)
  • Diabetes in vivo and in high glucose conditions in vitro enhanced expression of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (CCL20) and interleukin-36γ (IL-36γ) in a Foxo1-dependent manner. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Transforming Growth Factor-ß and Interleukin-1ß Signaling Pathways Converge on the Chemokine CCL20 Promoter. (ucsf.edu)
  • TLR3 pleasure activated upregulation and discharge of CCL20 from HT29 Desmopressin supplier cells potently, and silencing decreased CCL20 proteins and mRNA amounts. (healthcarecoremeasures.com)
  • Results: Among the 18 molecules, the scratch injury on a confluent keratinocyte sheet significantly and selectively upregulated the mRNA expression of four cyto/chemokines, CXCL8, CCL20, IL36G, and TNF, in a scratch-line-number-dependent manner under either low- or high-calcium condition. (elsevier.com)
  • Experiment three characterized the swine CCL20 mRNA sequence and evaluated tissue expression. (k-state.edu)
  • All healthy tissues expressed CCL20 mRNA. (k-state.edu)
  • The chemokine products of these genes are important to vascularity of the brain, particularly of the choroid plexus, to inflammatory processes in the CNS and, in certain cases, to neuroprotection. (hindawi.com)
  • These mediators in turn stimulated or repressed the expression of genes encoding acute phase proteins (APP), collectins, complement components, chemokines, cell adhesion molecules and key metabolic enzymes during the APR. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is a chemokine relevant to inflammatory processes in the CNS that are microglia-dependent but also important to normal brain development. (hindawi.com)
  • While a function of chemokines is to regulate lymphocyte trafficking, the view that chemokines act simply as "chemotactic cytokines" has evolved to include the many critical roles they play in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses. (mdpi.com)