A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.
A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.
Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.
Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.
CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.
A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.
A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.
Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.
A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.
Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.
An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The process which spontaneously arrests the flow of BLOOD from vessels carrying blood under pressure. It is accomplished by contraction of the vessels, adhesion and aggregation of formed blood elements (eg. ERYTHROCYTE AGGREGATION), and the process of BLOOD COAGULATION.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.
A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Congenital or acquired cysts of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges which may remain stable in size or undergo progressive enlargement.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.
CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.
Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.
Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.
The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.
Neutrons, the energy of which exceeds some arbitrary level, usually around one million electron volts.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.

Expression and cellular localization of the CC chemokines PARC and ELC in human atherosclerotic plaques. (1/275)

Local immune responses are thought to play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. Histological studies have shown that human atherosclerotic lesions contain T lymphocytes throughout all stages of development, many of which are in an activated state. A number of novel CC chemokines have been described recently, which are potent chemoattractants for lymphocytes: PARC (pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine), ELC (EBI1-ligand chemokine), LARC (liver and activation-regulated chemokine), and SLC (secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine). Using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization, we have found gene expression for PARC and ELC but not for LARC or SLC in human atherosclerotic plaques. Immunohistochemical staining of serial plaque sections with specific cell markers revealed highly different expression patterns of PARC and ELC. PARC mRNA was restricted to CD68+ macrophages (n = 14 of 18), whereas ELC mRNA was widely expressed by macrophages and intimal smooth muscle cells (SMC) in nearly all of the lesions examined (n = 12 of 14). ELC mRNA was also found to be expressed in the medial SMC wall of highly calcified plaques (n = 4). Very low levels of ELC mRNA expression could also be detected in normal mammary arteries but no mRNA expression for PARC was detected in these vessels (n = 4). In vitro, ELC mRNA was found to be up-regulated in aortic SMC stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-a and interferon-gamma but not in SMC stimulated with serum. Both PARC and ELC mRNA were expressed by monocyte-derived macrophages but not monocytes. The expression patterns of PARC and ELC mRNA in human atherosclerotic lesions suggest a potential role for these two recently described CC chemokines in attracting T lymphocytes into atherosclerotic lesions.  (+info)

Cutting edge: immature dendritic cells generated from monocytes in the presence of TGF-beta 1 express functional C-C chemokine receptor 6. (2/275)

Although CD34+ progenitor-derived immature dendritic cells (DCs) express CCR6, several recent studies reported that monocyte-derived immature DCs do not do so. We observed that DCs generated from monocytes in the presence of GM-CSF, IL-4, and TGF-beta 1 consistently responded to liver and activation-regulated chemokine (LARC, also known as macrophage inflammatory protein-3 alpha). These immature DCs expressed one class of high-affinity binding sites for LARC, and expressed both CCR6 mRNA and protein. Therefore, LARC-CCR6 interaction presumably also contributes to the regulation of trafficking of monocyte-derived DCs, and utilization of TGF-beta can potentially provide a ready source of CCR6+ monocyte-derived DCs for therapeutic purposes.  (+info)

Beta-defensins: linking innate and adaptive immunity through dendritic and T cell CCR6. (3/275)

Defensins contribute to host defense by disrupting the cytoplasmic membrane of microorganisms. This report shows that human beta-defensins are also chemotactic for immature dendritic cells and memory T cells. Human beta-defensin was selectively chemotactic for cells stably transfected to express human CCR6, a chemokine receptor preferentially expressed by immature dendritic cells and memory T cells. The beta-defensin-induced chemotaxis was sensitive to pertussis toxin and inhibited by antibodies to CCR6. The binding of iodinated LARC, the chemokine ligand for CCR6, to CCR6-transfected cells was competitively displaced by beta-defensin. Thus, beta-defensins may promote adaptive immune responses by recruiting dendritic and T cells to the site of microbial invasion through interaction with CCR6.  (+info)

MIP-3alpha induces human eosinophil migration and activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (p42/p44 MAPK). (4/275)

The CC chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein-3alpha (MIP-3alpha) is the product of recent electronic cloning efforts, however, little characterization of its spectrum of biological effects has been undertaken. Human eosinophils exhibited pertussis-toxin-sensitive migration in response to human recombinant (hr)MIP-3alpha. Messenger RNA for the MIP-3alpha receptor, CCR-6, and low levels of surface expression were demonstrated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and FACS analysis. Analyses of cell signaling revealed dose-dependent increases in intracellular calcium mobilization, calcium transients that were, however, greatly reduced when compared with MCP-3-induced responses. Further investigations of MIP-3alpha-induced signal transduction revealed time- and dose-dependent, partially pertussis toxin-dependent, increases in phosphorylation of the p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) that occurred at 10- to 100-fold lower concentrations, and that were linked to a phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway. These results suggest that MIP-3alpha can regulate multiple, parallel signal transduction pathways in eosinophils, and suggest that MAPK activation by MIP-3alpha in eosinophils is a significant signaling pathway for migration induction.  (+info)

In breast carcinoma tissue, immature dendritic cells reside within the tumor, whereas mature dendritic cells are located in peritumoral areas. (5/275)

We have analyzed the presence of immature and mature dendritic cells (DCs) within adenocarcinoma of the breast using immunohistochemistry. Immature DCs were defined by expression of CD1a-, Langerin-, and intracellular major histocompatibility complex class II-rich vesicles. Mature DCs were defined by expression of CD83 and DC-Lamp. Breast carcinoma cells were defined by morphology and/or cytokeratin expression. We demonstrate two levels of heterogeneity of DCs infiltrating breast carcinoma tissue: (a) immature CD1a(+) DCs, mostly of the Langerhans cell type (Langerin(+)), were retained within the tumor bed in 32/32 samples and (b) mature DCs, CD83(+)DC-Lamp(+), present in 20/32 samples, are confined to peritumoral areas. The high numbers of immature DCs found in the tumor may be best explained by high levels of macrophage inflammatory protein 3alpha expression by virtually all tumor cells. Confirming the immature/mature DC compartmentalization pattern, in vitro-generated immature DCs adhere to the tumor cells, whereas mature DCs adhere selectively to peritumoral areas. In some cases, T cells are clustering around the mature DCs in peritumoral areas, thus resembling the DC-T cell clusters of secondary lymphoid organs, which are characteristic of ongoing immune reactions.  (+info)

Down-regulation of the beta-chemokine receptor CCR6 in dendritic cells mediated by TNF-alpha and IL-4. (6/275)

Chemokines are involved in the control of dendritic cell (DC) trafficking, which is critical for the immune response. We have generated DC from human umbilical cord blood CD34+ progenitors cultured with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and stem cell factor. Using an anti-CCR6 monoclonal antibody, we observed that these cells showed maximum expression of this beta-chemokine receptor when they were immature, as determined by their relatively low expression of several DC maturation markers such as CD1a, CD11c, CD14, CD40, CD80, and CD83. Immature DC responded strongly to macrophage inflammatory protein-3alpha (MIP-3alpha), the CCR6 ligand, in migration and calcium mobilization assays. CCR6 expression decreased in parallel with the DC maturation induced by prolonged TNF-alphaq treatments. Interleukin-4 was also able to decrease CCR6 protein levels. Our findings suggest that the MIP-3alpha/CCR6 interaction plays an important role in the trafficking of immature DC to chemokine production sites such as injured or inflamed peripheral tissues, where DC undergo maturation on contact with antigens.  (+info)

Macrophage inflammatory protein 3alpha is involved in the constitutive trafficking of epidermal langerhans cells. (7/275)

Certain types of dendritic cells (DCs) appear in inflammatory lesions of various etiologies, whereas other DCs, e.g., Langerhans cells (LCs), populate peripheral organs constitutively. Until now, the molecular mechanism behind such differential behavior has not been elucidated. Here, we show that CD1a(+) LC precursors respond selectively and specifically to the CC chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-3alpha. In contrast, CD14(+) precursors of DC and monocytes are not attracted by MIP-3alpha. LCs lose the migratory responsiveness to MIP-3alpha during their maturation, and non-LC DCs do not acquire MIP-3alpha sensitivity. The notion that MIP-3alpha may be responsible for selective LC recruitment into the epidermis is further supported by the following observations: (a) MIP-3alpha is expressed by keratinocytes and venular endothelial cells in clinically normal appearing human skin; (b) LCs express CC chemokine receptor (CCR)6, the sole MIP-3alpha receptor both in situ and in vitro; and (c) non-LC DCs that are not found in normal epidermis lack CCR6. The mature forms of LCs and non-LC DCs display comparable sensitivity for MIP-3beta, a CCR7 ligand, suggesting that DC subtype-specific chemokine responses are restricted to the committed precursor stage. Although LC precursors express primarily CCR6, non-LC DC precursors display a broad chemokine receptor repertoire. These findings reflect a scenario where the differential expression of chemokine receptors by two different subpopulations of DCs determines their functional behavior. One type, the LC, responds to MIP-3alpha and enters skin to screen the epidermis constitutively, whereas the other type, the "inflammatory" DC, migrates in response to a wide array of different chemokines and is involved in the amplification and modulation of the inflammatory tissue response.  (+info)

The exodus subfamily of CC chemokines inhibits the proliferation of chronic myelogenous leukemia progenitors. (8/275)

Chemokines are a family of related proteins that regulate leukocyte infiltration into inflamed tissue and play important roles in disease processes. Among the biologic activities of chemokines is inhibition of proliferation of normal hematopoietic progenitors. However, chemokines that inhibit normal progenitors rarely inhibit proliferation of hematopoietic progenitors from patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). We and others recently cloned a subfamily of CC chemokines that share similar amino-terminal peptide sequences and a remarkable ability to chemoattract T cells. These chemokines, Exodus-1/LARC/MIP-3alpha, Exodus-2/SLC/6Ckine/TCA4, and Exodus-3/CKbeta11/MIP-3beta, were found to inhibit proliferation of normal human marrow progenitors. The study described here found that these chemokines also inhibited the proliferation of progenitors in every sample of marrow from patients with CML that was tested. This demonstration of consistent inhibition of CML progenitor proliferation makes the 3 Exodus chemokines unique among chemokines. (Blood. 2000;95:1506-1508)  (+info)

What is the definition of EXODUS? What is the meaning of EXODUS? How do you use EXODUS in a sentence? What are synonyms for EXODUS?
The utopian Luton based Exodus Collective has met with powerful opposition. This film investigates the intricate web of this opposition and identifies a number of interlocking interests at play.. The Luton based Exodus Collective came into existence in 1992 as part of the growing DIY culture which arose in response to unemployment, poverty and frustration amongst young people.. They organised free rave parties, renovated derelict homes, set up a community farm and now plan to open a community centre.Some of their activities border on illegality but they are entirely peaceful Exodus has a huge following amongst local people.. Their philosophy has a strong spiritual strand, appealing to notions of community and natural justice in its struggle for survival and renewal. However, their utopian project presents a challenge to the status quo and has met with powerful opposition.. Exodus from Babylon investigates the intricate web of this opposition, from aggressive policing to local government ...
Compare HTC Exodus 1s vs Huawei Honor 8X Max by features & Prices online to choose the best HTC Exodus 1s vs Huawei Honor 8X Max for yourself. Compare latest HTC Exodus 1s vs Huawei Honor 8X Max and get the lowest price online. Check top HTC Exodus 1s vs Huawei Honor 8X Max comparisons on 24th September 2021
August 22, 2021. A Place of Help :: Exodus - week 14 August 15, 2021. Gods People Fight :: Exodus - week 13 August 8, 2021. Meeting Grumbling with Grace :: Exodus - week 12 ...
Its an Epic post-apocalyptic GPU Exodus The Guru of 3D took over two dozen cards on the Metro, with a focus on the DX12 render path with DX-R support which
9780806143705 Our cheapest price for The Northern Cheyenne Exodus in History and Memory is $10.96. Free shipping on all orders over $35.00.
Chapter five of the book of Exodus, we left Moses in great despair. He did what he thought God was calling him to do. He went to the Pharaoh and demanded the
EXODUS and SLAYER guitarist Gary Holt has opened up about his decision to quit drinking alcohol. The 57-year-old musician, who resides in Northern...
On all guided trips. Although our leaders are well trained to deal with different capabilities, if they have any concerns about someones ability to safely partake in an activity, or their impact on other peoples enjoyment, we authorise them to take necessary action which, in some circumstances, may involve asking someone to miss that activity.. Although rarely enforced, by booking this trip you agree to section 14 of our Booking Conditions which clearly states that our leaders have the authority to do this. In these circumstances we will ensure anyone sitting out is safely provided for and offered alternative options where possible. Refunds will not be provided for activities missed and customers may be liable for additional costs incurred.. On all trips. In booking this trip you should be confident in your ability to participate in all activities described in these Trip Notes. If you have any doubt about your suitability you should call the Exodus office and ask to speak to one of the experts ...
2017-11-24 - Accra Hearts of Oak defender, Inusah Musah, says the current player exodus which has hit the club will have no significant negative effect on their performance next season, tagging the situation as a regular phenomenon.
Exodus Cry exists to break the cycle of commercial sexual exploitation and help those who have been sold for sex, because every person should be free. Learn ...
Important Note Regarding Shipping Rates. Please note that modifications to our shipping are still underway. Some will quote high and we, as always, will adjust accordingly prior to charging your card. If you have any questions or concerns, please feel free to call the office at (877) 396-3874. Also please note that if you use a debit card, you may see a pending charge in your bank account, which is simply a temporary hold to ensure funds are available. This will disappear once the transaction amount is adjusted and processed on your card. Thank you for your patience through this system transition. ...
Important Note Regarding Shipping Rates. Please note that modifications to our shipping are still underway. Some will quote high and we, as always, will adjust accordingly prior to charging your card. If you have any questions or concerns, please feel free to call the office at (877) 396-3874. Also please note that if you use a debit card, you may see a pending charge in your bank account, which is simply a temporary hold to ensure funds are available. This will disappear once the transaction amount is adjusted and processed on your card. Thank you for your patience through this system transition. ...
I recently had a parasitic resonance develop in my door panel so I took it off to address the issue. The Anarchy is a pretty potent driver. One thing Ive noticed lately
The Bantu Israelites continued from PART I In order to further our understanding of the Bantu Israelites presences in Africa we must go back to the time of the Exodus, and even a bit before that. During the times preceding the Exodus of the Israelites under Moses, history records other smaller exodus. As a…
Working Preacher is a ministry brought to you by Luther Seminary. The Working Preacher team believes that God uses good biblical preaching to change lives. We have enlisted hundreds of friends -- biblical scholars, theologians, homileticians and pastors dedicated to the craft of biblical preaching -- to provide you timely, compelling and trustworthy content.
IMPORTANT!!! IF YOURE ORDERING MORE THAN 3 ITEMS BIGCARTEL IS NOT GOOD CALCULATING SHIPPING PRICE, SO IN THAT CASE EXPECT AN EMAIL FROM ME WITHIN ...
The Bantu Israelites continued from PART I In order to further our understanding of the Bantu Israelites presences in Africa we must go back to the time of the Exodus, and even a bit before that. During the times preceding the Exodus of the Israelites under Moses, history records other smaller exodus. As a…
Meet the experts! Our staff have travelled the world and are ready to use their expertise and knowledge to ensure you get the most out of your adventure.
Helots Run Chapter 2|continued from Chapter 2 The family walked wearily|exodus but quickly south down the road. Teres kept glancing off to her right at ...
Avid Exodus Carp Rod *All Models Available * NEW Carp Fishing RodPRODUCT INFORMATION The Exodus Rod range from Avid Carp offers outstanding performance, superb quality and exceptional value for money.Exodus rods are built on a high modulus, lightweight carbon blank and finished with a 3k weave…. ...
EXODUS CHEESE CBD E-LIQUID Exodus Cheese-also known as U.K. Cheese-is a seminal hybrid of almost mystical origin. This famous cannabis strain is rumoured to have originated with southern British breeders of the late 20th century, desired by enthusiasts for its distinctive cured cheese flavour. The characteristic terpen
We go way back with Will and Dave, the creators of Mr. Pickles. They come from Richmond, VA as well and even shot our first music video for Unleash the Bastards. Weve remained good friends throughout all our endeavors and when they asked us to be part of this tour there was no hesitation on our part. The icing on the cake was when Exodus came on board. Were no stranger to touring with these maniacs and weve shared some wild times on the road over the years (at least from what I can remember!) Its gonna be one helluva trip, hitting the US club circuit with our brothers in Exodus and seeing our old friends along the way. ...
Read Exodus 10 commentary using John Gills Exposition of the Bible. Study the bible online using commentary on Exodus 10 and more!
And that about wraps it up! It only took three years, but we made it all the way through the book of Genesis. Thanks for joining us for the ride. So when do we start on Exodus? Well, theres good […] ↓ Read the rest of this entry…. ...
Read more about Rohingya exodus to Bangladesh reaches 389,000: UN on Business Standard. The number of Muslim Rohingya who have crossed into Bangladesh to escape ethnic unrest in Myanmar since August 25 hit 389,000 today, a UN spokesman said. The figure rose 10,000 in 24 hours, indicating the Rohingya crisis remains acute. UN refugee
Metro Exodus is coming to Xbox Series X | S on June 18, boasting a massive graphical upgrade to harness the power of this generation. Offering Ray Tracing...
Exodus 8: Ch 7:26 in Hebrew Then the Lord said to Moses, Go in to Pharaoh and say to him, 'Thus says the Lord, Let my people go, that they may serve me.
Explore similar Bible verses on Exodus 14:10 in English Standard Version - When Pharaoh drew near, the people of Israel lifted up their ...
For seven days no yeast is to be found in your houses. And anyone, whether foreigner or native-born, who eats anything with yeast in it must be cut
And it happened in the evening: the quail came up and covered the camp. And in the morning a layer of dew was around the camp. LITV Exodus 16:13
A mystery fever that has claimed more than hundred lives in past four weeks in Kanpur, is forcing mass exodus from the villages in its vicinity.
Weve already teased you with a few preview pictures of the mighty triumvirate of Slayer, Exodus, and Suicidal Tendencies giving true metalheads of all ages a night to remember as they shook the very foundation of The Palladium in Worcester, MA. And now, as promised, here are even more photos from FW photog Craig Lindberg of the Nov. 28 show that reinforced what we all already knew ~ theres no stopping or even slowing down authentic, legendary metal or thrash …it will always rule!. ...
Exodus 8:17 - And they did so; for Aaron stretched out his hand with his rod, and smote the dust of the earth, and it became lice in man, and in beast; all the dust of the land became lice throughout all the land of Egypt.
Exodus offer a wide range of adventure, activity and walking and cycling holidays to Thailand. Thailand has a well-established tourist industry concentrated in Bangkok and the lively coastal resorts.
It starts with a daring escape from a zombie-infested city; it ends at Zombie Exodus, when a horde of zombies swarms outlying settlements like locusts.
Exodus offer a wide range of adventure, activity and walking and cycling holidays to Thailand. Thailand has a well-established tourist industry concentrated in Bangkok and the lively coastal resorts.
Exodus 16:13 And it came to pass in the evening, that quails came up, and covered the camp; and in the morning the dew lay round the camp. Read verse in The Darby Translation
Exodus--Hey kids! Its a flying elf--kill it with fire! No, really, Exodus was . . .well, Im not sure what the hell Exodus was supposed to be. The first harbinger of those moments when the X-Office would think up stuff and jam it into the books without thinking it through completely, Exodus came at the tail end of a whole bunch of new X-Men villains who were built up as huge threats despite being neither effective nor charismatic (Fabian Cortez! Trevor Fitzroy! Sienna Blaze! The Soul Skinner!) or ones that clumsily had X somewhere in the title (X-Cutioner, X-Treme, and some others. No X-Pialidocious, though.) Exodus was set up to be Magnetos right hand man and in service of that was given a ridiculous costume (seriously, whats up with the shoulder hooks?) an utterly inscrutable power set (basically whatever the plot demands) and one of the most batshit insane origin stories ever: He was a knight from 1000 years ago who fought the Black Knight and went into a coma and look at the time: ...
Modern humans left Africa over 60,000 years ago in a migration that many believe was responsible for nearly all of the human population that exist outside Africa today.
Complete-A-Sketch Volume 3 is another progression in the series. Although it builds on skills learned in Volumes 1 & 2 , neither need to be completed to learn from and enjoy this book. The primary focus of this volume is perspective , or three-dimensional art, of the most realistic variety. Perspective line art is used primarily by people in architectural and art fields. Like Volumes 1 & 2, the lessons start with the most basic shapes, cubes, cylinders, one point perspective and two point perspectives, etc.
After years of money flowing in, in the past year the trend has been reversing: cash is beginning to flow out of China. The Wall Street Journal estimates that $225 billion left China in the 12 months leading up to September.
Grinding Mill In Sialkot Grinding mills karachi in karachi perkinspreschool here you get reasonable mixer and grinder price in karachi lahore islamabad sialkot west point blender dry mill 2 in 1 wf7181 black color contact us profiling pakistans milling industry world grain oct 27 2014 with the exception of some karachi mills the 1200 commercial mills or twothirds of a mills variable grinding costs not. More Details ...
This is a different version of Mafia in which every player will have a role. This means if you sign up you should be online everyday to participate. It sucks when we have to wait for one player to submit an action. Basic Mafia rules apply. To join just post saying you want to play. Heres a link to the first game of this series Pokemon Mafia Genesis Heres a link to my most successful mafia game The Official Pokemon Mafia Thread
To all those asking if they should homeschool their preschoolers, Susan Lemons answers with a resounding, Yes! Is there anyone who shouldn't try to homeschool? Not according to Lemons, since God created children to learn at home from their parents, and not at institutions from experts. This is the age of the expert, Lemons points out, and what has it got us? Children with more developmental, emotional, and learning challenges than ever before.
This trek spends a few days deep in the bewildering majesty of the Cordillera Vilcabamba before joining the classic Inca Trail for the approach to Machu Picchu. This high route skirts many of the great peaks and passes close to Mt. Salcantay (6271m) and its creaking glaciers. The trek continues through remote villages and crosses the spectacular Inca Chiriasqa Pass. It finishes by exploring the Inca temples and fortresses of Cuzco and the Sacred Valley.
Racial disparities are rampant with regards to loans that are accessing credit and banking systems. “Our staff person literally goes down seriously to the cash advance workplace and takes care of the loan,” Brelje stated. When Exodus takes care of their loan, then individuals are in possession of that loan with Exodus, where they usually […]. ...
Apr 11, 2018· Rock type coltanore processing,the flowchart can be as below: Feeding-> crushing->grinding->primary separation -> final concentration-> upgrading . The feeding, primary separation, final concentration andupgrading processare almost the same as above alluvial coltanprocess.Below are the crushing and grinding stage description:
Quotes are not sourced from all markets and may be delayed up to 20 minutes. Information is provided as is and solely for informational purposes, not for trading purposes or advice.Disclaimer ...
Millions of Americans are expected to shrug off record Labor Day gasoline prices and take to the roads this weekend to enjoy the traditional last gasp of...
Dateline: First day of Nissan, one year after the Exodus - the 8th day of Tabernacle dedication. Place: Sinai Desert. Scene: After...
Exodus of young people! Retail apocalypse! We hear phrases like this all the time, but are they real? How can we tell? Our guest speaker, CT Data Collaboratives Rachel Leventhal-Weiner, will help CMSC Network members expand their data literacy, critically assess data and collect information that will help create a compelling case for Main Street
[PDF] Read ✐ Staged : by Olivia Cunning - Staged, Staged The world is his stage Exodus End s legendary drummer Steve Aimes plays the role of a rock star better than anyone in the business Since his divorce he s embraced every rock n roll stereotype and u
Global equities funds led the exodus last year with net redemptions of $79.4 billion. Money market funds proved cash was king and ended the year with $455.4 billion in net inflows.
I find myself confused between what I read in the press and my personal experience. One example is the exodus of manufacturing from China to North
The second chapter of Exodus contains an all-too-familiar story. Our hero, taken from his rightful home grows up in the house of his enemy. Once he discovers who he truly is, he protects his people at incredible cost. Upon fleeing the situation, he finds peace in a place truly foreign to him. As he grows…
Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Genome Research Limited (reg no. 2742969) is a charity registered in England with number 1021457 , Legal , Cookie Policy , Data Sharing Unless otherwise stated the content of this website is copyright Genome Research Limited, licenced under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. URI: ; retrieved at 12.25 am, 11th December 2017. ...
... and chemokine CCL20. The actual recognition of microbial patterns takes place in the secretory and ciliated cells via Toll-like ...
There are two chemokines in the MIP-3 group. MIP-3α (CCL20) and MIP-3β (CCL19). MIP-3α is binding to receptor CCR6. CCL20 is ... Chemokine Czaplewski LG, McKeating J, Craven CJ, Higgins LD, Appay V, Brown A, et al. (June 1999). "Identification of amino ... MIP-2 belongs to the CXC chemokine family, is named CXCL2 and acts through binding of CXCR1 and CXCR2. It is produced mainly by ... These chemokines affect monocytes, T lymphocytes, dendritic cells, NK cells and platelets. They, too, activate human ...
The highly express genes in both disorders include: 1) CCL20, a chemokine that is a chemoattractant for lymphocytes and 2) ... and 3) C-C chemokine receptor type 6, which is the lymphocyte receptor for CCL20. Working together, these genomic abnormalities ... CCL20, MAdCAM-1, or C-C chemokine receptor type 6. MALT lymphoma differs from DFL by having: lesions which commonly lie in the ...
As a result, the intestinal epithelial cells express chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20) and Beta defensin 3. CCL20 and Beta-defensin 3 ...
They include the chemokine CCL20, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), specific odorants, natriuretic peptide type C (NPPC), and ... A role for the chemokine receptor CCR6 in mammalian sperm motility and chemotaxis. J. Cell. Physiol. 229, 68-78. Zamir, N., ...
They include the chemokine CCL20, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), specific odorants, natriuretic peptide type C (NPPC), and ...
2004). "Calcium triggers beta-defensin (hBD-2 and hBD-3) and chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein-3 alpha (MIP-3alpha/ ... CCL20) expression in monolayers of activated human keratinocytes". Exp. Dermatol. 12 (6): 755-60. doi:10.1111/j.0906-6705.2003. ...
... a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family that is now officially called Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (CCL20), ... The London Action Resource Centre, a social centre in London Liver and activation-regulated chemokine, ...
... which induces chemokines such as CCL2 and CCL20 independently of IRF3. STING is also thought to activate the NF-κB ...
... ravtansine Cathelicidin CC chemokine receptors CCBP2 CCL1 CCL11 CCL12 CCL13 CCL14 CCL15 CCL16 CCL17 CCL18 CCL19 CCL2 CCL20 ... Breakthrough infection Broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies Bursa of Fabricius C-C chemokine receptor type 6 C-C chemokine ... CD4 CD4+ T cells and antitumor immunity CD74 CD94/NKG2 Cell-mediated immunity CELSR1 Central tolerance Chemokine Chemokine ... CR6261 CroFab Cross-presentation Cross-reactivity Cryptic self epitopes Cryptotope CX3CL1 CX3CR1 CXC chemokine receptors CXCL1 ...
Chemokine expression in human erythroid leukemia cell line AS-E2: macrophage inflammatory protein-3alpha/CCL20 is induced by ... Chemokines, chemokine receptors and hematopoiesis. „Immunol Rev". 177, s. 150-74, Oct 2000. PMID: 11138773. ...
Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 (CXCL9) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also known as ... CCL20 and MIP-3beta/CCL19". European Journal of Immunology. 31 (7): 1981-8. doi:10.1002/1521-4141(200107)31:7. 3.0.CO;2-X. PMID ... Campbell JD, Stinson MJ, Simons FE, Rector ES, HayGlass KT (July 2001). "In vivo stability of human chemokine and chemokine ... Shields PL, Morland CM, Salmon M, Qin S, Hubscher SG, Adams DH (December 1999). "Chemokine and chemokine receptor interactions ...
... elicits its effects on its target cells by binding and activating the chemokine receptor CCR6. Gene expression of CCL20 ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (CCL20) or liver activation regulated chemokine (LARC) or Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-3 ( ... 2002). "Expression of the C-C chemokine MIP-3 alpha/CCL20 in human epidermis with impaired permeability barrier function". Exp ... 2001). "Genomic organization of the CC chemokine mip-3alpha/CCL20/larc/exodus/SCYA20, showing gene structure, splice variants, ...
This classification is not strict; for example, CCL20 can act also as pro-inflammatory chemokine. Inflammatory: these are ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines in that it has ... CCL1 for the ligand 1 of the CC-family of chemokines, and CCR1 for its respective receptor. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) ...
CCR6, a receptor for CCL20, is expressed on unactivated memory T-cells and some dendritic cells. CCR6 is also expressed on Th17 ... The CC chemokine receptors all work by activating the G protein Gi. CCR1 was the first CC chemokine receptor identified and ... CC chemokine receptors (or beta chemokine receptors) are integral membrane proteins that specifically bind and respond to ... May 1997). "Molecular cloning of a novel human CC chemokine EBI1-ligand chemokine that is a specific functional ligand for EBI1 ...
This chemokine receptor is special because it binds only one chemokine ligand CCL20 in compare to other chemokine receptors. ... Some Th17 cells migrate via chemokine gradient of CCL20 to inflammatory sites and themselves can express more CCL20 to bring in ... Frick, Vilma Oliveira; Rubie, Claudia; Keilholz, Ulrich; Ghadjar, Pirus (2016-01-14). "Chemokine/chemokine receptor pair CCL20/ ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene. CCR6 ...
February 2005). "Induction of cytokine (interleukin-1alpha and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) and chemokine (CCL20, CCL27, and ... "Entrez Gene: C-C motif chemokine ligand 27". Retrieved 2018-03-23. Morales et al. CTACK, a skin-associated chemokine that ... November 1999). "Molecular cloning of a novel CC chemokine, interleukin-11 receptor alpha-locus chemokine (ILC), which is ... C-C motif chemokine ligand 27 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCL27 gene. This gene is one of several CC cytokine ...
This classification is not strict; for example, CCL20 can act also as pro-inflammatory chemokine.[2] ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ...
2002). "Expression of the C-C chemokine MIP-3 alpha/CCL20 in human epidermis with impaired permeability barrier function.". Exp ... 2001). "Genomic organization of the CC chemokine mip-3alpha/CCL20/larc/exodus/SCYA20, showing gene structure, splice variants, ... 1997). "Molecular cloning of a novel human CC chemokine liver and activation-regulated chemokine (LARC) expressed in liver. ... 2001). "Inducible expression of a CC chemokine liver- and activation-regulated chemokine (LARC)/macrophage inflammatory protein ...
IL-17 induces the production of many other cytokines (such as IL-6, G-CSF, GM-CSF, IL-1β, TGF-β, TNF-α), chemokines (including ... New immature DCs are also recruited by CCL20 via chemotaxis where their activation restarts and amplifies the cycle of ... After binding to the receptor, IL-17 activates several signalling cascades that, in turn, lead to the induction of chemokines. ... Acting as chemoattractants, these chemokines recruit the immune cells, such as monocytes and neutrophils to the site of ...
STING may play an important role in the production of MCP-1 and CCL7 chemokines. STING deficient monocytes are intrinsically ... CCL20, etc. Several reports suggested that STING is associated with the activation of selective autophagy. Mycobacterium ...
"A tumour-promoting role of Th9 cells in hepatocellular carcinoma through CCL20 and STAT3 pathways". Clinical and Experimental ... "Characteristic cerebrospinal fluid cytokine/chemokine profiles in neuromyelitis optica, relapsing remitting or primary ...
IL-17 induces the production of many other cytokines (such as IL-6, G-CSF, GM-CSF, IL-1β, TGF-β, TNF-α), chemokines (including ... IL-8 and CCL20.[6][19][24] Increased concentration of IL-6 alters the epidermal environment by decreasing the ability of T ... lead to the induction of chemokines. Acting as chemoattractants, these chemokines recruit the immune cells, such as monocytes ... IL-17F is able to induce several cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules in bronchial epithelial cells, vein endothelial ...
CCL20 · CCL21 · CCL22 · CCL23 · CCL24 · CCL25 · CCL26 · CCL27 · CCL28 ... Chemokine. CCL. CCL1 · CCL2 · CCL3 · CCL4 · CCL5 · CCL6 · CCL7 · CCL8 · CCL9 · CCL11 · CCL12 · CCL13 · CCL14 · CCL15 · CCL16 · ...
positive regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production. • positive regulation of JUN kinase activity. • positive ... positive regulation of chemokine production. • cellular extravasation. • negative regulation of lipid storage. • negative ... positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • epithelial cell proliferation involved in salivary gland morphogenesis ...
... s are a subset of cytokines that are produced by a type of immune cell known as a lymphocyte.[1] They are protein mediators typically produced by T cells to direct the immune system response by signaling between its cells. Lymphokines have many roles, including the attraction of other immune cells, including macrophages and other lymphocytes, to an infected site and their subsequent activation to prepare them to mount an immune response. Circulating lymphocytes can detect a very small concentration of lymphokine and then move up the concentration gradient towards where the immune response is required. Lymphokines aid B cells to produce antibodies. Important lymphokines secreted by the T helper cell include:[2] ...
... binds to the death receptors DR4 (TRAIL-RI) and DR5 (TRAIL-RII). The process of apoptosis is caspase-8-dependent. Caspase-8 activates downstream effector caspases including procaspase-3, -6, and -7, leading to activation of specific kinases.[11] TRAIL also binds the receptors DcR1 and DcR2, which do not contain a cytoplasmic domain (DcR1) or contain a truncated death domain (DcR2). DcR1 functions as a TRAIL-neutralizing decoy-receptor. The cytoplasmic domain of DcR2 is functional and activates NFkappaB. In cells expressing DcR2, TRAIL binding therefore activates NFkappaB, leading to transcription of genes known to antagonize the death signaling pathway and/or to promote inflammation. Application of engineered ligands that have variable affinity for different death (DR4 and DR5) and decoy receptors (DCR1 and DCR2) may allow selective targeting of cancer cells by controlling activation of Type 1/Type 2 pathways of cell death and single cell fluctuations. Luminescent iridium complex-peptide ...
... (IL-24) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL24 gene. IL-24 is a cytokine belonging to the IL-10 family of cytokines that signals through two heterodimeric receptors: IL-20R1/IL-20R2 and IL-22R1/IL-20R2. This interleukin is also known as melanoma differentiation-associated 7 (mda-7) due to its discovery as a tumour suppressing protein. IL-24 appears to control in cell survival and proliferation by inducing rapid activation of particular transcription factors called STAT1 and STAT3. This cytokine is predominantly released by activated monocytes, macrophages and T helper 2 (Th2) cells[5] and acts on non-haematopoietic tissues such as skin, lung and reproductive tissues. IL-24 performs important roles in wound healing, arthritis, psoriasis and cancer.[6][7][8] Several studies have shown that cell death occurs in cancer cells/cell lines following exposure to IL-24.[9][10] The gene for IL-24 is located on chromosome 1 in humans.[11] ...
... as well as chemokine and cytokine production, and expression of adhesion molecules such as E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. This ...
C-X-C chemokine receptor activity. • interleukin-8 binding. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. • chemokine receptor ... This name and the corresponding gene symbol IL8RA have been replaced by the HGNC approved name C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 1 ... "Chemokine Receptors: CXCR1". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... chemokine-mediated signaling pathway. • interleukin-8-mediated signaling pathway. • neutrophil degranulation. • chemotaxis. ...
positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • regulation of insulin secretion. • extrinsic apoptotic signaling ... Copeland KF (2006). "Modulation of HIV-1 transcription by cytokines and chemokines". Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry. 5 (12 ...
... is sometimes used interchangeably among scientists with the term cytokine.[3] Historically, cytokines were associated with hematopoietic (blood and lymph forming) cells and immune system cells (e.g., lymphocytes and tissue cells from spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes). For the circulatory system and bone marrow in which cells can occur in a liquid suspension and not bound up in solid tissue, it makes sense for them to communicate by soluble, circulating protein molecules. However, as different lines of research converged, it became clear that some of the same signaling proteins which the hematopoietic and immune systems use were also being used by all sorts of other cells and tissues, during development and in the mature organism. While growth factor implies a positive effect on cell division, cytokine is a neutral term with respect to whether a molecule affects proliferation. While some cytokines can be growth factors, such as G-CSF and GM-CSF, others have an inhibitory effect on ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the interleukin 1 cytokine family. Protein structure modeling indicated that this cytokine may contain a 12-stranded beta-trefoil structure that is conserved between IL1A (IL-A alpha) and IL1B (IL-1 beta). This gene and eight other interleukin 1 family genes form a cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 2. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported.[8]. ...
chemokine activity. • cytokine activity. • heparin binding. • protein binding. • CXCR3 chemokine receptor binding. ... C-X-C motif chemokine 11 is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also called Interferon-inducible T- ... "Entrez Gene: CXCL11 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11".. *^ a b Cole KE, Strick CA, Paradis TJ, Ogborne KT, Loetscher M, Gladue ... This chemokine elicits its effects on its target cells by interacting with the cell surface chemokine receptor CXCR3, with a ...
Interferon alfa 2b is an antiviral or antineoplastic drug, that was originally discovered in the laboratory of Charles Weissmann at the University of Zurich. It was developed at Biogen, and ultimately marketed by Schering-Plough under the tradename Intron-A. It has been used for a wide range of indications, including viral infections and cancers. This drug is approved around the world for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C, chronic hepatitis B, hairy cell leukemia, Behçet's disease, chronic myelogenous leukemia, multiple myeloma, follicular lymphoma, carcinoid tumor, mastocytosis and malignant melanoma. ...
4-1BB is a type 2 transmembrane glycoprotein receptor belonging to the TNF superfamily, expressed on activated T Lymphocytes.[1] 4-1BBL (4-1BB ligand) is found on APCs (antigen presenting cells) and binds to 4-1BB. ...
Synonyms: Beta-chemokine exodus-1, C-C motif chemokine 20, CC chemokine LARC, CC chemokine ST38, Liver and activation-regulated ... Associations of Ccl20 with chemical compounds. *Effects of estradiol on lipopolysaccharide and Pam3Cys stimulation of CCL20/ ... Hypothermia upregulated the transcripts of several genes, including, chemokine ligands CCL2, CXCL2, CXCL10, and CCL20, and ... Biological context of Ccl20. *Both apical and basolateral secretion of CCL20 and TNF-alpha increased in response to PAMPs, but ...
The potent antimicrobial chemokine CCL20 was investigated and compared with chemokines CCL2, CXCL1, CXCL8, and CCL27 and ... Secretion of the antimicrobial chemokine CCL20 was clearly IL-1α independent. These results indicate that salivary peptides can ... Saliva-Derived Host Defense Peptides Histatin1 and LL-37 Increase Secretion of Antimicrobial Skin and Oral Mucosa Chemokine ... CCL20 in an IL-1α-Independent Manner Journal. Journal of Immunology Research. Volume. 2017. Article number. 3078194. Number of ...
CCL20 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 [ Homo sapiens ]. Synonyms:. CCL20; chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20; CKb4; LARC; MIP-3- ... Recombinant Mouse Chemokine (C-C motif) Ligand 20. Download Datasheet See All CCL20 Products. Bring this labeled protein ... CCL-20 holdes antibacterial activity e.coli atcc 25922 and s.aureus atcc 29213. CCL-20 gene transcription is activated by H. ... MIP-3 alpha is invloved in chemokine-mediated lymphocyte trafficking during gastric inflammation in Helicobacter infection. CCL ...
Although, CCL20 expression was observed in spleen and thymus after 24h of TBI, it was not expressed in degenerating cortex or ... Analysis of spleen mRNA by PCR microarray of an inflammation panel led to the identification of CCL20 as an important pro- ... Splenectomy partially but significantly decreased the CCL20 expression in brain tissues. These results demonstrate that the ... or thymus-derived CCL20 might play a role in promoting neuronal injury and central nervous system inflammation in response to ...
2000). "Regulation of CCR6 chemokine receptor expression and responsiveness to macrophage inflammatory protein-3alpha/CCL20 in ... chemokine receptor activity. • receptor activity. • protein binding. • C-C chemokine receptor activity. • C-C chemokine binding ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene.[5] CCR6 ... 2002). "The structure of human macrophage inflammatory protein-3alpha /CCL20. Linking antimicrobial and CC chemokine receptor-6 ...
C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 20, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The ... GeneCards Summary for CCL20 Gene CCL20 (C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 20) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CCL20 ... Aliases for CCL20 Gene Aliases for CCL20 Gene. * C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 20 2 3 5 ... Publications for CCL20 Gene * Genomic organization of the CC chemokine mip-3alpha/CCL20/larc/ exodus/SCYA20, showing gene ...
Measurement of cytokines and chemokines.. Mouse IL-17 and CCL20 were measured by ELISA using Quantikine M (R&D Systems), with a ... CCL20 production by inflamed synoviocytes and Th17 cells. CCL20 is so far known to be the sole ligand for CCR6 and able to ... We show in this report that Th17 cells predominantly express CC chemokine receptor (CCR) 6 and produce its ligand, CCL20. ... Production of IL-17 and CCL20 in RA joints. (A and B) The concentrations of IL-17 and CCL20 in synovial fluid from RA or OA ...
In this study, we show that Trim32 activates, and Piasy inhibits, keratinocyte production of CC chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20), a ... As CCL20 is activated by Th17 cytokines, the upregulation of CCL20 production by Trim32 provides a positive feedback loop of ... Further, Trim32/Piasy regulation of CCL20 is mediated through Piasy interaction with the RelA/p65 subunit of NF-kappaB. ... psoriatic chemokine essential for recruitment of DCs and T helper (Th)17 cells to the skin. ...
This review will focus on recent murine and human studies that use chemokines as therapeutic anti-cancer vaccine adjuvants. ... Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing ... This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential ... was genetically fused to chemokines CCL7, CXCL10 [54] and CCL20 [53]. Immunization with chemokine-sFv protein elicited a T-cell ...
3. CC Chemokines and Thyroid Hormone Analogues. 3.1. CCL20. Among the homeostatic chemokines in the CNS that contribute to ... 5. C Chemokines. The C chemokines are XCL1 (lymphotactin-α) and XCL2 (lymphotactin-β). The single receptor to which these ... Tetrac also affects expression of the genes for other CNS-relevant chemokines, including CCL20, CCL26, CXCL2, CXCL3, and CXCL10 ... 4. CXC Chemokines and Thyroid Hormone Analogues. 4.1. CXCL2. A product of microglia, chemokine CXCL2 has important chemotactic ...
Background The chemokine CCL20 and its receptor CCR6 are putative medication targets in inflammatory bowel disease, and CCL20 ... CCL20 is usually a C-C-L chemokine made up of the four characteristic cysteine residues with a well-conserved comparative ... The chemokine CCL20 is certainly of particular curiosity in IBD, credited to its function in framing tum defenses [7, 8]. ... Background The chemokine CCL20 and its receptor CCR6 are putative medication. January 8, 2018 ...
... and chemokine CCL20. The actual recognition of microbial patterns takes place in the secretory and ciliated cells via Toll-like ...
Higher circulating levels of chemokines CXCL10, CCL20 and CCL22 in patients with ischemic heart disease.. Safa A1, Rashidinejad ... CCL20 and CCL22 were associated with IHD. The serum levels of chemokines may influence by the certain traditional risk factors ... The mean serum concentrations of CXCL10, CCL20 and CCL22 in AMI patients (395.97±21.20Pg/mL, 108.38±10.31Pg/mL and 1852.58± ... Serum samples from all participants were tested for the CXCL10, CCL20 and CCL22 levels by using ELISA. The SNPs were determined ...
CCL20, MIP-3-,i,β,/i,/CCL19, MPIF-1/CCL23, NAP-2/CXCL7, MSP,i,α,/i,, OPN, PARC/CCL18, PF4, SDF-1/CXCL12, TARC/CCL17, TECK/CCL25 ... which allows the simultaneous determination of 40 chemokines per sample. The sets consist of the following chemokines: 6Ckine/ ... i,Results.,/i, We showed possible implication of 4 chemokines, that is, HCC-4, I-TAC, MIP-3,i,α,/i,, and TARC in women with ... i,Conclusion.,/i, On the basis of our findings, it seems that the chemokines may play role in the pathogenesis of preterm labor ...
Structural basis for chemokine receptor CCR6 activation by the endogenous protein ligand CCL20.. Wasilko, D.J., Johnson, Z.L., ... Cryo-EM structure of the human chemokine receptor CCR6 in complex with CCL20 and a Go protein. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb6WWZ/pdb ... Chemokines are important protein-signaling molecules that regulate various immune responses by activating chemokine receptors ... Chemokines are important protein-signaling molecules that regulate various immune responses by activating chemokine receptors ...
Epidermal keratinocytes represent a rich source of C-C motif chemokine 20 (CCL20) and recruit CCR6+ interleukin (IL)- ... Epidermal keratinocytes represent a rich source of C-C motif chemokine 20 (CCL20) and recruit CCR6+ interleukin (IL)- ... Open in another window Shape 1 Scuff injuryCinduced CCL20 creation. The creation of CCL20 was assessed at 3, 6, and 24 h ... Spatial Distribution of CCL20 Manifestation in Keratinocytes Subsequently, we attemptedto imagine the CCL20 manifestation using ...
Cyto/chemokine profile of in vitro scratched keratinocyte model: Implications of significant upregulation of CCL20, CXCL8 and ... T1 - Cyto/chemokine profile of in vitro scratched keratinocyte model. T2 - Implications of significant upregulation of CCL20, ... Cyto/chemokine profile of in vitro scratched keratinocyte model: Implications of significant upregulation of CCL20, CXCL8 and ... Cyto/chemokine profile of in vitro scratched keratinocyte model : Implications of significant upregulation of CCL20, CXCL8 and ...
We used CCL20/macrophage inflammatory protein-3alpha (MIP-3alpha) chemokine to increase the number of tumoral DCs and ... Expression of CCL20 in the tumor site attracted large numbers of circulating DCs into the tumor mass and, in the case of CT26 ... Intratumoral CpG injections, in addition to CCL20, were required to induce therapeutic immunity against B16 tumors. In this ... defined tumor antigens to induce a specific T cell-mediated antitumor response and provide the basis for the use of chemokines ...
This classification is not strict; for example, CCL20 can act also as pro-inflammatory chemokine.[2] ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ...
MECY2MAG-73K Simultaneously analyze multiple cytokine and chemokine biomarkers with Bead-Based Multiplex Assays using the ... MILLIPLEX MAP Mouse Cytokine/Chemokine Magnetic Bead Panel II, ... MIP-3α/CCL20) standard curve range: 2-10,000 pg/mL. (TARC/CCL17 ... Mouse Cytokine/Chemokine Panel II Standard, 1 vial, lyophilized. Mouse Cytokine/Chemokine Panel II Quality Control 1, 1 vial, ... Panel Type: MAGNETIC Cytokines/Chemokines The MILLIPLEX. MAP Mouse Cytokine/Chemokine Magnetic Bead Panel II, contains all the ...
Although CCL20 is its major ligand it can also act as a receptor for non-chemokine ligands such as beta-defensins (PubMed: ... Binds to CCL20 and subsequently transduces a signal by increasing the intracellular calcium ion levels (PubMed:20068036). ... The ligand-receptor pair CCL20-CCR6 is responsible for the chemotaxis of dendritic cells (DC), effector/ memory T-cells and B- ... Positively regulates sperm motility and chemotaxis via its binding to CCL20 (PubMed:23765988). ...
CCR6, the Sole Receptor for the Chemokine CCL20, Promotes Spontaneous Intestinal Tumorigenesis  Nandi, Bisweswar; Pai, ... Interactions between the inflammatory chemokine CCL20 and its receptor CCR6 have been associated with colorectal cancer growth ... and metastasis, however, a causal role for CCL20 signaling through CCR6 in promoting intestinal ... ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20. CCL20. 4.20. 8.79. Interleukin-6 (interferon, beta 2). IL6. 4.02. 4.8. ...
CCL20 is a novel ligand for the scavenging atypical chemokine receptor 4. J Leukoc Biol. 107:1137-1154. 2020. View Article : ... Among the four types of chemokines, there are two highly homologous XC chemokines: XC motif chemokine ligand 1 (XCL1) and XCL2 ... Chemokine receptors. Chemokines. Functions. Signaling pathways. Role in HCC. (Refs.). CXCR1. CXCL6,. Chemotactic neutrophils. - ... chemokines can bind to the atypical chemokine receptor (ACKR) subfamily, which is a key regulator of the chemokine network, and ...
Many chemokines including CCL20/MIP-3α display antimicrobial activity. J. Leukoc. Biol. 74, 448?455 (2003). ... Cutting edge: IFN-inducible ELR-CXC chemokines display defensin-like antimicrobial activity. J. Immunol. 167, 623?627 (2001). ...
C-C motif chemokine 22 K12964 CCL4; C-C motif chemokine 4 K14625 CCL20; C-C motif chemokine 20 K05514 CCL1; C-C motif chemokine ... 29538 Ccl20; C-C motif chemokine 20 precursor 688605 Ccl1; C-C motif chemokine 1 precursor 360750 Ccl25; C-C motif chemokine 25 ... 29538 Ccl20; C-C motif chemokine 20 precursor 298006 Ccl21; C-C motif chemokine 21 precursor 117551 Ccl22; C-C motif chemokine ... 29538 Ccl20; C-C motif chemokine 20 precursor 298006 Ccl21; C-C motif chemokine 21 precursor 117551 Ccl22; C-C motif chemokine ...
This classification is not strict; for example, CCL20 can act also as pro-inflammatory chemokine. Inflammatory: these are ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines in that it has ... CCL1 for the ligand 1 of the CC-family of chemokines, and CCR1 for its respective receptor. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) ...
Schutyser, E., Struyf, S., and Van Damme, J. (2003). The CC chemokine CCL20 and its receptor CCR6. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. ... FIGURE 2. Chemokine receptor expression of CD161+ CD4+ T cells in healthy donor blood. Healthy donor blood was stained as ... Additionally there appear to be many other cytokines and chemokines which may be co-secreted with IFN-γ or IL-22 by the CD161+ ... We found co-expression of CCR6 (45%), as well as CCR2 (30%; Figures 2A,D). We noted high expression of CXCR3, a chemokine ...
... and dendritic cells is thought to create inflammatory and pro-proliferative circuits mediated by chemokines and cytokines. ... In particular, keratinocytes respond to IL-17 producing chemokines (CCL20, CXCL-1, -3, -5, CXCL-8, CCL20), AMPs [i.e., LCN2, ... CC chemokine ligands; CCR: C-C chemokine receptor; CXCL: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand; CXCR: C-X-C motif chemokine receptor; ... CC chemokine ligands; CCR: C-C chemokine receptor; CXCL: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand; CXCR: C-X-C motif chemokine receptor; ...
Chemokines and their receptors play essential roles in immunology during inflammation and in homeostasis. ... Chemokines are a class of secreted molecules that induce chemotaxis (migration) of target cells. ... CCL20. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. a. b. b. b. b. ... Chemokine Receptor Biology poster. Order your copy of our ... Chemokines are also involved in the orchestration of wound healing.. For more information on inflammatory chemokines, see the ...
  • To date, there are more than 50 chemokines and 18 chemokine receptors identified [ 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Most chemokines bind to more than one receptor, while most receptors also display overlapping ligand specificity [ 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Chemokines are important protein-signaling molecules that regulate various immune responses by activating chemokine receptors which belong to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily. (rcsb.org)
  • All of these proteins exert their biological effects by interacting with G protein -linked transmembrane receptors called chemokine receptors , that are selectively found on the surfaces of their target cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among other homeostatic chemokine receptors include: CCR9, CCR10, and CXCR5, which are important as part of the cell addresses for tissue-specific homing of leukocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been found that chemokines and their receptors serve a pivotal role in HCC progression. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Thus, chemokines and their receptors directly or indirectly shape the tumor cell microenvironment, and regulate the biological behavior of the tumor. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Exosomes containing chemokines or expressing receptors for chemokines may improve chemotaxis to HCC and may thus be exploited for targeted drug delivery. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chemokines bind to a variety of different receptors, which belong to the G-protein-binding receptor family, and there are ~23 types of chemokine receptors that have been discovered ( 10 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chemokines and their receptors were initially thought to allow for an interaction between immune cells and the inflammatory sites ( 11 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • After binding to the receptors, chemokines primarily serve a role in migration of leukocytes, such as monocytes, eosinophils and dendritic cells (DCs) ( 11 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chemokines receptors are seven transmembrane spanning G protein-coupled receptors that allow cells to migrate towards increasing chemokine gradients. (biolegend.com)
  • Specific chemokine receptors are often required to gain entry (or exit) from certain organs and tissues like the thymus and bone marrow. (biolegend.com)
  • Chemokine signals are transduced by G-protein coupled receptors, which dissociate to activate diverse downstream pathways resulting in cellular polarization and actin reorganization. (wikipathways.org)
  • We hypothesized that effector CD8 T cell expression of adhesion proteins and chemokine receptors would be influenced by activation in different secondary lymphoid organs. (jimmunol.org)
  • In contrast, three subsets of CD8 T cells defined by differential expression of P-selectin ligand and chemokine receptors were induced irrespective of activation site. (jimmunol.org)
  • Collectively, these results identify previously undescribed populations of activated CD8 T cells based on adhesion protein expression and coexpression of chemokine receptors that arise after activation in distinct secondary lymphoid organs. (jimmunol.org)
  • The process of T cell activation in secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) is accompanied by the upregulation of several different adhesion proteins and chemokine receptors associated with recruitment to sites of inflammation in peripheral tissues ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In contrast, the α4β1 integrin and the chemokine receptors CXCR3, CCR3, CCR5, and CCR6 have been associated with homing of CD4 ( 12 , 13 ) and CD8 ( 14 - 20 ) T cells to multiple inflamed sites. (jimmunol.org)
  • Although expression of several chemokine receptors has been associated with entry into peripheral tissues, the extent to which they are expressed coordinately or independently of one another on the same CD4 T cells has not been comprehensively evaluated ( 21 - 23 ), and has not been previously analyzed on CD8 T cells activated in vivo. (jimmunol.org)
  • Cells in the lamina propria, in turn, produce mediators (vii) that act on cytokine and chemokine receptors on intestinal epithelial cells. (jci.org)
  • Epithelial cells also express TLRs that respond to microbial products (e.g., bacterial flagellin signals through TLR5) and chemokine receptors (CCR6, CXCR4, CCR5, and CX3CR1) and can be induced to produce antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), such as -defensins and cathelicidin (viii). (jci.org)
  • MIP-3alpha was unable to displace the binding of specific CC or CXC chemokines to stable cell lines expressing their respective high affinity receptors, namely CCR1-5 and CXCR1 and CXCR2, suggesting that MIP-3alpha acts through a novel CC chemokine receptor. (nih.gov)
  • Chemokines need receptors to function. (eurekalert.org)
  • Clone REA190 recognizes CD196 (CCR6), a seven transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor, which belongs to the family of beta chemokine receptors. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • It appears Tregs were recruited to the brain by chemokines CCL1 and CCL20, ligands for Treg receptors CCR8 and CCR6, respectively. (alzforum.org)
  • After antigen uptake, DCs downregulate their inflammatory chemokine receptors and upregulate the lymph node homing receptor CCR7. (asm.org)
  • The ligand-receptor pair CCL20-CCR6 is responsible for the chemotaxis of dendritic cells (DC), effector/memory T-cells and B-cells and plays an important role at skin and mucosal surfaces under homeostatic and inflammatory conditions, as well as in pathology, including cancer and various autoimmune diseases (PubMed:21376174). (genecards.org)
  • 1997). "Cloning and characterization of a specific receptor for the novel CC chemokine MIP-3alpha from lung dendritic cells" . (wikipedia.org)
  • 1997). "CCR6, a CC chemokine receptor that interacts with macrophage inflammatory protein 3alpha and is highly expressed in human dendritic cells" . (wikipedia.org)
  • CCL20 is usually constitutively expressed by neutrophils, enterocytes, B-cells and dendritic cells, and by even more cell types when stimulated with proinflammatory ligands, while CCR6 is usually expressed by T regulatory (Treg), Desmopressin supplier T helper type 17 (Th17) and immature dendritic cells, as well as B-cells [14]. (healthcarecoremeasures.com)
  • CCL20 has been shown to direct Treg, Th17, B-cells and immature dendritic cells to the stomach mucosa [14C19]. (healthcarecoremeasures.com)
  • CCL20 is a potent chemoattractant for CCR6+ T cells as well as dendritic cells [20,27,28,29]. (bioednet.org)
  • In the current model, a crosstalk between keratinocytes, neutrophils, mast cells, T cells, and dendritic cells is thought to create inflammatory and pro-proliferative circuits mediated by chemokines and cytokines. (mdpi.com)
  • CCL20 recruits immature dendritic cells and lymphocytes to target sites. (nih.gov)
  • The chemokine MIP3α (CCL20) binds to CCR6 on immature dendritic cells. (ovid.com)
  • Efficient targeting of antigen to immature dendritic cells with a chemokine-fusion vaccine provides an effective anticancer therapeutic. (ovid.com)
  • Wikstrom M, Fleming P, Comerford I , McColl S, Andoniou C, and Degli-Esposti M. A chemokine-like viral product enhances IFN-α production by plasmacytoid dendritic cells but delays CD8+ T cell activation and impairs viral clearance. (msra.org.au)
  • This CC chemokine receptor uniquely binds MIP-3a/CCL20, a chemoattractant for dendritic cells, effector/memory T cells, and B cells. (fishersci.com)
  • [1] CCL20 is implicated in the formation and function of mucosal lymphoid tissues via chemoattraction of lymphocytes and dendritic cells towards the epithelial cells surrounding these tissues. (wikidoc.org)
  • CCL20 (C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 20) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Diabetes in vivo and in high glucose conditions in vitro enhanced expression of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (CCL20) and interleukin-36γ (IL-36γ) in a Foxo1-dependent manner. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (CCL20) is another proinflammatory cytokine shown to be upregulated during cutaneous wound healing ( 18 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • C hemokine ligand 20 (CCL20) expression increases with NAFLD stage and hepatic stellate cell activation. (tgen.org)
  • The researchers assessed the role of CCR6 and its binding partner CC chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20) in inflammation linked to psoriatic arthritis and psoriasis. (eurekalert.org)
  • However ACPA positive patients had significantly higher levels of IL-1β, IL-10, IL-17 F and CC chemokine ligand 20 (CCL-20) than ACPA negative patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (CCL20) or liver activation regulated chemokine (LARC) or Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-3 (MIP3A) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. (wikidoc.org)
  • Molecular cloning of a novel human CC chemokine liver and activation-regulated chemokine (LARC) expressed in liver. (wikidoc.org)
  • Keratinocyte-fibroblast cocultures showed a synergistic increase in CCL20 secretion upon Hst1 and LL-37 exposure compared to monocultures. (uva.nl)
  • Secretion of the antimicrobial chemokine CCL20 was clearly IL-1α independent. (uva.nl)
  • Epidermal keratinocytes represent a rich source of CCL20 secretion [32]. (bioednet.org)
  • However, significant protein secretion was only demonstrated for CXCL8 and CCL20. (elsevier.com)
  • Dexamethasone, but not maxacalcitol nor the phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor apremilast, partially inhibited the CXCL8 and CCL20 secretion. (elsevier.com)
  • Benzo[a]pyrene significantly and synergistically enhanced the scratch-induced CCL20 secretion that may explain why smoking is a risk factor for psoriasis. (elsevier.com)
  • Here we investigated IEC responses to various pathogenic and commensal bacteria as well as the modulatory effects of commensal bacteria on pathogen-induced CCL20 secretion. (nih.gov)
  • CCL20 and interleukin (IL)-8 secretion and nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. (nih.gov)
  • Compared to untreated cells, S. typhimurium, C. difficile, M. paratuberculosis, and flagellin activated NF-kappaB and stimulated significant secretion of CCL20 and IL-8 by HT-29 cells. (nih.gov)
  • Treatment with B. infantis, but not L. salivarius, dose-dependently inhibited the baseline secretion of CCL20. (nih.gov)
  • B. infantis did not limit M. Paratuberculosis-induced CCL20 secretion. (nih.gov)
  • This study is the first to demonstrate that a commensal strain can attenuate CCL20 secretion in HT-29 IECs. (nih.gov)
  • Typical chemokine proteins are produced as pro-peptides , beginning with a signal peptide of approximately 20 amino acids that gets cleaved from the active (mature) portion of the molecule during the process of its secretion from the cell. (wikidoc.org)
  • CCL20 expression is induced in gastric epithelial cells in a cag type IV secretion system dependent manner. (bmj.com)
  • The IHC data showed that tumor cells were the main source of CCL20, and after treated cell line A549 with docetaxel, we found that the secretion of CCL20 was decreased heavily (n=3, P=0.0046). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Higher circulating levels of chemokines CXCL10, CCL20 and CCL22 in patients with ischemic heart disease. (cdc.gov)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the CXCL10, CCL20 and CCL22 levels and the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs4508917, rs6749704 and rs4359426 in chemokine genes in patients with IHD to clarify any association. (cdc.gov)
  • Serum samples from all participants were tested for the CXCL10, CCL20 and CCL22 levels by using ELISA. (cdc.gov)
  • L. umeaense upregulated the chemokines CCL20 and CXCL10, and down-regulated TLR2. (diva-portal.org)
  • for example, CCL20 can act also as pro-inflammatory chemokine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon sensing the inflammatory chemokine, cells will extravasate from the blood vessel and follow the gradient to its source. (biolegend.com)
  • Inflammatory chemokine CCL20 and its receptor CCR6 have been reported to correlate with colorectal cancer patients' metastasis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • For instance, CCL20 is also associated with inflammation since it can act as pro-inflammatory chemokine as well. (biology-online.org)
  • For example, in addition to chemotaxis, chemokines modulate lymphocyte development, priming and effector function [ 2 ] and play a critical role in immune surveillance. (mdpi.com)
  • In addition to being known for mediating chemotaxis, chemokines are all approximately 8-10 kilodaltons in mass and have four cysteine residues in conserved locations that are key to forming their 3-dimensional shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the potential application of chemokines in chemotaxis of exosomes as drug vehicles is discussed. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chemokines are a class of cytokines that induce chemotaxis (migration) of target cells. (biolegend.com)
  • While some chemotaxis is induced by inflammation or damaged cells, other chemokines function in homeostasis. (biolegend.com)
  • CCL20 is a chemokine involved in chemotaxis and inflammatory response. (olink.com)
  • Synthetic MIP-3α was tested at concentrations of 10−6 to 10−10 M in chemotaxis assays to characterize the leukocyte populations that responded to this chemokine (Fig. 3). (nih.gov)
  • The CCL20 production by synoviocytes is augmented in vitro by IL-1β, IL-17, or tumor necrosis factor α, and is suppressed by IFN-γ or IL-4. (rupress.org)
  • Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing recruitment of antigen presenting cells (APCs) and effector cells to appropriate anatomical sites. (mdpi.com)
  • Expression of CCL20 in the tumor site attracted large numbers of circulating DCs into the tumor mass and, in the case of CT26 tumors, led to complete tumor regression. (nih.gov)
  • Our results also suggest that DCs can be manipulated in vivo without delivery of defined tumor antigens to induce a specific T cell-mediated antitumor response and provide the basis for the use of chemokines in DC-targeted clinical strategies. (nih.gov)
  • Chemokines are involved in the inflammatory response, tumor immune response, proliferation, invasion and metastasis via modulation of various signaling pathways. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The role of CCL20/CCR6 axis in recruiting Treg cells to tumor sites of NSCLC patients. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In this study, we detected the expression of CCL20 in tumor samples and corresponding adjacent ones (n=71) from patients with NSCLC using RT-PCR and observed that CCL20 showed higher expression in tumor samples (0.28±0.17) than in adjacent ones (0.20±0.13) (n=71, P=0.0056), which was also verified in protein level using IHC. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Analysis results showed that CCL20 expression was positively associated with CD4 (n=80, P=0.0046), Foxp3 (n=80, P=0.0020) and IL-10 (n=61, P=0.0003) in tumor samples. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • It was interesting to find that the expression of CCL20 in tumor sites was almost 1.5-fold higher in samples from high-stage patients (III-IV stage, 0.34±0.17) compared with those from low-stage patients (I-II stage, 0.22±0.11) (P=0.0056). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Our results demonstrated that CCL20 cooperated with CCR6 could recruit Treg cells to tumor sites, and chemotherapy medicine docetaxel could decrease the expression of CCL20. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 14. A method of inhibiting, preventing or reducing metastasis of a CCL20 dependent tumor in a subject in need thereof, comprising administering to a subject in need thereof a therapeutically effective amount of a CCL20-neutralizing antibody. (patents.com)
  • Experiment two evaluated how Lactobacillus reuteri (LR) and Bacillus licheniformis (BL) differed from ST or SC in their ability to regulate, stimulate, or modify IL8, CCL20, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) in IPEC-J2 cells. (k-state.edu)
  • Sequentially, the upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (like IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor α), chemokines (like fractalkine, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-3α), and vascular endothelial growth factor were significantly downregulated by formononetin in primary rat chondrocytes treated with IL-1β. (springer.com)
  • Gene expression of CCL20 can be induced by microbial factors such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor and interferon-γ , and down-regulated by IL-10 . (wikidoc.org)
  • Their homeostatic function in homing is best exemplified by the chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 (expressed within lymph nodes and on lymphatic endothelial cells) and their receptor CCR7 (expressed on cells destined for homing in cells to these organs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Comerford I , Harata-Lee Y, Bunting M, Gregor C, Kara E and McColl SR. A myriad of functions and complex regulation of the CCR7/CCL19/CCL21 chemokine axis in the adaptive immune system. (msra.org.au)
  • MIP-3 alpha is invloved in chemokine-mediated lymphocyte trafficking during gastric inflammation in Helicobacter infection. (creativebiomart.net)
  • had been even more many, and CCL20 immunoreactivity increased in the epithelial cells during active inflammation for both diseases massively. (healthcarecoremeasures.com)
  • Recruitment of leukocytes is one of the earliest events in the pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and chemokines play an important role in the migration of these cells into the inflammation sites. (cdc.gov)
  • After administration, CCL20S64C competes with CCL20 and significantly attenuates IL-23Cinduced psoriasiform inflammation in mice [34]. (bioednet.org)
  • In addition, CCL20 has also been described to be involved in several inflammation-related conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, ulcerative colitis, gastric inflammation by H. pylori, etc. (olink.com)
  • In vivo, this extract induced the most profound epithelial E-cadherin delocalisation and increase in CCL20, CCL17 and interleukin 5 levels, accompanied by the most pronounced induction of HDM-specific IgE, goblet cell hyperplasia, eosinophilic inflammation and airway hyper-reactivity. (bmj.com)
  • Using a novel chemical blocker targeting chemokine proteins, the researchers were able to significantly reduce skin and joint inflammation in a mouse model with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. (eurekalert.org)
  • Chemokines are small molecules with a critical role in the body's response to inflammation and infection. (eurekalert.org)
  • The presence of CCL20 at the site of the inflammation makes it a very attractive target for arthritis therapy. (eurekalert.org)
  • CCL20 is usually a C-C-L chemokine made up of the four characteristic cysteine residues with a well-conserved comparative distance, and binds exclusively to the CCR6 receptor [13]. (healthcarecoremeasures.com)
  • CCL20 binds in a shallow extracellular pocket, making limited contact with the core 7-transmembrane (TM) bundle. (rcsb.org)
  • MIP-3B specifically binds to chemokine receptor CCR7. (creativebiomart.net)
  • CD196 selectivly binds chemokine MIP-3α/CCL20, which is secreted by a number of cells and tissues. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Recently, a novel CC chemokine known as MIP-3alpha or liver and activation-regulated chemokine has been identified from the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ expressed sequence tag database. (nih.gov)
  • The epithelial cells appear included in the CCL20 response especially, and outcomes from this research highly recommend that the natural resistant program is certainly essential for account activation of the epithelium, especially through TLR3. (healthcarecoremeasures.com)
  • Human intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) secrete the chemokine CCL20 in response to infection by various enteropathogenic bacteria or exposure to bacterial flagellin. (nih.gov)
  • In the early 1990s, my laboratory discovered that intestinal epithelial cells could alter their phenotype and produce proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines when stimulated by pathogenic enteric luminal microbes or proinflammatory agonists produced by cells in the underlying mucosa. (jci.org)
  • It is now well accepted that intestinal epithelial cells can be induced to express and secrete specific arrays of cytokines, chemokines, and antimicrobial defense molecules. (jci.org)
  • A ) Intestinal epithelial cells can be induced to express chemokines and cytokines in response to encounter with enteric microbial pathogens. (jci.org)
  • Proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines, such as interleukin 8 (IL-8), are secreted by gastric epithelial cells in response to H pylori infection, leading to immune cell recruitment. (bmj.com)
  • TLR3 pleasure activated upregulation and discharge of CCL20 from HT29 Desmopressin supplier cells potently, and silencing decreased CCL20 proteins and mRNA amounts. (healthcarecoremeasures.com)
  • Scratch-Induced CCL20 Manifestation Can be Ameliorated by EGFR Inhibition In keeping with our earlier report [32], scuff damage augmented the proteins creation of CCL20 weighed against non-scratched control human being keratinocytes (Shape 1). (bioednet.org)
  • Chemokines (Greek -kinos , movement) are a family of small cytokines , or signaling proteins secreted by cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytokine proteins are classified as chemokines according to behavior and structural characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokines are a class of small molecular proteins with similar structures, functions and chemotactic properties, and their molecular weights are ~10 kDa, and chemokines represent the largest member of the cytokine family ( 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chemokines are a family of small cytokines , or proteins secreted by cells . (wikidoc.org)
  • Proteins are classified as chemokines according to shared structural characteristics such as small size (they are all approximately 8-10 kilodaltons in size), and the presence of four cysteine residues in conserved locations that are key to forming their 3-dimensional shape. (wikidoc.org)
  • Proteins are classified into the chemokine family based on their structural characteristics, not just their ability to attract cells. (wikidoc.org)
  • Chemokines are small cytokines, or signaling proteins, secreted by cells. (wikipathways.org)
  • Chemokines are a family of small cytokines, or proteins secreted by cells, with a molecular mass between 8 and 10 kDa. (genscript.com)
  • GenScript offers a comprehensive catalog of chemokine proteins with excellent lot-to-lot consistency, superior activity and significantly low endotoxin levels. (genscript.com)
  • These mediators in turn stimulated or repressed the expression of genes encoding acute phase proteins (APP), collectins, complement components, chemokines, cell adhesion molecules and key metabolic enzymes during the APR. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The potent antimicrobial chemokine CCL20 was investigated and compared with chemokines CCL2, CXCL1, CXCL8, and CCL27 and proinflammatory cytokines IL-1α and IL-6. (uva.nl)
  • An engineered monomer of CCL2 has anti-inflammatory properties emphasizing the importance of oligomerization for chemokine activity in vivo. (semanticscholar.org)
  • At the site of injury or infection, inflammatory chemokines such as CCL2, CCL5, and CXCL8 are produced to attract immature DCs that express CCR1, CCR2, CCR5, and CXCR1. (asm.org)
  • This report shows that interleukin (IL) 17-producing T helper type 17 (Th17) cells predominantly express CC chemokine receptor (CCR) 6 in an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). (rupress.org)
  • Transforming Growth Factor-ß and Interleukin-1ß Signaling Pathways Converge on the Chemokine CCL20 Promoter. (ucsf.edu)
  • CCL20 acts as a chemotactic factor that attracts lymphocytes and, slightly, neutrophils, but not monocytes (PubMed:9038201, PubMed:11352563). (genecards.org)
  • While a function of chemokines is to regulate lymphocyte trafficking, the view that chemokines act simply as "chemotactic cytokines" has evolved to include the many critical roles they play in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses. (mdpi.com)
  • Appreciation of the existence of a plasma membrane receptor for thyroid hormone analogues on the extracellular domains of a structural plasma membrane protein, integrin α v β 3 [ 1 - 3 ], has permitted recognition of new control mechanisms for the release of cytokines, including chemotactic cytokines or chemokines [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Chemokines are a family of small molecular weight cytokines, which are involved in leukocytes stimulation and chemotactic gradient determining. (hindawi.com)
  • Up-regulation of macrophage inflammatory protein-3 alpha/CCL20 and CC chemokine receptor 6 in psoriasis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These are known as homeostatic chemokines and are produced and secreted without any need to stimulate their source cell(s). (wikipedia.org)
  • Basal: homeostatic chemokines are basal produced in the thymus and lymphoid tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Homeostatic chemokines are constitutively expressed in particular organs or tissues. (biolegend.com)
  • Due to their function of targeting cells to specific organs, homeostatic chemokines can also be involved in cancer and metastasis. (biolegend.com)
  • Homeostatic chemokines are chemokines that are responsible for basal leukocyte migration. (biology-online.org)
  • The chemokine products of these genes are important to vascularity of the brain, particularly of the choroid plexus, to inflammatory processes in the CNS and, in certain cases, to neuroprotection. (hindawi.com)
  • The chemokine CXCL14 (BRAK) is constitutively expressed in skin and other epithelial tissues. (asm.org)
  • Inflamed synovial cells in both SKG arthritis and human RA also produce CCL20, facilitating the migration of arthritogenic Th17 cells to inflamed joints. (rupress.org)
  • Some chemokines are considered pro- inflammatory and can be induced during an immune response to recruit cells of the immune system to a site of infection , while others are considered homeostatic and are involved in controlling the migration of cells during normal processes of tissue maintenance or development . (wikipedia.org)
  • The major role of chemokines is to act as a chemoattractant to guide the migration of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A generic term, "cytokines" includes myokines (produced by muscle cells), lymphokines (produced by activated Th cells), interleukins (acting as mediators between T cells) and chemokines (responsible for T-cell migration). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Chemokines are functionally divided into two groups: Homeostatic: are constitutively produced in certain tissues and are responsible for basal leukocyte migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main function of chemokines is to manage the migration of leukocytes (homing) in the respective anatomical locations in inflammatory and homeostatic processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inflammatory: inflammatory chemokines are produced in high concentrations during infection or injury and determine the migration of inflammatory leukocytes into the damaged area. (wikipedia.org)
  • A major rol of chemokines is to act as chemoattractants in guiding migration of cells. (wikipathways.org)
  • Recombinant CCL20 induces the migration of Tregs in vitro, demonstrating its importance as a chemoattractant for these cells. (bmj.com)
  • High glucose-stimulated Foxo1 binding to CCL20 and IL-36γ promoters and CCL20 and IL-36γ significantly inhibited migration of these cells in high glucose conditions. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1/CXCL12) directs leukocyte migration, stem cell homing, and cancer metastasis through activation of CXCR4, which is also a coreceptor for T-tropic HIV-1. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Get results in 90 minutes with Human MIP3a ELISA Kit (CCL20) ( ab178015 ) from our SimpleStep ELISA ® range. (abcam.com)
  • It has been found that chemokine networks may serve pivotal roles in inducing organ-specific metastasis ( 8 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The LEGENDplex™ Human Proinflammatory Chemokine Standard product is intended for use with the Mix and Match Human Proinflammatory Chemokine Panel of products. (biolegend.com)
  • one is usually the chemokine function as explained, the second an antimicrobial effect related to the beta defensins, which are also ligands of CCR6 [20C22]. (healthcarecoremeasures.com)
  • Structure-Based Identification of Novel Ligands Targeting Multiple Sites within a Chemokine-G-Protein-Coupled-Receptor Interface. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We propose that actions of thyroid hormone and hormone analogues on chemokine gene expression contribute to regulation of inflammatory processes in brain and of brain blood vessel formation and maintenance. (hindawi.com)
  • Psoriatic lesions are associated with abundant epidermal CCL20 expression and dermal skinChoming CCR6+ Th17 cells [17,30,31]. (bioednet.org)
  • In addition, mechanical suctioning or scratching upregulates the mRNA Rabbit Polyclonal to NPY5R and protein expression of CCL20 [27,32], and keratinocytes release large amounts of CCL20 in a time- and scratch line number-dependent manner [32]. (bioednet.org)
  • Results: Among the 18 molecules, the scratch injury on a confluent keratinocyte sheet significantly and selectively upregulated the mRNA expression of four cyto/chemokines, CXCL8, CCL20, IL36G, and TNF, in a scratch-line-number-dependent manner under either low- or high-calcium condition. (elsevier.com)
  • However, optimal TCR stimulation of CCR6 + T cells induced expression of IL-2, interferon-γ, CCL20, and CD40L, and autoreactive CCR6 + T cell lines responded to various recall antigens. (rupress.org)
  • Furthermore, the higher expression of CCL20 was associated with a lower overall survival (P=0.0198). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We propose that Foxo1 under diabetic or high glucose conditions impairs healing by promoting high levels of CCL20 and IL-36γ expression but under normal conditions, enhances it by inducing TGF-β1. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Experiment three characterized the swine CCL20 mRNA sequence and evaluated tissue expression. (k-state.edu)
  • SC increased spleen and liver CCL20 expression. (k-state.edu)
  • [3] CCL20 is expressed in several tissues with highest expression observed in peripheral blood lymphocytes , lymph nodes , liver , appendix , and fetal lung and lower levels in thymus, testis, prostate and gut. (wikidoc.org)
  • Recent research [6] in an animal model of multiple sclerosis known as experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) demonstrated that regional neural activation can create "gates" for pathogenic CD4+ T cells to enter the CNS by increasing CCL20 expression, especially at L5. (wikidoc.org)
  • Sympathetic neuronal activity activates IL-6 amplifier resulting in increased regional CCL20 expression and subsequent pathogenic CD4+ T cell accumulation at the same spinal cord level. (wikidoc.org)
  • CCL20 expression was observed to be dependent on IL-6 amplifier activation, which is dependent on NF-κB and STAT3 activation. (wikidoc.org)
  • Inflammatory chemokines function mainly as chemoattractants for leukocytes , recruiting monocytes , neutrophils and other effector cells from the blood to sites of infection or tissue damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some chemokines control cells of the immune system during processes of immune surveillance, such as directing lymphocytes to the lymph nodes so they can screen for invasion of pathogens by interacting with antigen-presenting cells residing in these tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The trafficking of these cells to tissues and lymph nodes is mediated by members of the chemokine family. (nih.gov)
  • All healthy tissues expressed CCL20 mRNA. (k-state.edu)
  • and numerous porcine tissues are prominent sources CCL20. (k-state.edu)
  • They measured the CCR6 and the CCL20 levels in the joint fluid and tendon tissues of patients with psoriatic arthritis. (eurekalert.org)
  • Conclusion: CCL20 and to a less extent CXCL8 may play a key role in triggering the Koebner phenomenon after scratch injury to keratinocytes. (elsevier.com)
  • Chemokines are a group of related chemoattractant peptides that are essential regulators of the immune system, both during homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. (mdpi.com)
  • Abcam's MIP3a (CCL20) Human ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) kit is an in vitro enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantitative measurement of Human MIP3a in cell lysates and tissue lysates. (abcam.com)
  • Importantly, the Greer extract, with the lowest serine protease activity, induced the most pronounced effects on epithelial barrier function and CCL20 release in vitro. (bmj.com)
  • 2018) Role of CXCL13 and CCL20 in the recruitment of B cells to inflammatory foci in chronic arthritis. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • [1] [4] The gene for CCL20 ( scya20 ) is located on chromosome 2 in humans. (wikidoc.org)
  • IL-17A also induced the phosphorylation of EGFR and further augmented scratch-induced CCL20 upregulation. (bioednet.org)
  • Notably, the EGFR inhibitor PD153035 considerably inhibited scratch-induced CCL20 upregulation (Shape 2A). (bioednet.org)
  • Consequently, we hypothesized that EGFR activation induces sign transduction for CCL20 production upstream. (bioednet.org)
  • Regulation of the psoriatic chemokine CCL20 by E3 ligases Trim32 and Piasy in keratinocytes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Immunoreactive CCL20 was visualized in the keratinocytes that lined the scratched wound. (bioednet.org)
  • The EGFR-ERK/JNK-CCL20 pathway in scratched keratinocytes may Aceclofenac explain why Koebnerization is frequently seen in psoriasis patients. (bioednet.org)
  • We have previously demonstrated an upregulated production of CCL20 pursuing scratch damage in keratinocytes and suggested a potential connect to the Koebner trend in psoriasis [32]. (bioednet.org)
  • Nevertheless, the subcellular systems of scratch-induced CCL20 creation in keratinocytes stay elusive. (bioednet.org)
  • In this scholarly study, we proven that scratch-induced CCL20 creation was mediated by EGFR-extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), also to a lesser degree, from the EGFRCc-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway in keratinocytes. (bioednet.org)
  • Quite a lot of CCL20 had been released from scratched keratinocytes as soon as 3 h after scuff injury (Shape 1). (bioednet.org)
  • These total results suggest a pivotal regulatory role of EGFR signaling in scratch-induced CCL20 production in keratinocytes. (bioednet.org)
  • Concentrating on CCR6 and CCL20 provides been recommended as brand-new treatment strategies in autoimmune illnesses [10C12], and their function in IBD wants to Rabbit Polyclonal to NMDAR1 end up being solved. (healthcarecoremeasures.com)
  • We observed a significant increase of both CCR6 and CCL20 in the connective tissue of mice with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis," Hwang noted. (eurekalert.org)
  • MILLIPLEX MAP Mouse Cytokine/Chemokine Magnetic Bead Panel II, MECY2MAG-73K Simultaneously analyze multiple cytokine and chemokine biomarkers with Bead-Based Multiplex Assays using the Luminex technology, in mouse serum, plasma and cell culture samples. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Selectin inhibitor bimosiamose prolongs survival of kidney allografts by reduction in intragraft production of cytokines and chemokines. (wikigenes.org)
  • Once at the site of injury, immune cells can react by releasing additional cytokines and chemokines, bringing more cells into the fold. (biolegend.com)
  • All chemokines are small, with a molecular mass of between 8 and 10 kDa . (wikidoc.org)
  • Such molecules have been termed kinocidins, reflecting their complementary microbicidal and chemokine roles, which likely coordinate molecular and cellular antimicrobial host defenses. (asm.org)
  • The researchers tested the ability of a novel engineered protein- known as CCL20 locked dimer (CCL20LD)- in blocking the CCR6 function in a mouse model with psoriatic arthritis. (eurekalert.org)
  • To date, >50 chemokines have been found, which can be divided into four families: CXC, CX3C, CC and XC, according to the different positions of the conserved N‑terminal cysteine residues. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • 50 chemokines have been identified, which can be divided into four families: CXC, CX3C, CC and XC, based on the different positions of the conserved N-terminal cysteine residues ( 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • All chemokines share a typical Greek key structure that is stabilised by disulphide bonds between conserved cysteine residues. (wikidoc.org)
  • Intramolecular disulphide bonds typically join the first to third, and the second to fourth cysteine residues, numbered as they appear in the protein sequence of the chemokine. (wikidoc.org)
  • The first two cysteines, in a chemokine, are situated close together near the N-terminal end of the mature protein, with the third cysteine residing in the centre of the molecule and the fourth close to the C-terminal end . (wikidoc.org)
  • Members of the chemokine family are divided into four groups depending on the location of their first two cysteine residues. (genscript.com)
  • Magnetic bead-based assays for detecting 46 mouse cytokine, chemokine, and growth factor biomarkers. (bio-rad.com)
  • Belongs to the intercrine beta (chemokine CC) family. (abcam.com)
  • Protein engineering of the chemokine CCL20 prevents psoriasiform dermatitis in an IL-23-dependent murine model. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These results indicate that salivary peptides can stimulate skin as well as gingiva cells to secrete antimicrobial chemokines as part of the hosts' defense to counteract infection. (uva.nl)
  • Thus, the joint cytokine milieu formed by T cells and synovial cells controls the production of CCL20 and, consequently, the recruitment of CCR6 + arthritogenic Th17 cells to the inflamed joints. (rupress.org)
  • We show in this report that Th17 cells predominantly express CC chemokine receptor (CCR) 6 and produce its ligand, CCL20. (rupress.org)
  • Human T cells that are able to produce IL-17 express the chemokine receptor CCR6. (semanticscholar.org)
  • On the other hand, the chemokine system also plays a crucial role in the induction of antitumor immune responses and optimal effector function regulation of immune cells [ 1 , 4 , 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The recruitment of Th17 cells into the lesion is governed by CCL20-CCR6 engagement [19,20]. (bioednet.org)
  • We used CCL20/macrophage inflammatory protein-3alpha (MIP-3alpha) chemokine to increase the number of tumoral DCs and intratumoral injections of CG-rich motifs (CpGs) to activate such cells. (nih.gov)
  • Chemokines released by infected or damaged cells form a concentration gradient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Attracted cells move through the gradient towards the higher concentration of chemokine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells that are attracted by chemokines follow a signal of increasing chemokine concentration towards the source of the chemokine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other chemokines are inflammatory and are released from a wide variety of cells in response to bacterial infection, viruses and agents that cause physical damage such as silica or the urate crystals that occur in gout . (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain inflammatory chemokines activate cells to initiate an immune response or promote wound healing . (wikipedia.org)
  • In cells pre-treated with B. infantis, C. difficile-, S. typhimurium-, and flagellin-induced CCL20 were significantly attenuated. (nih.gov)
  • Attracted cells move toward areas of higher concentrations of the chemokine. (biolegend.com)
  • Many inflammatory chemokines attract a wide variety of cells in both the innate and adaptive arms of immunity. (biolegend.com)
  • In response, the intestinal epithelium can change its phenotype to produce chemokines and cytokines (v) that act on underlying cells of the innate and adaptive immune system in the lamina propria (vi). (jci.org)
  • and the percentage of CCR6 - the sole receptor of CCL20 - on Treg cells was higher in TIL (MFI: 1311±1268) than in PBMC (MFI: 976±780) (n=40, P=0.0219). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Attracted by CCL1 and CCL20, Treg cells (turquoise) enter the brain after a stroke. (alzforum.org)
  • In an "immature" state, characterized by their ability to take up and process antigen and by their responsiveness to inflammatory chemokines, DCs screen the environment and act as essential sentinel cells. (asm.org)
  • CCL20 elicits its effects on its target cells by binding and activating the chemokine receptor CCR6 . (wikidoc.org)
  • Monomeric structure of the cardioprotective chemokine SDF-1/CXCL12. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Structural basis of CXCR4 sulfotyrosine recognition by the chemokine SDF-1/CXCL12. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The invention is directed to the field of cancer therapy, specifically to the use of anti-CCL20 antibodies for the treatment of neoplastic disorders. (patents.com)
  • Both pathogens induced similar patterns of chemokines for cell recruitment into the udder, but E. coli stimulated their synthesis much faster and stronger. (asm.org)
  • GO annotations related to this gene include cytokine activity and chemokine activity . (genecards.org)
  • Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential vaccine adjuvants. (mdpi.com)
  • Background The chemokine CCL20 and its receptor CCR6 are putative medication targets in inflammatory bowel disease, and CCL20 is a novel IBD predilection gene. (healthcarecoremeasures.com)
  • Human CCL20 genome location and CCL20 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser . (wikidoc.org)
  • A Requirement for Metamorphic Interconversion in the Antimicrobial Activity of Chemokine XCL1. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Gastric biopsy samples from patients infected with cag + strains contain higher concentrations of CCL20. (bmj.com)
  • This pathway was inferred from Mus musculus pathway "Chemokine signaling pathway", WP2292 revision 89521, with a 91.0% conversion rate. (wikipathways.org)