Chemokine CCL27: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.Chemokine CCL21: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL22: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.Chemokine CCL17: A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Chemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CCL19: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL5: A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.Chemokine CCL20: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL1: A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.Chemokines, CC: Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.Receptors, Chemokine: Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Chemokine CCL3: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Chemokine CCL7: A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Receptors, CCR10: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL4: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Chemokine CXCL12: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.Receptors, CCR1: CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.Chemokine CXCL10: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemokine CCL8: A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.Receptors, CCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.Receptors, CCR2: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.Chemokine CCL11: A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Chemokine CCL24: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Receptors, CCR7: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.Receptors, CCR8: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.Chemokine CXCL1: A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Receptors, CCR4: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.Chemokines, CXC: Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.Chemokine CX3CL1: A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins: Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.Receptors, CCR5: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.Receptors, CCR3: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.Chemokine CXCL9: An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Mice, Inbred C57BLCell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Chemokine CXCL2: A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CXCL13: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.Receptors, CXCR4: CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Chemokine CXCL11: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Chemokine CXCL6: A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Chemokine CXCL5: A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Receptors, CXCR3: CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Receptors, Interleukin-8B: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Dermatitis, Atopic: A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Monocyte Chemoattractant Proteins: Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Receptors, CCR6: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Receptors, Interleukin-8A: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Receptors, CXCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Receptors, Cytokine: Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Chemokines, CX3C: Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.Receptors, CXCR5: CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Chemotactic Factors: Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Monokines: Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.Receptors, HIV: Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Carbon Tetrachloride PoisoningDuffy Blood-Group System: A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.Chemotactic Factors, Eosinophil: Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.Neutrophil Infiltration: The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Heterocyclic Compounds: Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Cell Migration Inhibition: Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Platelet Factor 4: A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Endothelium, Lymphatic: Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.

Anti-monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/monocyte chemotactic and activating factor antibody inhibits neointimal hyperplasia in injured rat carotid arteries. (1/4001)

Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)/monocyte chemotactic and activating factor (MCAF) has been suggested to promote atherogenesis. The effects of in vivo neutralization of MCP-1 in a rat model were examined in an effort to clarify the role of MCP-1 in the development of neointimal hyperplasia. Competitive polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed maximum MCP-1 mRNA expression at 4 hours after carotid arterial injury. Increased immunoreactivities of MCP-1 were also detected at 2 and 8 hours after injury. Either anti-MCP-1 antibody or nonimmunized goat IgG (10 mg/kg) was then administered every 12 hours to rats that had undergone carotid arterial injury. Treatment with 3 consecutive doses of anti-MCP-1 antibody within 24 hours (experiment 1) and every 12 hours for 5 days (experiment 2) significantly inhibited neointimal hyperplasia at day 14, resulting in a 27.8% reduction of the mean intima/media ratio (P<0.05) in experiment 1 and a 43.6% reduction (P<0.01) in experiment 2. This effect was still apparent at day 56 (55.6% inhibition; P<0.05). The number of vascular smooth muscle cells in the neointima at day 4 was significantly reduced by anti-MCP-1 treatment, demonstrating the important role of MCP-1 in early neointimal lesion formation. However, recombinant MCP-1 did not stimulate chemotaxis of vascular smooth muscle cells in an in vitro migration assay. These results suggest that MCP-1 promotes neointimal hyperplasia in early neointimal lesion formation and that neutralization of MCP-1 before, and immediately after, arterial injury may be effective in preventing restenosis after angioplasty. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanism underlying the promotion of neointimal hyperplasia by MCP-1.  (+info)

Infection of human endothelial cells with Chlamydia pneumoniae stimulates transendothelial migration of neutrophils and monocytes. (2/4001)

We have previously shown that different isolates of Chlamydia pneumoniae display heterogeneity in the in vitro stimulation of chemokines and adhesion molecules from infected human endothelial cells. In the present study, we examined the ability of different isolates of C. pneumoniae to promote transendothelial migration of neutrophils and monocytes. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were infected with low (<15)-passage C. pneumoniae isolates A-03, PS-32, and BR-393 and high (>40)-passage isolates BAL-16, TW-183, and T-2634, and levels of neutrophil and monocyte transendothelial migration were determined following 24 h of infection. Compared to mock-infected controls, significant increases in neutrophil migration were observed in response to most C. pneumoniae isolates examined (P < 0.001). Levels of monocyte migration were significantly increased in response to TW-183 and T-2634 (P < 0.001). Serial passage (>40 times) of the three low-passage isolates in HEp-2 cell cultures prior to infection of HUVEC generally resulted in the promotion of higher levels of neutrophil and monocyte transendothelial migration. These findings were compatible with differences observed in the extent of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) stimulation between low- and high-passage A-03, PS-32, and BR-393. As opposed to C. pneumoniae, infection with C. trachomatis L2 caused only a slight increase in neutrophil transendothelial migration, which correlated with the lack of measurable IL-8 levels by this species. However, significant levels of monocyte migration were induced in response to C. trachomatis L2 despite a lack of measurable MCP-1 stimulation. C. trachomatis serovars A and E also failed to induce IL-8 and MCP-1 production in HUVEC. Results from this study indicate that the passage history of C. pneumoniae may play a role in the divergence of stimulatory activities observed among isolates in human endothelial cells. In addition, the differences observed between this organism and C. trachomatis suggest that the upregulation of IL-8 and MCP-1 in endothelial cells may be unique to C. pneumoniae.  (+info)

Luteal regression in the normally cycling rat: apoptosis, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and inflammatory cell involvement. (3/4001)

In hypophysectomized rats, prolactin induces regression of the corpora lutea. Luteal regression is accompanied by infiltration of monocytes/macrophages, declines in luteal mass and plasma progestins, and increased staining for monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). We investigated whether similar events are induced during the estrous cycle, after the proestrous prolactin surge. Rats were killed on proestrus or on estrus, and one ovary was frozen for immunohistochemical detection of MCP-1, monocytes/macrophages (ED1-positive), and differentiated macrophages (ED2-positive) and for in situ detection of apoptotic nuclei. Corpora lutea of the current (proestrus) or preceding (estrus) cycle were dissected from the ovaries of additional rats and frozen for the same analyses and for determination of total protein content. In sections of whole ovaries, intensity and distribution of MCP-1 staining were increased in corpora lutea of multiple ages on estrus as compared to proestrus, as were numbers of differentiated macrophages and apoptotic nuclei per high-power field. Sections of isolated corpora lutea showed these increases on estrus, and the number of monocytes/macrophages per high-power field was also significantly increased. Accompanying these inflammatory/immune events, the corpora lutea on estrus showed decreased weight and total protein per corpus luteum, as compared to corpora lutea on proestrus. These changes are consistent with a proposed role for prolactin in the initiation of luteal apoptosis and of a sequence of inflammatory/immune events that accompany regression of the rat corpus luteum during the normal estrous cycle.  (+info)

Induction of macrophage C-C chemokine expression by titanium alloy and bone cement particles. (4/4001)

Particulate wear debris is associated with periprosthetic inflammation and loosening in total joint arthroplasty. We tested the effects of titanium alloy (Ti-alloy) and PMMA particles on monocyte/macrophage expression of the C-C chemokines, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), monocyte inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1alpha), and regulated upon activation normal T expressed and secreted protein (RANTES). Periprosthetic granulomatous tissue was analysed for expression of macrophage chemokines by immunohistochemistry. Chemokine expression in human monocytes/macrophages exposed to Ti-alloy and PMMA particles in vitro was determined by RT-PCR, ELISA and monocyte migration. We observed MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha expression in all tissue samples from failed arthroplasties. Ti-alloy and PMMA particles increased expression of MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha in macrophages in vitro in a dose- and time-dependent manner whereas RANTES was not detected. mRNA signal levels for MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha were also observed in cells after exposure to particles. Monocyte migration was stimulated by culture medium collected from macrophages exposed to Ti-alloy and PMMA particles. Antibodies to MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha inhibited chemotactic activity of the culture medium samples. Release of C-C chemokines by macrophages in response to wear particles may contribute to chronic inflammation at the bone-implant interface in total joint arthroplasty.  (+info)

Human immunodeficiency virus replication induces monocyte chemotactic protein-1 in human macrophages and U937 promonocytic cells. (5/4001)

We have recently described a significant correlation between human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) RNA replication and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of individuals with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) with HIV encephalitis (E). Because local macrophages (microglia) are the cells predominantly infected in the brain, we investigated whether in vitro HIV infection affects MCP-1 production in mononuclear phagocytes (MP). MCP-1 secretion and expression were consinstently upregulated over constitutive levels in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) infected with the M-tropic R5 BaL strain of HIV-1. HIV replication was required for this effect, as demonstrated by the absence of chemokine upregulation after infection in the presence of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythimidine (AZT) or cell-exposure to heat-inactivated (triangle up degrees ) virus. MCP-1 induction was not restricted to HIV-1 BaL, but was also observed during productive infection of MDM with two primary isolates differing for entry coreceptor usage and of U937 cells with the X4 HIV-1 MN strain. Based on the observation that exogenous HIV-1 Tat induced MCP-1 expression in astrocytes, we also investigated its role in MDM and U937 cells. Exogenous Tat induced MCP-1 production from MDM in a concentration-dependent manner, however, it was not effective on uninfected U937 cells or on the chronically infected U937-derived cell line U1. Transfection of Tat-expressing plasmids moderately activated HIV expression in U1 cells, but failed to induce MCP-1 expression in this cell line or in uninfected U937 cells. HIV replication-dependent expression of MCP-1 in MP may be of particular relevance for the pathogenesis of HIV infection in nonlymphoid organs such as the brain.  (+info)

Chemokine expression in CF epithelia: implications for the role of CFTR in RANTES expression. (6/4001)

To delineate the mechanisms that facilitate leukocyte migration into the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung, expression of chemokines, including interleukin-8 (IL-8), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and RANTES, was compared between CF and non-CF airway epithelia. The findings presented herein demonstrate that, under either basal conditions or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)- and/or interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-stimulated conditions, a consistent pattern of differences in the secretion of IL-8 and MCP-1 between CF and non-CF epithelial cells was not observed. In contrast, CF epithelial cells expressed no detectable RANTES protein or mRNA under basal conditions or when stimulated with TNF-alpha and/or IFN-gamma (P +info)

Angiotensin II plays a pathogenic role in immune-mediated renal injury in mice. (7/4001)

Several lines of evidence show the importance of angiotensin II (AII) in renal injuries, especially when hemodynamic abnormalities are involved. To elucidate the role of AII in immune-mediated renal injury, we studied anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) nephritis in AII type 1a receptor (AT1a)-deficient homozygous (AT1a-/-) and wild-type (AT1a+/+) mice. A transient activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) was observed in both groups of mice at around day 1. A renal expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) was transiently induced at six hours in both groups, which was then downregulated at day 1. In the AT1a+/+ mice, after RAS activation, the glomerular expression of MCP-1 was exacerbated at days 7 and 14. Thereafter, severe proteinuria developed, and the renal expressions of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) and collagen type I increased, resulting in severe glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis. In contrast, glomerular expression of MCP-1, proteinuria, and tissue damage were markedly ameliorated in the AT1a-/- mice. Because this amelioration is likely due to the lack of AT1a, we can conclude that AII action, mediated by AT1a, plays a pathogenic role in anti-GBM nephritis, in which AII may contribute to the exacerbation of glomerular MCP-1 expression. These results suggest the involvement of AII in immune-mediated renal injuries.  (+info)

MCP-1 deficiency reduces susceptibility to atherosclerosis in mice that overexpress human apolipoprotein B. (8/4001)

The earliest recognizable atherosclerotic lesions are fatty streaks composed of lipid-laden macrophages (foam cells). Circulating monocytes are the precursors of these foam cells, but the molecular mechanisms that govern macrophage trafficking through the vessel wall are poorly understood. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), a member of the chemokine (chemotactic cytokine) family, is a potent monocyte agonist that is upregulated by oxidized lipids. Recent studies in hypercholesterolemic mice lacking apo E or the low-density lipoprotein receptor have suggested a role for MCP-1 in monocyte recruitment to early atherosclerotic lesions. To determine if MCP-1 is critically involved in atherogenesis in the setting of elevated physiological plasma cholesterol levels, we deleted the MCP-1 gene in transgenic mice expressing human apo B. Here we report that the absence of MCP-1 provides dramatic protection from macrophage recruitment and atherosclerotic lesion formation in apo B transgenic mice, without altering lipoprotein metabolism. Taken together with the results of earlier studies, these data provide compelling evidence that MCP-1 plays a critical role in the initiation of atherosclerosis.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Anti-Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 Gene Therapy Attenuates Left Ventricular Remodeling and Failure After Experimental Myocardial Infarction. AU - Hayashidani, Shunji. AU - Tsutsui, Hiroyuki. AU - Shiomi, Tetsuya. AU - Ikeuchi, Masaki. AU - Matsusaka, Hidenori. AU - Suematsu, Nobuhiro. AU - Wen, Jing. AU - Egashira, Kensuke. AU - Takeshita, Akira. PY - 2003/10/28. Y1 - 2003/10/28. N2 - Background - Increased expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) has recently been described in clinical and experimental failing heart. However, its pathophysiological significance in heart failure remains obscure. We thus determined whether MCP-1 is increased in post-myocardial infarction (MI) hearts and its blockade can attenuate the development of left ventricular (LV) remodeling and failure. Methods and Results - Anterior MI was produced in mice by ligating the left coronary artery. After 4 weeks, MI mice exerted LV dilatation and contractile dysfunction in association with ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ovarian kisspeptin expression is related to age and to monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. AU - Merhi, Zaher. AU - Thornton, Kimberley. AU - Bonney, Elizabeth. AU - Cipolla, Marilyn J.. AU - Charron, Maureen J.. AU - Buyuk, Erkan. PY - 2016/2/15. Y1 - 2016/2/15. N2 - Purpose: The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that ovarian kisspeptin (kiss1) and its receptor (kiss1r) expression are affected by age, obesity, and the age- and obesity-related chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Methods: Ovaries from reproductive-aged and older C57BL/6J mice fed normal chow (NC) or high-fat (HF) diet, ovaries from age-matched young MCP-1 knockout and young control mice on NC, and finally, cumulus and mural granulosa cells (GCs) from women who underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF) were collected. Kiss1, kiss1r, anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), and AMH receptor (AMHR-II) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels were quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Relationship between dietary folate intake and plasma monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interleukin-8 in heart failure patients. AU - Chung, Hye Kyung. AU - Kim, Oh Yoen. AU - Lee, Hyeran. AU - Do, Hyun Joo. AU - Kim, Young Soon. AU - Oh, Jaewon. AU - Kang, Seok Min. AU - Shin, Min-Jeong. PY - 2011/7/1. Y1 - 2011/7/1. N2 - This study aimed to axamine the association of dietary vitamin intakes with plasma pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in Korean heart failure patients. Stable outpatients with heart failure were recruited and finally 91 patients were included. Dietary intakes were estimated by a developed semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The simultaneous measurement of 17 cytokines was performed along with analysis of plasma C-reactive protein. Plasma C-reactive protein levels significantly correlated with dietary intakes of vitamin C (r = -0.30, p,0.005), β-carotene (r = -0.23, p,0.05), and folate (r = -0.31, p,0.005). However, these associations were no ...
Results Compared with those in control group (AA:17.81%, GA:49.31%, GG:32.88%, G allele: 57.53%), respectively, no significant differences were revealed in frequencies of any genotypes and G allele of the MCP-1 gene -2518G/A in ACS group (AA: 16.27%, GA: 51.20%, GG: 32.53%, G allele:58.13%), AMI group (AA: 11.70%, GA: 51.06%, GG: 37.24%, G allele: 62.77%) and UAP group (AA: 22.22%, GA: 51.39%, GG: 26.39%, G allele: 52.08%) (all p values,0.05). Multivariate including age, gender, plasma lipids level, history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and smoking logistic regression analysis showed that MCP-1 gene -2518 G/A polymorphism was not associated with an increased risk of ACS, AMI and UAP (all p values,0.05). The serum MCP-1 level (M/IQR) was significantly higher in ACS group (157.44/241.82 pg/ml), AMI group (157.44/245.67 pg/ml) and UAP group (157.14/231.95 pg/ml) than that of in the control group (80.96/89.17 pg/ml) (all p values ,0.01). No significant difference was found in the serum MCP-1 ...
Invitrogen™ eBioscience™ Human MCP-1 Platinum ELISA Kit 96 tests Invitrogen™ eBioscience™ Human MCP-1 Platinum ELISA Kit MCP-1 ELISA...
AlphaLISA no-wash assay kit for detection and quantitation of Human Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (CCL2 / MCP1) in serum, buffered solution or cell culture medium.
Depression is associated with immunological responses as reflected by altered levels of circulating cytokines. Alcohol use and trauma may modulate immune activity, and few studies have investigated these factors in depressed patients. We aimed to explore the association between circulating peripheral cytokine levels and degree of depressive symptoms, taking trauma and alcohol into account. The study was a cross-sectional assessment of patients at admission to a specialized psychiatric center in Norway. A total of 128 patients were included. Information was gathered using the self-administered questionnaires Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), in addition to clinical interviews recording childhood or adult life trauma. Serum levels of the cytokines Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist (IL-1RA), Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) and the chemokine Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1) were assessed. A Luminex bead
Mouse anti Human MCP-3 antibody, clone h.mcp.3 recognizes human C-C motif chemokine 7, also known as Monocyte chemoattractant protein 3, M
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 8--also known as monocyte chemoattractant protein 2 (MCP-2), HC14, SCYA8, or SCYA10--is a protein encoded by the CCL8 gene. The precursor protein (109 amino acids) is cleaved to produce mature CCL8 (75 amino acids). CCL8 activates many different immune cells, including mast cells, eosinophils, and basophils (implicated in allergic responses), and monocytes, T cells, and NK cells (involved in the inflammatory response). CCL8 acts through binding to several different cell surface chemokine receptors, including CCR1, CCR2B, and CCR5 (one of the major co-receptors for HIV-1).. ...
Conference Paper: Association of the monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) promoter polymorphism with tuberculosis in the Hong Kong Chinese ...
Mellado M., Rodriguez-Frade J.M., Aragay A., del Real G., Martin A.M., Vila-Coro A.J., Serrano A., Mayor F. Jr., Martinez-A C.. The chemokines are a growing family of low m.w., 70-to 80-residue proinflammatory cytokines that operate by interacting with G protein-coupled receptors. Chemokines are involved in cell migration and in the activation of specific leukocyte subsets. Using the Mono Mac 1 monocytic cell line, we show that monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) triggers activation of the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/STAT3 pathway and CCR2 receptor tyrosine phosphorylation. Both Ca2+ mobilization and cell migration are blocked in Mono Mac 1 cells by tyrphostin B42, a specific JAK2 kinase inhibitor. Within seconds of MCP-1 activation, JAK2 phosphorylates CCR2 at the Tyr139 position and promotes JAK2/STAT3 complex association to the receptor. This MCP-1-initiated phosphorylation and association to JAK2 is also observed in CCR2B-transfected HEK293 cells. In contrast, when a CCR2B Tyr139Phe mutant is ...
Ohta, M., Kitadai, Y., Tanaka, S., Yoshihara, M., Yasui, W., Mukaida, N., Haruma, K. and Chayama, K. (2002), Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression correlates with macrophage infiltration and tumor vascularity in human esophageal squamous cell carcinomas. Int. J. Cancer, 102: 220-224. doi: 10.1002/ijc.10705 ...
Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 -2518G/A gene polymorphism and the risk of nephropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus among Asians: a meta-analysis | Mao, Song; Huang, Songming | download | BookSC. Download books for free. Find books
Fish oils (FOs) have antiinflammatory effects and lower serum triglycerides. This study examined adipose and muscle inflammatory markers after treatment of humans with FOs and measured the effects of ω-3 fatty acids on adipocytes and macrophages in vitro. Insulin-resistant, nondiabetic subjects were treated with Omega-3-Acid Ethyl Esters (4 g/day) or placebo for 12 weeks. Plasma macrophage chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) levels were reduced by FO, but the levels of other cytokines were unchanged. The adipose (but not muscle) of FO-treated subjects demonstrated a decrease in macrophages, a decrease in MCP-1, and an increase in capillaries, and subjects with the most macrophages demonstrated the greatest response to treatment. Adipose and muscle ω-3 fatty acid content increased after treatment; however, there was no change in insulin sensitivity or adiponectin. In vitro, M1-polarized macrophages expressed high levels of MCP-1. The addition of ω-3 fatty acids reduced MCP-1 expression with no ...
In the present study, we showed that gene transfer of rat MCP-1 to the vascular wall of the carotid artery induced early histological changes associated with atherosclerosis in rabbits treated with a high cholesterol diet. Gene transfer of MCP-1 alone in the absence of hypercholesterolemia failed to induce the vascular lesion. The histological changes associated with atherosclerosis were not detected in carotid arteries when rabbits were treated with a high cholesterol diet for 4 weeks in the absence of MCP-1 gene transfer. The vascular lesion developed by MCP-1 gene transfer under hypercholesterolemia is in accordance with fatty streaks or intimal xanthoma, which occurs in the early phase of atherosclerosis.14,15. An increasing amount of evidence has demonstrated the important role of MCP-1 in the initiation and development of atherosclerosis.16,17 In addition to the potent chemoattractant action for circulating monocytes, MCP-1 exerts various effects on monocytes/macrophages. MCP-1 induces the ...
The importance of MCP-1 for mononuclear cell recruitment has been shown in various animal models of disease (9-13). Our results confirm that peritoneal MΦ recruitment after thioglycollate is significantly reduced in MCP-1 KO mice, and we demonstrate for the first time the importance of this chemokine for NK cell and MΦ recruitment during acute humoral rejection. By performing the transplant study in a xenogeneic model, it was possible to differentiate between MCP-1 made by donor tissue from that made by recipient. Only the former was associated with infiltration into rejecting hearts.. Results from complimentary but distinct experimental approaches, using either WT or PAR-1 KO hearts transplanted into defibinogenated rats or CD31-Hir-Tg hearts transplanted into unmanipulated rats, showed that PAR-1 activation on donor cells was necessary to generate sufficient quantities of donor MCP-1 to promote leukocyte infiltration. Similarly, MCP-1 generation and MΦ recruitment into the inflamed ...
Bachem offers H-5826 Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 (human) for your research. Find all specific details here. Find product specific information including available pack sizes, CAS, detailed description and references here.
Product Name: Mouse mAb anti- human MCP-1 / MCAF, Clone S382Collection: AntibodySub Category: Monoclonal AntibodyImmunogen: Purified recombinant human MCP-1Host
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1DOM: Heteronuclear (1H, 13C, 15N) NMR assignments and solution structure of the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) dimer.
By Northern analysis, freshly isolated monocytes contained no detectable mRNA for monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). However, after 4 hours of incubation at 37 degrees C, MCP-1 mRNA was clearly induced in the monocytes and was found to be highly dependent and directly proportional to the monocyte density. The level of MCP-1 mRNA continued to increase, reaching a peak after 22 hours of incubation. After 3 days in culture, MCP-1 mRNA levels had declined substantially and after 8 days were undetectable in the monocytes/macrophages. The amount of MCP-1 protein secreted correlated with the density-dependent increase in MCP-1 message. We hypothesize that the migration of monocytes into inflammatory lesions may be amplified by the density and time-dependent induction of MCP-1. ...
Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 3 (MCP-3), also called CCL7, is produced by macrophages and some tumor cell lines. MCP-3 signals through three different G protein-coupled receptors, CCR1, CCR2, and CCR3. CCL7 chemoattracts monocytes and can regulate macrophage function. Alternate Names: CCL7, MARC
Mouse C-C Motif Chemokine 2 / Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 (CCL2/MCP1) standard, for use in running standard curves in AlphaLISA no-wash detection assays.
Product Name: Mouse mAb anti- human MCP-1 / MCAF, Tracer (HRP Labeled), Clone S101Collection: AntibodySub Category: Matched Antibody PairsImmunogen: Purified
Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) also known as monocyte chemotactic and activating factor (MCAF) was identified based on its ability to chemoattract monocytes. Subsequently, MCP-1 has also been found to regulate adhesion molecule expression and cytokine production in monocytes. MCP-1 is identi
Reaktivität: Meerschweinchen - Probe: Serum, Cell Culture Supernatant. | Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 8 (CCL8) ELISA Kit (ABIN628807).
Recombinant Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 17 (CCL17) 蛋白. 宿主: 人. 宿主: 大肠杆菌(E. Coli). 产品编号 ABIN2469118.
Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-3 Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a non-glycosylated, Polypeptide chain containing 76 amino acids.
CCL7/MCP-3/MARC Proteins available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our CCL7/MCP-3/MARC Protein catalog backed by our Guarantee+.
CCL7/MCP-3/MARC Proteins available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our CCL7/MCP-3/MARC Protein catalog backed by our Guarantee+.
Ccl2 - Ccl2 (untagged) - Mouse chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (Ccl2), (10ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Looking for online definition of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 in the Medical Dictionary? Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 explanation free. What is Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1? Meaning of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 medical term. What does Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 mean?
PURPOSE: To characterize the reactions of retinal glial cells (astrocytes and Müller cells) to retinal injury in mice that lack glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin (GFAP-/-Vim-/-) and to determine the role of glial cells in retinal detachment (RD)-induced photoreceptor degeneration. METHODS: RD was induced by subretinal injection of sodium hyaluronate in adult wild-type (WT) and GFAP-/-Vim-/- mice. Astroglial reaction and subsequent monocyte recruitment were quantified by measuring extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) and c-fos activation and the level of expression of chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and by counting monocytes/microglia in the detached retinas. Immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used. RD-induced photoreceptor degeneration was assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) and measurement of outer ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 8--also known as monocyte chemoattractant protein 2 (MCP-2), HC14, SCYA8, or SCYA10--is a protein encoded by the CCL8 gene. The precursor protein (109 amino acids) is cleaved to produce mature CCL8 (75 amino acids). CCL8 activates many different immune cells, including mast cells, eosinophils, and basophils (implicated in allergic responses), and monocytes, T cells, and NK cells (involved in the inflammatory response). CCL8 acts through binding to several different cell surface chemokine receptors, including CCR1, CCR2B, and CCR5 (one of the major co-receptors for HIV-1).. ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 13 (CCL13) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. Its gene is located on human chromosome 17 within a large cluster of other CC chemokines. CCL13 induces chemotaxis in monocytes, eosinophils, T lymphocytes, and basophils by binding cell surface G-protein linked chemokine receptors such as CCR2, CCR3 and CCR5. Activity of this chemokine has been implicated in allergic reactions such as asthma. CCL13 can be induced by the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 and TNF-α. Garcia-Zepeda EA, et al.. Human monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-4 is a novel CC chemokine with activities on monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils induced in allergic and no allergic inflammation that signals through the CC chemokine receptors (CCR)-2 and -3. J Immunol. 1996;157:5613-5626 Naruse et al., A YAC contig of the human CC chemokine genes clustered on chromosome 17q11.2. Genomics. 1996, 34(2):236-40. Blanpain et al., CCR5 binds multiple CC-chemokines: MCP-3 acts as a ...
Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a CC chemokine that attracts monocytes and T lymphocytes in vitro; however, its in vivo functions are poorly understood. To address this question, we constructed transgenic mice expressing MCP-1 controlled by an insulin promoter. These mice developed a chronic insulitic infiltrate composed of F4/80+ monocytes with minor populations of CD4+, CD8+, and B220+ cells. Despite persistent transgene expression, the insulitis never progressed, and blood glucose levels remained normal. Thus, MCP-1 alone is sufficient to elicit a monocytic infiltrate, but not to activate elicited cells. These results differ from those obtained with another transgenic model using the mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat, in which mice expressed substantial MCP-1 in several organs but had no infiltrates. However, mice expressing both transgenes had minimal insulitis, indicating that high systemic levels of MCP-1 prevented monocytes from responding to local MCP-1. Thus, ...
Abbkine Scientific has officially announced the release of its EliKine™ Human CCL2 ELISA Kit. The product also is known as the Human MCP1 ELISA Kit which is unique for its high sensitivity and excellent specificity.. The chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) is also referred to as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) and small inducible cytokine A2. Other alternative names include MCP-1, HC11, MCAF, HSMCR30, SMC-CF, GDCF-2, SCYA2, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, monocyte secretory protein JE. CCL2 is a small cytokine that belongs to the CC chemokine family. CCL2 recruits monocytes, memory T cells, and dendritic cells to the sites of inflammation produced by either tissue injury or infection. Abbkine newly launched EliKine™ Human CCL2/MCP-1 ELISA Kit exerts high sensibility and specificity for the quantification of Human CCL2/MCP-1 in various samples to CCL2 level determination.. The Human MCP1 ELISA Kit comes with different features and benefits that stand it out from its ...
Abbkine Scientific has officially announced the release of its EliKine™ Human CCL2 ELISA Kit. The product also is known as the Human MCP1 ELISA Kit which is unique for its high sensitivity and excellent specificity.. The chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) is also referred to as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) and small inducible cytokine A2. Other alternative names include MCP-1, HC11, MCAF, HSMCR30, SMC-CF, GDCF-2, SCYA2, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, monocyte secretory protein JE. CCL2 is a small cytokine that belongs to the CC chemokine family. CCL2 recruits monocytes, memory T cells, and dendritic cells to the sites of inflammation produced by either tissue injury or infection. Abbkine newly launched EliKine™ Human CCL2/MCP-1 ELISA Kit exerts high sensibility and specificity for the quantification of Human CCL2/MCP-1 in various samples to CCL2 level determination.. The Human MCP1 ELISA Kit comes with different features and benefits that stand it out from its ...
Many lines of evidence indicate that MCP-1 recruits monocytes into atherosclerotic lesions and the inflamed peritoneum of mice, where the cells differentiate into macrophages (14-16). The observation that macrophages accumulate in adipose tissue of obese mice and humans (9,10) coupled with the finding that obese humans have elevated MCP-1 expression in their adipose tissue and increased circulating levels of MCP-1 (24,38,39) led to the proposal that MCP-1 might promote macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue and enhance diet-induced obesity (40,41). Studies from two groups using male mice deficient in CCR2 or MCP-1 appeared to support this suggestion (26,27), although the macrophage content of adipose tissue changed only modestly. In contrast, we found no evidence that macrophage accumulation is impaired in adipose tissue of male Mcp1−/− mice fed a high-fat diet for either 10 or 16 weeks. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated higher levels of Mac2, a macrophage-specific protein, in epididymal, ...
For the ICAO airport code see Candle Lake Airpark, for the diradical compound see Dichlorocarbene. The chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) is also referred to as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) and small inducible cytokine A2. CCL2 is a small cytokine that belongs to the CC chemokine family. CCL2 recruits monocytes, memory T cells, and dendritic cells to the sites of inflammation produced by either tissue injury or infection. In the human genome, CCL2 and many other CC chemokines are located on chromosome 17 (17q11.2-q21.1). The gene span is 1,927 bases and the CCL2 gene resides on the Watson (plus) strand. The CCL2 gene has three exons and two introns. The CCL2 protein precursor contains a signal peptide of 23 amino acids. In turn, the mature CCL2 is 76 amino acids long. The CCL2 predicted weight is 11.025 kiloDaltons (kDa). The gene homologous to CCL2 in the mouse is Sig-je. In humans, the levels of CCL2 can vary considerably. In the white people of European descent, the ...
Direct cell-to-cell contact regulates a variety of cellular functions, including cell activation and cytokine production.42 43 45 We attempted to determine whether the interaction between monocytes and endothelial cells induces MCP-1 production from these cell types, because this interaction constantly occurs in recruitment of monocytes and because production of MCP-1 would affect subsequent monocyte transendothelial migration. Our results indicate that migrated monocytes express MCP-1 protein during the process of transmigration. Cocultures of resting monocytes and unstimulated or IL-1-prestimulated endothelial cell monolayers induced an increase in the amounts of soluble MCP-1 secreted into the medium. MCP-1 secreted in supernatants exhibited chemotactic and transendothelial activities for monocytes, and its biological effect was confirmed by the disappearance of the activity in the presence of anti-MCP-1 Ab. Quantification of mRNA levels indicates that augmentation was mediated at the level ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Zhenyu Yao, Michael Keeney, Tzu-Hua Lin, Jukka Pajarinen, Katherine Barcay, Heather Waters, Kensuke Egashira, Fan Yang, Stuart Goodman].
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INCB 3284 is an orally active, small molecule antagonist of the chemokine receptor CCR2. CCR2 is a receptor for monocyte chemoattractant proteins such as MCP-1
Publication date: 19 November 2015 Source:Chemistry & Biology, Volume 22, Issue 11 Author(s): Carole Urbach, Nathaniel C. Gordon, Ian Strickland, David Lowne, Cathy Joberty-Candotti, Richard May, Athula Herath, DirkJan Hijnen, Judith L. Thijs, Carla A. Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Ralph R. Minter, Florian Hollfelder, Lutz Jermutus The practical realization of disease modulation by catalytic degradation of a therapeutic target protein suffers from the difficulty to identify candidate proteases, or to engineer their specificity. We identified 23 measurable, specific, and new protease activities using combinatorial screening of 27 human proteases against 24 therapeutic protein targets. We investigate the cleavage of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-13 by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and serine proteases, and demonstrate that cleavage of IL-13 leads to potent inhibition of its biological activity in vitro. MMP-8 degraded human IL-13 most efficiently in vitro and ex vivo in ...
It has been shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) greatly affect the functions of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), but the effects of mRNAs under diabetic conditions remain unclear.Using a model of diabetic db/db mice, we studied the functions of microRNA-135a (miR-135a) during VSMC dysfunction.Compared to control WT mice, miR-135a expression in VSMC was significantly increased while the level of forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) protein decreased significantly. After transfecting miR-135a mimics into VSMC, the expression of FOXO1 was decreased, while cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression levels were increased, thus promoting the interaction between monocytes and WT VSMC ...
Interleukin, T Cells, Il-4, Regulation, Transcription Factor, Chemokines, Mouse, Calcium, Cell, Chemoattractants, Arthritides, Arthritis, Disease, Virus, and Alphavirus
Compare C-C motif chemokine 23 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
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The κ statistic provided a measure of interobserver agreement independent of chance on the eligibility of randomised controlled trials. We calculated, for each of the five categories of outcomes, the median event rate and the interquartile range for the control group as well as the effect of the intervention within the category by using the authors reporting of relative risk, odds ratio, or hazard ratio. To ensure independence of observations within categories of importance to patients, we selected only one end point in each category for each composite end point to make these calculations; where a composite included more than one end point in the same category, we selected the end point with the highest event rate in the control group. To estimate the effect of the intervention across trials and within each category, we used random effects meta-analyses with an inverse variance approach. This method is conservative, in that it considers both within study and between study differences in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of tumor necrosis factor-α on podocyte expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and in diabetic nephropathy. AU - Chung, Choon Hee. AU - Fan, Jingyi. AU - Lee, Eun Young. AU - Kang, Jeong Suk. AU - Lee, Seung Joo. AU - Pyagay, Petr E.. AU - Khoury, Charbel C.. AU - Yeo, Tet Kin. AU - Khayat, Mark F.. AU - Wang, Amy. AU - Chen, Sheldon. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - Background/Aims: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is believed to play a role in diabetic kidney disease. This study explores the specific effects of TNF-α with regard to nephropathy-relevant parameters in the podocyte. Methods: Cultured mouse podocytes were treated with recombinant TNF-α and assayed for production of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). TNF-α signaling of MCP-1 was elucidated by antibodies against TNF receptor (TNFR) 1 or TNFR2 or inhibitors of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) or Akt. In vivo ...
1 x 96-well, includes coupled magnetic beads and detection antibodies for detecting human MCP-1 / CCL2, requires reagent kit C III (171-304090 for vacuum separation or 171-304090M for magnetic separation) and a vial of standards (171-DK0001)
1 x 96-well, includes coupled magnetic beads and detection antibodies for detecting human MCP-1 / CCL2, requires reagent kit C III (171-304090 for vacuum separation or 171-304090M for magnetic separation) and a vial of standards (171-DK0001)
Looking for online definition of C-C motif chemokine 2 in the Medical Dictionary? C-C motif chemokine 2 explanation free. What is C-C motif chemokine 2? Meaning of C-C motif chemokine 2 medical term. What does C-C motif chemokine 2 mean?
Recruitment of macrophages to sites of cell death is critical for induction of an immunologic response. Calcium concentrations in extracellular fluids vary markedly, and are particularly high at sites of injury or infection. We hypothesized that extracellular calcium participates in modulating the immune response, perhaps acting via the seven-transmembrane calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) on mature monocytes/macrophages. We observed a dose-dependent increase in monocyte chemotaxis in response to extracellular calcium or the selective allosteric CaR activator NPS R-467. In contrast, monocytes derived from mice deficient in CaR lacked the normal chemotactic response to a calcium gradient. Notably, CaR activation of monocytes bearing the receptor synergistically augmented the transmigration response of monocytes to the chemokine MCP-1 in association with increased cell-surface expression of its cognate receptor, CCR2. Conversely, stimulation of monocytes with MCP-1 or SDF-1α reciprocally increased ...
Previously, we showed that a chemokine CCL2 recruits IMs to metastatic sites where they differentiate to MAMs (Qian et al., 2011). In this study, we revealed a novel role for CCL2 as a trigger of a prometastatic chemokine cascade involving CCL3 signaling via CCR1 that is required for efficient metastasis. These data illustrate a signaling relay that amplifies the pathology already in the system by promoting retention of recruited monocytes that stimulate tumor cell establishment at the metastatic site.. Our in vivo and in vitro results indicate that CCL2 can increase CCL3 expression in MAMs at the metastasis site. The CCL2-induced CCL3 expression is likely to be specific to the prometastatic macrophage lineage, as neutralization of CCL2 by antibodies significantly reduced Ccl3 expression in IMs and MAMs, but not in resident monocytes or macrophages. Consistent with this interpretation, expression of Ccl3 was highest in MAMs compared with other leukocytes in the tumor-bearing lung. Importantly, a ...
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MAA087Hu22, CCL2; GDCF2; HC11; HSMCR30; MCAF; MCP1; SCYA2; SMC-CF; Chemokine C-C-Motif Ligand 2; Monocyte Chemotactic And Activating Factor; Monocyte Secretory Protein JE | Products for research use only!
PAA087Bo01, CCL2; GDCF2; HC11; HSMCR30; MCAF; MCP1; SCYA2; SMC-CF; Chemokine C-C-Motif Ligand 2; Monocyte Chemotactic And Activating Factor; Monocyte Secretory Protein JE | Products for research use only!
Novel human chemokine receptors, MCP-1RA and MCP-1RB, and processes for producing them are disclosed. The receptors, which are alternately spliced versions of MCP-1 receptor protein may be used in an assay to identify antagonists of MCP-1 which are therapeutically useful in the treatment of atherosclerosis and other diseases characterized by monocytic infiltrates.
Polyclonal antibody for PARC/CCL18 detection. Host: Rabbit.Size: 100μg/vial. Tested applications: ELISA. Reactive species: Human. PARC/CCL18 information: Molecular Weight: 9849 MW; Subcellular Localization: Secreted; Tissue Specificity: Expressed at high
Complete information for CCL15-CCL14 gene (RNA Gene), CCL15-CCL14 Readthrough (NMD Candidate), including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for CCL13 gene (Protein Coding), C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 13, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
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MCP1 / CCL2 antibody [24822] (chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2) for Neut, WB. Anti-MCP1 / CCL2 mAb (GTX10390) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Cytokines are a family of secreted proteins involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. The CC cytokines are proteins characterized by…
Secreted Ectodomain of Sialic Acid-Binding Ig-like Lectin-9 and Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 Promote Recovery after Rat Spinal Cord Injury by Altering Macrophage PolaritySecreted Ectodomain of Sialic Acid-Binding Ig-like Lectin-9 and Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 Promote Recovery after Rat Spinal Cord Injury by Altering Macrophage Polarity ...
Inflammation and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) contribute to the development of peritoneal fibrosis (PF), which is associated with peritoneal dialysis (PD). Astragalus membranaceus (Astragalus) has anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects in many diseases. The goal of this study was to determine the anti-fibrotic effects of Astragalus on the PF response to PD. A rat model of PD was induced using standard PD fluid, and PF was verified by HE and Massons staining, as well as through the expression of fibroblast surface protein (FSP) and collagen III. The expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, F4/80 (macrophage/monocyte marker in rat), TGF-β1 and the downstream proteins phospho-SMAD 2/3 in dialyzed peritoneal tissue treated with or without Astragalus was evaluated using immunohistochemistry analysis. Overall correlations between MCP-1 and TGF-β1 staining were analyzed using both the Spearman and Pearson methods. The results showed that Astragalus could inhibit the
To the Editor:. We have read the excellent article by de Lemos et al1 on the prognostic significance of the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in the long-term clinical outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Because MCP-1 has been shown to be related to atherosclerosis development,2 we measured the concentration of this chemokine in blood drawn from the coronary sinus in a small sample of unstable angina patients (n=24). All of them had an ejection fraction ,50% and no history of current inflammatory diseases, recent (3 months) myocardial necrosis, coronary angioplasty, or bypass surgery (1 year). Coronary angiograms were evaluated separately and blindly by 2 cardiologists, and a score of severity was created by totaling points (0, normal; 1, minimal to 30% stenosis; 2, 50% stenosis; 3, 70% to 90% stenosis; and 4, total occlusion) at 29 predefined arterial segments according to the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation (BARI).3 The range of scores was 1 to 29 ...
Background. Only a subset of individuals infected with Trypanosoma cruzi develop chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC). Familial aggregation of CCC in areas of endemicity indicates that susceptibility may be genetic, which may be a plausible explanation for why only one-third of T. cruzi-infected individuals develop CCC. The monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (CCL2/MCP-1) has been shown to enhance the uptake of T. cruzi in murine macrophages and to up-regulate the inducible nitric oxide synthase/nitic oxide system, with a consequent increased production of nitric oxide that controls the replication of the parasite.. Methods. We assessed CCL2 variants at position -2518A/G, which are known to influence transcriptional activity, by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment-length polymorphism in 245 individuals, all of whom were infected with T. cruzi. One hundred sixty-nine patients had CCC, and 76 were asymptomatic.. Results. Genotype distributions differed between the CCC and asymptomatic ...
The objective of this study was to determine whether CCL2 is the primary ligand involved in CCR2-dependent development of T1-type immunity. Using a pulmonary C. neoformans infection model, neutralization of CCL2 or deletion of CCR2 result in comparable macrophage and T cell recruitment deficits as well as a similar switch from T1- to T2-type cytokine production within the infected lung. However, CCL2 neutralization does not result in pulmonary eosinophilia nor does it produce an IFN-γ defect within the draining lymph nodes, as does CCR2 deletion. These results suggest that the efferent phase of cell-mediated immunity (mononuclear cell recruitment) uses the CCL2/CCR2 signaling axis, while the afferent phase (T1 polarization) involves a CCL2-independent, CCR2 signaling pathway.. The results presented in this study demonstrate that the CCR2/CCL2 signaling pathway is required for the efferent phase recruitment of macrophages and T cells during infection. Neutralization of CCL2 in wild-type mice ...
The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) on the activation of human monocytes (THP-1). Cultured THP-1 cells were exposed to PEMF stimulation with radiation of 32Hz or 64Hz respectively, using sinusoidal wave, and 1mT, twice a day, 30 minutes each time, with an interval of 8 hours, for 3 days. Those with 0Hz stimulation served as the controls. Monocytes activation was monitored by measuring both the release of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) from monocytes and their adhesion to monolayers of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs was evaluated by cell counting method. The secretion of MCP-1 from THP-1 cells was detected by ELISA and MCP-1 mRNA expression was assessed by real time quantitative RT-PCR. The data showed that exposure to PEMF with above parameters could significantly inhibit the adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs and decrease the MCP-1 mRNA and protein expression. The results
CCL21 antibody (Biotin) (chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21C (leucine)) for ELISA, WB. Anti-CCL21 pAb (GTX74049) is tested in Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
We measured LIGHT levels in RA synovial fluids (SF) by ELISA, and compared them with those in osteoarthritis (OA) SF. Levels of LIGHT and its receptors in RA-FLS and synovium were assessed using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RA-FLS proliferation was examined by a bromodeoxyuridine assay. Expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and several chemokines, such as interleukin 8 (IL-8), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), was examined by real-time quantitative PCR, ELISA, and flow cytometry. The effects of LIGHT on nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation were investigated using immunofluorescence and Western blotting.. ...
The contribution of inflammation to the development of fibrosis varies in different conditions, and understanding the interaction between these processes is relevant to devise therapeutic strategies for chronic diseases such as pancreatitis. Identification of the chemokine system has elucidated the molecular mechanisms regulating leucocyte trafficking in a given tissue. Chemokines are a family of small cytokines that exert gradient dependent chemoattraction of cells bearing specific cognate receptors. The chemokine system is considerably complex, as indicated by the high number of ligands and receptors, and by the fact that the same chemokine may bind more than one receptor and the same receptor more than one chemokine.2 Additionally, the effects of chemokines are not limited to inflammation as the majority of cells express at least one chemokine receptor. A related aspect of chemokine biology is the distinction between "homeostatic" and "inflammatory" chemokines, where expression of the latter ...
OBJECTIVE: Both HIV infection and pre-eclampsia (PE) are associated with considerable maternal mortality in South Africa. This study was designed to compare the urinary levels of kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), calbindin, interleukin-18 (IL-18), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in HIV associated normotensive and preeclamptic pregnancies. METHODS: Following ethical approval and written consent, urine samples were collected from HIV negative (HIV -ve) normotensive pregnant (n = 19), HIV positive (HIV +ve) normotensive pregnant (n = 19), HIV -ve pre-eclamptic (n = 19) and HIV +ve pre-eclamptic (n = 19) women ...
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Mouse monoclonal CCL21 antibody [MM0146-2H26] validated for WB and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to recombinant full length protein
When two chemokine receptors in the brain interact, leukemic cells (stained green) creep out of a small vein in the membrane covering the brain of a mouse and enter the cerebrospinal fluid. The chemokine CCL19, which is in the endothelium lining the vein, is stained blue in this immunofluorescent image.
CCL12, hemokin (C-C motiv) ligand 12, je mali citokin iz CC hemokin familije koji je bio opisan kod miševa. On je takođe poznat kao monocitni hemotaksni protein 5 (MCP-5). Usled njegove sličnosti sa ljudskim hemokinom MCP-1, on se ponekad naziva MCP-1-slični hemokin. CCL12 specifično privlači eozinofile, monocite i limfocite.[1] Ovaj hemokin se prvenstveno nalazi u limfnim čvorovima i timusu pod normalnim uslovima. Njegovo izražavanje može biti snažno indukovano u makrofagama.[1][2] Smatra se da CCL12 koordinira ćelijsko kretanje u toku ranih alergijskih reakcija, i imunski odgovor na patogene. Gen za CCL12 se nalazi u klusteru CC hemokina na mišjem hromozomu 11.[2][3] ...
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适用: 人 - 样品类型: Serum, Plasma. - 1张图片 - 1个PubMed引用 | Order Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 2 (CCL2) ELISA Kit (ABIN491799).
Rapid, sustained induction of MCP-1 in inflamed skin precipitates monocyte/macrophage accumulation in draining PLNs. (A) Time course of monocyte/macrophage recr
In previous studies using mouse models, MCP-1 has been shown to play a protective role against pulmonary pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae (13, 45, 46), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2, 35), and Cryptococcus neoformans (20). In studies of pneumococcal and Pseudomonas pneumonia, inhibition of MCP-1 by antibodies reduced monocyte but not neutrophil recruitment (2, 13). MCP-1 has also been shown to be associated with the influx of T lymphocytes to inflammatory sites (10). Our results demonstrate that rMCP-1 in the presence or absence of E. coli infection causes neutrophil and macrophage influx into the lungs. Our findings also demonstrate attenuated macrophage and neutrophil counts in the lungs of the gene-deficient mice after E. coli challenge. These findings are consistent with an earlier report demonstrating that blocking MCP-1/CCR2 reduced neutrophil accumulation in the lung following i.t. treatment with MCP-1/LPS (30) or Cryptococcus neoformans infection (20). The Maus group (29) showed ...
Although the in vitro systems replicate some of the anatomical structures of BBB, they lack the shear stress, which plays an important role in maintaining the dynamic properties and integrity of BBB. Hence, we also performed the Evans Blue permeability assay in vivo (in wild-type and MCP1−/− mice) and obtained similar results to those described above for the in vitro model. However, the effect was more potent in MCP1−/− mice than in wild-type mice. It has been shown that MCP1 binds to and reduces membrane CCR2 levels (probably through endocytosis) (Jung et al., 2009; Yao and Tsirka, 2010). The dramatic change observed in MCP1−/− mice could be due to higher membrane CCR2 density, as in the absence of MCP1 there would be no recycling of CCR2 off the plasma membrane. To examine whether plasmin activity is indispensable, we also conducted experiments in mice deficient for tPA, which converts plasminogen into active plasmin. As expected, only K104Stop-MCP1 was functional in tPA−/− ...
Objective. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) is a chemokine involved into the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, and bears a prognostic value in the acute and chronic phases in patients with acute coronary syndromes.. Research Design and Methods. MCP-1/CCL2 concentration was measured in plasma fractions of 363 middle-aged overweight/obese individuals (age: 61±12 ys, BMI: 30.1±6.6 kg/m2, 15% with T2DM and 12% with impaired glucose tolerance) of a population survey carried out in 1990-1991 in Lombardy, Italy (Cremona Study), and cardiovascular (CVD) mortality was assessed in 2006 through Regional Health Registry files.. Results. At baseline MCP-1/CCL2 was increased in T2DM (P,0.05) and showed significant correlations with biochemical risk markers of atherosclerosis. After 15 years, among the 363 subjects 82 deaths occurred due to CVD. In univariate analysis age, sex, fasting glucose and insulin, fibrinogen, glucose tolerance status, smoking habit and MCP-1/CCL2 were associated with ...
Curcumin has also been mentioned to have a powerful suppressive impact on macrophage migration. A person latest examine working with an emulsified type of curcumin (nano-emulsified curcumin, (NEC)) administered to mice by oral gavage at 1g/kg diminished amounts of the macrophage recruiting component click here monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and diminished levels of blood monocytes (a precursor to macrophages). NEC also suppressed macrophage recruitment in a murine model for peritonitis and inhibited the migration of macrophage cell lines in vitro ...
Background: The present study was to explore the underlying mechanism of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and the level of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in hyperlipidemia rats. Methods: Rats were given with high fat diet and vitamin D3 by intragastric administration. After four weeks, the level of the plasma cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), MCP-1 and NF-κB were detected by immunohistochemical method and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: The levels of the plasma cholesterol and LDLC were higher than that of the control group. A significant in-crease for the expressions of MCP-1 and NF-κB was observed. Conclusion: This indi-cated that the activation of NF-κB could play a crucial role in glomerulus of hyperlipidemia rats.
NEX313 Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family that is also known as monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). It is found at the site of tooth eruption and bone degradation. In the bone, CCL2 is expressed by mature osteoclasts and osteoblasts and is under the control of nuclear factor κB (NFκB). ...
Our laboratory currently focuses on two major areas. 1. Engulfment of apoptotic cells - the art of eating a good meal. Everyday we turn over billions of cells as part of normal development and homeostasis. The recognition and phagocytic removal of such cells destined to die (mostly via apoptosis) is fundamentally important for our health. Failure to promptly and efficiently clear apoptotic cells can lead to chronic inflammation, autoimmunity and developmental defects. The apoptotic cell clearance is usually done by neighboring cells or by professional phagocytes such as macrophages and dendritic cells. In studying this process, we consider four broad issues related to eating an apoptotic meal. The first issue is getting to the meal itself. This involves the release of so called find-me signals from apoptotic cells that serve as attraction cues to recruit monocytes and macrophages near an apoptotic cell. We have recently identified a critical for the nucleotides ATP and UTP as find-me ...
In an obese state, Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) upregulates proinflammatory adipokines secretion including monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in adipose tissue. In contrast, G-protein coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) mediates antiobesity effects. The aim of this study was to determine the signaling …
Blocking of monocyte migration induced by supernatant of RA SCL stimulated with TNF-α. Monocyte migration induced by supernatants of RA SCLs (RA6/1 and RA8/3)
Polyclonal antibody for TARC/CCL17 detection. Host: Rabbit.Size: 100μg/vial. Tested applications: ELISA. Reactive species: Mouse. TARC/CCL17 information: Molecular Weight: 10467 MW; Subcellular Localization: Secreted .
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|p|Recombinant Human MCP4/CCL13 is a single non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 75 amino acids.|/p| |p|Background: MCP-4/CCL13 is a chemoattractant for monocytes and eosinophils, and activates basophils. In addition, it has been reported to be
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PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cytokine and chemokine transcription profile during Mycoplasma pulmonis infection in susceptible and resistant strains of mice. T2 - Macrophage inflammatory protein 1β (CCL4) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 2 (CCL8) and accumulation of CCR5+ Th cells. AU - Sun, Xiangle. AU - Jones, Harlan P.. AU - Hodge, Lisa M.. AU - Simecka, Jerry W.. PY - 2006/10/1. Y1 - 2006/10/1. N2 - The progression of murine mycoplasma pneumonia is dependent on T cells and other immune cells. The role of cytokines in immunity are complex, and identifying the network of cytokines produced after infection of mice is essential in dissecting the key cytokine cascades involved mycoplasma disease pathogenesis. In the present study, mRNA expression of 143 different cytokines, chemokines, or receptors were evaluated in lung tissues from both susceptible (BALB/c and C3H/HeN) and resistant (C57BL/6) mice after Mycoplasma pulmonis infection. To accomplish this, membrane-based cDNA microarrays were used to ...
Chemokines are a family of cytokines involved in the extravasation of leukocytes to the site of inflammation. 4 CCL2/monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), which is chemotactic for monocytes, 5 and CXCL8/IL-8, which chemoattracts neutrophils, 6 have been reported to be elevated in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) or serum of patients with active pulmonary sarcoidosis. 7 8 9 10 CCL3/macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), CCL4/MIP-1β, and CCL5/regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) also have been shown to be elevated in the BALF of patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis. 11 12 13 As a result of the findings that CCL3 and CCL5 share the same CC chemokine receptor (CCR5) that is expressed abundantly on Th1-type cells and that CCR5 mRNA expression is upregulated in BALF of patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis, these chemokines have been suggested to be involved in the recruitment of Th1 cells 14 from the circulation to the granulomas in pulmonary ...
BACKGROUND Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a heterogeneous chronic disease characterized by local inflammation of the sinonasal tissues. The pathogenesis of CRS remains controversial, but it has been associated with the accumulation of various immune and inflammatory cells in sinus tissue. OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of the chemokine CCL23, which is known to bind to CCR1 and recruit monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, in patients with CRS. METHODS We collected nasal tissue from patients with CRS and control subjects. We assayed mRNA for CCL23 by using real-time PCR and measured CCL23 protein by means of ELISA, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence. RESULTS CCL23 mRNA levels were significantly increased in nasal polyps (NPs) from patients with CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP; P | .05) compared with inferior turbinate and uncinate tissue from patients with CRS or control subjects. CCL23 protein levels were also increased in NPs, although
Lung cancer cells express different chemokines and chemokine receptors that modulate leukocyte infiltration within tumor microenvironment. The released CXCL1 was functionally linked to recruiting monocytes into lung cancer cell microenvironment. and in Lewis lung carcinomas (LLC) [10]. In human airway epithelium and bronchoalveolar macrophages, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and CXCL1 were buy BAM 7 constitutively expressed and upregulated buy BAM 7 by TNF- but not by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) [11]. In pathological conditions, various cancer and/or cancer cells express different chemokines and chemokine receptor that modulate leukocyte infiltration within tumor microenvironment, tumor growth and metastasis. For example, CXCL1 has been reported to be expressed in melanoma, breast, colon and ovarian cancer [3]. Non-small cell TSPAN11 lung cancer (NSCLC) biopsy specimens have high buy BAM 7 intratumoral concentrations of CXCR2 ligands (CXCL1, CXCL5, and CXCL8) and type 2 cytokines ...
positive regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production. • positive regulation of JUN kinase activity. • positive ... cancer and ovarian cancer showing prolonged disease stabilization in certain patients via downregulation of IL-6 and CCL2. On ... positive regulation of chemokine production. • cellular extravasation. • negative regulation of lipid storage. • negative ... positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • epithelial cell proliferation involved in salivary gland morphogenesis ...
Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
... as well as chemokine and cytokine production, and expression of adhesion molecules such as E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. This ... Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • regulation of insulin secretion. • extrinsic apoptotic signaling ... Copeland KF (2006). "Modulation of HIV-1 transcription by cytokines and chemokines". Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry. 5 (12 ... Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
chemokine activity. • cytokine activity. • heparin binding. • protein binding. • CXCR3 chemokine receptor binding. ... C-X-C motif chemokine 11 is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also called Interferon-inducible T- ... "Entrez Gene: CXCL11 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11".. *^ a b Cole KE, Strick CA, Paradis TJ, Ogborne KT, Loetscher M, Gladue ... This chemokine elicits its effects on its target cells by interacting with the cell surface chemokine receptor CXCR3, with a ...
Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ...
Ways include chemokine CCL2 nitration, which traps T cells in the stroma. Tumor vasculature helps tumors preferentially recruit ...
Tomczak A, Pisabarro MT (April 2011). "Identification of CCR2-binding features in Cytl1 by a CCL2-like chemokine model". ...
Spiegelmers have been obtained for the chemokines CCL2 and CXCL12, the complement components C5a and ghrelin. They are ... Proof-of-concept for an anti-CCL2/MCP-1 Spiegelmer has recently been demonstrated in diabetic nephropathy patients. They can ...
5-Oxo-ETE also acts in synergy with two chemokines, CCL2 and CCL8, in stimulating monocyte chemotaxis. The interactions of 5- ... and the two CCL chemokines) in neutrophils and monocytes further suggest that it plays a role in inflammatory responses and ...
These factors include most particularly chemokines such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (CCL2) and monocyte chemotactic ...
This gene encodes two isoforms of a receptor for monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (CCL2), a chemokine which specifically ... CCR2 is a chemokine receptor. This CCR2 gene is located in the chemokine receptor gene cluster region. Two alternatively ... C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2 or CD192 (cluster of differentiation 192) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... Ruibal-Ares BH, Belmonte L, Baré PC, Parodi CM, Massud I, de Bracco MM (January 2004). "HIV-1 infection and chemokine receptor ...
... due to the chemokine CCL2 in rat skin. A similar effect was observed using Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) instead of CCL2 ( ... Peptide 3' is a 12-amino acid linear peptide corresponding to amino acids 51 to 62 of mature human chemokine CCL2. It is formed ... When the 12-amino acid sequence of 'peptide 3'/CCL2 is aligned with the sequences of the other chemokines CCL3, CXCL8 and ... Ala4 in CCL2 is also present in CCL3 but the corresponding residue is Leu in CXCL8 and Ile in CXCL12. Inclusion of Leu at ...
These chemokines include CCL11, CCL2 and CCL12, which are highly localized on mouse and human chromosomes, implicating a ... In healthy aging humans, the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid levels of certain chemokines are elevated. In a mouse model, plasma ... levels of these chemokines correlate with reduced neurogenesis, suggesting that neurogenesis may be modulated by certain global ...
... host-derived pro-inflammatory chemokines (e.g. CXCL8, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL11, CXCL10), platelet-activating factor, and ... stimulates their expression the chemokine receptor, CCR5, to inhibit chemokine signaling, enhances their phagocyte activity, ... CMKLR1 (chemokine receptor-like 1), also termed the ChemR23 or E series resolvin receptor (ERV), is expressed on inflammation- ...
"A Study of the Safety and Efficacy of Single-agent Carlumab (an Anti-Chemokine Ligand 2 [CCL2]) in Participants With Metastatic ... that targets human CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2)/monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP1). Carlumab was under development for use ... a human monoclonal antibody against CC-chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer". ... "Utilizing pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics modeling to simultaneously examine free CCL2, total CCL2 and carlumab (CNTO 888) ...
IL-10 and CCL2 chemokine in patients with multiple sclerosis in relapse". Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery. 110 (10): 992-6 ... Release of chemokines allow for the activation of adhesion molecules on the lymphocytes and monocytes, resulting in an ... This IL-10 interleukin could be related to the mechanism of action of methylprednisolone, together with CCL2. Interleukin IL-12 ...
Inggris)Role of chemokines in CNS health and pathology: a focus on the CCL2/CCR2 and CXCL8/CXCR2 networks ... "A protective role for ELR+ chemokines during acute viral encephalomyelitis.". Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry ...
... in a large cluster containing many other CC chemokines and is most closely related to CCL2 (previously called MCP1). CCL7 has ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 7 (CCL7) is a small cytokine known as a chemokine that was previously called monocyte-chemotactic ... Power CA, Clemetson JM, Clemetson KJ, Wells TN (1996). "Chemokine and chemokine receptor mRNA expression in human platelets". ... 1998). "HIV-1 envelope gp120 inhibits the monocyte response to chemokines through CD4 signal-dependent chemokine receptor down- ...
CCL2 and CCL7. Protease-activated receptor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000181104 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl ... inflammatory response to Streptococcus pneumoniae by reducing levels of pro-inflamamtory cytokines such as IL-1β and chemokines ...
Chemokines such as CXCR3 and CCR5, ligand chemokines (CXCL9, CXCL10, and CCL5) and other chemokines (CX3CL1 and CCL2) Adhesion ...
... which induces chemokines such as CCL2 and CCL20 independently of IRF3. STING is also thought to activate the NF-κB ...
Recent work has also determined that genetic and pharmacologic targeting of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) also known as ...
Chemokine. CCL. CCL1 · CCL2 · CCL3 · CCL4 · CCL5 · CCL6 · CCL7 · CCL8 · CCL9 · CCL11 · CCL12 · CCL13 · CCL14 · CCL15 · CCL16 · ...
CCL2 (MCP-1) CCL4 (MIP-1) CCL5 (RANTES) CCL17 (TARC) CCL22 (Macrophage-derived chemokine) Chemokines are a group of small ... "Macrophage-derived chemokine is a functional ligand for the CC chemokine receptor 4". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (3): 1764-8. doi: ... "The T cell-directed CC chemokine TARC is a highly specific biological ligand for CC chemokine receptor 4". J. Biol. Chem. 272 ( ... C-C chemokine receptor type 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCR4 gene. CCR4 has also recently been designated ...
CCL2 Gene Structure. Chromosome: chr17 Genbank ID: NM_002982 Orientation: + Length coding sequence : 297 nucleotides. Region. ... Previous Names: "small inducible cytokine A2 (monocyte chemotactic protein 1, homologous to mouse Sig-je)", "chemokine (C-C ...
It is also important to hypothesise about why nucleotides may induce CCL2. In addition to the role of CCL2 as a chemokine for ... to induce CCL2 chemokine production and secretion. We determined the amount of CCL2 secreted at three separate timepoints: 2 ... The CCL2/CCR2 mediated recruitment of monocytes is necessary for fighting infections to microorganisms [1]. This chemokine ... The finding that UTP stimulation of P2Y2 receptors can elicit a similar CCL2 chemokine response to LPS stimulation of TLR4 is a ...
... stimulates expression of neuronal CCL2 and CCR2, increases density of both large CCL2 neurons colocalizing MCH and small CCL2 ... Hypothalamic CCL2/CCR2 Chemokine System: Role in Sexually Dimorphic Effects of Maternal Ethanol Exposure on Melanin- ... Hypothalamic CCL2/CCR2 Chemokine System: Role in Sexually Dimorphic Effects of Maternal Ethanol Exposure on Melanin- ... Hypothalamic CCL2/CCR2 Chemokine System: Role in Sexually Dimorphic Effects of Maternal Ethanol Exposure on Melanin- ...
However, anti-CCL2 antibody is ineffective at suppressing free CCL2 in humans (Sandu et al., 2013). Moreover, loss of CCL2 ... CCL2). We demonstrate here that, through activation of the CCL2 receptor CCR2, the recruited MAMs secrete another chemokine ... CC-chemokine ligand. CCR. CC-chemokine receptor. GEM. genetically engineered mouse. IM. inflammatory monocyte. MAM. metastasis- ... CCL2-induced chemokine cascade promotes breast cancer metastasis by enhancing retention of metastasis-associated macrophages. ...
... by measuring chemokine MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, CCL2) and prostaglandin E-2 (PGE2) in stimulated chondrocytes ... Chondrocyte Production of Pro-Inflammatory Chemokine MCP-1 (CCL-2) and Prostaglandin E-2 Is Inhibited by Avocado/Soybean ... by measuring chemokine MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, CCL2) and prostaglandin E-2 (PGE2) in stimulated chondrocytes ... chemokines including MCP-1 (CCL2) and their receptors have been recognized as important players in OA pathogenesis [17] - [26 ...
3F). These data clearly demonstrate that murine γδ T cells use the CCR2/CCL2 chemokine pathway to migrate toward CCL2-rich B16 ... The CCR2/CCL2 pathway is required for γδ T cell recruitment to B16 tumors in vivo. WT, Ccl2−/−, or Ccr2−/− mice were injected s ... CCL2 and CCL12 accumulate in B16 tumor lesions lacking γδ T cells. Chemokine concentrations in protein extracts from day 14 ... Among the 25 chemokines profiled (Fig. 2, Supplemental Fig. 2), the CCR2 ligands CCL2 and CCL12 were significantly ...
Chemokines and their receptors have been detected in most tumors (1, 2). CCL2 remains one of the best studied chemokines. It ... Polymorphisms in CCL2&CCL5 chemokines/chemokine receptors genes and their association with diseases. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ ... Fourth, CCL2 can suppress cytotoxic T lymphocytes. The multiple roles of CCL2 in the promotion of tumorigenesis make the CCL2/ ... C-C chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), also known as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), is a member of the C-C beta chemokine ...
Chemokines and proteinases. Human CCL2/MCP-1, CCL8/MCP-3, CCL7/MCP-2, CCL13/MCP-4, CXCL1/Groα, CXCL2/Groβ, CXCL3/Groγ, CXCL5/ ... After the initial PMN influx, the next stage of inflammation is directed in part by CC chemokines consisting of CCL2/monocyte ... Macrophage-specific metalloelastase (MMP-12) truncates and inactivates ELR+ CXC chemokines and generates CCL2, -7, -8, and -13 ... Macrophage-specific metalloelastase (MMP-12) truncates and inactivates ELR+ CXC chemokines and generates CCL2, -7, -8, and -13 ...
CCL2; chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2; HC11; MCAF; MCP1; MCP-1; SCYA2; GDCF-2; SMC-CF; HSMCR30; C-C motif chemokine 2; small- ... This chemokine is a member of the CC subfamily which is characterized by two adjacent cysteine residues. This cytokine displays ... Chemokines are a superfamily of secreted proteins involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. The superfamily is ... It binds to chemokine receptors CCR2 and CCR4. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013] ...
... ... The chemokine CCL2 is overexpressed in breast cancer, correlating with poor patient prognosis. The purpose of this study was to ... To determine the role of CCL2 in breast cancer cells, CCL2 gene expression was silenced in mammary tumor tissues and cells ... Ca-TAT delivery of CCL2 siRNAs significantly reduced CCL2 expression in PyVmT mammary tumors, and decreased cell proliferation ...
Ccl2 Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2. Rn01456716_g1. NM_031530.1. Gfap Glial fibrillary acidic protein. Rn00566603_m1. NM_ ... Ccl2 Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2. Rn01456716_g1. NM_031530.1. Gfap Glial fibrillary acidic protein. Rn00566603_m1. NM_ ... the most well-characterized of these being chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (Ccl2). 33 Ccl2 (also known as monocyte ... Ccl2 is a potent chemokine for monocytes in vitro 35 and is induced in a range of CNS diseases. 30 Its rapid site-specific ...
CCL2, requires reagent kit C III (171-304090 for vacuum separation or 171-304090M for magnetic separation) and a vial of ... Use the Bio-Plex Pro human chemokine MCP-1 / CCL2 singleplex set for the detection and quantification of MCP-1 / CCL2 from ... Bio-Plex Pro Human Chemokine Assays,Bio-Plex Pro Human Chemokine MCP-1 / CCL2 Set ... Benefits of the Human Chemokine MCP-1 / CCL2 Set. *Simplified assay processing with magnetic bead-based workflow to enable ...
Contribution of the Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 2 (CCL2) to Mechanical Hypersensitivity after Surgical Incision in Rats. ... Contribution of the Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 2 (CCL2) to Mechanical Hypersensitivity after Surgical Incision in Rats ... Contribution of the Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 2 (CCL2) to Mechanical Hypersensitivity after Surgical Incision in Rats ... CCL2, similar to other chemokines, was initially identified as an immunomodulatory factor that regulates activation and ...
The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2)-chemokine C-C motif receptor 2 ... Meanwhile, CCL2 expression was increased in the medullary dorsal horn (MDH) from 3 days to 21 days after IAMNT. The induced ... Targeting CCL2-CCR2 signaling may be a potentially important new treatment strategy for trigeminal neuralgia. ... The cellular localization of CCL2 and CCR2 were examined by immunofluorescence double staining. The effect of a selective CCR2 ...
838P - Expression and clinical importance of e-cadherin, dysadherin and chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) ... Expression and clinical importance of e-cadherin, dysadherin and chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) ... Although moderate positive correlation between dysadherin and CCL2 (r= +0,25, p = 0.49), e-cadherin and CCL2 (r= +0.25, p = ... Dysadherin acts role either with E-cadherine dependent or CCL-2 mediated that E-cadherin independent. We studied expression and ...
Chemokines are key inflammatory mediators, several of which (MCP-1, RANTES, MIP-1α, fractalkine, SDF-1 among others) have been ... The important roles chemokines play in inflammation and pain make them an attractive therapeutic target. Peroxisome ... The important roles chemokines play in inflammation and pain make them an attractive therapeutic target. Peroxisome ... PPAR agonists have wide-ranging effects including inhibition of chemokine expression and pain behavior reduction in animal ...
You need info about Sheep C-C motif chemokine 2 (CCL2) ELISA Kit or any other Gentaur produtct? Contact us on Live Chat Our ... Sheep (Ovis aries) CCL2 elisa. Shipping, handling and storage. The kit is shipped on ice packs. Upon receiving it store the kit ... Detects Sheep (Ovis aries) CCL2; Additional information. ...
Compare C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, ... CCL2, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2. *. Detection Range: 0.125 ng/ml-8 ng/ml ... Chemokine CC-1, Chemokine CC-3, Small Inducible Cytokine Subfamily A (Cys-Cys) Member 14) ... Chemokine CC-1, Chemokine CC-3, Small Inducible Cytokine Subfamily A (Cys-Cys) Member 14) ...
Liu XS, Zhang ZG, Zhang RL, Gregg SR, Wang L, Yier T, Chopp M: Chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) induces migration and differentiation ... Since elevated CCL2 initiates inflammatory reaction by increasing production of nitric oxide and other inflammatory chemokines ... We have earlier shown that protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and chemokine ligand-2 (CCL2) were ... Gupta PK, Prabhakar S, Sharma S, Anand A: Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and chemokine ligand-2 (CCL2) in ...
chemokine receptor activity. • receptor activity. • protein binding. • C-C chemokine receptor activity. • C-C chemokine binding ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene.[5] CCR6 ... "Entrez Gene: CCR6 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6".. *^ Wang K, Zhang H, Kugathasan S, Annese V, Bradfield JP, Russell RK, ... "Chemokine Receptors: CCR6". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The ... No data available for DME Specific Peptides for CCL2 Gene Domains & Families for CCL2 Gene Gene Families for CCL2 Gene. HGNC:. ... GeneCards Summary for CCL2 Gene CCL2 (C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 2) is a Protein Coding gene, and is affiliated with the lncRNA ... Evolution for CCL2 Gene. ENSEMBL:. Gene Tree for CCL2 (if available). TreeFam:. Gene Tree for CCL2 (if available). ...
CCL2 gene. C-C motif chemokine ligand 2. Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes.. Open All Close All ... This chemokine is a member of the CC subfamily which is characterized by two adjacent cysteine residues. This cytokine displays ... Chemokines are a superfamily of secreted proteins involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. The superfamily is ... It binds to chemokine receptors CCR2 and CCR4. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013] ...
Whether chemokines can perform the same role in PTB is not known. We examined the plasma levels of chemokines in individuals ... Finally, the chemokines were significantly reduced following successful ATT. Our data demonstrate that PTB is associated with ... We also examined the chemokines in PTB individuals at the end of anti-tuberculous chemotherapy (ATT). PTB individuals exhibited ... Our data demonstrate that chemokines are markers of disease severity, predicting increased bacterial burden and delayed culture ...
... to determine whether chemokines are responsible for the recruitme ... ObjectiveTo investigate in vivo expression of chemokines in ... The MCP-1 (CCL-2) showed the highest m RNA expression level of the CC chemokines, whereas Gro-α (CXCL-1) and IL-8 (CXCL-8) ... High Expression of Chemokines Gro-α (CXCL-1), IL-8 (CXCL-8), and MCP-1 (CCL-2) in Inflamed Human Corneas In Vivo. Arch ... Of all examined chemokines, only Gro-α (CXCL-1) and MCP-1 (CCL-2) showed high expression levels in limbal epithelium (Figure 3 ...
... ccl2, ccl3, ccl5, cxcl11, cxcl12) single-domain Antibody scFv Fragment is available from creative biolabs. ... chemokine (ccl2, ccl3, ccl5, cxcl11, cxcl12) single-domain; ccl2; ccl3; ccl5; cxcl11; cxcl12; chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2; ... Chemokine (ccl2, Ccl3, Ccl5, Cxcl11, Cxcl12) Single-domain. *Recombinant Anti-chemokine (ccl2, ccl3, ccl5, cxcl11, cxcl12) ... ccl2, ccl3, ccl5, cxcl11, cxcl12) single-domain Antibody Fab Fragment ( MOB-198-F(E) ) Recombinant Human Anti-chemokine (ccl2, ...
  • Chemokine MCP1/CCL2 and RANTES/CCL5 gene polymorphisms influence Henoch-Schönlein purpura susceptibility and severity. (cdc.gov)
  • Serum levels of chemokines (interleukin-8/CXCL8, MCP-1/CCL2, RANTES/CCL5, MIG/CXCL9, and IP-10/CXCL10) were determined using cytometric beads arrays. (cdc.gov)
  • We investigated the association of three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) MCP1/CCL2 -2518C/T, RANTES/CCL5 -403C/T, and RANTES/CCL5 -28C/G with HSP in 85 HSP patients and 136 healthy controls. (cdc.gov)
  • The basal secretion of CCL2 by PBMC or induced by Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin A (SEA) was higher in CIU patients than in the control group, as well as for CXCL8 and CCL5 secretions upon phytohaemagglutinin stimulation. (usp.br)
  • Levels of mRNAs for CCL2, CCL3L1, CCL4, CXCL10, CCR1 and CCR5 were significantly increased in at least one time point following infection in two experiments and CCL5, CCR9 and CXCR4 mRNA were significantly increased in one of the experiments. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Conversely, PAF and LTB4, but not Ccl2/JE/MCP-1 and Ccl3/MIP-1α, directly activated neutrophils as indicated by shedding of CD62L and marked upregulation of CD11b. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Moreover, Ccl2/JE/ MCP-1- and Ccl3/MIP-1α-elicited leakage of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran as well as collagen IV remodeling within the venular basement membrane were completely absent in neutrophil-depleted mice. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • We propose that the macrophage, specifically through MMP-12, assists in orchestrating the regulation of acute inflammatory responses by precise proteolysis of ELR + CXC and CC chemokines. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Second, CCL2 has a modulatory effect on the tumor microenvironment by promoting macrophage mobilization and infiltration into the tumor bed. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The present study identifies a novel chemokine signal mediated by CCL2 that links regenerating neurons with proregenerative macrophage activation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Neutralization of CCL2 abolished the neurite outgrowth activity of conditioned medium obtained from neuron-macrophage cocultures treated with cAMP. (jneurosci.org)
  • Our data suggest that CCL2-mediated neuron-macrophage interaction plays a critical role for amplification and maintenance of enhanced regenerative capacity by preconditioning peripheral nerve injury. (jneurosci.org)
  • Manipulation of chemokine signaling mediating neuron-macrophage interactions may represent a novel therapeutic approach to promote axon regeneration after CNS injury. (jneurosci.org)
  • Results CCL2 and CCL7 were significantly elevated in BAL fluid recovered from LPS-challenged volunteers and patients with ARDS. (bmj.com)
  • Chemokines are a superfamily of small proteins that promote leukocyte migration and orchestrate the immune response to viruses, including hepatitis C virus. (nih.gov)
  • Chemokines are functionally divided into two groups: Homeostatic: are constitutively produced in certain tissues and are responsible for basal leukocyte migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • A ) Neutralization of CCL2 induced THP-1 cell migration by P991_AMBCA. (nature.com)
  • We have found that the secretion of CCL2 by the eutopic ESCs from endometriosis is higher than that of healthy ESCs without endometriosis. (fertstertforum.com)
  • This suggests that neuronal chemokine signaling linked to neuropeptides mediates effects of maternal ethanol exposure on adolescent offspring and contributes to higher levels of adolescent risk factors for alcohol use disorders in women. (jneurosci.org)
  • The induced CCL2 was colocalized with astroglial marker GFAP, but not with neuronal marker NeuN or microglial marker OX-42. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CCL2 is involved in the neuroinflammatory processes that takes place in the various diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), which are characterized by neuronal degeneration. (wikipedia.org)
  • We examined the plasma levels of chemokines in individuals with PTB, latent TB (LTB) or healthy controls (HC) and their association with disease severity and mycobacterial burdens in PTB. (nature.com)
  • Our data demonstrate that PTB is associated with elevated levels of chemokines, which are partially reversed followed chemotherapy. (nature.com)
  • To decipher the role of chemokines in TB infection and disease, we measured the levels of chemokines in PTB, LTB and HC individuals. (nature.com)
  • Conclusions In patients with liver cancer, CCL2 is highly expressed and is a prognostic factor. (bmj.com)
  • Rather, mMMP-12 cleavage at Ser4-Val5 activated the chemokine, promoting enhanced PMN early infiltration in wild-type mice compared with Mmp12 −/− mice 8 hours after LPS challenge in air pouches. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The expression of CCL2 in neurons is mainly found in the cerebral cortex, globus pallidus, hippocampus, paraventricular and supraoptic hypothalamic nuclei, lateral hypothalamus, substantia nigra, facial nuclei, motor and spinal trigeminal nuclei, gigantocellular reticular nucleus and in Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our main objectives were to evaluate the relation between proinflammatory chemokine serum levels from CIU patients and their response to autologous skin test (ASST) and basophil histamine release (BHR). (usp.br)
  • In the white people of European descent, the multivariable-adjusted heritability of CCL2 concentrations is as much as 0.37 in the blood plasma and 0.44 - in the serum CCL2 is a monomeric polypeptide, with a molecular weight of approximately 13 kDa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypomethylation of CpG sites within the CCL2 promoter region is affected by high levels of blood glucose and TG, which increase CCL2 levels in the blood serum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Basophils and mast cells that are treated with CCL2 release their granules to the intercellular space. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results showed that greatest fold increases in mRNAs for CXCL10 and CCL2 were observed following infection of pigs. (beds.ac.uk)
  • In addition, the function of immune cells and related chemicals in the mechanism of pain has been recognized, whereas few studies have addressed the potential role of chemokines in the trigeminal system in chronic pain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • On one hand, the chemokine network is used by tumors to evade immune surveillance, resist apoptosis, and metastasize. (mdpi.com)
  • On the other hand, the chemokine system also plays a crucial role in the induction of antitumor immune responses and optimal effector function regulation of immune cells [ 1 , 4 , 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Some chemokines control cells of the immune system during processes of immune surveillance, such as directing lymphocytes to the lymph nodes so they can screen for invasion of pathogens by interacting with antigen-presenting cells residing in these tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain inflammatory chemokines activate cells to initiate an immune response or promote wound healing . (wikipedia.org)
  • The chemokine CCL2 may play a pivotal role in prostate cancer tumorigenesis and invasion. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis of CCL2 has suggested that this chemokine may play a role in host susceptibility to the development of cancer and/or cancer metastasis ( 8-10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the role of CCL2 expression in luminal B breast cancer cells. (ku.edu)
  • Whether chemokines can perform the same role in PTB is not known. (nature.com)
  • Role of CC chemokines in skeletal muscle functional restoration after injury. (peprotech.com)
  • To clarify the role and mechanism of CCL2 in regulating the biological functions of endometrial stromal cells (ESCs). (fertstertforum.com)
  • The exact role of these chemokines, their correlation with IL-6 after primary RRD, and their association with the future development of PVR are not yet known. (arvojournals.org)
  • This DuoSet ELISA Development kit contains the basic components required for the development of sandwich ELISAs to measure natural and recombinant mouse CCL2/JE. (rndsystems.com)
  • CCL2 is implicated in pathogeneses of several diseases characterized by monocytic infiltrates, such as psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis and atherosclerosis. (wikipedia.org)