A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.
A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.
Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.
Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.
CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.
A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.
A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.
Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.
A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.
Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.
An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.
CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.
Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.
Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.
The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.

Expression and cellular localization of the CC chemokines PARC and ELC in human atherosclerotic plaques. (1/256)

Local immune responses are thought to play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. Histological studies have shown that human atherosclerotic lesions contain T lymphocytes throughout all stages of development, many of which are in an activated state. A number of novel CC chemokines have been described recently, which are potent chemoattractants for lymphocytes: PARC (pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine), ELC (EBI1-ligand chemokine), LARC (liver and activation-regulated chemokine), and SLC (secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine). Using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization, we have found gene expression for PARC and ELC but not for LARC or SLC in human atherosclerotic plaques. Immunohistochemical staining of serial plaque sections with specific cell markers revealed highly different expression patterns of PARC and ELC. PARC mRNA was restricted to CD68+ macrophages (n = 14 of 18), whereas ELC mRNA was widely expressed by macrophages and intimal smooth muscle cells (SMC) in nearly all of the lesions examined (n = 12 of 14). ELC mRNA was also found to be expressed in the medial SMC wall of highly calcified plaques (n = 4). Very low levels of ELC mRNA expression could also be detected in normal mammary arteries but no mRNA expression for PARC was detected in these vessels (n = 4). In vitro, ELC mRNA was found to be up-regulated in aortic SMC stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-a and interferon-gamma but not in SMC stimulated with serum. Both PARC and ELC mRNA were expressed by monocyte-derived macrophages but not monocytes. The expression patterns of PARC and ELC mRNA in human atherosclerotic lesions suggest a potential role for these two recently described CC chemokines in attracting T lymphocytes into atherosclerotic lesions.  (+info)

The CC chemokine receptor-7 ligands 6Ckine and macrophage inflammatory protein-3 beta are potent chemoattractants for in vitro- and in vivo-derived dendritic cells. (2/256)

Dendritic cell migration to secondary lymphoid tissues is critical for Ag presentation to T cells necessary to elicit an immune response. Despite the importance of dendritic cell trafficking in immunity, at present little is understood about the mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon. Using a novel transwell chemotaxis assay system, we demonstrate that the CC chemokine receptor-7 (CCR7) ligands 6Ckine and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-3 beta are selective chemoattractants for MHC class IIhigh B7-2high bone marrow-derived dendritic cells at a potency 1000-fold higher than their known activity on naive T cells. Furthermore, these chemokines stimulate the chemotaxis of freshly isolated lymph node dendritic cells, as well as the egress of skin dendritic cells ex vivo. Because these chemokines are expressed in lymphoid organs and 6Ckine has been localized to high endothelial venules and lymphatic endothelium, we propose that they may play an important role in the homing of dendritic cells to lymphoid tissues.  (+info)

Chemokine Up-regulation and activated T cell attraction by maturing dendritic cells. (3/256)

Langerhans' cells migrating from contact-sensitized skin were found to up-regulate expression of macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) during maturation into lymph node dendritic cells (DCs). Naive T cells did not migrate toward MDC, but antigen-specific T cells rapidly acquired MDC responsiveness in vivo after a subcutaneous injection of antigen. In chemotaxis assays, maturing DCs attracted activated T cells more strongly than naive T cells. These studies identified chemokine up-regulation as part of the Langerhans' cell maturation program to immunogenic T cell-zone DC. Preferential recruitment of activated T cells may be a mechanism used by maturing DCs to promote encounters with antigen-specific T cells.  (+info)

Cutting edge: developmental switches in chemokine responses during T cell maturation. (4/256)

We show that developmental transitions during thymocyte maturation are associated with dramatic changes in chemotactic responses to chemokines. Macrophage-derived chemokine, a chemokine expressed in the thymic medulla, attracts thymocytes only during a brief window of development, between the late cortical and early medullary stages. All medullary phenotypes (CD4 or CD8 single positive) but not immature thymocytes respond to the medullary stroma-expressed (and secondary lymphoid tissue-associated) chemokines secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine and macrophage inflammatory protein-3beta. The appearance of these responses is associated with the phenotypic stage of cortex to medulla migration and with up-regulation of mRNA for the receptors CCR4 (for macrophage-derived chemokine and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine) and CCR7 (for secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine and macrophage inflammatory protein-3beta). In contrast, most immature and medullary thymocytes migrate to thymus-expressed chemokine, an ability that is lost only with up-regulation of the peripheral homing receptor L-selectin during the latest stages of thymocyte maturation associated with export to the periphery. Developmental switches in chemokine responses may help regulate critical migratory events during T cell development.  (+info)

Differential responsiveness to constitutive vs. inducible chemokines of immature and mature mouse dendritic cells. (5/256)

Upon exposure to immune or inflammatory stimuli, dendritic cells (DC) migrate from peripheral tissues to lymphoid organs, where they present antigen. The molecular basis for the peculiar trafficking properties of DC is largely unknown. In this study, mouse DC were generated from CD34+ bone marrow precursors and cultured with granulocyte-macrophage-CSF and Flt3 ligand for 9 days. Chemokines active on immature DC include MIP1alpha, RANTES, MIP1beta, MCP-1, MCP-3, and the constitutively expressed SDF1, MDC, and ELC. TNF-alpha-induced DC maturation caused reduction of migration to inducible chemokines (MIP1alpha, RANTES, MIP1beta, MCP-1, and MCP-3) and increased migration to SDF1, MDC, and ELC. Similar results were obtained by CD40 ligation or culture in the presence of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. TNF-alpha down-regulated CC chemokine receptor (CCR)1, CCR2, and CCR5 and up-regulated CCR7 mRNA levels, in agreement with functional data. This study shows that selective responsiveness of mature and immature DC to inducible vs. constitutively produced chemokines can contribute to the regulated trafficking of DC.  (+info)

In vivo-activated CD4 T cells upregulate CXC chemokine receptor 5 and reprogram their response to lymphoid chemokines. (6/256)

Migration of antigen-activated CD4 T cells to B cell areas of lymphoid tissues is important for mounting T cell-dependent antibody responses. Here we show that CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR)5, the receptor for B lymphocyte chemoattractant (BLC), is upregulated on antigen-specific CD4 T cells in vivo when animals are immunized under conditions that promote T cell migration to follicles. In situ hybridization of secondary follicles for BLC showed high expression in mantle zones and low expression in germinal centers. When tested directly ex vivo, CXCR5(hi) T cells exhibited a vigorous chemotactic response to BLC. At the same time, the CXCR5(hi) cells showed reduced responsiveness to the T zone chemokines, Epstein-Barr virus-induced molecule 1 (EBI-1) ligand chemokine (ELC) and secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine (SLC). After adoptive transfer, CXCR5(hi) CD4 T cells did not migrate to follicles, indicating that additional changes may occur after immunization that help direct T cells to follicles. To further explore whether T cells could acquire an intrinsic ability to migrate to follicles, CD4(-)CD8(-) double negative (DN) T cells from MRL-lpr mice were studied. These T cells normally accumulate within follicles of MRL-lpr mice. Upon transfer to wild-type recipients, DN T cells migrated to follicle proximal regions in all secondary lymphoid tissues. Taken together, our findings indicate that reprogramming of responsiveness to constitutively expressed lymphoid tissue chemokines plays an important role in T cell migration to the B cell compartment of lymphoid tissues.  (+info)

Macrophage inflammatory protein-3 beta enhances IL-10 production by activated human peripheral blood monocytes and T cells. (7/256)

We report that the addition of human macrophage inflammatory protein-3 beta (MIP-3 beta) to cultures of human PBMCs that have been activated with LPS or PHA results in a significant enhancement of IL-10 production. This effect was concentration-dependent, with optimal MIP-3 beta concentrations inducing more than a 5-fold induction of IL-10 from LPS-stimulated PBMCs and a 2- to 3-fold induction of IL-10 from PHA-stimulated PBMCs. In contrast, no significant effect on IL-10 production was observed when 6Ckine, the other reported ligand for human CCR7, or other CC chemokines such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, RANTES, MIP-1 alpha, and MIP-1 beta were added to LPS- or PHA-stimulated PBMCs. Similar results were observed using activated purified human peripheral blood monocytes or T cells. Addition of MIP-3 beta to nonactivated PBMCs had no effect on cytokine production. Enhancement of IL-10 production by MIP-3beta correlated with the inhibition of IL-12 p40 and TNF-alpha production by monocytes and with the impairment of IFN-gamma production by T cells, which was reversed by addition of anti-IL-10 Abs to the cultures. The ability of MIP-3 beta to augment IL-10 production correlated with CCR7 mRNA expression and stimulation of intracellular calcium mobilization in both monocytes and T cells. These data indicate that MIP-3 beta acts directly on human monocytes and T cells and suggest that this chemokine is unique among ligands binding to CC receptors due to its ability to modulate inflammatory activity via the enhanced production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10.  (+info)

uPA/uPAR system is active in immature dendritic cells derived from CD14+CD34+ precursors and is down-regulated upon maturation. (8/256)

We recently described a subset of peripheral CD14+CD34+ cells able to migrate across endothelial cell monolayers and differentiate into immunostimulatory dendritic cells (DC). In this paper we show that immature DC derived from CD14+CD34+ precursors are also capable of reverse transendothelial migration and extracellular matrix (ECM) invasion using the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR). We found that these cells respond to macrophage-inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha, enhancing their ability to invade ECM and supporting the idea that immature DC are selectively recruited at the site of inflammation to expand the pool of APCs. Interestingly, MIP-1alpha was also capable of preventing the decreased matrix invasion observed by blocking uPAR, suggesting that the uPA/uPAR system and MIP-1alpha cooperate in driving immature DC migration through the subendothelial matrix. Upon exposure to maturating stimuli, such as TNF-alpha, CD14+CD34+-derived DC enhance their APC function and decrease the capacity of invading ECM; these changes are accompanied by altered expression and function of uPAR. Moreover, mature DC shift their sensitivity from MIP-1alpha to MIP-3beta, enhancing their transendothelial migration capability in response to the latter chemokine. Our data support the hypothesis that bloodborne DC can move through ECM toward the site of pathogen entry where they differentiate into fully mature APCs with their motility and function regulated by microenvironmental stimuli, including MIP-1alpha, MIP-3beta, and TNF-alpha.  (+info)

Expression of ELC mRNA is decreased in the LNs and spleens of plt mice. Tissues from +/+ (A and C) and plt (B and D) mice were analyzed as described in the
The migration of leukocytes in response to chemokine gradients is an important process in the homeostasis of the human immune system and inflammation. In vivo the migration takes place on the surface of the endothelium to which the chemokine gradient is immobilized via interaction with glycosaminoglycans. To study leukocyte migration in response to surface-bound chemokines, we generated chemokine gradients by a simple stamping method: agarose stamps were soaked with chemokine solution to form continuous chemokine gradients by diffusion. These gradients could be easily transferred to a petri dish surface by stamping. We show that neutrophil granulocytes recognize these gradients and migrate toward increasing chemokine concentrations dependent on the slope of the gradient. Single-cell responses were recorded, and statistical analyses of cell behavior and migration were performed. For analysis of chemotaxis/haptotaxis, we propose a chemotactic precision index that is broadly applicable, valid, and ...
Several lines of evidence indicate a requirement for LTα1β2 in splenic T zone development that is fixed during the first few weeks after birth. First, in contrast to the severely defective splenic T zones of mice congenitally deficient in LTα1β2, in studies where LTα1β2 function was blocked in adult animals, effects on T zone organization were minimal (45) and T zone chemokine expression was only mildly diminished (14). Second, when adult mice are depleted of LTα-expressing cells by irradiation and reconstitution with LTα-deficient bone marrow, T zones remain visible (data not shown and see reference 46) and there is little reduction in CCL21 expression (Fig. 4). Therefore, once the splenic CCL21-expressing T zone stromal network has developed, it has only a weak requirement for continued LTβR-signaling to be maintained. By contrast, treatment of newborn mice with LTα1β2 antagonist had a marked inhibitory effect on subsequent CCL21 and gp38 expression in the adult (Figs. 5 and 6). ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19 (CCL19) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCL19 gene. This gene is one of several CC cytokine genes clustered on the p-arm of chromosome 9. Cytokines are a family of secreted proteins involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. The CC cytokines are proteins characterized by two adjacent cysteines. The cytokine encoded by this gene may play a role in normal lymphocyte recirculation and homing. It also plays an important role in trafficking of T cells in thymus, and in T cell and B cell migration to secondary lymphoid organs. It specifically binds to chemokine receptor CCR7. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19 (CCL19) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family that is also known as EBI1 ligand chemokine (ELC) and macrophage inflammatory protein-3-beta (MIP-3-beta). CCL19 is expressed abundantly in thymus and lymph nodes, with moderate levels in trachea and colon and low levels in stomach, small intestine, lung, kidney and spleen. ...
Continuous trafficking to lymphoid tissue and cellular interactions with Antigen (Ag)-presenting cells (APCs) are hallmarks of lymphocyte biology. Guided by the homeostatic chemokines CCL21 and CXCL13, naïve T and B cells constitutively home to secondary lymphoid organs including spleen and peripheral lymph nodes (PLNs), where they systematically scan APCs, including dendritic cells (DCs), for presence of their cognate Ag. Recent technological advances through the combination of transgenic mouse lines and intravital twophoton microscopy (2PM), which enables the direct visualization of lymphocyte behavior deep within lymphoid tissue, has granted the immunological research community unprecedented insights into the molecular orchestration of the adaptive immune response. Here, we propose to continue our previous research on the molecular mechanisms of lymphocyte trafficking and activation by following three lines of research: first, we will use in vitro assays combined with intravital 2PM of mouse ...
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ELECTRICAL LOAD COEFFICIENT (ELC). In a data center, the ratio of the sum of three specific electrical losses (or losses calculated from efficiencies) to the ITE load itself. Specifically, ELC equals the sum of the incoming (to ITE) electrical service losses, UPS losses, and ITE distribution losses all divided by the peak ITE load. The design ELC is calculated at the full load design condition with active redundant equipment engaged, and the annual ELC is calculated the same way because it is assumed that ITE runs constantly at full power all year ...
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Chemokines belong to a class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. Their name is derived from chemotactic cytokines based on their ability to induce and mediate chemotaxis in nearby responsive cells. Formerly, they were called SIS family of cytokines, SIG family of cytokines, SCY family of cytokines, Platelet factor-4 superfamily or intercrines. Chemokines can be divided into at least four structural branches: c (chemokines, c), cc (chemokines, cc), cx3c (chemokines, cx3c), and cxc (chemokines, cxc). The classification is according to the variations in a shared cysteine motif. Chemokines may also be classified based on their functions. Homeostatic chemokines are chemokines that are responsible for basal leukocyte migration. Examples of homeostatic chemokines are CCL14, CCL19, CCL20, CCL21, CXCL12 and CXCL13. Nevertheless, some of them are not exclusive to this function. For instance, CCL20 is also associated with inflammation since it can act as ...
The control of dendritic cell (DC) migration is pivotal for the initiation of cellular immune responses. In this study, we demonstrate that the migration of human monocyte-derived (Mo)DCs as well as of ex vivo peripheral blood DCs toward CCL21, CXCL12, and C5a is stringently dependent on the presence of the proinflammatory mediator PGE2, although DCs expressed CXCR4 and C5aR on their surface and DC maturation was accompanied by CCR7 up-regulation independently of PGE2. The necessity of exogenous PGE2 for DC migration is not due to the suppression of PGE2 synthesis by IL-4, which is used for MoDC differentiation, because maturation-induced endogenous production of PGE2 cannot promote DC migration. Surprisingly, PGE2 was absolutely required at early time points of maturation to enable MoDC chemotaxis, whereas PGE2 addition during terminal maturation events was ineffective. In contrast to mouse DCs, which exclusively rely on EP4 receptor triggering for migration, human MoDCs require a signal ...
LCs are members in a family of tissue DCs, and almost every tissue contains sentinel DCs (3). Although differences between immature tissue DCs in different locations have been reported, most tissue DCs have in common the propensity to emigrate to draining lymphoid tissues in response to LPS, TNF, or IL-1 (3). All the DC types so far tested upregulate CCR7 upon stimulation, making it likely that they all use this receptor in order to migrate to lymphoid T zones (4, 6-9). It remains to be investigated whether the same directional cues are also involved in the homeostatic flux of DCs from tissues to LNs that occurs in the absence of stimulation (3). A subset of DCs in peripheral lymphoid tissues, including lymphoid lineage DCs (27), may not derive from peripheral tissues but instead may enter directly from the blood (3). Some insight into the behavior of these cells in plt mice is provided by findings in the spleen. Wild-type mouse spleen contains a population of DCs in the T zone that express high ...
The directed orientation of T cell signaling molecules and associated membrane rafts towards a chemokine gradient or a contact point with antigen presenting cell.
The question why CD4+/CD25+ T cells are reduced in asthmatic patients has not been answered yet; however, it has been observed that these cells reveal a reduced response to the chemokines CCL1 and CXCL1 suggesting an impaired recruitment to the lung [137, 138 ...
In this report, we provide the first evidence that blood-borne human CD4+CD25+ Treg cells exhibit a distinctive chemotactic response profile and chemokine receptor expression. Treg cells exhibit chemotactic responsiveness to several inflammatory and lymphoid chemokines, but they are specifically hyperresponsive to chemokines that engage the chemokine receptors CCR4 and CCR8 (Fig. 1).. Our investigation documents a broad spectrum of responsiveness of Treg cells to inflammatory chemokines that could potentially allow access to inflamed tissues and contact responding T cells and APCs. However, the specificity of action of chemokines such as CCL17, CCL22, and CCL1 on Treg cells suggests a unique role for these chemokines and their receptors in the physiology of Treg cells. Activated T cells and professional APCs such as DCs and monocytes/macrophages can produce CCL1, CCL17, and CCL22 (15)(16)(18). CCL17 and CCL22 secreted by activated DCs have been shown to attract activated T cells expressing CCR4 ...
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Complete information for CCL15-CCL14 gene (RNA Gene), CCL15-CCL14 Readthrough (NMD Candidate), including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
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Chemokines are believed to play a crucial role in local immunoresponse by regulating leukocyte movement in various tissues, including the intestinal mucosa. It has been suggested that they are key players in cancer biology, and several studies have identified leukocyte infiltration as a hallmark of most cancers. The chemokines CCL17 and CCL22 attract CCR4-bearing cells, which are especially polarised to Th2-type cells and regulatory T cells (Treg). Recent studies have revealed the participation of the CCL17 and CCL22 proteins in diseases such as atopic dermatitis and lymphoma. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of CCL17 and CCL22 protein expression in colorectal cancer (CRC) and to ascertain whether an association exists between promoter -431C,T CCL17 and -961G,A CCL22 gene polymorphisms in CRC versus non-CRC subjects. Using the ELISA assay, we noted a significantly higher expression of CCL22 in tumour tissue with a 2.3-fold up-regulation (tumour vs. paired normal tissue, n=78) but ...
This graph shows the total number of publications written about Chemokine CCL4 by people in this website by year, and whether Chemokine CCL4 was a major or minor topic of these publications ...
Chemokine CCL11; CCL11 Chemokine. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several symptoms or a full patient history. A similarity measure between symptoms and diseases is provided.
There are disclosed therapeutic compositions and methods using isolated nucleic acid molecules encoding a human chemokine beta-11 (Ck beta-11) polypeptide and a human leukocyte adhesion inhibitor-1 (LAI-1) polypeptide (previously termed chemokine α1(CKα1 or ckα-1), as well as Ck beta-11 and/or LAI-1 polypeptides themselves, as are vectors, host cells and recombinant methods for producing the same.
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Jafarnejad M, Zawieja DC, Brook BS, Nibbs RJB, Moore JEet al., 2017, A Novel Computational Model Predicts Key Regulators of Chemokine Gradient Formation in Lymph Nodes and Site-Specific Roles for CCL19 and ACKR4., J Immunol, Vol: 199, Pages: 2291-2304 The chemokine receptor CCR7 drives leukocyte migration into and within lymph nodes (LNs). It is activated by chemokines CCL19 and CCL21, which are scavenged by the atypical chemokine receptor ACKR4. CCR7-dependent navigation is determined by the distribution of extracellular CCL19 and CCL21, which form concentration gradients at specific microanatomical locations. The mechanisms underpinning the establishment and regulation of these gradients are poorly understood. In this article, we have incorporated multiple biochemical processes describing the CCL19-CCL21-CCR7-ACKR4 network into our model of LN fluid flow to establish a computational model to investigate intranodal chemokine gradients. Importantly, the model recapitulates CCL21 gradients ...
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CCL20, hemokin (C-C motiv) ligand 20, ili jetrenom aktivacijom regulisani hemokin (LARC), ili makrofagni inflamatorni protein-3 (MIP3A) je mali citokin iz CC hemokin familije. On je snažno hemotaksan za limfocite, a slabo provlači neutrofile.[1] CCL20 je impliciran u formiranje i funkciju mukoznog limfoidnog tkiva putem hemoatrakcije limfocita i dendritskih ćelija prema epitelnim ćelijama koje okružuju ta tkiva. CCL20 dejstvuje na svoje ciljne ćelije vezivanjem i aktiviranjem hemokinskog receptora CCR6.[2][3] CCL20 genska ekspresija može biti indukovana mikrobnim faktorima kao što su lipopolisaharidi (LPS), i inflamatorni citokini poput faktor nekroze tumora i interferon-γ, i umanjena uticajem citokina IL-10.[4] CCL20 je izražen u više vrsta tkiva. Najobimnije izražavanje je primećeno u perifernim krvnim limfocitima, limfnim čvorovima, jetri, slepom crevu, i fetalnim plućima, a u nižim nivoima u timusu, testisima, prostati i crevima.[1][5] CCL20 gen (scya20) je lociran na ...
Presentations from ELC 2016 (LF conference archive). The Linux Foundation has a video playlist on YouTube. NOTE: If you add a wikilink to your presentation and attempt to upload it via the link, it may fail. If it does, use the Special:Upload page to upload your file. ...
Presentations from ELC 2016 (LF conference archive). The Linux Foundation has a video playlist on YouTube. NOTE: If you add a wikilink to your presentation and attempt to upload it via the link, it may fail. If it does, use the Special:Upload page to upload your file. ...
CCL9, hemokin (C-C motiv) ligand 9, je mali citokin iz CC hemokin familije. On se naziva makrofagni inflamatorni protein-1 gama (MIP-1γ), protein-2 koji je sličan macrofagnom inflamatornom proteinu (MRP-2) i CCF18. Bio je opisan kod glodara. CCL9 je ranije imao oznaku CCL10. Ta oznaka se više ne koristi. On se izlučuje iz folikl-asociranog epitelijuma (FAE). CCL9 privlači dendritske ćelije koje poseduju CD11b molekule na ćelijskoj površini i hemokin receptor CCR1.[1] CCL9 može da aktivira osteoklaste putem njegovog receptora CCR1 (koji je najobilniji hemokin receptor na osteoklastima) što ide u podršku važnosti CCL9 uloge u resoprciji kostiju.[2] CCL9 je konstitutivno izražen u makrofagama i mijeloidnim ćelijama.[3][4] Gen za CCL9 je lociran na hromozomu 11 kod miševa.[4][5] ...
CCL8, hemokine (C-C motiv) ligand 8, je mali citokin iz CC hemokin familije koji se nekad zvao monocit hemotaksni protein-2 (MCP-2). CCL8 protein nastaje iz prekursora koji sadrži 109 aminokiselina, koji se preseca da bi nastao CCL8 sa 75 aminokiseline. Gen za CCL8 је kodiran sa 3 eksona i lociran je unutar velikog klastera CC hemokina na hromozomu 17 q11.2 kod ljudi.[1][2] MCP-2 je hemoatraktant i activira mnoge vrste imunskih ćelija, uključujući mast ćelije, eozinofile i bazofile, (koji su implicirani u alergijske response), i monocite, T ćelije, i NK ćelije koje učestvuju u inflamatorni respons.[3][4] CCL8 dejstvuje putem vezivanja za nekoliko različitih hemokin receptora na ćelijskoj površini. U toj grupi receptora su CCR1, CCR2B i CCR5.[4][5] ...
The overall topic of this work is a graph operation known as edgelocal complementation (ELC) and its applications to iterative decoding of classical codes. Although these legacy codes are arguably not well-suited for graph-based decoding, they have other desirable properties resulting in much current research on the general problem of forging this alloy. From this perspective, these codes are typically referred to as highdensity parity-check codes. Our approach is to gain diversity by means of ELC. Based on the known link between ELC and the information sets of a code, C, we identify a one-to-one relationship between ELC operations and the automorphism group of a code, Aut(C). With respect to a specific parity-check matrix, H, we classify these code-preserving permutations into trivial and nontrivial permutations, based on whether the matrix is preserved (under ELC) up to row permutations, or not. The corresponding iso-ELC operations preserve the structure of the graph, and simulation data are ...
Complete information for CCL13 gene (Protein Coding), C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 13, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
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Callstack: at Proteins/RSGI/2elc at Template:Protein at template MindTouch.Deki.Script.Runtime.DekiScriptUndefinedNameException: reference to undefined name note Exception of type MindTouch.Deki.Script.Runtime.DekiScriptUndefinedNameException was thrown. at MindTouch.Deki.Script.Compiler.DekiScriptExpressionEvaluation.Visit (MindTouch.Deki.Script.Expr.DekiScriptVar expr, DekiScriptExpressionEvaluationState state) [0x00000] in ,filename unknown,:0 at MindTouch.Deki.Script.Expr.DekiScriptVar.VisitWith[DekiScriptExpressionEvaluationState,Range] (IDekiScriptExpressionVisitor`2 visitor, DekiScriptExpressionEvaluationState state) [0x00000] in ,filename unknown,:0 at MindTouch.Deki.Script.Compiler.DekiScriptExpressionEvaluation.Evaluate (MindTouch.Deki.Script.Expr.DekiScriptAccess expr, DekiScriptExpressionEvaluationState state, Boolean evaluateProperties) [0x00000] in ,filename unknown,:0 at MindTouch.Deki.Script.Compiler.DekiScriptExpressionEvaluation.Visit ...
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A common feature of RA is the formation of discrete clusters of infiltrating lymphomononuclear cells forming lymphoid aggregates or ELS.7 ,8 ,10 These structures resembling secondary lymphoid organs sustain a functional ectopic-GC response and support B-cell differentiation into high affinity autoantibody-producing cells.29 ,31 ELS formation is dependent on the activation of the LT-β/lymphoid chemokines pathway in ectopic sites32 and is driven by chronic antigenic stimulation.31 As such, ELS (also observed in non-autoimmune conditions such as chronic infections, allograft rejections and cancer31) are unique in their ability to mount disease-specific and antigen-specific immune responses. Indeed, ectopic-GCs produce antibodies against citrullinated proteins in RA,10 ,33 ,34 ribonucleoproteins Ro/La in SS,35 ,36 thyroglobulin and thyroperoxidase in Hashimotos thyroiditis37 and acetylcholine receptor in myasthenia gravis.38. Here, we exploited these unique features of ectopic-GC to unravel the ...
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Recently, chemokine gradients have been directly visualized in vivo in the context of Ccl21‐mediated dendritic cell migration in mice (Weber et al, 2013) and in zebrafish, where Cxcl8 mediates neutrophil migration (Sarris et al, 2012) (Fig 2B). Cxcl8 forms an extracellular, matrix‐bound gradient that extends at least 100 μm around the cell that expresses the chemokine. Interestingly, Cxcl8 protein was detected beyond this local tissue gradient and was found to be enriched along the venous vasculature, which includes the CHT from which Cxcl8 meditates the mobilization of neutrophils into the vasculature (Sarris et al, 2012). Since Cxcl8 binding to the venous vasculature is also required for neutrophil arrest on the blood vessel wall and to facilitate the subsequent extravasation (Middleton et al, 1997), it appears that Cxcl8 acts at several stages of neutrophil recruitment to sites of infection.. Binding of Cxcl8 to the extracellular matrix, or more specifically to heparan sulfate ...
When two chemokine receptors in the brain interact, leukemic cells (stained green) creep out of a small vein in the membrane covering the brain of a mouse and enter the cerebrospinal fluid. The chemokine CCL19, which is in the endothelium lining the vein, is stained blue in this immunofluorescent image.
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For the ICAO airport code see Candle Lake Airpark, for the diradical compound see Dichlorocarbene. The chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) is also referred to as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) and small inducible cytokine A2. CCL2 is a small cytokine that belongs to the CC chemokine family. CCL2 recruits monocytes, memory T cells, and dendritic cells to the sites of inflammation produced by either tissue injury or infection. In the human genome, CCL2 and many other CC chemokines are located on chromosome 17 (17q11.2-q21.1). The gene span is 1,927 bases and the CCL2 gene resides on the Watson (plus) strand. The CCL2 gene has three exons and two introns. The CCL2 protein precursor contains a signal peptide of 23 amino acids. In turn, the mature CCL2 is 76 amino acids long. The CCL2 predicted weight is 11.025 kiloDaltons (kDa). The gene homologous to CCL2 in the mouse is Sig-je. In humans, the levels of CCL2 can vary considerably. In the white people of European descent, the ...
Parvinder Punia and Pooja (Rai) Telavane - General Manager, Regulatory Affairs, of ELC Groups new Mumbai office - will be representing ELC Group at the upcoming DIA EuroMeeting in Copenhagen (26 - 28 March 2012).. The EuroMeeting attracts more than 3,000 professionals from over 50 countries, bringing together professionals from the biopharmaceutical industry, contract service organisations, clinical research, regulatory agencies, health ministries, patients organisations and universities. This convergence affords attendees the opportunity to network with professional colleagues from around the world.. The ELC Group team will be meeting heads and senior staff from EU health agencies to discuss a range of policy issues, and will also be attending scheduled meeting with top executives from the pharmaceutical industry.. To book a meeting with Parvinder and Punia at the event, please email sales [at] elc-group [dot] com.. For futher information about the event, please visit: ...
Mature dendritic cell. Gape Hot Naked Porn. An example of this includes the interaction of the membrane proteins of the B7 family of the dendritic cell with CD28 present on the lymphocyte.
Weber, Michele, Robert Hauschild, Jan Schwarz, Christine Moussion, Ingrid de Vries, Daniel Legler, Sanjiv Luther, Mark Tobias Bollenbach, and Michael K Sixt. Interstitial Dendritic Cell Guidance by Haptotactic Chemokine Gradients. Science. American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1228456 ...
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he plays the same game as Shanny and Perry. Skates, shoots and fights. None of those guys were or are known for lots of hits. Not their job. their job is to...
There are two chemokines in the MIP-3 group. MIP-3α (CCL20) and MIP-3β (CCL19). MIP-3α is binding to receptor CCR6. CCL20 is ... MIP-3β (CCL19) is produced by stromal cells in T-cell zones of secondary lymphoid organs and binds to CCR7 receptor through ... Chemokine Czaplewski LG, McKeating J, Craven CJ, Higgins LD, Appay V, Brown A, et al. (June 1999). "Identification of amino ... Yan Y, Chen R, Wang X, Hu K, Huang L, Lu M, Hu Q (2019-10-01). "CCL19 and CCR7 Expression, Signaling Pathways, and Adjuvant ...
2006). "The chemokine receptor CCX-CKR mediates effective scavenging of CCL19 in vitro". Eur. J. Immunol. 36 (7): 1904-16. doi: ... This receptor has been shown to bind dendritic cell- and T cell-activated chemokines including CCL19/ELC, CCL21/SLC, and CCL25/ ... 2000). "Cutting edge: identification of a novel chemokine receptor that binds dendritic cell- and T cell-active chemokines ... C-C chemokine receptor type 11 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCRL1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ...
FRCs express chemokines such as CCL21 and CCL19 which assist the movement of T cells and dendritic cells with CCR7 receptors. ... For example, Naive T cells express the CCR7 receptor for the chemokine CCL21. and B cells exhibit CXCR5 receptors for chemokine ... FDCs produce chemokine CXCL13 which promotes migration of B lymphocytes to the primary B cell follicle. B lymphocytes need a ... The lymph carries chemokines (molecular chemical messengers) and antigens to the lymph node. At the lymph node, the lymph ...
... two pro-inflammatory chemokines viz., chemokine ligand 9 (also termed chemokine ligand 10) and chemokine 19 (CCL19), and ...
... chemokine receptor which recognizes chemokines CCL19 and CCL21, that are largely produced by mTECs in the medulla, and ... TGFβ or stem cell factor and chemokines CCL25, CXCL12 or CCRL1 etc. Essential part of T cell development forms process called ...
Cantuzumab ravtansine Cathelicidin CC chemokine receptors CCBP2 CCL1 CCL11 CCL12 CCL13 CCL14 CCL15 CCL16 CCL17 CCL18 CCL19 CCL2 ... Breakthrough infection Broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies Bursa of Fabricius C-C chemokine receptor type 6 C-C chemokine ... CD4 CD4+ T cells and antitumor immunity CD74 CD94/NKG2 Cell-mediated immunity CELSR1 Central tolerance Chemokine Chemokine ... CR6261 CroFab Cross-presentation Cross-reactivity Cryptic self epitopes Cryptotope CX3CL1 CX3CR1 CXC chemokine receptors CXCL1 ...
Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 (CXCL9) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also known as ... CCL20 and MIP-3beta/CCL19". European Journal of Immunology. 31 (7): 1981-8. doi:10.1002/1521-4141(200107)31:7. 3.0.CO;2-X. PMID ... Campbell JD, Stinson MJ, Simons FE, Rector ES, HayGlass KT (July 2001). "In vivo stability of human chemokine and chemokine ... Shields PL, Morland CM, Salmon M, Qin S, Hubscher SG, Adams DH (December 1999). "Chemokine and chemokine receptor interactions ...
... -dependent chemotaxis has been reported in response to the chemokines CXCL12/SDF-1 in T lymphocytes, CXCL13/BLC in B ... lymphocytes and CCL19/ELC in thymocytes (immature lymphocytes) emigrating from the thymus as well as CCL21/SLC in ex vivo ... 2007). "DOCK2 is required for chemokine-promoted human T lymphocyte adhesion under shear stress mediated by the integrin ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19 (CCL19) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCL19 gene. This gene is one of several ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19 (CCL19) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family that is also known as EBI1 ... This chemokine elicits its effects on its target cells by binding to the chemokine receptor chemokine receptor CCR7. It ... "Entrez Gene: CCL19 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19". Yoshida R, Imai T, Hieshima K, Kusuda J, Baba M, Kitaura M, Nishimura M, ...
Their homeostatic function in homing is best exemplified by the chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 (expressed within lymph nodes and on ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines in that it has ... CCL1 for the ligand 1 of the CC-family of chemokines, and CCR1 for its respective receptor. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) ...
Its ligands include the related chemokines CCL19 and CCL21, (previously called ELC and SLC). CCR8 is associated with Th2 ... This molecule was originally designated CCR11 due to its ability to bind several CC chemokines (including CCL19, CCL21 and ... The CC chemokine receptors all work by activating the G protein Gi. CCR1 was the first CC chemokine receptor identified and ... CC chemokine receptors (or beta chemokine receptors) are integral membrane proteins that specifically bind and respond to ...
Two ligands have been identified for this receptor: the chemokines (C-C motif) ligand 19 (CCL19/ELC) and (C-C motif) ligand 21 ... "Macrophage-derived chemokine and EBI1-ligand chemokine attract human thymocytes in different stage of development and are ... "Molecular cloning of a novel human CC chemokine EBI1-ligand chemokine that is a specific functional ligand for EBI1, CCR7". The ... identification of a novel chemokine receptor that binds dendritic cell- and T cell-active chemokines including ELC, SLC, and ...
This chemokine-induced latency model has been used in a comprehensive comparison of in vitro models for evaluating latency ... "CCR7 ligands CCL19 and CCL21 increase permissiveness of resting memory CD4+ T cells to HIV-1 infection: a novel model of HIV-1 ... "Establishment of HIV-1 latency in resting CD4+ T cells depends on chemokine-induced changes in the actin cytoskeleton". ... cells contribute to the ongoing HIV reservoir and that HIV DNA is preferentially found in CD4 T cells expressing the chemokine ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 18 (CCL18) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. The functions of CCL18 have ... CCL19, and CCL17 by dendritic cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and regulation by Fc gamma receptors". Ann. Rheum ... It was previously known as Pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine (PARC), dendritic cell (DC)-chemokine 1 (DC-CK1), ... Chemokines are classed as a special type of cytokine that is involved in immune cell trafficking. CCL18 in particular has some ...
... chemokine, IL-6, and interleukin 8 (IL-8).[82][80] IL-6 and IL-8 are the most conserved and robust features of SASP.[83] ...
Contribution of homeostatic chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 and their receptor CCR7 to coronary artery disease. Arteriosclerosis, ... Polymorphism in the chemokine receptor 7 gene (CCR7) is associated with previous myocardial infarction in patients undergoing ...
Contribution of homeostatic chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 and their receptor CCR7 to coronary artery disease. Arteriosclerosis, ... Sequence variation in promoter regions of genes for CC chemokine ligands (CCL)19 and 21 in Czech patients with myocardial ...
Query Trace: Myocardial Infarction and CCL19[original query] Sequence variation in promoter regions of genes for CC chemokine ... ligands (CCL)19 and 21 in Czech patients with myocardial infarction. Molecular biology reports 2014 May 41 (5): 3163-8. ...
Contribution of homeostatic chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 and their receptor CCR7 to coronary artery disease. Arteriosclerosis, ... Sequence variation in promoter regions of genes for CC chemokine ligands (CCL)19 and 21 in Czech patients with myocardial ...
Jones KL, Muellegger RR, Means TK, Lee M, Glickstein LJ, Damle N, Higher mRNA levels of chemokines and cytokines associated ... and CCL19; adaptive-Th1: IFN-γ, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, cysteine-X-cysteine motif cytokine ligand 9 (CXCL9), and CXCL10; adaptive- ... We assessed protein levels of 22 cytokines and chemokines associated with innate and adaptive immune responses (innate: TNF, IL ... Isolates from the United States and Europe induced greater expression of most cytokines and chemokines tested compared with ...
Query Trace: Atherosclerosis and CCL19[original query] Contribution of homeostatic chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 and their ... Sequence variation in promoter regions of genes for CC chemokine ligands (CCL)19 and 21 in Czech patients with myocardial ...
Cytokine and Chemokine Determinations. We assessed the levels of 17 mediators associated with innate (CC motif chemokine ligand ... CCL19, CCL21) or B-cell (CXCL12, CXCL13) immune responses. We tested for these levels in matched patient serum and CSF samples ... Cerar T, Ogrinc K, Lotric-Furlan S, Kobal J, Levicnik-Stezinar S, Strle F, et al. Diagnostic value of cytokines and chemokines ... Cytokines and chemokines in cerebrospinal fluid in relation to diagnosis, clinical presentation and recovery in children being ...
Sequence variation in promoter regions of genes for CC chemokine ligands (CCL)19 and 21 in Czech patients with myocardial ...
Contribution of homeostatic chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 and their receptor CCR7 to coronary artery disease. Arteriosclerosis, ...
Jones KL, Muellegger RR, Means TK, Lee M, Glickstein LJ, Damle N, Higher mRNA levels of chemokines and cytokines associated ... and CCL19; adaptive-Th1: IFN-γ, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, cysteine-X-cysteine motif cytokine ligand 9 (CXCL9), and CXCL10; adaptive- ... We assessed protein levels of 22 cytokines and chemokines associated with innate and adaptive immune responses (innate: TNF, IL ... Isolates from the United States and Europe induced greater expression of most cytokines and chemokines tested compared with ...
Values are median (range). CCL, CC motif chemokine ligand; CSF, cerebrospinal fluid; CXCL, CXC motif chemokine ligand; IL, ... CCL19. 84 (19-768). 28 (2-143). ,0.0001. CCL21. 17 (17-241). 17 (17-541). 0.7. ...
Increased expression of the homeostatic chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 in clinical and experimental Rickettsia conorii infection. ... Dive into the research topics of Increased expression of the homeostatic chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 in clinical and ... Increased expression of the homeostatic chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 in clinical and experimental Rickettsia conorii infection. ... Increased expression of the homeostatic chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 in clinical and experimental Rickettsia conorii infection. ...
Cytokine and Chemokine Determinations. We assessed the levels of 17 mediators associated with innate (CC motif chemokine ligand ... CCL19, CCL21) or B-cell (CXCL12, CXCL13) immune responses. We tested for these levels in matched patient serum and CSF samples ... Cerar T, Ogrinc K, Lotric-Furlan S, Kobal J, Levicnik-Stezinar S, Strle F, et al. Diagnostic value of cytokines and chemokines ... Cytokines and chemokines in cerebrospinal fluid in relation to diagnosis, clinical presentation and recovery in children being ...
Many homeostatic chemokines are expressed on the vasculature of the blood brain barrier (BBB) including CXCL12, CCL19, CCL20, ... Many homeostatic chemokines are expressed on the vasculature of the blood brain barrier including CXCL12, CCL19, CCL20, and ... In this review, we explore the diverse roles of these and other homeostatic chemokines expressed within the CNS, including the ... In this review, we explore the diverse roles of these and other homeostatic chemokines expressed within the CNS, including the ...
... it binds to C-C motif chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) to induce migration of macrophages, T cells, and B cells ... Human Recombinant CCL19 (MIP-3 beta) plays a key role in inflammatory responses, ... Chemokine ligand 19 (CCL19), also known as macrophage inflammatory protein-3 beta (MIP-3β), is a member of the CC chemokine ... beta-chemokine exodus-3, CC chemokine ligand 19, ELC, Exodus-3, MIP-3β, SCYA19 ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19 (CCL19) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCL19 gene. This gene is one of several ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19 (CCL19) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family that is also known as EBI1 ... This chemokine elicits its effects on its target cells by binding to the chemokine receptor chemokine receptor CCR7. It ... "Entrez Gene: CCL19 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19". Yoshida R, Imai T, Hieshima K, Kusuda J, Baba M, Kitaura M, Nishimura M, ...
... is a CC chemokine, expressed in the thymus, lymph nodes, and in activated bone marrow stromal cells that signals through the ... MIP-3β is a CC chemokine, expressed in the thymus, lymph nodes, and in activated bone marrow stromal cells that signals through ... Chemokines form nanoparticles with DNA and can superinduce TLR-driven immune inflammation. ... G-protein-coupled receptor P2Y10 facilitates chemokine-induced CD4 T cell migration through autocrine/paracrine mediators. ...
Specifically, elevation in the chemokine CCL19 after treatment of early Lyme disease has been associated with the later ... CCL19 as a chemokine risk factor for posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome: A prospective clinical cohort study. Clinical and ... In one study, chemokines and cytokines in the serum of patients were quantified in a multiplex platform, demonstrating ...
In this literature review, we address the roles of CCR7 in the pathophysiology of CLL, and how this chemokine receptor is of ... In this literature review, we address the roles of CCR7 in the pathophysiology of CLL, and how this chemokine receptor is of ... Within the multitude of signaling pathways aberrantly regulated in CLL the homeostatic axis composed by the chemokine receptor ... Within the multitude of signaling pathways aberrantly regulated in CLL the homeostatic axis composed by the chemokine receptor ...
... associated with an impaired chemotactic response to several chemokines, including the CCR7 ligands CCL19 and CCL21. [13] ...
Antagonizing CCR7 and its chemokine ligand CCL19 inhibit CNS infiltration of T-ALL in an animal model (Buonamici S et al., 2009 ... Chemokine/Chemokine Receptor Interactions in Extramedullary Leukaemia of the Skin in Childhood AML: Differential Roles for CCR2 ... 2. Dissemination of acute leukemia and the role of chemokines and chemokine receptors. Despite significant advances in ... A recent study also suggests that chemokine/chemokine receptor interactions orchestrate extramedullary dissemination in ...
This migration is guided by chemokines such as CCL21 and CCL19.. As the dendritic cells migrate from the peripheries, they ... They then stop the antigen capture while upregulating their expression of molecules such as CD86, CD80, and the chemokine ...
High circulating levels of the homeostatic chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 predict mortality and disease severity in Covid-19. ...
... is a CC chemokine, expressed in the thymus, lymph nodes, and in activated bone marrow stromal cells that signals through the ... MIP-3β is a CC chemokine, expressed in the thymus, lymph nodes, and in activated bone marrow stromal cells that signals through ... including the four highly conserved cysteine residues present in CC chemokines. ...
... is a chemokine receptor that binds CCL19 and CCL21. ... is a chemokine receptor that binds CCL19 and CCL21. CCR7 and ... CCL19 and CCL21. Cell Type B cells, Dendritic cells, NK cells, T cells Biology Area Immunology Molecular Family CD Molecules, ... The chemokine receptor CCR7 plays a pivotal role in the homing of naïve T cells and regulatory T cells to secondary lymphoid ... Chemokine receptor, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), seven transmembrane receptor. Distribution T cells, B cells, NK, ...
CCL19. MIP-3beta. 20ug. CN-06. CCL19. MIP-3beta. 100ug. CN-06. ... Chemokine Ligand. Chemokine Name. Size. Catalogue code. (Click ... Human Native Chemokines. Almac presents a series of native human chemokines, produced by chemical synthesis to ensure high ... Chemokine & Histone online shop. Comprehensive range of Chemokine and Histone products with worldwide shipping and online ... Chemokine & Histone online shop. Comprehensive range of Chemokine and Histone products with worldwide shipping and online ...
... is a chemokine receptor that binds CCL19 and CCL21. CCR7 and its ligands link innate and adaptive immunity by affecting ... CCR7, also known as CD197, is a chemokine receptor that binds CCL19 and CCL21. CCR7 and its ligands link innate and adaptive ... CCL19 and CCL21. Cell Type B cells, Dendritic cells, NK cells, T cells Biology Area Immunology Molecular Family CD Molecules, ... The chemokine receptor CCR7 plays a pivotal role in the homing of naïve T cells and regulatory T cells to secondary lymphoid ...
2013) A myriad of functions and complex regulation of the CCR7/CCL19/CCL21 chemokine Axis in the adaptive immune system ... Significantly higher numbers of CD4+ T cells from LXA4-deficient mice migrated toward CCL19 and CCL21 chemokine gradients than ... and allowed to migrate toward 100 ng of CCL19 and 100 ng of CCL21 chemokine ligands (R and D systems, MN) in 2% FCS for 4 hr. ... T cell migration towards CCL19/21 gradient. Ccr7 is expressed predominantly in DC and T cells, and its ligands CCL19 and CCL21 ...
... taking in account that it is a homing receptor for chemokine ligand 19 and 21 (CCL19, CCL21; ref. 18), which are able to drive ... On the other hand, Treg proliferation may occur in situ where it is nourished by selective cytokine/chemokine production in the ... We investigated the prognostic value of tumor infiltration by CD8+ T cells expressing the chemokine-receptor-7 (Tccr7) and the ... We show that high tumor infiltration by cytotoxic (CD8+) T cells expressing the chemokine receptor-7 (CCR7; Tccr7) has a ...
Cytokine and Chemokine Determinations. We assessed the levels of 17 mediators associated with innate (CC motif chemokine ligand ... CCL19, CCL21) or B-cell (CXCL12, CXCL13) immune responses. We tested for these levels in matched patient serum and CSF samples ... Cerar T, Ogrinc K, Lotric-Furlan S, Kobal J, Levicnik-Stezinar S, Strle F, et al. Diagnostic value of cytokines and chemokines ... Cytokines and chemokines in cerebrospinal fluid in relation to diagnosis, clinical presentation and recovery in children being ...
... allowing homing of DCs to draining nodes drawn by the chemokines CCL19 and CCL21; (b) downregulation of DC ability to capture ... DC maturation is associated with a number of phenotypic and functional changes: (a) upregulation of the chemokine receptor CCR7 ... it was reported that exposure to pH 6.4 increased the expression of a number of inflammatory genes including chemokines, ...
Our results show that the melanoma cell lines do not express or express in a low degree the chemokine receptors on their cell ... Coexpression of chemokine receptors and their ligands was found in human melanoma cell lines. However, this expression is ... However, as well as in the original cell lines, minute or no expression of the chemokine receptors was observed at the cell ... In melanoma, chemokine receptors have been implicated in organ selective metastasis by regulating processes such as ...
Human Chemokine Array 1 Kit. Detects 40 Human Chemokines. Suitable for all liquid sample types. ... AXL , BTC , CCL13 , CCL14 , CCL16 , CCL17 , CCL18 , CCL19 , CCL20 , CCL21, CCL22 , CCL23 , CCL25 , CCL26 , CCL27 , CCL28 , ... Quantibody® Human Chemokine Array 1 Kit. Detects 40 Human Chemokines. Suitable for all liquid sample types. ...
The chemokines most closely related with CEMIP expression in BC were CCL1, CCL19, CXCL18, and CXCL12 (Supplementary Figure 2B ... chemokines, and chemokine receptors can be regulated by CEMIP, and CEMIP and its coexpressed genes can participate in the ... Supplementary Figure 2C shows the relationships between CEMIP expression and chemokine receptors. The chemokine receptors most ... The immune-related molecules, including lymphocytes, immune inhibitors, immune stimulators, MHC molecules, chemokines, and ...
... that STIM1-lacking Compact disc4+ Capital t cells absence Ca2+ inflow upon pleasure with chemokines such as CXCL11 and CCL19 ... One such chemokine is certainly 1374601-40-7 IC50 stromal-derived aspect-1 (SDF-1, also known as chemokine (C-X-C theme) ligand ... or genetics [6]. Chemokine receptor signaling can activate [Ca2+]i height through recruitment and service of phospholipase C-; ... chemokine (C-X-C theme) receptor 4, CXCR4), which is present on the CLL cell surface area, play a crucial function in CLL cell ...
It elicits its chemotactic effects by interacting with the chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2. The gene for CXCL6 is located ... is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also known as granulocyte chemotactic protein 2 (GCP-2). As ... on human chromosome 4 in a cluster with other CXC chemokine genes. ... chemokine activity. CCL1; CCL7; CCL26; CXCL9; CCL33.3; IL-8; CCL19; CXCL13; CCL6; CCL20. ...
Contribution of homeostatic chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 and their receptor CCR7 to coronary artery disease. Arteriosclerosis, ...
Contribution of homeostatic chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 and their receptor CCR7 to coronary artery disease. Arteriosclerosis, ... Polymorphism in the chemokine receptor 7 gene (CCR7) is associated with previous myocardial infarction in patients undergoing ...
chemokine gradient formation and maintenance, CCL19, CCL21, CCR7, dendritic cell migration, fluorescent chemokines. ... Here, we used site-specifically, fluorescently labelled CCL19 and CCL21 to study the establishment and shape of the chemokine ... Here, we used site-specifically, fluorescently labelled CCL19 and CCL21 to study the establishment and shape of the chemokine ... is determinant for shaping the chemokine gradient. Importantly, DCs sense differences in the shape of CCL19 and CCL21 gradients ...
CC chemokine receptor (CCR)7+ T cells may remain within T cell areas (6), CCR4+ T cells seem to migrate toward a new wave of ... 1, a and b), but not Mig/CXCL9, I-TAC/CXCL11, or ELC/CCL19 (Fig. 1 a). The expression levels of CCL22 were conversely decreased ... c) Expression of chemokine mRNAs in CD11c+ DCs isolated from the blood, liver, hepatic, and axillary LNs at day 7 after P. ... c) Expression of chemokine mRNAs in CD11c+ DCs isolated from the blood, liver, hepatic, and axillary LNs at day 7 after P. ...
  • Background: Based on their essential role in concerting immunological and inflammatory responses we hypothesized that the homeostatic chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 may play a pathogenic role in rickettsiae infection. (utmb.edu)
  • Methods: Serum levels of CCL19 and CCL21 in patients with R. africae and R. conorii infection were analyzed by enzyme immunoassays. (utmb.edu)
  • Lungs from R. conorii infected mice were examined for CCL19, CCL21 and CCR7 expression by immunohistochemistry. (utmb.edu)
  • In experimental R. conorii infection, we found strong immunostaining of CCL19 and CCL21 in the lungs, particularly in individuals that had received lethal doses. (utmb.edu)
  • Immunofluorescence showed co-localization of CCR7 to endothelial cells, macrophages and fibroblasts within the lung tissue of R. conorii infected mice.Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the CCL19/CCL21/CCR7 axis is up-regulated during R. africae and in particular during R. conorii infection, which may potentially contribute to the pathogenesis of these disorders. (utmb.edu)
  • Many homeostatic chemokines are expressed on the vasculature of the blood brain barrier (BBB) including CXCL12, CCL19, CCL20, and CCL21. (frontiersin.org)
  • Expression of CCL19, CCL20, and CCL21 on meningeal vessels maintain dendritic cell populations important for immunosurveillance within the boarders of the glia limitans, limiting antigen presentation cell access to the CNS parenchyma. (frontiersin.org)
  • This migration is guided by chemokines such as CCL21 and CCL19. (news-medical.net)
  • High circulating levels of the homeostatic chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 predict mortality and disease severity in Covid-19. (uio.no)
  • CCR7, also known as CD197, is a chemokine receptor that binds CCL19 and CCL21. (biolegend.com)
  • CCL21 is often referred to as Exodus-2 and is considered to be a minor cytokine of the CC chemokine family. (prospecbio.com)
  • The CC chemokine family - which CCL21 is a member of - is known for having the power to directly induce chemotaxis in cells that are close by. (prospecbio.com)
  • CCL21 is known for having a very high affinity for chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7). (prospecbio.com)
  • The dendritic cells flood the scene where they find plenty of T Cells that were brought there by the CCL21 chemokine. (prospecbio.com)
  • From here, the dendritic cells produce even more CCL21 (along with CCL19) which helps call more mature dendritic cells to the area. (prospecbio.com)
  • Contribution of homeostatic chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 and their receptor CCR7 to coronary artery disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Here, we used site-specifically, fluorescently labelled CCL19 and CCL21 to study the establishment and shape of the chemokine gradients over time in the 3D collagen matrix. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • We demonstrate that CCL19 and particularly CCL21 establish stable, but short-distance spanning gradients with an exponential decay-like shape. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • We show that the charged C-terminal tail of CCL21, known to interact with extracellular matrix proteins, is determinant for shaping the chemokine gradient. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • Importantly, DCs sense differences in the shape of CCL19 and CCL21 gradients, resulting in distinct spatial migratory responses. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • The changes in RGS18 and RGS1 expression are likely important for DC function, because both proteins inhibit G alpha(i)- and G alpha(q)-mediated signaling and can reduce CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL)12-, CC chemokine ligand (CCL)19-, or CCL21-induced cell migration. (eurekamag.com)
  • The chemokines CCL19, CCL21, and CXCL12 presented on the endothelial cell surface then engage T lymphocyte CCR7 and CXCR4, activating LFA-1 and α 4 β 7 , causing firm adhesion or arrest on the HEVs, and eventual diapedesis across the endothelial cell monolayer. (aai.org)
  • 3) The CCR7 ligands CCL19 and CCL21 are present on lymphatic, vascular, and sinusoidal endothelium in normal liver and in patients with HCV infection. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We suggest that the recirculation of CCR7+/L-selectin- intrahepatic CD8 T cells to regional lymphoid tissue will be facilitated by CCL19 and CCL21 on hepatic sinusoids and lymphatics. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We also show that CD38 and cADPR modulate calcium mobilization in chemokine-stimulated DCs and are required for the chemotaxis of immature and mature DCs to CCL2, CCL19, CCL21, and CXCL12. (uab.edu)
  • Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21 (CCL21) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. (rockland.com)
  • CXC chemokine ligand 13 (CXCL13), CC chemokine ligand 21 (CCL21), and CCL19 are constitutively expressed in secondary lymphoid organs, where they control the placement of lymphocytes and dendritic cells. (rockland.com)
  • For example, cells in the lymphatic vessels and lymph node produce chemokines CCL19 and CCL21, which can attract T cells expressing the receptor CCR7 into the lymph node as well as guide them to properly position themselves in the organ long-term. (immunobites.com)
  • As differentiation in response to pattern recognition receptor stimulation proceeds, they downregulate the adhesion molecule E ‐ cadherin, upregulate certain chemokine receptors including CCR7 (which detects CCL19 and CCL21 expressed by the endothelium in peripheral lymph nodes), and produce matrix metalloproteinases to facilitate their migration. (pediagenosis.com)
  • in the tissue is tightly controlled and for T cells and DCs, this process is regulated by the lysophospholipid shingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and by the chemokine receptor CCR7 and its ligands CCL19 and CCL21 [17-20]. (cgrpreceptor.com)
  • CXCL12, CXCL13, CCL19 and CCL21) which sustain the ongoing process [16-18]. (alexjordan.org)
  • It specifically binds to chemokine receptor CCR7. (wikipedia.org)
  • This chemokine elicits its effects on its target cells by binding to the chemokine receptor chemokine receptor CCR7. (wikipedia.org)
  • it binds to C-C motif chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) to induce migration of macrophages, T cells, and B cells (Gibejova et al. (stemcell.com)
  • MIP-3β is a CC chemokine, expressed in the thymus, lymph nodes, and in activated bone marrow stromal cells that signals through the CCR7 receptor. (peprotech.com)
  • Within the multitude of signaling pathways aberrantly regulated in CLL the homeostatic axis composed by the chemokine receptor CCR7 and its ligands is the main driver for directing immune cells to home into the LN. In this literature review, we address the roles of CCR7 in the pathophysiology of CLL, and how this chemokine receptor is of critical importance to develop more rational and effective therapies for this malignancy. (frontiersin.org)
  • In recent years growing evidence suggests that cell trafficking orchestrated by the chemokine receptor CCR7 plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of CLL. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this literature review we provide in depth insight into how CCR7-mediated functions contribute to CLL pathogenesis, and how this chemokine receptor may be a critical potential therapeutic target in CLL. (frontiersin.org)
  • They then stop the antigen capture while upregulating their expression of molecules such as CD86, CD80, and the chemokine receptor CCR7. (news-medical.net)
  • Moreover, signaling through the chemokine receptor CCR7 is crucial for infiltration of T-ALL cells in the central nervous system. (intechopen.com)
  • The chemokine receptor CCR7 plays a pivotal role in the homing of naïve T cells and regulatory T cells to secondary lymphoid organs, and the migration of dendritic cells into afferent lymphatic vessels. (biolegend.com)
  • In vivo deletion or supplementation of LXA 4 identified modulation of CC-chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) and sphingosine 1- phosphate receptor-1 (S1PR1) expression and glucose metabolism in CD4 + T cells as potential mechanisms for LXA 4 regulation of T cell effector function and trafficking. (elifesciences.org)
  • Polymorphism in the chemokine receptor 7 gene (CCR7) is associated with previous myocardial infarction in patients undergoing elective coronary angiography. (cdc.gov)
  • Intruder confronted dendritic cells (DCs) induce the expression of the chemokine receptor CCR7, which enables them to sense and migrate along chemokine gradients to home to draining lymph nodes, where they launch an adaptive immune response. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • In this study, we have investigated CCL19-CCR7 and CXCL12-CXCR4-driven migration of both splenic and peripheral lymph node (PLN) nonactivated and naive T cells, and used both S1P and the S1PR ligand, FTY720, to probe these interactions. (aai.org)
  • GRA-induced transcripts included chemokine receptor CXCR5 and its ligand CXCL13, receptor CCR7 and its ligands CCL19 and CCL21b, and receptors CCR6 and CCR9. (bet-bromodomain.com)
  • Their expression of a number of chemokine receptors, including CCR7, CCR8, and CXCR4 (see Table 8.2) means that they are attracted to and migrate into T ‐ cell areas in lymphoid tissue. (pediagenosis.com)
  • Naïve T cells, for example, largely express the chemokine receptor CCR7 and the selectin CD62L, which directs them to circulate through the SLOs where they are more likely to have a productive interaction with antigen and antigen-presenting cells [13]. (cgrpreceptor.com)
  • In the adult central nervous system (CNS), chemokines and their receptors are involved in developmental, physiological and pathological processes. (frontiersin.org)
  • These chemokines and their receptors are therefore involved in a range of homeostatic processes including immune surveillance, neuro/gliogenesis and modulation of synaptic transmission. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition to these anatomical barriers, the expression of chemokines and chemokine receptors at the BBB and blood-CSF barrier serves as an immunological checkpoint and prevents (during non-inflammatory/homeostatic conditions) or promotes (during neuroinflammation) the infiltration of circulating leukocytes into the deeper CNS parenchyma and ventricular or subarachnoid CSF spaces (Figure 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Chemokine receptor, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), seven transmembrane receptor. (biolegend.com)
  • It elicits its chemotactic effects by interacting with the chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Some lymphocytes, immune inhibitors, immune stimulators, MHC molecules, chemokines , and chemokine receptors can be regulated by CEMIP , and CEMIP and its coexpressed genes can participate in the hyaluronan biosynthetic process, hyaluronan catabolic process, and other related biological processes in the progression of BC. (medsci.org)
  • TLR signaling triggers a cascade of events in DCs that includes modified chemokine and cytokine production, altered chemokine receptor expression, and changes in signaling through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). (eurekamag.com)
  • Using the fluorescent streptavidin conjugates, one can study chemokine receptors binding, internalization or expression levels. (chemotactics.com)
  • Chemokines and chemokine receptors are required for T cell trafficking and migration. (aai.org)
  • GRA-induced changes in cytokine expression in intestinal tissue.Results GRA Induces Transcription of a Specific Pattern of Genes Encoding Chemokine Receptors and Corresponding Ligands in the Small IntestineThe ability of orally delivered GRA to modulate immune system activity at the gut mucosa initially was analyzed by measuring cytokine gene expression in small intestinal tissue. (bet-bromodomain.com)
  • Chemokines send signals through G-protein coupled receptors ( GPCRs ), which can allow the cells to remodel their actin cytoskeleton and give them the ability to migrate. (immunobites.com)
  • On T cells, the differential expression of particular combinations of selectins, chemokine receptors, and integrins on leukocytes is highly regulated and results in a directed trafficking of cellular subsets to particular organs and tissue beds. (cgrpreceptor.com)
  • effector T cells upregulate the expression of chemokine receptors that correspond and can react to the chemokine ligands produced in inflamed tissues. (cgrpreceptor.com)
  • For CD4+ T cells, the combination of chemokine receptors that are upregulated correlates with the cell-differentiation program upon activation. (cgrpreceptor.com)
  • The site where antigen is encountered by the naïve cell also affects the expression of chemokine receptors and integrins, "imprinting" them to return to particular tissue beds. (cgrpreceptor.com)
  • A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. (musc.edu)
  • Extracellular matrix and adhesion molecules, as well as chemokines and their receptors, are important in adult HSC migration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) array the expression pattern of extracellular matrix and adhesion molecules as well as chemokines and chemokine receptors in Lineage - Sca-1 + c-Kit + (LSK) cells at different stages of development, in order to characterize the role played by these molecules in LSK. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our results show marked changes in the expression pattern of extracellular matrix, adhesion molecules, chemokines and their receptors with developmental age, particularly in later stages of development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 0.05) chemokine ligands intracellularly are shown (ns: not significant expression). (biomedcentral.com)
  • It functions as one of the natural ligands for the chemokine receptor chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (CCR5), and it suppresses in vitro replication of the R5 strains of HIV-1, which use CCR5 as a coreceptor. (creativebiomart.net)
  • These results indicate that the level and functional status of RGS proteins in DCs significantly impact their response to GPCR ligands such as chemokines. (eurekamag.com)
  • The panel included cytokines, chemokines, growth factors and ligands according to established SOPs. (medscape.com)
  • When stratified by specific clinical manifestation, patients with meningoradiculoneuritis had higher levels of B-cell chemoattractants CXC motif chemokine ligand (CXCL) 12 and CXCL13 and T-cell-associated mediators CXCL9, CXCL10, and interleukin 17, compared with those without radicular pain. (cdc.gov)
  • Although most lines of investigation focus on their ability to induce the migration of cells, recent studies indicate that chemokines also promote cellular interactions and activate signaling pathways that maintain CNS homeostatic functions. (frontiersin.org)
  • While endothelial cell expression of these chemokines is known to regulate the entry of leukocytes into the CNS during immunosurveillance, new data indicate that CXCL12 is also involved in diverse cellular activities including adult neurogenesis and neuronal survival, having an opposing role to the homeostatic chemokine, CXCL14, which appears to regulate synaptic inputs to neural precursors. (frontiersin.org)
  • Neuronal expression of CX 3 CL1, yet another homeostatic chemokine that promotes neuronal survival and communication with microglia, is partly regulated by CXCL12. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this review, we explore the diverse roles of these and other homeostatic chemokines expressed within the CNS, including the possible implications of their dysfunction as a cause of neurologic disease. (frontiersin.org)
  • This review will discuss how homeostatic chemokines protect and maintain normal CNS functions. (frontiersin.org)
  • It was demonstrate that the local expression of homeostatic chemokines in nonlymphoid organs, such as the lung, plays an important role in protective immune responses. (rockland.com)
  • Providing additional evidence, bone marrow-derived DCs from Rgs1(-/-) mice have a heightened migratory response to both CXCL12 and CCL19 when compared with similar DCs prepared from wild-type mice. (eurekamag.com)
  • We compare early transcriptional responses in the presence and absence of the chemokines CXCL12 and CCL19, and perform a basic comparison between observed transcriptional responses in Jurkat E6.1 cells and those in primary human T cells using publicly deposited data. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Chemokines expressed by the CNS vasculature have a role in regulating immune cell and neural progenitor cell occupancy within perivascular spaces. (frontiersin.org)
  • Chemokines form nanoparticles with DNA and can superinduce TLR-driven immune inflammation. (peprotech.com)
  • Chemokine-guided leukocyte migration is a hallmark of the immune system to cope with invading pathogens. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • Combination treatment led to upregulation of immune response genes, including multiple chemokine genes such as CCL5, in macrophages, and downregulation of extracellular matrix genes in fibroblasts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Analysis of publicly available tumor transcriptome profiles showed that the chemokine CCL5 was strongly associated with immune cell infiltration in various human cancers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Many immune cells use chemokines to find their targets and even position themselves within tissues and organs at steady-state. (immunobites.com)
  • Important chemokines in immune signaling are characterized by C-C motif or a C-X-C motif on the protein ligand (chemokine) and the receptor. (immunobites.com)
  • IFN-g, for example, induces production of chemokines and causes dilation of blood vessels that draws other immune cells into a site of infection. (immunobites.com)
  • G-protein-coupled receptor P2Y10 facilitates chemokine-induced CD4 T cell migration through autocrine/paracrine mediators. (peprotech.com)
  • Chemokine-mediated DC migration is recapitulated and intensively studied in 3D matrix migration chambers. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • The results demonstrate that splenic T cell migration to CCL19 or CXCL12 is enhanced by, but does not require, S1PR stimulation. (aai.org)
  • In contrast, PLN T cell migration to CXCL12, but not CCL19, requires both chemokine and S1PR stimulation, and the requirement for dual receptor stimulation is particularly important for steps involving transendothelial migration. (aai.org)
  • Chemokines are a family of proteins that direct leukocyte migration and activation to inflammatory stimuli. (rockland.com)
  • Alternatively, LT-HSCs circulating in fetal blood might not possess the appropriate chemokine receptor or adhesion molecule repertoire required for bone marrow homing and migration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • More recently, several small molecules have been developed to inhibit a variety of kinases in the BCR pathway, including Lyn, Syk, Btk and PI3K, which are crucial not only for the activation of multiple survival pathways (such as Akt, Erk, NF-kB) but also for chemokine-mediated migration and adhesion of B cells in the microenvironment [22]. (alexjordan.org)
  • This gene is one of several chemokine genes clustered on the q-arm of chromosome 17. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The gene for CXCL6 is located on human chromosome 4 in a cluster with other CXC chemokine genes. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Expression of genes encoding these chemokine receptor.Nly was administered by oral gavage according to the timetable dictated by the experiment. (bet-bromodomain.com)
  • This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes. (musc.edu)
  • Our understanding of the role of chemokine expression in the adult central nervous system (CNS) has shifted away from viewing these molecules primarily as proinflammatory mediators and more towards their ability to exert neuroprotective and reparative functions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Instead, fluorescent probes, mostly labelled dextran, are used as surrogate molecules, thereby neglecting important electrochemical properties of the chemokines. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • This review will address the immunosuppressive features of the TME, which include the stroma, cytokine and chemokine milieu, suppressive regulatory cells and hypoxic conditions, which can all pose formidable barriers for the effective anti-tumor function of CAR T-cells. (springernature.com)
  • The fetal outcomes, the apoptosis in placenta and JEG-3 cells, the expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (KC), and expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers were evaluated. (academic-accelerator.com)
  • Moreover, the investigation of soluble factors, mainly SR1078 cytokines and chemokines, which could be involved in leukemic cell survival, was performed. (alexjordan.org)
  • Clinically, the expression of CCL19 is correlated to autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and cancer (Pickens et al. (stemcell.com)
  • Anti-PD-L1 induced the expression of several chemokines that are associated with the recruitment of cytotoxic T cells, with a further increase in expression after combination therapy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, we show that the expression of the chemokines Ccl4 , Ccl9 , Il18 and the chemokine receptor Cxcr4 increases in LSK cells during development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chemokine CCL4" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (musc.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Chemokine CCL4" by people in this website by year, and whether "Chemokine CCL4" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (musc.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Chemokine CCL4" by people in Profiles. (musc.edu)
  • The results have important implications for understanding naive T cell entry into and egress from peripheral lymphoid organs, and we present a model for how S1P and chemokine receptor signaling may be integrated within a T cell. (aai.org)
  • This chemokine is also known as 6Ckine (because it has six conserved cysteine residues instead of the four cysteines typical to chemokines), exodus-2, and secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine (SLC). (rockland.com)
  • Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19 (CCL19) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family that is also known as EBI1 ligand chemokine (ELC) and macrophage inflammatory protein-3-beta (MIP-3-beta). (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokine ligand 19 (CCL19), also known as macrophage inflammatory protein-3 beta (MIP-3β), is a member of the CC chemokine family, which plays key roles in inflammatory responses, T cell activation, homeostasis, and development (Yan et al. (stemcell.com)
  • Chemokines form a superfamily of secreted proteins involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. (creativebiomart.net)
  • CCL5 is an 8kDa protein classified as a chemotactic cytokine or chemokine . (wikidoc.org)
  • IL-2 and IFN-γ ) that are released by T cells , CCL5 also induces the proliferation and activation of certain natural-killer ( NK ) cells to form CHAK (CC-Chemokine-activated killer) cells. (wikidoc.org)
  • Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19 (CCL19) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCL19 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene for CCL19 is located on human chromosome 9. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chemokine SDF1 (stromal derived factor-1) and its receptor CXCR4 regulate trafficking of normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) as well as metastasis of solid tumor cells. (intechopen.com)
  • This chemokine, a member of the CC subfamily, functions as a chemoattractant for blood monocytes, memory T helper cells and eosinophils. (creativebiomart.net)
  • these interactions are direct, block the loading of GTP to RHOA and decrease upon chemokine CCL19 stimulation in primary T lymphocytes (PubMed:25588844). (cansar.ai)
  • This chemokine has been localized to chromosome 17 in humans. (wikidoc.org)
  • Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6 (CXCL6) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also known as granulocyte chemotactic protein 2 (GCP-2). (creativebiomart.net)
  • hypothesized that circulating LT-HSC, although chemotactic by 14.5 dpc to the bone marrow recruiting chemokine stromal cell derived factor-1α (SDF-1α), would not colonize the fetal bone marrow until a suitable microenvironment is present [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recombinant Human MIP-3β is an 8.8 kDa protein containing 77 amino acid residues, including the four highly conserved cysteine residues present in CC chemokines. (peprotech.com)
  • CCL19 is expressed abundantly in thymus and lymph nodes, with moderate levels in trachea and colon and low levels in stomach, small intestine, lung, kidney and spleen. (wikipedia.org)
  • We selected most pathways CXCL6 participated on our site, such as Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, Chemokine signaling pathway, Pertussis, which may be useful for your reference. (creativebiomart.net)
  • A knottin scaffold directs the CXC-chemokine-binding specificity of tick evasins. (peprotech.com)
  • Chemokines can also come in the variety of lipid products such as prostaglandins or leukotrienes, which attract neutrophils to sites of inflammation and tissue damage. (immunobites.com)
  • This chemokine plays a role in accumulation of leukocytes during inflammation. (anticorps-enligne.fr)
  • Therefore, CD38 regulates adaptive immunity by controlling chemokine receptor signaling in DCs. (uab.edu)