Chemokine CCL27: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.Chemokine CCL21: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL22: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.Chemokine CCL17: A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Chemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CCL19: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL5: A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.Chemokine CCL20: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL1: A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.Chemokines, CC: Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.Receptors, Chemokine: Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Chemokine CCL3: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Chemokine CCL7: A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Receptors, CCR10: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL4: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Chemokine CXCL12: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.Receptors, CCR1: CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.Chemokine CXCL10: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemokine CCL8: A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.Receptors, CCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.Receptors, CCR2: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.Chemokine CCL11: A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Chemokine CCL24: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Receptors, CCR7: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.Receptors, CCR8: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.Chemokine CXCL1: A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Receptors, CCR4: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.Chemokines, CXC: Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.Chemokine CX3CL1: A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins: Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.Receptors, CCR5: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.Receptors, CCR3: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.Chemokine CXCL9: An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Mice, Inbred C57BLCell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Chemokine CXCL2: A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CXCL13: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.Receptors, CXCR4: CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Chemokine CXCL11: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Chemokine CXCL6: A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Chemokine CXCL5: A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Receptors, CXCR3: CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Receptors, Interleukin-8B: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Dermatitis, Atopic: A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Monocyte Chemoattractant Proteins: Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Receptors, CCR6: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Receptors, Interleukin-8A: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Receptors, CXCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Receptors, Cytokine: Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Chemokines, CX3C: Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.Receptors, CXCR5: CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Chemotactic Factors: Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Monokines: Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.Receptors, HIV: Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Carbon Tetrachloride PoisoningDuffy Blood-Group System: A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.Chemotactic Factors, Eosinophil: Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.Neutrophil Infiltration: The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Heterocyclic Compounds: Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Cell Migration Inhibition: Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Platelet Factor 4: A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Endothelium, Lymphatic: Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.

Expression and cellular localization of the CC chemokines PARC and ELC in human atherosclerotic plaques. (1/256)

Local immune responses are thought to play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. Histological studies have shown that human atherosclerotic lesions contain T lymphocytes throughout all stages of development, many of which are in an activated state. A number of novel CC chemokines have been described recently, which are potent chemoattractants for lymphocytes: PARC (pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine), ELC (EBI1-ligand chemokine), LARC (liver and activation-regulated chemokine), and SLC (secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine). Using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization, we have found gene expression for PARC and ELC but not for LARC or SLC in human atherosclerotic plaques. Immunohistochemical staining of serial plaque sections with specific cell markers revealed highly different expression patterns of PARC and ELC. PARC mRNA was restricted to CD68+ macrophages (n = 14 of 18), whereas ELC mRNA was widely expressed by macrophages and intimal smooth muscle cells (SMC) in nearly all of the lesions examined (n = 12 of 14). ELC mRNA was also found to be expressed in the medial SMC wall of highly calcified plaques (n = 4). Very low levels of ELC mRNA expression could also be detected in normal mammary arteries but no mRNA expression for PARC was detected in these vessels (n = 4). In vitro, ELC mRNA was found to be up-regulated in aortic SMC stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-a and interferon-gamma but not in SMC stimulated with serum. Both PARC and ELC mRNA were expressed by monocyte-derived macrophages but not monocytes. The expression patterns of PARC and ELC mRNA in human atherosclerotic lesions suggest a potential role for these two recently described CC chemokines in attracting T lymphocytes into atherosclerotic lesions.  (+info)

The CC chemokine receptor-7 ligands 6Ckine and macrophage inflammatory protein-3 beta are potent chemoattractants for in vitro- and in vivo-derived dendritic cells. (2/256)

Dendritic cell migration to secondary lymphoid tissues is critical for Ag presentation to T cells necessary to elicit an immune response. Despite the importance of dendritic cell trafficking in immunity, at present little is understood about the mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon. Using a novel transwell chemotaxis assay system, we demonstrate that the CC chemokine receptor-7 (CCR7) ligands 6Ckine and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-3 beta are selective chemoattractants for MHC class IIhigh B7-2high bone marrow-derived dendritic cells at a potency 1000-fold higher than their known activity on naive T cells. Furthermore, these chemokines stimulate the chemotaxis of freshly isolated lymph node dendritic cells, as well as the egress of skin dendritic cells ex vivo. Because these chemokines are expressed in lymphoid organs and 6Ckine has been localized to high endothelial venules and lymphatic endothelium, we propose that they may play an important role in the homing of dendritic cells to lymphoid tissues.  (+info)

Chemokine Up-regulation and activated T cell attraction by maturing dendritic cells. (3/256)

Langerhans' cells migrating from contact-sensitized skin were found to up-regulate expression of macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) during maturation into lymph node dendritic cells (DCs). Naive T cells did not migrate toward MDC, but antigen-specific T cells rapidly acquired MDC responsiveness in vivo after a subcutaneous injection of antigen. In chemotaxis assays, maturing DCs attracted activated T cells more strongly than naive T cells. These studies identified chemokine up-regulation as part of the Langerhans' cell maturation program to immunogenic T cell-zone DC. Preferential recruitment of activated T cells may be a mechanism used by maturing DCs to promote encounters with antigen-specific T cells.  (+info)

Cutting edge: developmental switches in chemokine responses during T cell maturation. (4/256)

We show that developmental transitions during thymocyte maturation are associated with dramatic changes in chemotactic responses to chemokines. Macrophage-derived chemokine, a chemokine expressed in the thymic medulla, attracts thymocytes only during a brief window of development, between the late cortical and early medullary stages. All medullary phenotypes (CD4 or CD8 single positive) but not immature thymocytes respond to the medullary stroma-expressed (and secondary lymphoid tissue-associated) chemokines secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine and macrophage inflammatory protein-3beta. The appearance of these responses is associated with the phenotypic stage of cortex to medulla migration and with up-regulation of mRNA for the receptors CCR4 (for macrophage-derived chemokine and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine) and CCR7 (for secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine and macrophage inflammatory protein-3beta). In contrast, most immature and medullary thymocytes migrate to thymus-expressed chemokine, an ability that is lost only with up-regulation of the peripheral homing receptor L-selectin during the latest stages of thymocyte maturation associated with export to the periphery. Developmental switches in chemokine responses may help regulate critical migratory events during T cell development.  (+info)

Differential responsiveness to constitutive vs. inducible chemokines of immature and mature mouse dendritic cells. (5/256)

Upon exposure to immune or inflammatory stimuli, dendritic cells (DC) migrate from peripheral tissues to lymphoid organs, where they present antigen. The molecular basis for the peculiar trafficking properties of DC is largely unknown. In this study, mouse DC were generated from CD34+ bone marrow precursors and cultured with granulocyte-macrophage-CSF and Flt3 ligand for 9 days. Chemokines active on immature DC include MIP1alpha, RANTES, MIP1beta, MCP-1, MCP-3, and the constitutively expressed SDF1, MDC, and ELC. TNF-alpha-induced DC maturation caused reduction of migration to inducible chemokines (MIP1alpha, RANTES, MIP1beta, MCP-1, and MCP-3) and increased migration to SDF1, MDC, and ELC. Similar results were obtained by CD40 ligation or culture in the presence of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. TNF-alpha down-regulated CC chemokine receptor (CCR)1, CCR2, and CCR5 and up-regulated CCR7 mRNA levels, in agreement with functional data. This study shows that selective responsiveness of mature and immature DC to inducible vs. constitutively produced chemokines can contribute to the regulated trafficking of DC.  (+info)

In vivo-activated CD4 T cells upregulate CXC chemokine receptor 5 and reprogram their response to lymphoid chemokines. (6/256)

Migration of antigen-activated CD4 T cells to B cell areas of lymphoid tissues is important for mounting T cell-dependent antibody responses. Here we show that CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR)5, the receptor for B lymphocyte chemoattractant (BLC), is upregulated on antigen-specific CD4 T cells in vivo when animals are immunized under conditions that promote T cell migration to follicles. In situ hybridization of secondary follicles for BLC showed high expression in mantle zones and low expression in germinal centers. When tested directly ex vivo, CXCR5(hi) T cells exhibited a vigorous chemotactic response to BLC. At the same time, the CXCR5(hi) cells showed reduced responsiveness to the T zone chemokines, Epstein-Barr virus-induced molecule 1 (EBI-1) ligand chemokine (ELC) and secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine (SLC). After adoptive transfer, CXCR5(hi) CD4 T cells did not migrate to follicles, indicating that additional changes may occur after immunization that help direct T cells to follicles. To further explore whether T cells could acquire an intrinsic ability to migrate to follicles, CD4(-)CD8(-) double negative (DN) T cells from MRL-lpr mice were studied. These T cells normally accumulate within follicles of MRL-lpr mice. Upon transfer to wild-type recipients, DN T cells migrated to follicle proximal regions in all secondary lymphoid tissues. Taken together, our findings indicate that reprogramming of responsiveness to constitutively expressed lymphoid tissue chemokines plays an important role in T cell migration to the B cell compartment of lymphoid tissues.  (+info)

Macrophage inflammatory protein-3 beta enhances IL-10 production by activated human peripheral blood monocytes and T cells. (7/256)

We report that the addition of human macrophage inflammatory protein-3 beta (MIP-3 beta) to cultures of human PBMCs that have been activated with LPS or PHA results in a significant enhancement of IL-10 production. This effect was concentration-dependent, with optimal MIP-3 beta concentrations inducing more than a 5-fold induction of IL-10 from LPS-stimulated PBMCs and a 2- to 3-fold induction of IL-10 from PHA-stimulated PBMCs. In contrast, no significant effect on IL-10 production was observed when 6Ckine, the other reported ligand for human CCR7, or other CC chemokines such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, RANTES, MIP-1 alpha, and MIP-1 beta were added to LPS- or PHA-stimulated PBMCs. Similar results were observed using activated purified human peripheral blood monocytes or T cells. Addition of MIP-3 beta to nonactivated PBMCs had no effect on cytokine production. Enhancement of IL-10 production by MIP-3beta correlated with the inhibition of IL-12 p40 and TNF-alpha production by monocytes and with the impairment of IFN-gamma production by T cells, which was reversed by addition of anti-IL-10 Abs to the cultures. The ability of MIP-3 beta to augment IL-10 production correlated with CCR7 mRNA expression and stimulation of intracellular calcium mobilization in both monocytes and T cells. These data indicate that MIP-3 beta acts directly on human monocytes and T cells and suggest that this chemokine is unique among ligands binding to CC receptors due to its ability to modulate inflammatory activity via the enhanced production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10.  (+info)

uPA/uPAR system is active in immature dendritic cells derived from CD14+CD34+ precursors and is down-regulated upon maturation. (8/256)

We recently described a subset of peripheral CD14+CD34+ cells able to migrate across endothelial cell monolayers and differentiate into immunostimulatory dendritic cells (DC). In this paper we show that immature DC derived from CD14+CD34+ precursors are also capable of reverse transendothelial migration and extracellular matrix (ECM) invasion using the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR). We found that these cells respond to macrophage-inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha, enhancing their ability to invade ECM and supporting the idea that immature DC are selectively recruited at the site of inflammation to expand the pool of APCs. Interestingly, MIP-1alpha was also capable of preventing the decreased matrix invasion observed by blocking uPAR, suggesting that the uPA/uPAR system and MIP-1alpha cooperate in driving immature DC migration through the subendothelial matrix. Upon exposure to maturating stimuli, such as TNF-alpha, CD14+CD34+-derived DC enhance their APC function and decrease the capacity of invading ECM; these changes are accompanied by altered expression and function of uPAR. Moreover, mature DC shift their sensitivity from MIP-1alpha to MIP-3beta, enhancing their transendothelial migration capability in response to the latter chemokine. Our data support the hypothesis that bloodborne DC can move through ECM toward the site of pathogen entry where they differentiate into fully mature APCs with their motility and function regulated by microenvironmental stimuli, including MIP-1alpha, MIP-3beta, and TNF-alpha.  (+info)

Expression of ELC mRNA is decreased in the LNs and spleens of plt mice. Tissues from +/+ (A and C) and plt (B and D) mice were analyzed as described in the
The migration of leukocytes in response to chemokine gradients is an important process in the homeostasis of the human immune system and inflammation. In vivo the migration takes place on the surface of the endothelium to which the chemokine gradient is immobilized via interaction with glycosaminoglycans. To study leukocyte migration in response to surface-bound chemokines, we generated chemokine gradients by a simple stamping method: agarose stamps were soaked with chemokine solution to form continuous chemokine gradients by diffusion. These gradients could be easily transferred to a petri dish surface by stamping. We show that neutrophil granulocytes recognize these gradients and migrate toward increasing chemokine concentrations dependent on the slope of the gradient. Single-cell responses were recorded, and statistical analyses of cell behavior and migration were performed. For analysis of chemotaxis/haptotaxis, we propose a chemotactic precision index that is broadly applicable, valid, and ...
Several lines of evidence indicate a requirement for LTα1β2 in splenic T zone development that is fixed during the first few weeks after birth. First, in contrast to the severely defective splenic T zones of mice congenitally deficient in LTα1β2, in studies where LTα1β2 function was blocked in adult animals, effects on T zone organization were minimal (45) and T zone chemokine expression was only mildly diminished (14). Second, when adult mice are depleted of LTα-expressing cells by irradiation and reconstitution with LTα-deficient bone marrow, T zones remain visible (data not shown and see reference 46) and there is little reduction in CCL21 expression (Fig. 4). Therefore, once the splenic CCL21-expressing T zone stromal network has developed, it has only a weak requirement for continued LTβR-signaling to be maintained. By contrast, treatment of newborn mice with LTα1β2 antagonist had a marked inhibitory effect on subsequent CCL21 and gp38 expression in the adult (Figs. 5 and 6). ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19 (CCL19) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCL19 gene. This gene is one of several CC cytokine genes clustered on the p-arm of chromosome 9. Cytokines are a family of secreted proteins involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. The CC cytokines are proteins characterized by two adjacent cysteines. The cytokine encoded by this gene may play a role in normal lymphocyte recirculation and homing. It also plays an important role in trafficking of T cells in thymus, and in T cell and B cell migration to secondary lymphoid organs. It specifically binds to chemokine receptor CCR7. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19 (CCL19) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family that is also known as EBI1 ligand chemokine (ELC) and macrophage inflammatory protein-3-beta (MIP-3-beta). CCL19 is expressed abundantly in thymus and lymph nodes, with moderate levels in trachea and colon and low levels in stomach, small intestine, lung, kidney and spleen. ...
Continuous trafficking to lymphoid tissue and cellular interactions with Antigen (Ag)-presenting cells (APCs) are hallmarks of lymphocyte biology. Guided by the homeostatic chemokines CCL21 and CXCL13, naïve T and B cells constitutively home to secondary lymphoid organs including spleen and peripheral lymph nodes (PLNs), where they systematically scan APCs, including dendritic cells (DCs), for presence of their cognate Ag. Recent technological advances through the combination of transgenic mouse lines and intravital twophoton microscopy (2PM), which enables the direct visualization of lymphocyte behavior deep within lymphoid tissue, has granted the immunological research community unprecedented insights into the molecular orchestration of the adaptive immune response. Here, we propose to continue our previous research on the molecular mechanisms of lymphocyte trafficking and activation by following three lines of research: first, we will use in vitro assays combined with intravital 2PM of mouse ...
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Chemokines belong to a class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. Their name is derived from chemotactic cytokines" based on their ability to induce and mediate chemotaxis in nearby responsive cells. Formerly, they were called SIS family of cytokines, SIG family of cytokines, SCY family of cytokines, Platelet factor-4 superfamily or intercrines. Chemokines can be divided into at least four structural branches: c (chemokines, c), cc (chemokines, cc), cx3c (chemokines, cx3c), and cxc (chemokines, cxc). The classification is according to the variations in a shared cysteine motif. Chemokines may also be classified based on their functions. Homeostatic chemokines are chemokines that are responsible for basal leukocyte migration. Examples of homeostatic chemokines are CCL14, CCL19, CCL20, CCL21, CXCL12 and CXCL13. Nevertheless, some of them are not exclusive to this function. For instance, CCL20 is also associated with inflammation since it can act as ...
The control of dendritic cell (DC) migration is pivotal for the initiation of cellular immune responses. In this study, we demonstrate that the migration of human monocyte-derived (Mo)DCs as well as of ex vivo peripheral blood DCs toward CCL21, CXCL12, and C5a is stringently dependent on the presence of the proinflammatory mediator PGE2, although DCs expressed CXCR4 and C5aR on their surface and DC maturation was accompanied by CCR7 up-regulation independently of PGE2. The necessity of exogenous PGE2 for DC migration is not due to the suppression of PGE2 synthesis by IL-4, which is used for MoDC differentiation, because maturation-induced endogenous production of PGE2 cannot promote DC migration. Surprisingly, PGE2 was absolutely required at early time points of maturation to enable MoDC chemotaxis, whereas PGE2 addition during terminal maturation events was ineffective. In contrast to mouse DCs, which exclusively rely on EP4 receptor triggering for migration, human MoDCs require a signal ...
The directed orientation of T cell signaling molecules and associated membrane rafts towards a chemokine gradient or a contact point with antigen presenting cell.
The question why CD4+/CD25+ T cells are reduced in asthmatic patients has not been answered yet; however, it has been observed that these cells reveal a reduced response to the chemokines CCL1 and CXCL1 suggesting an impaired recruitment to the lung [137, 138 ...
The Survival Place Blogs Top Emergency Preparedness Book picks that we feel are a must have to surviving the world as we know it.. (In no particular order ...
In this report, we provide the first evidence that blood-borne human CD4+CD25+ Treg cells exhibit a distinctive chemotactic response profile and chemokine receptor expression. Treg cells exhibit chemotactic responsiveness to several inflammatory and lymphoid chemokines, but they are specifically hyperresponsive to chemokines that engage the chemokine receptors CCR4 and CCR8 (Fig. 1).. Our investigation documents a broad spectrum of responsiveness of Treg cells to inflammatory chemokines that could potentially allow access to inflamed tissues and contact responding T cells and APCs. However, the specificity of action of chemokines such as CCL17, CCL22, and CCL1 on Treg cells suggests a unique role for these chemokines and their receptors in the physiology of Treg cells. Activated T cells and professional APCs such as DCs and monocytes/macrophages can produce CCL1, CCL17, and CCL22 (15)(16)(18). CCL17 and CCL22 secreted by activated DCs have been shown to attract activated T cells expressing CCR4 ...
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Complete information for CCL15-CCL14 gene (RNA Gene), CCL15-CCL14 Readthrough (NMD Candidate), including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
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Chemokines are believed to play a crucial role in local immunoresponse by regulating leukocyte movement in various tissues, including the intestinal mucosa. It has been suggested that they are key players in cancer biology, and several studies have identified leukocyte infiltration as a hallmark of most cancers. The chemokines CCL17 and CCL22 attract CCR4-bearing cells, which are especially polarised to Th2-type cells and regulatory T cells (Treg). Recent studies have revealed the participation of the CCL17 and CCL22 proteins in diseases such as atopic dermatitis and lymphoma. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of CCL17 and CCL22 protein expression in colorectal cancer (CRC) and to ascertain whether an association exists between promoter -431C,T CCL17 and -961G,A CCL22 gene polymorphisms in CRC versus non-CRC subjects. Using the ELISA assay, we noted a significantly higher expression of CCL22 in tumour tissue with a 2.3-fold up-regulation (tumour vs. paired normal tissue, n=78) but ...
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There are disclosed therapeutic compositions and methods using isolated nucleic acid molecules encoding a human chemokine beta-11 (Ck beta-11) polypeptide and a human leukocyte adhesion inhibitor-1 (LAI-1) polypeptide (previously termed chemokine α1(CKα1 or ckα-1), as well as Ck beta-11 and/or LAI-1 polypeptides themselves, as are vectors, host cells and recombinant methods for producing the same.
Jafarnejad M, Zawieja DC, Brook BS, Nibbs RJB, Moore JEet al., 2017, A Novel Computational Model Predicts Key Regulators of Chemokine Gradient Formation in Lymph Nodes and Site-Specific Roles for CCL19 and ACKR4., J Immunol, Vol: 199, Pages: 2291-2304 The chemokine receptor CCR7 drives leukocyte migration into and within lymph nodes (LNs). It is activated by chemokines CCL19 and CCL21, which are scavenged by the atypical chemokine receptor ACKR4. CCR7-dependent navigation is determined by the distribution of extracellular CCL19 and CCL21, which form concentration gradients at specific microanatomical locations. The mechanisms underpinning the establishment and regulation of these gradients are poorly understood. In this article, we have incorporated multiple biochemical processes describing the CCL19-CCL21-CCR7-ACKR4 network into our model of LN fluid flow to establish a computational model to investigate intranodal chemokine gradients. Importantly, the model recapitulates CCL21 gradients ...
CCL20, hemokin (C-C motiv) ligand 20, ili jetrenom aktivacijom regulisani hemokin (LARC), ili makrofagni inflamatorni protein-3 (MIP3A) je mali citokin iz CC hemokin familije. On je snažno hemotaksan za limfocite, a slabo provlači neutrofile.[1] CCL20 je impliciran u formiranje i funkciju mukoznog limfoidnog tkiva putem hemoatrakcije limfocita i dendritskih ćelija prema epitelnim ćelijama koje okružuju ta tkiva. CCL20 dejstvuje na svoje ciljne ćelije vezivanjem i aktiviranjem hemokinskog receptora CCR6.[2][3] CCL20 genska ekspresija može biti indukovana mikrobnim faktorima kao što su lipopolisaharidi (LPS), i inflamatorni citokini poput faktor nekroze tumora i interferon-γ, i umanjena uticajem citokina IL-10.[4] CCL20 je izražen u više vrsta tkiva. Najobimnije izražavanje je primećeno u perifernim krvnim limfocitima, limfnim čvorovima, jetri, slepom crevu, i fetalnim plućima, a u nižim nivoima u timusu, testisima, prostati i crevima.[1][5] CCL20 gen (scya20) je lociran na ...
CCL, hemokin (C-C motiv) ligand 1, je mali glikoprotein koji izlučuju aktivirane T ćelije iz familije inflamatornih citokina poznatih kao hemokini.[1] CCL1 privlači monocite, NK ćelije, nezrele B ćelije i dendritske ćelije putem interakcije sa hemokin receptorom na površini ćelijske membrane koji se naziva CCR8.[2] Gen ovog hemokina počiva u velikom klasteru CC hemokina na ljudskom hromozomu 17.[3] ...
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. CCL19 ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. CCL2 ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
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The IUCN Environmental Law Centre (ELC) and the Katoomba Group are currently implementing a legal analysis initiative with the aim of better understandin...
CCL9, hemokin (C-C motiv) ligand 9, je mali citokin iz CC hemokin familije. On se naziva makrofagni inflamatorni protein-1 gama (MIP-1γ), protein-2 koji je sličan macrofagnom inflamatornom proteinu (MRP-2) i CCF18. Bio je opisan kod glodara. CCL9 je ranije imao oznaku CCL10. Ta oznaka se više ne koristi. On se izlučuje iz folikl-asociranog epitelijuma (FAE). CCL9 privlači dendritske ćelije koje poseduju CD11b molekule na ćelijskoj površini i hemokin receptor CCR1.[1] CCL9 može da aktivira osteoklaste putem njegovog receptora CCR1 (koji je najobilniji hemokin receptor na osteoklastima) što ide u podršku važnosti CCL9 uloge u resoprciji kostiju.[2] CCL9 je konstitutivno izražen u makrofagama i mijeloidnim ćelijama.[3][4] Gen za CCL9 je lociran na hromozomu 11 kod miševa.[4][5] ...
CCL8, hemokine (C-C motiv) ligand 8, je mali citokin iz CC hemokin familije koji se nekad zvao monocit hemotaksni protein-2 (MCP-2). CCL8 protein nastaje iz prekursora koji sadrži 109 aminokiselina, koji se preseca da bi nastao CCL8 sa 75 aminokiseline. Gen za CCL8 је kodiran sa 3 eksona i lociran je unutar velikog klastera CC hemokina na hromozomu 17 q11.2 kod ljudi.[1][2] MCP-2 je hemoatraktant i activira mnoge vrste imunskih ćelija, uključujući mast ćelije, eozinofile i bazofile, (koji su implicirani u alergijske response), i monocite, T ćelije, i NK ćelije koje učestvuju u inflamatorni respons.[3][4] CCL8 dejstvuje putem vezivanja za nekoliko različitih hemokin receptora na ćelijskoj površini. U toj grupi receptora su CCR1, CCR2B i CCR5.[4][5] ...
The overall topic of this work is a graph operation known as edgelocal complementation (ELC) and its applications to iterative decoding of classical codes. Although these legacy codes are arguably not well-suited for graph-based decoding, they have other desirable properties resulting in much current research on the general problem of forging this alloy. From this perspective, these codes are typically referred to as highdensity parity-check codes. Our approach is to gain diversity by means of ELC. Based on the known link between ELC and the information sets of a code, C, we identify a one-to-one relationship between ELC operations and the automorphism group of a code, Aut(C). With respect to a specific parity-check matrix, H, we classify these code-preserving permutations into trivial and nontrivial permutations, based on whether the matrix is preserved (under ELC) up to row permutations, or not. The corresponding iso-ELC operations preserve the structure of the graph, and simulation data are ...
Complete information for CCL13 gene (Protein Coding), C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 13, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Callstack: at Proteins/RSGI/2elc at Template:Protein at template MindTouch.Deki.Script.Runtime.DekiScriptUndefinedNameException: reference to undefined name note Exception of type MindTouch.Deki.Script.Runtime.DekiScriptUndefinedNameException was thrown. at MindTouch.Deki.Script.Compiler.DekiScriptExpressionEvaluation.Visit (MindTouch.Deki.Script.Expr.DekiScriptVar expr, DekiScriptExpressionEvaluationState state) [0x00000] in ,filename unknown,:0 at MindTouch.Deki.Script.Expr.DekiScriptVar.VisitWith[DekiScriptExpressionEvaluationState,Range] (IDekiScriptExpressionVisitor`2 visitor, DekiScriptExpressionEvaluationState state) [0x00000] in ,filename unknown,:0 at MindTouch.Deki.Script.Compiler.DekiScriptExpressionEvaluation.Evaluate (MindTouch.Deki.Script.Expr.DekiScriptAccess expr, DekiScriptExpressionEvaluationState state, Boolean evaluateProperties) [0x00000] in ,filename unknown,:0 at MindTouch.Deki.Script.Compiler.DekiScriptExpressionEvaluation.Visit ...
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The molar mass of CCl4 is about 153.82 grams per mole. The molar mass of a compound is defined as the atomic weight of all the atoms contained in one mole of the substance. One molecule of CCl4...
A common feature of RA is the formation of discrete clusters of infiltrating lymphomononuclear cells forming lymphoid aggregates or ELS.7 ,8 ,10 These structures resembling secondary lymphoid organs sustain a functional ectopic-GC response and support B-cell differentiation into high affinity autoantibody-producing cells.29 ,31 ELS formation is dependent on the activation of the LT-β/lymphoid chemokines pathway in ectopic sites32 and is driven by chronic antigenic stimulation.31 As such, ELS (also observed in non-autoimmune conditions such as chronic infections, allograft rejections and cancer31) are unique in their ability to mount disease-specific and antigen-specific immune responses. Indeed, ectopic-GCs produce antibodies against citrullinated proteins in RA,10 ,33 ,34 ribonucleoproteins Ro/La in SS,35 ,36 thyroglobulin and thyroperoxidase in Hashimotos thyroiditis37 and acetylcholine receptor in myasthenia gravis.38. Here, we exploited these unique features of ectopic-GC to unravel the ...
MDC, human recombinant protein, C-C motif chemokine 22, Small-inducible cytokine A22, Macrophage-derived chemokine, MDC (1-69), Stim validated in (PBV10332r-20), Abcepta
Recently, chemokine gradients have been directly visualized in vivo in the context of Ccl21‐mediated dendritic cell migration in mice (Weber et al, 2013) and in zebrafish, where Cxcl8 mediates neutrophil migration (Sarris et al, 2012) (Fig 2B). Cxcl8 forms an extracellular, matrix‐bound gradient that extends at least 100 μm around the cell that expresses the chemokine. Interestingly, Cxcl8 protein was detected beyond this local tissue gradient and was found to be enriched along the venous vasculature, which includes the CHT from which Cxcl8 meditates the mobilization of neutrophils into the vasculature (Sarris et al, 2012). Since Cxcl8 binding to the venous vasculature is also required for neutrophil arrest on the blood vessel wall and to facilitate the subsequent extravasation (Middleton et al, 1997), it appears that Cxcl8 acts at several stages of neutrophil recruitment to sites of infection.. Binding of Cxcl8 to the extracellular matrix, or more specifically to heparan sulfate ...
When two chemokine receptors in the brain interact, leukemic cells (stained green) creep out of a small vein in the membrane covering the brain of a mouse and enter the cerebrospinal fluid. The chemokine CCL19, which is in the endothelium lining the vein, is stained blue in this immunofluorescent image.
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For the ICAO airport code see Candle Lake Airpark, for the diradical compound see Dichlorocarbene. The chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) is also referred to as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) and small inducible cytokine A2. CCL2 is a small cytokine that belongs to the CC chemokine family. CCL2 recruits monocytes, memory T cells, and dendritic cells to the sites of inflammation produced by either tissue injury or infection. In the human genome, CCL2 and many other CC chemokines are located on chromosome 17 (17q11.2-q21.1). The gene span is 1,927 bases and the CCL2 gene resides on the Watson (plus) strand. The CCL2 gene has three exons and two introns. The CCL2 protein precursor contains a signal peptide of 23 amino acids. In turn, the mature CCL2 is 76 amino acids long. The CCL2 predicted weight is 11.025 kiloDaltons (kDa). The gene homologous to CCL2 in the mouse is Sig-je. In humans, the levels of CCL2 can vary considerably. In the white people of European descent, the ...
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Appearing for an NCLEX-PN exam can be a daunting task, and as the dreaded date of examination comes close, the anxiety of the aspirants rises. Cracking NCLEX-PN exam might seem like a big task, but it is far from being impossible. With the help of cram sheets, NCLEX-PN lab value practice questions, and dedicated studying, you can easily score well in this exam.. While you are preparing for your test, dont underestimate the worth of a cram sheet. It is a repository of all crucial information, theories, steps and common lab values for NCLEX-PN that you can refer to in the hour of need. We suggest that every student must make his/her cram sheet, but we have prepared a sample for you.. To successfully crack the exam, you will need to memorize lab values for NCLEX-PN. While preparing your cram sheet, try to put in as many normal lab values as you can. They will help you solve NCLEX-PN lab value questions quickly.. Below are some of the common lab values to know for the NCLEX PN exam: ...
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2006). "The chemokine receptor CCX-CKR mediates effective scavenging of CCL19 in vitro". Eur. J. Immunol. 36 (7): 1904-16. doi: ... This receptor has been shown to bind dendritic cell- and T cell-activated chemokines including CCL19/ELC, CCL21/SLC, and CCL25/ ... 2000). "Cutting edge: identification of a novel chemokine receptor that binds dendritic cell- and T cell-active chemokines ... C-C chemokine receptor type 11 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCRL1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ...
FRCs express chemokines such as CCL21 and CCL19 which assist the movement of T cells and dentritic cells with CCR7 receptors. ... For example, Naive T cells express the CCR7 receptor for the chemokine CCL21. and B cells exhibit CXCR5 receptors for chemokine ... FDCs produce chemokine CXCL13 which promotes migration of B lymphocytes to the primary B cell follicle. B lymphocytes need a ... The lymph carries chemokines (molecular chemical messengers) and antigens to the lymph node. At the lymph node, the lymph ...
... two pro-inflammatory chemokines viz., chemokine ligand 9 (also termed chemokine ligand 10) and chemokine 19 (CCL19), and ...
Cantuzumab ravtansine Cathelicidin CC chemokine receptors CCBP2 CCL1 CCL11 CCL12 CCL13 CCL14 CCL15 CCL16 CCL17 CCL18 CCL19 CCL2 ... C-C chemokine receptor type 6 C-C chemokine receptor type 7 Calreticulin Cancer immunology Cancer immunoprevention Cancer ... CD4 CD4+ T cells and antitumor immunity CD74 CD94/NKG2 Cell-mediated immunity CELSR1 Central tolerance Chemokine Chemokine ... CR6261 CroFab Cross-presentation Cross-reactivity Cryptic self epitopes Cryptotope CX3CL1 CX3CR1 CXC chemokine receptors CXCL1 ...
... thought by some researchers to be an indicator of cardiovascular disease EBI-1 ligand chemokine, also known as CCL19 elc ...
Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 (CXCL9) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also known as ... CCL20 and MIP-3beta/CCL19". European Journal of Immunology. 31 (7): 1981-8. doi:10.1002/1521-4141(200107)31:7. 3.0.CO;2-X. PMID ... Campbell JD, Stinson MJ, Simons FE, Rector ES, HayGlass KT (July 2001). "In vivo stability of human chemokine and chemokine ... Shields PL, Morland CM, Salmon M, Qin S, Hubscher SG, Adams DH (December 1999). "Chemokine and chemokine receptor interactions ...
... -dependent chemotaxis has been reported in response to the chemokines CXCL12/SDF-1 in T lymphocytes, CXCL13/BLC in B ... lymphocytes and CCL19/ELC in thymocytes (immature lymphocytes) emigrating from the thymus as well as CCL21/SLC in ex vivo ... 2007). "DOCK2 is required for chemokine-promoted human T lymphocyte adhesion under shear stress mediated by the integrin ...
Their homeostatic function in homing is best exemplified by the chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 (expressed within lymph nodes and on ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines in that it has ... CCL1 for the ligand 1 of the CC-family of chemokines, and CCR1 for its respective receptor. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19 (CCL19) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCL19 gene. This gene is one of several ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19 (CCL19) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family that is also known as EBI1 ... This chemokine elicits its effects on its target cells by binding to the chemokine receptor chemokine receptor CCR7. It ... "Entrez Gene: CCL19 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19". Yoshida R, Imai T, Hieshima K, Kusuda J, Baba M, Kitaura M, Nishimura M, ...
Its ligands include the related chemokines CCL19 and CCL21, (previously called ELC and SLC). CCR8 is associated with Th2 ... This molecule was originally designated CCR11 due to its ability to bind several CC chemokines (including CCL19, CCL21 and ... The CC chemokine receptors all work by activating the G protein Gi. CCR1 was the first CC chemokine receptor identified and ... The orphan chemokine receptor G protein-coupled receptor-2 (GPR-2, CCR10) binds the skin-associated chemokine CCL27 (CTACK/ALP/ ...
Two ligands have been identified for this receptor: the chemokines (C-C motif) ligand 19 (CCL19/ELC) and (C-C motif) ligand 21 ... "Macrophage-derived chemokine and EBI1-ligand chemokine attract human thymocytes in different stage of development and are ... "Molecular cloning of a novel human CC chemokine EBI1-ligand chemokine that is a specific functional ligand for EBI1, CCR7". The ... identification of a novel chemokine receptor that binds dendritic cell- and T cell-active chemokines including ELC, SLC, and ...
chemokine receptor activity. • receptor activity. • protein binding. • C-C chemokine receptor activity. • C-C chemokine binding ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene.[5] CCR6 ... "Entrez Gene: CCR6 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6".. *^ Wang K, Zhang H, Kugathasan S, Annese V, Bradfield JP, Russell RK, ... "Chemokine Receptors: CCR6". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
Their homeostatic function in homing is best exemplified by the chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 (expressed within lymph nodes and on ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ...
This chemokine-induced latency model has been used in a comprehensive comparison of in vitro models for evaluating latency ... "CCR7 ligands CCL19 and CCL21 increase permissiveness of resting memory CD4+ T cells to HIV-1 infection: a novel model of HIV-1 ... "Establishment of HIV-1 latency in resting CD4+ T cells depends on chemokine-induced changes in the actin cytoskeleton". ... cells contribute to the ongoing HIV reservoir and that HIV DNA is preferentially found in CD4 T cells expressing the chemokine ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 18 (CCL18) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. The functions of CCL18 have ... CCL19, and CCL17 by dendritic cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and regulation by Fc gamma receptors". Ann. Rheum ... It was previously known as Pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine (PARC), dendritic cell (DC)-chemokine 1 (DC-CK1), ... Chemokines are classed as a special type of cytokine that is involved in immune cell trafficking. CCL18 in particular has some ...
CCL19 · CCL20 · CCL21 · CCL22 · CCL23 · CCL24 · CCL25 · CCL26 · CCL27 · CCL28 ... Chemokine. CCL. CCL1 · CCL2 · CCL3 · CCL4 · CCL5 · CCL6 · CCL7 · CCL8 · CCL9 · CCL11 · CCL12 · CCL13 · CCL14 · CCL15 · CCL16 · ...
positive regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production. • positive regulation of JUN kinase activity. • positive ... positive regulation of chemokine production. • cellular extravasation. • negative regulation of lipid storage. • negative ... positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • epithelial cell proliferation involved in salivary gland morphogenesis ...
... s are a subset of cytokines that are produced by a type of immune cell known as a lymphocyte.[1] They are protein mediators typically produced by T cells to direct the immune system response by signaling between its cells. Lymphokines have many roles, including the attraction of other immune cells, including macrophages and other lymphocytes, to an infected site and their subsequent activation to prepare them to mount an immune response. Circulating lymphocytes can detect a very small concentration of lymphokine and then move up the concentration gradient towards where the immune response is required. Lymphokines aid B cells to produce antibodies. Important lymphokines secreted by the T helper cell include:[2] ...
... binds to the death receptors DR4 (TRAIL-RI) and DR5 (TRAIL-RII). The process of apoptosis is caspase-8-dependent. Caspase-8 activates downstream effector caspases including procaspase-3, -6, and -7, leading to activation of specific kinases.[11] TRAIL also binds the receptors DcR1 and DcR2, which do not contain a cytoplasmic domain (DcR1) or contain a truncated death domain (DcR2). DcR1 functions as a TRAIL-neutralizing decoy-receptor. The cytoplasmic domain of DcR2 is functional and activates NFkappaB. In cells expressing DcR2, TRAIL binding therefore activates NFkappaB, leading to transcription of genes known to antagonize the death signaling pathway and/or to promote inflammation. Application of engineered ligands that have variable affinity for different death (DR4 and DR5) and decoy receptors (DCR1 and DCR2) may allow selective targeting of cancer cells by controlling activation of Type 1/Type 2 pathways of cell death and single cell fluctuations. Luminescent iridium complex-peptide ...
... (IL-24) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL24 gene. IL-24 is a cytokine belonging to the IL-10 family of cytokines that signals through two heterodimeric receptors: IL-20R1/IL-20R2 and IL-22R1/IL-20R2. This interleukin is also known as melanoma differentiation-associated 7 (mda-7) due to its discovery as a tumour suppressing protein. IL-24 appears to control in cell survival and proliferation by inducing rapid activation of particular transcription factors called STAT1 and STAT3. This cytokine is predominantly released by activated monocytes, macrophages and T helper 2 (Th2) cells[5] and acts on non-haematopoietic tissues such as skin, lung and reproductive tissues. IL-24 performs important roles in wound healing, arthritis, psoriasis and cancer.[6][7][8] Several studies have shown that cell death occurs in cancer cells/cell lines following exposure to IL-24.[9][10] The gene for IL-24 is located on chromosome 1 in humans.[11] ...
... as well as chemokine and cytokine production, and expression of adhesion molecules such as E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. This ...
positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • regulation of insulin secretion. • extrinsic apoptotic signaling ... Copeland KF (2006). "Modulation of HIV-1 transcription by cytokines and chemokines". Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry. 5 (12 ...
... is sometimes used interchangeably among scientists with the term cytokine.[3] Historically, cytokines were associated with hematopoietic (blood and lymph forming) cells and immune system cells (e.g., lymphocytes and tissue cells from spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes). For the circulatory system and bone marrow in which cells can occur in a liquid suspension and not bound up in solid tissue, it makes sense for them to communicate by soluble, circulating protein molecules. However, as different lines of research converged, it became clear that some of the same signaling proteins which the hematopoietic and immune systems use were also being used by all sorts of other cells and tissues, during development and in the mature organism. While growth factor implies a positive effect on cell division, cytokine is a neutral term with respect to whether a molecule affects proliferation. While some cytokines can be growth factors, such as G-CSF and GM-CSF, others have an inhibitory effect on ...
chemokine activity. • cytokine activity. • heparin binding. • protein binding. • CXCR3 chemokine receptor binding. ... C-X-C motif chemokine 11 is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also called Interferon-inducible T- ... "Entrez Gene: CXCL11 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11".. *^ a b Cole KE, Strick CA, Paradis TJ, Ogborne KT, Loetscher M, Gladue ... This chemokine elicits its effects on its target cells by interacting with the cell surface chemokine receptor CXCR3, with a ...
Interferon alfa 2b is an antiviral or antineoplastic drug, that was originally discovered in the laboratory of Charles Weissmann at the University of Zurich. It was developed at Biogen, and ultimately marketed by Schering-Plough under the tradename Intron-A. It has been used for a wide range of indications, including viral infections and cancers. This drug is approved around the world for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C, chronic hepatitis B, hairy cell leukemia, Behçet's disease, chronic myelogenous leukemia, multiple myeloma, follicular lymphoma, carcinoid tumor, mastocytosis and malignant melanoma. ...
C-X-C chemokine receptor activity. • interleukin-8 binding. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. • chemokine receptor ... This name and the corresponding gene symbol IL8RA have been replaced by the HGNC approved name C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 1 ... "Chemokine Receptors: CXCR1". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... chemokine-mediated signaling pathway. • interleukin-8-mediated signaling pathway. • neutrophil degranulation. • chemotaxis. ...
FRCs express chemokines such as CCL21 and CCL19 which assist the movement of T cells and dentritic cells with CCR7 receptors. ... For example, Naive T cells express the CCR7 receptor for the chemokine CCL21. and B cells exhibit CXCR5 receptors for chemokine ... FDCs produce chemokine CXCL13 which promotes migration of B lymphocytes to the primary B cell follicle. B lymphocytes need a ... The lymph carries chemokines (molecular chemical messengers) and antigens to the lymph node. At the lymph node, the lymph ...
Binds to chemokine receptor CCR7. Recombinant CCL19 shows potent chemotactic activity for T-cells and B-cells but not for ... Binds to atypical chemokine receptor ACKR4 and mediates the recruitment of beta-arrestin (ARRB1/2) to ACKR4. ... IPR039809 Chemokine_b/g/d. IPR000827 Chemokine_CC_CS. IPR034133 Chemokine_CC_DCCL. IPR001811 Chemokine_IL8-like_dom. IPR036048 ... IPR039809 Chemokine_b/g/d. IPR000827 Chemokine_CC_CS. IPR034133 Chemokine_CC_DCCL. IPR001811 Chemokine_IL8-like_dom. IPR036048 ...
Results The chemokines, CCL18, CCL19 and CXCL13, were upregulated in dcSSc skin, and CCL18 in lcSSc skin. Expression of CCL19 ... Conclusions CCL18, CCL19 and CXCL13-chemoattractants for macrophage and T cell recruitment-were three of six chemokines with ... Global chemokine expression in systemic sclerosis (SSc): CCL19 expression correlates with vascular inflammation in SSc skin ... Global chemokine expression in systemic sclerosis (SSc): CCL19 expression correlates with vascular inflammation in SSc skin ...
C-C motif chemokine 19; CC chemokine ligand 19; CK beta-11; EBI1 ligand chemokine; EBI1-ligand chemokine; beta chemokine exodus ... MIP-3B specifically binds to chemokine receptor CCR7. Recombinant CCL19 shows potent chemotactic activity for T-cells and B- ... chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19; SCYA19, small inducible cytokine subfamily A (Cys Cys), member 19; beta chemokine exodus 3; CK ... beta-chemokine exodus-3; epstein-Barr virus-induced molecule 1 ligand chemokine; exodus-3; macrophage inflammatory protein 3 ...
Recombinant human CCL19 protein, fused to T7-tag at N-terminus, was expressed inE.coliand purifed by conventional ... CCL19 is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family that is also known as thymus and activation regulated chemokine ... small inducible cytokine A19; exodus-3; CK beta-11; EBI1-ligand chemokine ; CC chemokine ligand 19; beta chemokine exodus-3; ... Recombinant Human Chemokine (C-C motif) Ligand 19, T7-tagged. Download Datasheet See All CCL19 Products. Bring this labeled ...
MIP-3B specifically binds to chemokine receptor CCR7. Recombinant CCL19 shows potent chemotactic activity for T-cells and B- ... MIP-3B specifically binds to chemokine receptor CCR7. ... CCL19-110H. Human CCL19. Human. +Inquiry. CCL19-161H. ... CCL19-4399M. Recombinant Monkey CCL19 Protein. Yeast. Monkey. +Inquiry. CCL19-154H. Recombinant Human Chemokine (C-C motif) ... Ccl19-682R. Recombinant Rat Ccl19. E. coli. Rat. +Inquiry. Ccl19-723R. Recombinant Rat Ccl19 protein, His-tagged. E. coli. Rat ...
CCL19. Synonyms :. small inducible cytokine A19; exodus-3; CK beta-11; EBI1-ligand chemokine; CC chemokine ligand 19; beta ... CCL19; Macrophage inflammatory protein 3 beta; Short name=MIP-3-beta; EBI1-ligand chemokine; Short name=ELC; Beta chemokine ... Recombinant Human Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 19. Download Datasheet See All CCL19 Products Bring this labeled protein ... CCL19 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19 [ Homo sapiens ]. Official Symbol :. ...
What is CC chemokine ligand 19? Meaning of CC chemokine ligand 19 medical term. What does CC chemokine ligand 19 mean? ... Looking for online definition of CC chemokine ligand 19 in the Medical Dictionary? CC chemokine ligand 19 explanation free. ... CCL19. (redirected from CC chemokine ligand 19) CCL19. A gene on chromosome 9p13 that encodes a CC-type cytokine, which is ... CCL19 binds CCR7, and may play a role in normal lymphocyte recirculation and homing, in trafficking of T cells in the thymus, ...
CCR10 chemokine receptor binding (ortholog); CCR7 chemokine receptor binding (ortholog); INVOLVED IN activation of JUN kinase ... ENCODES a protein that exhibits CCR chemokine receptor binding (ortholog); ... CCL19 (C-C motif chemokine ligand 19). NCBI. Ortholog. Mus musculus (house mouse):. Ccl19 (chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19). ... Canis lupus familiaris (dog) : CCL19 (C-C motif chemokine ligand 19) Sus scrofa (pig) : CCL19 (C-C motif chemokine ligand 19) ...
Compare chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19, pseudogene 2 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, ... chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19, pseudogene 2 ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established ... Your search returned 4 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19, pseudogene 2 ELISA ELISA Kit across 1 supplier. ...
chemokine receptor activity. • receptor activity. • protein binding. • C-C chemokine receptor activity. • C-C chemokine binding ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene.[5] CCR6 ... "Entrez Gene: CCR6 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6".. *^ Wang K, Zhang H, Kugathasan S, Annese V, Bradfield JP, Russell RK, ... "Chemokine Receptors: CCR6". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
This review will focus on recent murine and human studies that use chemokines as therapeutic anti-cancer vaccine adjuvants. ... Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing ... This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential ... The choice of chemokines varies from homeostatic (e.g., CCL19 and CCL21) to inflammatory (e.g., CCL3 and CCL5). The major ...
Immune-Regulatory Chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 in Vascular Disease. The chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 bind the receptor CCR7 to ... Chemokine-Like Functions of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor. *Immune-Regulatory Chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 in Vascular ... Chemokine-Like Functions of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor. *Immune-Regulatory Chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 in Vascular ... The Chemokine CXCL10 and the T Cell Connection. CXCL10 or IP-10 (IFN-γ-induced protein of 10 kDa) is a T cell chemokine and ...
Lack of p110δ activity in these cell populations correlated with lower LTβR, CCL19 and CCL21 mRNA levels; these molecules ... Chemokines Is the Subject Area "Chemokines" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
For example, CCL21 (CC chemokine ligand 21) and CCL19 (CC chemokine ligand 19) recruit antigen-presenting dendritic cells and ... increases the affinity for chemokine ligands and may contribute to receptor ligand bias. Chemokine sulfotyrosine (sY) binding ... For many chemokine receptors, N-terminal posttranslational modifications, particularly the sulfation of tyrosine residues, ... naïve T-cells to the lymph nodes and are thought to play a role in lymph node metastasis of CCR7 (CC chemokine receptor 7)- ...
All wild-type chemokines were obtained from PeproTech (London, U.K.). 125I-labeled CCL19 ([125I]-CCL19) was from Perkin Elmer ( ... A model for chemokine cooperativity. (A) In the absence of cooperative chemokines, CCL19/CCL21 binds to its seven-transmembrane ... Next, a panel of chemokines was tested for their ability to cooperate with CCL19 in activation of CCX-CKR. Several chemokines ... B) In the presence of cooperative chemokines, CCL19/CCL21 is competed from the GAGs, raising the free concentration of CCL19, ...
The amplitude and kinetics of chemokine ligand (CCL19/CCL21)-induced Ca2+ influx were associated with chemokine receptor 7 ... The amplitude and kinetics of chemokine ligand (CCL19/CCL21)-induced Ca2+ influx were associated with chemokine receptor 7 ... The amplitude and kinetics of chemokine ligand (CCL19/CCL21)-induced Ca2+ influx were associated with chemokine receptor 7 ... The amplitude and kinetics of chemokine ligand (CCL19/CCL21)-induced Ca2+ influx were associated with chemokine receptor 7 ...
Their homeostatic function in homing is best exemplified by the chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 (expressed within lymph nodes and on ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19 (CCL19) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCL19 gene. This gene is one of several ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19 (CCL19) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family that is also known as EBI1 ... This chemokine elicits its effects on its target cells by binding to the chemokine receptor chemokine receptor CCR7. It ... "Entrez Gene: CCL19 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19". Yoshida R, Imai T, Hieshima K, Kusuda J, Baba M, Kitaura M, Nishimura M, ...
0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (Ccl19 protein, mouse); 0 (Chemokine CCL19); 0 (Chemokine CCL21); 0 (Chemokine CXCL13); 0 (Cxcl13 ... Quimiocina CCL19/gen tica. Quimiocina CCL19/inmunolog a. Quimiocina CCL21/gen tica. Quimiocina CCL21/inmunolog a. Quimiocina ... signaling pathways and is not correlated to an alteration of CCL19, CCL21, and CXCL13 chemokine mRNA expression. Our results ... This phenomenon has been linked to reduced chemokine secretion by stromal cells. spp. are the causative agent of brucellosis, a ...
Full arrows indicate the cross-talk between cells mediated by cytokines and chemokines. CCR7 ligands: CCL-19 (ELC) and CCL21 ( ... Chemokine Receptors on Blood and NK-Cells. Conventional and NK-cells present in the normal PB have different CKR repertoires ( ... 3.1.2. Chemokine Receptors on Conventional NK-Cells. In contrast to NK-cells, the majority of the NK-cells are CXCR1/CXCR2− and ... and the chemokine receptors CXCR3 and/or CCR5 (Figure 2): CD16+ CCR5/CXCR3− (or simply ), CD16+/− CCR5/CXCR3+ (or simply ), and ...
CCL19, CCL21, CCL22; the CXC chemokines CXCL8, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL12; and CX3CL1. This set represented all chemokines present ... Generally, CC chemokines potently attract monocytes, T lymphocytes, eosinophils, and basophils, whereas CXC chemokines are ... Differences between our study and previous studies, chemokine function, and chemokine levels are summarized in Table 4. Before ... The concentrations of IL-6 and the following chemokines were measured: the chemokine-like macrophage migration inhibitory ...
The chemokine CCL5 and CCL19 are reported to bind to CCRL2. Like Duffy antigen for chemokine receptor (DARC), D6 and CCX-CKR, ... A. CCRL2 is reported to bind chemokines, such as CCL5 and CCL19. Internalization of these chemokines potentially reduces local ... Chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1), also known as ChemR23, and chemokine (C-C motif) receptor-like 2 (CCRL2) are 7- ... Chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1) and chemokine (C-C motif) receptor-like 2 (CCRL2); two multifunctional receptors with ...
Signals mediated by the chemokine receptor CCR7 were absolutely required for the directional migration of both DCs and T cells ... Yanagawa, Y. & Onoe, K. CCL19 induces rapid dendritic extension of murine dendritic cells. Blood 100, 1948-1956 (2002). ... The CC chemokine thymus-derived chemotactic agent 4 (TCA-4, secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine, 6Ckine, exodus-2) triggers ... Saeki, H., Moore, A.M., Brown, M.J. & Hwang, S.T. Cutting edge: secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine (SLC) and CC chemokine ...
  • We have studied the functional properties of a human T cell subset marked by the expression of CXC chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5). (rupress.org)
  • Memory but not naive T cells from tonsils are CXCR5 + and migrate in response to the B cell-attracting chemokine 1 (BCA-1), which is selectively expressed by reticular cells and blood vessels within B cell follicles. (rupress.org)
  • Peripheral blood CXCR5 + T cells also belong to the CD4 + memory T cell subset but, in contrast to tonsillar cells, are in a resting state and migrate weakly to chemokines. (rupress.org)
  • Neoplastic Cells of Primary Cutaneous CD4+ Small/Medium-sized Pleomorphic T-cell Lymphoma Lack the Expression of Follicular T-helper Cell Defining Chemokine Receptor CXCR5. (cancerindex.org)
  • The Differential Expression and Function of the Inflammatory Chemokine Receptor CXCR5 in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Prostate Cancer. (cancerindex.org)
  • The considerable leap in insight over recent years leads us to anticipate further advances in comprehending the role of chemokines in atherosclerosis, allowing targeted interventions for its prevention and therapy. (ahajournals.org)
  • It is possible to identify the particular chemokines which are over-expressed in the tumor using methods of the invention and administer antibodies against that over-expressed chemokine. (google.com)
  • We have used the preclinical transplantable B16 melanoma model to profile chemokines in tumor lesions and assess their impact on γδ TIL recruitment in vivo. (jimmunol.org)
  • On one hand, the chemokine network is used by tumors to evade immune surveillance, resist apoptosis, and metastasize. (mdpi.com)
  • Internalization of these chemokines potentially reduces local concentration of these chemokines without CCRL2 activation, resulting in reduced immune responses. (nih.gov)
  • The ability of chemokines to convey remarkably versatile but context-specific signals identifies them as powerful modulators of immune responses generated in response to diverse pathogenic or non-infectious insults. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, agonism of HCAR2/GPR109A balances uncontrolled immune cell recruitment by blocking this single chemokine-receptor interaction as an 'entry' signal, and may open the way for promising, future pharmacological targeting in DR. (arvojournals.org)
  • Recombinant human CCL19 protein, fused to T7-tag at N-terminus, was expressed in E.coli and purifed by conventional chromatography, after refolding of the isolated inclusion bodies in a renaturation buffer.MW = 10.4 kDa (93aa). (creativebiomart.net)
  • WB: Recombinant human MIP-3 beta/CCL19. (abcam.com)
  • Using ab271285 in conjunction with an appropriate capture antibody, allows the detection of at least 0.2 - 0.4 ng/well of recombinant human MIP-3 beta/CCL19. (abcam.com)
  • Whilst in vitro evidence, and a growing body of in vivo evidence, supports the idea that CCRL1 serves an important role in the chemokine control, the true biological function of CCRL1 remains unclear. (gla.ac.uk)
  • This chemokine-induced latency model has been used in a comprehensive comparison of in vitro models for evaluating latency reversal agents. (wikipedia.org)