Chemokine CCL27: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.Chemokine CCL21: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL22: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.Chemokine CCL17: A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Chemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CCL19: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL5: A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.Chemokine CCL20: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL1: A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.Chemokines, CC: Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.Receptors, Chemokine: Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Chemokine CCL3: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Chemokine CCL7: A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Receptors, CCR10: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL4: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Chemokine CXCL12: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.Receptors, CCR1: CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.Chemokine CXCL10: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemokine CCL8: A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.Receptors, CCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.Receptors, CCR2: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.Chemokine CCL11: A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Chemokine CCL24: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Receptors, CCR7: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.Receptors, CCR8: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.Chemokine CXCL1: A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Receptors, CCR4: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.Chemokines, CXC: Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.Chemokine CX3CL1: A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins: Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.Receptors, CCR5: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.Receptors, CCR3: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.Chemokine CXCL9: An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Mice, Inbred C57BLCell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Chemokine CXCL2: A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CXCL13: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.Receptors, CXCR4: CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Chemokine CXCL11: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Chemokine CXCL6: A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Chemokine CXCL5: A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Receptors, CXCR3: CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Receptors, Interleukin-8B: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Dermatitis, Atopic: A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Monocyte Chemoattractant Proteins: Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Receptors, CCR6: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Receptors, Interleukin-8A: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Receptors, CXCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Receptors, Cytokine: Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Chemokines, CX3C: Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.Receptors, CXCR5: CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Chemotactic Factors: Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Monokines: Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.Receptors, HIV: Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Carbon Tetrachloride PoisoningDuffy Blood-Group System: A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.Chemotactic Factors, Eosinophil: Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.Neutrophil Infiltration: The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Heterocyclic Compounds: Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Cell Migration Inhibition: Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Platelet Factor 4: A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Endothelium, Lymphatic: Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.

Selective recruitment of CCR4-bearing Th2 cells toward antigen-presenting cells by the CC chemokines thymus and activation-regulated chemokine and macrophage-derived chemokine. (1/177)

Helper T cells are classified into Th1 and Th2 subsets based on their profiles of cytokine production. Th1 cells are involved in cell-mediated immunity, whereas Th2 cells induce humoral responses. Selective recruitment of these two subsets depends on specific adhesion molecules and specific chemoattractants. Here, we demonstrate that the T cell-directed CC chemokine thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) was abundantly produced by monocytes treated with granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or IL-3, especially in the presence of IL-4 and by dendritic cells derived from monocytes cultured with GM-CSF + IL-4. The receptor for TARC and another macrophage/dendritic cell-derived CC chemokine macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) is CCR4, a G protein-coupled receptor. CCR4 was found to be expressed on approximately 20% of adult peripheral blood effector/memory CD4+ T cells. T cells attracted by TARC and MDC generated cell lines predominantly producing Th2-type cytokines, IL-4 and IL-5. Fractionated CCR4+ cells but not CCR4- cells also selectively gave rise to Th2-type cell lines. When naive CD4+ T cells from adult peripheral blood were polarized in vitro, Th2-type cells selectively expressed CCR4 and vigorously migrated toward TARC and MDC. Taken together, CCR4 is selectively expressed on Th2-type T cells and antigen-presenting cells may recruit Th2 cells expressing CCR4 by producing TARC and MDC in Th2-dominant conditions.  (+info)

High expression of the CC chemokine TARC in Reed-Sternberg cells. A possible explanation for the characteristic T-cell infiltratein Hodgkin's lymphoma. (2/177)

Hodgkin's lymphoma is characterized by the combination of Reed-Sternberg (R-S) cells and a prominent inflammatory cell infiltrate. One of the intriguing questions regarding this disease is what is causing the influx of T lymphocytes into the involved tissues. We applied the serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) technique on the Hodgkin's lymphoma-derived cell line L428 and on an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed lymphoblastoid B-cell line. A frequently expressed tag in L428 corresponded to the T-cell-directed CC chemokine TARC. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrated expression of TARC in nodular sclerosis (NS) and mixed cellularity (MC) classical Hodgkin's lymphomas but not in NLP Hodgkin's lymphoma, anaplastic large-cell lymphomas, and large-B-cell lymphomas with CD30 positivity. Two of five cases of T-cell-rich B-cell lymphoma (TCRBCL) were TARC positive. RNA in situ hybridization (ISH) showed a strong signal for TARC in the cytoplasm of R-S cells, and immunohistochemical staining confirmed the presence of the TARC protein in the R-S cells of NS and MC Hodgkin's lymphomas. The lymphocytic and histiocytic (L&H)-type cells of nodular lymphocyte predominance Hodgkin's lymphoma and the neoplastic cells of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas with the exception of two cases of TCRBCL did not stain for TARC. TARC is known to bind to the CCR4 receptor, which is expressed on activated Th2 lymphocytes. The immunophenotype of lymphocytes surrounding R-S cells is indeed Th2-like, and by RNA ISH these lymphocytes showed a positive signal for the chemokine receptor CCR4. The findings suggest that production of TARC by the R-S cells may explain the characteristic T-cell infiltrate in classical Hodgkin's lymphoma.  (+info)

Cutting edge: developmental switches in chemokine responses during T cell maturation. (3/177)

We show that developmental transitions during thymocyte maturation are associated with dramatic changes in chemotactic responses to chemokines. Macrophage-derived chemokine, a chemokine expressed in the thymic medulla, attracts thymocytes only during a brief window of development, between the late cortical and early medullary stages. All medullary phenotypes (CD4 or CD8 single positive) but not immature thymocytes respond to the medullary stroma-expressed (and secondary lymphoid tissue-associated) chemokines secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine and macrophage inflammatory protein-3beta. The appearance of these responses is associated with the phenotypic stage of cortex to medulla migration and with up-regulation of mRNA for the receptors CCR4 (for macrophage-derived chemokine and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine) and CCR7 (for secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine and macrophage inflammatory protein-3beta). In contrast, most immature and medullary thymocytes migrate to thymus-expressed chemokine, an ability that is lost only with up-regulation of the peripheral homing receptor L-selectin during the latest stages of thymocyte maturation associated with export to the periphery. Developmental switches in chemokine responses may help regulate critical migratory events during T cell development.  (+info)

Overproduction of Th2-specific chemokines in NC/Nga mice exhibiting atopic dermatitis-like lesions. (4/177)

We have examined the expression of chemokines and their receptors in the atopic dermatitis-like (AD-like) lesions of NC/Nga mice. Such lesions develop when the mice are kept in conventional conditions, but not when they are kept isolated from specific pathogens. The thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine TARC is unexpectedly highly expressed in the basal epidermis of 14-week-old mice with lesions, whereas it is not expressed in the skin without lesions. Production of TARC by keratinocytes was confirmed by culturing murine keratinocytic cell line cells (PAM212) with TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, or IL-1beta. Expression of another Th2 chemokine, macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC), was observed in the skin from mice kept in both conventional and pathogen-free conditions, but expression of MDC was increased severalfold in the skin with lesions. The cellular origin of MDC was identified to be dermal dendritic cells. Infiltration of the skin by IL-4-producing T cells and mast cells, and the increase of CCR4 mRNA in the skin, coincided with the development of AD lesions. These observations indicate that TARC and MDC actively participate in the pathogenesis of AD-like lesions in NC/Nga mice and that these Th2 chemokines could be novel targets for intervention therapy of AD in humans.  (+info)

Human NK cells express CC chemokine receptors 4 and 8 and respond to thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, macrophage-derived chemokine, and I-309. (5/177)

NK cells respond to various chemokines, suggesting that they express receptors for these chemokines. In this paper, we show that IL-2-activated NK (IANK) cells express CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) and CCR8, as determined by flow cytometric, immunoblot, and RNase protection assays. Macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC), the ligand for CCR4, induces the phosphorylation of CCR4 within 0.5 min of activating IANK cells with this ligand. This is corroborated with the recruitment of G protein-coupled receptor kinases 2 and 3 and their association with CCR4 in IANK cell membranes. Also, CCR4 is internalized between 5 and 45 min but reappears in the membranes after 60 min of stimulation with MDC. MDC, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC), and I-309 induce the chemotaxis of IANK cells, an activity that is inhibited upon pretreatment of these cells with pertussis toxin, suggesting that receptors for these chemokines are coupled to pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins. In the calcium release assay, cross-desensitization experiments showed that TARC completely desensitizes the calcium flux response induced by MDC or I-309, whereas both MDC and I-309 partially desensitize the calcium flux response induced by TARC. These results suggest that TARC utilizes CCR4 and CCR8. Our results are the first to show that IL-2-activated NK cells express CCR4 and CCR8, suggesting that these receptors are not exclusive for Th2 cells.  (+info)

A key role for CC chemokine receptor 4 in lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxic shock. (6/177)

CC chemokine receptor (CCR)4, a high affinity receptor for the CC chemokines thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) and macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC), is expressed in the thymus and spleen, and also by peripheral blood T cells, macrophages, platelets, and basophils. Recent studies have shown that CCR4 is the major chemokine receptor expressed by T helper type 2 (Th2) polarized cells. To study the in vivo role of CCR4, we have generated CCR4-deficient (CCR4(-/-)) mice by gene targeting. CCR4(-/-) mice developed normally. Splenocytes and thymocytes isolated from the CCR4(-/-) mice failed to respond to the CCR4 ligands TARC and MDC, as expected, but also surprisingly did not undergo chemotaxis in vitro in response to macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha. The CCR4 deletion had no effect on Th2 differentiation in vitro or in a Th2-dependent model of allergic airway inflammation. However, CCR4(-/-) mice exhibited significantly decreased mortality on administration of high or low dose bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) compared with CCR4(+/+) mice. After high dose LPS treatment, serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 1beta, and MIP-1alpha were reduced in CCR4(-/-) mice, and decreased expression of MDC and MIP-2 mRNA was detected in peritoneal exudate cells. Analysis of peritoneal lavage cells from CCR4(-/)- mice by flow cytometry also revealed a significant decrease in the F4/80(+) cell population. This may reflect a defect in the ability of the CCR4(-/-) macrophages to be retained in the peritoneal cavity. Taken together, our data reveal an unexpected role for CCR4 in the inflammatory response leading to LPS-induced lethality.  (+info)

Inducible expression of a Th2-type CC chemokine thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine by human bronchial epithelial cells. (7/177)

CCR4 is now known to be selectively expressed in Th2 cells. Since the bronchial epithelium is recognized as an important source of mediators fundamental to the manifestation of respiratory allergic inflammation, we studied the expression of two functional ligands for CCR4, i.e., macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) and thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC), in bronchial epithelial cells. The bronchial epithelium of asthmatics and normal subjects expressed TARC protein, and the asthmatics showed more intense expression than the normal subjects. On the other hand, MDC expression was only weakly detected in the asthmatics, but the intensity was not significantly different from that of normal subjects. Combination of TNF-alpha and IL-4 induced expression of TARC protein and mRNA in bronchial epithelial A549 cells, which was slightly up-regulated by IFN-gamma. The enhancement by IFN-gamma was more pronounced in bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells, and a maximum production occurred with combination of TNF-alpha, IL-4, and IFN-gamma. On the other hand, MDC was essentially not expressed in any of the cultures. Furthermore, expressions of TARC protein and mRNA were almost completely inhibited by glucocorticoids. These results indicate that the airway epithelium represents an important source of TARC, which potentially plays a role via a paracrine mechanism in the development of allergic respiratory diseases. Furthermore, the beneficial effect of inhaled glucocorticoids on asthma may be at least in part due to their direct inhibitory effect on TARC generation by the bronchial epithelium.  (+info)

A Th2 chemokine, TARC, produced by keratinocytes may recruit CLA+CCR4+ lymphocytes into lesional atopic dermatitis skin. (8/177)

Atopic dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease in which the inflammation is characterized by the influx of lymphocytes into the dermis. It is generally believed that atopic dermatitis is a Th2-type disease, i.e., the T lymphocytes produce interleukin-4, interleukin-5, interleukin-10, and interleukin-13, although it has become evident in recent years that the cytokine profile in the skin changes during the course of the disease towards a Th1-Th2 mixed cytokine profile (interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin-2). The lymphocytes that home into the skin express cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen, and it has recently been shown that most of the lymphocytes in this population express the chemokine receptor CCR4. CCR4 is the receptor for the CC chemokine TARC (thymus and activation regulated chemokine), and this chemokine is expressed predominantly by keratinocytes in the basal layer of the epidermis of lesional atopic dermatitis skin in mice. In humans, however, it was shown to be expressed in the endothelial cells of the dermis. We have examined the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of atopic dermatitis patients for the expression of cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen and CCR4 and compared them with peripheral blood mononuclear cells from normal controls. We found that the proportion of CLA+CCR4+ lymphocytes is upregulated in atopic dermatitis patients. In addition we have examined skin biopsies of lesional and non-lesional skin from atopic dermatitis patients and found that the keratinocytes, but not the endothelial cells, produce TARC in the lesional but not in the nonlesional skin. To gain insight in the stimulatory mechanisms for TARC production in keratinocytes, as previously observed in mice, we cultured HaCaT cells and found that interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor alpha work synergistically to induce TARC production. These observations suggest that the induction of TARC production in keratinocytes plays an important role in the late phase skin invasion by CCR4+CLA+ Th2-type lymphocytes in atopic dermatitis.  (+info)

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic and relapsing inflammatory skin disease characterized by the predominant infiltration of TH2-type cells in lesional skin. Thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17) is a chemokine that attracts CC chemokine receptor 4-positive (CCR4+) or CCR8+ cells. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the participation of TARC in AD. Methods: We measured serum TARC levels in 40 patients with AD, 20 healthy control subjects, and 20 patients with psoriasis. We also examined disease activity by using SCORAD score; serum soluble E-selectin, soluble IL-2 receptor, IgE, and GM-CSF levels; and eosinophil numbers in peripheral blood, as well as correlations between TARC levels and these factors. The positivity of CCR4 of CD4+CD45RO+ cells in PBMCs was examined by using FACS analysis. Immunohistochemical staining of TARC and GM-CSF was performed in the lesional skin of patients with AD. Results: The serum TARC levels of patients with AD were ...
Human and murine CCR8 are homologous G protein-coupled receptors whose reported ligands include human I-309, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1β, TCA3, and liver-expressed chemokine (LEC; references (34)(35)(36)(37)). In addition, the virally encoded chemokines, vMIP-I and vMIP-II, can also bind CCR8 (38)(39)(40). The selective expression of CCR8 in Th2 T cells (11)(12) suggests that it may have an important role in the function of these cells. However, there are currently no experimental data demonstrating such a role. To investigate this possibility, and to study other potential functions of CCR8, we have generated and analyzed CCR8-deficient mice. Using models of Th2 (schistosomal) cell-mediated immune responses as well as two models of Th2-mediated allergic airway disease, we show impairment of Th2 type cytokine expression and eosinophil mobilization in CCR8−/− mice. This defect was specific to the in vivo Th2 type response, as the ...
Polyclonal antibody for TARC/CCL17 detection. Host: Rabbit.Size: 100μg/vial. Tested applications: ELISA. Reactive species: Mouse. TARC/CCL17 information: Molecular Weight: 10467 MW; Subcellular Localization: Secreted .
CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential players in the control of immune responses. Recently, accordingly to their origin, two main subsets of Tregs have been described: thymus-derived Tregs (tTregs) and peripherally derived Tregs (pTregs). Numerous signaling pathways including the IL-2/STAT5 or the TGF-β/Smad3 pathways play a crucial role in segregating the two lineages. Here, we review some of the information existing on the distinct requirements of IL-2, TGF-β and TNF-α three major cytokines involved in tTreg and pTreg generation, homeostasis and function. Today it is clear that signaling via the IL-2Rβ chain (CD122) common to IL-2 and IL-15 is required for proper differentiation of tTregs and for tTreg and pTreg survival in the periphery. This notion has led to the development of promising therapeutic strategies based on low-dose IL-2 administration to boost the patients own Treg compartment and dampen autoimmunity and inflammation. Also, solid evidence points to TGF-β
TARC小鼠单克隆抗体[MM0141-6J30](ab89463)可与人样本反应并经WB实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
MDC, human recombinant protein, C-C motif chemokine 22, Small-inducible cytokine A22, Macrophage-derived chemokine, MDC (1-69), Stim validated in (PBV10332r-20), Abcepta
Publications (selected). Li X, Syrovets T, Genze F, Pitterle K, Oberhuber A, Orend KH, Simmet Th. Plasmin triggers chemotaxis in monocyte-derived dendritic cells through Akt2-dependent pathways and promotes a T-helper type-1 response. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010; 30:582-90. Li X, Syrovets T, Paskas S, Laumonnier Y, Simmet Th. Mature dendritic cells express functional thrombin receptors triggering chemotaxis and CCL18/pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine induction. J Immunol. 2008; 181:1215-23. Popovic M, Laumonnier Y, Burysek L, Syrovets T, Simmet Th. Thrombin-induced expression of endothelial CX3CL1 potentiates monocyte CCL2 production and transendothelial migration. J Leukoc Biol. 2008; 84:215-23. Li Q, Laumonnier Y, Syrovets T, Simmet Th. Plasmin Triggers Cytokine Induction in Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007; 27:1383-9. Laumonnier Y, Syrovets T, Burysek L, Simmet Th. Identification of the annexin II heterotetramer as a receptor for the ...
Find Acupuncture Specialists in Birmingham, AL 35213. Acupuncture Specialist reviews, phone number, address and map. Find the best Acupuncture Specialist in Birmingham, AL 35213
Murayama, T., Nakamura, K. and Tsuchida, T. (2015), Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis with extensive distribution: correlation of serum TARC levels and peripheral blood eosinophil numbers. International Journal of Dermatology, 54: 1071-1074. doi: 10.1111/ijd.12281 ...
If you are a society or association member and require assistance with obtaining online access instructions please contact our Journal Customer Services team ...
Purified Rabbit Anti-Mouse MDC polyclonal antibody generated using |i|E. coli|/i|-expressed mouse MDC. |br| MDC (macrophage-derived chemokine) is a 69-amino acid CC chemokine with a NH2-terminal sequence of 24 residues as a signal sequence. It was origin
TARC antibody (chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 17) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-TARC pAb (GTX32911) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
EK2891小鼠巨噬细胞来源的趋化因子(MDC/CCL22)ELISA试剂盒MouseMacrophage-DerivedChemokine,MDCELISAkitEK2892小鼠巨噬细胞集落刺激因子(M-CSF)ELISA试剂盒MouseMacrophageColony-StimulatingFactor,M-CSFELISAkitEK2893小鼠L选择素(L-Selectin/CD62L)EL
|p|Recombinant Mouse CCL22/MDC is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 68 amino acids.|/p| |p|Background: CCL22/MDC is a CC chemokine that is produced in B cells, macrophages, monocyte-derived dendritic cells, activated NK cells and CD
Cytokine or chemokine encoded by a viral vector is currently regarded as a promising way of cancer gene immunotherapy. Researchers have paid attention to chemotactic activity of chemokines for immune cells and expected that they may be able to play an important role in cancer treatment, because the basis and premise of immunotherapy is the accumulation of immune cells in tumor tissues.. The CC chemokine ILC, also called cutaneous T cell-attracting chemokine or CCL27, was reported to recruit T cells to the site of its injection (27) . The CX3C family chemokine FKN (also called CX3CL1) could also attract a variety of cytotoxic lymphocytes (13 , 14 , 28) and enhance the cytotoxicity of NK cells (29) . In the present study, we hypothesized that the transfer of the mILC or mFKN gene to tumor cells, by using recombinant adenovirus in vitro, could render the tumor to express the chemokine in vivo. The chemokine would consequently induce the accumulation of immune cells in the tumor tissue and initiate ...
Wasabi isnt what you think it is. And its history probably isnt what you think either. Basically, you probably dont know anything about wasabi at all.
... On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several symptoms or a full patient history. A similarity measure between symptoms and diseases is provided.
Buy Eden Foods Wasabi Powder - 0.88 oz at the lowest price from eVitamins. Find Wasabi Powder reviews, side effects, coupons and more from eVitamins.
Celebrating the authenticity of Wasabia japonica. Whether youre a chef, foodie, formulator, consumer or farmer, we invite you to explore the wonders of wasabi
BRAS LIA O novo ministro da Infraestrutura, Tarc sio Gomes de Freitas, assumiu com a promessa de oferecer ao mercado uma s rie de concess es na rea de transportes. Brazil Transport Kincaid | Mendes Vianna Advogados 14 Jan 2019
Extraordinary food. Exceptional value. Outstanding experience. Our stores have been family-owned for three generations, and we believe in giving our customers the same personal attention and exceptional value we would expect for our own family.
Learn CancerAgentsClasses facts using a simple interactive process (flashcard, matching, or multiple choice). Finally a format that helps you memorize and understand. Browse or search in thousands of pages or create your own page using a simple wizard. No signup required!
The greenhouse is now playing host to all of those plants that need a bit of protection over the winter, cheek by jowl. Wasabi is not one that needs it, an
Wasabi offers an exceptional Japanese experience and great value for money. Dine-in at our branches in Bedaa or in Mahboula, and your satisfaction is guaranteed.
The question why CD4+/CD25+ T cells are reduced in asthmatic patients has not been answered yet; however, it has been observed that these cells reveal a reduced response to the chemokines CCL1 and CXCL1 suggesting an impaired recruitment to the lung [137, 138 ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
wasabi flavor coated green peas,complete details about wasabi flavor coated green peas provided by wasabi flavor coated green peas in China. You may also find other wasabi flavor coated green peas related selling and buying leads on 21FOOD.COM.
Intended Use: This kit is used to assay the sample of Serum, blood plasma,Saliva, Urine, and other related tissue Liquid. Test principle The kit uses a double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to assay the level of Chicken...
New Holiday Gifts. Elves have been busy in the workshop and were pleased to feature some great gift ideas. Handmade solid cherry sushi getas paired with ironwood chopsticks and a small jar.... ...
NOW AVAILABLE. Mings newest cookbook includes 80 new recipes with QR codes to access streaming videos of Ming preparing each one.. ...
Japanese: 西洋山葵 (せいようわさび, seiyōwasabi), ホースラディッシュ (hōsuradisshu), 山葵大根 (わさびだいこん, wasabidaikon), 山山葵 (やまわさび, yamawasabi) ...
Find Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin (TSLP) and Receptor research area related information and Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin (TSLP) and Receptor research products from R&D Systems. Learn more.
Large cortical thymocytes from C57BL/6-Tla(a) mice have been prepared rapidly and in high yield by a combination of centrifugal elutriation and differential binding to peanut agglutinin (PNA)-coated plates. The cells in these lymphoblast-rich fractions were clearly distinct from the majority of thymocytes, with up to 70 percent in the S or G(2) + M phases of the cell cycle and an average rate of [(35)S]methionine incorporation per cell up to 20 times higher than that of the majority population. The populations of cells resolved in this fractionation were characterized by monitoring their rates of synthesis of specific glycoproteins, thymus- leukemia antigen (TL) and the Lyt-2, Lyt-3 complex (Lyt-2/3), relative to their total protein synthesis. Cells that bound to PNA synthesized high levels of Lyt-2/3, consistent with their identification as cortical thymocytes. Those that failed to bind made little or no Lyt-2/3, as expected for medullary cells, The fraction of dividing lymphoblasts that bound ...
1. In a small bowl, dissolve 1 tsp wasabi powder in 1 tbsp warm water. Add 1/3 cup reduced-fat mayonnaise, 2 tbsp chopped parsley, 1 tbsp lemon juice; stir until smooth. Split open 8 sandwich thins (such as Arnold) and spread cut sides with wasabi mayonnaise. Place 2 slices roast beef (about 2 ounces) on each bottom half; top with alfalfa sprouts and other bread half. ...
When two chemokine receptors in the brain interact, leukemic cells (stained green) creep out of a small vein in the membrane covering the brain of a mouse and enter the cerebrospinal fluid. The chemokine CCL19, which is in the endothelium lining the vein, is stained blue in this immunofluorescent image.
There are 130 calories in 1 serving, 25 chips (1.1 oz) of Eden Crisp & Fiery Hot Wasabi Chips. Youd need to walk 34 minutes to burn 130 calories. Visit CalorieKing to see calorie count and nutrient data for all portion sizes.
Learn Lipids facts using a simple interactive process (flashcard, matching, or multiple choice). Finally a format that helps you memorize and understand. Browse or search in thousands of pages or create your own page using a simple wizard. No signup required!
Chemokines are believed to play a crucial role in local immunoresponse by regulating leukocyte movement in various tissues, including the intestinal mucosa. It has been suggested that they are key players in cancer biology, and several studies have identified leukocyte infiltration as a hallmark of most cancers. The chemokines CCL17 and CCL22 attract CCR4-bearing cells, which are especially polarised to Th2-type cells and regulatory T cells (Treg). Recent studies have revealed the participation of the CCL17 and CCL22 proteins in diseases such as atopic dermatitis and lymphoma. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of CCL17 and CCL22 protein expression in colorectal cancer (CRC) and to ascertain whether an association exists between promoter -431C,T CCL17 and -961G,A CCL22 gene polymorphisms in CRC versus non-CRC subjects. Using the ELISA assay, we noted a significantly higher expression of CCL22 in tumour tissue with a 2.3-fold up-regulation (tumour vs. paired normal tissue, n=78) but ...
Wasabi is not simply American horseradish with a kick of hot mustard and some green food coloring. Not very long ago, real wasabi-a short green plant with an edible stem, or rhizome-was grown only in Japan and primarily in cold mountain streams. Whats more, the rhizome spoils in a week, and freshly grated wasabi loses its punch after 15 minutes on the plate. Faking it was easier and cheaper than trying to find the real thing. But in 1991, entrepreneur Roy Carver III decided that the Oregon coast was perfect for growing wasabi. His hydroponic technique broke the Japanese lock on the market. He caused a little competitive intrigue, too.
Wheatgrass spirulina and wasabi join forces to bring you a force to be reckoned with! Sour hot green and mean our wasabi wheatgrass chips have a kick thatll move you into the new world revolution! Are you ready? We use only fresh organic Kale in our chips When air dried at low temperatures this classic. By Inspiral.
Background: Few clinical studies have focused on the alcoholindependent cardiovascular effects of the phenolic compounds of red wine (RW). Objective: We aimed to evaluate the effects of ethanol and phenolic compounds of RW on the expression of inflammatory biomarkers related to atherosclerosis in subjects at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Design: Sixty-seven high-risk, male volunteers were included in a randomized, crossover consumption trial. After a washout period, all subjects received RW (30 g alcohol/d), the equivalent amount of dealcoholized red wine (DRW), or gin (30 g alcohol/d) for 4 wk. Before and after each intervention period, 7 cellular and 18 serum inflammatory biomarkers were evaluated. Results: Alcohol increased IL-10 and decreased macrophage-derived chemokine concentrations, whereas the phenolic compounds of RW decreased serum concentrations of intercellular adhesion molecule- 1, E-selectin, and IL-6 and inhibited the expression of lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 ...
Full nutritional breakdown of the calories in Wasabi Bloody Mary based on the calories and nutrition in each ingredient, including Vodka, V8 Vegetable Juice, Low Sodium, Lea & Perrins, Worcestershire Sauce, Lime Juice, Wasabi and the other ingredients in this recipe.
Japans largest platform for academic e-journals: J-STAGE is a full text database for reviewed academic papers published by Japanese societies
Ccl2 - Ccl2 (untagged) - Mouse chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (Ccl2), (10ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Reliatech \ Anti_Human, mab CCL_23 Source Mouse \ 101-M267 for more molecular products just contact us
IL-31 plays a role in this disease by inducing chemokine genes CCL1, CCL17, and CCL22. The chemokines transcribed from these ...
Its gene is located on human chromosome 16 along with some CC chemokines known as CCL17 and CCL22. Fractalkine is found ... with none in CC chemokines and only one intervening amino acid in CXC chemokines. CX3CL1 is produced as a long protein (with ... Fractalkine also known as chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CX3CL1 gene. ... Nomiyama H, Imai T, Kusuda J, Miura R, Callen DF, Yoshie O (1998). "Human chemokines fractalkine (SCYD1), MDC (SCYA22) and TARC ...
The gene for CCL22 is located in human chromosome 16 in a cluster with other chemokines called CX3CL1 and CCL17. GRCh38: ... 1998). "Macrophage-derived chemokine is a functional ligand for the CC chemokine receptor 4". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (3): 1764-8. ... 2000). "Macrophage-derived chemokine and EBI1-ligand chemokine attract human thymocytes in different stage of development and ... Campbell JD, Stinson MJ, Simons FE, HayGlass KT (2003). "Systemic chemokine and chemokine receptor responses are divergent in ...
CCL17 (TARC) CCL22 (Macrophage-derived chemokine) Chemokines are a group of small structurally related proteins that regulate ... "Macrophage-derived chemokine is a functional ligand for the CC chemokine receptor 4". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (3): 1764-8. doi: ... "The T cell-directed CC chemokine TARC is a highly specific biological ligand for CC chemokine receptor 4". J. Biol. Chem. 272 ( ... C-C chemokine receptor type 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCR4 gene. CCR4 has also recently been designated ...
... also known as CCL17 Total active reflection coefficient, a measure of multi-port radio antennas Transit Authority of River City ... a Canadian reality game show based on The Amazing Race Thymus and activation regulated chemokine, a gene which encodes a ...
... immunotherapy Cantuzumab ravtansine Cathelicidin CC chemokine receptors CCBP2 CCL1 CCL11 CCL12 CCL13 CCL14 CCL15 CCL16 CCL17 ... C-C chemokine receptor type 6 C-C chemokine receptor type 7 Calreticulin Cancer immunology Cancer immunoprevention Cancer ... CD4 CD4+ T cells and antitumor immunity CD74 CD94/NKG2 Cell-mediated immunity CELSR1 Central tolerance Chemokine Chemokine ... CR6261 CroFab Cross-presentation Cross-reactivity Cryptic self epitopes Cryptotope CX3CL1 CX3CR1 CXC chemokine receptors CXCL1 ...
CCL17 and CCL22. T-lymphocytes: the four key chemokines that are involved in the recruitment of T lymphocytes to the site of ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines in that it has ... CCL1 for the ligand 1 of the CC-family of chemokines, and CCR1 for its respective receptor. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 17 (CCL17) (also known as TARC) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family is also ... 1999). "The assignment of chemokine-chemokine receptor pairs: TARC and MIP-1 beta are not ligands for human CC-chemokine ... The gene for CCL17 is located on chromosome 16, in humans, along with other chemokines called CCL22 and CX3CL1. GRCh38: Ensembl ... Saeki H, Tamaki K (2006). "Thymus and activation regulated chemokine (TARC)/CCL17 and skin diseases". J. Dermatol. Sci. 43 (2 ...
The CC chemokines CCL3, CCL5, CCL17 and CCL22 signal through this receptor. CCR5 is expressed on several cell types including ... The CC chemokine receptors all work by activating the G protein Gi. CCR1 was the first CC chemokine receptor identified and ... The orphan chemokine receptor G protein-coupled receptor-2 (GPR-2, CCR10) binds the skin-associated chemokine CCL27 (CTACK/ALP/ ... Human CC chemokine liver-expressed chemokine/CCL16 is a functional ligand for CCR1, CCR2 and CCR5, and constitutively expressed ...
chemokine receptor activity. • receptor activity. • protein binding. • C-C chemokine receptor activity. • C-C chemokine binding ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene.[5] CCR6 ... "Entrez Gene: CCR6 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6".. *^ Wang K, Zhang H, Kugathasan S, Annese V, Bradfield JP, Russell RK, ... "Chemokine Receptors: CCR6". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
CCL22 and CCL17. Furthermore, CXCR3 expression by T-cells is induced following T-cell activation and activated T-cells are ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 18 (CCL18) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. The functions of CCL18 have ... and CCL17 by dendritic cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and regulation by Fc gamma receptors". Ann. Rheum. Dis. ... It was previously known as Pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine (PARC), dendritic cell (DC)-chemokine 1 (DC-CK1), ... Chemokines are classed as a special type of cytokine that is involved in immune cell trafficking. CCL18 in particular has some ...
CCL1 · CCL2 · CCL3 · CCL4 · CCL5 · CCL6 · CCL7 · CCL8 · CCL9 · CCL11 · CCL12 · CCL13 · CCL14 · CCL15 · CCL16 · CCL17 · CCL18 · ... Chemokine. CCL. ...
positive regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production. • positive regulation of JUN kinase activity. • positive ... positive regulation of chemokine production. • cellular extravasation. • negative regulation of lipid storage. • negative ... positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • epithelial cell proliferation involved in salivary gland morphogenesis ...
... s are a subset of cytokines that are produced by a type of immune cell known as a lymphocyte.[1] They are protein mediators typically produced by T cells to direct the immune system response by signaling between its cells. Lymphokines have many roles, including the attraction of other immune cells, including macrophages and other lymphocytes, to an infected site and their subsequent activation to prepare them to mount an immune response. Circulating lymphocytes can detect a very small concentration of lymphokine and then move up the concentration gradient towards where the immune response is required. Lymphokines aid B cells to produce antibodies. Important lymphokines secreted by the T helper cell include:[2] ...
... binds to the death receptors DR4 (TRAIL-RI) and DR5 (TRAIL-RII). The process of apoptosis is caspase-8-dependent. Caspase-8 activates downstream effector caspases including procaspase-3, -6, and -7, leading to activation of specific kinases.[11] TRAIL also binds the receptors DcR1 and DcR2, which do not contain a cytoplasmic domain (DcR1) or contain a truncated death domain (DcR2). DcR1 functions as a TRAIL-neutralizing decoy-receptor. The cytoplasmic domain of DcR2 is functional and activates NFkappaB. In cells expressing DcR2, TRAIL binding therefore activates NFkappaB, leading to transcription of genes known to antagonize the death signaling pathway and/or to promote inflammation. Application of engineered ligands that have variable affinity for different death (DR4 and DR5) and decoy receptors (DCR1 and DCR2) may allow selective targeting of cancer cells by controlling activation of Type 1/Type 2 pathways of cell death and single cell fluctuations. Luminescent iridium complex-peptide ...
... (IL-24) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL24 gene. IL-24 is a cytokine belonging to the IL-10 family of cytokines that signals through two heterodimeric receptors: IL-20R1/IL-20R2 and IL-22R1/IL-20R2. This interleukin is also known as melanoma differentiation-associated 7 (mda-7) due to its discovery as a tumour suppressing protein. IL-24 appears to control in cell survival and proliferation by inducing rapid activation of particular transcription factors called STAT1 and STAT3. This cytokine is predominantly released by activated monocytes, macrophages and T helper 2 (Th2) cells[5] and acts on non-haematopoietic tissues such as skin, lung and reproductive tissues. IL-24 performs important roles in wound healing, arthritis, psoriasis and cancer.[6][7][8] Several studies have shown that cell death occurs in cancer cells/cell lines following exposure to IL-24.[9][10] The gene for IL-24 is located on chromosome 1 in humans.[11] ...
... as well as chemokine and cytokine production, and expression of adhesion molecules such as E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. This ...
positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • regulation of insulin secretion. • extrinsic apoptotic signaling ... Copeland KF (2006). "Modulation of HIV-1 transcription by cytokines and chemokines". Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry. 5 (12 ...
... is sometimes used interchangeably among scientists with the term cytokine.[3] Historically, cytokines were associated with hematopoietic (blood and lymph forming) cells and immune system cells (e.g., lymphocytes and tissue cells from spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes). For the circulatory system and bone marrow in which cells can occur in a liquid suspension and not bound up in solid tissue, it makes sense for them to communicate by soluble, circulating protein molecules. However, as different lines of research converged, it became clear that some of the same signaling proteins which the hematopoietic and immune systems use were also being used by all sorts of other cells and tissues, during development and in the mature organism. While growth factor implies a positive effect on cell division, cytokine is a neutral term with respect to whether a molecule affects proliferation. While some cytokines can be growth factors, such as G-CSF and GM-CSF, others have an inhibitory effect on ...
chemokine activity. • cytokine activity. • heparin binding. • protein binding. • CXCR3 chemokine receptor binding. ... C-X-C motif chemokine 11 is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also called Interferon-inducible T- ... "Entrez Gene: CXCL11 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11".. *^ a b Cole KE, Strick CA, Paradis TJ, Ogborne KT, Loetscher M, Gladue ... This chemokine elicits its effects on its target cells by interacting with the cell surface chemokine receptor CXCR3, with a ...
Interferon alfa 2b is an antiviral or antineoplastic drug, that was originally discovered in the laboratory of Charles Weissmann at the University of Zurich. It was developed at Biogen, and ultimately marketed by Schering-Plough under the tradename Intron-A. It has been used for a wide range of indications, including viral infections and cancers. This drug is approved around the world for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C, chronic hepatitis B, hairy cell leukemia, Behçet's disease, chronic myelogenous leukemia, multiple myeloma, follicular lymphoma, carcinoid tumor, mastocytosis and malignant melanoma. ...
4-1BB is a type 2 transmembrane glycoprotein receptor belonging to the TNF superfamily, expressed on activated T Lymphocytes.[1] 4-1BBL (4-1BB ligand) is found on APCs (antigen presenting cells) and binds to 4-1BB. ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the interleukin 1 cytokine family. Protein structure modeling indicated that this cytokine may contain a 12-stranded beta-trefoil structure that is conserved between IL1A (IL-A alpha) and IL1B (IL-1 beta). This gene and eight other interleukin 1 family genes form a cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 2. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported.[8]. ...
... calcium-independent mechanisms are required for directional migration of T lymphocytes in response to the CCR4 ligands CCL17 ... and intervene in various processes from long term depression in neurons to leukocyte signal pathways started by chemokine ...
C-X-C chemokine receptor activity. • interleukin-8 binding. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. • chemokine receptor ... This name and the corresponding gene symbol IL8RA have been replaced by the HGNC approved name C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 1 ... "Chemokine Receptors: CXCR1". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... chemokine-mediated signaling pathway. • interleukin-8-mediated signaling pathway. • neutrophil degranulation. • chemotaxis. ...
Acts as a receptor for chemokines including CCL2, CCL3, CCL3L1, CCL4, CCL5, CCL7, CCL8, CCL11, CCL13, CCL17, CCL22, CCL23, ... Also known as interceptor (internalizing receptor) or chemokine-scavenging receptor or chemokine decoy receptor. ... increasing its efficiency in chemokine uptake and degradation. By scavenging chemokines in tissues, on the surfaces of ... resulting instead in chemokine sequestration, degradation, or transcytosis. ...
CCL17. Synonyms:. chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 17; TARC; ABCD-2; SCYA17; A-152E5.3; MGC138271; MGC138273; CCL17; small ... CCL17 binds to chemokine receptors CCR4 and CCR8. This chemokine plays important roles in T cell development in thymus as well ... Recombinant Human Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 17, His-tagged. Download Datasheet See All CCL17 Products. Bring this labeled ... Along with CC chemokine family members, CCL-17 has approximately 24-29% amino acid sequence identity with RANTES, MIP-1?, MIP-1 ...
Thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC)/CCL17 and IgE are associated with elderly asthmatics. Zeitschrift:. Immunity ... Serum measurement of thymus and activation-regulated chemokine/CCL17 in children with atopic dermatitis: elevated normal levels ... Serum measurement of thymus and activation-regulated chemokine/CCL17 in children with atopic dermatitis: elevated normal levels ... Thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC)/CCL17 and IgE are associated with elderly asthmatics ...
The chemokines CCL17 and CCL22 attract CCR4-bearing cells, which are especially polarised to Th2-type cells and regulatory T ... Quantification of the chemokines CCL17 and CCL22 in human colorectal adenocarcinomas. Wågsäter, Dick ... CCL17; CCL22; polymorphism; protein expression; colorectal cancer National Category Cancer and Oncology Identifiers. URN: urn: ... Chemokines are believed to play a crucial role in local immunoresponse by regulating leukocyte movement in various tissues, ...
CCL17) 蛋白. 宿主: 人. 宿主: 大肠杆菌(E. Coli). 产品编号 ABIN2469118. ... Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 17 (CCL17) (Active) 蛋白 Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 17 (CCL17) (Active) 蛋白. ABIN2469118 产品详细信息, 供应 ... Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 17 (CCL17) show Synonyms for this Antigen * CCL17 ... TARC, a CC chemokine, is predominantly produced by dendritic cells in the thymus and signals through the CCR4 receptor.
Ccl17) (Active) von Cusabio bei SZABO-SCANDIC erhältlich. Weiteres zu Proteine & Peptide finden Sie hier. ... Recombinant Rat C-C motif chemokine protein(Ccl17) (Active), Host: E.Coli ... Recombinant Rat C-C motif chemokine protein( ... Recombinant Rat C-C motif chemokine protein(Ccl17) (Active) ...
CCL17) (Active) von Cusabio bei SZABO-SCANDIC erhältlich. Weiteres zu Proteine & Peptide finden Sie hier. ... Protein Families: Intercrine beta (chemokine CC) family. Tissue Specificity: Expressed at high levels in thymus and at low ... Recombinant Human C-C motif chemokine 17 protein( ... Recombinant Human C-C motif chemokine 17 protein(CCL17) (Active ...
This review will focus on recent murine and human studies that use chemokines as therapeutic anti-cancer vaccine adjuvants. ... Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing ... This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential ... Inoue et al. evaluated the effect of adding either CCL5 or CCL17 to irradiated GM-CSF producing WEHI3B cells [50]. Addition of ...
High affinity receptor for the C-C type chemokines CCL17/TARC, CCL22/MDC and CKLF isoform 1/CKLF1. The activity of this ... CCL17. Q92583. 2. EBI-7847466,EBI-16640146. GO - Molecular functioni. *C-C chemokine binding Source: GO_CentralInferred from ... "Chemokine-like factor 1 is a functional ligand for CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4).". Wang Y., Zhang Y., Yang X., Han W., Liu Y. ... "Macrophage-derived chemokine is a functional ligand for the CC chemokine receptor 4.". Imai T., Chantry D., Raport C.J., Wood C ...
Acts as a ligand for C-C chemokine receptor CCR3 which triggers Ca(2+) mobilization in eosinophils (PubMed:10415065, PubMed: ... CCL17 [Q92583]. 2. EBI-7783416,EBI-16640146. CCL21 [O00585]. 2. EBI-7783416,EBI-953695. ... IPR039809 Chemokine_b/g/d. IPR000827 Chemokine_CC_CS. IPR001811 Chemokine_IL8-like_dom. IPR036048 Interleukin_8-like_sf. ... IPR039809 Chemokine_b/g/d. IPR000827 Chemokine_CC_CS. IPR001811 Chemokine_IL8-like_dom. IPR036048 Interleukin_8-like_sf. ...
Binds to atypical chemokine receptor ACKR4 and mediates the recruitment of beta-arrestin (ARRB1/2) to ACKR4. ... CCL17 [Q92583]. 2. EBI-953695,EBI-16640146. CCL26 [Q9Y258]. 2. EBI-953695,EBI-7783416. ... IPR039809 Chemokine_b/g/d. IPR034133 Chemokine_CC_DCCL. IPR001811 Chemokine_IL8-like_dom. IPR036048 Interleukin_8-like_sf. ... IPR039809 Chemokine_b/g/d. IPR034133 Chemokine_CC_DCCL. IPR001811 Chemokine_IL8-like_dom. IPR036048 Interleukin_8-like_sf. ...
Treg-attracting chemokine CCL17 is differentially expressed by papillomas. To determine whether the increase of Tregs in ... The Treg-attracting chemokine CCL22 was equally expressed by all laryngeal tissues examined. However, CCL17 was robustly ... We also identified the two chemokines (CCL17 and CCL22) that recruit Tregs into tissues where they are expressed (7). In ... express Treg/TH2-like tropic chemokines (CCL17, CCL22), and contain T cells that are CD127 negative and express CD69 and PD-1, ...
CCL22 and CCL17. Furthermore, CXCR3 expression by T-cells is induced following T-cell activation and activated T-cells are ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... CC chemokinesEdit. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino ...
... by means of interaction with CCL17 (thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, TARC) and CCL22 (macrophage-derived chemokine, ... Chemokine Receptors on Blood and NK-Cells. Conventional and NK-cells present in the normal PB have different CKR repertoires ( ... 3.1.2. Chemokine Receptors on Conventional NK-Cells. In contrast to NK-cells, the majority of the NK-cells are CXCR1/CXCR2− and ... and the chemokine receptors CXCR3 and/or CCR5 (Figure 2): CD16+ CCR5/CXCR3− (or simply ), CD16+/− CCR5/CXCR3+ (or simply ), and ...
Chemokines CCL17 (Thymus and activation regulated chemokine (TARC)) and CCL22 (C-C motif chemokine 22) produced by tumour ... In this review, the term cytokine is used in a broader meaning and covers also chemokines, growth factors, angiogenic factors ... Atretkhany, K.-S.N.; Drutskaya, M.S.; Nedospasov, S.A.; Grivennikov, S.I.; Kuprash, D.V. Chemokines, cytokines and exosomes ... Rodríguez-Frade, J.M.; Martínez-Muñoz, L.; Villares, R.; Cascio, G.; Lucas, P.; Gomariz, R.P.; Mellado, M. Chemokine Detection ...
CCL17:. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 17. 13-cis-RA:. 13-cis-retinoic acid. ... The evaluation of PGI2 analogues on the expression of Th1 and Th2 related chemokines has also been ongoing as chemokines are ... and Th2-related chemokine macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC/CCL22). The PGI2 analogues decreased IP-10 production, but enhanced ... the chemokine CXCL10, and the downregulation of proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6, and TGF-. [29]. ...
Methods: The Th1-associated chemokines CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, and the Th2- associated chemokines CCL17, CCL18 and CCL22 were ... The circulating Th1-like chemokines CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, Th2-like chemokines CCL17, CCL18 and CCL22, and the allergen-induced ... Open this publication in new window or tab ,,High cord blood levels of the T-helper 2-associated chemokines CCL17 and CCL22 ... Allergy; CCL17; CCL22; chemokines; pregnancy; Th2 National Category Medical and Health Sciences Identifiers. urn:nbn:se:liu: ...
... the CC chemokines CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, CCL11, CCL17, CCL18, CCL19, CCL21, CCL22; the CXC chemokines CXCL8, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL12; ... Generally, CC chemokines potently attract monocytes, T lymphocytes, eosinophils, and basophils, whereas CXC chemokines are ... Differences between our study and previous studies, chemokine function, and chemokine levels are summarized in Table 4. Before ... The concentrations of IL-6 and the following chemokines were measured: the chemokine-like macrophage migration inhibitory ...
2-attracting chemokines TARC (thymus and activation-regulated chemokine; also known as CCL17) and MDC (macrophage-derived ... chemokine; CCL22). TSLP-activated DCs primed naïve T(H) cells to produce the proallergic cytokines interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-5, ...
Production and presentation of T-cell-specific chemokines, such as CC-chemokine ligand 17 (CCL17), CCL22 and CCL27, on the ... and its ligands CCL17 (thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, TARC) and CCL22 (macrophage-derived chemokine, MDC). ... CCL17, CC-chemokine ligand 17. The adaptive immune system, based on T cells and B cells that express antigen-specific receptors ... Chong, B. F., Murphy, J.-E., Kupper, T. S. & Fuhlbrigge, R. C. E-selectin, thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine/CCL17, ...
macrophage-derived chemokine. SMA. smooth muscle actin. TARC/CCL17. thymus and activation-regulated chemokine. TSLP. thymic ... The Th2 chemoattractants thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17) and macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC/CCL22) ... Cytokine and chemokines release in DC supernatants was measured by human chemokines and the inflammatory cytokines CBA (BD) or ... D) Chemokine production by DCs activated with the following stimuli: medium alone, 20 ng/ml TNF; 15 ng/ml TSLP; HDF sup and CAF ...
CCL17. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 17. CCL22. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 22 ... During EBV immune evasion, viral proteins, immune cells, chemokines, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and pro-apoptosis molecules ...
These include surface markers, enzymes, secreted proteins, chemokines, cytokines, signal transduction proteins and ... Chemokines. CCL17 and CCL22. CCL17; also known as Thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) [60]; and CCL22; also known ... Macrophage-derived chemokine is a functional ligand for the CC chemokine receptor 4. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:1764-8. ... CCL17 and CCL22 induce naïve T cell differentiation into Th2 cells [66, 67], indicating the pathogenic role of CCL17 and CCL22 ...
Two chemokines stimulate the same receptor. It is known that the binding of CCL17 to the CCR4 receptor plays an important role ... CCL22 seems to have a different effect on CCR4 than CCL17. Researchers speculate that CCL22 (or possibly also other chemokines ... One of them is CCL17. T cells have a receptor that can "smell" CCL17 - the CCR4 receptor - which allows them to follow the ... "We have succeeded in producing an aptamer that specifically binds to CCL17," explains Prof. Förster. "It thus prevents CCL17 ...
TARC is a ligand for chemokine receptor CCR4, expressed on Th2 lymphocytes, basophils and natural killer cells. CCL17 binds to ... TARC (CCL17) and its receptor CCR4 are believed to play important roles in the pathogenesis of the skin diseases Atopic ... Abcams TARC (CCL17) in vitro SimpleStep ELISA™ (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) kit is designed for the quantitative ... TARC is a member of the CC chemokine group that is constitutively expressed in the thymus and is transiently produced by a ...
  • Interestingly, our present study demonstrated that DTX in combination with RS significantly upregulated the mRNA expression of CXCL10 on M2 macrophages and significantly decreased the mRNA expression of CCL17 and Arg1. (hindawi.com)
  • Further, IFN-gamma-inducible protein 10 (IP-10 or CXCL10), a type 1 (Th1) chemokine, can also be produced by CpG DNA stimulation [ 22 , 23 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The LEGENDplex™ Human Proinflammatory Chemokine Standard product is intended for use with the Mix and Match Human Proinflammatory Chemokine Panel of products. (biolegend.com)
  • Dendritic cell-derived CCL17 may exert an accessory role in BCR- and TLR-9-mediated immune responses in B cells in peripheral organs. (jimmunol.org)
  • Given the central role of chemokines in the regulation of immunity, we postulated that some of these molecules could participate in turning off adaptive immune responses by recruiting cells with immunoregulatory functions. (rupress.org)
  • The present invention provides a means of inhibiting the growth and metastasis of cancer cells by administering anti-chemokine antibodies. (google.com)
  • Luteolin also represented dose-dependent inhibition on chemokine productions although it was contained at lower levels in 70% methanol extract and solvent fractions. (hindawi.com)
  • Inhibition of lung metastasis by chemokine CCL17-mediated in vivo silencing of genes in CCR4+ Tregs. (nih.gov)
  • Inhibition of CCR4:CCL17 interaction in vivo could represent a novel therapy by preventing migration of CLL cells towards an environment that promotes their survival. (jimmunol.org)
  • Circulating CXCL11, CCL18 and CCL22 levels during pregnancy and postpartum correlated with the corresponding chemokine levels in the offspring at various time points during childhood. (diva-portal.org)
  • TSLP-containing supernatants from activated CAFs induced in vitro myeloid DCs to up-regulate the TSLP receptor (TSLPR), secrete Th2-attracting chemokines, and acquire TSLP-dependent Th2-polarizing capability in vitro. (rupress.org)
  • These are known as homeostatic chemokines and are produced and secreted without any need to stimulate their source cell(s). (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to their function of targeting cells to specific organs, homeostatic chemokines can also be involved in cancer and metastasis. (biolegend.com)
  • Based on our findings that IL-17 conveys dual effects (stimulation of proinflammatory cytokines and down-regulation of chemokines) in fibroblasts with the inhibitory IL-17 effect prevailing at low concentrations ( 36 ), we hypothesized a regulatory role of IL-17 in vivo and investigated the potential of IL-17 for regulating the Th2 response to inhaled allergens. (rupress.org)
  • While a function of chemokines is to regulate lymphocyte trafficking, the view that chemokines act simply as "chemotactic cytokines" has evolved to include the many critical roles they play in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses. (mdpi.com)
  • For example, in addition to chemotaxis, chemokines modulate lymphocyte development, priming and effector function [ 2 ] and play a critical role in immune surveillance. (mdpi.com)
  • On one hand, the chemokine network is used by tumors to evade immune surveillance, resist apoptosis, and metastasize. (mdpi.com)
  • On the other hand, the chemokine system also plays a crucial role in the induction of antitumor immune responses and optimal effector function regulation of immune cells [ 1 , 4 , 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Some chemokines are considered pro- inflammatory and can be induced during an immune response to recruit cells of the immune system to a site of infection , while others are considered homeostatic and are involved in controlling the migration of cells during normal processes of tissue maintenance or development . (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers speculate that CCL22 (or possibly also other chemokines) inhibits the immune reaction - and does not stimulate it like CCL17. (uni-bonn.de)
  • This tract will discuss the contribution of chemokines to the development of innate and adaptive granuloma formation, as well as describe their relationship to more recently evolved cytokines generated during adaptive immune responses. (frontiersin.org)
  • The chemotactic protein CCL17 attracts immune cells to where they are currently needed. (ageofautism.com)
  • These behavioral changes indicated that CCL17 not only affects the immune system but perhaps also the brain,' explains the corresponding author of the study, Prof. Dr. Irmgard Förster from the LIMES Institute at the University of Bonn, who is also a member of the Cluster of Excellence 'ImmunoSensation. (ageofautism.com)
  • These data reveal that CD11b + myeloid cells in the lung help orchestrate the adaptive immune response in asthma, in part, through the production of STAT6-inducible chemokines and the recruitment of Th2 lymphocytes into the airway. (jimmunol.org)
  • The chemokines also play fundamental roles in the development, homeostasis, and function of the immune system, and they have effects on cells of the central nervous system as well as on endothelial cells involved in angiogenesis or angiostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokines are classed as a special type of cytokine that is involved in immune cell trafficking. (wikipedia.org)