A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.
A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.
Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.
Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.
CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.
A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.
A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.
Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.
A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.
Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.
An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.
CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.
Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.
Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.
The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.

Selective recruitment of CCR4-bearing Th2 cells toward antigen-presenting cells by the CC chemokines thymus and activation-regulated chemokine and macrophage-derived chemokine. (1/177)

Helper T cells are classified into Th1 and Th2 subsets based on their profiles of cytokine production. Th1 cells are involved in cell-mediated immunity, whereas Th2 cells induce humoral responses. Selective recruitment of these two subsets depends on specific adhesion molecules and specific chemoattractants. Here, we demonstrate that the T cell-directed CC chemokine thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) was abundantly produced by monocytes treated with granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or IL-3, especially in the presence of IL-4 and by dendritic cells derived from monocytes cultured with GM-CSF + IL-4. The receptor for TARC and another macrophage/dendritic cell-derived CC chemokine macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) is CCR4, a G protein-coupled receptor. CCR4 was found to be expressed on approximately 20% of adult peripheral blood effector/memory CD4+ T cells. T cells attracted by TARC and MDC generated cell lines predominantly producing Th2-type cytokines, IL-4 and IL-5. Fractionated CCR4+ cells but not CCR4- cells also selectively gave rise to Th2-type cell lines. When naive CD4+ T cells from adult peripheral blood were polarized in vitro, Th2-type cells selectively expressed CCR4 and vigorously migrated toward TARC and MDC. Taken together, CCR4 is selectively expressed on Th2-type T cells and antigen-presenting cells may recruit Th2 cells expressing CCR4 by producing TARC and MDC in Th2-dominant conditions.  (+info)

High expression of the CC chemokine TARC in Reed-Sternberg cells. A possible explanation for the characteristic T-cell infiltratein Hodgkin's lymphoma. (2/177)

Hodgkin's lymphoma is characterized by the combination of Reed-Sternberg (R-S) cells and a prominent inflammatory cell infiltrate. One of the intriguing questions regarding this disease is what is causing the influx of T lymphocytes into the involved tissues. We applied the serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) technique on the Hodgkin's lymphoma-derived cell line L428 and on an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed lymphoblastoid B-cell line. A frequently expressed tag in L428 corresponded to the T-cell-directed CC chemokine TARC. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrated expression of TARC in nodular sclerosis (NS) and mixed cellularity (MC) classical Hodgkin's lymphomas but not in NLP Hodgkin's lymphoma, anaplastic large-cell lymphomas, and large-B-cell lymphomas with CD30 positivity. Two of five cases of T-cell-rich B-cell lymphoma (TCRBCL) were TARC positive. RNA in situ hybridization (ISH) showed a strong signal for TARC in the cytoplasm of R-S cells, and immunohistochemical staining confirmed the presence of the TARC protein in the R-S cells of NS and MC Hodgkin's lymphomas. The lymphocytic and histiocytic (L&H)-type cells of nodular lymphocyte predominance Hodgkin's lymphoma and the neoplastic cells of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas with the exception of two cases of TCRBCL did not stain for TARC. TARC is known to bind to the CCR4 receptor, which is expressed on activated Th2 lymphocytes. The immunophenotype of lymphocytes surrounding R-S cells is indeed Th2-like, and by RNA ISH these lymphocytes showed a positive signal for the chemokine receptor CCR4. The findings suggest that production of TARC by the R-S cells may explain the characteristic T-cell infiltrate in classical Hodgkin's lymphoma.  (+info)

Cutting edge: developmental switches in chemokine responses during T cell maturation. (3/177)

We show that developmental transitions during thymocyte maturation are associated with dramatic changes in chemotactic responses to chemokines. Macrophage-derived chemokine, a chemokine expressed in the thymic medulla, attracts thymocytes only during a brief window of development, between the late cortical and early medullary stages. All medullary phenotypes (CD4 or CD8 single positive) but not immature thymocytes respond to the medullary stroma-expressed (and secondary lymphoid tissue-associated) chemokines secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine and macrophage inflammatory protein-3beta. The appearance of these responses is associated with the phenotypic stage of cortex to medulla migration and with up-regulation of mRNA for the receptors CCR4 (for macrophage-derived chemokine and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine) and CCR7 (for secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine and macrophage inflammatory protein-3beta). In contrast, most immature and medullary thymocytes migrate to thymus-expressed chemokine, an ability that is lost only with up-regulation of the peripheral homing receptor L-selectin during the latest stages of thymocyte maturation associated with export to the periphery. Developmental switches in chemokine responses may help regulate critical migratory events during T cell development.  (+info)

Overproduction of Th2-specific chemokines in NC/Nga mice exhibiting atopic dermatitis-like lesions. (4/177)

We have examined the expression of chemokines and their receptors in the atopic dermatitis-like (AD-like) lesions of NC/Nga mice. Such lesions develop when the mice are kept in conventional conditions, but not when they are kept isolated from specific pathogens. The thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine TARC is unexpectedly highly expressed in the basal epidermis of 14-week-old mice with lesions, whereas it is not expressed in the skin without lesions. Production of TARC by keratinocytes was confirmed by culturing murine keratinocytic cell line cells (PAM212) with TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, or IL-1beta. Expression of another Th2 chemokine, macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC), was observed in the skin from mice kept in both conventional and pathogen-free conditions, but expression of MDC was increased severalfold in the skin with lesions. The cellular origin of MDC was identified to be dermal dendritic cells. Infiltration of the skin by IL-4-producing T cells and mast cells, and the increase of CCR4 mRNA in the skin, coincided with the development of AD lesions. These observations indicate that TARC and MDC actively participate in the pathogenesis of AD-like lesions in NC/Nga mice and that these Th2 chemokines could be novel targets for intervention therapy of AD in humans.  (+info)

Human NK cells express CC chemokine receptors 4 and 8 and respond to thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, macrophage-derived chemokine, and I-309. (5/177)

NK cells respond to various chemokines, suggesting that they express receptors for these chemokines. In this paper, we show that IL-2-activated NK (IANK) cells express CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) and CCR8, as determined by flow cytometric, immunoblot, and RNase protection assays. Macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC), the ligand for CCR4, induces the phosphorylation of CCR4 within 0.5 min of activating IANK cells with this ligand. This is corroborated with the recruitment of G protein-coupled receptor kinases 2 and 3 and their association with CCR4 in IANK cell membranes. Also, CCR4 is internalized between 5 and 45 min but reappears in the membranes after 60 min of stimulation with MDC. MDC, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC), and I-309 induce the chemotaxis of IANK cells, an activity that is inhibited upon pretreatment of these cells with pertussis toxin, suggesting that receptors for these chemokines are coupled to pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins. In the calcium release assay, cross-desensitization experiments showed that TARC completely desensitizes the calcium flux response induced by MDC or I-309, whereas both MDC and I-309 partially desensitize the calcium flux response induced by TARC. These results suggest that TARC utilizes CCR4 and CCR8. Our results are the first to show that IL-2-activated NK cells express CCR4 and CCR8, suggesting that these receptors are not exclusive for Th2 cells.  (+info)

A key role for CC chemokine receptor 4 in lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxic shock. (6/177)

CC chemokine receptor (CCR)4, a high affinity receptor for the CC chemokines thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) and macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC), is expressed in the thymus and spleen, and also by peripheral blood T cells, macrophages, platelets, and basophils. Recent studies have shown that CCR4 is the major chemokine receptor expressed by T helper type 2 (Th2) polarized cells. To study the in vivo role of CCR4, we have generated CCR4-deficient (CCR4(-/-)) mice by gene targeting. CCR4(-/-) mice developed normally. Splenocytes and thymocytes isolated from the CCR4(-/-) mice failed to respond to the CCR4 ligands TARC and MDC, as expected, but also surprisingly did not undergo chemotaxis in vitro in response to macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha. The CCR4 deletion had no effect on Th2 differentiation in vitro or in a Th2-dependent model of allergic airway inflammation. However, CCR4(-/-) mice exhibited significantly decreased mortality on administration of high or low dose bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) compared with CCR4(+/+) mice. After high dose LPS treatment, serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 1beta, and MIP-1alpha were reduced in CCR4(-/-) mice, and decreased expression of MDC and MIP-2 mRNA was detected in peritoneal exudate cells. Analysis of peritoneal lavage cells from CCR4(-/)- mice by flow cytometry also revealed a significant decrease in the F4/80(+) cell population. This may reflect a defect in the ability of the CCR4(-/-) macrophages to be retained in the peritoneal cavity. Taken together, our data reveal an unexpected role for CCR4 in the inflammatory response leading to LPS-induced lethality.  (+info)

Inducible expression of a Th2-type CC chemokine thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine by human bronchial epithelial cells. (7/177)

CCR4 is now known to be selectively expressed in Th2 cells. Since the bronchial epithelium is recognized as an important source of mediators fundamental to the manifestation of respiratory allergic inflammation, we studied the expression of two functional ligands for CCR4, i.e., macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) and thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC), in bronchial epithelial cells. The bronchial epithelium of asthmatics and normal subjects expressed TARC protein, and the asthmatics showed more intense expression than the normal subjects. On the other hand, MDC expression was only weakly detected in the asthmatics, but the intensity was not significantly different from that of normal subjects. Combination of TNF-alpha and IL-4 induced expression of TARC protein and mRNA in bronchial epithelial A549 cells, which was slightly up-regulated by IFN-gamma. The enhancement by IFN-gamma was more pronounced in bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells, and a maximum production occurred with combination of TNF-alpha, IL-4, and IFN-gamma. On the other hand, MDC was essentially not expressed in any of the cultures. Furthermore, expressions of TARC protein and mRNA were almost completely inhibited by glucocorticoids. These results indicate that the airway epithelium represents an important source of TARC, which potentially plays a role via a paracrine mechanism in the development of allergic respiratory diseases. Furthermore, the beneficial effect of inhaled glucocorticoids on asthma may be at least in part due to their direct inhibitory effect on TARC generation by the bronchial epithelium.  (+info)

A Th2 chemokine, TARC, produced by keratinocytes may recruit CLA+CCR4+ lymphocytes into lesional atopic dermatitis skin. (8/177)

Atopic dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease in which the inflammation is characterized by the influx of lymphocytes into the dermis. It is generally believed that atopic dermatitis is a Th2-type disease, i.e., the T lymphocytes produce interleukin-4, interleukin-5, interleukin-10, and interleukin-13, although it has become evident in recent years that the cytokine profile in the skin changes during the course of the disease towards a Th1-Th2 mixed cytokine profile (interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin-2). The lymphocytes that home into the skin express cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen, and it has recently been shown that most of the lymphocytes in this population express the chemokine receptor CCR4. CCR4 is the receptor for the CC chemokine TARC (thymus and activation regulated chemokine), and this chemokine is expressed predominantly by keratinocytes in the basal layer of the epidermis of lesional atopic dermatitis skin in mice. In humans, however, it was shown to be expressed in the endothelial cells of the dermis. We have examined the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of atopic dermatitis patients for the expression of cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen and CCR4 and compared them with peripheral blood mononuclear cells from normal controls. We found that the proportion of CLA+CCR4+ lymphocytes is upregulated in atopic dermatitis patients. In addition we have examined skin biopsies of lesional and non-lesional skin from atopic dermatitis patients and found that the keratinocytes, but not the endothelial cells, produce TARC in the lesional but not in the nonlesional skin. To gain insight in the stimulatory mechanisms for TARC production in keratinocytes, as previously observed in mice, we cultured HaCaT cells and found that interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor alpha work synergistically to induce TARC production. These observations suggest that the induction of TARC production in keratinocytes plays an important role in the late phase skin invasion by CCR4+CLA+ Th2-type lymphocytes in atopic dermatitis.  (+info)

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic and relapsing inflammatory skin disease characterized by the predominant infiltration of TH2-type cells in lesional skin. Thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17) is a chemokine that attracts CC chemokine receptor 4-positive (CCR4+) or CCR8+ cells. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the participation of TARC in AD. Methods: We measured serum TARC levels in 40 patients with AD, 20 healthy control subjects, and 20 patients with psoriasis. We also examined disease activity by using SCORAD score; serum soluble E-selectin, soluble IL-2 receptor, IgE, and GM-CSF levels; and eosinophil numbers in peripheral blood, as well as correlations between TARC levels and these factors. The positivity of CCR4 of CD4+CD45RO+ cells in PBMCs was examined by using FACS analysis. Immunohistochemical staining of TARC and GM-CSF was performed in the lesional skin of patients with AD. Results: The serum TARC levels of patients with AD were ...
Human and murine CCR8 are homologous G protein-coupled receptors whose reported ligands include human I-309, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1β, TCA3, and liver-expressed chemokine (LEC; references (34)(35)(36)(37)). In addition, the virally encoded chemokines, vMIP-I and vMIP-II, can also bind CCR8 (38)(39)(40). The selective expression of CCR8 in Th2 T cells (11)(12) suggests that it may have an important role in the function of these cells. However, there are currently no experimental data demonstrating such a role. To investigate this possibility, and to study other potential functions of CCR8, we have generated and analyzed CCR8-deficient mice. Using models of Th2 (schistosomal) cell-mediated immune responses as well as two models of Th2-mediated allergic airway disease, we show impairment of Th2 type cytokine expression and eosinophil mobilization in CCR8−/− mice. This defect was specific to the in vivo Th2 type response, as the ...
Polyclonal antibody for TARC/CCL17 detection. Host: Rabbit.Size: 100μg/vial. Tested applications: ELISA. Reactive species: Mouse. TARC/CCL17 information: Molecular Weight: 10467 MW; Subcellular Localization: Secreted .
CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential players in the control of immune responses. Recently, accordingly to their origin, two main subsets of Tregs have been described: thymus-derived Tregs (tTregs) and peripherally derived Tregs (pTregs). Numerous signaling pathways including the IL-2/STAT5 or the TGF-β/Smad3 pathways play a crucial role in segregating the two lineages. Here, we review some of the information existing on the distinct requirements of IL-2, TGF-β and TNF-α three major cytokines involved in tTreg and pTreg generation, homeostasis and function. Today it is clear that signaling via the IL-2Rβ chain (CD122) common to IL-2 and IL-15 is required for proper differentiation of tTregs and for tTreg and pTreg survival in the periphery. This notion has led to the development of promising therapeutic strategies based on low-dose IL-2 administration to boost the patients own Treg compartment and dampen autoimmunity and inflammation. Also, solid evidence points to TGF-β
TARC小鼠单克隆抗体[MM0141-6J30](ab89463)可与人样本反应并经WB实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
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Macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC/CCL22) and thymus-and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17) are ligands for CC chemokine receptor 4. Recently, TARC has been reported to play a role in the pathogenesis of idiopathic eosinophilic pneumonia (IEP). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of MDC in IEP and other interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). MDC and TARC in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured by enzymelinked immunosorbent assay in patients with ILDs and healthy volunteers (HV). We also examined the expression of MDC mRNA in alveolar macrophages (AM) by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Both MDC and TARC were detected only in BALF obtained from IEP patients. The concentration of MDC was higher than that of TARC in all cases. The level of MDC in IEP correlated with that of TARC. AM from IEP patients expressed a significantly higher amount of MDC than that from HV at the levels of protein and mRNA. MDC in BALF from IEP ...
MDC, human recombinant protein, C-C motif chemokine 22, Small-inducible cytokine A22, Macrophage-derived chemokine, MDC (1-69), Stim validated in (PBV10332r-20), Abcepta
Publications (selected). Li X, Syrovets T, Genze F, Pitterle K, Oberhuber A, Orend KH, Simmet Th. Plasmin triggers chemotaxis in monocyte-derived dendritic cells through Akt2-dependent pathways and promotes a T-helper type-1 response. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010; 30:582-90. Li X, Syrovets T, Paskas S, Laumonnier Y, Simmet Th. Mature dendritic cells express functional thrombin receptors triggering chemotaxis and CCL18/pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine induction. J Immunol. 2008; 181:1215-23. Popovic M, Laumonnier Y, Burysek L, Syrovets T, Simmet Th. Thrombin-induced expression of endothelial CX3CL1 potentiates monocyte CCL2 production and transendothelial migration. J Leukoc Biol. 2008; 84:215-23. Li Q, Laumonnier Y, Syrovets T, Simmet Th. Plasmin Triggers Cytokine Induction in Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007; 27:1383-9. Laumonnier Y, Syrovets T, Burysek L, Simmet Th. Identification of the annexin II heterotetramer as a receptor for the ...
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Murayama, T., Nakamura, K. and Tsuchida, T. (2015), Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis with extensive distribution: correlation of serum TARC levels and peripheral blood eosinophil numbers. International Journal of Dermatology, 54: 1071-1074. doi: 10.1111/ijd.12281 ...
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Purified Rabbit Anti-Mouse MDC polyclonal antibody generated using |i|E. coli|/i|-expressed mouse MDC. |br| MDC (macrophage-derived chemokine) is a 69-amino acid CC chemokine with a NH2-terminal sequence of 24 residues as a signal sequence. It was origin
TARC antibody (chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 17) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-TARC pAb (GTX32911) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
EK2891小鼠巨噬细胞来源的趋化因子(MDC/CCL22)ELISA试剂盒MouseMacrophage-DerivedChemokine,MDCELISAkitEK2892小鼠巨噬细胞集落刺激因子(M-CSF)ELISA试剂盒MouseMacrophageColony-StimulatingFactor,M-CSFELISAkitEK2893小鼠L选择素(L-Selectin/CD62L)EL
This graph shows the total number of publications written about Chemokine CCL4 by people in this website by year, and whether Chemokine CCL4 was a major or minor topic of these publications ...
|p|Recombinant Mouse CCL22/MDC is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 68 amino acids.|/p| |p|Background: CCL22/MDC is a CC chemokine that is produced in B cells, macrophages, monocyte-derived dendritic cells, activated NK cells and CD
Cytokine or chemokine encoded by a viral vector is currently regarded as a promising way of cancer gene immunotherapy. Researchers have paid attention to chemotactic activity of chemokines for immune cells and expected that they may be able to play an important role in cancer treatment, because the basis and premise of immunotherapy is the accumulation of immune cells in tumor tissues.. The CC chemokine ILC, also called cutaneous T cell-attracting chemokine or CCL27, was reported to recruit T cells to the site of its injection (27) . The CX3C family chemokine FKN (also called CX3CL1) could also attract a variety of cytotoxic lymphocytes (13 , 14 , 28) and enhance the cytotoxicity of NK cells (29) . In the present study, we hypothesized that the transfer of the mILC or mFKN gene to tumor cells, by using recombinant adenovirus in vitro, could render the tumor to express the chemokine in vivo. The chemokine would consequently induce the accumulation of immune cells in the tumor tissue and initiate ...
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Chemokine CCL11; CCL11 Chemokine. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several symptoms or a full patient history. A similarity measure between symptoms and diseases is provided.
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The question why CD4+/CD25+ T cells are reduced in asthmatic patients has not been answered yet; however, it has been observed that these cells reveal a reduced response to the chemokines CCL1 and CXCL1 suggesting an impaired recruitment to the lung [137, 138 ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
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Japanese: 西洋山葵 (せいようわさび, seiyōwasabi), ホースラディッシュ (hōsuradisshu), 山葵大根 (わさびだいこん, wasabidaikon), 山山葵 (やまわさび, yamawasabi) ...
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Large cortical thymocytes from C57BL/6-Tla(a) mice have been prepared rapidly and in high yield by a combination of centrifugal elutriation and differential binding to peanut agglutinin (PNA)-coated plates. The cells in these lymphoblast-rich fractions were clearly distinct from the majority of thymocytes, with up to 70 percent in the S or G(2) + M phases of the cell cycle and an average rate of [(35)S]methionine incorporation per cell up to 20 times higher than that of the majority population. The populations of cells resolved in this fractionation were characterized by monitoring their rates of synthesis of specific glycoproteins, thymus- leukemia antigen (TL) and the Lyt-2, Lyt-3 complex (Lyt-2/3), relative to their total protein synthesis. Cells that bound to PNA synthesized high levels of Lyt-2/3, consistent with their identification as cortical thymocytes. Those that failed to bind made little or no Lyt-2/3, as expected for medullary cells, The fraction of dividing lymphoblasts that bound ...
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1. In a small bowl, dissolve 1 tsp wasabi powder in 1 tbsp warm water. Add 1/3 cup reduced-fat mayonnaise, 2 tbsp chopped parsley, 1 tbsp lemon juice; stir until smooth. Split open 8 sandwich thins (such as Arnold) and spread cut sides with wasabi mayonnaise. Place 2 slices roast beef (about 2 ounces) on each bottom half; top with alfalfa sprouts and other bread half. ...
When two chemokine receptors in the brain interact, leukemic cells (stained green) creep out of a small vein in the membrane covering the brain of a mouse and enter the cerebrospinal fluid. The chemokine CCL19, which is in the endothelium lining the vein, is stained blue in this immunofluorescent image.
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IL-31 plays a role in this disease by inducing chemokine genes CCL1, CCL17, and CCL22. The chemokines transcribed from these ...
Its gene is located on human chromosome 16 along with some CC chemokines known as CCL17 and CCL22. Fractalkine is found ... with none in CC chemokines and only one intervening amino acid in CXC chemokines. CX3CL1 is produced as a long protein (with ... Fractalkine, also known as chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CX3CL1 gene. ... Nomiyama H, Imai T, Kusuda J, Miura R, Callen DF, Yoshie O (1998). "Human chemokines fractalkine (SCYD1), MDC (SCYA22) and TARC ...
The gene for CCL22 is located in human chromosome 16 in a cluster with other chemokines called CX3CL1 and CCL17. GRCh38: ... 1998). "Macrophage-derived chemokine is a functional ligand for the CC chemokine receptor 4". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (3): 1764-8. ... 2000). "Macrophage-derived chemokine and EBI1-ligand chemokine attract human thymocytes in different stage of development and ... Campbell JD, Stinson MJ, Simons FE, HayGlass KT (2003). "Systemic chemokine and chemokine receptor responses are divergent in ...
10 and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL) 17; these factors limit T-cell proliferation and upregulate expansion of regulatory T ...
CCL17 (TARC) CCL22 (Macrophage-derived chemokine) Chemokines are a group of small structurally related proteins that regulate ... "Macrophage-derived chemokine is a functional ligand for the CC chemokine receptor 4". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (3): 1764-8. doi: ... "The T cell-directed CC chemokine TARC is a highly specific biological ligand for CC chemokine receptor 4". J. Biol. Chem. 272 ( ... C-C chemokine receptor type 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCR4 gene. CCR4 has also recently been designated ...
... also known as CCL17 Total active reflection coefficient, a measure of multi-port radio antennas Transit Authority of River City ... a Canadian TV-reality game Thymus and activation regulated chemokine, a gene which encodes a secreted protein of the immune ...
... immunotherapy Cantuzumab ravtansine Cathelicidin CC chemokine receptors CCBP2 CCL1 CCL11 CCL12 CCL13 CCL14 CCL15 CCL16 CCL17 ... Breakthrough infection Broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies Bursa of Fabricius C-C chemokine receptor type 6 C-C chemokine ... CD4 CD4+ T cells and antitumor immunity CD74 CD94/NKG2 Cell-mediated immunity CELSR1 Central tolerance Chemokine Chemokine ... CR6261 CroFab Cross-presentation Cross-reactivity Cryptic self epitopes Cryptotope CX3CL1 CX3CR1 CXC chemokine receptors CXCL1 ...
... is one of the few chemokines that are not stored in the body, except in the thymus; these chemokines are made when needed ... CCL17 as well as its partner chemokine CCL22 induce chemotaxis in T-helper cells. They do this by binding to CCR4, a chemokine ... CCL17 was the first CC chemokine identified that interacted with T cells with high affinity. CCL17 was also found to interact ... CCL17 has also been linked to autoimmune and allergic diseases. CCL17 (CC chemokine ligand 17) was initially named TARC (thymus ...
CCL17 and CCL22. T-lymphocytes: the four key chemokines that are involved in the recruitment of T lymphocytes to the site of ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other chemokines in that it has ... CCL1 for the ligand 1 of the CC-family of chemokines, and CCR1 for its respective receptor. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) ...
The CC chemokines CCL3, CCL5, CCL17 and CCL22 signal through this receptor. CCR5 is expressed on several cell types including ... The CC chemokine receptors all work by activating the G protein Gi. CCR1 was the first CC chemokine receptor identified and ... CC chemokine receptors (or beta chemokine receptors) are integral membrane proteins that specifically bind and respond to ... May 1997). "Molecular cloning of a novel human CC chemokine EBI1-ligand chemokine that is a specific functional ligand for EBI1 ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 18 (CCL18) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. The functions of CCL18 have ... and CCL17 by dendritic cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and regulation by Fc gamma receptors". Ann. Rheum. Dis. ... It was previously known as Pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine (PARC), dendritic cell (DC)-chemokine 1 (DC-CK1), ... Chemokines are classed as a special type of cytokine that is involved in immune cell trafficking. CCL18 in particular has some ...
... is an antiviral or antineoplastic drug. It is a recombinant form of the protein Interferon alpha-2 that was originally sequenced and produced recombinantly in E. coli[1] in the laboratory of Charles Weissmann at the University of Zurich, in 1980.[2][3] It was developed at Biogen, and ultimately marketed by Schering-Plough under the trade name Intron-A. It was also produced in 1986 in recombinant human form, in the Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology of Havana, Cuba, under the name Heberon Alfa R.[4] It has been used for a wide range of indications, including viral infections and cancers. This drug is approved around the world for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C, chronic hepatitis B, hairy cell leukemia, Behçet's disease, chronic myelogenous leukemia, multiple myeloma, follicular lymphoma, carcinoid tumor, mastocytosis and malignant melanoma.[citation needed] The medication is being used in clinical trials to treat patients with SARS-CoV-2[5] and there are ...
... chemokine, IL-6, and interleukin 8 (IL-8).[82][80] IL-6 and IL-8 are the most conserved and robust features of SASP.[83] ...
... calcium-independent mechanisms are required for directional migration of T lymphocytes in response to the CCR4 ligands CCL17 ... and intervene in various processes from long term depression in neurons to leukocyte signal pathways started by chemokine ...
Model of atopic dermatitis: GITR-GITRL pathway activation supports the production of attractants of regulatory T cells (CCL17 ... Ligation by GITR Induces Keratinocyte Chemokine Production and Augments T-Cell Proliferation". Journal of Investigative ...
IL-4 and IL-13, as well as TH2 chemokines CCL17, CCL22, and CCL26 play a pivotal role in the development of atopic dermatitis ... 3] A variety of interleukins (ILs) and chemokines play a role in the pruritus of atopic dermatitis. ...
... a Th1-type chemokine) and serum levels of CCL17 and CCL22 (Th2-type chemokines) were significantly increased in bullous ... Echigo T, Hasegawa M, Shimada Y, Inaoki M, Takehara K, Sato S. Both Th1 and Th2 chemokines are elevated in sera of patients ... Other cytokines and chemokines have also been studied in bullous pemphigoid. Interleukin 16, a major chemotactic factor ... Eotaxin, an eosinophil-selective chemokine, is strongly expressed in the basal layer of the epidermis of lesional bullous ...
CCL17/thymus and activation-related chemokine in Churg-Strauss syndrome. Arthritis Rheum. 2010 Nov. 62 (11):3496-503. [QxMD ...
CCL chemokine ligand, CD cluster of differentiation, CRP C-reactive protein, CXCL C-X-C motif chemokine, ECP eosinophil ... Albumin, CCL13, CCL17, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL2, CRP, CXCL10, CXCL11, ECP, Eosinophil count, Glucose, IL-1B, IL-5, IL-6, IL-6R, ... Albumin, Amino acids, B lymphocyte %, Basophil %, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL13, CCL17, CD16-neg T lymphocytes %, CD4-pos T ... COP: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CCL: Chemokine ligand; CD: Cluster of differentiation; CRP: C-reactive protein; ...
CCL17; C-C Motif Chemokine 17; TARC; thymus and activation related chemokine; CCL22; C-C Motif Chemokine 22; MDC; Macrophage- ... To establish chemokine gradients, CCL17 and CCL22 were placed in the bottom chamber of the transmigration system. Isolated ... CCL17 and CCL22 are the known ligands for CCR4; therefore, using this ex vivo transmigration method we examined CCL17- and ... derived chemokine; CCR4; CC Chemokine Receptor 4; CD4 T cell; CD4+ T helper cell; Th2 cell; ILC2; Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cell ...
... a Th1-type chemokine) and serum levels of CCL17 and CCL22 (Th2-type chemokines) were significantly increased in bullous ... Echigo T, Hasegawa M, Shimada Y, Inaoki M, Takehara K, Sato S. Both Th1 and Th2 chemokines are elevated in sera of patients ... Other cytokines and chemokines have also been studied in bullous pemphigoid. Interleukin 16, a major chemotactic factor ... Eotaxin, an eosinophil-selective chemokine, is strongly expressed in the basal layer of the epidermis of lesional bullous ...
Query Trace: Multiple Sclerosis and CCL17[original query] Gender-specific influence of the chromosome 16 chemokine gene cluster ...
Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in TARC/CCL17 gene with Kawasaki disease and its clinical characteristics]. Liu ... Chemokine receptor 5 ?32 polymorphism and systemic lupus erythematosus, vasculitis, and primary Sjogren's syndrome. Meta- ... TARC/CCL17 gene polymorphisms and expression associated with susceptibility and coronary artery aneurysm formation in Kawasaki ...
Quantification of the chemokines CCL17 and CCL22 in human colorectal adenocarcinomas. Molecular medicine reports 0 1 (2): 211-7 ... Query Trace: Lymphoma and CCL17[original query] Cytokine gene polymorphisms and progression-free survival in classical Hodgkin ...
On the other hand, CSF concentrations of the chemokine CCL11 is lower in adults with MS than in the CSF from adults with ADEM ... 4] Moreover, ADEM-associated concentrations of certain of these neutrophils (CXL7 neutrophil activator and the CL1, CCL17, and ... CSF cytokine and chemokine profiles in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. J Neuroimmunol. 2006 Jun. 175(1-2):52-8. [QxMD ... Cytokines and chemokines in cerebrospinal fluid and serum of adult patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. J Neurol ...
CCL17/thymus and activation-related chemokine in Churg-Strauss syndrome. Arthritis Rheum. 2010 Nov. 62 (11):3496-503. [QxMD ... As a result, like with IL-5, some of these chemokines can be used as disease activity markers. [114] Eosinophils in turn ... For example, when epithelial and endothelial cells are activated by the Th-2 cytokines, they secrete a series of chemokines (eg ... 27] Different cytokines and chemokines are involved in the associated immune response in EGPA. ...
Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in TARC/CCL17 gene with Kawasaki disease and its clinical characteristics]. Liu ... Chemokine receptor 5 ?32 polymorphism and systemic lupus erythematosus, vasculitis, and primary Sjogren's syndrome. Meta- ... TARC/CCL17 gene polymorphisms and expression associated with susceptibility and coronary artery aneurysm formation in Kawasaki ...
On the other hand, CSF concentrations of the chemokine CCL11 is lower in adults with MS than in the CSF from adults with ADEM ... 4] Moreover, ADEM-associated concentrations of certain of these neutrophils (CXL7 neutrophil activator and the CL1, CCL17, and ... CSF cytokine and chemokine profiles in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. J Neuroimmunol. 2006 Jun. 175(1-2):52-8. [QxMD ... Cytokines and chemokines in cerebrospinal fluid and serum of adult patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. J Neurol ...
Human CCL17 also known as thymus and activation-related chemokine (TARC) is encoded by the CCL17 gene located on the chromosome ... Recombinant Human Thymus and Activation Regulated Chemokine/CCL17 (rHuTARC/CCL17) 英文全名. Recombinant Human Thymus and Activation ... 下面是ChemWhat上的该产品链接 Recombinant Human Thymus and Activation Regulated Chemokine/CCL17 (rHuTARC/CCL17) ... 08Recombinant Human Thymus and Activation Regulated Chemokine/CCL17 (rHuTARC/CCL17). ...
CCL17 was the only chemokine that correlated with AST. Triglycerides correlated with INF-α, IFN-γ, IL-33, IL-1β, CXCL10, and ... Serum Cytokine/Chemokine Levels Cytokine/chemokine values varied both over time and between patient and control groups (Table 3 ... Cytokine/Chemokine Profiling. We studied serum cytokine/chemokine levels from the serum samples collected 8-12, 48-60, and 96- ... Serum Cytokine/Chemokine Differences Based on Time Intervals. Five cytokines/chemokines, IFN-α (p = 0.016), CXCL10 (p = 0.016 ...
CCL17/thymus and activation-related chemokine in Churg-Strauss syndrome. Arthritis Rheum. 2010 Nov. 62 (11):3496-503. [QxMD ...
Chemokine CCL17 / immunology* * Humans * Lymphocyte Activation / immunology * Lymphocyte Depletion * Lymphocytes, Tumor- ... Neutrophils recruit regulatory T-cells into tumors via secretion of CCL17--a new mechanism of impaired antitumor immunity Int J ... We further showed, using flow cytometry, that CCL17 secretion by TANs is not limited to mouse models of cancer but is also ... We demonstrated both by RT-PCR and by ELISA that murine TANs secrete significant amounts of the T-regs chemoattractant, CCL17, ...
CCL17 is one of the few chemokines that are not stored in the body, except in the thymus; these chemokines are made when needed ... CCL17 as well as its partner chemokine CCL22 induce chemotaxis in T-helper cells. They do this by binding to CCR4, a chemokine ... CCL17 was the first CC chemokine identified that interacted with T cells with high affinity. CCL17 was also found to interact ... CCL17 has also been linked to autoimmune and allergic diseases. CCL17 (CC chemokine ligand 17) was initially named TARC (thymus ...
CCL17; C-C Motif Chemokine 17; TARC; thymus and activation related chemokine; CCL22; C-C Motif Chemokine 22; MDC; Macrophage- ... To establish chemokine gradients, CCL17 and CCL22 were placed in the bottom chamber of the transmigration system. Isolated ... CCL17 and CCL22 are the known ligands for CCR4; therefore, using this ex vivo transmigration method we examined CCL17- and ... derived chemokine; CCR4; CC Chemokine Receptor 4; CD4 T cell; CD4+ T helper cell; Th2 cell; ILC2; Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cell ...
... a Th1-type chemokine) and serum levels of CCL17 and CCL22 (Th2-type chemokines) were significantly increased in bullous ... Echigo T, Hasegawa M, Shimada Y, Inaoki M, Takehara K, Sato S. Both Th1 and Th2 chemokines are elevated in sera of patients ... Other cytokines and chemokines have also been studied in bullous pemphigoid. Interleukin 16, a major chemotactic factor ... Eotaxin, an eosinophil-selective chemokine, is strongly expressed in the basal layer of the epidermis of lesional bullous ...
In the last decades, it is emerging that the chemokine system represents a potential target for immunotherapy. Chemokines, a ... Chemokines, a large family of cytokines with chemotactic activity, and their cognate receptors are expressed by both cancer and ... Here, we review first attempts to inhibit the chemokine system in cancer as a monotherapy or in combination with canonical or ... Here, we review first attempts to inhibit the chemokine system in cancer as a monotherapy or in combination with canonical or ...
DHEA in vitro suppressed the production of type 2 chemokines, CCL17 and CCL22, in tumor necrosis factor-α-stimulated HaCat ... and IL-13 and type 2 chemokines CC-chemokine ligand 1 (CCL1) and CCL24 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid but increased IFN-γ ... CCR6 CC-type chemokine receptor 6; TSLP, thymic stromal lymphopoietin; PIBF, progesterone-induced blocking factor. ... Dehydroepiandrosterone suppresses eosinophil infiltration and airway hyperresponsiveness via modulation of chemokines and Th2 ...
Gene electrotransfer of proinflammatory chemokines CCL5 and CCL17 as a novel approach of modifying cytokine expression profile ...
CCL17. TARC. 20ug. CN-16. CCL17. TARC. 100ug. CN-16. CCL17. TARC. 1mg. CN-16. ... Human Native Chemokines. Almac presents a series of native human chemokines, produced by chemical synthesis to ensure high ... Chemokine & Histone online shop. Comprehensive range of Chemokine and Histone products with worldwide shipping and online ... Chemokine & Histone online shop. Comprehensive range of Chemokine and Histone products with worldwide shipping and online ...
Ruland, C. et al. Chemokine CCL17 is expressed by dendritic cells in the CNS during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis ... Zavala, F. et al. G-CSF therapy of ongoing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis via chemokine- and cytokine-based immune ...
CCL17), chemokine ligand 1 (I-309/CCL1), and pro-matrix metallopeptidase 9 (Pro-MMP9) in comparison to reference 19. In ... we focused the short-term effects of anesthetics on the levels of cytokines/chemokines in serum and lung using 4T1 syngeneic ... mouse serum and lung tissue were harvested three hours or one day after mastectomy for secreted cytokine/chemokine profiling. A ... opposite to sevoflurane, propofol decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α). ...
Increased expression of CCL18, CCL19, and CCL17 by dendritic cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and regulation by ... On the other hand, Treg proliferation may occur in situ where it is nourished by selective cytokine/chemokine production in the ... We investigated the prognostic value of tumor infiltration by CD8+ T cells expressing the chemokine-receptor-7 (Tccr7) and the ... We show that high tumor infiltration by cytotoxic (CD8+) T cells expressing the chemokine receptor-7 (CCR7; Tccr7) has a ...
Human Proinflammatory Chemokine Panel 1 Mix and Match Beads are individual capture beads for 13 human targets including IL-8, ... Chemokine Panel 1 Mix and Match. 740987 LEGENDplex™ HU Proinflam. Chemokine Panel 1 Standard. 740368 LEGENDplex™ Buffer Set A. ... CXCL8 (IL-8), CXCL10 (IP-10), CCL11 (Eotaxin), CCL17 (TARC), CCL5 (RANTES), CCL3 (MIP-1α), CXCL9 (MIG), CCL20 (MIP-3α), CXCL1 ( ... Chemokine Panel 1 Detection Antibodies. 740377 LEGENDplex™ Filter Plate. OR. 740379 LEGENDplex™ V-bottom Plate ...
Belperio JA, Dy M, Murray L, et al. The role of the Th2 CC chemokine ligand CCL17 in pulmonary fibrosis. J Immunol 2004; 173: ... CC chemokine ligand (CCL)17 and CCL22 are associated with a Th2 profile and are significantly elevated in bleomycin-induced ... Photomicrograph showing immunolocalisation of CC chemokine ligand (CCL)17 from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) lung tissue ... Neutralisation of CCL17 leads to a reduction in pulmonary fibrosis in this model. Immunolocalisation of CCL17 in bleomycin- ...
On the other hand, CSF concentrations of the chemokine CCL11 is lower in adults with MS than in the CSF from adults with ADEM ... 4] Moreover, ADEM-associated concentrations of certain of these neutrophils (CXL7 neutrophil activator and the CL1, CCL17, and ... CSF cytokine and chemokine profiles in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. J Neuroimmunol. 2006 Jun. 175(1-2):52-8. [QxMD ... Cytokines and chemokines in cerebrospinal fluid and serum of adult patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. J Neurol ...
It functions as one of the natural ligands for the chemokine receptor chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (CCR5), and it ... This chemokine, a member of the CC subfamily, functions as a chemoattractant for blood monocytes, memory T helper cells and ... Chemokines form a superfamily of secreted proteins involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. The superfamily is ... This gene is one of several chemokine genes clustered on the q-arm of chromosome 17. ...
Chemokine CCL17 Medicine & Life Sciences 38% * B-Lymphocytes Medicine & Life Sciences 37% ... and the secretion of molecules like the chemokine TARC and the prominent expression of IL-13 receptors. Fourth, both entities ... and the secretion of molecules like the chemokine TARC and the prominent expression of IL-13 receptors. Fourth, both entities ... and the secretion of molecules like the chemokine TARC and the prominent expression of IL-13 receptors. Fourth, both entities ...
Quantification of the chemokines CCL17 and CCL22 in human colorectal adenocarcinomas. Molecular medicine reports 0 1 (2): 211-7 ... Query Trace: Lymphoma and CCL17[original query] Cytokine gene polymorphisms and progression-free survival in classical Hodgkin ...
Human Chemokine Array 1 Kit. Detects 40 Human Chemokines. Suitable for all liquid sample types. ... AXL , BTC , CCL13 , CCL14 , CCL16 , CCL17 , CCL18 , CCL19 , CCL20 , CCL21, CCL22 , CCL23 , CCL25 , CCL26 , CCL27 , CCL28 , ... Quantibody® Human Chemokine Array 1 Kit. Detects 40 Human Chemokines. Suitable for all liquid sample types. ...
Many studies have implemented this principle by expressing CXCR2 (CXCL1 receptor) and CCR4 (CCL17 receptor) in CAR-T cells. In ... it still remains unclear whether T cell genetic modification and in vitro amplification will affect necessary chemokines or ...
... chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 17 (CCL17), CCR10/CCL27, C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4/chemokine (C-X-C Motif) ligand 12 and ... Therefore, these chemokines and chemokine receptors may be potentially useful targets for the treatment of these lymphomas in ... Mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome: Role of chemokines and chemokine receptors. World J Dermatol 2015; 4(2): 69-79 [DOI: ... Recently, a number of chemokines and chemokine receptors have been found to contribute to the pathogenesis of mycosis fungoides ...
... including chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 17 (CCL17) and CCL22, resulting in an increased Th2-skewed inflammatory responses in the ...
... and mRNA expression of a variety of chemokines, chemokine receptors, cytokines, enzymes, and leucocyte markers was quantified ... However, we did not observed a significant increase in expression of ligands for CCR4 and CCR8 (CCL17 and CCL1) in the colon ... D) Cytokine/chemokine and serum amyloid A (SAA) content was determined in sera by ELISA. n = 5-6 mice/group. ***p,0.001 versus ... A) Cytokine/chemokine content in protein extracts was determined by ELISA. n = 5-6 mice/group. (B) Gene expression of several ...
Chemotactic cytokines or chemokines play pivotal roles in various processes such as immune surveillance, organ development, ... Mouse Proinflammatory Chemokine Panel (13-plex) with V-bottom Plate - ... MCP-1, CCL2, RANTES, CCL5, IP-10, CXCL10, Eotaxin, CCL11, TARC, CCL17, MIP-1a, CCL3, MIP-1b, CCL4, MIG, CXCL9, MIP-3a, CCL20, ... Cytokines/Chemokines Gene ID 20302 View all products for this Gene ID 20302 View all products for this Gene ID 20303 View all ...
Expression of thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) by human dermal cells, but not epidermal keratinocytes. Shoda, T ...
Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 17 (CCL17) * Cyclin D Binding Myb-Like Transcription Factor 1 (DMTF1) ...
  • CCL17 as well as its partner chemokine CCL22 induce chemotaxis in T-helper cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dendritic cells respond to IL-4 and IL-13 by secreting CCL17 (as well as CCL18 and CCL22), especially in "barrier-disrupted" skin (such as lesional skin). (wikipedia.org)
  • Severity of AD is therefore correlated with concentration of CCL17 and CCL22 in both the blood serum and interstitial fluid of pediatric and adult patients with either acute or chronic AD. (wikipedia.org)
  • therefore, using this ex vivo transmigration method we examined CCL17- and CCL22-induced movement of CCR4+ lymphocytes. (cdc.gov)
  • To establish chemokine gradients, CCL17 and CCL22 were placed in the bottom chamber of the transmigration system. (cdc.gov)
  • CCL17 and CCL22 acting on CCR4 can directly recruit T regs and Th2 lymphocytes, that promote tumor growth and proliferation ( 18 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • CC chemokine ligand (CCL)17 and CCL22 are associated with a Th2 profile and are significantly elevated in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis [ 1 ]. (ersjournals.com)
  • Quantification of the chemokines CCL17 and CCL22 in human colorectal adenocarcinomas. (cdc.gov)
  • Asthmatics also had higher percentages of CCR4 + CD4 + T cells, which correlated inversely with forced expiratory volume and positively with numbers of cells expressing CCL17 or CCL22 mRNA. (aai.org)
  • In the asthmatic submucosa, TSLP, CCL17, and CCL22 were associated with elevated levels of CD31 + endothelial cells, elastase + neutrophils, tryptase + mast cells, and CD68 + macrophages. (aai.org)
  • IL-4 and IL-13, as well as TH2 chemokines CCL17, CCL22, and CCL26 play a pivotal role in the development of atopic dermatitis inflammation. (medscape.com)
  • Since proof-of-principle many of us decided to target the discussion in the chemokines CCL22 and CCL17 with their receptor CCR4. (mtor-inhibitors.com)
  • CCR4 has been posited as an adjuvant focus on depending on its appearance in CD4(+)CD25(+) regulation Big t tissues (Tregs), which in a negative way regulate resistant responses caused simply by dendritic cellular material (DC), although CCL17 as well as CCL22 tend to be chemotactic agents created by DC, that happen to be essential in marketing contact among DC and also CCR4(+) Big t cells. (mtor-inhibitors.com)
  • Th1 imunoreakcija je povezana s povišenom proizvodnjom IFN-γ te kemokina CXCL10 i CXCL9, dok je Th2 povezana s proizvodnjom IL-4 odnosno CCL17 i CCL22. (nsk.hr)
  • These applications, and also other transcriptional regulators, travel the upregulation of Arginase 1 resulting in reduced nitric oxide signaling, and improved manifestation from the wound curing linked chemokines CCL17 and CCL22. (conferencedequebec.org)
  • Interferon pathway-related cytokines/chemokines, including interleukin (IL) 18, macrophage inflammatory protein 3α, and IL-33, were elevated, but tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, CXCL8 (formerly IL-8), and cytokines acting through C-C chemokine receptor 2 and CCR5 were lower among case-patients than controls. (cdc.gov)
  • They do this by binding to CCR4, a chemokine receptor expressed on type 2 helper T cells, cutaneous lymphocyte skin-localizing T cells, and regulatory T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytokine receptors expressed by Th2 cells include CC chemokine receptor (CCR)4, CCR8 and CXCR4. (ersjournals.com)
  • It functions as one of the natural ligands for the chemokine receptor chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (CCR5), and it suppresses in vitro replication of the R5 strains of HIV-1, which use CCR5 as a coreceptor. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Third, cHL and PMBL were found to have similar gene expression profiles, including the lack of immunoglobulin expression and low levels of B cell receptor signalling molecules, and the secretion of molecules like the chemokine TARC and the prominent expression of IL-13 receptors. (elsevier.com)
  • Recently, a number of chemokines and chemokine receptors have been found to contribute to the pathogenesis of mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome, including the CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4)/chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 17 (CCL17), CCR10/CCL27, C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4/chemokine (C-X-C Motif) ligand 12 and CCR7/CCL21 axes. (wjgnet.com)
  • Many studies have implemented this principle by expressing CXCR2 (CXCL1 receptor) and CCR4 (CCL17 receptor) in CAR-T cells. (blogarama.com)
  • Furthermore, we show that the expression of the chemokines Ccl4 , Ccl9 , Il18 and the chemokine receptor Cxcr4 increases in LSK cells during development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Alternatively, LT-HSCs circulating in fetal blood might not possess the appropriate chemokine receptor or adhesion molecule repertoire required for bone marrow homing and migration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human CCL17 also known as thymus and activation-related chemokine (TARC) is encoded by the CCL17 gene located on the chromosome 16 in humans. (watson-int.cn)
  • CCL17 (CC chemokine ligand 17) was initially named TARC (thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine) when first isolated in 1996. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasma components (histamine, eotaxin, IgE and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC)) were decreased in the 10% wasabi rhizome HR-AD diet. (researchgate.net)
  • These biomarkers included: interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, eotaxin/CCL-11, eotaxin-3/CCL-26, and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC)/CCL-17. (spiromics.net)
  • CCL17 signals through the chemokine receptors CCR4 and CCR8 and displays chemotactic activity for T lymphocytes and some other leukocytes. (watson-int.cn)
  • CCR4 is also expressed by T cells involved in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and cutaneous T cell lymphomas, making its ligands (namely CCL17) an attractive target for novel therapies as described below. (wikipedia.org)
  • This often occurs through the CCL17-CCR4 interaction on type 2 T helper cells, which then secrete a variety of interleukins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternative Cross-Priming through CCL17-CCR4-Mediated Attraction of CTLs toward NKT Cell-Licensed DCs. (immei.de)
  • Another reported that IL-10, C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL-10, formerly IFN-γ inducible protein 10) and CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2, formerly monocyte chemoattractant protein 1) levels were higher in patients with high viral loads ( 12 ), but patients with severe disease had higher levels of CXCL10 and CCL2 than did patients with less-severe cases. (cdc.gov)
  • CXC chemokines, based on the presence of glutamic-leucine-arginine (ELR) motif at the N-terminal, can be divided in ELR + chemokines with angiogenic and ELR − chemokines with angiostatic effects. (frontiersin.org)
  • C-C motif chemokine ligand 13 [Source:H. (gsea-msigdb.org)
  • C-C motif chemokine ligand 17 [Source:HG. (gsea-msigdb.org)
  • C-C motif chemokine ligand 22 [Source:HG. (gsea-msigdb.org)
  • Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (also CCL5 ) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CCL5 gene . (wikidoc.org)
  • 6-MSITC inhibited interleukin (IL)-6 and C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10) production in TNF-α-stimulated TR146 cells, which are a human oral epithelial cell line. (tokushima-u.ac.jp)
  • The Mouse Proinflammatory Chemokine panel is a multiplex bead-based assay panel, using fluorescence-encoded beads suitable for use on various flow cytometers. (biolegend.com)
  • A Mix and Match system is available to customize assays for specificities within this proinflammatory chemokine panel. (biolegend.com)
  • The LEGENDplex™ Mouse Proinflammatory Chemokine Detection Antibodies product is intended for use with the Mix and Match Mouse Proinflammatory Chemokine Panel of products. (biolegend.com)
  • We examined cytokine/chemokine profiles of 9/12 case-patients compared with healthy controls at 3 time intervals. (cdc.gov)
  • Chemokines are a type of cytokine that attract white blood cells to sites of inflammation or disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytokine and chemokine production was evaluated by Bio-Plex ProTM. (biomedcentral.com)
  • RNAdjuvant ® was the only one to induce most of the cytokines/chemokines tested with a pronounced Th1 cytokine pattern. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is an IL-7-like cytokine that induces production of Th2-attracting chemokines. (aai.org)
  • CCL5 is an 8kDa protein classified as a chemotactic cytokine or chemokine . (wikidoc.org)
  • Description: Description of target: Cytokine that induces the release of T-cell-attracting chemokines from monocytes and, in particular, enhances the maturation of CD11c+ dendritic cells. (cromauv.org)
  • CCL17 is expressed constitutively in the thymus, but only transiently in phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inflammatory CC (CCL2, CCL3, CCL5) and CXC (CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL5, CXCL6, and CXCL8) chemokines recruit at the tumor site CCR2 + monocytes and CXCR2 + neutrophils that differentiate into tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) and tumor associated neutrophils (TANs), exerting pro- or anti-tumoral role ( 7 - 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Chemokines, a large family of cytokines with chemotactic activity, and their cognate receptors are expressed by both cancer and stromal cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Chemotactic cytokines or chemokines play pivotal roles in various processes such as immune surveillance, organ development, angiogenesis, and immune responses. (biolegend.com)
  • hypothesized that circulating LT-HSC, although chemotactic by 14.5 dpc to the bone marrow recruiting chemokine stromal cell derived factor-1α (SDF-1α), would not colonize the fetal bone marrow until a suitable microenvironment is present [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Tissue samples isolated from skin of adult double transgenics contained high levels of CD45 antigen and increased mRNA levels of a subset of inflammatory mediators namely CCL17, CCL20, CCL2, TNF-, IL-6, IL-17, IL-18, and G-CSF. (tamu.edu)
  • On the contrary, chemokines, such as CCL21 and ELR − chemokines (CXCL4, CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11) inhibit angiogenesis and endothelial cell proliferation ( 26 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • TSLP was found on cytokeratin + epithelial cells and CD68 + macrophages in the epithelium, whereas CCL17 and CXCL10 were found on cytokeratin + epithelial cells and elastase + neutrophils. (aai.org)
  • Rezultati su pokazali da RSV specifično podiže razinu CXCL10 i CCL17 tijekom akutne infekcije. (nsk.hr)
  • IL-2 and IFN-γ ) that are released by T cells , CCL5 also induces the proliferation and activation of certain natural-killer ( NK ) cells to form CHAK (CC-Chemokine-activated killer) cells. (wikidoc.org)
  • CCL17 has approximately 24 - 29 % amino acid sequence identity with RANTES, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1β, MCP-1, MCP-2, MCP-3 and I-309. (watson-int.cn)
  • Migration assays, both in vitro and in vivo, showed recruitment of T-regs by TANs, which was inhibited with anti-CCL17 monoclonal antibodies. (nih.gov)
  • Neutralizing CCL17 with monoclonal antibodies has been shown to relieve inflammatory arthritis and osteoarthritis. (wikipedia.org)
  • a) IPF lung section stained with anti-CCL17 antibodies, demonstrating immunolocalisation to epithelial cells. (ersjournals.com)
  • CCL17 is a powerful chemokine produced in the thymus and by antigen-presenting cells like dendritic cells, macrophages, and monocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • these chemokines are made when needed by dendritic cells, macrophages, and monocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) upregulates CCL17 production in monocytes and macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • CCL17 was also found to interact with monocytes, but with less affinity. (wikipedia.org)
  • This chemokine, a member of the CC subfamily, functions as a chemoattractant for blood monocytes, memory T helper cells and eosinophils. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils. (ouhsc.edu)
  • It mainly impacts myeloid cells and induces the release of T cell-attracting chemokines from monocytes and enhances the maturation of CD11c(+) dendritic cells. (cromauv.org)
  • Chemokines, are a family of small, secreted, and structurally related cytokines with a crucial role in inflammation and immunity ( 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Expression profiling of chemokines, especially those involved in inflammation and immune disorders, is important in achieving a deeper understanding of disease states. (biolegend.com)
  • In particular, we found that the composition effectively suppressed LPS-activated gene expression of chemokines, including CCL17, CXCL6 and LTB(4) associated with pathways involved in inflammation and apoptosis. (hairloss-research.org)
  • CCL17 in Inflammation and Pain. (peprotech.com)
  • Chemokines primarily act to promote leukocyte chemotaxis to sites of inflammation. (guidetomalariapharmacology.org)
  • This chemokine plays a role in accumulation of leukocytes during inflammation. (anticorps-enligne.fr)
  • In both CD and TNBS induced colitis, activated Th1 cells promote an exaggerated macrophage and neutrophil infiltration and activation, giving rise to a prolonged severe transmural inflamed intestinal mucosa, characterised by uncontrolled production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. (bmj.com)
  • The value of blood cytokines and chemokines in assessing COPD. (spiromics.net)
  • however, there are fewer studies that have investigated multiple biomarkers and replicated in multiple large well-characterized cohorts of susceptible current and former smokers.METHODS: We used two MSD multiplex panels to measure 9 cytokines and chemokines in 2123 subjects from COPDGene and 1117 subjects from SPIROMICS. (spiromics.net)
  • Almac presents a series of native human chemokines, produced by chemical synthesis to ensure high purity and reliable biological function. (almacgroup.com)
  • Detects 40 Human Chemokines. (raybiotech.com)
  • Chemokine CCL4" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (musc.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Chemokine CCL4" by people in this website by year, and whether "Chemokine CCL4" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (musc.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Chemokine CCL4" by people in Profiles. (musc.edu)
  • MDC is a CC chemokine that is produced in B cells, macrophages, monocyte-derived dendritic cells, activated NK cells and CD4 T cells. (peprotech.com)
  • We also provide recent findings about the role in cancer of atypical chemokine receptors that could become future targets for immunotherapy. (frontiersin.org)
  • [ 3 ] A variety of interleukins (ILs) and chemokines play a role in the pruritus of atopic dermatitis. (medscape.com)
  • Chemokines produced by tumor itself, cancer-associated fibroblasts and infiltrating leukocytes ( 27 , 28 ), through the binding of chemokine receptors expressed by tumor cells, directly promote cancer cell proliferation activating different signaling pathways, such as PI3K/AKT/NF-κB and MAPK/ERK pathway ( 29 - 31 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • ACKR1 is one of more than 20 distinct chemokine receptors expressed in human leukocytes. (guidetomalariapharmacology.org)
  • We further showed, using flow cytometry, that CCL17 secretion by TANs is not limited to mouse models of cancer but is also relevant to human TANs. (nih.gov)
  • Because CCL17 is a key attractant for Th2, this creates a cycle of Th2 recruitment, IL-4 and IL-13 signaling, dendritic cell secretion of CCL17, and further recruitment of Th2 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recombinant Murine MDC is a 7.8 kDa protein containing 68 amino acid residues including the four highly conserved cysteine residues present in the CC chemokines. (peprotech.com)
  • On the other hand, CCL17 will also activate tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isolated lymphocytes were then added to top chambers and over a 48 h period the lymphocytes actively migrated through 3 µm pores towards the chemokine in the bottom chamber. (cdc.gov)
  • Like many cytokines, CCL17 is inflammatory, so while it plays a largely helpful role in attacking cancers, it can induce inflammatory diseases, including allergic skin diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of its inflammatory effects, much of the medical research is on methods to mitigate CCL17. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokines form a superfamily of secreted proteins involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. (creativebiomart.net)
  • PAMPs) and induce the innate immune response by activation of a signaling cascade resulting in the upregulation of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and type I IFNs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The lipid extracts effectively inhibited the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory signaling pathways mediated via toll-like receptors, chemokines and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) signaling molecules. (pasteur.fr)
  • Interestingly, in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrate that the pharmacological blockade of EGFR or ERK1/2, induces chemokine expression in epidermal keratinocytes and in turn leads to worsening of skin inflammatory conditions. (tamu.edu)
  • Interferon pathway activation and cytokines/chemokines acting through CCR2 and CCR5 improved health results among children with severe CCHF. (cdc.gov)
  • TSLP and CCL17 mRNA levels correlated inversely with forced expiratory volume. (aai.org)
  • However, overexpressed CCL17 has been linked to atopic dermatitis (eczema) and multiple sclerosis, among other autoimmune diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies have shown that children with allergies and atopic dermatitis have higher quantiles of CCL17 compared to children without allergies. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene is one of several chemokine genes clustered on the q-arm of chromosome 17. (creativebiomart.net)
  • This chemokine has been localized to chromosome 17 in humans. (wikidoc.org)
  • CCL17 is known to help leukocytes (and especially eosinophils) target their response to skin-located pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Direct interactions between CCL17 and eosinophils has been observed but not well defined. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some cancers that form tumors, such as breast cancer, produce CCL17 which draws T regulatory cells into the area, enhancing the cancer's ability to invade. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some chemokines present at tumor site can modify leukocyte activation, for instance CXCL16 acting on CXCR6 induces macrophage polarization toward a pro-tumoral phenotype in solid tumors ( 11 , 12 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • We demonstrated both by RT-PCR and by ELISA that murine TANs secrete significant amounts of the T-regs chemoattractant, CCL17, much more than circulating or splenic neutrophils, and at a level progressively increasing during tumor development. (nih.gov)
  • expression of a second Th1-attracting chemokine, CXCL11, was not elevated. (aai.org)
  • Dendritic cells will produce large quantities of CCL17 when stimulated with IL-4 or TSLP. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is the first comparative study of TSLP expression in the asthmatic bronchus and delineates the cells expressing TSLP and Th1- and Th2-attracting chemokines. (aai.org)
  • Immunolocalisation of CCL17 in bleomycin-treated and human lung tissue specimens from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) shows that it is predominantly expressed on epithelial cells (fig. 2 ⇓ ) [ 1 ]. (ersjournals.com)
  • Both CC and CXC chemokines play a critical role in tumor angiogenesis, essential for tumor growth and metastatic spreading ( 19 , 20 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Recent findings suggest a link between chemokine expression and EGFR status in the skin lesions of patients undergoing EGFR therapy and during tumor progression in BCC (basal cell carcinoma) and SCC (squamous cell carcinoma) skin lesions. (tamu.edu)
  • A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. (musc.edu)
  • The proper movement of immune cells is orchestrated by the spatial and temporal expression of chemokines. (frontiersin.org)
  • Furthermore, evidence has emerged regarding an imbalance between angiogenic and angiostatic chemokine levels, leading to an overall angiogenic pattern of expression in both animal models and tissue specimens from IPF patients. (ersjournals.com)
  • We have analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) array the expression pattern of extracellular matrix and adhesion molecules as well as chemokines and chemokine receptors in Lineage - Sca-1 + c-Kit + (LSK) cells at different stages of development, in order to characterize the role played by these molecules in LSK. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our results show marked changes in the expression pattern of extracellular matrix, adhesion molecules, chemokines and their receptors with developmental age, particularly in later stages of development. (biomedcentral.com)